WorldWideScience

Sample records for mo-93 tc-99 i-129

  1. Methodology for the determination of environmental 129I and 99Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory is using existing techniques and developing new methodology to determine the environmental impact of the Savannah River Plant with regard to 129 I and 99 Tc. 129 I is determined by neutron activation after the method of Brauer. Activation products are quantified by γ-ray spectroscopy [Ge(Li)] following chemical isolation. 125 I is used as a yield tracer. 129 I amounts as low as 3.8 fCi can be determined with 30-minute counting times. An isotope dilution method for 99 Tc based on a three-stage surface ionization mass spectrometer is being developed. Its chemical isolation scheme ends with the Tc loaded on a single ion-exchange bead for enhanced mass-spectrometric sensitivity. 97 Tc will be used as a yield tracer. A lower limit of 0.2 fCi is sought. A modified method using liquid scintillation counting has determined 99 Tc in some aqueous samples. These methods have confirmed that 129 I and 99 Tc can be highly mobile in the aqueous environment, establishing the need for monitoring

  2. Preparation of i.v. 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals from spent moly 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, O.P.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Expiry dating is an important quality assurance precept in (radio) pharmacy. There are occasions when for the sake of patient service one may be forced to continue using an over aged source of 99 Mo to generate 99m Tc beyond 7d, especially when there is short/no supply of 99 Mo, (In the early days the expiry date was 3 d or 3 extractions, whichever one was earlier). With the passage of time a few physico-chemical changes (apart from decay) do occur in the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc milieu. The cocktail also begins to contain traces of carried over MEK which is subjected to strong β-, γ irradiation. These impurity (in trace amounts) is soluble in MEK and even, to an extent, in aqueous media. Furthermore, the concentrated impurity tends to seemingly increase in the bulk 99m TcO 4 - since one is compelled to leach TcO 4 - in lower volume of saline. On many occasions we have been constrained to extend the use of 99 Mo beyond 7 - 14 d. Adequate activities were obtained by pooling the previous week's lot of 99 Mo with the current over aged lot. On a few occasions over the past 26 years we have used 99 Mo much beyond 14 d and 2 - 3 occasions for 26 - 28 d (i.e. >10 t 1 /2 of 99 Mo). On each of these occasions the purity of 99m TcO- 4 was ascertained by pharmacopoeial procedures. It was found that despite depleting activities, the purity was not compromised and the trace impurities, even if present, did not cause any interference. We have profitably utilised the bulk TcO- 4 to formulate a variety of i.v. dosage forms of 99m Tc radiodiagnostics. The following strategy was adopted for the patient services - the agents requiring larger activity levels/patients dose were made available in the earlier period, the other during the latter half. It is concluded that pure 99m TcO- 4 can be obtained over the entire useful life-period of 99 Mo, even > 10t l/2

  3. Successful labeling of 99mTc-MDP using 99mTc separated from 99Mo produced by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Kin, Tadahiro; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Motoishi, Shoji; Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Takakura, Kosuke; Sato, Yuichi; Sato, Norihito; Ohta, Akio; Yamabayashi, Hisamichi; Tanase, Masakazu; Fujisaki, Saburo; Kawauchi, Yukimasa; Teranaka, Tomoyuki; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We have for the first time succeeded in separating 99m Tc from a MoO 3 sample irradiated with accelerator neutrons free from any radioactive impurities and in formulating 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate ( 99 mTc-MDP). 99 Mo, the mother nuclide of 99m Tc, was produced by the 100 Mo(n,2n) 99 Mo reaction using about 14 MeV neutrons provided by the 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction at the Fusion Neutronics Source of Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The 99m Tc was separated from 99 Mo by sublimation and its radionuclide purity was confirmed to be higher than 99.99% by γ-spectroscopy. The labeling efficiency of 99m Tc-MDP was shown to be higher than 99% by thin-layer chromatography. These values exceed the United States Pharmacopeia requirements for a fission product, 99 Mo. Consequently, a 99m Tc radiopharmaceutical preparation formed by using the mentioned 99 Mo can be a promising substitute for the fission product 99 Mo, which is currently produced using a highly enriched uranium target in aging research reactors. A longstanding problem to ensure a reliable and constant supply of 99 Mo in Japan can be partially mitigated. (author)

  4. Quality assurance of Mo-99/Tc-99m radionuclide generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunov, Nikolay; Yordanova, Galina; Salim, Seniha; Stancheva, Natalya; Mineva, Vanya; Meléndez-Alafort, Laura; Rosato, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry analyses of the radionuclide content of eluate from two Mo-99/Tc-99m radionuclide generators POLTECHNET have been performed. The relative activities of 99Mo 103Ru and 131I radioisotopes with respect to the activity of 99mTc at different time intervals after the primary pertechnetate elution of the generators have been analyzed. The relative activities of the isotopes were determined and compared to the radionuclidic purity requirements for 99mTc.

  5. Radionuclidic contamination of 99Mo, 131I and 103Ru in the eluate of 99Mo-99mTc chromatographic generator: comparision on fission produced 99Mo from RPC, Nordio and ARI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soenarjo, Sunarhadijoso; Gunawan, Adang Hardi

    1996-01-01

    The 99 Mo- 99m Tc Chromatographic generators is the most popular system to provide 99m Tc medical radioisotope. Radioisotope Production Centre (RPC)- BATAN has routinely produced the generator loaded with 99 Mo prepared by 235 U fission. By using fission produced 99 Mo, the resulting 99m Tc is potentially contaminated by other fission products which are difficult to eliminate completely. In order to study the characteristic of the generator and radionuclidic impurity pattern of the 99m Tc eluates, an evaluation of gamma spectrometric determination has been carried out. The bulk solutions of 99 Mo produced by RPC BATAN (Indonesia), Nordion (Canada) and ARI (Australia) were loaded to generators manufactured between July 1993 to May 1994. The saline-eluate 99m Tc, in a total volume of 10 ml each, was subjected to gamma spectrometric determination. The radiation of 99m Tc was eliminated by lead shield of 0.6913 cm thickness. The 99m Tc yield fluctuation from 28 generators indicated that the characteristics of the generator columns were very good. The 99m Tc eluates were consistently contaminated by 99 Mo, 131 I and 103 Ru, although the contamination level in all cases did not exceed the maximum permissible levels. The fluctuation of radionuclidic impurities were probably caused by variation in the irradiation parameter or by variation in the 99 Mo separation methods. (author), 23 refs, 1 tab, 3 figs

  6. Determination of 99Mo contamination in 99mTc elute obtained from 99Mo/99mTc- generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momennezhad, M.; Zakavi, S. R.; Sadeghi, R.

    2010-01-01

    99m Tc is a widely used radioisotope in nuclear medicine centers which is obtained by elution from Mo-99/Tc-99m generators. Usually the generators are either supplied by the Iran Atomic Energy Agency or by private companies from foreign countries. In this study we have measured 99 Mo contamination in 99m Tc elute from different generators in a period of one year. Materials and Methods: The radionuclide impurity of the 99m Tc elute were studied in two types of radionuclide generators (A: produced in Iran and B: Imported from other country). In-vitro measurements were performed using dose calibrator. Direct measurements were made, using a standard canister at the time of milking of the generators and also in Subsequent hours after milking. Results: The results showed a mean of 99 Mo impurity in generators A and B to be 0.00932±0.0043 and 0.0170±0.0127 respectively. Although the results showed that the 99 Mo contamination in 99 mTc elute was lesser than the maximum accepted activity limit of 0.015%, the difference in these two types may reflect different methods of productions of generator, as well as the quality control procedures. Conclusion: The mean of 99 Mo contamination in generators produced in Iran Atomic Energy Organization was lesser than generators imported from foreign origin.

  7. Altered [99mTc]Tc-MDP biodistribution from neutron activation sourced 99Mo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Sandor; Szweda, Roman; Patterson, Judy; Grigoryan, Marine

    2018-01-01

    Given potential worldwide shortages of fission sourced 99 Mo/ 99m Tc medical isotopes there is increasing interest in alternate production strategies. A neutron activated 99 Mo source was utilized in a single center phase III open label study comparing 99m Tc, as 99m Tc Methylene Diphosphonate ([ 99m Tc]Tc-MDP), obtained from solvent generator separation of neutron activation produced 99 Mo, versus nuclear reactor produced 99 Mo (e.g., fission sourced) in oncology patients for which an [ 99m Tc]Tc-MDP bone scan would normally have been indicated. Despite the investigational [ 99m Tc]Tc-MDP passing all standard, and above standard of care, quality assurance tests, which would normally be sufficient to allow human administration, there was altered biodistribution which could lead to erroneous clinical interpretation. The cause of the altered biodistribution remains unknown and requires further research.

  8. Diversification of 99Mo/99mTc separation: non–fission reactor production of 99Mo as a strategy for enhancing 99mTc availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Maroor R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of obtaining (99m)Tc from non-fission reactor-produced low-specific-activity (99)Mo. This scenario is based on establishing a diversified chain of facilities for the distribution of (99m)Tc separated from reactor-produced (99)Mo by (n,γ) activation of natural or enriched Mo. Such facilities have expected lower investments than required for the proposed chain of cyclotrons for the production of (99m)Tc. Facilities can receive and process reactor-irradiated Mo targets then used for extraction of (99m)Tc over a period of 2 wk, with 3 extractions on the same day. Estimates suggest that a center receiving 1.85 TBq (50 Ci) of (99)Mo once every 4 d can provide 1.48-3.33 TBq (40-90 Ci) of (99m)Tc daily. This model can use research reactors operating in the United States to supply current (99)Mo needs by applying natural (nat)Mo targets. (99)Mo production capacity can be enhanced by using (98)Mo-enriched targets. The proposed model reduces the loss of (99)Mo by decay and avoids proliferation as well as waste management issues associated with fission-produced (99)Mo.

  9. Correlation factors for C-14, Cl-36, Ni-59, Ni-63, Mo-93, Tc-99, I-129 and Cs-135. In operational waste for SFR 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Maria; Pettersson, Michael; Wiborgh, Marie (Kemakta AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-01-15

    The use of correlation factors is one possibility to estimate a reference radionuclide inventory for the purpose of safety assessment studies, when waste-type specific information is not at hand. The correlation factor approach requires that there is a correlation between the activity content of the difficult-to-measure nuclide and the key nuclide. A safety assessment of a future deep repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFL 3-5) was conducted during the second half of the 1990's. Within that project, correlation factors for estimating the inventory of radionuclides which are difficult to measure experimentally were developed. These factors have also partly been used to estimate a reference inventory for SFR 1. Based on a literature survey and recent reports published by SKB, it is concluded that new information is available making an update of some correlation factors relevant. For these radionuclides, reported data from estimations and measurements of radionuclide content and correlation factors in different types of radioactive wastes are summarised. The data is evaluated and updated correlation factors representative for fresh waste for eight radionuclides (C-14, Cl-36, Ni-59, Ni-63, Mo-93, Tc-99, I-129 and Cs-135) are suggested. New information from measurements in Swedish NPP has made it possible to define factors that are BWR and PWR specific for C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. The uncertainties in suggested data and the applicability of the correlation factors for estimates of the radionuclide content in operational waste are commented upon

  10. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemistry of 239Pu, 129I, 99Tc and 36Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabryka-Martin, J.T.; Curtis, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    One objective of this research programme has been to evaluate the applicability of uranium orebodies as natural analogues for testing radionuclide release-rate models used in performance assessment activities. The investigated nuclides included three of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors: plutonium-239, iodine-129, and technetium-99. The feasibility of uranium minerals as analogues for the behavior of these nuclear reaction products (NRP) in spent fuel relies upon a capability to characterise NRP concentrations in the source minerals. Measured abundances of natural 239 Pu, 99 Tc and 129 I in uranium ores are compared to calculated abundances in order to evaluate the degree to retention of these radionuclides by the ore. This modelling study also shows the extent to which various NRP are correlated, such that one provides a constraint on the production rates of others. Under most conditions, 36 Cl, another long-lived neutron-capture product found in uranium ores, is shown to be an ideal in-situ monitor of the 235 U fission rate, which is the dominant source term for 129 I and possibly a significant one for 99 Tc. Similarly, 239 Pu/U ratios can be used to establish limits on the 238 U neutron-induced fission rate; the ratios measured in this study suggest that 238 U induced fission comprises 129 I and 99 Tc. 79 refs., 21 tabs., 18 figs

  11. Spent 99Mo/99mTc generator as an economical source of 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kolaly, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    An improved method for utilization and purification of 99 Mo from spent 90 Mo/ 99m Tc generators has been described. After washing the generator with saline to remove the generated 99m Tc, followed by 2 mL 5 M NaOH containing a few drops of H 2 O 2 , the 99 Mo was quantitatively eluted from the generator with 5 mL 5 M NaOH. The alkaline eluate containing 99 Mo was contaminated with partially dissolved alumina. In the present method, an anion-exchange resin Dowex 1 x 8 column was used for purification of 99 Mo from the contaminating alumina. The resultant 99 Mo was of high purity and contained 3+ /mL 99 Mo solution, as estimated by atomic absorption. (author)

  12. Development of 99Mo/99mTc Generator System for Production of Medical Radionuclide 99mTc using a Neutron-activated 99Mo and Zirconium Based Material (ZBM as its Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Saptiama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum produced from fission of U-235 is the most desirable precursor for 99Mo/99mTc generator system as it is non-carrier added and has high specific activity. However, in the last decade there has been short supply of 99Mo due to several constrains. Therefore, there have been many works performed for development of 99Mo/99mTc generator system using 99Mo which is not produced from either LEU or HEU. This report deals with development of 99Mo/99mTc generator system where zirconium-based material (ZBM is used as adsorbent of neutron-activated 99Mo. The system was prepared by firstly irradiating natural Mo in the G. A. Siwabessy reactor to produce neutron-activated 99Mo. The target was dissolved in NaOH 4N and then neutralized with 12 M HCl. The 99Mo solution was then mixed with a certain amount of ZBM followed by heating at 90°C for three hours to allow the 99Mo adsorbed on ZBM. The 99Mo-ZBM (9.36 GBq of 99Mo was Mo/ 4.2 g ZBM was packed on a fritz-glass column. This column was then fitted serially with an alumina column for trapping 99Mo breakthrough. The columns were then eluted daily with saline solution for up to one week. The yield of 99mTc was found to be between 53.7 – 74% (n= 5. All 99mTc eluates were clear solutions with pH of 5. Breakthrough of 99Mo in 99mTc eluates was found to be 0.031 ± 0.019 μCi 99Mo/ mCi 99mTc (n= 5 which was less than the maximum activity of 99Mo allowed in 99mTc solution ( 99%. Radiolabeling of this 99mTc towards methylene diphosphonate (MDP kit gave a radiolabelling efficiency of 99%. In summary, a new 99Mo/99mTc generator system that used neutron-activated 99Mo and ZBM as its adsorbent has been successfully prepared. The 99mTc produced from this new 99Mo/99mTc generator system attained the quality of 99mTc required for medical purposes.

  13. Pharmaceutical grade sodium (99mTc) pertechnetate from 99Mo/99mTc-TCM-Autosolex generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Barua, Luna; Das, Sujata Saha

    2014-01-01

    Technetium-99m (T 1/2 = 6.02h; 140.51 keV (89%)) is the most useful radioisotope in diagnostic nuclear medicine. More than 80% of all diagnostic procedures done worldwide in nuclear medicine centre are performed with 99m Tc. Worldwide crisis of fission 99 Mo based generator in recent past had put the nuclear medicine fraternity in very harsh situation. In order to have an indigenous solution of this problem, we tried to develop a computer controlled semi automated 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator using MEK solvent extraction technique, which utilizes abundantly available 99 Mo produced by (n,γ) reaction in BARC reactors. The aim of this work is to provide a more reliable, computer controlled module (TCM- AUTOSOLEX) for the recovery of pharmaceutical grade 99m Tc from low specific activity 99 Mo based on solvent extraction methodology

  14. Study of methodologies for quality control of 99Mo used in 99Mo/99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, Daphne de Souza

    2016-01-01

    99m Tc is the most used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. In Brazil, the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators are exclusively produced by Radiopharmacy Center at IPEN-CNEN/ SP, by importing 99 Mo from different suppliers. 99 Mo (t 1/2 = 66 h) is a fission product of 235 U and it can have radionuclidic impurities that are prejudicial for human health. For safe use of generators, it is necessary to perform the evaluation of 99 Mo by quality control tests in order to assess if 99 Mo complies with the specifications. The European Pharmacopoeia (EP) presents a monograph for evaluation of the quality of the [ 99 Mo] solution as sodium molybdate,that is used as raw material for 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators production, including specification parameters (identification, radiochemical purity and radionuclidic purity), analysis methods and limits. However, it has been observed difficulties on the execution and implementation of these methods by the generators producers, with a few literature about this subject, probably due to complexity of the proposed methods. In this work, many quality control parameters of 99 Mo described in the EP monograph were evaluated. Separation methods for 99M o from its radionuclidic impurities by solid phase extraction (SPE) and TLC were studied. After SPE separation, the quantification of metals by ICP-OES to evaluate the percentage of retention of Mo and the percentage of recovery of Ru, Te and Sr using different types of cartridges were proposed, replacing radiotracers use. It was observed that the specific type of SPE cartridge recommended by the EP for separation of 99 Mo presented low recoveries for Ru, compared to other available anion exchange SPE cartridges. 99 Mo samples from different worldwide suppliers were analyzed. It was observed that quantification of 103 Ru in 99 Mo samples with decay time higher than 4 weeks is possible. An alternative method for separation of 131 I from 99 Mo showed promising results by TLC. The quantification of beta and

  15. Status of Tc-99m and 99Mo/99mTc generator production in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedin, Md. Zainul; Haque, Md. Azizul; Ali, Md. Ramjan; Hossain, Md. Anwar; Razzaque, Md. Abdur; Yasmin, Lyzu; Waheed, M. Fatima; Akhter, Rabeya; Mondal, Rafiuddin

    2007-01-01

    Radioisotope Production Division (RIPD) produced instant technetium-99m by solvent extraction method for several years. On R and D basis, the division produced portable sterile Tc-99m sublimation generator by irradiating titanium molybdate in the reactor. The division produced (4/batch) from imported fission Mo-99 till June 2005. Since August 2005, as per demand of the government hospitals, the division have been producing 12-14 pieces of 15 GBq chromatographic 99m Tc-generators weekly by using the new generator production plant installed last year having online Mo-99 loading system with the of producing 50 generator per batch. Development of PZC and (n,γ) 99 Mo based generator holds potential in Bangladesh. (author)

  16. A modified {sup 99} Mo- {sup 99} Tc generator on Zirconium molybdo- phosphate-{sup 99} Mo gel. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kolaly, M T; Talaat, H [Labelled Compounds Department, Cairo (Egypt); Botros, N [Radioistspe and Generator Department, Radioisotope Production and Sealed Source Division, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    A modified {sup 99} Mo - {sup 99} Tc gel generator is described. The new generator is based on the use of zirconium molybdophosphate - {sup 99} Mo gel in which {sup 99} Mo chemically combined in the gel structure, where {sup 99m}Tc can be easily eluted with distilled water or saline. The gel was prepared via chemical reaction between zirconyl chloride and molybdophosphate - {sup 99} Mo solution. The PH of the reaction mixture was adjusted with NaOH. Different gels have been prepared by varying the molar ratio of Mo:Zr:p. The PH and time of digeston on complete gel formation was also investigated in order to optimize the condition of gel preparation. Molybdophosphate {sup 32} P solution was used to determine the phosphorous content in the gel and in the {sup 99m}Tc eluate. The temperature and time of drying of the gel and their effect on {sup 99m}Tc elution efficiency were also studied. From the data obtained, the optimum conditions for routine production of {sup 99} Mo - {sup 99m}Tc generator are presented and discussed. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Measurement of Mo-99 column activity in the evaluation of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In order to calculate the real elution efficiency of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator the Mo-99 content on the column has to be previously determined. As found in this work, the external measurement of Mo-99-column activity by means of Geiger-Mueller counter is a simple, fast and reliable method. Generally, Mo-99-column is placed slightly out of the center of the generator; therefore the externally measured flux of photons (φ) is an angular-dependent function. If the thickness of the lead container is radially uniform, the flux measured at some distance from the generator (which is rotated in 2π/3 steps) is given by the equation φ = A (1 + Bcos (α-2π(i - 2)/3)) -1 , i=1,2 or 3 (Eq.1) where A is a numerical constant depending on the Mo-99-column activity, B is a numerical constant depending on the Mo-99- column position within the lead container, the angle α depends on the initial orientation of the generator. A total of 20 generator were studied. The measured Mo-99-column activities (Capintec dose calibrator) were in the range 13.1- 35.11 GBq. Contrary to the findings of Vinberg and Kristensen (Eur J Nucl Med 1/1976(219), values of A (Eq. 1) are in good correlation (r 2 =0.9794) with the measured Mo-99-column activities. (author)

  18. 99Mo-99mTc production development by (n, γ) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Hironobu; Nishikata, Kaori; Kimura, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Ishihara, Masahiro; Kaminaga, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    The renewed JMTR will be started from the later half of JFY2012, and it is expected to various fields. Supply of 99 Mo in Japan depends only on imports from foreign countries. JAEA has a plan to produce 99 Mo, a parent nuclide of 99m Tc. JMTR will contribute to produce 99 Mo by (n, r) method as one of effective uses of the JMTR. In this paper, outline of the technical study items for production method of 99 Mo- 99m Tc in JMTR will be described. (author)

  19. Transmutation of Tc-99 and I-129 in fission reactors. A calculational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Li, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    The HWR is a better candidate for large-scale transmutation of long-lived fission products. When target pins containing either Tc-99 or I-129 are positioned in the centre of each fuel bundle of a 935 MW e CANDU reactor, the transmutation half lives are 44 and 20 years, respectively, and the gross transmutation rates 60 and 48 kg/a. The positive coolant void coefficient is reduced in both cases with about 30%. When Tc-99 target pins are positioned in the moderator between the fuel bundles, the transmutation half life becomes 25 years and the gross transmutation rate 106 kg/a. This means that one HWR can serve four PWRs with equal power. The fast reactor seems most promising. When Tc-99 target pins are irradiated in moderated subassemblies in the inner core of Superphenix (∼1240 MW e ), a transmutation half life of 15 years is obtained with a gross transmutation rate of 122 kg/a. These values become 18 years and 101 kg/a when non-moderated subassemblies are used for the irradiation. This implies that one fast reactor can serve four to five PWRs with equal power. The PWR seems not very effective for transmutation of Tc-99. Large inventories are needed to obtain a Tc-99 transmutation rate equal to the production rate (18 kg/a for a 900 MW e PWR). When all guide tubes of an UO 2 fuelled PWR are filled with Tc-99 with density of 5 g cm -3 , the transmutation half life is 39 years and the gross transmutation rate 64 kg/a. (orig./GL)

  20. Problems in clinical practice of domestic supply of 99Mo/99mTc. Considerations on the domestic production of 99Mo/99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabayashi, Hisamichi

    2012-01-01

    At present, a bulky import product, 99 Mo supplied in Japan is produced by a nuclear fission method which enables to produce a generator system with no need of commercially preparing 99m Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals due to its high specific activity. However its usage of enriched uranium target leads to avoiding the fission method from the option of domestic production. In order to secure the domestic supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc, the neutron activation method, aiming to meet about 20% of domestic demand, is under development along with the re-start program of JMTR. Development of various production methods using accelerators are also in progress. In those non-fission methods with reactors or accelerators, rapid and effective procedures for concentration and refinement of 99m Tc solution eluted from 99 Mo of low specific activity are the subjects to be considered for attaining the stable labeling performances. (author)

  1. Comparative study of 99Mo/99mTc generators at base of synthesized gels starting from activation and fission 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, I.Z.; Monroy G, F.; Rivero G, T.; Rojas N, P.

    2007-01-01

    The 99m Tc is used for diagnostic and therapy. It is produced starting from 99 Mo, absorbed in chromatographic columns, loaded with alumina that absorb only 0.2% of 99 Mo with high specific activities of 99 Mo, obtained from the 235 U fission. Given these conditions and limitations, new preparation procedures of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, its have been developed, using zirconium molybdates gels that incorporates until 30% of 99 Mo, conserve similar characteristics of quality and purity that the traditional generator. The radiochemical characteristics of the 99m Tc elution, depend strongly on the gel preparation conditions. In particular, the present work has by object to determine the influence of the 99 Mo used type, fission or activation product, during the gels synthesis, as well as the used air flow for the agitation in the gels preparation and its influence in the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators quality. When diminishing the flow of agitation air the efficiency it increases and in the radionuclide purity of the eluates and when using 99 Mo from fission for the gels production it increases in an important way the elutriation efficiency, the radiochemical and radionuclide purity of the 99m Tc eluates. (Author)

  2. Excitation functions of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natMo up to 21 MeV. An alternative route for the production of 99mTc and 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonck, M.; Hermanne, A.; Takacs, S.; Szelecsenyi, F.; Tarkanyi, F.

    1999-01-01

    Cross sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for different applications. The excitation functions of 92m,95 Nb-, 93,94g,94m,95g,95m,96,99m Tc- and 99 Mo were measured up to 21 MeV deuteron energy by using stacked foil technique and activation method. The goal of this work was to study the production possibility of the medical important 94m,99m Tc- and 99 Mo-nuclides. Production of 99m Tc and 99 Mo is of importance for their use in nuclear medicine, whereas 94m Tc is of interest regarding quantification of kinetics of well-established 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals. The production possibilities of 99m Tc and 99 Mo above 20 MeV deuteron energies up to 50 MeV were estimated and was found that beside the proton induced reactions the deuteron induced reactions on enriched molybdenum target are very promising. (author)

  3. Preparation of 99Mo/99mTc generators based on 99Mo zirconium molybdates in the Gel Synthesis Device for Generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, I. Z.; Monroy G, F.; Rivero G, T.; Rojas N, P.

    2008-01-01

    The 99m Tc is used for diagnosis and therapy. It is produced commercially from 99 Mo obtained from the fission of 235 U, which is retained in chromatographic columns filled with alumina whose maximum capacity is 0.2%. Given these constraints new methods of preparation 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators have been developed using zirconium molybdates gels containing up to 30% of Mo, which is part of the generator matrix, and retaining quality and purity similar characteristics to those commercial generators. The present study aims to determine the flow of agitation, temperature and drying time optimal to prepare 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators based on 99 Mo zirconium molybdates in the Gel Synthesis Device 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Generators designed and built by groups of the Radioactive Materials Research Laboratory and Automation and Instrumentation Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. (Author)

  4. Magnesium-Molybate Compounds as Matrix for 99Mo/99mTc Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Monroy-Guzman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the preparation of a 99mTc generator based on conversion of 99Mo produced by neutron irradiation, into insoluble magnesium 99Mo-molybdates compounds as matrix. The effect of magnesium salt types and concentration, Mg:Mo molar ratios, pH of molybdate solutions, eluate volume as well as the addition order of molybdate and magnesium solutions’ influences on the final 99mTc were evaluated. Polymetalates and polymolybdates salts either crystallized or amorphous were obtained depending on the magnesium salt and Mg:Mo molar ratio used in matrix preparation. 99Mo/99mTc generator production based on magnesium-99Mo molybdate compounds allow reduction of preparation time and eliminates the use of specialized installations. The best generator performances were attained using matrices prepared from 0.1 mol/L MgCl2·6H2O solutions, ammonium molybdate solutions at pH 7 and at a Mg:Mo molar ratio of 1:1.

  5. Results of regular study on radionuclidic purity of sup(99m)Tc obtained from 99Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, J.; Rohacek, J.; Husak, V.

    1979-01-01

    A total of 39 sup(99m)Tc eluates obtained from 9 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators delivered by The Radiochemical Centre Amersham during one year was studied with regard to their radionuclide purity. Using a Ge(Li) spectrometer the contaminants 60 Co, 103 Ru, 131 I, 134 Cs, 140 La and 188 Re were found in sup(99m)Tc-eluates with average levels ranging from 2.9 x 10 -3 to 2.8 x 10 -1 per cent of sup(99m)Tc activity. The additional total body absorbed dose caused by these contaminants, as calculated from their average content in sup(99m)Tc eluates, was less than 1% of the dose due to sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 CS [de

  6. Development of 99mTc extraction techniques from 99Mo by (n,γ) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihiro; Hori, Naohiko; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Ishihara, Masahiro; Yamabayashi, Hisamichi; Tanase, Masakazu; Fujisaki, Saburo; Sato, Yuichi

    2010-11-01

    Investigation of production method of 99 Mo by (n, γ) reaction, where the processing is relatively simple and generating less amount of radioactive waste, is conducted in the Neutron Irradiation and Testing Reactor Center. The 99 Mo is adsorbed to highly efficient adsorbent PZC after neutron irradiation and 99m Tc is eluted. However, radioactivity concentration of the 99m Tc solution obtained from PZC column loaded with 99 Mo derived by (n, γ) method is lower than that obtained from alumina column with 99 Mo by (n, f) method due to extremely low specific activity of (n, f) 99 Mo. Therefore, it is necessary to develop technique for increasing the amount of 99 Mo and the 99m Tc solution of high radioactivity concentration (minimum: 1Ci/ cm 3 ). In this study, the preliminary fabrication tests using high density MoO 3 pellets were carried out to increase the production of 99 Mo. The method of concentrating 99m Tc solution through solvent extraction with MEK was investigated and a device for this concentration process was also developed. In the preliminary tests of the MoO 3 pellets, the pellets having high density were successfully fabricated by the SPS method. Additionally, it was ascertained that the pellets can be dissolved with 6M-NaOH solution completely. The test for 99 Mo adsorption followed by 99m Tc elution using PZC was carried out. As the result, amount of Mo adsorbed to 1g-PZC was about 250mg, and 99m Tc yield was about 80%. In the concentration test using Re solution instead of 99m Tc solution, it was ascertained that the concentration efficiency is higher than 80% of the theoretical value. A concentration device for 99m Tc solution could be realized based on the method employed in the present experiments. The outcomes of development of 99m Tc extraction techniques from 99 Mo by (n,γ) reaction was reviewed in this paper, and the contents were presented in the 3rd International Symposium on Material Test Reactors. (author)

  7. Impurities in Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical solution obtained from Mo-100 in cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymiński, Zbigniew; Saganowski, Paweł; Kołakowska, Ewa; Listkowska, Anna; Ziemek, Tomasz; Cacko, Daniel; Dziel, Tomasz

    2018-04-01

    The gamma emitting impurities in 99m Tc solution obtained from enriched molybdenum 100 Mo metallic target after its irradiation in a cyclotron were measured using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The radioactivity range of tested samples of 99m Tc was rather low, in the range from 0.34 to 2.39 MBq, thus creating a challenge to investigate the standard measurement HPGe system for impurity detection and quantification. In the process of 99m Tc separation from irradiated target the AnaLig® Tc-02 resin, Dionex H + and Alumina A columns were used. Fractions of eluates from various steps of separation process were taken and measured for radionuclidic purity. The overall measurement sensitivity of gamma emitters in terms of minimum detectable activity (MDA) was found at the level of 14-70Bq with emission lines in range of 36 - 1836keV resulting in impurity content range of 6.7 × 10 -4 to 3.4 × 10 -3 % for 93 Tc, 93m Tc, 94 Tc, 94m Tc, 95 Tc, 95m Tc, 96 Tc 96 Nb, 97 Nb, 99 Mo contaminants and 9.4 × 10 -3 % for 97m Tc. The usefulness of the chosen measurement conditions and the method applied to testing the potential contaminators was proved by reaching satisfactory results of MDAs less than the criteria of impurity concentration of all nuclides specified in the European Pharmacopoeia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurements of instant-release source terms for 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I and 14C in used CANDU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    1996-01-01

    Combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 137 Cs, 129 I, 90 Sr, 99 Tc and 14 C were measured in 15 used CANDU fuel elements by leaching crushed fuel samples. A good correlation between the combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 137 Cs and 129 I was found, suggesting that these fission products exhibit similar behavior in CANDU fuel. The expected correlation between combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 137 Cs and 129 I with calculated fission-gas release to the gap and grain boundaries could only be confirmed for lower power fuels ( 90 Sr were higher than expected and showed no correlation with calculated fission-gas release. No values for the combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 99 Tc were obtained because 99 Tc in used fuel samples is very insoluble and appears to require oxidation prior to dissolution. Combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 14 C appeared to be independent of fuel power or burnup. (orig.)

  9. Potential Ways to Address Shortage Situations of 99Mo/99mTc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filzen, Leah M; Ellingson, Lacey R; Paulsen, Andrew M; Hung, Joseph C

    2017-03-01

    99m Tc, the most common radioisotope used in nuclear medicine, is produced in a nuclear reactor from the decay of 99 Mo. There are only a few aging nuclear reactors around the world that produce 99 Mo, and one of the major contributors, the National Research Universal (Canada), ceased production on October 31, 2016. The National Research Universal produced approximately 40% of the world's 99 Mo supply, so with its shut down, shortages of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc are expected. Methods: Nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine departments throughout the United States were contacted and asked to provide their strategies for coping with a shortage of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Each of these strategies was evaluated on the basis of its effectiveness for conserving 99m Tc while still meeting the needs of the patients. Results: From the responses, the following 6 categories of strategies, in order of importance, were compiled: contractual agreements with commercial nuclear pharmacies, alternative imaging protocols, changes in imaging schedules, software use, generator management, and reduction of ordered doses or elimination of backup doses. Conclusion: The supply chain of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc is quite fragile; therefore, being aware of the most appropriate coping strategies is crucial. It is essential to build a strong collaboration between the nuclear pharmacy and nuclear medicine department during a shortage situation. With both nuclear medicine departments and nuclear pharmacies implementing viable strategies, such as the ones proposed, the amount of 99m Tc available during a shortage situation can be maximized. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  10. Determination of 99Mo in 99mTc eluates used in nuclear medicine centers in Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Bianca da S.; Souza, Raphael S.S.; Lucena, Eder A.; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Dantas, Bernardo M.

    2009-01-01

    99m Tc is used in nuclear medicine for image diagnoses with SPECT. It is obtained from the elution of molybdenum-99/technetium-99m ( 99 Mo/ 99m Tc) generators. During the elution, 99 Mo can detach from the column, passing through the filter and mixing in the solution of pertechnetate eluate and becoming a radionuclidic impurity. The presence of molybdenum in the radiopharmaceutical solution imparts an unnecessary radiation dose to the patient, since its half-life is relatively long (66 hours) and it emits beta particles and high-energy photons of (740 keV). A parameter that indicates the quality of the eluates is the radionuclidic purity, the MBT (molybdenum break through), defined as the ratio between 99 Mo and 99m Tc activities in the eluate. The American and the European Pharmacopoeias restrict 99 Mo content to respectively 0.015% and 0.1% activity ratio 99 Mo/ 99m Tc at the time of the administration to the patient. In Brazil, this parameter is not controlled by official regulations. The objective of this work is to determine the presence of 99 Mo in the eluates used in nuclear medicine centers (NMC). The activity measurements of 99 Mo were performed with a NaI(Tl)8''x4'' scintillation detector installed in the IRD whole body counter. The activity of 99m Tc was measured in the NMC where the eluates were collected and, using the established calculations, it was determined the activity ratio 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. The eluate samples were kindly supplied by the participating NMC of Rio de Janeiro. All measurements indicated the presence of 99 Mo. It is concluded that the technique is sensitive to detect 99 Mo in 99m Tc eluates and permits to verify the quality of the generators used in NMC evaluated in this study. (author)

  11. Preparation of a gel of zirconium molybdate for use in the generators of 99 Mo - 99m Tc prepared with 99 Mo produced by the 98 Mo(n,γ)99 Mo reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osso Junior, Joao A.; Lima, Ana Lucia V.P.; Silva, Nestor C. da; Nieto, Renata C.; Velosa, Adriana C. de

    1998-01-01

    IPEN develops a project concerning the preparation of a gel of Zirconium Molybdate for use in the generators of 99 Mo- 99m Tc . 99m Tc is the most used radioisotope in nuclear medicine diagnosis procedures and nowadays the generators are being prepared with imported 99 Mo, produced by 235 U fission. The production of 99 Mo by the 98 Mo(n, γ) 99 Mo reaction is now possible because of the power upgrade of IPEN's IEA-R1 reactor, from 2 to 5 MW. This work describes the preparation method of Zirconium Molybdate gel that will be used in the 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators. The gel is prepared by the chemical reaction between Mo, in Mo O 3 form, and Zr, in Zr O Cl 2 .8H 2 O form. After the reaction, the gel is filtered, dried and cracked with saline solution. The product is then loaded into glass columns for use as 99m Tc generator. The results showed the good quality of the gel prepared at laboratory level and of the generators evaluated. (author)

  12. Nanostructured metal oxides: promise opportunity and challenge to develop clinically useful 99Mo/99mTc generators using (n, gamma)99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    The role of 99m Tc diagnostic nuclear medicine needs hardly to be reiterated. Today, it is the most widely used radionuclide for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging procedures. The current strategy of availing 99m Tc is ensured from column chromatographic 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators using a bed of acidic alumina. While the column chromatographic 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator constitute a successful exemplar of availing 99m Tc, the limited capacity of alumina (2-20 mg Mo per g of alumina) for taking up molybdate ions necessitates the use of 99 Mo of the highest specific activity available, as can be found in fission produced 99 Mo (F 99 Mo). In order to reduce dependence of F 99 Mo, the scope of using low specific activity (n,γ) 99 Mo along with high capacity adsorbent is an interesting prospect. In this context, the scope of using nanomaterials as a viable adsorbent seemed attractive by virtue of their huge surface to volume ratios, altered physical properties, tailored surface chemistry, favorable adsorption characteristics, and enhanced surface reactivity resulting from the nanoscale dimensions. This emerging class of adsorbent represents an innovative paradigm and is expected to play an important role in the development of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators adaptable to the existing and foreseeable demands. This talk outlines a critical assessment on the role of nanostructured metal oxides, recent developments, the contemporary status, and key challenges and apertures to the near future. (author)

  13. Concentration of sup(99m)Tc from the eluate of 99Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, T.; Mora, M.; Fraga de Suarez, A.H.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1976-04-01

    A method is described to concentrate sup(99m)Tc solutions, originated in 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators, independent of its age. The techniques of preparation of the different radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are also described. (author) [es

  14. Preparation and biological profile of 99mTc-lidocaine as a cardioselective imaging agent using 99mTc eluted from 99Mo/99mTc generator based on Al-Mo gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakr, T.M.; October University of Modern Sciences and Arts; Ibrahim, A.B.; Rashed, H.M.; Fasih, T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The current study is aimed to prepare 99m Tc-lidocaine as a new myocardial perfusion-imaging agent. The used 99m Tc was obtained from Al- 99 Mo-molybdate(VI) gel matrix. 99m Tc-lidocaine showed higher (15.4 ± 0.11% ID/g) and faster (15 min post injection) cardiac uptake than the recently studied 99m Tc-valsartan and 99m Tc-procainamide. Consequently, 99m Tc-lidocaine will be a valuable myocardial SPECT agent for diagnosis of emergency patients. Besides, the receptor affinity study confirmed the selectivity of 99m Tc-lidocaine for sodium channels in the heart. (author)

  15. Comparative study of 99Mo/99mTc generators at base of synthesized gels starting from 99Mo of activation and of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, I.Z.; Monroy G, F.; Rivero G, T.; Rojas N, P.

    2007-01-01

    At the present time the more used and diffused radionuclide in nuclear medicine it is the Technetium 99 metastable ( 99 mTc) it is used for diagnostic and therapy. It is produced starting from molybdenum 99 ( 99 Mo), which is absorbed in chromatographic columns, loaded with alumina that absorb only 0.2% of 99 Mo situation that forces to use high specific activities of 99 Mo that it is obtained starting from the fission of the 235 U. Given these conditions and limitations, new preparation procedures of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, of low or medium specific activity, its have been developed, using gels of zirconium molybdates that incorporates until 30% in weight of 99 Mo in the gel, and also conserve similar characteristics of quality and purity that those obtained by the traditional generator; reducing by this way the cost of production of the 99m Tc, when using 99 Mo of low specific activity, in the preparation of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators. The radiochemical characteristics of the elution of 99m Tc, depends strongly on the gel preparation conditions. In particular, the present work has for object to determine the influence of the used type of 99 Mo, fission or activation product, during the gels synthesis, as well as the used air flow for the agitation in the gels preparation and its influence in the quality of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators. When diminishing the agitation air flow the efficiency it increases and in the radionuclide purity of the eluates and when using 99 Mo of fission for the gels production it increases in an important way the elution efficiency, the radiochemical purity and radionuclide of the eluates of 99m Tc. (Author)

  16. Comparative study of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators at base of synthesized gels starting from activation and fission {sup 99}Mo; Estudio comparativo de generadores {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc a base de geles sintetizados a partir de {sup 99}Mo de activacion y de fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, I Z [UAEM, Paseo Colon esq. Paseo Tollocan, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F; Rivero G, T; Rojas N, P [ININ, Carretera Mexico -Toluca S/N, 52045 La Marquesa Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The {sup 99m}Tc is used for diagnostic and therapy. It is produced starting from {sup 99}Mo, absorbed in chromatographic columns, loaded with alumina that absorb only 0.2% of {sup 99}Mo with high specific activities of {sup 99}Mo, obtained from the {sup 235}U fission. Given these conditions and limitations, new preparation procedures of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators, its have been developed, using zirconium molybdates gels that incorporates until 30% of {sup 99}Mo, conserve similar characteristics of quality and purity that the traditional generator. The radiochemical characteristics of the {sup 99m}Tc elution, depend strongly on the gel preparation conditions. In particular, the present work has by object to determine the influence of the {sup 99}Mo used type, fission or activation product, during the gels synthesis, as well as the used air flow for the agitation in the gels preparation and its influence in the {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators quality. When diminishing the flow of agitation air the efficiency it increases and in the radionuclide purity of the eluates and when using {sup 99}Mo from fission for the gels production it increases in an important way the elutriation efficiency, the radiochemical and radionuclide purity of the {sup 99m}Tc eluates. (Author)

  17. Use of 99mTc from a commercial 99Mo/9mTc generator as yield tracer for the determination of 99Tc at low levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Jensen, Mikael; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of Tc-99 and impurity radionuclides in the Tc-99m tracer solution obtained from a commercial Mo-99/Tc-99m generator were measured by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. Mo-99 and Ru-103 were found in the Tc-99m eluate. A simple separation using two extra alumina...... cartridges was investigated to purify the eluate to obtain a suitable Tc-99m tracer with low Tc-99 concentration. The activity ratio of Tc-99/Tc-99m in the prepared Tc-99m solution is lower than 15 x 10(-9), which is higher than the theoretical ratio of less than 10 x 10(-9). The possible reason is discussed....... The Tc-99 in the 20 kBq spiked Tc-99m tracer was found to be less than 0.3mBq, which is lower than the detection limit of the radiometric method used for environmental samples. The purified Tc-99m eluate is used as yield tracer for the determination of low levels of Tc-99 in environmental samples. (c...

  18. Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactors for Mo-99/Tc-99m production in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilborn, J.W., E-mail: hilbovanw@sympatico.ca [Deep River, Ontario (Canada); Bonin, H.W. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU in 2009 - 2010 caused an overall isotope shortage of approximately 30%; and in North America, the annual Tc-99m demand decreased from an estimated 20 million unit doses to about 15 million unit doses. Mo-99/Tc-99m is produced from HEU targets, irradiated in NRU for 11 days, and after chemical removal of uranium it is shipped to Nordion in Kanata, Ontario. Nordion further purifies the material and sends it to Lantheus Medical Imaging in the USA for manufacture of Mo-99 generators, which are then distributed to hundreds of hospital radiopharmacies throughout North America. One other American company, Covidien, manufactures and distributes Mo-99 generators like Lantheus, but they import bulk Mo-99 from Europe or South Africa. At the hospitals, Tc-99m is chemically extracted daily from the Mo-99 generators and loaded into syringes for immediate clinical use. Fortuitously, the 66 hour half-life of Mo-99 allows the replenishment of Tc-99m in the generator over a growth period of about 20 hours; and a generator can be 'milked' daily for up to two weeks. A more efficient model is the direct production and distribution of Tc-99m unit doses to regional hospitals from 10 'industrial' radiopharmacies located at existing licensed reactor sites in North America. A 20 kW homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor at each site would deliver 15 litres of irradiated uranyl sulphate fuel solution daily to industrial-scale hot cells for extraction of Mo-99, which would be incorporated in large Mo-99/Tc-99m generators for extraction of Tc-99m five days a week; and the Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) would be recycled. Each automated hot-cell facility would be designed to load up to 7,000 Tc-99m syringes daily, for courier delivery to all of the Nuclear Medicine hospitals within a 3 hour average range by road transport. Typically, the delivered doses would be in the range 10 to 30 mCi. Assuming an average unit dose of 25 mCi at the hospital and 5 x 52

  19. Quality control studies of 99Mo used in 99Mo/99mTc generators produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, Daphne S.; Brambilla, Tania P.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2015-01-01

    99m Tc is the most used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. In Brazil, the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators are produced exclusively by the Center of Radiopharmacy at IPEN-CNEN/SP, by importing 99 Mo from different suppliers. 99 Mo (t 1/2 = 66 h) is a fission product of 235 U, therefore, it can be accompanied by several radioisotopes that are highly prejudicial for human health, demanding a strict quality control of this product for generators safe use. The European Pharmacopoeia established some parameters and limits that evaluate the quality of the solution of sodium [ 99 Mo]molybdate, that is used as raw material for generator's production. The European Pharmacopoeia also recommends some analytical methods to perform these evaluations, however, it has been observed difficulties on the implementation of these methods by the generator's producers. These difficulties are probably related to the lack of practicability of the proposed methods and the extensive list of utilized reagents. In this work some procedures of the European Pharmacopoeia's quality control method for 99 Mo were evaluated. Different types of solid phase exchanger cartridges were tested for retention of 99 Mo in 3 different conditions. Cartridges that presented percentages of retention higher than 90% were also tested for separation of 99 Mo from possible contaminants (Ru e Te). The results shown that solid phase exchanger cartridges that presented percentages of retention of Mo higher than 90% also presented significant percentages of retention of Ru and Te. An alternative method for separation of 99 Mo from 131 I (other contaminant) are also proposed. (author)

  20. Evaluation of '99Mo presence in eluates of 99mTc used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Bianca da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Tc-99m is used for diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine through SPECT technique. It is obtained by the elution of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators. During the elution process 99 Mo can be extracted becoming a radionuclidic impurity. One of the quality parameters of the eluate is the radionuclidic purity, MBT (molybdenum break through), defined as the ratio between 99 Mo and 99m Tc activities in the eluate. The North-American and European pharmacopoeias restrict the 99 Mo content, respectively, in 0.015 e 0.1% and, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the activity ratio at the moment of administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient, should not exceed 0.015%. In Brazil, the control of such parameter is not obliged in official regulations. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the occurrence of 99 Mo in 99m Tc eluates. It was initially optimized a methodology to determine the activity of 99 Mo in eluate samples. Efficiency curves were obtained for a NaI (Tl) 8'' x 4'' scintillation detector installed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LABMIV-IRD). The methodology has been validated through the measurement of a 99 Mo standard liquid source calibrated at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD). The samples analyzed in this work were gently supplied by 5 Nuclear Medicine Clinics located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The activities of 99 mTc and 99 Mo in those samples have been measured respectively at the clinics and at the LABMIV. By applying a standardized methodology, the ration between the activities were calculated. The results show that 147 out of 174 samples presented 99 Mo activities above the minimum detectable activity of the technique. On the other hand, only 2 out of 147 samples surpassed the MBT limit suggested by the IAEA and have been detected in samples eluted from generators of 750 mCi. In one of the samples, eluted from a generator of 1000 mCi, the calculated MBT value was very close

  1. 99Mo-99mTc generator - study of their performance and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, M.E.D.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the performance of the 99 Mo - 99m Tc generators produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP as well as the quality of the eluted solutions were analysed. The following parameters were studied: elution efficiency, chemical radiochemical, radionuclidic and microbiological purities and pH of the eluates. The 99m Tc yield ranged from 84,7 to 98,5%. The radioactivity due to the pertechnetate ion in the studied solutions was higher than 97,5%. The aluminium content in eluates, determined by spectrophotometry, was lower than 2,5 μg/ml and the pH of the solutions between 4,5 and 5,1. Radioactive impurities of the order of 10 -3 KBq 99 Mc/MBq 99m Tc and 10 -5 KBq 131 I/MBq 99m Tc were found in the eluates at the time of elution. Other γ emitting radioactive impurities were order of 10 -3 KBq/MBq 99m Tc. The eluates were sterile and pyrogen-free. From the results obtained in this work one can state that the IPEN-TEC generator is a reliable source of good quality 99m Tc-pertechnetate. (author) [pt

  2. Separation of sup(99m)Tc from 99Mo through a hydrous zirconium oxide column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengatti, J.

    1980-01-01

    The preparation of 99 Mo-,sup(99m)Tc generator based on the adsorption of 99 Mo on hydrous zirconium oxide column, employing the in exchange technique, is described. The adsorption of 99 Mo on hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) and the separation of sup(99m)Tc, generated by the decay of 99 Mo with saline solution, are analised. The sup(99m)Tc separation yield, pH of the eluted solution, aspect of the elution curve and the adsorption of 99 Mo on hydrous zirconium oxide calcined at 800 0 C are studied. The chemical and radioactive purities of the final product are analysed and the variation of the elution yield for successive elutions is studied. (Author) [pt

  3. Development of the Mo loading apparatus for adsorbing high level 99Mo to PZC and packing in 99mTc generator column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishinuma, Yukio; Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Tuneyuki; Tatenuma, Katsuyoshi; Genka, Tsuguo; Machi, Sueo

    2006-01-01

    For developing the automatic system to produce the PZC- 99m Tc generator column based on (n, gamma) method, we developed and fabricated the proto-type apparatus for semi hot test to prepare and pack PZC adsorbed 99 Mo produced by (n, gamma) method into the generator column; PZC is Mo adsorbent with practical performance for (n, gamma) 99m Tc generator with high 99 Mo adsorption and high 99m Tc elution. For conducting the constant supply and delivery of 99m Tc generator, it is necessary to establish the technology of (n, gamma) method 99m Tc generator using PZC and to develop the fabrication system for 99 Mo loading to PZC and packing the 99m Tc generator column. By the reason, we are developing the Mo loading apparatus. In order to automatically conduct the process of 99 Mo adsorption to PZC and PZC- 99 Mo packing into the generator column, based on one channel system developed by JAERI-KAKEN at 3 years ago, an advanced automatic loading system functioned with 8 channels was developed as FNCA project proceeded by the core with Kaken Co. and JAIF for realizing a mass production of 99m Tc generators, and moreover the Japanese patent regarding the PZC- 99m Tc generator including the automatic loading system of 99 Mo to PZC and making 99m Tc generator columns has already been applied with joint applicants of BATAN and Kaken Co. Regarding the multi-type Mo loading apparatus mentioned above, we set it up in a hot of BATAN at December 2003 year. In this report, we will introduce mainly about the multi-channel automatic loading system of 99 Mo. (author)

  4. Minimizing Molybdenum 99 contamination in Technetium 99m Pertechnetate from the elution of 99Mo/ 99m Tc Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria Ibrahim; Zulkifli Hashim; Bohari Yaacob

    2011-01-01

    Radioisotope Tc-99m is widely used for variety of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. For many commercial applications, it is prepared in a portable type generator. Nuclear Malaysia has been producing a dry type alumina chromatographic column generator utilizing fission Mo-99. This injectable Tc-99m must meet the British Pharmacopeia [1] product specification prior to be apply on patient. This paper provides a method to minimize the up to acceptable level Mo-99 in the final product. Purposely made pertechnetate contaminated with Mo-99 and re-eluate by using old generator. Excellent removal of Mo-99 impurity was achieved and more than 80 % of Tc-99m total activity was recovered. (author)

  5. Synthesis and characterization of zirconium molybdates of 99 Mo/99m Tc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras R, A.; Monroy G, F.; Diaz A, L.V.

    2002-01-01

    The zirconium molybdates are gels which are used as cation exchangers in the production of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators. The synthesis method and the characterization of these gels by thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction is presented with the purpose of finding which the factors are that influence in the efficiency of the 99m Tc production. The results show that the quantity of molecular water contained in gel, is possibly the cause of variations of the efficiencies of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator. (Author)

  6. Synthesis and characterization of zirconium molybdates of {sup 99} Mo/{sup 99m} Tc generators; Sintesis y caracterizacion de molibdatos de zirconio de generadores {sup 99} Mo/{sup 99m} Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras R, A.; Monroy G, F.; Diaz A, L.V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The zirconium molybdates are gels which are used as cation exchangers in the production of {sup 99} Mo/{sup 99m} Tc generators. The synthesis method and the characterization of these gels by thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction is presented with the purpose of finding which the factors are that influence in the efficiency of the {sup 99m} Tc production. The results show that the quantity of molecular water contained in gel, is possibly the cause of variations of the efficiencies of the {sup 99} Mo/{sup 99m} Tc generator. (Author)

  7. Studies of techniques for the post-elution concentration of 99mTc obtained from gel type 99Mo/99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katia Noriko

    2009-01-01

    On average 80% of the radiopharmaceuticals used in Nuclear Medicine are labeled with 99 mTc due to its physical properties and easy attainment through of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generators. The Directory of Radiopharmacy (DIRF) of IPEN-CNEN/SP developed a gel type chromatographic generator of MoZr with 99 Mo produced by 98 Mo(n,γ) 99 Mo reaction that occurs at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor. The gel is composed of zirconium molybdate with elution volume of 12 mL with an activity of 11100 MBq (300 mCi) producing a radioactive concentration of 925 MBq (25 mCi)/mL. The fission generator gives a higher radioactive concentration around 1850 MBq (50 mCi)/mL. The aim of this work is to study a system of post-elution concentration of 99 mTc for the attainment of a high enough radioactive concentration to meet the demands of the market, with a proved quality. Two types of systems of post-elution concentration were developed: the single and the tandem. The most appropriate system for the gel generator of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc, being at the same time sterile and vacuum automated, was the tandem system using Dionex 2.5 cc/QMA cartridges. The gel generator is eluted with 10 mL of solution of 0.1% NaCl and the pertechnetate anion is retained in the QMA cartridge and further eluted with 4 mL of saline. The process takes no more than 30 minutes. The elution efficiency of the system of concentration was 90 %. At the beginning of 2009 a global crisis in the supply of 99 Mo took place making it necessary the development of alternative technologies for the production of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generators using fission produced 99 Mo and the development of an appropriate method to extend the useful life of this generator. The results of this study showed that the same system developed for the post- concentration of the gel generator can be employed for the fission generator, using the tandem system, giving a concentration factor of 3 for the elution of 99 mTc. (author)

  8. '99Mo/99mTc Generator Based on High Radionuclidic Pure Zirconium Molybdate Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Mostafa, M.; El-Amir, M.A.; El-Absy, M.A.; Mohamed, O.I.; Farag, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    99 Mo / 99 mTc radioisotope generator was prepared using in-situ precipitated zirconium molybdate chromatographic column. Zirconium molybdate gel matrix was synthesized by precipitation of neutron activation molybdenum-99 from its solution after variety purification processes to prevent contamination of the 99m Tc eluate with cross-contaminants. Greeter than 82.7 ± 0.4 % of the generated 99m Tc was immediately and reproducible eluted by passing 10 ml 0.9 % NaCl solution through the 1 g zirconium molybdate- 99 Mo column matrix at a flow rate of 0.5 ml / min and room temperature with high chemical, radionuclide ( ≥ 99.9 % 99m Tc) and radiochemical purity ( ≥ 97.7 % % as 99 mTcO 4 - ) with ph value suitable for medical uses.

  9. Status of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc production development by (n, {gamma}) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kaminaga, Masanori; Ishihara, Masahiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Mutalib, Abdul [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Tangerang (Indonesia); Chakrov, Petr [Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan (INP-NNC-RK), Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2012-03-15

    Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) is one of the most commonly used radioisotopes in the field of nuclear medicine. As one of effective uses of the JMTR, JAEA has a plan to produce {sup 99}Mo by (n, {gamma}) method, a parent nuclide of {sup 99m}Tc. JAEA has performed R and D on production method of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc in JMTR cooperating with foreign organizations and relevant Japanese enterprises under the cooperation programs. In this paper, present status of R and D for production of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc in JMTR under international cooperation is introduced and constructions of the irradiation and PIE facilities at the JMTR site are also described. (author)

  10. A {sup 99m}Tc Generator using PZC for (n,{gamma}) {sup 99}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adang, H G; Mutalib, A; Suparman, I; Hamid,; Purwadi, B; Pancoko, M; Setiowati, S; Yulianti, V; Robertus, D H [Radioisotope Production Center, National Atomic Energy Agency Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    The high performance adsorbent Poly Zirconium Compound (PZC) was produced by Department of Radioisotope, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This compound was developed as an adsorbent for natural Mo (n,{gamma}) {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc Generator. In the present paper, we report the performance of the PZC for a {sup 99m}Tc Generator which was focused on the yield, on elution profile and {sup 99}Mo breakthrough. (author)

  11. Evaluation of 99Mo/99mTc generator experiment using PZC material and irradiated natural molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khongpetch, P.; Chingjit, S.; Dangprasert, M.; Rangsawai, W.; Virawat, N.

    2006-01-01

    Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) is the most widely used radioisotope in nuclear medicine, accounting for more than 80% of all diagnostic nuclear medicine procedure. 99m Tc is almost exclusively produced from the decay of its parent molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo). The present sources of 99 Mo are research reactors by using the (n, γ) nuclear reaction with natural molybdenum, resulting in inexpensive but low specific activity 99 Mo, or by neutron-induced fission of uranium-235, which result in expensive but high specific activity 99 Mo. The technology requirement for processing of 99 Mo from the (n, γ) 'activation method' is rather simple, and is within the reach of most developing countries operating research reactors. In the fission method' the technological and infrastructure requirements are some complex, and possibly can be sustained only by countries with advanced nuclear technology. To overcome these difficulties, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and KAKEN company have developed alternative technology for 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator by using a molybdenum absorbent called Poly Zirconium compound (PZC) and irradiated natural molybdenum. The paper describes experiments for evaluation the performance of PZC as a column packing material for 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator from (n, γ) 99 Mo. (author)

  12. Preparation of clinical-scale 99Mo/99mTc column generator using neutron activated low specific activity 99Mo and nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 as column matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Ram, Ramu; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

    2012-10-01

    Preparation of clinical-scale (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator using (n,γ) activated low specific activity (99)Mo and nanocrystalline γ-Al(2)O(3) as a high capacity sorbent matrix is attempted. Nanocrystalline γ-Al(2)O(3) was synthesized by 'solid state mechanochemical' reaction of aluminum nitrate with ammonium bicarbonate. Experimental parameters were optimized to effectively separate (99m)Tc from (99)Mo using this sorbent as the column matrix. The performance features of a 13 GBq (350 mCi) (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator using this sorbent and (99)Mo produced by (n,γ) route having specific activity 12.9-18.5 GBq/g were evaluated for 10 days. The sorbent possessed the requisite selectivity for (99)Mo and demonstrated a maximum sorption capacity of 200 ± 5mg Mo/g, which is ~10 times higher than that of ordinary acidic alumina. The overall yield of (99m)Tc was >80%, with radionuclidic purity >99.99% and radiochemical purity >99%. The yield of (99m)Tc varied from 7.8 to 2.1 GBq in the eluate for the six days of operation of the generator. The radioactive concentration of (99m)Tc eluted was adequate for the formulation of radiopharmaceuticals. The performance of the generator remained consistent over an extended period of 10 days. The eluted (99m)Tc was suitable for the formulation of (99m)Tc-DMSA and (99m)Tc-EC resulting in high radiolabeling yields (>98%). The effectiveness of γ-Al(2)O(3) as a new generation sorbent in the development of clinically useful (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator using low specific activity (99)Mo and yielding (99m)Tc with adequate radioactive concentration and high purity suitable for formulation of radiopharmaceuticals is demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Benchmark experiment for the cross section of the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,pn)99Mo reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Aikawa, M.; Haba, H.; Otuka, N.

    2016-05-01

    As nuclear medicine community has shown an increasing interest in accelerator produced 99mTc radionuclide, the possible alternative direct production routes for producing 99mTc were investigated intensively. One of these accelerator production routes is based on the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. The cross section of this nuclear reaction was studied by several laboratories earlier but the available data-sets are not in good agreement. For large scale accelerator production of 99mTc based on the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction, a well-defined excitation function is required to optimise the production process effectively. One of our recent publications pointed out that most of the available experimental excitation functions for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction have the same general shape while their amplitudes are different. To confirm the proper amplitude of the excitation function, results of three independent experiments were presented (Takács et al., 2015). In this work we present results of a thick target count rate measurement of the Eγ = 140.5 keV gamma-line from molybdenum irradiated by Ep = 17.9 MeV proton beam, as an integral benchmark experiment, to prove the cross section data reported for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,pn)99Mo reactions in Takács et al. (2015).

  14. {sup 99m}Tc generator preparation using (n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo produced ex-natural molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, So Van [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2003-03-01

    Theoretical assessment on the chromatographic {sup 99m}Tc generator preparation using (n, {gamma}) {sup 99}Mo produced ex-natural molybdenum was carried out. The relationship between the neutron flux for MoO{sub 3} target activation, Mo-content or Mo adsorption capacity of column packing material, {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate concentration and/or {sup 99m}Tc radioactivity of eluate was established. The reasonably lower limit of neutron flux of reactor and Molybdenum content of column packing material were found out to estimate the production of portable chromatographic generators available for nuclear medicine application. The concentration of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate eluate of low {sup 99m}Tc concentration using the column elution technique was also evaluate theoretically and conducted successfully in practice. Three options of {sup 99m}Tc generator using Titanium-Molybdate, Zirconium-Molybdate and Zirconium Oxide as generator column-packing materials were prepared and successfully put into use in nuclear medicine application. (author)

  15. Vandellos 1 Graphite Solubilisation and Activity Determination of 36Cl, 99Tc and 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Alcalá, Marina; Piña Lucas, Gabriel; López Gutiérrez, Jose María; Leganés Nieto, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    During the characterization processes of irradiate graphite performed in the dismantling of the UNGG NPP of Vandellós 1, and as a consequence of the sample treatment carried out for measuring the main radionuclides of interest included in the El Cabril inventory, it was not possible to measure the activity of 99 Tc, 129 I and 36 Cl. Further R&D projects have been developed to solve this issue and finally a proper sample treatment has been accomplished. (author)

  16. Optimization of the 99m Tc generator with hydrotalcite as support of 99 Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda O, N.

    2004-01-01

    In the last years, in the laboratories of the National Institute of Nuclear Investigations (ININ) its have been investigating to the hydrotalcite like a material of support of the 99 Mo with the purpose of developing a new technetium generator. During the development of the investigations it has been demonstrated that when putting in contact to the HTC with an aqueous solution that contains anions of any type, the HTC re hydrate and the structure is regenerated to laminate of the hydrotalcite. If the present anions in the solution are molybdate anions (MoO 4 2- ), these anions passed to be part of the structure of the hydrotalcite (HT-MoO 4 ). These anions can contain, in turn, 99 Mo in their composition ( 99 MoO 4 2- ) and equally they can pass to be part of the structure of the hydrotalcite forming the HT- 99 MoO 4 . When the HT- 99 MoO 4 is packed in a column, the 99m Tc that it takes place when decaying the 99 Mo radioactively can separate the column using aqueous solution of NaCl. This way, in previous studies (Serrano, 2000) it was found that the aqueous solution of NaCl to 0.5% it is the but appropriate for elutriate at the 99m Tc from the column the yield of the elution of the 99m Tc was since high (98%) in the first elution, and the radionuclide contamination caused by the presence of 99 Mo in the eluate it was low ( 4 2- for gram of HTC). These facts, standing out the high capacity of the HTC to retain molybdate ions, they drove from a direct way to investigate the optimization of the generator of 99m Tc, with hydrotalcite like support of the 99 Mo, using 99 Mo of low specific activity. This finishes radioactive material it can be obtained by the irradiation of the 98 Mo (in the chemical form of MoO 3 or (NH 4 ) 2 MoO 4 ), with a flow of thermal neutrons in the nuclear reactor TRIGA Mark lll that one has in the Nuclear Center N abor Carrillo Flores . The technetium generators with alumina like support of the 99 Mo use 99 Mo of high specific activity

  17. Diversification in the Supply Chain of (99)Mo Ensures a Future for (99m)Tc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Cathy S; Schwarz, Sally W

    2014-07-01

    The uncertain availability of (99m)Tc has become a concern for nuclear medicine departments across the globe. An issue for the United States is that currently it is dependent on a supply of (99m)Tc (from (99)Mo) that is derived solely by production outside the United States. Since the United States uses half the world's (99)Mo production, the U.S. (99)Mo supply chain would be greatly enhanced if a producer were located within the United States. The fragility of the old (99)Mo supply chain is being addressed as new facilities are constructed and new processes are developed to produce (99)Mo without highly enriched uranium. The conversion to low-enriched uranium is necessary to minimize the potential misuse of highly enriched uranium in the world for nonpeaceful means. New production facilities, new methods for the production of (99)Mo, and a new generator elution system for the supply of (99m)Tc are currently being pursued. The progress made in all these areas will be discussed, as they all highlight the need to embrace diversity to ensure that we have a robust and reliable supply of (99m)Tc in the future. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  18. Study of the elution 99Mo-99mTc generators produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Over the last years 99m Tc has become a very important asset in modern nuclear medicine, due to the emission of gamma ray of optimal energy (140 keV) and a suitable half-life (6.04 h). A further attribute of 99m Tc is its formation from the decay of 99 Mo and the availability from 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator systems. The most common and practical generator types consist of a chromatographic column packed with aluminium oxide, onto which the highly purified fission product 99 Mo (imported from Canada) is adsorbed in the form of molybdate. 99m Tc is further eluted with saline solution. The objective of this work is to study the performance and the elution profile of 99m Tc from high activity generators in order to decrease molybdenum and aluminium concentration. The experiments involved the use of paper filters and Sep Pak columns and also the changing in the time interval between elutions. 99 Mo breakthrough was measured using a dose calibrator and aluminium by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The best results were achieved using a Sep Pak column containing neutral aluminium oxide. (author)

  19. Preperation and performance of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc chromatographic column generator based on zirconium molybdosilicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, M.; Saber, H.M.; El-Sadek, A.A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Labs. Center; Nassar, M.Y. [Benha Univ. (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.

    2016-08-01

    Zirconium molybdosilicate (ZrMoSi) gel prepared using {sup 99}Mo radiotracer via peroxo route was used as a base material for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc column generator. The {sup 99m}Tc elution yield and {sup 99}Mo breakthrough in the eluate were studied as a function of the pH-value of gel precipitation, gel drying temperature and Zr: Mo: Si molar ratio. Precipitation pH-value of 2, drying temperature of 100 C and Zr: Mo: Si molar ratio of 0.5: 0.5: 1 were found to be the optimum conditions achieving {sup 99m}Tc elution yield of 82% and {sup 99}Mo breakthrough of 1.0 x 10{sup -3}%. The gel prepared with the optimum conditions was characterized by BET surface area and pore size analyzer, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis (TGA and DTA), XRD, XRF and FESEM. Technetium-99m eluted from the optimum ZrMoSi {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator was found to have a high radiochemical purity (98% as {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) and chemical purity meeting criteria of clinical grade.

  20. Optimization of the {sup 99m} Tc generator with hydrotalcite as support of {sup 99} Mo; Optimizacion del generador de {sup 99m} Tc con hidrotalcita como soporte del {sup 99} Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda O, N

    2004-07-01

    In the last years, in the laboratories of the National Institute of Nuclear Investigations (ININ) its have been investigating to the hydrotalcite like a material of support of the {sup 99} Mo with the purpose of developing a new technetium generator. During the development of the investigations it has been demonstrated that when putting in contact to the HTC with an aqueous solution that contains anions of any type, the HTC re hydrate and the structure is regenerated to laminate of the hydrotalcite. If the present anions in the solution are molybdate anions (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), these anions passed to be part of the structure of the hydrotalcite (HT-MoO{sub 4}). These anions can contain, in turn, {sup 99} Mo in their composition ({sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and equally they can pass to be part of the structure of the hydrotalcite forming the HT-{sup 99}MoO{sub 4}. When the HT-{sup 99}MoO{sub 4} is packed in a column, the {sup 99m}Tc that it takes place when decaying the {sup 99}Mo radioactively can separate the column using aqueous solution of NaCl. This way, in previous studies (Serrano, 2000) it was found that the aqueous solution of NaCl to 0.5% it is the but appropriate for elutriate at the {sup 99m}Tc from the column the yield of the elution of the {sup 99m}Tc was since high (98%) in the first elution, and the radionuclide contamination caused by the presence of {sup 99}Mo in the eluate it was low (<0.01%). In this investigation it was also found that the HTC has a high capacity to retain molybdate ions (255.1 mg of ions MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for gram of HTC). These facts, standing out the high capacity of the HTC to retain molybdate ions, they drove from a direct way to investigate the optimization of the generator of {sup 99m}Tc, with hydrotalcite like support of the {sup 99}Mo, using {sup 99}Mo of low specific activity. This finishes radioactive material it can be obtained by the irradiation of the {sup 98}Mo (in the chemical form of MoO{sub 3} or (NH{sub 4

  1. Studies of the effect of irradiation in a nuclear reactor, of targets containing Mo used for the preparation of 99Mo gel, material that constitutes the 99Mo - 99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, Renata Correa

    2004-01-01

    The most used radioisotope in Nuclear Medicine is 99m Tc, obtained in the 99 Mo - 99m Tc generator form. 99 Mo can be produced by several nuclear reactions in Cyclotron and Reactor. The production in Cyclotron is not technically and commercially feasible. The production in Nuclear Reactor can be made in two ways: 235 U fission and 99 Mo (n,γ) 99 Mo reaction. A project aiming the production of 99 Mo by activation of Mo is under way at IPEN, producing a gel type MoZr generator. There are two ways of preparing the gel and the generators: by irradiating MoO 3 and preparing the gel or by the preparation of the gel and further irradiation. This work consists in the study of the irradiation effects in several targets containing Mo for the production of 99 Mo by the 98 Mo (n,γ) 99 Mo reaction and further preparation of the gel for use as a gel type 99 Mo - 99m Tc generator. Three rinds of gel were studied: zirconium, titanium and cerium molybdate, and their morphology, infrared structure and elution yield of 99m Tc were analysed. The best results were achieved with the generators prepared with MoZr post formed gel, with amorphous structure and better elution yields. The pre formed gel induced crystallinity and worst performance of the generators. (author)

  2. 99mTc gel generators based on zirconium molybdate-99Mo: III: Influence of preparatory conditions of zirconium molybdate-99Mo gel on generator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswathy, P.; Sarkar, S.K.; Arjun, G.; Ramamoorthy, N.; Nandy, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of subtle variations on zirconium molybdate- 99 Mo gel preparatory conditions, such as stoichiometry of reactants, pH of gel formation, conditioning of gel granules etc., prior to elution were investigated primarily to arrive at the conditions resulting in high 99m Tc release and minimal 99 Mo breakthrough upon elution with normal saline. Zirconium molybdate- 99 Mo gels were prepared by reacting solutions of Zr and Mo in mole ratios of 0.75-1.5. Both water and normal saline were used for gel disintegration, and the release of 99m Tc and 99 Mo from gel columns into eluates was compared. Sharper elution profile of 99m Tc, but with significantly higher 99 Mo breakthrough (5-8 times), was obtained when water alone was used for disintegration and elution, in comparison to when saline was used. Gels exhibiting optimum characteristics were found to be formed at a pH of 4-5 by reacting [Zr]: [Mo] in the mole ratio of 1.25: 1 and after drying, the product was dispersed into granules by disintegration with normal saline. 99m Tc elution efficiency was found to be ∝ 75% and 99 Mo breakthrough ∝ 0.05%. The elution profile was sharp when a 6 g gel column coupled to a 2 g acidic alumina column (to trap 99 Mo) was eluted with 6-9 ml normal saline. Generators containing upto 23 GBq 99 Mo were prepared, eluted extensively without changing the alumina column and found to provide pertechnetate of good quality, commensurate with hospital radiopharmacy requirements. (orig.)

  3. Quality control studies of {sup 99}Mo used in {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, Daphne S.; Brambilla, Tania P.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: daphnesaid@usp.br, E-mail: taniabrambilla@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mmatsuda@ipen.br, E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    {sup 99m}Tc is the most used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. In Brazil, the {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators are produced exclusively by the Center of Radiopharmacy at IPEN-CNEN/SP, by importing {sup 99}Mo from different suppliers. {sup 99}Mo (t{sub 1/2} = 66 h) is a fission product of {sup 235}U, therefore, it can be accompanied by several radioisotopes that are highly prejudicial for human health, demanding a strict quality control of this product for generators safe use. The European Pharmacopoeia established some parameters and limits that evaluate the quality of the solution of sodium [{sup 99}Mo]molybdate, that is used as raw material for generator's production. The European Pharmacopoeia also recommends some analytical methods to perform these evaluations, however, it has been observed difficulties on the implementation of these methods by the generator's producers. These difficulties are probably related to the lack of practicability of the proposed methods and the extensive list of utilized reagents. In this work some procedures of the European Pharmacopoeia's quality control method for {sup 99}Mo were evaluated. Different types of solid phase exchanger cartridges were tested for retention of {sup 99}Mo in 3 different conditions. Cartridges that presented percentages of retention higher than 90% were also tested for separation of {sup 99}Mo from possible contaminants (Ru e Te). The results shown that solid phase exchanger cartridges that presented percentages of retention of Mo higher than 90% also presented significant percentages of retention of Ru and Te. An alternative method for separation of {sup 99}Mo from {sup 131}I (other contaminant) are also proposed. (author)

  4. Photo-production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc with electron linear accelerator beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagyan, R; Avetisyan, A; Kerobyan, I; Dallakyan, R

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development of a relatively new method for the production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. The method involves the irradiation of natural molybdenum using high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons from the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator located at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhi). The production method has been developed and shown to be successful. The linear electron accelerator at YerPhi was upgraded to allow for significant increases of the beam intensity and spatial density. The LUE50 was also instrumented by a remote control system for ease of operation. We have developed and tested the (99m)Tc extraction from the irradiation of natural MoO3. This paper reports on the optimal conditions of our method of (99)Mo production. We show the success of this method with the production and separation of the first usable amounts of (99m)Tc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A simple and sensitive separation technique of 99Mo and 99mTc from their equilibrium mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadesh Mandal; Ajoy Mandal

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes a simple and inexpensive separation method of 99 Mo from the equilibrium mixture. The liquid-liquid extraction technique has been employed to separate 99 Mo and 99m Tc using triisooctylamine (TIOA). The 99 Mo and 99m Tc were quantitatively separated out in 2 M TIOA with tripled distilled water; 99m Tc was back extracted from TIOA organic phase to aqueous phase by 0.1 M DTPA. The species information or indirect speciation of molybdenum was also established by the extraction profile of the molybdenum. (author)

  6. A novel electrochemical technique for the production of clinical grade 99mTc using (n, γ)99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh; Venkatesh, Meera

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In order to meet the growing demand for 99m Tc and to reduce the reliance on fission-produced 99 Mo, an electrochemical pathway for accessing 99m Tc through the (n, γ) 99 Mo was explored as a back-up measure and to supplement 99m Tc supply for radiopharmaceuticals application. Methods: 99m Tc from an equilibrium mixture of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc was selectively deposited on a platinum cathode in an electrochemical cell by applying optimal voltage and stripped back again into the 0.9% saline solution. The radiochemical and radionuclidic purity of the product were determined using standard techniques. 99m Tc thus obtained was used for labeling standard ligands such as dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and ethylene dicysteine (EC), to ascertain the usability. Results: Selective deposition of 99m Tc on the platinum electrode was achieved at a potential of 5 V over a period of 1 h in NaOH electrobath. The overall yield of 99m Tc was >90%, with >99.99% radionuclidic purity and >99% radiochemical purity. The performance of the generator remained consistent over a period of 10 days. The compatibility of the product in the preparation of 99m Tc-labeled formulations such as 99m Tc-DMSA and 99m Tc-EC was found to be satisfactory in terms of high labeling yields (>98%). Conclusion: A novel and attractive method has been developed to obtain highly concentrated 99m Tc, without using fission-produced 99 Mo.

  7. Study of the viability of hydroxyapatite as matrix of the generator 99 Mo/99m Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar D, I.C.; Badillo A, V.E.; Monroy G, F.

    2004-01-01

    The generator more used in the nuclear medicine it is the generator 99 Mo / 99 Tc. The separation of 99 Mo and 99m Tc in the commercial generator is carried out on a column that contains alumina (Al 2 0 3 ). The adsorbent proposed in this investigation work, the hydroxyapatite, is an insoluble solid considered within of the fixers of anions more important. To evaluate the efficiency of the hydroxyapatite in the separation of the Mo and the Tc they were carried out preliminary tests to know the likeness of the one been accustomed to by the molybdate ions (MoO 4 -2 ) and the pertechnetate ions (Tc0 4 - ) in function of the value of the p H, in a solution of CaCI 2 0.01 M. For the study of the retention of the molybdate ion, it was used the radioisotope Mo-99 fission product, and for the pertechnetate ion it was used the Tc- 99 m radionuclide son of the Mo-99. The obtained results in a solution of CaCl 2 0.01 M to different values of p H of the solution, show that the fixation of the pertechnetate ions (TcO 4 - ) and the fixation of the molybdate ions (MoO 4 -2 ), they present very different behaviors in the hydroxyapatite. The results indicate that the synthetic hydroxyapatite BIO-RAD retains to the molybdate ion to values of lightly acid p H (5-6), being the retention of the pertechnetate practically worthless. (Author)

  8. An embedded system based computer controlled process automation for recovery and purification of 99mTc from (n,γ)99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Anirban; Pal, S.S.; Bhaskar, P.; Kumari, S.; Khare, V.K.; Duttaroy, A.; Garai, M.; Thakur, S.K.; Saha, S.; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Barua, Luna; Das, Sujata Saha; Kumar, U.; Das, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    99 Mo produced 99 mTc (t 1/2 = 6 hr, 140 KeV γ-ray) is the most useful radioisotope for nuclear diagnostics. High specific activity 99 Mo is supplied globally mainly by five old reactors whose routine or unscheduled maintenance shutdown causes supply irregularities that adversely affects patient management in nuclear medicine centres. 99m Tc may also be produced via 98 Mo(n,γ) in a natural MoO 3 target in reactor or by 100 Mo(n,2n) 99 Mo or 100 Mo(p,2n) 99 mTc reaction in cyclotron. To meet the crisis proposals are there to produce 99 Mo by 100 Mo(n,2n) 99 Mo or 99m Tc directly by 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc in a cyclotron. Of the several separation methods of 99 mTc from molybdenum, the most common are adsorption column chromatography, sublimation and liquid-liquid solvent extraction. The conventional methods besides being cumbersome are often hazardous, polluting, require skilled manpower and facilities like fume hood and so are not always practically feasible for hospitals. To address these, VECC and BRIT, Kolkata have collaborated to develop an embedded system based automated 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator from low specific activity 99 Mo using solvent extraction technique, supervised by a PC based GUI. (author)

  9. Progress on the Development of (n,γ)99Mo/99mTc generator, an Alternative of Conventional Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Sig; Choi, Seung Rag; Nam, Seong Su; Park, Ul Jae; Son, Kwang Jae; Choi, Kang Hyuk; Choi, Sun Ju

    2010-01-01

    Even though different types of generators have been developed to extract 99m Tc, most of the generators uses 99 Mo from the fission products as the mother radionuclide of 99m Tc. Recently, the crisis of 99 Mo production becomes one of the international issues as 99m Tc is a dominant diagnostic radionuclide. The shortage of 99m Tc has been predicted in the society for more than 10 years. However, actions to prevent such crisis were slow as the initial investment to construct a new research reactor for the production of 99 Mo is high. Currently, it is expected the shortage of 99m Tc will last at least for more than 5 years. As an alternative to minimize such crisis, a new approach is proposed and studied. In this approach, the mother source of 99m Tc comes not from fission products but from the neutron irradiation of molybdenum oxide. Hence, most of the research reactors, which do not have capability to produce fission molybdenum, (n,f) 99 Mo can produce 99 Mo. The key issue in this approach is the uptake capacity of the generator column for (n, γ) 99 Mo, which has extremely low specific activity compared to (n,f) 99 Mo. Currently, the results from the research activities at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute have shown such approach has enough potential as an alternative of the conventional generator. Hence, the progress of the research is reported in this paper

  10. Current status of production and supply of molybdenum-99 and 99Mo/99mTc generators in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutalib, A.

    2003-01-01

    Production of high-specific activity molybdenum-99 and 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Generators in Indonesia commenced when a new production facility supported by the presence of a 30 MW multipurpose reactor (RSG-GAS) was established in Serpong in 1990. This report describes the current production and supply of molybdenum-99m devoted mainly to fulfill the domestic demands in supplying 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Generators. Recent development on the use of LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) targets for replacing current HEU (High Enriched Uranium) targets in the production of 99 Mo will be reviewed briefly. (author)

  11. Study of the viability of hydroxyapatite as matrix of the generator {sup 99} Mo/{sup 99m} Tc; Estudio de la viabilidad de la hidroxiapatita como matriz del generador {sup 99} Mo/{sup 99m} Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar D, I.C.; Badillo A, V.E. [UAZ, Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas, 98600 Guadalupe, Zacatecas (Mexico); Monroy G, F. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: itzelaguilar@hotmail.com

    2004-07-01

    The generator more used in the nuclear medicine it is the generator {sup 99} Mo / {sup 99} Tc. The separation of {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc in the commercial generator is carried out on a column that contains alumina (Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}). The adsorbent proposed in this investigation work, the hydroxyapatite, is an insoluble solid considered within of the fixers of anions more important. To evaluate the efficiency of the hydroxyapatite in the separation of the Mo and the Tc they were carried out preliminary tests to know the likeness of the one been accustomed to by the molybdate ions (MoO{sub 4}{sup -2}) and the pertechnetate ions (Tc0{sub 4}{sup -}) in function of the value of the p H, in a solution of CaCI{sub 2} 0.01 M. For the study of the retention of the molybdate ion, it was used the radioisotope Mo-99 fission product, and for the pertechnetate ion it was used the Tc- 99 m radionuclide son of the Mo-99. The obtained results in a solution of CaCl{sub 2} 0.01 M to different values of p H of the solution, show that the fixation of the pertechnetate ions (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) and the fixation of the molybdate ions (MoO{sub 4}{sup -2}), they present very different behaviors in the hydroxyapatite. The results indicate that the synthetic hydroxyapatite BIO-RAD retains to the molybdate ion to values of lightly acid p H (5-6), being the retention of the pertechnetate practically worthless. (Author)

  12. Production optimization of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc zirconium molybate gel generators at semi-automatic device: DISIGEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy-Guzman, F., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Rivero Gutierrez, T., E-mail: tonatiuh.rivero@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez Malpica, I.Z.; Hernandez Cortes, S.; Rojas Nava, P.; Vazquez Maldonado, J.C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Norte Lazaro Cardenas 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-01-15

    DISIGEG is a synthesis installation of zirconium {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gels for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator production, which has been designed, built and installed at the ININ. The device consists of a synthesis reactor and five systems controlled via keyboard: (1) raw material access, (2) chemical air stirring, (3) gel dried by air and infrared heating, (4) moisture removal and (5) gel extraction. DISIGEG operation is described and dried condition effects of zirconium {sup 99}Mo- molybdate gels on {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator performance were evaluated as well as some physical-chemical properties of these gels. The results reveal that temperature, time and air flow applied during the drying process directly affects zirconium {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gel generator performance. All gels prepared have a similar chemical structure probably constituted by three-dimensional network, based on zirconium pentagonal bipyramids and molybdenum octahedral. Basic structural variations cause a change in gel porosity and permeability, favouring or inhibiting {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} diffusion into the matrix. The {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} eluates produced by {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc zirconium {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gel generators prepared in DISIGEG, air dried at 80 Degree-Sign C for 5 h and using an air flow of 90 mm, satisfied all the Pharmacopoeias regulations: {sup 99m}Tc yield between 70-75%, {sup 99}Mo breakthrough less than 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}%, radiochemical purities about 97% sterile and pyrogen-free eluates with a pH of 6. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators based on {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gels were synthesized at a semi-automatic device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generator performances depend on synthesis conditions of the zirconium {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} diffusion and yield into generator depends on gel porosity and permeability. Black

  13. Effect of milking efficiency on Tc-99 content of Tc-99m derived from Tc-99m generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnyman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tc-99m obtained by separation from its parent Mo-99 always contains Tc-99 produced by decay of Tc-99m and Mo-99. Factors effecting the Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios are discussed. An HPLC method has been developed to measure the 99 TcO 4- content of sodium pertechnetate from generators with a detection limit of 0.9 ng Tc-99 for a 500 μl/ aliquot of TcO 4- -99m. First eluates of 10 chromatograph-ic generators gave Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios ranging from 3.5-46 ng Tc/mCi Tc-99m measured at the time of milking. The measurements indicate that Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios high enough to cause adverse labelling effects could be found in 'instant pertechnetate' and in the first eluate from Tc-99m generators for the activities normally used in radiopharmaceutical production

  14. Comparative evaluation of different nanostructured metal oxides for preparation of clinically useful 99Mo/99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Ramu; Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    The potential of nanostructured metal oxides such as nanotitania, nanozirconia, nanoalumina and mesoporous alumina, as new generation sorbent materials for preparation of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator has recently been demonstrated. A comparative assessment of such materials is essential for determination of their suitability for preparation of clinically useful generators using (n,γ) 99 Mo. Characteristics which were compared included the sorption capacity, shelf-life of the generator, radioactive concentration and purity of 99m Tc for radiopharmaceutical applications. Mesoporous alumina was identified as the most suitable sorbent for ensuring sustainable production of clinical grade 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators using low specific activity 99 Mo. (author)

  15. Generator of 99m Tc with MnO2 as support of 99 Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados C, F.; Serrano G, J.

    2002-01-01

    The generator of 99m Tc with MnO 2 as support of 99 Mo was studied. By mean of static experiments the retention of 99 Mo in MnO 2 in function of the stirring time and of the p H value of the solution of 99 Mo. It was found that the 99 Mo presents 100% of retention in MnO 2 in the rank of p H 3-11 and the balance was reached before of 10 minutes. In dynamic conditions the retention of 99 Mo in MnO 2 at p H=5 was also higher: 99.72%. The generated 99m Tc can be separated from 99 Mo, adsorbed in MnO 2 packed in the column, using distilled water at p H=5 or NaCl solution at 0.9%. With saline solution the elution yields were greater than 80% and only an aliquot of 5 ml was necessary for obtaining this yield. The better results were obtained when the column was packed with 1 g of MnO 2 . The water and the saline solution were passed through of the column with a flux of 1.25 ml/min. (Author)

  16. Synthesis and irradiation of titanium molybdates used as matrices of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz V, H.; Monroy G, F.

    2005-01-01

    The 99m Tc is the radioisotope but used in nuclear medicine. Commercially it takes place starting from generators of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc, composed by a chromatography column padded of aluminium oxide of aluminum, where it is deposited the 99 Mo, product of the fission of the 235 U adsorbed and eluted, by means of a saline solution, in form of 99m TcO 4 - . The production of 99 Mo as a result of the fission, imposes radiochemical separations that generate significant quantities of radioactive waste of medium activity, and inflict elaborated radiochemical manipulation. Due to this, its have been carried out intense investigations to substitute the 99 Mo fission product, by chemical compounds that produce 99 Mo via the reaction 98 Mo(n, γ) 99 Mo. Presently work intends the use of gels of titanium molybdates like matrices of these generators. Titanium molybdates were synthesized starting from solutions TiCl 3 and ammonium molybdates and it was studied the effect of the final pH of the gels, the concentration of the Ti +3 and the influence of the laundry of these on the acting of generators. The best efficiencies and chemical purity, radiochemical and radionuclides of the gels like matrices of generators 99 Mo/ 99m Tc were gotten with the washed gel, elaborated with the solution of TiCI 3 0.35M, and to a final pH of 5.9 (Author)

  17. The separation of sup(99m)Tc from 99Mo through an aluminium oxide chromatographic columm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imoto, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    The separation of sup(99m)Tc from 99 Mo using the chromatographic method is studied. Alumina is used as adsorbent. The pH values for adsorption of carrier-free 99 Mo on columns filled with ordinary alumina and with that thermically treated at 1000 0 C for five hours, and the separation conditions of sup(99m)Tc using physiologic solution as eluent are determined. The sup(99m)Tc separation yields of both columns are compared and the quality of the products obtained by successive elutions for 10 days is analyzed. (Author) [pt

  18. Evaluation of '9{sup 9}Mo presence in eluates of {sup 99}mTc used in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da presenca de {sup 99}Mo em eluatos de {sup 99m}Tc utilizados em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Bianca da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Tc-99m is used for diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine through SPECT technique. It is obtained by the elution of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators. During the elution process {sup 99}Mo can be extracted becoming a radionuclidic impurity. One of the quality parameters of the eluate is the radionuclidic purity, MBT (molybdenum break through), defined as the ratio between {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc activities in the eluate. The North-American and European pharmacopoeias restrict the {sup 99}Mo content, respectively, in 0.015 e 0.1% and, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the activity ratio at the moment of administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient, should not exceed 0.015%. In Brazil, the control of such parameter is not obliged in official regulations. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the occurrence of {sup 99}Mo in {sup 99m}Tc eluates. It was initially optimized a methodology to determine the activity of {sup 99}Mo in eluate samples. Efficiency curves were obtained for a NaI (Tl) 8'' x 4'' scintillation detector installed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LABMIV-IRD). The methodology has been validated through the measurement of a {sup 99}Mo standard liquid source calibrated at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD). The samples analyzed in this work were gently supplied by 5 Nuclear Medicine Clinics located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The activities of {sup 99}mTc and {sup 99}Mo in those samples have been measured respectively at the clinics and at the LABMIV. By applying a standardized methodology, the ration between the activities were calculated. The results show that 147 out of 174 samples presented {sup 99}Mo activities above the minimum detectable activity of the technique. On the other hand, only 2 out of 147 samples surpassed the MBT limit suggested by the IAEA and have been detected in samples eluted from generators of 750 mCi. In one of the

  19. 99Mo production for using in the nuclear medicine in 99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurenkov, N.V.; Chuvilin, D.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    The review of methods and advanced technologies for obtaining 99 Mo in nuclear reactors is presented. The 99 Mo isotope is used for preparing the 99m Tc generators, widely applied in nuclear medicine. The reactor method for obtaining 99 Mo is based on the 98 Mo(n, γ) 99 Mo radiation capture reaction and 235 U fission reaction under the effect of the 235 U (n, f) 99 Mo reaction. The results of studies on obtaining 99 Mo on the charged particles accelerators, mainly, on the proton beam and under the effect of photonuclear reaction is also described. The data on the 99 Mo real consumption and forecast for its application in different regions of the world from 1994 up to 2006 are presented [ru

  20. Accelerator production of 99mTc with proton beams and enriched 100Mo targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    The direct production of 99m Tc has been developed based upon the use of the 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc reaction (Q= -7.9 MeV), using enriched 100 Mo targets and accelerated protons of 99m Tc yields measured in this work reached 851 ± 77 MBq/μA/h (23.0 ± 3.0 mCi/μA/h) at end-of-bombardment (EOB) in the 22-12 MeV energy region, with 96 Tc (4.35 d) as the only detectable impurity at - accelerators, and by extracting multiple H + beams to bombard a single or an array of enriched 100 Mo targets, this method could provide nearly 851 GBq (23 Ci) of 99m Tc in 1-h bombardments. Because of this large-batch potential, this new method appears to be an effective alternative to the production and distribution of 99 Mo99m Tc generator systems, although it may be limited to daily, regional/local distribution and use. 99m Tc produced in this fashion has high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity, although its specific activity has not been determined. The accelerator-made 99m Tc has been shown to have similar physical and chemical characteristics than 99m Tc eluted from commercial fission-produced 99 Mo99m Tc generators. Technical and logistical factors need further study and analysis but the potential and the expected impact of this new method are clear in the context of the operation of large radionuclide distribution centers as well as for small programs in developing regions. (author)

  1. Influence of the irradiation time on the activity of decay products during the cooling. Case: Mo-98 {yields} Mo-99 {yields} Tc-99m; Influencia del tiempo de irradiacion en la actividad de los productos de decaimiento durante el enfriamiento. Caso: Mo-98 {yields} Mo-99 {yields} Tc-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes J, J.L.; Ruiz C, M.A.; Alanis M, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    In this work the behavior of the activity in the cooling time of Mo-99, Tc-99 and Tc-99m obtained by Neutron activation of natural Mo is described. The analytical development is based on the application of the Laplace transform for resolving the balance equations. (Author)

  2. Study of the elution {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: corain.lopes@uol.com.br; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Over the last years {sup 99m}Tc has become a very important asset in modern nuclear medicine, due to the emission of gamma ray of optimal energy (140 keV) and a suitable half-life (6.04 h). A further attribute of {sup 99m}Tc is its formation from the decay of {sup 99}Mo and the availability from {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator systems. The most common and practical generator types consist of a chromatographic column packed with aluminium oxide, onto which the highly purified fission product {sup 99}Mo (imported from Canada) is adsorbed in the form of molybdate. {sup 99m}Tc is further eluted with saline solution. The objective of this work is to study the performance and the elution profile of {sup 99m}Tc from high activity generators in order to decrease molybdenum and aluminium concentration. The experiments involved the use of paper filters and Sep Pak columns and also the changing in the time interval between elutions. {sup 99}Mo breakthrough was measured using a dose calibrator and aluminium by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The best results were achieved using a Sep Pak column containing neutral aluminium oxide. (author)

  3. Studies on {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc adsorption and elution behaviors using the inorganic sorbent ceric tungstate and conventional organic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; Fattah, Alaa El-Din A. Abdel; Aly, Shorouk M.; Ghamry, Mohamed A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Laboratories Center; El-Sheikh, Ragaa [Zagazig Univ. (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.

    2017-09-01

    Adsorption behavior of {sup 99}Mo(VI) and {sup 99m}Tc(VII) was studied on ceric tungstate (CeW) and compared with the adsorption on the conventional cation and anion exchangers Dowex-50X8 and AG-2X8, respectively. The studies were carried out under static and dynamic conditions. The effect of contact time and pH on the adsorption was investigated under static conditions. High K{sub d}-values for sorption of {sup 99}Mo(VI) on (CeW) were obtained over the investigated pH range. {sup 99m}Tc was adsorbed with much lower K{sub d}-values. The K{sub d}-values were pH dependent. K{sub d}-values of {sup 99}Mo-adsorption on AG-2X8 were lower than those on (CeW) and vice versa for {sup 99m}Tc. Ionic species of both elements were not adsorbed on Dowex-50X8, indicating the absence of cationic species and the adsorption of both elements on AG-2X8 and (CeW) as anionic species. The loading and elution behaviors of {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc on (CeW) were studied using different eluents. {sup 99}Mo remained strongly adsorbed under all conditions whereas {sup 99m}Tc was easily eluted. Adsorption of some fission products, i.e. {sup 95}Zr(IV) and {sup 95}Nb(V), in addition to {sup 123m}Te(IV) and {sup 75}Se(IV), as representatives of their corresponding fission product isotopes, as well as {sup 181}Hf, as probable radioactive contaminant was also studied. Solutions of the ionic species of those metals were loaded in mixtures together with {sup 99}Mo on (CeW) columns. Strong adsorption of those ionic species and {sup 99}Mo on (CeW) was found whereas {sup 99m}Tc was easily eluted. Different eluents were investigated for eluting {sup 99m}Tc from {sup 99}Mo-adsorbed on (CeW).

  4. Synthesis and irradiation of titanium molybdates used as matrices of the {sup 99} Mo/ {sup 99m} Tc generators; Sintesis e irradiacion de molibdatos de titanio utilizados como matrices de los generadores de {sup 99} Mo/ {sup 99m} Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz V, H. [Facultad de Quimica, UAEM 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The {sup 99m} Tc is the radioisotope but used in nuclear medicine. Commercially it takes place starting from generators of {sup 99} Mo/{sup 99m} Tc, composed by a chromatography column padded of aluminium oxide of aluminum, where it is deposited the {sup 99} Mo, product of the fission of the {sup 235} U adsorbed and eluted, by means of a saline solution, in form of {sup 99m} TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. The production of {sup 99} Mo as a result of the fission, imposes radiochemical separations that generate significant quantities of radioactive waste of medium activity, and inflict elaborated radiochemical manipulation. Due to this, its have been carried out intense investigations to substitute the {sup 99} Mo fission product, by chemical compounds that produce {sup 99} Mo via the reaction {sup 98} Mo(n, {gamma}){sup 99} Mo. Presently work intends the use of gels of titanium molybdates like matrices of these generators. Titanium molybdates were synthesized starting from solutions TiCl{sub 3} and ammonium molybdates and it was studied the effect of the final pH of the gels, the concentration of the Ti{sup +3} and the influence of the laundry of these on the acting of generators. The best efficiencies and chemical purity, radiochemical and radionuclides of the gels like matrices of generators {sup 99} Mo/{sup 99m} Tc were gotten with the washed gel, elaborated with the solution of TiCI{sub 3} 0.35M, and to a final pH of 5.9 (Author)

  5. Generator of {sup 99m} Tc with MnO{sub 2} as support of {sup 99} Mo; Generador de {sup 99m} Tc con MnO{sub 2} como soporte del {sup 99}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados C, F.; Serrano G, J. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The generator of {sup 99m} Tc with MnO{sub 2} as support of {sup 99} Mo was studied. By mean of static experiments the retention of {sup 99} Mo in MnO{sub 2} in function of the stirring time and of the p H value of the solution of {sup 99} Mo. It was found that the {sup 99} Mo presents 100% of retention in MnO{sub 2} in the rank of p H 3-11 and the balance was reached before of 10 minutes. In dynamic conditions the retention of {sup 99} Mo in MnO{sub 2} at p H=5 was also higher: 99.72%. The generated {sup 99m} Tc can be separated from {sup 99} Mo, adsorbed in MnO{sub 2} packed in the column, using distilled water at p H=5 or NaCl solution at 0.9%. With saline solution the elution yields were greater than 80% and only an aliquot of 5 ml was necessary for obtaining this yield. The better results were obtained when the column was packed with 1 g of MnO{sub 2}. The water and the saline solution were passed through of the column with a flux of 1.25 ml/min. (Author)

  6. Influence of the electrolyte in the fixation of {sup 99} Mo in hydroxyapatite as matrix of the {sup 99} Mo/ {sup 99m} Tc generator; Influencia del electrolito en la fijacion de {sup 99} Mo en hidroxiapatita coma matriz del generador {sup 99} Mo/ {sup 99m} Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez G, S.; Badillo A, V.E. [UAZ, Zacatecas (Mexico); Monroy G, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: s_vazgro@hotmail.com

    2005-07-01

    The more used isotope at the moment in the services of nuclear medicine in the world is the technetium-99m. The {sup 99m} Tc emitts gamma rays of 141 keV and it semi disintegration period is of six hours, given it short half life, to produce it is necessary to order generators that are systems that allow to separate periodically at the {sup 99m}Tc of the {sup 99} Mo by means of chromatographic techniques. In this work it is sought to evaluate the use of the hydroxyapatite, to separate molybdates {sup 99} MoO{sub 4}{sup 2} of pertechnetates {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and to be able to determine if it is feasible their use for to build generators of {sup 99m} Tc. With this purpose preliminary tests to know the likeness of the hydroxyapatite for the molybdates in function of the pH value, in different solutions were carried out: one of NaCl 0.9%, NaCl 2% and CaCl{sub 2} 0.01 M. The obtained results in a NaCl 0.9% solution and at to 2% to different pH values of the solution, shows that the fixation of the molybdate ions (MoO{sub 4}{sup -2}) it is worthless to basic pH values of (9-11), as long as in solution of CaCI{sub 2} 0.01 M show a considerable retention of molybdate ions. (Author)

  7. Separation of sup(99m)Tc from 99MoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomicic, M.

    1977-07-01

    At the present time sup(99m)Tc is widely used in nuclear medicine and its uses are increasing. It can be produced by various methods, and of those most frequently used today two have special features making them particularly applicable to the large-scale production of instant sup(99m)Tc - these are solvent extraction with methyl-ethyl-ketone and the sublimation methods. This report presents a bibliographic review of these methods, their main perfomance parameters, and experience obtained from the development and operation of a sublimation generator. Separation of sup(99m)Tc from irradiated MoO 3 was carried out with high yields (75-95%) after multiple repetition of the separation process with molybdenum trioxide heated for half an hour at a maximum temperature of 850-890 deg C in an air flow. The activity ratio of molybdenum in the separated sup(99m)Tc was of the order of 4 x 10 -5 . (author)

  8. Silica-gel modified with zirconium oxide as a novel 99Mo adsorbent 99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, H.; Mollarazi, E.; Abbasi, H.

    2010-01-01

    A new 99 Mo adsorbent has been prepared with modified silica gel with zirconium oxide (SiO 2 /ZrO 2 :Na 2 MoO 4 ) and used in technetium-99m generator. The adsorption behaviors of 99 Mo in the form of molybdate and 99m Tc in the form of pertechnetate on the new adsorbent was investigated showed that the adsorption capacity of molybdate on this generator was considerably higher than the usual generator with alumina column. Coating zirconium oxide on the surface of silica gel resulted in higher 99 Mo adsorption of this compound. 99m Tc is eluted with 0.9% NaCl, and the radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purities of the eluate were checked. This generator has a great potential as compared to the traditional alumina generators.

  9. Influence of the electrolyte in the fixation of 99 Mo in hydroxyapatite as matrix of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez G, S.; Badillo A, V.E.; Monroy G, F.

    2005-01-01

    The more used isotope at the moment in the services of nuclear medicine in the world is the technetium-99m. The 99m Tc emitts gamma rays of 141 keV and it semi disintegration period is of six hours, given it short half life, to produce it is necessary to order generators that are systems that allow to separate periodically at the 99m Tc of the 99 Mo by means of chromatographic techniques. In this work it is sought to evaluate the use of the hydroxyapatite, to separate molybdates 99 MoO 4 2 of pertechnetates 99m TcO 4 - and to be able to determine if it is feasible their use for to build generators of 99m Tc. With this purpose preliminary tests to know the likeness of the hydroxyapatite for the molybdates in function of the pH value, in different solutions were carried out: one of NaCl 0.9%, NaCl 2% and CaCl 2 0.01 M. The obtained results in a NaCl 0.9% solution and at to 2% to different pH values of the solution, shows that the fixation of the molybdate ions (MoO 4 -2 ) it is worthless to basic pH values of (9-11), as long as in solution of CaCI 2 0.01 M show a considerable retention of molybdate ions. (Author)

  10. Problems in clinical practice of domestic supply of 99Mo/99mTc. The direction and problem of stable supply chain of 99Mo in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tomio

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of supply of 99 Mo caused by trouble of old nuclear reactors in Canada and Europe caused international problem in the field of nuclear medicine, which has not been completely resolved yet. Because all of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator in Japan has been imported, Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) suggested the necessity of establishment of stable supply chain of 99 Mo ( 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator). According this suggestion, an ad hoc committee appointed to consider the stable supply chain, which consisted of persons concerned with industry, academic society, Japan Isotope Association, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology-Japan (MEXT), Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) et al., evaluated and compared several ways of production and purification of 99 Mo from the view point of technological maturity, regulation compatibility, economic suitability, and stability for supply. In this review, the summary of the committee report is introduced. For short term strategy, we need to keep the variable import routes for 99 Mo. As a mid-term goal, we need to establish the supply chain inside Japan as a conclusion of the committee report but it seems to be not easy for utility of nuclear reactor after nuclear accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The development of the method for 99 Mo/ 99m Tc production using accelerator is also expected for the establishment of stable supply chain. (author)

  11. Influence of the irradiation time on the activity of decay products during the cooling. Case: Mo-98 → Mo-99Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes J, J.L.; Ruiz C, M.A.; Alanis M, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the behavior of the activity in the cooling time of Mo-99, Tc-99 and Tc-99m obtained by Neutron activation of natural Mo is described. The analytical development is based on the application of the Laplace transform for resolving the balance equations. (Author)

  12. The Use of Sodium Hypochlorite Solution for (n,γ99Mo/99mTc Generator Based on Zirconium-Based Material (ZBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Saptiama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The many problems in preparing fission product 99Mo led into this work to develop 99Mo/99mTc generator using neutron-irradiated natural MoO3 targets and, more specifically, to develop a zirconium-based material (ZBM for chromatography columns that have an adsorption capacity of more than 100 mg Mo/g ZBM. This paper reports our recent experiments in the use of sodium hypochlorite solution of various concentrations to improve the yield of 99mTc in performance of (n,γ99Mo/99mTc generators based on the ZBM. The synthesized ZBM was coated with tetraethyl orthosilicate for improving the hardness of the material. The adsorption of [99Mo]molybdate into ZBM was carried out by reacting ZBM into [99Mo]molybdate solution at 90°C to form ZBM-[99Mo] molybdate. ZBM-[99Mo]molybdate was then packed into generator column, then eluted with 10 × 1 mL of saline followed by 1 × 5 mL of NaOCl solution. The NaOCl solution concentrations used were 0.5%; 1%; 3%; and 5% for each column, respectively. This study resulted in a ZBM which has a 99Mo adsorption capacity of 167.5 ± 3.4 mgMo/g ZBM, as well as in a yield eluate of 99mTc of up to 70%, and the find that the optimum NaOCl concentration was 3%. The use of sodium hypochlorite solution affected 99Mo breakthrough. The higher sodium hypochlorite concentration used, the more 99Mo breaktrough exist on 99mTc eluate.

  13. The risk analysis used to manufacture 99Mo/99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fano Machín, Yoiz; Alberti Ramírez, Alejandro; Gamboa Marrero, Regla; Suárez Beyríes, Karina; Cruz Morales, Amed

    2016-01-01

    In this work the steps to be followed for the risk analysis in the process of production of 99 Mo / 99m Tc generators in CENTIS, using the methodology of analysis of modes and effects of failures are collected. The analysis of the type and probability of occurrence of the failures in the process, as well as the impact on the quality of the same and the probability of detection of such failures, were used for the use of techniques used in quality assurance such as: storm Ideas and cause-effect diagram. Scales were established for the determination of severity, probability of occurrence, probability of detection and calculation of the number of risk probabilities. The guidelines were laid down for the future application of this technique, which will establish a decision-making process regarding the risks associated with the production process of 99 Mo / 99m Tc generators. (author)

  14. Preparation and characterization of iron(III) 99Mo-molybdate(VI) gels for the assessment of 99mTc elution performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Mahmoud; Fasih, Tharwat W.; El-Absy, Mohamed A.

    2018-01-01

    New iron(III) 99 Mo-molybdate(VI) gels (Fe 99 Mo) of high Mo content were prepared by the precipitation/filtration method. 99 Mo-MoO 3 dissolved in NaOH was added to aqueous solutions of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 at Mo/Fe mole fractions ∝2.21 and 1.99 with continuous stirring at ambient room temperature. Two different Fe 99 Mo were precipitated from the mixed solutions adjusted at pH 2 and 4.7. The amount of water of hydration increased with the increasing the gel settling time and pH of the mixed solution. The matrices were characterized by radiometric, XRD, SEM, XRF, FT-IR, TGA, and DTA measurements. Small chromatographic columns of 2.0 g Fe 99 Mo containing ≥800 mg Mo tagged with 740 MBq 99 Mo were eluted with 5 mL saline solution. Highly reproducible 99m Tc elution indices suitable for preparation of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators were achieved from generator supported with 0.5 g Al 2 O 3 filter. Elution performance of 99m Tc radionuclide was highly dependent on the gel structural properties.

  15. 93Tc and sup(93m)Tc gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkopaev, Yu.N.; Zarubin, P.P.; Kobelev, V.F.; Padalko, V.Yu.; Khrisanfov, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    The sup(93,93m)Tc decay was studied. The spectra of γ-rays accompanying the decay of this nuclide were studied. 93 Tc and sup(93m)Tc were obtained in the (dn)-reaction on 92 Mo. To ensure a more reliable identification of γ-rays, the isotopic composition of the targets, the bombardment time, the energy of the bombarding deuterons (5-12 MeV) and the spectrum processing program were varied. The energies and relative intensities of the γ-rays of the 93 Tc and sup(93m)Tc decay are listed in tables together with data of other investigatxons. The results obtained largely confirm the known data. Four new transitions were added in the sup(93m)Tc spectrum namely 1046.8, 2011.8, 2182.0, and 2861.5 keV. The 2739.0 keV transition was eliminated from the 93 Tc spectrum. The appropriate changes and additions were made in the 93 Tc decay scheme, and three new levels were introduced: 2479.0, 2821.7, and 3025.8 keV. The values of log ft of some levels of 93 Tc were estimated

  16. Study of gels of molybdenum with cerium in the preparation of generators of 99Mo-99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Vanessa; Marczewski, Barbara; Dias, Carla Roberta; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2005-01-01

    99m Tc has ideal nuclear properties for organ imaging in nuclear medicine, and it is obtained from the 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator. Four different types of generators are available: chromatographic that uses 99 Mo from fission of uranium; MEK solvent extraction; Tc 2 O 7 sublimation; gel chromatographic. This work presents the preparation of gel generators of molybdenum with cerium and characterization of the gels: mass ratio between molybdenum and cerium, structure, size of particles and elution percentage of 99m Tc after irradiating the gels. Eight gels were prepared at the same temperature of 50 deg C with concentrations of NaOH of 2 and 4 mol/L, mass ratio of 0.31 and 0.38 and final pH of 3.5 and 4.5. The analysis of the results proved that these gels are not adequate for preparation of the generators of 99 Mo- 99m Tc, since the elution percentages are low, when compared with the gel of molybdenum with zirconium.(author)

  17. Design of an X -band electron linear accelerator dedicated to decentralized 99Mo/99mTc supply: From beam energy selection to yield estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaewoong; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2017-10-01

    The most frequently used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine, 99mTc, is generally obtained by the decay of its parent radionuclide, 99Mo. Recently, concerns have been raised over shortages of 99Mo/99mTc, owing to aging of the research reactors which have been supplying practically all of the global demand for 99Mo in a centralized fashion. In an effort to prevent such 99Mo/99mTc supply disruption and, furthermore, to ameliorate the underlying instability of the centralized 99Mo/99mTc supply chain, we designed an X -band electron linear accelerator which can be distributed over multiple regions, whereby 99Mo/99mTc can be supplied with improved accessibility. The electron beam energy was designed to be 35 MeV, at which an average beam power of 9.1 kW was calculated by the following beam dynamics analysis. Subsequent radioactivity modeling suggests that 11 of the designed electron linear accelerators can realize self-sufficiency of 99Mo/99mTc in Japan.

  18. Design of an X-band electron linear accelerator dedicated to decentralized ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc supply: From beam energy selection to yield estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoong Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The most frequently used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine, ^{99m}Tc, is generally obtained by the decay of its parent radionuclide, ^{99}Mo. Recently, concerns have been raised over shortages of ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc, owing to aging of the research reactors which have been supplying practically all of the global demand for ^{99}Mo in a centralized fashion. In an effort to prevent such ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc supply disruption and, furthermore, to ameliorate the underlying instability of the centralized ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc supply chain, we designed an X-band electron linear accelerator which can be distributed over multiple regions, whereby ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc can be supplied with improved accessibility. The electron beam energy was designed to be 35 MeV, at which an average beam power of 9.1 kW was calculated by the following beam dynamics analysis. Subsequent radioactivity modeling suggests that 11 of the designed electron linear accelerators can realize self-sufficiency of ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc in Japan.

  19. Production of $^{99}$?? and $^{99m}$Tc in the $^{100}$Mo($\\gamma, n$) Photonuclear Reaction at the Electron Accelerator - MT-25 Microtron

    CERN Document Server

    Sabelnikov, A V; Gustova, M V; Dmitriev, S N

    2004-01-01

    $^{99}$Mo was obtained in the $^{100}$Mo($\\gamma, n$) reaction at the electron accelerator - MT-25 microtron of the LNR. A foil of $^{\\rm nat}$Mo(9.6{\\%} $^{100}$Mo) and $^{100}$MoO$_{3}$ powder (100{\\%} ^{100}$Mo) were used as targets. The $^{99}$Mo radiation yield under experimental conditions amounted to 3.2 kBq/$\\mu $A$\\cdot $h$\\cdot $mg of $^{100}$Mo. The $^{99m}$Tc isolation from the target material and other radioactive impurities was realized by means of ion exchange. A possibility of use of the $^{99}$Mo/$^{99m}$Tc generator based on molybdenumcarbonyl was investigated. The radioactive impurity content in the final $^{99m}$Tc preparations did not exceed 10$^{-5}$ Bq/Bq.

  20. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Results from the Second Self-assessment of the Global 99Mo/99mTc Supply Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron

    2014-07-01

    At the request of its member countries, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) examined the issues that led to supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including six principles and supporting recommendations to address those issues. The governments of HLG-MR member countries agreed to implement the policy approach, within three years of its adoption, i.e. by June 2014. In the second mandate of the HLG-MR (2011-2013), the NEA secretariat undertook a review of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply chain, based on input from key supply chain participants, with a focus on full-cost recovery, outage reserve capacity and the governments' role in the market. The results from this first self-assessment were published in Implementation of the HLG-MR Policy Approach: Results from a Self-assessment by the Global 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Supply Chain (NEA, 2013a). In its third mandate (2013-2015), the HLG-MR has continued to evaluate progress towards the implementation of the six policy principles and encourage governments and supply chain participants to take actions for secure supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc in the future. This report provides information from the second self-assessment by supply chain participants and analyses the progress made towards the implementation of the HLG-MR policy approach, compared with the first self-assessment. The focus of the second self-assessment is on all agreed policy principles (Principle 6 calls for periodic reviews of the supply chain and is being implemented by undertaking the self-assessment.) The report is organised as follows: Chapter 2 presents a brief summary of the HLG-MR policy approach, including the six principles that are critical to achieving long-term security of supply, and supporting recommendations. Chapter 3 explains the objectives and methodology of the

  1. Study of gels of molybdenum with cerium in the preparation of generators of 99Mo - 99mTc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Moraes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 99mTc has ideal nuclear properties for organ imaging in nuclear medicine, and it is obtained from the 99Mo-99mTc generator. Four different types of generators are available: chromatographic that uses 99Mo from fission of uranium; MEK solvent extraction; Tc2O7 sublimation; gel chromatographic. This work presents the preparation of gel generators of molybdenum with cerium and characterization of the gels: mass ratio between molybdenum and cerium, structure, size of particles and elution percentage of 99mTc after irradiating the gels. Eight gels were prepared at the same temperature of 50 ºC with concentrations of NaOH of 2 and 4 mol/L, mass ratio of 0.31 and 0.38 and final pH of 3.5 and 4.5. The analysis of the results proved that these gels are not adequate for preparation of the generators of 99Mo-99mTc, since the elution percentages are low, when compared with the gel of molybdenum with zirconium.O 99mTc é o radiofármaco mais utilizado em Medicina Nuclear. Ele é obtido do gerador de 99Mo-99mTc e existem quatro tipos diferentes de geradores: cromatográfico que utiliza 99Mo de fissão; extração por solvente com MKT; sublimação do heptaóxido de tecnécio; cromatográfico tipo gel. Este trabalho apresenta a preparação de geradores tipo gel de molibdênio com cério, a caracterização desses géis com relação à quantidade de molibdênio e de cério, sua estrutura, tamanho das partículas e porcentagem de eluição do 99mTc após o gel ser irradiado. Foram preparados oito géis na temperatura de 50ºC com concentração de NaOH de 2 e 4 mol/L, relação de massa de 0,31 e 0,38 e pH final de 3,5 e 4,5. A análise dos resultados comprovou que esses géis não são adequados para preparação dos geradores de 99Mo-99mTc, já que as porcentagens de eluição são baixas, quando comparadas com o gel de molibdênio com zircônio.

  2. Production of radiopharmaceutical 99mTc using wasteless reactor Zr-Mo gel-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savushkin, I.; Gurko, O.; Ravkova, E.

    2002-01-01

    An original methodology and technological process of the wasteless reactor gel-technology of 99m Tc producing on the basis of centralised Zr-Mo gel-generator have been developed by the Institute of Power Engineering Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus in co-operation with the Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology, Ministry of Health of Belarus. This approach allows 99m Tc to be produced on the basis of MoO 3 with an 99 Mo activity of 3-20 Ci. The technological process of 99m Tc sodium pertechnetate production is remotely controlled and automated. Based on clinical tests performed by the Ministry of Health of Belarus, the clinical application of 99m Tc produced by this technology has been approved. The irradiation conditions of the target, consequence of technological process, technological yield of objective product on the example of operation of one generator, reprocessing and rendering of the wastes are analysed and described. The distinctive features of the technology developed are as follows: (a) Use of native molybdenum as the starting target. (b) Absence of deleterious and toxic impurities from the final product (nitrates, organics, etc.). (c) Application of a modified method of 99m Tc extraction from 99 Mo with the help of the Zr-Mo-gel (that is, application of a true gel, not the powder obtained by gel drying), reducing the number of process stages and simplifying the technology. (d) Easy automation and remote control. (e) Simplicity of design and compactness, opening up wide application fields for the unit. It is suggested that clinical centres should be equipped with centralised high-performance 99m Tc generators. Such centres can supply 99m Tc sodium pertechnetate daily to radioisotope laboratories within the radius of 100 km. Technical and economic calculations show that the centralised gel-generators possess industrial, technical and economic parameters making them superior to small/portable generators based on loading with

  3. Current status of research and development of 99Mo/99mTc generator in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, U.J.; Lee, J.S.; Son, K.J.; Nam, S.S.; Kwak, S.I.; Han, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    To supply 99m Tc in stable and economical manner in Korea, a chromatographic generator has been under development at KAERI since late 1980's. The chromatographic type of technetium generator is preferred in hospital because it is more convenient and less time-restricted for applications. Hence, the demand of 99m Tc in medical applications is keep increasing. In Korea, there are more than 200 gamma cameras including SPECT in hospitals. For these applications, approximately 100 units/week of 99m Tc generators of which annual cost reached 3 million US dollars were required in 2002. Hence, the development of 99m Tc generators and technology of fission 99 Mo processing were started while installing the generator loading facility (GLF) at KAERI. This facility is currently on a trial run for the commercial production of 99m Tc generators and expected to produce more than 200 generators per week in 2004. For the fission 99 Mo production, an annulus U foil target was considered as the LEU target. The designed LEU target is being used for target manufacturing test and accident analysis. The develop gel type 99m Tc generators by using a poly zirconium complex (PZC) and alumina column, KAERI has cooperated with a Japanese company since late 1990's. In 2003, experimental studies for molybdate adsorption capacity and elution characteristics of the PZC samples from three different batches produced by Kaken Co. were carried out. (author)

  4. Determination of 99Mo contamination in a nuclear medicine patient submitted to a diagnostic procedure with 99mTc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Maranhão Dantas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 99mTc is a radionuclide widely used for imaging diagnosis in nuclear medicine. In Brazil it is obtained by elution from 99Mo-99mTc generators supplied by the Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN. The elution is carried out in radiopharmacy laboratories located in hospitals and clinics. Depending of the quality of the generator and conditions of use during the elution process, 99Mo can be extracted from the column of the generator, becoming a radionuclidic impurity of the eluate used for the obtention of the radiopharmaceutical to be administered to the patient. 99Mo emits high-energy photons and beta particles and its presence degrades the quality of the image and unnecessarily increases the radiation dose delivered to the patient. An in-vivo measurement technique was developed to verify the occurrence of internal contamination by 99Mo in nuclear medicine patients. Direct measurements were made in a volunteer who underwent myocardial scintigraphy with 99mTc-sestamibi. The results indicated the presence of internal contamination of the patien by 99Mot. The activity was tracked for several days, and an assessment of the radiation dose from the contaminant 99Mo was made.O 99mTc é um radionuclídeo largamente utilizado em diagnósticos por imagem em medicina nuclear. No Brasil, ele é obtido por eluição de um gerador de 99Mo-99mTc fornecido pelo IPEN. A eluição do gerador é feita nas clínicas onde se realizam os exames. Durante a eluição o 99Mo pode ser carreado da coluna, tornando-se uma impureza radionuclídica do eluato a ser utilizado para a obtenção do radiofármaco administrado ao paciente. O 99Mo emite fótons de alta energia e partículas beta, e sua presença, além de provocar degradação na qualidade da imagem do exame, aumenta desnecessariamente a dose de radiação no paciente. Assim, com o objetivo de verificar a possível ocorrência de contaminação interna por 99Mo em pacientes de medicina nuclear, foi desenvolvida

  5. A draft business plan for the production of PZC 99Mo-99mTc generator in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, Elvira Z.; Cabalfin, Estelita G.; Calix, Virginia S.; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.; Borras, Ma. Teresa L.; Bulos, Adelina dM.

    2007-01-01

    Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) remains as the main workhorse of nuclear medicine in the country. Alone or conjugated with other ligands, it is being used to show the function of major organs and other tissues such as the lung, brain, kidney, liver and bone. It is imported to the country as 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator. These commercial generators use fission molybdenum adsorbed onto alumina column. The FNCA project has shown the feasibility of using a PZC column-reactor 99 Mo generator for commercial applications, citing mainly the cheaper cost of the PZC generator than the imported alumina column-fission 99 Mo generator. PNRI proposes in this draft business plan, the commercial production of PZC generator through the establishment of a facility for the in-house production of 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator. The generator will use PZC coming from Japan as the column material, 99 Mo sourced from neighboring countries and an automatic loading and adsorption machine. Because the PNRI has no local production of the generator, the requirements for successfully venturing into this business activity may differ from the other FNCA members. A careful assessment based on verified data will be needed to refine the business plan. (author)

  6. Actions needed to ensure a reliable supply of 99Mo and 99mTc?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Peykov, P.

    2014-01-01

    The NEA established the High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) to examine the causes of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc supply shortages in 2009. It undertook an economic analysis and determined that lack of economic sustainability in producing reactors was the major cause of the shortages. From that it developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. Since then it has looked at the way the supply chain has implemented these policy principles through initiating a self-assessment process, which revealed uneven application and lack of adherence to the key principle of full cost recovery. As part of the analysis, the NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo/ 99 mTc supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of reduced supply and underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally-consistent manner. This current paper presents the preliminary results from an updated 99 Mo supply and demand forecast, focusing on the potentially critical 2015-2020 period, when two major 99 Mo producers (the NRU reactor in Canada and the OSIRIS reactor in France) are scheduled to cease 99 Mo irradiations. It concludes with a review of the effectiveness of the actions taken to date and indicates where further action is needed. (author)

  7. Environmental behavior and effects of technetium-99 and iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Wildung, R.E.; Cadwell, L.L.; McFadden, K.M.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this program is to define the environmental behavior of 99 Tc and 129 I, two long-lived radioactive by-products of the nuclear fuel cycle that have received little study. The specific objectives are to (1) determine the soil physicochemical and microbiological factors and physiological parameters that govern the mobility and bioavailability of different chemical forms of 99 Tc and 129 I in terrestrial and aquatic environments and (2) validate and measure food web transport in selected field locations

  8. The use of 99Mo/99mTc generators in the analysis of low levels of 99Tc in environmental samples by radiochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; Selnaes, Oe.G.; Lind, B.; Gwynn, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of low levels of 99 Tc in environmental samples presents special challenges, particularly with respect to the selection of an appropriate and practicable chemical yield tracer. Of all the tracers available, 99m Tc eluted from 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators appears to be the most practicable in terms of availability, ease of use and cost. These factors have led to an increase in the use of such generators for the provision of 99m Tc as yield tracer for 99 Tc. For the analysis of low levels ( 3 or kg) of 99 Tc in environmental samples, consideration must be given to the radiochemical purity of the tracer solution with respect to contamination with both 99 Tc and other radionuclides. Due to the variable nature of the extent of the interference from tracer solution to tracer solution, it is unwise to try and establish a correction factor for any single generator. The only practical solution to the problem therefore is to run a 'blank' sample with each batch of samples drawn from a single tracer solution. (LN)

  9. Preparation of a sup(99m) Tc generator for use in nuclear medicine, using calcinated (10000C) alumina as an adsorber for 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasiglia, H.T.; Enoshita, M.

    1980-12-01

    The preparation of 99 sup(m) Tc generator using calcinated (1000 0 C) alumina as adsorber for 99 Mo is described. The adsorption of 99 Mo and the elution of 99 sup(m) Tc were studied. When the generator is autoclaved (30 minutes, 121 0 C), after the loading of 99 Mo, elution yields of 99 sup(m) Tc fall to the half if compared whith generators not autoclaved. However, by autoclaving 99 Mo loading solution and alumina column separately and than preparing the generator, 80% elution yields of 99 sup(m) Tc were obtained. The contamination of the generator by microorganism is avoided when the loading of the 99 Mo is carried out in a hot-cell under UV ligth. The radioactive, radiochemical, chemical and microbiological purity criteria were examined for 99 sup(m) Tc solutions. The generator is considered safe for medical purposes. (Author) [pt

  10. 129I- and 99TcO4-scavengers for low level radioactive waste backfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsley, S.D.; Brady, P.V.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Anderson, H.L.

    1997-03-01

    Minimization of 129 I - and 99 TcO 4 - transport to the biosphere is critical to the success of low level radioactive waste (LLRW) storage facilities. Here we experimentally identify and classify optimal sorbent materials for inclusion in LLRW backfills. For low pH conditions (pH 4-5), Cu-sulfides and possibly imogolite-rich soils provide K d 's (surface-solution partition coefficients) of roughly 10 3 ml g -1 for iodide, and 10 2 ml g -1 for technetium. At near neutral pH, hydrotalcites, Cu-oxides, Cu-sulfides and lignite coal possess K d 's on the order of 10 2 ml g -1 for both iodine and technetium. At high pH (pH > 10), such as might occur in a cementitious LLRW facility, calcium monosulfate aluminate K d 's are calculated to be roughly 10 2 ml g -1 for both iodine and technetium

  11. Present status of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khongpetch, Pranom

    2007-01-01

    Isotop Production Program, Office of Atoms for Peace had produced technetium-99m by MEK extraction of Mo-99 obtained from (n,γ) reaction in TRIGA Mark III reactor and supplied to nuclear medicine centers in Bangkok from 1980 to 1997. Because of the difficulty to meet the increased demand and limitation of reactor operation, the production of technetium-99m was stopped in 1997. Presently, there are 21 nuclear medicine centers with 25 SPECT, 7 gamma camera and 3 PET. All nuclear medicine centers are currently using imported Tc-99m generator. (author)

  12. PENGARUH REGENERASI KOLOM ALUMINA ASAM TERHADAP RECOVERY DAN KUALITAS 99mTc HASIL EKSTRAKSI PELARUT MEK DARI 99Mo HASIL AKTIVASI NEUTRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang H G

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PENGARUH REGENERASI KOLOM ALUMINA ASAM TERHADAP RECOVERY DAN KUALITAS 99mTc HASIL EKSTRAKSI PELARUT MEK DARI 99Mo HASIL AKTIVASI NEUTRON. Melalui kerjasama antara PTRR-BATAN, Chiyoda dan JAEA Jepang telah dilakukan pemurnian 99mTc dari 99Mo hasil aktivasi neutron dengan menggunakan metode kromatografi kolom alumina asam terhadap hasil ekstraksi MEK (Metil Etil Keton. Pemurnian 99mTc dengan metode kolom alumina asam hanya dapat digunakan satu kali dan pemurnian berikutnya harus diganti dengan kolom baru. Hal ini dinilai kurang praktis dan juga memerlukan biaya yang mahal. Dalam penelitian ini dicoba penggunaan kolom alumina asam untuk pemurnian 99mTc lebih dari satu kali dengan melakukan proses regenerasi dengan cara melewatkan larutan HNO3 0,1N setiap kali proses pemurnian selesai. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan larutan 99mTc yang dapat digunakan untuk penandaan kit radiofarmaka. Parameter yang diamati dalam penelitian ini adalah recovery, profil elusi, pH, kemurnian radiokimia dan kemurnian radionuklida (lolosan 99Mo. Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan selama 5 hari telah diperoleh pH ~5, recovery > 60 %, kemurnian radiokimia > 95 % dan lolosan 99Mo tidak terdeteksi. Dari hasil perlakuan terhadap kolom alumina asam dengan larutan HNO3 0,1 N disimpulkan bahwa kolom alumina asam tidak perlu diganti setiap hari. Kata kunci: 99mTc, 99Mo, MEK, kolom alumina asam, kemurnian radiokimia. ABSTRACT Purification of 99mTc from 99Mo activation using acidic alumina column chromatography system from MEK (Methyl Ethyl Keton extraction has been carried out through cooperation between PTRR - BATAN, Chiyoda and JAEA Japan. This method has a limitation that acidic alumina column for purification of 99mTc can be used only once, for the next purification acidic alumina column should be replaced with new column, so it is less practical and also requires high cost. This study aims to obtain a 99mTc solution can be use for labelling of a

  13. Distributed production system for 99mTc-I: System overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.G.; Terry, W.K.; Grover, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99m is the radioisotope of choice for >80% of all nuclear medical imaging procedures today in the United States. There are > 12 million 99m Tc scans performed in the United States per year. Since the development of fission-based radio nuclide generators for 99 Mo, 99m Tc use has grown steadily over the past 20 yr. Despite the widespread demand for 99m Tc in medicine, a reliable and assured supply of the parent, 99 Mo, does not exist. Construction of Maple-1 and -2, two new Canadian isotope production reactors intended to replace the aging National Research Universal (NRU) reactor, has been approved in an agreement among Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, MDS Nordion, and the Canadian government. However, the project is expensive: The anticipated cost of Maple-1 and -2 is $C140 million. Outlays toward this cost have recently driven the price of 99 Mo up by 40%, even though the Canadian 99 Mo production will continue to be heavily subsidized by an interest-free construction loan. Research and development for an accelerator-based facility has been undertaken and is described

  14. Calculation of the transmutation rates of Tc-99, I-129 and Cs-135 in the High Flux Reactor, in the Phenix Reactor and in a light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bultman, J.

    1992-04-01

    Transmutation of long-lived fission products is of interest for the reduction of the possible dose to the population resulting from long-term leakage of nuclear waste from waste disposals. Three isotopes are of special interest: Tc-99, I-129 and Cs-135. Therefore, experiments on transmutation of these isotopes in nuclear reactors are planned. In the present study, the possible transmutation rates and mass reductions are determined for experiments in High Flux Reactor (HFR) located in Petten (Netherlands) and in Phenix (France). Also, rates were determined for a standard Light Water Reactor (LWR). The transmutation rates of the 3 fission products will be much higher in HFR than in Phenix reactor, as both total flux and effective cross sections are higher. For thick targets the effective half lives are approximately 3, 2 and 7 years for Tc-99, I-129 and Cs-135 irradiation respectively in HFR and 22, 16 and 40 years for Tc-99, I-129 and Cs-135 irradiation in Phenix reactor. The transmutation rates in LWR are low. Only the relatively large power of LWR guarantees a large total mass reduction. Especially transmutation of Cs-135 will be very difficult in Phenix and LWR, clearly shown by the very long effective half lives of 40 and 100 years, respectively. (author). 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 7 tabs

  15. Study of gels of molybdenum with cerium in the preparation of generators of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Vanessa; Marczewski, Barbara; Dias, Carla Roberta; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2005-10-15

    {sup 99m} Tc has ideal nuclear properties for organ imaging in nuclear medicine, and it is obtained from the {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m} Tc generator. Four different types of generators are available: chromatographic that uses {sup 99}Mo from fission of uranium; MEK solvent extraction; Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} sublimation; gel chromatographic. This work presents the preparation of gel generators of molybdenum with cerium and characterization of the gels: mass ratio between molybdenum and cerium, structure, size of particles and elution percentage of {sup 99m} Tc after irradiating the gels. Eight gels were prepared at the same temperature of 50 deg C with concentrations of NaOH of 2 and 4 mol/L, mass ratio of 0.31 and 0.38 and final pH of 3.5 and 4.5. The analysis of the results proved that these gels are not adequate for preparation of the generators of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m} Tc, since the elution percentages are low, when compared with the gel of molybdenum with zirconium.(author)

  16. Evaluation of the influence of pH in the efficiency of the {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc at basis of zirconium molybdate; Evaluacion de la influencia de pH en la eficiencia del generador {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc a base de molibdato de zirconio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz A, L V

    2003-07-01

    The {sup 99m}Tc are the radionuclide more used in the nuclear medicine, it is used for diagnostic and therapy, and he is commonly takes place by means of a generator {sup 99} Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, using molybdenum ({sup 99}Mo) product of the fission of the uranium, adsorbed over alumina. This generator imposes the use of high activities you specify of {sup 99} Mo, as well as of complex processes of separation of the one {sup 99} Mo, generating important quantities of radioactive waste of medium activity. As well as, the production of these generators, demands the use of reactors of great capacity that Mexico not it possesses, in such a way that, presently work is carried out a generator of {sup 99} Mo- {sup 99m} Tc, in the one which {sup 99} Mo taken place by the reaction {sup 98} Mo(n, {gamma}) {sup 99} Mo that it was part from a gel to base is used of molybdate and zirconium. It was found, therefore, to produce a generator {sup 99} Mo- {sup 99m}Tc with the help of gels of zirconium and molybdates with the same characteristics of quality and purity that those obtained by the one traditional generator and that it can be carried out under the conditions technical-economics prevailing in Mexico. Specifically, this work has been focused to the study of the effect caused by the variation of the one p H in the solutions of ZrOCl{sub 2} * 8H{sub 2}O (zirconil) and of molybdates, of the relationships molars zirconium : molybdenum (Zr:Mo), as well as the effect of the concentration variation, time of preparation and consequently p H of the ZrOCl{sub 2} * 8H{sub 2}O in the synthesis of the gel zirconium - {sup 99} molybdenum, on the efficiency of the generator and the quantity of {sup 99} Mo presents in the {sup 99m} Tc taken place by this means. The gel used for the production of {sup 99m}Tc will possess a discharge efficiency of recovery of {sup 99m}Tc and a contained first floor of pollutants, in particular smaller to 0.015% of {sup 99} Mo, main source of impurity radionuclide

  17. Preparation and characterization of iron(III) {sup 99}Mo-molybdate(VI) gels for the assessment of {sup 99m}Tc elution performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mahmoud; Fasih, Tharwat W.; El-Absy, Mohamed A. [Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2018-04-01

    New iron(III) {sup 99}Mo-molybdate(VI) gels (Fe{sup 99}Mo) of high Mo content were prepared by the precipitation/filtration method. {sup 99}Mo-MoO{sub 3} dissolved in NaOH was added to aqueous solutions of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} at Mo/Fe mole fractions ∝2.21 and 1.99 with continuous stirring at ambient room temperature. Two different Fe{sup 99}Mo were precipitated from the mixed solutions adjusted at pH 2 and 4.7. The amount of water of hydration increased with the increasing the gel settling time and pH of the mixed solution. The matrices were characterized by radiometric, XRD, SEM, XRF, FT-IR, TGA, and DTA measurements. Small chromatographic columns of 2.0 g Fe{sup 99}Mo containing ≥800 mg Mo tagged with 740 MBq {sup 99}Mo were eluted with 5 mL saline solution. Highly reproducible {sup 99m}Tc elution indices suitable for preparation of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators were achieved from generator supported with 0.5 g Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} filter. Elution performance of {sup 99m}Tc radionuclide was highly dependent on the gel structural properties.

  18. A comparison of rat SPECT images obtained using 99mTc derived from 99Mo produced by an electron accelerator with that from a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galea, R; Ross, C K; Moore, K; Wells, R G; Lockwood, J; Harvey, J T; Isensee, G H

    2013-01-01

    Recent shortages of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) have led to an examination of alternate production methods that could contribute to a more robust supply. An electron accelerator and the photoneutron reaction were used to produce 99 Mo from which technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) is extracted. SPECT images of rat anatomy obtained using the accelerator-produced 99m Tc with those obtained using 99m Tc from a commercial generator were compared. Disks of 100 Mo were irradiated with x-rays produced by a 35 MeV electron beam to generate about 1110 MBq (30 mCi) of 99 Mo per disk. After target dissolution, a NorthStar ARSII unit was used to separate the 99m Tc, which was subsequently used to tag pharmaceuticals suitable for cardiac and bone imaging. SPECT images were acquired for three rats and compared to images for the same three rats obtained using 99m Tc from a standard reactor 99 Mo generator. The efficiency of 99 Mo– 99m Tc separation was typically greater than 90%. This study demonstrated the delivery of 99m Tc from the end of beam to the end user of approximately 30 h. Images obtained using the heart and bone scanning agents using reactor and linac-produced 99m Tc were comparable. High-power electron accelerators are an attractive option for producing 99 Mo on a national scale. (paper)

  19. Decay of 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.; Love, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    Relative intensities for K x-rays and gamma rays emanating from 99 Mo in equilibrium with its 99 Tc* daughter have been measured using several Ge photon detectors. Combining these intensities with an evaluated set of electron-conversion coefficients has provided a set of absolute intensities for the observed gamma rays. The absolute intensity for the dominant 140.5-keV gamma ray in 99 Tc was determined to be 90.7 +- 0.6/100 99 Mo disintegrations for 99 Mo decay in equilibrium with decay of the 99 Tc* daughter

  20. 99mTc by 99Mo produced at the ENEA-FNG facility of 14MeV neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogni, M; Pietropaolo, A; Quintieri, L; Fazio, A; De Felice, P; Pillon, M; Pizzuto, A

    2018-04-01

    A severe supply crisis of 99 Mo, precursor of 99m Tc a diagnostic radionuclide largely used in Nuclear Medicine, occurred in 2008-2009 due to repeated shut-down of the two main (aged) fission reactors. An alternative route for producing 99 Mo by 100 Mo(n,2n) 99 Mo reaction was investigated at ENEA. The experiment, designed according to Monte Carlo simulations performed with the Fluka code, produced 99 Mo by irradiating a natural Molybdenum powdered target with 14MeV neutrons produced at the Frascati Neutron Generator. The 99 Mo specific activity was measured at metrological level by γ-ray spectrometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the influence of pH in the efficiency of the 99Mo-99mTc at basis of zirconium molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz A, L.V.

    2003-01-01

    The 99m Tc are the radionuclide more used in the nuclear medicine, it is used for diagnostic and therapy, and he is commonly takes place by means of a generator 99 Mo- 99m Tc, using molybdenum ( 99 Mo) product of the fission of the uranium, adsorbed over alumina. This generator imposes the use of high activities you specify of 99 Mo, as well as of complex processes of separation of the one 99 Mo, generating important quantities of radioactive waste of medium activity. As well as, the production of these generators, demands the use of reactors of great capacity that Mexico not it possesses, in such a way that, presently work is carried out a generator of 99 Mo- 99m Tc, in the one which 99 Mo taken place by the reaction 98 Mo(n, γ) 99 Mo that it was part from a gel to base is used of molybdate and zirconium. It was found, therefore, to produce a generator 99 Mo- 99m Tc with the help of gels of zirconium and molybdates with the same characteristics of quality and purity that those obtained by the one traditional generator and that it can be carried out under the conditions technical-economics prevailing in Mexico. Specifically, this work has been focused to the study of the effect caused by the variation of the one p H in the solutions of ZrOCl 2 * 8H 2 O (zirconil) and of molybdates, of the relationships molars zirconium : molybdenum (Zr:Mo), as well as the effect of the concentration variation, time of preparation and consequently p H of the ZrOCl 2 * 8H 2 O in the synthesis of the gel zirconium - 99 molybdenum, on the efficiency of the generator and the quantity of 99 Mo presents in the 99m Tc taken place by this means. The gel used for the production of 99m Tc will possess a discharge efficiency of recovery of 99m Tc and a contained first floor of pollutants, in particular smaller to 0.015% of 99 Mo, main source of impurity radionuclide of these generators. The obtained results show that to p H average (3.8 and 4.5), the obtained efficiencies they are the biggest

  2. Measurement and Estimation of the 99Mo Production Yield by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Futoshi; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Sato, Nozomi; Watanabe, Satoshi; Saeki, Hideya; Kawabata, Masako; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Nagai, Yasuki

    2017-11-01

    We, for the first time, measured the yield of 99Mo, the mother nuclide of 99mTc used in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures, produced by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction with accelerator neutrons. The neutrons with a continuous energy spectrum from the thermal energy up to about 40 MeV were provided by the C(d,n) reaction with 40 MeV deuteron beams. It was proved that the 99Mo yield agrees with that estimated by using the latest data on neutrons from the C(d,n) reaction and the evaluated cross section of the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction given in the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library. On the basis of the agreement, a systematic calculation was carried out to search for an optimum condition that enables us to produce as much 99Mo as possible with a good 99Mo/100Mo value from an economical point of view. The calculated 99Mo yield from a 150 g 100MoO3 sample indicated that about 30% of the demand for 99Mo in Japan can be met with a single accelerator capable of 40 MeV, 2 mA deuteron beams. Here, by referring to an existing 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution system we assumed that 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals formed after separating 99mTc from 99Mo can be delivered to hospitals from a radiopharmaceutical company within 6 h. The elution of 99mTc from 99Mo twice a day would meet about 50% of the demand for 99Mo.

  3. A simple and rapid technique for recovery of 99mTc from low specific activity (n,γ)99Mo based on solid-liquid extraction and column chromatography methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Das, Sujata Saha; Barua, Luna

    2010-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method has been developed for the separation of 99m Tc from 99 Mo produced from the neutron activation of 98 Mo by 98 Mo(n,γ) 99 Mo nuclear reaction. The recovery of 99m Tc was performed by solid-liquid extraction based on alumina column chromatography. The overall radiochemical yield for the complete separation of 99m Tc was 85-97% (n=5). The separated Na[ 99m Tc]TcO 4 was of high radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purities. The method can be adopted for routine processing and use of 99m Tc in radiopharmacy operations.

  4. Study of the performance of gels of molybdenum containing several cations for the preparation of 99Mo and 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    99m Tc is the most employed radioisotope in Nuclear Medicine, due to its nuclear characteristics: short half-life (6.04 h); emission of low energy gamma ray (140 keV); no emission of β - ; generated by the radioactive decay of 99 Mo (radioisotope generator system). 99 Mo can be produced in cyclotron or nuclear reactor by the irradiation of 235 U (n, f) 99 Mo or by the 98 Mo (n, γ) 90 Mo reaction. Four different kinds of generators of 99m Tc can be employed, based on the separation techniques: column chromatographic using alumina, with fission 99 Mo; solvent extraction using methylethylketone; sublimation of technetium heptoxide; gel type chromatographic generator, that contains molybdenum. IPEN, aiming the nationalization of the 99m Tc generators production, developed a gel type generator that uses zirconium molybdate. Three types of gels are studied in the work: molybdenum gel with titanium, molybdenum gel with cerium and molybdenum gel with hafnium, that were compared with the molybdenum gel with zirconium. The variables studied in the gel preparation are: mass relation between Mo and the cation, NaOH concentration, temperature and final pH of the product. After the preparation, the gels are analysed in relation to the amount of Mo and the cation, structure and gel particle size. The gel is irradiated and later a generator system is prepared, and the elutions are analysed in order to measure the 99m Tc elution efficiency. The results showed that the molybdenum gel with titanium had the best performance in all analysis. (author)

  5. Performance study of molybdenum gels with titanium for preparation of 99Mo-99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Vanessa; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2005-01-01

    99m Tc is the most used radioisotope in Nuclear Medicine, due to nuclear characteristics. It is obtained by the radioactive decay of 99 Mo, generator of radioisotope system. When 99 Mo is produced by the activation in reactor, the most used technique for the preparation of the generators is the gel type generator, which incorporates 99 Mo to the gel that is insoluble, chemically inert to the solutions and with properties of ion exchange. Several countries had already studied this methodology, as is the case of Vietnam, India, China, Australian. This work has the objective of studying the performance and characterization of molybdenum gels with titanium. Four variables in the preparation of the gel were studied: mass ratio between Mo and Ti (1.80 and 2.25), concentration of NaOH (2 and 4 mol/L), final temperature (25 and 50 deg C) and pH (3.5 and 4.5). The prepared gels were analyzed with relation to the size of its particles, identification of its structure, amount of molybdenum, amount of titanium, profile of elution, pH of the elution, determination of the radioisotopes in the eluate and final radiochemical purity. The final result is a formularization of the gel with the best characteristics for posterior preparation of the generator of 99m Tc- 99 Mo. (author)

  6. Performance tests on column materials for {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sombrito, E Z; Bulos, A D; Tangonan, M C [Chemistry Research Section, Atomic Research Div., Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    To meet the need of producing a {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, different procedures for preparing zirconium molybdate gels were tested. Performance tests were done on molybdate gel columns prepared using the procedures developed by Vietnam and China, and recently, on a polyzirconium compound (PZC) prepared in Japan. The conditions for the batch drying of a large volume of the gel material were studied as well as the conditions in preparing a column to concentrate technetium-99m. The performance of PZC sample as column material for the generator was also evaluated. (author)

  7. 99Mo production by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo using accelerator neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Nozomi; Kawabata, Masako; Nagai, Yasuki; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Saeki, Hideya; Motoishi, Shoji; Kin, Tadahiro; Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Takakura, Kosuke; Minato, Futoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Shintaro

    2013-01-01

    We proposed a new route to produce a medical radioisotope 99 Mo by the 100 Mo(n,2n) 99 Mo reaction using accelerator neutrons. A high-quality 99 Mo with a minimum level of radioactive waste can be obtained by the proposed reaction. The decay product of 99 Mo, 99m Tc, is separated from 99 Mo by the sublimation method. The proposed route could bring a major breakthrough in the solution of ensuring a constant and reliable supply of 99 Mo. (author)

  8. Development and utilization of the inorganic polymer materials for {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator based on (n, gamma) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kosuke; Ishikawa, Koji; Terunuma, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshio; Tatenuma, Katsuyoshi [KAKEN Co., Mito, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    A molybdenum (Mo) adsorbent called PZC (Poly Zirconium Compound) with high efficiency of Mo adsorption has been developed in order to generate {sup 99m}Tc from {sup 99}Mo produced from natural Mo by (n, gamma) method. The {sup 99m}Tc generator using PZC has cleared mostly the technical subjects. By the results of many experiments, cold and hot test with {sup 99}Mo activity from low level (10{sup 5} Bq) to high level (10{sup 10} Bq), it has been confirmed that the PZC method can be practically applied for the (n, gamma) {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator. From the reasons that PZC has the ability and many merits such as high adsorption capacity (>250 mg-Mo/g-PZC) of Mo, high elution yield (av. 80%) of {sup 99m}Tc, the low breakthrough (<0.05 kBq-{sup 99m}Mo/MBq-{sup 99m}Tc) of {sup 99}Mo and others, the current (n, fission) {sup 99m}Tc generator utilizing {sup 99}Mo produced from enriched uranium will be taken the place by PZC method. In this paper, the practicability of PZC and a newly developed functional material PTC(Poly Titanium Compound) as the (n, gamma) {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator, and an ability of PZC as the {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator will be shown. (author)

  9. New measurement of excitation functions for (p,x) reactions on Mo-nat with special regard to the formation of Tc-95m, Tc96m+g, Tc-99m and Mo-99

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Pruszynski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2010), s. 2355-2365 ISSN 0969-8043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Cross-sections * Tc-99m * Mo-99 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.999, year: 2010

  10. Design of a type - a transport package for 99Mo-99mTc Coltech generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothalkar, Chetan; Suryanarayana, G.V.; Dey, A.C.; Sachdev, S.S.; Choughule, N.; Murali, S.

    2012-01-01

    BRIT is launching a new product called 99 Mo- 99m Tc Coltech generator. The Coltech generator is a devise designed for the transport of 99 Mo radioisotope adsorbed on the acidic alumina in a sealed glass column (max dimensions: 13 mm diameter, 70 mm height) as the primary containment. At hospital end, 99m Tc, the daughter product of 99 Mo, can be eluted out from the generator using saline. The active column is fitted with a leak proof network of stainless steel needles. The glass column carrying 99 Mo is housed inside a lead shielding having minimum thickness of 50 mm all around, which serves as secondary containment. The shielding is housed inside the ABS shell which acts as tertiary containment, also provides protection to the needles, filters etc. Total weight of the generator is 16 kg. Based on the AERB code SC/TR-1 (being revised), 99 Mo- 99m Tc Coltech generator will be transported in a Type-A transport container. A transport package has been designed by following the code SC/TR-1. Principle design of the package is based on the package for transportation of the similar generator produced by POLATOM, Poland and the package is approved by the Polish regulatory authority. Components are manufactured locally taking care of lndian conditions. The package comprised of a MS drum (HOBBOCK) with tamper proof lockable MS lid and a handle to assist in lifting. For absorbing the shock during transportation, the generator assembly is packed inside the two pieces EPS top and bottom support. The package has been designed for transportation by all modes of transport. Since radioactive material is solid in form and sealed a glass column, it has been designed to sustain a free drop test of 1.2 m, in addition to other tests specified in SC/TR-1. During trial batches upto ∼ 1 Ci of 99 Mo generators were produced, packed in the same Type-A package and supplied to local nuclear medicine center RMC, Mumbai in BRIT vehicle in consultation with AERB. The radiometry of the packages

  11. Chemical and technological investigations to establish the production of 99Mo/sup(99m)Tc-Generators from uranium fission in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munze, R.; El-Bayoumy, S.; Mosaad, K.; Hallaba, E.

    1980-01-01

    Different possibilities to meet the current estimated demand of sup(99m)Tc for medical uses in the Arab Republic of Egypt have been investigated using irradiation and separation experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigation includes the evaluation of the real present irradiation capability of the Egyptian Research Reactor as well as pilot runs suitable technological schemes for target design and chemical processing of irradiated uranium targets. The suitability of the produced 99 Mo for the preparation of 99 Mo/sup(99m)Tc-generators has been confirmed. Separation yield (80%) as well as the radiochemical and radionuclidic purity of the sup(99m)Tc (TcO 4 98%, sup(99m)Tc 99,9%) corresponds to comparable results for similar processes cited in recent literature. The necessary requirements, related to the irradiation capability of the reactor and the demands of the radiochemical facilities, have been derived. The present work is the fruit of three months cooperation between the Agency expert and the Egyptian Counterpart

  12. The preparation of {sup 99m}Tc from {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc using Poly-Zirconium Compound (PZC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laohawilai, S [Isotope Production Div., Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (Thailand)

    1998-10-01

    The process of for providing the {sup 99m}Tc-gel generator followed the protocol that received from Department of Radioisotopes, Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI. Sodium molybdate (molybdenum-99), pH 7 with concentration 20 mg/ml and activity nearly 1 mCi/ml was added into the adsorbent (PZC). The total activity of {sup 99}Mo was about 10 mCi and the heating time was varied from 3-18 hours at 70degC. The properties of the gel were studied for elution profile and elution efficiency. The molybdenum breakthrough in sodium pertechnetate (technetium-99m) was also performed. (author)

  13. A new inorganic adsorbent of (n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo for the practical {sup 99m}Tc generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Y; Nishino, M [Kaken Co., Asahi, Ibaraki (Japan). Functional Materials Inst.; Ishikawa, K; Tatenuma, K; Kurosawa, K; Tanase, M; Yamabayashi, H

    1998-10-01

    Technetium-99m is used most widely in diagnostic nuclear medicine. By the milking procedure, it is normally eluted as the daughter nuclide from {sup 99}Mo adsorbed in an alumina column as a generator. Molybdenum-99 with high specific activity has been produced in large quantities from the fission of irradiated {sup 235}U. However, the production process involves the troublesome handling process of various fission products in the high radiation field and generates highly radioactive and poisonous wastes. To avoid these drawbacks, some gel generators have been proposed. They are of zirconium molybdate, zirconium molybdophosphate or titanium molybdate gel, which are able to be applied to {sup 99}Mo obtained easily by (n, {gamma}) reaction of natural Mo. However, it has become apparent that the gel has been prepared only under certain strict conditions such as concentrations and reaction temperature, and eventually the elution rate of {sup 99m}Tc was unstable because of any influences of the gel preparation conditions. We have developed and reported a new inorganic adsorbent (Polyinorganic Zirconium Compound: PZC) of {sup 99}Mo with a low specific activity obtained by (n, {gamma}) reaction to overcome the problems of gel generators above mentioned. PZC was prepared from ZrCl{sub 4} and isopropyl alcohol. The adsorbed amount of {sup 99}Mo (Mo) to PZC was about 200 mg/g-PZC, and the yield of {sup 99m}Tc was about 80%. And the breakthrough of {sup 99}Mo was less than 0.5%. In this paper, the properties of the improved PZC, performance of generators with {sup 99}Mo loaded from 0.5 to 470 MBq, and a method to reduce the breakthrough of {sup 99}Mo are described. (author)

  14. Solvent extraction technology of 90Mo-sup(99m)Tc system: design and operational considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, O.P.D.; Sewatkar, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The design features of 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc solvent extraction system have been reviewed. An improved semi-automated system has been improvised using the basic equipment of an indigenous unit along with other accessories, and with an added element of radiation protection to handle daily about 300-600 millicurie amounts of reactor-produced very low specific activity 99 Mo. The system has been used routinely for obtaining sup(99m)TcO 4 - - required for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine for the last twelve years. The performance characteristics of this unit with respect to yield and purity of 99 TcO 4 - - consistency of the process, the radiation dose to personnel and related health physics aspects have been evaluated. (author)

  15. Performance study of molybdenum gels with titanium for preparation of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators; Estudo do desempenho de geis de molibdenio com titanio no preparo de geradores de {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Vanessa; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: vmoraes@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    {sup 99m}Tc is the most used radioisotope in Nuclear Medicine, due to nuclear characteristics. It is obtained by the radioactive decay of {sup 99}Mo, generator of radioisotope system. When {sup 99}Mo is produced by the activation in reactor, the most used technique for the preparation of the generators is the gel type generator, which incorporates {sup 99}Mo to the gel that is insoluble, chemically inert to the solutions and with properties of ion exchange. Several countries had already studied this methodology, as is the case of Vietnam, India, China, Australian. This work has the objective of studying the performance and characterization of molybdenum gels with titanium. Four variables in the preparation of the gel were studied: mass ratio between Mo and Ti (1.80 and 2.25), concentration of NaOH (2 and 4 mol/L), final temperature (25 and 50 deg C) and pH (3.5 and 4.5). The prepared gels were analyzed with relation to the size of its particles, identification of its structure, amount of molybdenum, amount of titanium, profile of elution, pH of the elution, determination of the radioisotopes in the eluate and final radiochemical purity. The final result is a formularization of the gel with the best characteristics for posterior preparation of the generator of {sup 99m}Tc-{sup 99}Mo. (author)

  16. In-house cyclotron production of high-purity Tc-99m and Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Zagni, Federico; Corazza, Andrea; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Skliarova, Hanna; Mou, Liliana; Cisternino, Sara; Carturan, Sara; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Uzunov, Nikolay M; Bello, Michele; Alvarez, Carlos Rossi; Esposito, Juan; Duatti, Adriano

    2018-05-30

    In the last years, the technology for producing the important medical radionuclide technetium-99m by cyclotrons has become sufficiently mature to justify its introduction as an alternative source of the starting precursor [ 99m Tc][TcO 4 ] - ubiquitously employed for the production of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals. These technologies make use almost exclusively of the nuclear reaction 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc that allows direct production of Tc-99m. In this study, it is conjectured that this alternative production route will not replace the current supply chain based on the distribution of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, but could become a convenient emergency source of Tc-99m only for in-house hospitals equipped with a conventional, low-energy, medical cyclotron. On this ground, an outline of the essential steps that should be implemented for setting up a hospital radiopharmacy aimed at the occasional production of Tc-99m by a small cyclotron is discussed. These include (1) target production, (2) irradiation conditions, (3) separation/purification procedures, (4) terminal sterilization, (5) quality control, and (6) Mo-100 recovery. To address these issues, a comprehensive technology for cyclotron-production of Tc-99m, developed at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNL-INFN), will be used as a reference example. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Importance of a 99Mo/99mTc generator and a perspective of nuclear medicine in the face of the difficult situation of supply shortage of 99mTc from the view-point of a nuclear medicine specialist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    In this review a list of commercially available 99m Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals was presented, and the significance to use them clinically was described in the face of this difficult situation due to the 99m Tc shortage. The supply history and the chronological change in the sales of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators in Japan were also described. I emphasize the importance of a nationwide spread of dedicated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT equipments, which provide not only a simultaneous acquisition of dual tracers, but also information on both function and morphology. The present issues to address this difficult situation were discussed, referring to the summary of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) workshop held in Paris and the press conference at the 56 th Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) annual meeting held in Toronto. The results of a questionnaire survey conducted in Saitama prefecture suggested the procedures, such as a domestic self-supply of 99 Mo, to resolve the issues related to the shortage. In addition, the ongoing Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) project regarding self-supply of 99 Mo was described. Based on a reliable supply of 99m Tc, the following suggestions to develop nuclear medicine were presented from the viewpoint of a nuclear medicine specialist; development of a brand-new SPECT/CT equipment using semi-conductor, clinical application of new tracers, and reassessment of the existing SPECT studies. (author)

  18. Direct elution of sup(99m)Tc complexes from neutron irradiation produced 99Mo incorporated in a MoCl2-MoBr2 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzerli Valentini, M.T.; Stella, R.; Genova, N.

    1987-01-01

    A novel type of sup(99m)Tc generator, enabling radiopharmaceutical preparation without reductant addition, was prepared and tested. Neutron activated product 99 Mo, in the form of dichloride cluster, was incorporated into inactive molybdenum dichloride-dibromide mixture (MCB) that was left to settle over an activated alumina layer. Direct elution with aqueous ligands such as salicylate or iminodiacetate derivatives in the pH range 6.5-7.5 yielded chemically stable sup(99m)Tc complexes accompanied by small amounts of secondary products (mostly sup(99m)TcO - 4 ). Pentavalent oxidation state in the salicylate complex and tervalent in the iminodiacetate (IDA) and in the N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetate (HIDA) complexes were assigned to the element after comparison with reference complexes. The anion exchange version of reverse-phase HPLC was used to resolve the eluted product mixture. (author)

  19. Performance tests on new chromatographic material for 99Mo-99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, Elvira Z.; Bulos, Adelina D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Technetium-99m continues to be the main workhorse of nuclear medicine in the Philippines. Almost 13TBq of 99m Tc was imported to the country in 2002 supplied as 99m Tc- 99 Mo generators. These generators make use of fission molybdenum adsorbed onto an alumina column. Problems associated with the alumina chromatographic generators arise due to safety and economic issues that would be remedied by gel-type generators using low specific activity reactor-produced molybdenum-99 adsorbed on a high capacity gel column material. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) exerted efforts in this direction by developing a gel-type column, which showed satisfactory molybdenum adsorptive capacity. Likewise, Kaken Co. in Japan in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) developed a dried form of a gel-type polyzirconium compound (PZC). It is a ready-to-use high molybdenum capacity column material for adsorbing reactor-produced molybedum-99. The performance of this material is being tested under the framework of the FNCA project on Research Reactor Utilization. Performance tests on four batches of PZC were performed using fission molybdenum eluted from a 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator. A total of 3.3 GBq 99 Mo was extracted from an alumina column of a commercial generator and mixed with carrier molybdenum solution. About 0.67 GBq was loaded into each of the 12 x 90 mm column. One batch was prepared and distributed in 1999 and tests showed very poor elution yield of 30%. Three recent batches of PZC (2002) gave elution yields of 71% (Range of 69-75). The adsorptive capacity is 99% with about 4% desorption rate. Elution volume is at 5-6 ml. Daily elution for five days gave from 1.6 to 5.5% variability. The tests were performed all at the same time and a trend of improving elution yield and consistency of daily elution yield was observed with the time of testing nearer to the sample preparation date. X-ray diffraction analysis showed an amorphous structure for

  20. Initial generation and separation of 99Mo at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talley, D.G.; Bourcier, S.C.; McDonald, M.J.; Longley, S.W.; Parma, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Medical isotopes play an important role in the medical industry in both the United States and the world. Isotopes such as 99 Tc, 201 Tl, 111 In, and 123 I are utilized in diagnostic imaging studies, while others such as 131 I and 89 Sr are used as therapeutic agents. The particular medical isotope 99m Tc is used in 80% of all nuclear medical procedures in the United States. This isotope is produced from the decay of 99 Mo, which has a 66 hour half-life. The importance of 99m Tc and the fact of its 6 hour half-life indicate the necessity to maintain a constant supply of 99 Mo. The most prominent method for the production of significant quantities of 99 Mo is by fission in highly-enriched uranium loaded targets. This paper describes the work performed at SNL for the production of 99 Mo

  1. Study of different absorbent materials for the preparation of generator systems of 99Mo - 99mTc and 188W-188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Amongst some currently radioisotopes, 99m Tc and 188 Re present adequate decay properties for use in Nuclear Medicine. In the current times the most diagnosis examinations are performed with 99m Tc and 188 Re is one radioisotope of potential use in therapy techniques. The objective of this work consists of determining the capacity of some adsorbent materials for retention of molybdenum and tungsten, aiming the optimization of generator systems of 99 Mo- 99m Tc and 188 W- 188 Re with suitable characteristics for application in Nuclear Medicine. Known amounts, in mass, of molybdenum and tungsten were percolated through different chromatographic columns containing different commercial adsorbent materials such as: PZC (poly-zirconium compound), acid alumina and calcinated alumina used in the routine preparation of 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators at IPEN. The tungsten ( 188 W), as well the PZC used in this project, supplied by Russia and Japan, respectively, through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and used without any previous preparation. Also trace amounts of 99 Mo and 188 W were added to the initial solutions and the generators were assembled. The 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators were then eluted with known volumes of 0.9% NaCl solution every 24 hours whereas the 188 W- 188 Re generators were eluted every 48 hours. The eluted samples were analyzed by Gamma Spectroscopy and later submitted to quality control evaluation. The results showed that the PZC presents superior retention capacity for Mo of 97.50mg Mo/gPZC, higher than in acid and calcinated alumina, however the elution efficiency at lower pHs is not so high. With regards to the experiments carried out with 188 W and alumina, it was verified that the elution efficiency of 188 Re was not reproducible and the retention capacity of W was 90.23mgW/gAl 2 O 3 at pH 7. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the 99Mo contamination in eluates samples generated of 99mTc in a clinic of Recife, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, W.G.; Lima, F.F.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the 99 Mo content in eluates of 99 Mo/ 99 m Tc generators, used in a nuclear medicine service in Recife. To do this, were collected eluates samples from 5 elution of 10 different generators using the attenuation method in own nuclear medicine service which provided routine activimeter CRC-127R model, manufactured by Capintec. The samples were measured, and the activities of 99m Tc and 99 Mo were determined and calculated the MBT (molybdenum break through) for 1 st , 3 rd , 5 th , 7 th and 9 th elution of each generator. It was observed in a sample the presence of molybdenum in the amount near the limit set by the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), 0,15μCi/mCi). A second sample presented good high value, more than double the USP limit. The results obtained demonstrate the possibility of finding 99 Mo in the eluted solution, which reinforces the need to deploy the control test of the molybdenum content in all elution in quality control programs of service nuclear medicine

  3. Direct {sup 99m}Tc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.-J.; Yen, C.-L.; Lo, S.-T.; Chen, K.-T. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lo, J.-M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jmlo@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-03-15

    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +} ion in saline, a significant yield of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical {sup 99m}Tc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, {alpha}-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +}. Retention of bioactivity of the {sup 99m}Tc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test.

  4. Evaluation of fresh and old eluate of 99Mo/99mTc generators used for labeling of different pharmaceutical kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbano, N.; Chinol, M.; Modoni, S.; Guerra, M.

    2005-01-01

    Sixty 99 Mo/ 99m Tc wet column generators, loaded with two different 99 Mo activities, were analyzed in order to assess the quality of their eluates. Each elution was used for labeling of different radiopharmaceuticals, in order to evaluate whether 'risky' elutions, namely those performed just after generator delivery and at 72 hours or more from the last elution, could be conveniently employed when fresh available radioactivity is not enough for the planned labeling or when shipping problems arise, or delay in delivery of a new generator occurs. Radiochemical quality control of all radiopharmaceuticals labeled with these elutions was performed. The elutions differed mainly in 99 Tc ground state ( 99g Tc) and amounts of oxidizing impurities. Radiolabeling procedures, however, were not affected, suggesting that these 'risky' elutions might be appropriately used, in 'emergency' conditions, for labeling radiopharmaceuticals although their radiochemical purity control is recommended prior to patient administration. (author)

  5. Development of fission Mo-99 production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I. and others

    2000-05-01

    Fission Mo-99 is the only parent nuclide of Tc-99m, an extremely useful tool for mdeical diagnosis, with an estimated usage of greater than 80% of nuclear medicine applicatons. HEU and LEU targets to optimize in HANARO irradiation condition suggested and designed for domestic production of fission Mo-99. The optimum process conditions are established in each unit process to meet quality requirements of fission Mo-99 products, and the results of performance test in combined process show Mo separation and purification yield of the above 97%. The concept of Tc generator production process is established, and the result of performance test show Tc production yield of 98.4% in Tc generator procuction process. The drafts is prepared for cooperation of technical cooperation and business investment with foreign country. Evaluation on economic feasibility is accompanied for fission Mo-99 and Tc-99m generator production

  6. Development of fission Mo-99 production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I. and others

    2000-05-01

    Fission Mo-99 is the only parent nuclide of Tc-99m, an extremely useful tool for mdeical diagnosis, with an estimated usage of greater than 80% of nuclear medicine applicatons. HEU and LEU targets to optimize in HANARO irradiation condition suggested and designed for domestic production of fission Mo-99. The optimum process conditions are established in each unit process to meet quality requirements of fission Mo-99 products, and the results of performance test in combined process show Mo separation and purification yield of the above 97%. The concept of Tc generator production process is established, and the result of performance test show Tc production yield of 98.4% in Tc generator procuction process. The drafts is prepared for cooperation of technical cooperation and business investment with foreign country. Evaluation on economic feasibility is accompanied for fission Mo-99 and Tc-99m generator production.

  7. Problems in clinical practice of domestic supply of 99Mo/99mTc. Current status and action plans on domestic production of 99Mo raw materials for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yoshihide

    2012-01-01

    NRU in Canada and HFR in the Netherlands which had been producing the most important medical isotope, 99 Mo, were shut down in 2009-2010. As the production of more than 95% of global 99 Mo supply were performed in only five research reactors in the world including the two reactors mentioned above, these shutdowns resulted in global supply shortage of 99 Mo. Although the medical isotope crisis were alleviated after the two reactors returning to service, all of these five 99 Mo producing reactors are approximately 50 years old. Because the remaining life time of these reactors is not so long, the construction of new reactors or the development of new technologies to produce bulk 99 Mo, such as the neutron activation of 98 Mo in a reactor or charged particle reaction by accelerator, are proposed for the long-term security of supply of 99 Mo. The methods using the molybdenum target lead to much lower specific activity of 99 Mo compared to the production with fission method. The new chemical processing technologies, such as manufacturing 99m Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals from such low specific activity 99 Mo, are required for the development of domestic practical production of 99 Mo. (author)

  8. Evaluation of highly loaded low specific activity 99Mo on alumina column as 99mTc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, M.; Mushtaq, A.

    2010-01-01

    Adsorption behavior of molybdate on acidic alumina was studied at boiling water bath temperature (∼100 deg C). Various parameters affecting the adsorption of molybdenum, such as pH, amount of molybdenum, incubation period, etc., were determined. A 99m Tc generator was prepared by adsorbing low specific activity 99 Mo (150 mg) on 1 g alumina. Elutions were carried out with saline. Performance of the generator such as 99 Mo breakthrough, aluminum contents, pH, elution profile, radiochemical purity, and labeling efficiency of kits were checked. (author)

  9. The method of activity determination of Tc-99m in ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a method of finding the efficiency of sup(99m)Tc activity measurements in the ionization chamber, basing on 99 Mo activity measurements and the activity ratio of sup(99m)Tc to 99 Mo in 99 Mo + sup(99m)Tc solution. The activity of 99 Mo has been determined in 4πβ-γ coincidence system with liquid scintillator in β channel by means of the absolute method of two-stage coincidence. The activity ratio of sup(99m)Tc to 99 Mo has been determined by means of spectrometric method. The 99 Mo and sup(99m)Tc activities have been measured in 99 Mo + sup(99m)Tc generators, and the activity of sup(99m)Tc solution after elution has been measured. It has been shown that sup(99m)Tc activity, determined by means of the chamber method on the basis of the efficiency found, corresponds to the activity determined by means of spectrometric method, and that sup(99m)Tc activity, measured in generator before elution, is equal to the sum of sup(99m)Tc activity eluted and the one remained in generator. (author)

  10. Performance of Tc-99m generator prepared with Mo adsorbent PZC and irradiated nature MoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the technical process of Tc-99m generator prepared with reactor actived Mo-99 and PZC and the performance of the generator was also reported. Two generators were prepared with different batch of PZC and by different technical process. The results show that the adsorption rate was ∼65% and the adsorption efficiency of 99 Mo can be seriously affected by the adsorption process (the temperature, intensity and frequency of shaking and the PZC volume in solution etc.). The elution efficiency was 43-73%. The Mo breakthrough 1.2 - 16% without safe column and its can be decreased to be very low by connecting a hydrate zirconia (HZO) safe column. (author)

  11. Evaluation of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator columns after irradiation with different absorbed doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Mengatti, Jair; Matsuda, Margareth M.N., E-mail: ntfukumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator is widely used in nuclear medicine and it consists of a glass column containing Teflon® strips and alumina in which {sup 99}Mo produced by {sup 235}U fission is adsorbed. The {sup 99}mTcO4- eluate shall meet the sterile and pyrogen free conditions for injectable radiopharmaceuticals as determined by the Good Manufacturing Practices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using gamma radiation in the sterilization of the {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator column and the influence on the elution efficiency. Alumina-containing columns were irradiated with 10, 15, 25 and 50 kGy absorbed doses. Alumina samples and control (non-irradiated) were submitted to X-ray diffraction and the combined use of scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Teflon® samples were evaluated by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray diffractograms and micrographies with elemental analysis showed no significant changes in the crystalline structure of the alumina because it was stable α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. TGA demonstrated that higher doses showed changes in lower temperatures and times than the control material. For DSC the higher the absorbed dose, the greater the polymer chain breakage and crosslinking in the material. The generator system without radioactivity was set up with the irradiated columns and the eluates demonstrated to be sterile and pyrogen free. The effects of different absorbed doses on the generator column, although some reported changes in the materials, demonstrated that the sterilization of the columns by irradiation with gamma rays as an alternative to wet heat sterilization is feasible from a technical and financial point of view. (author)

  12. Direct elution of sup(99m)Tc complexes from neutron irradiation produced /sup 99/Mo incorporated in a MoCl/sub 2/-MoBr/sub 2/ mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganzerli Valentini, M.T.; Stella, R.; Genova, N.

    1987-01-01

    A novel type of sup(99m)Tc generator, enabling radiopharmaceutical preparation without reductant addition, was prepared and tested. Neutron activated product /sup 99/Mo, in the form of dichloride cluster, was incorporated into inactive molybdenum dichloride-dibromide mixture (MCB) that was left to settle over an activated alumina layer. Direct elution with aqueous ligands such as salicylate or iminodiacetate derivatives in the pH range 6.5-7.5 yielded chemically stable sup(99m)Tc complexes accompanied by small amounts of secondary products (mostly sup(99m)TcO/sup -//sub 4/). Pentavalent oxidation state in the salicylate complex and tervalent in the iminodiacetate (IDA) and in the N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetate (HIDA) complexes were assigned to the element after comparison with reference complexes. The anion exchange version of reverse-phase HPLC was used to resolve the eluted product mixture.

  13. Determination of radionuclidic impurities in 99mTceluate from 99Mo/99mTc generator for quality control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    , 89Sr and 90Sr. Radioactive decay for removal of 99mTc, ion exchange and extraction chromatography for removal of 99Mo and 99Tc are effective for separation of interferences. Gamma spectrometry, LSC with alpha/beta discrimination, and Cherenkov counting using LSC are sensitive methods for measurement...... of the impurity radionuclides. The detection limits of this method are well meet the requirement of the quality control according to the limitation of the pharmacopoeia....

  14. Sup(99m)Tc compounds for diagnostic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifka, J.; Budsky, F.

    1980-01-01

    The applications of sup(99m)Tc in nuclear medicine are discussed, such as sodium pertechnetate in thyroid and brain scintigraphy, complex compounds in lungs and liver diao.nosis. Technetium generators are classified according to the method of separating sup(99m)Tc from 99 Mo. Adsorption generators are used, molybdate-99 is adsorbed on an Al 2 O 3 -packed column while pertechnetate-99m is eluted with 0.9% NaCl solution. Also used is continuous pertechnetate-99m extraction with methyl ethyl ketone from 0.5 M potassium molybdate and 2.5 M of potassium carbonate. The manufacture is described of kits for sup(99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals preparation, eg., Diagos I, a gluconate complex, a lyophilisate for sup(99m)Tc-sodium pyrophosphate injections, a diagnostic kit for lung scintiscanning. (H.S.)

  15. A review on the process technology for Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hoh; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Jung, Won Myung; Lee, Kyoo Il; Woo, Moon Sik; Hwang, Doo Sung; Kim, Yun Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    Tc-99m is most frequently used in nuclear medical diagnostics because of its favourable nuclear properties and reasonable prices, and the demand of Tc-99m, is on the increase recently. Mo-99, the parent radionuclide of Tc-99m, is the only source of Tc-99m. This review described overall aspects of process technologies for Mo-99 production. Firstly, the chemical, physical and radioactive properties of Tc-99m, Mo-99 were examined to understand Mo-99 separation process. Also, the technology for Mo-99 production with both the neutron capture and nuclear fission method were examined. But the neutron capture method was scarcely used for large production of Mo-99 because of its low specific activity and high production cost. This review also described mainly process technologies in the nuclear fission method, fabrication and condition for irradiation of targets, transport and dissolution of targets irradiated, separation and purification of Mo-99, etc. Especially, for Mo-99 separation and purification process, the characteristics, merits and demerits of various processes, which have been developed in a few countries, were examined and analyzed. 30 figs., 16 tabs., 60 refs. (Author).

  16. Evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-albumin dilution curve with simultaneous injection of sup(99m)Tc- and 131I-albumins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiko; Kato, Shotaro; Motomura, Masakazu; Kawakita, Seiichi

    1979-01-01

    A critical comparison of radiocardiograms with sup(99m)Tc- and 131 I-albumins was made to determine whether or not sup(99m)Te-albumin can be used as a tracer for measuring blood volume (BV) and cardiac output (CO). Simultaneous injection of both isotopes was given to twenty-two patients to obtain radiocardiograms for each by means of a single scintillation counter with two pulse height analyzers. Such method allows for the determination of the energy levels for both sup(99m)Tc and 131 I. The radiocardiographic pattern was somewhat different between sup(99m)Tc- and 131 I-radiocardiograms: The ratio of left to right peak height was 16% on the average lower in the sup(99m)Tc-radiocardiogram than in the 131 I-one. The reason for the lower ratio is explained by greater absorption of sup(99m)Tc-radioactivity within the soft tissue interposing between the scintillation probe and heart. The values for sup(99m)Tc-derived blood volume were 7.4% on the average larger than those for 131 I-derived blood volume (p less than 0.01), although the correlation was excellent (r = 0.98 p less than 0.01). There was no systemic difference between cardiac output determined by sup(99m)Tc- and 131 I-albumins since the overestimation of blood volume can compensate for the underestimation of CO/BV by sup(99m)Tc-study. In view of its rapid extravasation, sup(99m)Tc-albumin is not so appropriate tracer for accurate measurements of BV and CO/BV, although it may be used for measurement of cardiac output. (author)

  17. Synthesis of the d,I-HM-PAO and formulation of nucleo-equipment for the obtention of {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)-HM-PAO; Sintesis del d,I-HM-PAO y formulacion de nucleo-equipos para la obtencion de {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)-HM-PAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezama C, J; Ferro F, G; Alcazar A, P

    1991-09-15

    Most brain imaging radiopharmaceuticals are conventional hydrophilic compounds that are excluded from entering the normal brain by an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). Under pathologic conditions, the barrier is disrupted and radiotracer concentrates in the leisure for positive identification. {sup 99m} Tc- hexa methyl propylene amine oxime ({sup 99} {sup m} Tc-HM-PAO) is a newer-type lipophilic agent that enter the normal brain through an intact BBB. Studies with this agent offer the promise of measuring cerebral perfusion in the normal and diseased brain. In this paper we present the synthesis and Tc-99m labelling of d,I-HM-PAO. The synthesis of the ligand was carried out by condensation of two molecular equivalents of butanedione monoxime with one molecular equivalent of 1,3 propanediamine provided a bis imine intermediate, which was reduced with sodium borohydride to get the meso and d,I diastereoisomers of HM-PAO. Separation of these was achieved by fractional crystallization. {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO was obtained by stannous ion reduction of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator eluate in the presence of the ligand. Complex radiochemical purity was determined by instant thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography. Finally, we obtained {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO with a high radiochemical yield, in excess of 90%. However, for subsequent clinical studies the preparation has to be done a few minutes before application because our product has a low stability. (Author)

  18. Study of the activation of targets containing Mo for the production of 99Mo by the 98Mo(n,γ)99Mo nuclear reaction and the behaviour of the radionuclidic impurities of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, Renata Correa

    1998-01-01

    The most used radioisotope in Nuclear Medicine is 99m Tc, in the 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator form. 99 Mo can be produced by several nuclear reactions in reactors and cyclotrons. The cyclotron production is not technically and economically viable. The production in the reactor can be done in two different ways: by the fission of 235 U and by 98 Mo(n,γ) 99 Mo reaction. A project for the production of 99 Mo by the activation of Mo and the preparation of gel type generators is under development at the 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares'. In the present work, the radionuclidic impurities produced in the activation of MOO 3 and MoZr gel were evaluated, and these represent the two possible ways of preparing the gel of MoZr. A target of metallic Mo was also studied. The radionuclidic purity of 99m Tc eluted from generators prepared in these ways was also measured and compared with the generators prepared with fission 99 Mo. The results showed that, by all the parameters analysed, the best way of preparing the generator of 99 Mo - 99m Tc is the irradiation of MOO 3 and further preparation of the gel and the generators. (author)

  19. Labeling capability of the eluent of gel-type 99Mo-99mTc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiuduo; Zhang Jingu

    1995-01-01

    The results of more than 7909 imaging of various organs which have been carried out on domestic gel-type 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators in the last seven years are presented. In all the 220 times of determination for the radiochemical purity of a portion of imaging agents, there were 15 times in which the labeling efficiency was lower than 90% and only 3 times in which the radiolabeling failed. In comparison with labeling capability of nuclear fission generators, it is showed that there are no evident differences between the eluent's labeling efficiency of the two kinds of generators

  20. Study of different absorbent materials for the preparation of generator systems of {sup 99}Mo - {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto, E-mail: paulinhacorain@usp.b, E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Amongst some currently radioisotopes, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re present adequate decay properties for use in Nuclear Medicine. In the current times the most diagnosis examinations are performed with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re is one radioisotope of potential use in therapy techniques. The objective of this work consists of determining the capacity of some adsorbent materials for retention of molybdenum and tungsten, aiming the optimization of generator systems of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re with suitable characteristics for application in Nuclear Medicine. Known amounts, in mass, of molybdenum and tungsten were percolated through different chromatographic columns containing different commercial adsorbent materials such as: PZC (poly-zirconium compound), acid alumina and calcinated alumina used in the routine preparation of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators at IPEN. The tungsten ({sup 188}W), as well the PZC used in this project, supplied by Russia and Japan, respectively, through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and used without any previous preparation. Also trace amounts of {sup 99}Mo and {sup 188}W were added to the initial solutions and the generators were assembled. The {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators were then eluted with known volumes of 0.9% NaCl solution every 24 hours whereas the {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generators were eluted every 48 hours. The eluted samples were analyzed by Gamma Spectroscopy and later submitted to quality control evaluation. The results showed that the PZC presents superior retention capacity for Mo of 97.50mg Mo/gPZC, higher than in acid and calcinated alumina, however the elution efficiency at lower pHs is not so high. With regards to the experiments carried out with {sup 188}W and alumina, it was verified that the elution efficiency of {sup 188}Re was not reproducible and the retention capacity of W was 90.23mgW/gAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} at pH 7. (author)

  1. Design and setup of a portable stirring device for transfer and dissolution of {sup 99}Mo applied to the use of a {sup 99m}Tc generator; Diseno e implementacion de un modulo portatil para el traslado y disolucion de Mo-99 aplicado al empleo de un generador de Tc-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Yon [Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Lima (Peru). Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica; Urquizo, Rafael [Universidad Tecnologica del Peru, Lima (Peru). Facultad de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Electronica; Mendoza, Pablo [Direccion de Investigacion y Desarrollo, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru); Rojas, Jorge [Universidad Nacional Mayor San Marcos, Lima (Peru). Facultad de Quimica e Ingenieria Quimica

    2014-07-01

    This work shows the design and implementation of a portable magnetic stirring device for transfer and efficient dissolution of Mo{sub O}3 coupled to a {sup 99m}Tc generator prototype. The development of this equipment will enable an efficient and safe transfer of {sup 99}Mo at a 2 Ci of maximum activity from the nuclear reactor Huarangal to the point of operation of the {sup 99m}Tc generator equipment. This article describes the mechanical design, volume and shielding calculation, the electronics design and the programmable speed control of the stirring system for radioactive samples. (authors).

  2. Feasibility of dual radionuclide brain imaging with I-123 and Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovic, M.; Weber, D.A.; Loncaric, S.; Franceschi, D.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous dual radionuclide brain imaging with 123 I and 99m Tc using photopeak image subtraction techniques or offset photopeak image acquisition. The contribution of the photons from one radionuclide to a second radionuclide's photopeak energy window (crosstalk) was evaluated for SPECT and planar imaging of a brain phantom containing 123 I and 99m Tc for a range of activity levels and distribution properties approximating those in rCBF images of the adult human brain. Crosstalk was evaluated for 10% symmetrical energy windows centered on the 123 I and 99m Tc photopeaks and for 10% energy windows asymmetrically placed to the left and right of the center of the respective photopeaks. It was observed that the centered photopeak windows, 99m Tc crosstalk in the 123 I window is 8.9% of the 99m Tc seen in the 99m Tc window and ranges from 37.5% to 75.0% of the 123 I in the 123 I window. 123 I crosstalk is 37.8% of the 123 I seen in the 123 I window and ranges from 4.4% to 8.9% of the 99m Tc seen in the 99m Tc window. The spatial distribution of a radionuclide's crosstalk photons differs from that observed in the radionuclide's photopeak window. A 99m Tc photopeak window offset to the left does not decrease 123 I crosstalk, and the percentage of 99m Tc scattered photons is significantly increased in the window. Offsetting the 123 I window to the right decreases 99m Tc crosstalk to 9.0% to 17.9% of the 123 I counts, but decreases 123 I sensitivity by 39.9%. Offsetting both photopeak windows to the right decreases the 99m Tc scattered photons in the 99m Tc window, but increases 123 I crosstalk to 17.0% to 33.8% of the 99m Tc counts

  3. Human reliability assessment in a 99Mo/99mTc generator production facility using the standardized plant analysis risk-human (SPAR-H) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Dadashpour Ahangar, Ali; Rahimi, Azin; Davarpanah, Mohammad Reza; Sayyahi, Seyed Soheil; Mohebali, Mehdi

    2018-02-13

    Reducing human error is an important factor for enhancing safety protocols in various industries. Hence, analysis of the likelihood of human error in nuclear industries such as radiopharmaceutical production facilities has become more essential. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to quantify the probability of human errors in a 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator production facility in Iran. First, through expert interviews, the production process of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator was analyzed using hierarchical task analysis (HTA). The standardized plant analysis risk-human (SPAR-H) method was then applied in order to calculate the probability of human error. Twenty tasks were determined using HTA. All of the eight performance shaping factors (PSF S ) were evaluated for the tasks. The mean probability of human error was 0.320. The highest and the lowest probability of human error in the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator production process, related to the 'loading the generator with the molybdenum solution' task and the 'generator elution' task, were 0.858 and 0.059, respectively. Required measures for reducing the human error probability (HEP) were suggested. These measures were derived from the level of PSF S that were evaluated in this study.

  4. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. 2016 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99Mo/99mTc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2016-2021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, Kevin; )

    2016-03-01

    Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using technetium-99m ( 99 mTc) account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures, representing 30-40 million examinations Worldwide every year. Disruptions in the supply chain of these medical isotopes - which have half-lives of 66 hours for molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and only 6 hours for 99m Tc, and thus must be produced continuously - can lead to cancellations or delays in important medical testing services. Supply reliability has been challenged over the past decade due to unexpected shutdowns and extended refurbishment periods at some of the 99 Mo-producing research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have at times created conditions for extended global supply shortages (e.g. 2009-2010). At the request of its member countries, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo supply situation periodically, to highlight periods of potential reduced supply and to underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a 99 Mo supply and demand forecast up to 2030, identifying periods of potential low supply relative to demand. That 2012 forecast was updated with a report in 2014 that focused on the much shorter 2015-2020 period. That report was updated in 2015 with a report, '2015 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2015-2020' (NEA, 2015), which focused on the same period. This report updates the 2015 report, and focuses on the important 2016-2021 period. At the end of 2015, the OSIRIS reactor

  5. Design and setup of a portable stirring device for transfer and dissolution of 99Mo applied to the use of a 99mTc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Yon; Rojas, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This work shows the design and implementation of a portable magnetic stirring device for transfer and efficient dissolution of Mo O 3 coupled to a 99m Tc generator prototype. The development of this equipment will enable an efficient and safe transfer of 99 Mo at a 2 Ci of maximum activity from the nuclear reactor Huarangal to the point of operation of the 99m Tc generator equipment. This article describes the mechanical design, volume and shielding calculation, the electronics design and the programmable speed control of the stirring system for radioactive samples. (authors).

  6. A system for routine production of 99mTc by thermal separation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahm, U.; Helus, F.; Krauss, O.; Baier-Borst, W.

    1976-01-01

    Technetium-99m is one of the most widely used radionuclides in diagnostic medicine, and it is a general opinion that 99m Tc and the radiopharmaceuticals obtained from it will be used for a long time. 99m Tc has convenient physical and biological parameters for clinical applications. 99m Tc is formed by the beta decay from its 99 Mo parent. 99 Mo is produced by neutron irradiation of natural Mo or enriched 98 Mo, or as a fission product of 235 U. A third approach is cyclotron production of 99 Mo by proton bombardment of enriched 100 Mo over 100 Mo(p,pn) 99 Mo reaction. The most common method of separating 99m Tc from its 99 Mo parent is the elution of 99m Tc with normal saline from an aluminum oxide column containing adsorbed 99 Mo. The second method is solvent extraction using methylethylketon. The sublimation method is based on different volatility of MoO 3 and Tc 2 O 7 . Previously the development of a practical sublimation generator has been studied and some of them have been used routinely. As a reactor and cyclotron owner we have examined the possibility of producing our own 99m Tc with the aim of being independent from supplier and transportation problems. We have studied the separation of 99m Tc with the aim of being independent from supplier and transportation problems. We have studied the separation of 99m Tc from MoO 3 by complete distillation of gram amounts of natural MoO 3 or enriched 98 MoO 3 irradiated in reactor. The principle of the described method is based on the complete evaporation of MoO 3 and Tc 2 O 7 oxides and its following fractionated condensation. To realize this idea, two different generator systems for repeated multiple separation were developed and studied. The first based on using a two-oven technique. A quartz apparatus is placed in two ovens which are situated side by side and heated to different temperatures. Sweeping gas carries irradiated 99 MoO 3 from a middle part of the first oven heated to a higher temperature (1100 deg. C

  7. The utilization and performance of poly zirconium chloride (PZC) as chromatographic column for 99mTc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang; Zulkifli Mohd Hashim; Saaban Kassim

    2004-01-01

    We report on the performance test of column 99m Tc generator utilizing poly zirconium chloride as an adsorbent. Natural molybdenum trioxide was irradiated for 2 hrs at a neutron flux of about 1.5 x 10 12 n/cm 2 /s. A total fourteen generators have been prepared from the experiments. Yield of 99m Tc has been 60-93% and measured 99 Mo content in eluates is 0.20-0.44 %. The adsorption efficiency of 99 Mo on PZC column is between 85 - 92 %. The flow rates from the elution are relatively very poor and take about 5 minutes to finish the elution of 1 ml saline. (author)

  8. Study of different adsorbent materials for the preparation of generator systems of 99Mo - 99mTc and 188W-188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain

    2009-01-01

    Amongst some existing radioisotopes, 99m Tc and 188 Re present adequate physical chemical properties for use in Nuclear Medicine in the areas of diagnosis and therapy, respectively. Moreover, these radioisotopes can be distributed to medical centers in the form of generator systems of 99 Mo- 99m Tc and 188 W- 188 Re, allowing autonomy and practicity in use. The objective of this work consists of determining the capacity of some adsorbent materials for retention of molibdenium and tungsten, aiming the optimization of generator systems of 99 Mo- 99 mTc and 188 W- 188 Re with suitable characteristics for application in Nuclear Medicine. Known amounts, in mass, of molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to the loading solutions previously prepared, with values of pH adjusted between 1 and 7, and these were then percolated through different devices containing in its interior alumina, resin or poly-zirconium compound also known as PZC. The elutions were carried out within an interval of time of approximately 24 hours for the generator systems of 99 Mo - 99 mTc and 48 hours for the generator systems of 188 W- 188 Re due to the difference between the half-lives of radionuclides involved in the reactions. The eluted samples from both generator systems containing 99m Tc or 188 Re were submitted to quality control tests aiming to evaluate the radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purity, but no significant contamination for 99 Mo, 188 W, technetium or rhenium in the colloidal states and zirconium were detected in the eluted solutions and in the solutions extracted with saline solution for any value of pH studied. The commercial alumina cartridges known as Acid Sep Pak were more efficient in retaining the molybdenum in the loading solutions when compared with the others commercial retention devices employed. However, when this comparison extends to the chromatographic alumina columns, the use of acid alumina as adsorbent is more efficient when compared to the Acid Sep

  9. Mo-99 supply issues: Status report and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponsard, B.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide supply of 99 Mo relies on a limited number of research reactors and processing facilities. Its production is essential for the nuclear medicine as 99m Tc, obtained from 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, is used in about 80% of the diagnostic nuclear imaging procedures. These applications represent yearly approximately 30 million examinations worldwide. The short half-life's of 99 Mo (66 hours) and its daughter 99m Tc (6 hours) require a regular supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators to hospitals or central radiopharmacies. Currently, there are only five nuclear reactors involved in the production of 99 Mo on industrial scale: NRU (Canada), HFR (Netherlands), BR2 (Belgium), OSIRIS (France) and SAFARI (South Africa). They irradiate highly enriched uranium targets for the production of about 95% of the available 99 Mo by four processing facilities: AECL/MDS NORDION (Canada), COVIDIEN (Netherlands), IRE (Belgium) and NTP (South Africa). However, these ageing reactors are subject to unscheduled shutdowns and longer maintenance periods making the 99 Mo supply chain vulnerable and unreliable. Several severe disruptions have been experienced since the fall 2005 due to the occurrence of problems at different stages of the supply chain: reactor outages, release of activity from processing facilities, recall of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators by the manufacturers, ... It is not expected that the situation will improve significantly in the near future. Therefore, several workshops have been organized in 2009 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Association of Imaging Producers and Equipment Suppliers (AIPES) to define measures that should be taken to secure the 99 Mo supply in the short, medium and long term. This paper summarizes the current status of the 99 Mo supply, discusses the ongoing plans for additional 99 Mo production capacity and outlines the issues for a reliable global supply chain. (author)

  10. Experimental cross section evaluation for innovative 99Mo production via the (α,n) reaction on 96Zr target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupillo, Gaia; Gambaccini, M.; Esposito, J.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N.

    2014-01-01

    The recent crisis of 99 Mo production by nuclear reactors caused an unexpected worldwide 99m Tc shortening, forcing the international scientific community to find alternative production routes for these vital nuclides. One of the possibilities is to replace the current reactor-based method with the accelerator-based one. The aim of this work is the experimental evaluation of the 96 Zr(α,n) 99 Mo reaction, using the well known stacked foil technique with natural Zr targets, in the energy range 33-8 MeV. The results were compared with the published experimental values, finding good agreement in the trend of the cross section but at higher peak value. The results refer to 100% enriched 96 Zr target. The cross section values measured in the different irradiations show excellent agreement and indicate that the ideal energy range for 99 Mo production is 13-25 MeV. In comparison with the literature, there is good agreement in the trend of the cross section but at higher peak value. The 96 Zr(α,n) 99 Mo reaction is an interesting alternative production route of 99 Mo aimed at the realization of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generators. Using enriched 96 Zr as target, 99 Mo is the only radioactive Mo-isotope produced, while using natural Zr as target, the resulting 99 Mo still has an high radioisotopic purity (only the radioactive 93 Mo is co-produced), but a lower specific activity. In both cases no Tc-nuclides are directly produced in target and the high purity 99m Tc results only from the decay of 99 Mo

  11. Conceptual study of 99Mo production in JRR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Akira; Komeda, Masao; Kinase, Masami; Sorita, Takami; Wada, Shigeru

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the production process of 99 Mo, which is parent nuclide of 99m Tc, in JRR-3. 99m Tc is most commonly used as a radiopharmaceutical in the field of nuclear medicine. Currently the supplying of 99 Mo is only dependent on imports from foreign countries, so JAEA is aiming at domestic production of a part of 99 Mo in cooperation with the industrial arena. This report presents the technical study for the production process of 99 Mo by using the neutron radiation method of (n, γ) reaction in JRR-3. (author)

  12. Investigation on the performance of polymer zirconium compound (PZC) for chromatographic Tc-99m generator preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van So

    2004-01-01

    The performance of PZC was investigated for chromatographic Tc-99m generator preparation. Mo-adsorption of PZC in different Mo-solutions and Tc-99m elution of 99 Mo-PZC column were studied. Mo- adsorption capacity of higher than 250mgMo/gPZC and Tc-99m elution yield of higher than 80% were achieved with PZC adsorbent. Mo-99 breakthrough of 0.02% and Molybdenum element breakthrough of around 5μg Mo/ml were found in Tc-99m eluate. A good relationship between the Mo-content of adsorption solution and the Mo-adsorption capacity, adsorption percentage, Mo-breakthrough and Tc-99m elution yield was found. The preparation of PZC based Tc-99m chromatographic generator with 4 gram weight of PZC was successfully conducted. (author)

  13. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. 2015 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99Mo/99mTc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2015-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, Kevin; )

    2015-08-01

    Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures, representing 30-40 million examinations Worldwide every year. Disruptions in the supply chain of these medical isotopes - which have half-lives of 66 hours for molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and only 6 hours for 99m Tc, and thus must be produced continuously - can lead to cancellations or delays in important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has been challenged over the past decade due to unexpected shutdowns and extended refurbishment periods at some of the mostly ageing, 99 Mo-producing research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have at times created conditions for extended global supply shortages (e.g. 2009-2010). At the request of its member countries, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data available from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of potential reduced supply and to underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a M o supply and demand forecast up to 2030, identifying periods of potential low supply relative to demand. That 2012 forecast was updated with a report 'Medical Isotope Supply in the Future: Production Capacity and Demand Forecast for the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Market 2015-2020' (NEA, 2014) in 2014 that focused on the much shorter 2015-2020 period. This report updates the 2014 report, and continues to focus on the potentially critical 2015

  14. Synthesis of the d,I-HM-PAO and formulation of nucleo-equipment for the obtention of 99m Tc-(d,I)-HM-PAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezama C, J.; Ferro F, G.; Alcazar A, P.

    1991-09-01

    Most brain imaging radiopharmaceuticals are conventional hydrophilic compounds that are excluded from entering the normal brain by an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). Under pathologic conditions, the barrier is disrupted and radiotracer concentrates in the leisure for positive identification. 99m Tc- hexa methyl propylene amine oxime ( 99 m Tc-HM-PAO) is a newer-type lipophilic agent that enter the normal brain through an intact BBB. Studies with this agent offer the promise of measuring cerebral perfusion in the normal and diseased brain. In this paper we present the synthesis and Tc-99m labelling of d,I-HM-PAO. The synthesis of the ligand was carried out by condensation of two molecular equivalents of butanedione monoxime with one molecular equivalent of 1,3 propanediamine provided a bis imine intermediate, which was reduced with sodium borohydride to get the meso and d,I diastereoisomers of HM-PAO. Separation of these was achieved by fractional crystallization. 99m Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO was obtained by stannous ion reduction of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator eluate in the presence of the ligand. Complex radiochemical purity was determined by instant thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography. Finally, we obtained 99m Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO with a high radiochemical yield, in excess of 90%. However, for subsequent clinical studies the preparation has to be done a few minutes before application because our product has a low stability. (Author)

  15. Influence of the Ti concentration and of the Ti:Mo molar ratio, in the efficiency of the {sup 99} Mo - {sup 99m} Tc generator, at basis of gels of titanium molybdates; Influencia de la concentracion de Ti y de la relacion molar Ti:Mo, en la eficiencia del generador {sup 99} Mo - {sup 99m} Tc a base de geles de molibdatos de titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes R, O.; Monroy G, F.; Martinez C, T. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: ocielcr@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    The {sup 99m} Tc, continues being the radionuclide more used in nuclear medicine to world scale. The production of this radioisotope, is carried out by means of generators {sup 99} Mo/{sup 99m} Tc that get ready commercially with {sup 99} Mo of high specific activity, adsorbed in alumina (2 mg {sup 99} Mo/g alumina) and that they are elutriated every 23 hours. In an alternative way, it is intended to use gels of titanium molybdates, as matrices of this generators. The gels are synthesized starting from solutions of ammonium molybdates and of titanium tetrachloride in aqueous media. These gels allow to incorporate until 25% of molybdenum in their structure, being been able to use {sup 99} Mo of low specific activity that can be obtained starting from the reaction {sup 98} Mo (n, {gamma}) {sup 99} Mo. With the object of producing generators of medium activity, with the base of gels of titanium molybdates, intends in this work, to study the influence of two synthesis parameters of these gels: the concentration of the titanium solutions and the molar ratio Ti: Mo. The decrease of the concentration of the titanium solution, used during the synthesis of the gels, is converted in an efficiency decrease and radionuclide purity of the generators, as well as an increment so much of the volume of elutriation, as of the pH of the elutriates. The gels that contain an major number of titanium moles, regarding the molybdenum moles, present a greater radionuclide purity, but they diminish their efficiency. The best characteristics for the gels synthesis of titanium molybdates are: a molar ratio 1:1 for Ti and Mo, and to use solutions of titanium whose concentration is near at 1 M. (Author)

  16. Influence of the Ti concentration and of the Ti:Mo molar ratio, in the efficiency of the 99 Mo - 99m Tc generator, at basis of gels of titanium molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes R, O.; Monroy G, F.; Martinez C, T.

    2003-01-01

    The 99m Tc, continues being the radionuclide more used in nuclear medicine to world scale. The production of this radioisotope, is carried out by means of generators 99 Mo/ 99m Tc that get ready commercially with 99 Mo of high specific activity, adsorbed in alumina (2 mg 99 Mo/g alumina) and that they are elutriated every 23 hours. In an alternative way, it is intended to use gels of titanium molybdates, as matrices of this generators. The gels are synthesized starting from solutions of ammonium molybdates and of titanium tetrachloride in aqueous media. These gels allow to incorporate until 25% of molybdenum in their structure, being been able to use 99 Mo of low specific activity that can be obtained starting from the reaction 98 Mo (n, γ) 99 Mo. With the object of producing generators of medium activity, with the base of gels of titanium molybdates, intends in this work, to study the influence of two synthesis parameters of these gels: the concentration of the titanium solutions and the molar ratio Ti: Mo. The decrease of the concentration of the titanium solution, used during the synthesis of the gels, is converted in an efficiency decrease and radionuclide purity of the generators, as well as an increment so much of the volume of elutriation, as of the pH of the elutriates. The gels that contain an major number of titanium moles, regarding the molybdenum moles, present a greater radionuclide purity, but they diminish their efficiency. The best characteristics for the gels synthesis of titanium molybdates are: a molar ratio 1:1 for Ti and Mo, and to use solutions of titanium whose concentration is near at 1 M. (Author)

  17. The development of 99mTc-d, 1-HM-PAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Lanqin; Huang Jinjie; Fan Li; Bai Suzhen; Li Guoli; Jing Hui; Xiao Lun

    1991-12-01

    The 99m Tc-d,1-HM-PAO is an ideal radiopharmaceutical for regional cerebral blood perfusion imaging. The improvement of synthesis and separation of diastereoisomers leads to obtain high purity (>99%) of d, 1-HM-PAO and meso-HM-PAO. During separation H NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the relative composition of these two diastereoisomers that can ensure the purity of pligand of d,1-HM-PAO. The intravenous injection of 99m Tc-d,1-HM-PAO was formed by adding fresh 99m Tc washing liquor into a sterile. Pyrogen-free and freeze-dried vial. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of 99m Tc-d,1-HM-PAO was greater than 80%. From the experiments of 99m Tc-d,1-HM-PAO in mice, after two minutes of intravenously (I>V>) administration about 2.24% of injected dose (I.D.)appeared in the brain, and after 24 hours about 72% of radioactivity of injected dose still left in the brain. But for the 99m Tc-meso-HM-PAO after two minutes of i.v. administration, about 1.93% of I.D. appeared in the brain, and 24 hours later, 25% of radioactivity of I.D. was in the brain. This result shows that in the brain the radioactivity of 99m Tc-meso-HM-PAO declines faster than that of 99m Td-d,1-HM-PAO

  18. Determination of Tc-99 in radioactive wastes; Determinacion de Tc-99 en desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera S, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Tc-99 is a fission product and one of the most important radionuclides from the view point of safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste because of its long half-life (2.1 x 10{sup 5} years) and high mobility in soil-water systems, if this is released into the environment in significant quantities can concentrate on plants and animals. Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter with a maximum energy of 292 KeV, so their quantification imposes destructive methods to be analyzed by liquid scintillation. Therefore the quantification of Tc-99 in ion exchange resins requires of the mineralization of these and separation of Tc-99 of other radioisotopes present in the resin. Therefore the object of this thesis is to develop a quantification method of Tc-99 content in spent exchange resins. So in order to track the behavior of technetium during digestion exchange resins and radiochemical separation, given its high volatility, in this work the {sup 99m}Tc is used. To determine the degree of mineralization of the resins, an analysis was performed by chromatography. Subsequently the method used to determine the percentage of {sup 99m}Tc aerosolized during mineralization of resin is described. After the method for the radiochemical separation of {sup 99m}Tc is presented by liquid-liquid extraction using crown ether as extractant; for this testing was performed by varying the molarity of the extractant, the ratio of solvent extractant, type of digestion of the resin and the presence of Sr-85, in order to study the behavior of {sup 99m}Tc in the presence of this radioisotope. Finally, a track beta spectra of a sample of {sup 99m}Tc eluted from a generator {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc function of time was performed. (Author)

  19. The trend of 99mTc generator in FNCA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genka, Tsuguo; Machi, Sueo

    2004-01-01

    In the 2001 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactors held in Beijing, eight delegates from the FNCA countries, namely China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, for the 99m Tc Generator Project, presented papers or orally pleaded the current status of utilization and production in terms of 99 Mo solution, 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator or extracted 99m Tc solution in each country. This paper is a brief compilation of these topics and some additional information obtained afterward the workshop. (author)

  20. Development of Molybdenum Adsorbent for 99Mo/99mTc Radioisotope Generator Based on Irradiated Natural Molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohadi Awaludin; Hotman Lubis; Sriyono; Abidin; Herlina; Endang Sarmini; Indra Saptiama; Hambali

    2011-01-01

    Preparation of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc radioisotope generator using irradiated natural molybdenum requires an adsorbent with high absorption capacity. Zirconium-based materials (ZBM), adsorbent with adsorption capacity of about 183 mg(Mo) / g(adsorbent), has been successfully synthesized. However, the adsorbent was easily broken in the Mo adsorption process due to many fractures in the grain. To increase the hardness, the material was immersed in tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and coated by TEOS flow in a column. The hardness test results showed that the ZBM with TEOS treatment was not broken when immersed into the Mo solution. Observations using SEM showed that the fractures formed on the ZBM were successfully removed by TEOS treatment. Measurements using EDS showed that after TEOS treatment, the silicon was detected and the oxygen content increased in the material surface. Adsorption test results showed that the TEOS immersion decreased the adsorption capacity of molybdenum from 183 to 79.8 mg of Mo per gram of adsorbent. The TEOS flow-in a column gave material with relatively high adsorption capacity, 140 mgMo per gram adsorbent. The content of Silicon in the surface was lower than that of adsorbent immersed in TEOS. (author)

  1. Estimation of internal exposure to 99Mo in nuclear medicine patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, B.M.; Silva, C.O.A. da; Dantas, A.L.A.; Lucena, E.A.; Souza, W.O.

    2008-01-01

    99m Tc is the most widely used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. It is obtained by elution of 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators. Depending on the quality of the generator and its integrity, 99 Mo might be extracted from the column during the elution process, becoming a radionuclidic impurity in the 99m Tc eluate. This fact would impart an undesired dose to the patients submitted to diagnostic procedures using 99m Tc. The aims of this work are: to evaluate the incorporation of 99 Mo as a radionuclidic impurity using in vivo and in vitro techniques; to estimate the internal effective doses in nuclear medicine patients and; to provide additional information about the metabolic behavior of molybdenum in humans. A methodology based on in vivo measurements and urine sampling was developed to determine retention and excretion patterns of molybdenum in the human body. In vivo measurements were performed in IRD whole body counter using a NaI(Tl) 8”x4” scintillation detector. The detector is located inside a shielded room with internal dimensions of 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.65 meters. In vitro analysis was based on the collection of urine samples from the patients and was performed in IRD bioassay laboratory using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detection system. Four patients have been monitored by in vivo and in vitro measurements showing detectable activities of 99 Mo in whole body and urine samples. Bioassay results were interpreted by using AIDE software version 6. Estimated values of 99 Mo incorporation were compared to predicted values based on the standard metabolic model of molybdenum established by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). Internal effective doses were estimated in the order of micro sieverts per examination. Based on the data obtained in this work it is suggested to implement a routine quality control program of radionuclidic impurity of 99 Mo in 99m Tc eluates to be conducted by radiopharmacy laboratories of nuclear medicine centers. (author)

  2. labeling of some organic compounds of expected biological activity with Tc-99m eluted from a chromatographic column packed with zirconium molybdate containing mo-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elaal, M.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of nuclear medicine has been due mainly to the availability of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals; this single isotope is used in over 80% of all diagnostic procedures. Each year, roughly 25 million procedures are carried out with 99m Tc-radio-pharmaceuticals, the universal use of this radioisotope (Technetium-99m, t 1/2 = 6.02 h) is due to its advantageous properties such as suitable half-life (it is short enough to save the patient from high radiation dose, and long enough to carry out labeling and scintigraphic measurements), γ-ray energy (140 keV; 89.4%) reasonable for SPECT, and very low abundance β - emission. Technetium-99m is readily available in a sterile, pyrogen free, and no-carrier added state from 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators.The selection of iminodiacetic acid (IDA) derivatives to target 99m Tc as radioactive element to the hepatobiliary system is based on the reported finding that iminodiacetic acid capable of complexing reduced Tc-99m and easily incorporated into biologically active molecules. 99m Tc labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) derivatives offer a high degree of specificity for localization in the gallbladder with rapid extraction by the polygonal cells of the liver and very low urinary excretion. Various diseases related to liver function, such as jaundice and biliary obstruction, are diagnosed by the use of 99m Tc-labeled IDA derivatives. Chronic and acute cholecystitis can be differentiated with 99m Tc-IDA derivatives.In the presented work, 99m Tc in an acceptable radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purity using an easy and cheap method was produced. The produced 99m Tc was suitable to be used in the labeling techniques and in studying of the biological behavior of some synthesized iminodiacetic acid derivatives (1-naphthyl carbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid (NIDA), Diphenyl methyl carbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid (DMIDA) and Biphenyl-2-yl carbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid (BPIDA)). NIDA, DMIDA and BPIDA were synthesized and well

  3. Recent global crisis in 99Mo production and supplies: analysis and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, Natesan; Ed Bradley; Adelfang, Pablo; )

    2011-01-01

    The radioisotope 99m Tc is a vital need for diagnostic functional imaging of organs and physiologic processes in nuclear medicine centres and hospitals all over the world. 99m Tc (6 h) is obtained from the radioactive (beta) decay of 99 Mo (66 h) and is generally availed at the user end in hospitals or radiopharmacies from a 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator, and therefore reliable weekly availability of 99 Mo of very high specific activity is essential for sustainable supplies of 99m Tc. Over the past several decades, the commercial availability of 99 Mo (mostly fission-produced) from corporate sources has been satisfactory. However, from around the end of 2007, the production and supplies of 99 Mo were severely and repeatedly affected causing worldwide concerns and led to calls for international efforts to address the security of supplies of 99 Mo and 99m Tc. Various initiatives and analytical reviews during the past two years, including at the IAEA and OECD-NEA, have revealed a number of issues and lessons learnt. Research reactor managers and their governments serving 99 Mo- 99m Tc industry have faced several challenges, technological, regulatory and economical among others, apart from the fact that these reactors are not dedicated to isotopes production. Furthermore, towards long term security of 99 Mo supplies, switch over to using LEU targets and establishing some additional processing capacity need to be addressed. Several alternative non-HEU technologies for producing 99 Mo and 99m Tc are also under consideration, including through non-fission and non-reactor based methods. The article will draw analytical conclusions and recommendations based on the available professional knowledge and experience in the field as well as from the findings reported in the recent documents and in meetings including that of the IAEA and OECD-NEA. (author)

  4. Comparison of elution efficiency of 99Mo/99mTc generator using theoretical and a free web based software method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran Kumar, J.K.; Sharma, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Singh, B.; Bhattacharaya, A.; Mittal, B.R.; Gayana, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Generator is constructed on the principle of decay growth relationship between a long lived parent radionuclide and short lived daughter radionuclide. Difference in chemical properties of daughter and parent radionuclide helps in efficient separation of the two radionuclides. Aim and Objectives: The present study was designed to calculate the elution efficiency of the generator using the traditional formula based method and free web based software method. Materials and Methods: 99 Mo/ 99m Tc MON.TEK (Monrol, Gebze) generator and sterile 0.9% NaCl vial and vacuum vial in the lead shield were used for the elution. A new 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator (calibrated activity 30GBq) calibrated for thursday was received on monday morning in our department. Generator was placed behind lead bricks in fume hood. The rubber plugs of both vacuum and 0.9% NaCl vial were wiped with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs. Vacuum vial placed inside the lead shield was inserted in the vacuum position simultaneously 10 ml NaCl vial was inserted in the second slot. After 1-2 min vacuum vial was removed without moving the emptied 0.9%NaCl vial. The vacuum slot was covered with another sterile vial to maintain sterility. The RAC was measured in the calibrated dose calibrator (Capintec, 15 CRC). The elution efficiency was calculated theoretically and using free web based software (Apache Web server (www.apache.org) and PHP (www.php.net). Web site of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (www.aimn.it). Results: The mean elution efficiency calculated by theoretical method was 93.95% +0.61. The mean elution efficiency as calculated by the software was 92.85% + 0.89. There was no statistical difference in both the methods. Conclusion: The free web based software provides precise and reproducible results and thus saves time and mathematical calculation steps. This enables a rational use of available activity and also enabling a selection of the type and number of

  5. Separation of 99Mo from 132Te using thiourea as complexing agent. Application to the separation of 99Mo from the fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestnik, S.A.C.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1989-02-01

    A radiochemical method to isolate 99 Mo from 132 Te both produced in the fission of 235 U has been developed. The methods is based on the formation of a cationic complex of tellerium with thiourea in acid medium which is retained (98.7 +- 0.5)% on a cation exchange resin (Dowex 50W-X8, 100 - 200 mesh) while (99.8 +- 0.05)% 99 Mo passes through it, due to the non formation of such complex in the same experimental conditions. The radionuclidic purity of the separated 99 Mo verified by using gamma spectrometry was found to be suitable for the preparation of 99 Mo - 99 sup (m)Tc generators. The retention of 99 Mo on an alumina column as function of ph was investigated. the best pH range for this purpose was found to be between 4.0 - 4.5. the 99 Mo - 99m Tc generator was prepared. the elution of 99m Tc was carried out with physiologic saline solution. The radionuclidic purity of the eluate was found suitable and the product can be used for Nuclear Medicine applications. (author) [pt

  6. Tc-99m-hexakis(t-butylisonitrile)-technetium(I) (Tc-99m-TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelberger, P.; Dudczak, R.; Jones, A.G.; Lister-James, J.; Wagner-Loffler, M.; Buchheit, O.; Fally, F.

    1986-01-01

    The potassium analog (Tl-201)/sup +/ is widely used in nuclear cardiology but has inferior scintigraphic (80 keV photons), dosimetric and economic properties as compared to Tc-99m. Therefore considerable efforts have been made to develop a Tc-compound that would accumulate in the myocardium in relation to regional blood flow. This study was aimed at optimizing the preparation of Tc-TBI with n.c.a. Tc-99m, analyze and purify the product with HPLC, verify biodistribution in mice and undertake a clinical evaluation

  7. Evaluation of 99mTc(CO)5I as a potential lung perfusion agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroslavov, Alexander E.; Gorshkov, Nikolay I.; Lumpov, Alexander L.; Yalfimov, Anatoly N.; Suglobov, Dmitrii N.; Ellis, Beverley L.; Braddock, Rattana; Smith, Anne-Marie; Prescott, Mary C.; Lawson, Richard S.; Sharma, Harbans L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The use of 99m Tc-macroggregated albumin for lung perfusion imaging is well established in nuclear medicine. However, there have been safety concerns over the use of blood-derived products because of potential contamination by infective agents, for example, Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease. Preliminary work has indicated that Tc(CO) 5 I is primarily taken up in the lungs following intravenous administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of 99m Tc(CO) 5 I and its potential as a lung perfusion agent. Methods: 99m Tc(CO) 5 I was synthesized by carbonylation of 99m TcO 4- at 160 atm of CO at 170 deg. C in the presence of HI for 40 min. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC using 99 Tc(CO) 5 I as a reference. 99m Tc(CO) 5 I was administered by ear-vein injection to three chinchilla rabbits, and dynamic images were acquired using a gamma camera (Siemens E-cam) over 20 min. Imaging studies were also performed with 99m Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin ( 99m Tc-MAA) and 99m TcO 4- for comparison. 99m Tc(CO) 5 I was administered intravenously to Sprague-Dawley rats, and tissue distribution studies were obtained at 15 min and 1 h postinjection. Comparative studies were performed using 99m Tc-MAA. Results: Radiochemical purity, assessed by HPLC, was 98%. The retention time was similar to that of 99 Tc(CO) 5 I. The dynamic images showed that 70% of 99m Tc(CO) 5 I appeared promptly in the lungs and remained constant for at least 20 min. In contrast, 99m TcO 4- rapidly washed out of the lungs after administration. As expected 99m Tc-MAA showed 90% lung accumulation. The percentage of injected dose per gram of organ ±S.D. at 1 h for 99m Tc(CO) 5 I was as follows: blood, 0.22±0.02; lung, 12.8±2.87; liver, 0.8±0.15; heart, 0.15±0.01; kidney, 0.47±0.08. The percentage of injected dose per organ ±S.D. at 1 h was as follows: lung, 22.47±2.31; liver, 10.53±1.8; heart, 0.18±0.01; kidney, 1.2±0.17. Tissue

  8. Performance testing of PZC generators for 99mTc production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, Adelina DM.

    2006-01-01

    The report briefly describes the performance testing done on seven batches of polyzirconium column (PZC) material. PZC is a ready-to-use high molybdenum-capacity column material for adsorbing reactor-produced 99 Mo. The PZC material was manufactured by Kaken Co in Japan and was sent to PNRI for performance evaluation. Fission molybdenum was eluted from a commercial 99 Mo - 99m Tc generator. The eluted 99 Mo in a molybdenum carrier solution was adsorbed on PZC through a series of procedures. The mixture was decanted to a 90 x 12 mm glass column. 99m Tc was eluted with saline solution. The parameters measured were Tc 99m yield, %molybdenum adsorption and desorption, elution profile and radiochemical purity. (author)

  9. Strategies toward the commercialization PZC-based Tc-99m generator in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, Ma. Teresa L.; Sombrito, Elvira Z.; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.; Osorio, Rizalina G.; Bulos, Adelina DM.

    2007-01-01

    Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) is the most widely used radioisotope in nuclear medicine. It accounts for more than 80% of the total demand for radioisotopes. Alone or conjugated with other ligands, it is very useful in the imaging and scanning of various organs such as the brain, lungs, kidneys, liver, thyroid and bone and in the diagnosis of metabolic disorders. It is imported to the country as 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators. These commercial generators use fission molybdenum adsorbed onto alumina column. A Draft Business Plan for the Production of PZC 99 Mo- 99m Tc Generator in the Philippines was presented during the FNCA 2005 Workshop on the Utilization of Research Reactors, August 08-12, 2005. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) proposed in the draft business plan, the commercial production of PZC generator through the establishment of a facility for the in-house production of 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators. The radioisotope laboratory of the Irradiation Services Unit will be renovated to house the PZC based 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator experiment/production facility. Since the research reactor is on extended shutdown, the supply of 99 Mo will be sourced out from neighboring countries. Information dissemination and promotions will be made in order to bring this PZC based 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator to the nuclear medicine users. (author)

  10. Magnesium-molybdenum compounds as matrices of generators of {sup 99m} Tc; Compuestos de magnesio-molibdeno como matrices de generadores de {sup 99m} Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez M, T.S.; Monroy G, F. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: thania_susana@terra.com.mx

    2004-07-01

    The generator system of radionuclides more diffused, and used in the world, it is the{sup 99}Mo / {sup 99m} Tc. These use {sup 99} Mo, product of fission of the {sup 235} U of very high specific activity, adsorbed on alumina (0.2% of {sup 99} Mo/gram of alumina). An alternative for the production of generators of low activity specifies, via the reaction {sup 98} Mo(n, {gamma}) {sup 99} Mo, it is based on the use of compounds with molybdates base, as matrices of the generators {sup 99} Mo / {sup 99m} Tc. In this work is proposed to develop a generator at base of compounds of magnesium molybdates that could be irradiated after its synthesis, given the short half life of the only radioisotope produced by magnesium: {sup 27} Mg (t{sub 1/2} = 9.46 m). In this work two parameters were studied, fundamental in the preparation of the magnesium molybdates, matrices of the generators {sup 99}Mo / {sup 99m}Tc, and their influence in the efficiency and radionuclide purity: the washing of the gels previous to its irradiation and the molar ratio Mo:Mg. The magnesium molybdates non washing presents bigger efficiencies (72%), but they don't fulfill a smaller percentage to 0.015% of {sup 99} Mo, neither with a radiochemical purity of 90%, except when the molar ratio Mo: Mg of 1:1.08 which provide the best results. (Author)

  11. 99mTc-Tetrofosmin scintimammography in suspected breast cancer patients: comparison with 99mTc-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki; Bae, Young Tae

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin in detection of breast cancer and compared with that of 99m Tc-MIBI. Forty-eight patients with a clinically palpable mass or abnormal mammographic or ultrasonographic findings had 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin scintimammographies after intravenous injection of 925 MBq of radiopharmaceuticals. The scintimammographs were correlated with histopathologic findings. Thirty-three patients were diagnosed with breast cancer and 15 patients with benign breast diseases. The numbers of true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative cases of 99m Tc-MIBI scintimammography were 29, 10, 5, and 4 respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 99m Tc-MIBI scintimammographies were 87.8%, 66.7%, 85.3%, and 71.4% respectively. The numbers of true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative cases of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin were 31, 10, 5, and 2 respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin were 93.9%, 66.7%, 86.1%, and 73.3% respectively. One patient was false negative in both 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin scintimammographies and its size was 0.5cm. 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin and 99m Tc-MIBI were non-invasive and useful in detection of breast cancer and 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin was comparable to the 99m Tc-MIBI in detection of primary breast cancer.=20

  12. Evaluation of renal function using [sup 99m]Tc-MAG3; Comparison with [sup 123]I-OIH and [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Teruhiko; Aburano, Tamio; Shuke, Noriyuki (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1993-07-01

    The utility of [sup 99m]Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) was studied clinically. In the renography obtained with [sup 99m]Tc-MAG3, the abdominal aorta and the common iliac arteries were clearly visualized in the vascular phase. Due to less background activity and high target to background ratio, the quality of [sup 99m]Tc-MAG3 image was superior to that of [sup 123]I-OIH or [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA image. The parameters on the renogram including T[sub max], T[sub 2/3], and T[sub 1/2] were compared. The correlation of T[sub max] and T[sub 2/3] or T[sub 1/2] were not significant between [sup 99m]Tc-MAG3 and [sup 123]I-OIH. Another parameter of C[sub 20]/C[sub max], where C[sub 20] and C[sub max] are renal activities at 20 min after injection and at T[sub max] respectively, showed an excellent correlation between [sup 99m]Tc-MAG3 and [sup 123]I-OIH. Using C[sub 20]/C[sub max], pattern of renogram can be characterized numerically. Concerning the relation between C[sub 20]/C[sub max] and renogram pattern, standard renogram pattern showed the C[sub 20]/C[sub max] value of less than 0.4, while hypofunctioning pattern showed more than 0.5. The correlation coefficient between the renal uptake of [sup 99m]Tc-MAG3 and [sup 123]I-OIH was 0.880 with a correlation plot: 'Y=1.16X-0.043', where X and Y represent renal uptake of [sup 99m]Tc-MAG3 and [sup 123]I-OIH, respectively. It can be concluded that [sup 99m]Tc-MAG3 is a useful renal imaging agent as an alternative to [sup 123]I-OIH, in order to evaluate the proximal tubular function and calculate ERPF. (author).

  13. LEUbased Fission Mo-99 Process with Reduced Solid Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungkon; Lee, Suseung; Jung, Sunghee; Hong, Soonbog; Jang, Kyungduk; Choi, Sang Mu; Lee, Jun Sig; Lim, Incheol

    2014-01-01

    99m Tc emits 140 keV of very low gamma-ray radiation energy, as low as conventional diagnostic X-ray, and has short half-life of 6.0058 hours. Therefore, as radioactive tracer, 99m Tc provides high quality diagnostic images but keeps total patient radiation exposure low. Depending on the tagging pharmaceuticals and procedures, 99m Tc can be applied for the diagnostics of various target organs and diseases: brain, myocardium, thyroid, lungs, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, skeleton, blood and tumors. More than 95% of 99 Mo is produced through fission of 235 U worldwide because, 99m o generated from the fission (fission 99 Mo) exhibits very high specific activity (<100 Ci/g). Over 90% of fission 99 Mo producers have been used highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets so far. However, the IAEA recommends the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) to the 99 Mo producers for nonproliferation reason. These days, worldwide 99 Mo supply is not only insufficient but also unstable. Because, most of the main 99 Mo production reactors are about 50 years old and suffered from frequent and unscheduled shutdown. Planned weekly productivity of 2000 Ci fission 99 Mo, in a 6-day reference, will cover 100% domestic demand of Korea, as well as 20% of international market. It is expected to replace 4.3 million USD ($800/Ci) of 99 Mo import for domestic market while exporting 82.8 million USD for world market, annually

  14. Solid targets for 99mTc production on medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanemaayer, V.; Buckley, K.R.; Klug, J.; Ruth, T.J.; Schaffer, P.; Zeisler, S.K.; Benard, F.; Kovacs, M.; Leon, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent disruptions in the molybdenum-technetium generator supply chain prompted a review of non-reactor based production methods for both 99 Mo and 99m Tc. Small medical cyclotrons (E p ∼ 16-24 MeV) are capable of producing Curie quantities of 99m Tc from isotopically enriched 100 Mo using the 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc reaction. Unlike most other metallic target materials for routine production of medical radioisotopes, molybdenum cannot be deposited by reductive electroplating from aqueous salt solutions. To overcome this issue, we developed a new process for solid molybdenum targets based on the electrophoretic deposition of fine 100 Mo powder onto a tantalum plate, followed by high temperature sintering. The targets obtained were mechanically robust and thermally stable when irradiated with protons at high power density. (author)

  15. Magnesium-molybdenum compounds as matrices of generators of 99m Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez M, T.S.; Monroy G, F.

    2004-01-01

    The generator system of radionuclides more diffused, and used in the world, it is the 99 Mo / 99m Tc. These use 99 Mo, product of fission of the 235 U of very high specific activity, adsorbed on alumina (0.2% of 99 Mo/gram of alumina). An alternative for the production of generators of low activity specifies, via the reaction 98 Mo(n, γ) 99 Mo, it is based on the use of compounds with molybdates base, as matrices of the generators 99 Mo / 99m Tc. In this work is proposed to develop a generator at base of compounds of magnesium molybdates that could be irradiated after its synthesis, given the short half life of the only radioisotope produced by magnesium: 27 Mg (t 1/2 = 9.46 m). In this work two parameters were studied, fundamental in the preparation of the magnesium molybdates, matrices of the generators 99 Mo / 99m Tc, and their influence in the efficiency and radionuclide purity: the washing of the gels previous to its irradiation and the molar ratio Mo:Mg. The magnesium molybdates non washing presents bigger efficiencies (72%), but they don't fulfill a smaller percentage to 0.015% of 99 Mo, neither with a radiochemical purity of 90%, except when the molar ratio Mo: Mg of 1:1.08 which provide the best results. (Author)

  16. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Implementation of the HLG-MR Policy Approach: Results from a Self-assessment by the Global 99Mo/'99mTc Supply Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron

    2013-03-01

    At the request of its member countries, OECD/NEA became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of 99 Mo and ' 99m Tc. Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) examined the causes of supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The 'Economic Study' of the molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and technetium-99m (' 99m Tc) supply chain published by the NEA clearly demonstrated that the pricing structure at nuclear research reactors prior to the most recent supply shortage in 2009-10 was not economically sustainable. Host nations traditionally subsidised the cost of irradiation services for 99 Mo production, along with experimental research at reactors. With a move away from subsidising 99 Mo production that often benefits foreign nations or foreign companies, pricing must recover the full cost of production to ensure economic sustainability and a long-term secure supply of medical isotopes. Appropriate pricing would also encourage an efficient use of the product, reducing wasted 99 Mo/' 99m Tc and thus reducing excess production and the associated radioactive waste. A key principle adopted by the HLG-MR was that all producers should move towards full-cost recovery and should implement the other principles adopted by the group. In February 2012, the NEA web-published a guidance document with a methodology for full- cost recovery and an associated Excel spreadsheet. This costing methodology identifies the essential elements that should be included when determining the full cost of 99 Mo irradiation services and how these elements should be allocated between various missions in the case of multipurpose facilities. The application of the costing methodology at all 99 Mo/' 99m Tc-producing research reactors and other production technology facilities within the global supply chain will ensure a common approach to full

  17. Level structure of 99Tc by inelastic scattering and proton stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.; Emigh, R.A.; Anderson, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The 98 Mo( 3 He,d) 99 Tc and 99 Tc(d,d') reactions have been used to study the levels of 99 Tc. Spin-parity assignments are made for nearly all states below 1.5 MeV excitation. Strong j-dependence is noted for l=1 transitions in the proton stripping reaction, making possible several new spin assignments. The inelastic scattering data on 99 Tc are compared to similar data on 98 Mo, and are found to be in agreement with a coupling scheme based on a shell model with good seniority. (Auth.)

  18. Recent achievements in Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical direct production by medical cyclotrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Pasquali, Micol; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-09-01

    99m Tc is the most commonly used radionuclide in the field of diagnostic imaging, a noninvasive method intended to diagnose a disease, assess the disease state and monitor the effects of treatments. Annually, the use of 99m Tc, covers about 85% of nuclear medicine applications. This isotope releases gamma rays at about the same wavelength as conventional X-ray diagnostic equipment, and owing to its short half-life (t ½  = 6 h) is ideal for diagnostic nuclear imaging. A patient can be injected with a small amount of 99m Tc and within 24 h almost 94% of the injected radionuclide would have decayed and left the body, limiting the patient's radiation exposure. 99m Tc is usually supplied to hospitals through a 99 Mo/ 99m Tc radionuclide generator system where it is produced from the β decay of the parent nuclide 99 Mo (t ½  = 66 h), which is produced in nuclear reactors via neutron fission. Recently, the interruption of the global supply chain of reactor-produced 99 Mo, has forced the scientific community to investigate alternative production routes for 99m Tc. One solution was to consider cyclotron-based methods as potential replacement of reactor-based technology and the nuclear reaction 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc emerged as the most worthwhile approach. This review reports some achievements about 99m Tc produced by medical cyclotrons. In particular, the available technologies for target design, the most efficient extraction and separation procedure developed for the purification of 99m Tc from the irradiated targets, the preparation of high purity 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals and the first clinical studies carried out with cyclotron produced 99m Tc are described.

  19. Simultaneous 99mTc and 123I dual-isotope brain striatal phantom single photon emission computed tomography: validation of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 and 123I-IBZM simultaneous dopamine system brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Pan-Fu; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Yang, An-Shoei

    2009-11-01

    [2[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3,2,1]-oct-2-yl]-methyl](2-mercaptoethyl)-amino]ethyl]amino]ethanethiolato(3-)-N2,N2',S2,S2]oxo-[1R-exo-exo)])-[99mTc]-technetium (99mTc-TRODAT-1) and 123I-iodobenzamide (123I-IBZM) are radiotracers for brain dopamine pre- and postsynaptic neuron imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging parameters and crossed energy interference using simultaneous single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 99mTc and 123I data acquisition. A five-compartment brain striatal phantom was filled with 99mTc and/or 123I radioactive solutions with different striatal-to-background ratios, ranging from 3:1 to 9:1. SPECT data were acquired with energy window settings of 15% for the centered window at 140 keV for 99mTc and a 10% asymmetric window at 159 keV for 123I. The experiments were carried out using either individual (99mTc or 123I only) or both radionuclides. The striatal-to-background ratios and energy crossed interference between 99mTc and 123I were calculated. The phantom SPECT images demonstrated that the energy crossed interferences from 123I to 99mTc, and vice versa, were 22 +/- 12.4% and 0.4 +/- 1.0%, respectively. A net interference of 7.1 +/- 4.0% for the counts in the 15% centered 99mTc window can be expected from 123I and a net interference of 1.6 +/- 3.3% for the counts in the 10% asymmetric 123I window was derived from 99mTc. The correlation of striatal-to-background ratios between single isotope and simultaneous dual-isotope was excellent (R2 = 0.99). The imaging parameters used in this simultaneous dualisotope SPECT imaging could be used in future clinical practice for imaging patients with movement disorders by using 99mTc-TRODAT-1 and 123I-IBZM. The striatal-to-background ratios were not affected by the crossed interference between 99mTc and 123I.

  20. Simultaneous 99mTC and 123I Dual-Isotope Brain Striatal Phantom Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography: Validation of 99mTC-Trodat-1 and 123I-IBZM Simultaneous Dopamine System Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Fu Kao

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available [2[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3,2,1]-oct-2-yl]-methyl](2-mercaptoethylamino]ethyl]amino]ethanethiolato(3--N2,N2′,S2,S2]oxo-[1R-exo-exo]-[99mTc]-technetium (99mTc-TRODAT-1 and 123I-iodobenzamide (123I-IBZM are radiotracers for brain dopamine preand postsynaptic neuron imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging parameters and crossed energy interference using simultaneous single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT 99mTc and 123I data acquisition. A five-compartment brain striatal phantom was filled with 99mTc and/or 123I radioactive solutions with different striatal-to-background ratios, ranging from 3:1 to 9:1. SPECT data were acquired with energy window settings of 15% for the centered window at 140 keV for 99mTc and a 10% asymmetric window at 159 keV for 123I. The experiments were carried out using either individual (99mTc or 123I only or both radionuclides. The striatal-to-background ratios and energy crossed interference between 99mTc and 123I were calculated. The phantom SPECT images demonstrated that the energy crossed interferences from 123I to 99mTc, and vice versa, were 22 ± 12.4% and 0.4 ± 1.0%, respectively. A net interference of 7.1 ± 4.0% for the counts in the 15% centered 99mTc window can be expected from 123I and a net interference of 1.6 ± 3.3% for the counts in the 10% asymmetric 123I window was derived from 99mTc. The correlation of striatal-to-background ratios between single isotope and simultaneous dual-isotope was excellent (R2 = 0.99. The imaging parameters used in this simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT imaging could be used in future clinical practice for imaging patients with movement disorders by using 99mTc-TRODAT-1 and 123I-IBZM. The striatal-to-background ratios were not affected by the crossed interference between 99mTc and 123I.

  1. Technetium-99 in ''instant'' sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, S.

    1978-01-01

    The 99 Tc-content in sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate separated from 99 Mo by distillation or extraction has been studied with a plastic scintillation detector. The identification of the measured activity was achieved by beta-spectrometry, chemical separation and half-life studies. The frequency distribution of the sup(99)Tc/sup(99m)Tc-ratios in the different samples was observed to be log-normal. The most likely activity ratio was 0.4x10 -6 , the maximum value being 5x10 -6 . The specific activity of ''instant'' pertechnetate is approximately a factor of 60 lower than that normally recorded in pertechnetate derived from daily eluted column generators. The low specific activity of ''instant'' pertechnetate is primarily explained by the long time between separation and usage and secondly by the low yield of Tc in the distillation and extraction processes. In several of the ''instant'' pertechnetate solutions the carrier concentration exceeded the reductive capacity of the stannous ions in ''kits'' with small amounts of Sn(II) in usable form. (T.G.)

  2. Management of radioactive waste from 99Mo production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    99m Tc used for labelling different pharmaceuticals is the most important radionuclide in nuclear medicine practice, and probably will continue to play this important role for the foreseeable future. 99m Tc is the short lived daughter product of the parent 99 Mo, which is mainly produced by the nuclear fission of 235 U. Recognizing the importance of the waste management issue associated with 99 Mo production the IAEA initiated preparation of this report to provide Member States and existing and potential producers of 99 Mo with practical approaches and the available information on the subject. Waste management in the context of this report encompasses all waste-related aspects, for example, handling, treatment, conditioning, storage, transport, and disposal. The document is organized in several chapters giving the following information: short description of the basic nuclear and physical properties of 99 Mo and 99m Tc; an overview of past, present and possible future production methods; characteristics of the various waste streams produced in the aforementioned processes; description of the necessary waste management practices needed to handle the relevant waste streams in a responsible and internationally-accepted manner; conclusion and recommendations

  3. A proposal for spreading and commercializing the (n, gamma) 99Tc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kosuke; Hishinuma, Yukio; Tatenuma, Katsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    A practicability of 99m Tc generator based on (n, gamma) method using PZC (Poly Zirconium Compound), a Mo adsorbent with a high adsorption efficiency, has been studied by the FNCA member countries as a part of the FNCA activities; three research collaboration projects, Technetium Generator Project (TCG), Neutron Activation Analysis Project (NAA) and Neutron Spreading Project (NS) have been set up in order to achieve the significant results of the research reactor use among Asian countries. As a result of the collaboration research, practical data on the 99m Tc elution and 99 Mo breakthrough has recently been obtained by using the new 99m Tc generator based on (n, gamma) method using PZC (indicate 'PZC- 99m Tc generator' as follows). Even though unexpected amount of 99 Mo breakthrough accompanied with the 99m Tc elution treatment were currently occurred, the problem has been solved by subsequently adding an alumina column underneath the generator column containing PZC. In accordance with the realization of the practical PZC- 99m Tc generator, an administering tests to the mice with labeled compound of 99m Tc generated by PZC method have already been started by BATAN, a loading machine to simplify the process of the 99 Mo adsorption to PZC and the 99 Mo-PZC packing to a generator column has been fabricated in BATAN's hot cell to realize a mass production of PZC- 99m Tc generator, and moreover the Japanese and Indonesian patents pertaining to the production process and the loading machine of PZC- 99m Tc generator have been applied with joint application of BATAN and KAKEN Co. By the current collaboration approaches mentioned above, it is clear that the Technetium Generator Project of FNCA is now reaching to a phase where the aims of the project shall be turned from establishment of the practical PZC- 99m C generator to establishment of the delivery system of PZC- 99m Tc generator to put them into commercial use. In this paper, a practical application of the PZC- 99m

  4. Targeting osteomyelitis with complete [99mTc]besilesomab and fragmented [99mTc]sulesomab antibodies: kinetic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRATZ, Stefan; KEMKE, Bendix; KEIZE, Patrik; KAMPEN, Wim U.; LUSTER, Markus; HÖFFKEN, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the targeting of “pure” osteomyelitis (i.e., without surrounding soft tissue infection) by directly 99mTc-labelled complete immunoglobulin G (IgG) monoclonal antibody (MAb) ([99mTc]besilesomab) and by directly 99mTc-labelled fragment antigen-binding (FAb) MAb ([99mTc]sulesomab) in relation to their kinetic fate. A total of 73 patients with “pure” osteomyelitis were examined with [99mTc]besilesomab, (Scintimun®, IBA/CIS bio international, Saclay, France; N.=38) and [99mTc]sulesomab (LeukoScan®, Immunomedics Inc., Morris Plains, NJ, USA; N.=35). Kinetic data were deduced from whole-body and single-photon emission computed tomographic scans, performed 10 minutes to 24 hour p.i. (region-of-interest technique [ROI]). In targeting “pure” osteomyelitis, sensitivities at 1-4 hours were found to be higher for [99mTc]sulesomab (44% and 80% for [99mTc]besilesomab and [99mTc]sulesomab, respectively) but at significantly lower target/background (T/B) ratios than with [99mTc]besilesomab (1.8±0.3 versus 1.4±0.5 for [99mTc]besilesomab and [99mTc]sulesomab respectively; P<0.01). With [99mTc]besilesomab, there was a continuous osteomyelitis uptake over 24 hours, whereas with [99mTc]sulesomab, the maximal uptake occurred mostly within 1-4 hours, with subsequent clearance being slower for antigen-bound activity than for nonspecific background. Hence, diagnosis was possible mostly after 4h with [99mTc]sulesomab but often not before 24 hours with [99mTc]besilesomab, the later increasing significantly (P<0.01) in sensitivity (87% and 84% for [99mTc]besilesomab and [99mTc]sulesomab, respectively). These results show that the higher sensitivity of [99mTc]sulesomab in osteomyelitis targeting at earlier p.i. times does not rely on an increased antibody uptake but on a more rapid clearance of nonspecific background activity due to faster metabolism and excretion. Intact [99mTc]besilesomab show a slow, continuous uptake

  5. Evaluation of preparation and performance of gel column 99Tcm generators based on zirconium molybdate - 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswathy, P.; Sarkar, S.K.; Patel, R.R.; Arora, S.S.; Arjun, G.; Narasimhan, D.V.S.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    1998-01-01

    In view of the importance and relevance of zirconium molybdate (ZrMo) based gel generators for 99 Tc m , developed first by Australian scientists, particularly for developing nations having production capability for neutron activated 99 Mo, work has been carried out in our centre towards optimisation of the preparatory conditions. Appropriate facilities have been set up for safe, reliable and regular manufacture of such 99 Tc m gel generators on a small scale based on our earlier successful attempts on the approach for process standardisation. The results of our extensive evaluation, including for clinical use, are reported here. Following the regular procedure standardised by us earlier, 9 lots of 99 Mo were converted in ZrMo gel adopting aseptic practices and two different techniques for drying the ZrMo cake - heated air at 60-80 deg. C and microwave drying at 385 watts. The ZrMo granules obtained after further processing were loaded onto generator assemblies. 10 g molybdenum was handled in each batch of gel conversion, while typically 2 g Mo was used per generator column, except in the case of demonstration of higher capacity generators. The generator performance was evaluated systematically over nearly 15 days, in terms of rapidity and smoothness of elution, 99 Tc m elution yield and quality of eluted pertechnetate. The consistent results of over 60% (Max. 90%) yield of 99 Tc m , -3 % 99 Mo breakthrough, >98% radiochemical purity of pertechnetate, 99 Tc m compounds etc. indicated satisfactory quality of pertechnetate, comparable to that obtained by conventional generator systems. 12 such generators, containing up to 18.5 GBq 99 Mo, supplied for clinical use and evaluated at two hospital radiopharmacies showed satisfactory generator performance. The applicability for preparing larger capacity generators for centralised radiopharmacies and feasibility to achieve reduced process time and ease of control by using microwave oven drying have been established. (author)

  6. Transfer time estimation of 129I, 99Tc and 14C in the geological layers of the Saligny site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Niculae, Ortenzia; Terente, M.; Jinescu, Gh.; Duliu, O.G.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the assessment of transfer time of 129 I, 99 Tc and 14 C in the geological layers of Saligny site, selected as Near Surface Final Repository for short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated by the operation and decommissioning of the four units of Cernavoda NPP equipped with the CANDU-6 Canadian type reactors. The geological aspects of Saligny site are presented for which the transfer time of radio-nuclides is necessary to assess. The conceptual model of the repository as well as the associated mathematical model which describes the transfer of radio-nuclides from radioactive waste disposal system to aquifer is also presented in the paper. The transfer time of these radionuclides is derived from the time difference when a radionuclide reaches the highest peak value of concentration into two adjacent compartments. The transfer time is compared with the half-life of radio-nuclides in order to asses the role of geological layers of the site in delaying the transfer of radio-nuclides. The evaluation was performed using the AMBER computing code. also a comparison with results from HYDRUS computer code is done. (authors)

  7. Process modifications of obtaining Tc-99m by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.; Verdera, S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a modification in the process to obtaining Tc-99m by the extraction method of solvent from Mo-99 produced by irradiation. Tc-99m is considered an ideal radionuclide for medical and biological applications

  8. A review of sup(99m)Tc generator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.

    1982-01-01

    The sup(99m)Tc generator has found widespread use because it is ideally suited for scintigraphy. The preparation of sup(99m)Tc generators using alumina and other ion exchange systems is described. Other methods of separating 99 Mo and sup(99m)Tc, such as solvent extraction and sublimation, are also discussed. Some of the problems associated with the alumina column type sup(99m)Tc generator are listed with possible causes and solutions to their problems. The current biomedical applications of the sup(99m)Tc radioisotope are the basis of a $100 million nuclear medicine business. The importance of the sup(99m)Tc generator makes it imperative that we understand and solve the problems associated with its manufacture. (author)

  9. [99mTc]/[123I] Simultaneous dual-isotope brain striatum phantom SPECT study: preparing for simultaneous [99mTc]TRODAT-1/[123I]-IBZM pre- and post-synaptic dopamine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, PF; Hsu, HT; Tzen, KY; Wey, SP

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The brain dopamine transporters (DAT) and dopamine D2 receptors are implicated in all kinds of movement disorders. Both sites are also targets for drug treatment, Therefore, brain dopamine system is important in both basic and clinical neurological researches. Kung HF et al. developed [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-l for DAT and [ 123 I]IBZM for D2 receptor SPECT imaging in living human brain. In this work, the possibility of doing [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1/[ 123 I]IBZM simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT for both DAT/D2 receptor imaging was studied. The SPECT acquisition protocol, the percent of 99m Tc/ 123 I energy cross contamination, and the reproducibility of striatal /background ratios were studied with a striatal phantom to confirm the accuracy of 99m Tc/ 123 I dual-isotope simultaneous SPECT technique. Materials and Methods: In each set of experiment, the 4 striatum (target) chambers and the rest of the brain (background) were filled with solutions containing 99m Tc only, 123 I only, and both isotopes. Several sets of experiment with different target/background ratios were tested. For SPECT image acquisition, a triple-head gamma camera equipp with high resolution fan-beam collimators (Siemens Multi-SPECT3). Energy window settings of a 15% centered window at 140KeV for 99m Tc and a 10% asymmetric window with a lower bound at 159KeV for 123 I were used. After filtered backprojection and Chang's attenuation correction, regions of interest were defined at the bilateral basal ganglia and occipital areas. The reproducibility of counting activity and the different target/background ratios from each isotope were observed. Results: The results of the study revealed that the energy crossed contaminations from I-123 into Tc- 99m and vice verse were 22±12.4 % and 0.4±1.0 %, respectively. The correlation of striatum/background ratios between single isotope and simultaneous was excellent (R2 = 0.99). The success of this simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT technique is suggestive of the

  10. Regeneration of 98Mo enriched from waste 99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.; Mirzaeva, N.A.; Ashrapov, U.T.; Berdieva, M.; Nushtaeva, L.B.

    2002-01-01

    Radioisotope generator of technetium-99m have found widespread application in nuclear medicine for production of sodium pertechnetate solution ( 99m Tc). In technology of radioisotope generator making, which developed in Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science the parent radioisotopes of molybdenum-90 are produced with neutron capture reaction of the enriched isotope of molybdenum-98 in nuclear reactor of WWR-SM. The specific activity of 99 Mo is reached to 5.0 Ci/g after activation process of original material ( 98 Mo). The basic mass of the original materials ( 98 Mo) which took for the irradiation is remained inactive. The high cost of enriched 97 Mo to make up necessity of development of method of 98 Mo regeneration with end in view of its recurring in manufacture. In general, the chromatographic type generator are produced in manufacture with aluminium oxide as sorbent for the parent radionuclides. So we studied the description conditions of molybdenum from aluminium oxide phase, its purification from possible accompanying admixtures and production of molybdenum in goods state. The systems: sulphur acid, ammonium and ammonium with hydrogen peroxide have been considered for molybdenum desorption from aluminium oxide phase. The sulphur oxid solution is most optimal medium for molybdenum desorption with concentration 0.5 M and elution rate for this makes up 2.0-2.05 ml/min. The 98 Mo yield makes up not over 87 %. The subsequent purification of the desorption of molybdenum-98 from the possible admixture are realized by using column with tetra-phosphonium alkali. At first , 98 Mo sorption is realized by anion exchange resin, after that sorbate is washing and dispiriting by solution with composition: 1.0 M NH 4 NO 3 +8.0 % NH 4 OH+10 -2 % H 2 O 2 . The 98 Mo yield makes up under 80 %. Further from obtained solution is realized by precipitation of molybdenum-98 in acid medium and separation of sediments from liquid phase, drying if sediments and

  11. Comparison between a commercial solid-phase extraction cartridge and a home-made silver containing charcoal column: purification of Mo-99 from I-131 and Te-121

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Carla Roberta; Teodoro, Rodrigo; Osso Junior, Joao

    2011-01-01

    Among the radioisotopes used for medical application in Nuclear Medicine, 99m Tc, readily available from the elution of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, is the most used, responsible for more than eighty percent of the total applications. These generators use the 99 Mo radioisotope that is produced in nuclear reactors and IPEN imports all the 99 Mo used in Brazil, mainly from Canada (Nordion). Due to the increasing needs of the Nuclear Medicine in Brazil and the world shortage of 99 Mo observed since 2008, IPEN decided to construct a new research reactor named Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (BMR) as well as to develop the production of 99 Mo through the route of 235 U fission using a CINTICHEM modified separation process. The 99 Mo obtained from this process contains some contaminants and need to be purified. The aim of this work is to compare the preliminary results of the purification step of the solution containing 99 Mo and the contaminants, 131 I and 121 Te in the silver containing charcoal column and a solid-phase extraction cartridge. The purification process of 99 Mo coming from fission LEU foils was performed by adsorption chromatography using a home-made activated charcoal containing silver column (AC-Ag) and a commercial solid-phase extraction cartridge (OnGuard II Ag). High yields of 99 Mo elution and high retention of 131 I were achieved in the AC-Ag column and silver cartridge but 121 Te was more retained in the cartridge than in the AC-Ag column. (author)

  12. Assessment of the direct cyclotron production of (99m)Tc: An approach to crisis management of (99m)Tc shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovais, Mohammad Reza Aboudzadeh; Aardaneh, Khosro; Aslani, Gholamreza; Rahiminejad, Ali; Yousefi, Kamran; Boulouri, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the cyclotron production of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) has been increased, due to the worldwide (99m)Tc generator shortage. In the present work, an improved strategy for the production of (99m)Tc, using the proton irradiation of the enriched (100)Mo was developed. The performance of this method in terms of the production yield, chemical purity, radiochemical purity, as well as radionuclide purity was evaluated. The average production yield was measured to be 356MBqμA(-1)h(-1). A good agreement was found between the calculated production yield and the experimental one. The radiochemical separation and total recovery yields of (99m)Tc were 92% and 69%, respectively. The radiochemical and the radionuclide purities of the (99m)Tc were 99% and >99.99% at the end of purification, respectively. The results of quality control tests (QC) support the concept that cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc is suitable for preparation of USP-compliant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mismatched uptake of Tc-99m-ECD and Tc-99m-HMPAO in subacute cerebral infarction: Tc-99m-ECD for viability and Tc-99m-HMPAO for flow restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. S.; Hyun, I. Y.; Kim, S. K. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    Tc-99m-HMPAO reflects tissue perfusion but Tc-99m-ECD uptake is affected by tissue viability in addition to tissue perfusion which the varied state of cellular retention of Tc-99m-ECD reflects. Luxuriously perfused area on Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT implies that this cortex was already reperfused either spontaneously or after thrombolysis and that accompanied paralysis of vascular reactivity in those zones warms progressive deterioration. We tried to find out if we can use sequential Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT to reveal cortical perfusion and severity and range of risky areas of cerbral cortex despite reperfusion in sub-acute infarction. In 13 patients (M ; F =7 : 6, mean age 57 (range: 26-84)) with cortical (n=12) and basal ganglia infarction (1), we performed sequential Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT at the same position. At first, 555 MBq of Tc-99m-ECD was injected and imaged and then 1110 MBq of Tc-99m-HMPAO was injected again and imaged with the patients in situ, and the first image (Tc-99m-ECD) and the subtracted image (2nd- 1st : Tc-99m-HMPAO) were compared slice by slice. Study was done from 3 days to 31 days (16{+-}9) after ictus. Tc-99m-ECD uptake was always less than or equal to Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake at the lesion in all cases. Luxury perfusion was prominent in four patients. Mismatched uptake was found in 10 patients. Severity of mismatch showed diverse spectrum and was ranged from total middle cerebral artery territory (1 case) to peripheral thin zones around infarction (2 cases). The other 7 showed intermediate amount of tissues with mismatch , i.e., Tc-99m-ECD defects where Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake is in part increased, normal or decreased. Upon discharge, patients having more uptake with Tc-99m-ECD predicted improvement. Patients having mismatched uptake went dichotomous way. In conclusion, Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO sequential SPECT is feasible and reveal both tissue perfusion (Tc-99m-HMPAO ) and discrepant Tc-99m-ECD uptake probably reflecting viability in acute

  14. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I as a potential lung perfusion agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miroslavov, Alexander E.; Gorshkov, Nikolay I.; Lumpov, Alexander L. [Division of Radiochemical Research, Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinskii pr. 28, 194021, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Yalfimov, Anatoly N. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Central Research Institute of Roentgenology and Radiology, Leningradskaya str. 70/4, 197000, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Suglobov, Dmitrii N. [Division of Radiochemical Research, Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinskii pr. 28, 194021, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ellis, Beverley L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Manchester Royal Infirmary, M13 9WL Manchester (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bev.ellis@manchester.ac.uk; Braddock, Rattana; Smith, Anne-Marie [Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, School of Cancer and Imaging Science, Stopford Building, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Prescott, Mary C.; Lawson, Richard S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Manchester Royal Infirmary, M13 9WL Manchester (United Kingdom); Sharma, Harbans L. [Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, School of Cancer and Imaging Science, Stopford Building, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Introduction: The use of {sup 99m}Tc-macroggregated albumin for lung perfusion imaging is well established in nuclear medicine. However, there have been safety concerns over the use of blood-derived products because of potential contamination by infective agents, for example, Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease. Preliminary work has indicated that Tc(CO){sub 5}I is primarily taken up in the lungs following intravenous administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I and its potential as a lung perfusion agent. Methods: {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I was synthesized by carbonylation of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4-} at 160 atm of CO at 170 deg. C in the presence of HI for 40 min. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC using {sup 99}Tc(CO){sub 5}I as a reference. {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I was administered by ear-vein injection to three chinchilla rabbits, and dynamic images were acquired using a gamma camera (Siemens E-cam) over 20 min. Imaging studies were also performed with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-MAA) and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4-} for comparison. {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I was administered intravenously to Sprague-Dawley rats, and tissue distribution studies were obtained at 15 min and 1 h postinjection. Comparative studies were performed using {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. Results: Radiochemical purity, assessed by HPLC, was 98%. The retention time was similar to that of {sup 99}Tc(CO){sub 5}I. The dynamic images showed that 70% of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I appeared promptly in the lungs and remained constant for at least 20 min. In contrast, {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4-} rapidly washed out of the lungs after administration. As expected {sup 99m}Tc-MAA showed 90% lung accumulation. The percentage of injected dose per gram of organ {+-}S.D. at 1 h for {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I was as follows: blood, 0.22{+-}0.02; lung, 12.8{+-}2.87; liver, 0.8{+-}0.15; heart, 0.15{+-}0.01; kidney, 0.47{+-}0.08. The

  15. Novel 99mTc(III)-azide complexes [99mTc(N3)(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] (CDOH2 = cyclohexanedione dioxime) as potential radiotracers for heart imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Min; Zheng, Yumin; Avcibasi, Ugur; Liu, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, novel 99m Tc(III)-azide complexes [ 99m Tc(N 3 )(CDO)(CDOH) 2 B-R] ( 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 : R = IS; 99m Tc-MPboroxime-N 3 : R = MP; 99m Tc-PAboroxime-N 3 : R = PA; 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 : R = PY; and 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 : R = 5U) were evaluated as heart imaging agents. Methods: Complexes [ 99m Tc(N 3 )(CDO)(CDOH) 2 B-R] (R = IS, MP, PA, PY and 5U) were prepared by ligand exchange between NaN 3 and [ 99m TcCl(CDO)(CDOH) 2 B-R]. Biodistribution and imaging studies were carried out in Sprague–Dawley rats. Image quantification was performed to compare their initial heart uptake and myocardial retention. Results: 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 , 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 and 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 were prepared with high RCP (93–98%) while the RCP of 99m Tc-MPboroxime-N 3 and 99m Tc-PAboroxime-N 3 was 80–85%. The myocardial retention curves of 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 , 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 and 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 were best fitted to the bi-exponential decay function. The half-time of the fast component was 1.6 ± 0.4 min for 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 , 0.7 ± 0.1 min for 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 and 0.9 ± 0.4 min for 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 . The 2-min heart uptake from biodistribution studies followed the ranking order of 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 (3.60 ± 0.68%ID/g) > 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 (2.35 ± 0.37%ID/g) ≫ 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 (1.29 ± 0.06%ID/g). 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 had the highest 2-min heart uptake among 99m Tc radiotracers revaluated in SD rats. High quality SPECT images were obtained with the right and left ventricular walls being clearly delineated. The best image acquisition window was 0–5 min for 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 . Conclusion: Both azide coligand and boronate caps had significant impact on the heart uptake and myocardial retention of complexes [ 99m Tc(N 3 )(CDO)(CDOH) 2 B-R]. Among the radiotracers evaluated in SD rats, 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 has the highest initial heart uptake with the heart retention comparable to that of 99m Tc

  16. Sensitivity and Specificity of Dual-Isotope 99mTc-Tetrofosmin and 123I Sodium Iodide Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in Hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerauer, Michael; Graf, Carmen; Schäfer, Niklaus; Huber, Gerhard; Schneider, Paul; Wüthrich, Rudolf; Schmid, Christoph; Steinert, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Despite recommendations for 99mTc-tetrofosmin dual tracer imaging for hyperparathyroidism in current guidelines, no report was published on dual-isotope 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 123I sodium iodide single-photon-emission-computed-tomography (SPECT). We evaluated diagnostic accuracy and the impact of preoperative SPECT on the surgical procedures and disease outcomes. Analysis of 70 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and 20 consecutive patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Imaging findings were correlated with surgical results. Concomitant thyroid disease, pre- and postoperative laboratory measurements, histopathological results, type and duration of surgery were assessed. In primary hyperparathyroidism, SPECT had a sensitivity of 80% and a positive predictive value of 93% in patient-based analysis. Specificity was 99% in lesion-based analysis. Patients with positive SPECT elicit higher levels of parathyroid hormone and higher weight of resected parathyroids than SPECT-negative patients. Duration of parathyroid surgery was on average, approximately 40 minutes shorter in SPECT-positive than in SPECT-negative patients (89 ± 46 vs. 129 ± 41 minutes, p = 0.006); 86% of SPECT-positive and 50% of SPECT-negative patients had minimal invasive surgery (p = 0.021). SPECT had lower sensitivity (60%) in patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism; however, 90% of these patients had multiple lesions and all of these patients had bilateral lesions. Dual-isotope SPECT with 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 123I sodium iodide has a high diagnostic value in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and allows for saving of operation time. Higher levels of parathyroid hormone and higher glandular weight facilitated detection of parathyroid lesion. Diagnostic accuracy of preoperative imaging was lower in patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

  17. Cerebral blood flow imaging by I-123 IMP and Tc-99m HM-PAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Kyosan; Minoshima, Satoshi; Imaseki, Keiko; Arimizu, Noboru; Yamaura, Akira; Uematsu, Sadao

    1988-02-01

    SPECT studies with either N-isopropyl-p-(I-123)iodo- amphetamine (I-123 IMP) or Tc-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (Tc-99m HM-PAO) were cuncurrently performed in 12 patients with brain disorders, comprising cerebral infarction (7), cerebral aneurysm (one), intracranial hemorrhage (3), and subdural hematoma (one). Whereas I-123 IMP was taken up gradually into the brain, the uptake of Tc-99m-HM-PAO in the brain reached the peak immediately after the iv injection, with 90% or more remaining constant by 15 min postinjection. On early SPECT images, a high uptake of I-123 IMP was observed in the lung, and the uptake of Tc-99m HM-PAO was observed as well in the soft tissue of cervical region. In all patients except for one, decreased rCBF was observed in the lesions on both I-123 and Tc-99m SPECT scans. Both of the radiopharmaceuticals were analogous in that decreased blood flow corresponded to cerebral lesions. (Namekawa, K).

  18. Using radioisotopes compounds (99mTc-infecton and 99mTcHIG) in evaluating and examination of pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, H. M.; Abdul-Hakeem, O.; Mohammad, K.; Briton, K.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined 40 patients: 34 have pulmonary tuberculosis, 3 have pneumonitis, 2 have lung cancer, and one has bilharziasis. All patients have been imaged using radioisotopes compounds (99mTc-infecton and 99mTcHIG) and after 1 hour and 4 hours of patients injection.Using 99mTc-infecton gave positive results in 30 pulmonary tuberculosis patients out of 34, the 3 pneumonitis patients, while using 99mTcHIG gave positive results in 27 pulmonary tuberculosis patients including the 3 pneumonitis patients. Both 99mTc-infecton and 99mTcHIG gave negative results with the lung cancer patients and unreal positive results with the bilharziasis patient. It has been found that the sensitivity and accuracy in the examinations using 99mTc-infecton were 88%, 93%, and 85.7% respectively in comparison with using 99mTcHIG where the values were 70.6%, 91%, and 68.5% respectively. Continuing examination and monitoring of 18 tuberculosis patients for 2-18 months with anti-pulmonary tuberculosis treatment, showed complete response of 12 patients using 99mTc-infecton, and 8 by using 99mTcHIG. As a result, 99mTc-infecton can be used for examining pulmonary tuberculosis patients

  19. Comparative evaluation of 131I-hippuran and sup(99m)Tc-DTPA for renal function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempi, V.; Persson, R.B.R.; Svensson, L.

    1975-07-01

    131 I-labelled Hippuran and sup(99m)Tc-labelled DTPA have been compared as substances used for renal function tests. The radiation absorbed dose for 131 I-Hippuran and sup(99m)Tc-DTPA to different organs of an adult standard man is given i a table, showing considerably lower doses for sup(99m)Tc-DTPA. Good agreement was found between the renographic curves obtained with 131 I-Hippuran and sup(99m)Tc-DTPA compared to 131 I-Hippuran excellent scintiphotos of the kidney and also of the upper urinary ways were obtained with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA. With sup(99m)Tc-DTPA, repeated examinations make it possible to follow the development of a disease without great radiation risk to the patient (K.K.)

  20. Clinical comparison of I-131 orthoiodohippurate and the kit formulation of Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Ziffer, J.A.; Steves, A.; Eshima, D.; Delaney, V.B.; Welchel, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans have shown that technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) purified by high-performance liquid chromatography is a renal tubular agent with characteristics similar to those of iodine-131 orthoiodohippurate (OIH). A kit formulation for Tc-99m MAG3 has been developed and compared with I-131 OIH in 17 patients with suspected renal dysfunction and three potential kidney donors. There were no adverse reactions. Tc-99m MAG3 images were of good quality and consistently better than I-131 OIH images. There was no significant difference in the relative renal uptake of Tc-99m MAG3 and I-131 OIH. The 30-minute urinary excretion of Tc-99m MAG3 was 36.4%, versus 40.4% for I-131 OIH. The average plasma clearance of Tc-99m MAG3 (138 mL/min +/- 117) was less than that of I-131 OIH (272 mL/min +/- 205) (P less than .001); however, there was good correlation between the Tc-99m MAG3 and I-131 OIH clearances (r = .87). The volume of distribution of Tc-99m MAG3 (5.96 L +/- 1.94) was less than that of I-131 OIH (9.41 L +/- 3.73) (P less than .001). These characteristics and the advantages of a simple kit formulation should lead to widespread clinical use

  1. {sup 99}Mo sorption by thermally treated hydrotalcites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J.; Bertin, V.; Bulbulian, S.

    2000-04-04

    MoO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} ions were sorbed in calcined hydrotalcite contained in a column. It was found that 98% of {sup 99m}Tc formed by {sup 99}Mo decay was eluted through the column in the form of pertechnetate. The content of radionuclides was determined by {gamma}-spectrometry, and natural molybdenum was measured by neutron activation analysis. Solids were characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Through batch experiments, the hydrotalcite capacity toward molybdate ions (1.12 x 10{sup {minus}3} M) was found to be 3.2 mequiv g{sup {minus}1}. It was found that the high molybdate adsorbing capacity of calcined hydrotalcite could be utilized in designing a {sup 99m}Tc generator made with low specific activity {sup 99}Mo-molybdate samples.

  2. Assessment of Using 99Mo and 99mTc Isotopes in Kuwait Medical Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Naser

    2016-04-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) in the state of Kuwait currently depends on importing the radioisotope molybdenum (Mo) in its isotopic form (Mo) to fulfill its demands. The present study was conducted on all nuclear medicine departments in the state of Kuwait. Daily, weekly, and monthly data were analyzed to statistically determine the current and future demands for the isotope Tc. This analysis was performed by collecting and analyzing data on MOH consumption of Tc for different diagnostic applications. The overall results indicate a partial decrease of 1.012% in the overall total demand for Tc up to the year 2018 for the state of Kuwait.

  3. Preparation of 99 sup(m)Tc labeled fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.A.T.M. de; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1984-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of 99 sup(m) TC labelled Fibrinogen using stannous chloride as reducing agent of 99 sup(m) TcO- 4 ion is presented. A sample of 20 mg of Fibrinogen is dissolved in 2 ml of buffer carbonate (pH=8) and 0.3 ml stannous chloride 0.2% is added. A sterile solution of sodium pertechnetate 99 sup(m) Tc eluted from a Mo-Tc generator is immediately added. The mixture rests for 30 minutes and after this period, the obtained yield is about 70%. The lyophilized kits also presented a yield of 70%, being therefore suitable for medical applications. (Author) [pt

  4. Tc-99m imaging in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients immediately before I-131 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chi-Jung; Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Shen, Daniel Hueng-Yuan; Kuo, Shou Jen; Wang, Lien-Yen; Lee, Chiang-Hsuan; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chang, Ming-Che; Huang, Wen-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical role of technetium-99m pertechnetate (Tc-99m) imaging in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients immediately before radioiodine-131 (I-131) treatment (Tx). Eighty-six consecutive post-total-thyroidectomy patients (15 men, 71 women; mean age: 46.8 years) with pathologically diagnosed differentiated thyroid cancer were retrospectively studied. Tc-99m imaging immediately before I-131 Tx using both patient-based and lesion-based measurements were analyzed and were further compared with those of post-Tx I-131 whole-body scans. For patients with unequivocally positive Tc-99m uptake, the sensitivity was 77% (patient-based) and 59% (site-based). The positive predictive value (PPV) was 100% for both patient-based and site-based measurements. If equivocal Tc-99m uptake was counted as positive, the sensitivity was 83 and 67%, and the PPV was 100 and 99% for patient-based and site-based measurements, respectively. (a) To increase sensitivity yet maintaining high PPV, equivocal Tc-99m uptake should be considered a positive finding. (b) The nearly 100% PPV of Tc-99m imaging immediately before I-131 Tx for remnant detection suggests that Tc-99m imaging not only serves as an alternative to low-dose I-131 scanning in the low-risk post-thyroidectomy patients but also provides a clue for the subsequent I-131 therapeutic dosage and even for the outcome prediction.

  5. Studies on sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate from the MEK solvent extraction generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, R.; Moore, D.E.; Maddalena, D.J.; Boyd, R.E.

    1984-12-01

    Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography has revealed organic residues in sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate obtained from 99 Mo-molybdate by extraction, using the organic solvent methylethylketone (MEK). The organic residues have been identified as either (i) low molecular weight carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone, presumably caused by the effects of γ-radiation on MEK, or (ii) condensation products resulting from the action of strong alkali on MEK during the extraction process. The quantities of organic residues varied from batch to batch of extracted pertechnetate; up to 40 μ mL -1 was found. When these compounds were tested, in rats, by addition to a pyrophosphate bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical, the tissue distribution was not significantly different from that in the control, which contained no added compound. Assay for 99 Tc in MEK-derived pertechnetate indicated up to 10 μg mL -1 of 99 Tc carrier. An assessment of the biological effect of 99 Tc carrier was obtained by (i) red blood cell labelling, where 6 ng mL -1 of 99 Tc was sufficient to reduce labelling efficiency; and (ii) pyrophosphate tissue distribution, where a significant effect was obtained in the presence of 10 μ mL -1 of 99 Tc carrier

  6. Low-activity 124I-PET/low-dose CT versus 99mTc-pertechnetate planar scintigraphy or 99mTc-pertechnetate single-photon emission computed tomography of the thyroid: a pilot comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Andreas M; Opfermann, Thomas; Niksch, Tobias; Driesch, Dominik; Marlowe, Robert J; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2013-10-01

    The standard thyroid functional imaging method, 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTc-PT) planar scintigraphy, has technical drawbacks decreasing its sensitivity in detecting nodules or anatomical pathology. 124I-PET, lacking these disadvantages and allowing simultaneous CT, may have greater sensitivity for these purposes. We performed a blinded pilot comparison of 124I-PET(/CT) versus 99mTc-PT planar scintigraphy or its cross-sectional enhancement, 99mTc-PT single-photon emission CT (SPECT), in characterizing the thyroid gland with benign disease. Twenty-one consecutive adults with goiter underwent low-activity (1 MBq/0.027 mCi) 124I-PET/low-dose (30 mAs) CT, 99mTc-PT planar scintigraphy, and 99mTc-PT-SPECT. Endpoints included the numbers of “hot spots” with/without central photopenia and “cold spots” detected, the proportion of these lesions with morphological correlates, the mean volume and diameter of visualized nodules, and the number of cases of lobus pyramidalis or retrosternal thyroid tissue identified. 124I-PET detected significantly more “hot spots” with/without central photopenia (P < 0.001), significantly more nodules (P < 0.001), and more “cold spots” than did 99mTc-PT planar scintigraphy or 99mTc-PT-SPECT, including all lesions seen on the 99mTc-PT modalities. Ultrasonographic correlates were found for all nodules visualized on all 3 modalities and 92.5% of nodules seen only on 124I-PET. Nodules discernible only on 124I-PET had significantly smaller mean volume or diameter (P < 0.001) than did those visualized on 99mTc-PT planar scintigraphy or 99mTc-PT-SPECT. 124I-PET(/CT) identified significantly more patients with a lobus pyramidalis (P < 0.001) or retrosternal thyroid tissue (P < 0.05). 124I-PET(/CT) may provide superior imaging of benign thyroid disease compared to planar or cross-sectional 99mTc-PT scintigraphy.

  7. Determination of Tc-99 in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera S, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Tc-99 is a fission product and one of the most important radionuclides from the view point of safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste because of its long half-life (2.1 x 10 5 years) and high mobility in soil-water systems, if this is released into the environment in significant quantities can concentrate on plants and animals. Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter with a maximum energy of 292 KeV, so their quantification imposes destructive methods to be analyzed by liquid scintillation. Therefore the quantification of Tc-99 in ion exchange resins requires of the mineralization of these and separation of Tc-99 of other radioisotopes present in the resin. Therefore the object of this thesis is to develop a quantification method of Tc-99 content in spent exchange resins. So in order to track the behavior of technetium during digestion exchange resins and radiochemical separation, given its high volatility, in this work the 99m Tc is used. To determine the degree of mineralization of the resins, an analysis was performed by chromatography. Subsequently the method used to determine the percentage of 99m Tc aerosolized during mineralization of resin is described. After the method for the radiochemical separation of 99m Tc is presented by liquid-liquid extraction using crown ether as extractant; for this testing was performed by varying the molarity of the extractant, the ratio of solvent extractant, type of digestion of the resin and the presence of Sr-85, in order to study the behavior of 99m Tc in the presence of this radioisotope. Finally, a track beta spectra of a sample of 99m Tc eluted from a generator 99 Mo/ 99m Tc function of time was performed. (Author)

  8. Nuclear quadrupole moment of the 99Tc ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errico, Leonardo; Darriba, German; Renteria, Mario; Tang Zhengning; Emmerich, Heike; Cottenier, Stefaan

    2008-01-01

    By combining first-principles calculations and existing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, we determine the quadrupole moment of the 9/2 + ground state of 99 Tc to be (-)0.14(3)b. This confirms the value of -0.129(20)b, which is currently believed to be the most reliable experimental determination, and disagrees with two earlier experimental values. We supply ab initio calculated electric-field gradients for Tc in YTc 2 and ZrTc 2 . If this calculated information would be combined with yet to be performed Tc-NMR experiments in these compounds, the error bar on the 99 Tc ground state quadrupole moment could be further reduced

  9. Sorption of {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions on commercial hydrotalcites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J.; Gonzalez, H.; Lopez, H.; Aranda, N.; Granados, F.; Bulbulian, S. [Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico (Mexico). Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares

    2005-07-01

    {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} sorption behavior on 3 commercial hydrotalcites, produced by Sasol Chemie, was studied through batch experiments. Only one of them showed high sorption capacity. This product, the MG70 was identified by XRD diffraction analysis as hydrotalcite (Mg{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}CO{sub 3} x 4H{sub 2}O), while the other two, MG50 and MG30, were identified mainly as magnesium aluminum hydroxide hydrate, MgAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 14} x 3H{sub 2}O. Calcined MG70 (CMG70) was used to retain about 298.17{+-}8.3 mg of {sup 99}Mo-MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (MG70-{sup 99}MoO{sub 4}). When this material was packed in a glass column, the generated {sup 99m}Tc was eluted by using NaCl or HNO{sub 3} aqueous solutions. Saline solutions eluted {sup 99m}Tc with considerable amounts of {sup 99}Mo while 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} eluted {sup 99m}Tc together with a such small amount of {sup 99}Mo that the {sup 99}Mo {mu}Ci/{sup 99m}Tc mCi ratios are close to the value recommended by the American Pharmacopeia. (orig.)

  10. A new approach for manufacturing and processing targets to produce 99mTc with cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, L.; McRae, G.; Galea, R.; Niculae, D.; Craciun, L.; Leonte, R.; Surette, G.; Langille, S.; Louis, C. St.; Gelbart, W.; Abeysekera, B.; Johnson, R. R.

    2017-06-01

    The most important radioisotope for nuclear medicine is 99mTc. After the supply crisis of 99Mo starting in 2008, the availability of 99mTc became a worldwide concern. Alternative methods for producing the medical imaging isotope 99mTc are actively being developed around the world. The reaction 100Mo(p, 2n)99mTc provides a direct route that can be incorporated into routine production in nuclear medicine centers that possess medical cyclotrons for production of other isotopes, such as those used for Positron Emission Tomography. This paper describes a new approach for manufacturing targets for the (p, 2n) nuclear reaction on 100Mo and the foundation for the subsequent commercial separation and purification of the 99mTc produced. Two designs of targets are presented. The targets used to produce 99mTc are subject to a number of operational constraints.They must withstand the temperatures generated by the irradiation, accommodate temperature gradients from cooling system of the target, must be resilient and must be easily post-processed to separate the 99mTc. After irradiation, the separation of Tc from Mo was carried out using an innovative two-step approach. The process described in this paper can be automated with modules that easily fit in standard production hot cells found in nuclear medicine facilities.

  11. The PZC-based Tc-99m generator preparation and its performance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu

    2007-01-01

    This paper described the preparation of Tc-99m generator prepared with Japan distributing Mo adsorbent PZC and irradiated nature MoO 3 and its performance test. Four Tc-99m generators were prepared with different batches of PZC and reactor irradiated nature MoO 3 . The adsorption capacity of PZC to Mo is approximately 200mgMo/gPZC. The adsorption efficiency of three batches PZC is good (>90%) and that of one batch of PZC is not good enough (∼83%). The loss of fine powder (The PZC is fragile) is quite different with the different preparation process of PZC. The elution efficiency is 80-90% and has the up trend with the elution date. The Mo breakthrough can be controlled to acceptable level by connecting HZO safe column containing 1.0g HZO. All the specifications of eluted from PZC-based Tc-99m generator can meet the requirements under Sodium Pertechnetate injection in China Pharmacopoeia. (author)

  12. Excitation function and isomeric ratio of Tc-isotopes from the 93Nb(α, xn) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, G.N.; Naik, H.; Zaman, M.; Yang, S.-C.; Song, T.-Y.; Guin, R.; Das, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    The excitation functions of 94–96 Tc isotopes and independent isomeric ratios of 93m, g Tc, 94m, g Tc, and 95m, g Tc from the 93 Nb(α, xn) reaction within the energy range below 40 MeV have been determined by using a stacked-foil activation and an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkota, India. The excitation function of 94–96 Tc in the 93 Nb(α, xn) reaction was also calculated by using the computer code TALYS 1.6. The present data are found to be in general agreement with the literature data but have similar trend with some deviation from calculated data of the TALYS 1.6 code. The isomeric ratios of 93m, g Tc, 94m, g Tc, and 95m, g Tc in the 93 Nb(α, xn) reactions from the present work and literature data were compared with similar data in the 93 Nb( 3 He, xn) and 96 Mo(p, xn) reactions. In all the three reactions, the isomeric ratios increase with the increasing excitation energy. However, at all excitation energies, the isomeric ratios of 93m, g Tc, 94m, g Tc, and 95m, g Tc in the 93 Nb(α, xn) and 93 Nb( 3 He, xn) reactions are higher than those in the 96 Mo(p, xn) reactions, which indicate the role of input angular momentum besides excitation energy. Above the excitation energy of 35–55 MeV, the isomeric ratios of 95m, g Tc, 94m, g Tc, and 93m, g Tc decrease in all the 93 Nb(α, xn), 93 Nb( 3 He, xn) and 96 Mo(p, xn) reactions. This decreasing trend at higher excitation energy indicates the starting of pre-equilibrium reaction, which depends on the target, projectile, and type of reaction products

  13. LEU{sub b}ased Fission Mo-99 Process with Reduced Solid Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungkon; Lee, Suseung; Jung, Sunghee; Hong, Soonbog; Jang, Kyungduk; Choi, Sang Mu; Lee, Jun Sig; Lim, Incheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 99m} Tc emits 140 keV of very low gamma-ray radiation energy, as low as conventional diagnostic X-ray, and has short half-life of 6.0058 hours. Therefore, as radioactive tracer, {sup 99m} Tc provides high quality diagnostic images but keeps total patient radiation exposure low. Depending on the tagging pharmaceuticals and procedures, {sup 99m} Tc can be applied for the diagnostics of various target organs and diseases: brain, myocardium, thyroid, lungs, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, skeleton, blood and tumors. More than 95% of {sup 99}Mo is produced through fission of {sup 235}U worldwide because, {sup 99m}o generated from the fission (fission {sup 99}Mo) exhibits very high specific activity (<100 Ci/g). Over 90% of fission {sup 99}Mo producers have been used highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets so far. However, the IAEA recommends the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) to the {sup 99}Mo producers for nonproliferation reason. These days, worldwide {sup 99}Mo supply is not only insufficient but also unstable. Because, most of the main {sup 99}Mo production reactors are about 50 years old and suffered from frequent and unscheduled shutdown. Planned weekly productivity of 2000 Ci fission {sup 99}Mo, in a 6-day reference, will cover 100% domestic demand of Korea, as well as 20% of international market. It is expected to replace 4.3 million USD ($800/Ci) of {sup 99}Mo import for domestic market while exporting 82.8 million USD for world market, annually.

  14. 99mTc generator preparation using (n, γ)99Mo produced using natural molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hark Rho; Park, Jin Ho; Lee, Kye Hong

    2003-01-01

    The Mo-99 is a widely used radioisotope in Korea. To fulfill the demand, we are producing Mo-99 using a specially designed and fabricated rig containing MoO 3 target. We are using natural molybdenum so far. But considering the utilization of the enriched molybdenum to increase the specific activity further, we desire the realization of PZC with (n, γ)Mo-99 as early as possible. To make the generator loading facility, we are in progress of construction work for the related hot cell facilities. (author)

  15. Preparation of chromatographic and solid-solvent extraction 99mTc generators using gel-type targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van So

    2000-01-01

    We have studied two types of targets zirconium-molybdate (ZrMo) and titanium-molybdate (TiMo) prepared by precipitating reaction between ammonium-molybdate and zirconium-chloride or titanium-chloride solutions, respectively. Other types of targets were also prepared by co-precipitating ZrMo or TiMo with hydrous manganese-dioxide, hydrous silica, and hydrous titanium-dioxide or by impregnated ZrMo or TiMo with Iodate anions. The results on extraction of Tc-99m from neutron irradiated TiMo solid phase using solvents such as MEK, aceton, ethylic ether, chloroform, etc showed that separation yield (SY) of Tc-99m in case of aceton extraction was from 70% to 80% and in other cases non higher than 40%. The Tc-99m elution curves and column kinetic in case of aceton extraction (after evaporation of aceton and recovery of Tc-99m in 0,9% NaCl solution) was superior than in case chromatographic generator using saline eluant. As result obtained, two types of generators were successfully prepared and put into use: Chromatographic generator using titanium-molybdate target as packing material and saline as eluant. Solid-solvent extraction 99m Tc generator using titanium-molybdate target (as solid phase) and aceton as extracting solvent. (author)

  16. Preparation of zirconium molybdate gel for 99mTc gel generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliludin, Z.; Ohkubo, Masatake; Kushita, Kouhei

    1988-09-01

    Zirconium molybdate gel has excellent characteristics for use as column matrix material of 99m Tc generators. In this work, zirconium molybdate gels were prepared under different conditions; pH's of molybdate solutions from 2.5 to 7.0, Mo:Zr molar ratios from 0.7:1.0 to 1.3:1.0, drying temperatures from an ambient temperature to 200 deg C, and drying times from 1 h to 25 h. Contents of water, nitrate, molybdenum and zirconium were measured to examine the fundamental conditions in gel preparation. The Mo:Zr molar ratio was 1.0:1.0 for the most of gels obtained. A 99m Tc generator was prepared with an amorphous zirconium molybdate containing a tracer level of 99 Mo as column matrix material. Elution of 99m Tc was rapid and the average elution efficiency was 90 % for 6 ml elutions. Contents of radionuclidic impurities, Zr and Mo in the eluates, were low enough to meet the pharmacopoeia requirements for human use. (author)

  17. Tumor affinity of technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceuticals. II. Sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-EHDP), sup(99m)Tc-Sn-dimercaptosuccinic acid (sup(99m)Tc-DMSA), sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diethyl stilbestrol diphosphate (sup(99m)Tc-DSDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K; Kobayashi, S; Hisada, K; Tonami, N [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ando, A

    1976-10-01

    The authors have examined the tumor affinity of various sup(99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals to Ehrlich's tumor for the purpose of delineating human malignant neoplasm positively. The biologic distributions of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-EHDP), sup(99m)Tc-Sn-dimercaptosuccinic acid (sup(99m)Tc-DMSA) and sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diethyl stilbestrol diphosphate (sup(99m)Tc-DSDP, sup(99m)Tc-Honvan) are included as the second report on the tumor affinity of Ehrlich-bearing mice. Tumor concentration of sup(99m)Tc-EHDP was lowest and the positive delineation of implanted tumor with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP was poorest in sequential images, though active accumulation in some soft tissues malignant neoplasms, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer, has been reported. Tumor concentration and the tumor-to-blood ratio of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA were not so high, contrary to our expectation that /sup 197/Hg-DMSA might show high tumor concentration and high tumor-to-blood ratio the same as /sup 197/Hg chlormerodrin of the renal scanning radiopharmaceuticals. Tumor concentration of sup(99m)Tc-DSDP was highest. The tumor-to-blood concentration ratio was lower than that of the above mentioned radiopharmaceuticals but the tumor-to-liver ratio and/or tumor-to-lung ratio was over 1.0 at the earlier time. Biologic distribution of sup(99m)Tc-DSDP was similar to that of /sup 32/P labeled DSDP. It is presumed that sup(99m)Tc is labeled at the phosphate ester of DSDP which is dephospholytated immediately by phospholylase in vivo following intravenous injection. Although it is not known precisely it may be assumed that the mechanism of accumulating sup(99m)Tc-DSDP in Ehrlich's tumor is related to the phospholylase activity in neoplasms.

  18. Simultaneous 99mTC and 123I Dual-Isotope Brain Striatal Phantom Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography: Validation of 99mTC-Trodat-1 and 123I-IBZM Simultaneous Dopamine System Brain Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pan-Fu Kao; Shiaw-Pyng Wey; An-Shoei Yang

    2009-01-01

    [2[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3,2,1]-oct-2-yl]-methyl](2-mercaptoethyl)amino]ethyl]amino]ethanethiolato(3-)-N2,N2′,S2,S2]oxo-[1R-exo-exo)])-[99mTc]-technetium (99mTc-TRODAT-1) and 123I-iodobenzamide (123I-IBZM) are radiotracers for brain dopamine preand postsynaptic neuron imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging parameters and crossed energy interference using simultaneous single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 99mTc and 123I data acquisition...

  19. 99Tc atom counting by quadrupole ICP-MS. Optimisation of the instrumental response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, Jose L.; Garcia-Leon, Manuel; Bolivar, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an extensive work is done on the specific tune of a conventional ICP-MS for 99 Tc atom counting. For this, two methods have been used and compared: the partial variable control method and the 5D Simplex method. Instrumental limits of detection of 0.2 and 0.8 ppt, respectively, were obtained. They are noticeably lower than that found with the automatic tune method of the spectrometer, 47 ppt, which shows the need of a specific tune when very low levels of 99 Tc have to be determined. A study is presented on the mass interferences for 99 Tc. Our experiments show that the formation of polyatomic atoms or refractory oxides as well as 98 Mo hydrides seem to be irrelevant for 99 Tc atom counting. The opposite occurs with the presence of isobaric interferences, i.e. 99 Ru, and the effect of abundance sensitivity, or low-mass resolution, which can modify the response at m/z=99 to a non-negligible extent

  20. Photo-transmutation of {sup 100}Mo to {sup 99}Mo with Laser-Compton Scattering Gamma-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jiyoung; Rehman, Haseeb ur; Kim, Yonghee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents a photonuclear transmutation method using laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma-ray beam. Potential production rate (reaction rate) of 99Mo using the photonuclear (γ,n) reaction is evaluated. Rigorous optimization of the LCS spectrum has also been performed to maximize production of the 99Mo. Cyclotron proton accelerators are used worldwide to produce many short-living medical isotopes. However, few are capable of producing Mo-99 and none are suitable for producing more than a small fraction of the required amounts. More than 90% of the world's demand of 99Mo is sourced from five nuclear reactors. Two of these reactors have already been decommissioned and the rest are more than 45 years old. Relatively short half-life of the parent 99Mo requires continuous re-supply to meet the requirements of medical industry. Therefore, there is an urgent need to produce the 99Mo and 99mTc isotopes by alternative ways. One such alternative is giant dipole resonance (GDR) based photonuclear transmutation of 100Mo to 99Mo. For 99Mo production with the LCS photons using GDR-based (γ,n) reaction, the gamma-ray energy should be around 15 MeV. This study indicates that optimization of LCS spectrum by varying the electron and laser energies within practical limits can enhance the transmutation of Mo-100 to M-99 quite significantly. It has been found that irradiation time should be rather short, e.g., less than 6 hours, to maximize the weekly production of Mo-99 in the GDR-based Mo-99 production facility using the LCS photons. The analysis shows that production of 99Mo using a high-performance LCS facility offers a potentially-promising alternative for the production of 99mTc.

  1. Simultaneous acquisition of (99m)Tc- and (123)I-labeled radiotracers using a preclinical SPECT scanner with CZT detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Matsunari, Ichiro; Nishi, Kodai; Mizutani, Asuka; Miyazaki, Yoshiharu; Ogai, Kazuhiro; Sugama, Jyunko; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Keiichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous acquisition of (99m)Tc and (123)I was evaluated using a preclinical SPECT scanner with cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based detectors. 10-ml cylindrical syringes contained about 37 MBq (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin ((99m)Tc-TF) or 37 MBq (123)I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3R,S-methyl pentadecanoic acid ((123)I-BMIPP) were used to assess the relationship between these SPECT radioactive counts and radioactivity. Two 10-ml syringes contained 100 or 300 MBq (99m)Tc-TF and 100 MBq (123)I-BMIPP to assess the influence of (99m)Tc upscatter and (123)I downscatter, respectively. A rat-sized cylindrical phantom also contained both 100 or 300 MBq (99m)Tc-TF and 100 MBq (123)I-BMIPP. The two 10-ml syringes and phantom were scanned using a pinhole collimator for rats. Myocardial infarction model rats were examined using 300 MBq (99m)Tc-TF and 100 MBq (123)I-BMIPP. Two 1-ml syringes contained 105 MBq (99m)Tc-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) and 35 MBq (123)I-labeled N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT). The two 1-ml syringes were scanned using a pinhole collimator for mice. Normal mice were examined using 105 MBq (99m)Tc-HMPAO and 35 MBq (123)I-FP-CIT. The relationship between SPECT radioactive counts and radioactivity was excellent. Downscatter contamination of (123)I-BMIPP exhibited fewer radioactive counts for 300 MBq (99m)Tc-TF without scatter correction (SC) in 125-150 keV. There was no upscatter contamination of (99m)Tc-TF in 150-175 keV. In the rat-sized phantom, the radioactive count ratio decreased to 4.0 % for 300 MBq (99m)Tc-TF without SC in 125-150 keV. In the rats, myocardial images and radioactive counts of (99m)Tc-TF with the dual tracer were identical to those of the (99m)Tc-TF single injection. Downscatter contamination of (123)I-FP-CIT was 4.2 % without SC in 125-150 keV. In the first injection of (99m)Tc-HMPAO and second injection of (123)I-FP-CIT, brain images and radioactive counts

  2. Elimination of interference of 129-iodine by its adsorption at extraction separation of 99-technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkova, M.; Tkac, P.; Kopunec, R.

    2001-01-01

    Three types of macro-amount of anions SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , OH - in the presence of I- were chosen in this work for comparison of competition with TcO 4 - anions in extraction reaction with Ph 4 As + , where weak, medium and strong competition can be expected respectively. Ph 4 AsCl in chloroform was used as organic phase. The influence of solid AgI or AgCl on Tc extraction was also studied in this extraction systems. The extraction of technetium after four-multiplied extraction from chosen solutions was studied. This procedure was applied in the process of Tc extraction from solutions of reprocessing plant. Various concentrations of K 2 CrO 4 and UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 in water phase on Tc extraction was investigate, too. The influence of I - ( 131 I) in the process of extraction separation of technetium was studied. The iodine removal was taken out from the solution by its adsorption on insoluble AgI or AgCl phase. The yields for 99m Tc were higher than 95% in organic phase and for 131 I higher than 80% in AgI or AgCl. It is possible to note, that this procedure can be also applied for 99 Tc and 129 I separation and estimation. The results of the extraction are presented in the form of graphical plots of technetium distribution ratio (D Tc , log D Tc ) or extraction yield (E Tc %) against concentration of investigate component in aqueous phase. (authors)

  3. Preclinical evaluation of 99mTc(CO)3-aspartic-N-monoacetic acid, 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA), a new renal radiotracer with pharmacokinetic properties comparable to 131I-OIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Marzilli, Luigi G.; Taylor, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to develop a renal tracer with pharmacokinetic properties comparable to PAH and superior to those of both 99mTc-MAG3 and 131I-OIH, we evaluated a new renal tricarbonyl radiotracer based on the aspartic-N-monoacetic acid ligand, 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA). The ASMA ligand features two carboxyl groups and an amine function for the coordination of the {99mTc(CO)3}+ core as well as a dangling carboxylate to facilitate rapid renal clearance. Methods rac-ASMA and L-ASMA were labeled with a 99mTc-tricarbonyl precursor and radiochemical purity of the labeled products was determined by HPLC. Using 131I-OIH as an internal control, we evaluated biodistribution in normal rats with 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers and in rats with renal pedicle ligation with 99mTc(CO)3(rac-ASMA). Clearance studies were conducted in 4 additional rats. In vitro radiotracer stability was determined in PBS buffer pH 7.4 and in challenge studies with cysteine and histidine. 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) metabolites in urine were analyzed by HPLC. Results Both 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) preparations had > 99% radiochemical purity and were stable in PBS buffer pH 7.4 for 24 h. Challenge studies on both revealed no significant displacement of the ligand. In normal rats, % injected dose in urine at 10 and 60 min for both preparations averaged 103% and 106% that of 131I-OIH, respectively. The renal clearances of 99mTc(CO)3(rac-ASMA) and 131I-OIH were comparable (P = 0.48). The tracer was excreted unchanged in the urine, proving its in vivo stability. In pedicle-ligated rats, 99mTc(CO)3(rac-ASMA) had less excretion into the bowel (P ASMA) complexes have pharmacokinetic properties in rats comparable to or superior to those of 131I-OIH, and human studies are warranted for their further evaluation. PMID:22717977

  4. Magnesium-molybdenum compounds as matrixes of 99m Tc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez M, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    In order to finding new production alternatives of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, easy to produce and with high elutriation efficiencies, it is proposed in this work to develop a generator with basis of magnesium and molybdenum that could be irradiated after their synthesis, given the short half life of the only radioisotope produced by the magnesium: 27 Mg (t 1/2 = 9.46 m). It is necessary to mention that have not been reported works in relation to this type of compound, being then important to carry out basic studies on the formation and behavior of these in relation to their matrix functions of those generated of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. In this work it was determined the effect that has, the magnesium salt used in the synthesis of those molybdenum-magnesium compounds, the molar ratio Mo: Mg, the concentration of the magnesium salt, the pH of the used ammonium molybdates in the synthesis of the final compounds and the washing of the molybdates of synthesized magnesium, in the performance of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators. Parameters like the elutriation efficiency, the radionuclide purity, radiochemical and chemical of the eluates and their pH, were determined in each case, also its were characterized the synthesized compounds using: neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum (SEM), besides of complementary techniques: infrared spectroscopy (IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). (Author)

  5. Scintigraphic findings on 99mTc-MDP, 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-HMPAO images in Gaucher's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, G.; Molea, N.; La Civita, L.; Porciello, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Ferri, C.

    1996-01-01

    We report here on the use of the lipophilic cationic complex technetium-99m sestamibi ( 99m Tc-MIBI), employed as an indicator of increased cellular density and metabolic activity, to evaluate Gaucher cell infiltrates in the bone marrow; 99m Tc-hexametazime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) was also employed, as a pure indicator of lipidic infiltration in the bone marrow. A 67-year-old patient with known type 1 Gaucher's disease presented with a painful left hip and knee and difficulty in gait subsequent to traumatic fracture of the left femoral neck that had required implant of a fixation screw-plaque. Bone scan with 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate revealed reduced uptake at the distal metaphyseal-epiphyseal femoral region. In addition, whole-body maps and spot-view acquisitions of the thighs and legs were recorded at both 30 min and 2.5 h after the injection of 99m Tc-MIBI: the scintigraphic pattern clearly showed increased uptake at several sites involved by Gaucher deposits in the bone marrow (both knees, with variable intensity in different areas), matching the bone changes detected by conventional x-ray. The target to non-target ratios slowly decreased with time, from an average value of 2.25 in the early scan to an average value of 2 in the delayed scan. The lipid-soluble agent 99m Tc-HMPAO exhibited a superimposable scintigraphic pattern of accumulation at the involved sites, though with lower target to non-target ratios (1.27-1.48). The results obtained in this patient suggest a potential role of 99m Tc-MIBI in the scintigraphic evaluation of Gaucher's lipid deposits in the bone marrow. If the results are confirmed in other patients, this radiopharmaceutical would offer clear advantages over 133 Xe because of its wider availability and greater practicality (i.v. administration of 99m Tc-MIBI versus inhalation of 133 Xe, and use of a single gamma camera instead of two as with 133 Xe). (orig.). With 3 figs

  6. A draft plan for the routine production of PZC based 99mTc generator in the Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Van Dong

    2007-01-01

    This is an outline of the radioisotope production programme using a research reactor of 500 kW in Vietnam. Under the framework of Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) cooperation program, the PZC based technology for production of 99m Tc-generator has been studied at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI) as well as FNCA members countries in the past several years. The FNCA project has shown the feasibility of using a PZC column-reactor 99 Mo- 99m Tc-generator for commercial applications, citing mainly the cheaper cost of the PZC generator than the imported alumina column-fission 99 Mo generator and excellent technology achievement has been established and optimized by close cooperation between FNCA country members and KAKEN, JAERI. DNRI proposes in this draft business plan, the commercial production of PZC generator through the establishment of national project stage 2006-2008 for the routine production of 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator. In this national project the 99m Tc-generator will use PZC coming from KAKEN - Japan or locally synthesis as the column material, 99 Mo sourced from neighboring countries or irradiated at or reactor and the semi-automatic loading and adsorption machine will be studied, designed and installed in the hot cells available. Because the DNRI have facility 99m Tc-generator production line with two hot cells used production of the 99m Tc generator by using fission 99 Mo. The generator assembly will be designed and fabricated. (author)

  7. Magnesium-molybdenum compounds as matrixes of {sup 99m} Tc generators; Compuestos de magnesio-molibdeno como matrices de generadores de {sup 99m} Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez M, T S

    2005-07-01

    In order to finding new production alternatives of {sup 99}Mo/ {sup 99m}Tc generators, easy to produce and with high elutriation efficiencies, it is proposed in this work to develop a generator with basis of magnesium and molybdenum that could be irradiated after their synthesis, given the short half life of the only radioisotope produced by the magnesium: {sup 27} Mg (t{sub 1/2} = 9.46 m). It is necessary to mention that have not been reported works in relation to this type of compound, being then important to carry out basic studies on the formation and behavior of these in relation to their matrix functions of those generated of {sup 99} Mo/ {sup 99m} Tc. In this work it was determined the effect that has, the magnesium salt used in the synthesis of those molybdenum-magnesium compounds, the molar ratio Mo: Mg, the concentration of the magnesium salt, the pH of the used ammonium molybdates in the synthesis of the final compounds and the washing of the molybdates of synthesized magnesium, in the performance of the {sup 99} Mo/ {sup 99m} Tc generators. Parameters like the elutriation efficiency, the radionuclide purity, radiochemical and chemical of the eluates and their pH, were determined in each case, also its were characterized the synthesized compounds using: neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum (SEM), besides of complementary techniques: infrared spectroscopy (IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). (Author)

  8. The new 99mTc myocardial perfusion imaging agents: 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-teboroxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The two new 99m (99mTc) labeled myocardial perfusion agents, 99mTc-Sestamibi and 99mTc-Teboroxime, are now available for routine clinical application. Both agents allow assessment of ejection fraction by the first-pass technique at rest or during exercise, thus providing additional information not available with thallium-201. 99mTc-Sestamibi has long myocardial residence time, as well as adequate myocardial extraction, providing images of higher count density and superior quality compared with thallium-201. 99mTc-Teboroxime has excellent myocardial uptake characteristics but is cleared very rapidly from the myocardium. Both tracers have shown results similar to those obtained with thallium-201 for detection of coronary artery disease and the assessment of defect reversibility. 99mTc-Sestamibi studies using the rest/stress imaging sequence can be accomplished in approximately 5 hours; studies using dual-isotope imaging (rest thallium-201 and stress 99mTc-Sestamibi injection) can be completed in 1 to 2 hours. Gated stress images can be performed with 99mTc-Sestamibi, providing simultaneous information of myocardial perfusion at stress and resting wall motion or thickening and allowing rapid differentiation of ischemic from infarcted tissue. Because of its slow myocardial clearance and absence of redistribution, 99mTc-Sestamibi allows uncoupling of the time of injection from the time of imaging and thus can be valuable in the evaluation of acute myocardial infarction and outcome of thrombolytic therapy. With 99mTc-Teboroxime, rapid serial studies are feasible. Pharmacologic stress and rest studies with 99mTc-Teboroxime single photon emission computed tomography potentially can be completed in under 30 minutes. 73 references

  9. 99mTc renal tubular function agents: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Orthoiodohippuric (OIH) acid labeled with 131I is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical agent and has been the standard radiopharmaceutical agent for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow (EPRF). Limitations to the routine clinical use of 131I OIH are related to the suboptimal imaging properties of the 131I radionuclide and its relatively high radiation dose. 123I has been substituted for 131I; however, its high cost and short shelf-life have limited its widespread use. Recent work has centered on the development of a new 99mTc renal tubular function agent, which would use the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of 99mTc and combine the clinical information provided by OIH. The search for a suitable 99mTc renal tubular function agent has focused on the diamide dithiolate (N2S2), the paraaminohippuric iminodiacetic acid (PAHIDA), and the triamide mercaptide (N3S) donor ligand systems. To date, the most promising 99mTc tubular function agent is the N3S complex: 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc MAG3). Studies in animal models in diuresis, dehydration, acid or base imbalance, ischemia, and renal artery stenosis demonstrate that 99mTc MAG3 behaves similarly to 131I OIH. A simple kit formulation is available that yields the 99mTc MAG3 complex in high radiochemical purity. Studies in normal subjects and patients indicate that 99mTc MAG3 is an excellent 99mTc renal tubular agent, but its plasma clearance is only 50% to 60% that of OIH. In an effort to develop an improved 99mTc renal tubular function agent, changes have been made in the core N3S donor ligand system, but to date no agent has been synthesized that is clinically superior to 99mTc MAG3. 61 references

  10. Development of 99mTc-labelled the d,1-diasteroisomer of HM-PAO for cerebral blood flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lun Xiao.

    1989-10-01

    The d,1-diastereoisomer of hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) was selected as the preferred ligand for Tc-99m as a radiotracer for cerebral perfusion imaging. Further improvement of the synthesis and isolation method of HM-PAO resulted in pure d,1-HM-PAO and pure meso-HM-PAO. The neutral, lipophilic Tc-99m complexes of d,1-HM-PAO and meso-HM-PAO were formed in high yield by stannous reduction of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator eluate, respectively. Two minutes following i.v. administration of Tc-99m-d,1-HM-PAO in mice, 2.24% of the injected dose appears in the brain. Little washout of the tracer is observed up to 24-hour post injection. Two minutes following i.v. administration of Tc-99m-meso-HM-PAO in mice, 1.9% of the injected dose appears in the brain. The radioactivity of Tc-99m-meso-HM-PAO declined faster than that of Tc-99m-d,1-HM-PAO did in the brain up to 24-hour post injection. 12 refs, 5 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Analysis of 99Tc and Its Activity Level in the Korean Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Chung, Kun Ho; Cho, Young Hyun; Kang, Mun Ja; Lee, Wanno; Kim, Hee Reyoung; Choi, Geun Sik

    2009-01-01

    An analytical method of 99 Tc concentration in soil was set up and discussed considering the 99 Tc concentration in Korean soil measured with its analytical method. A selective TEVA resin was used to separate and purify 99 Tc the in the soil sample. 99 Tc from a commercial 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator was used as a yield tracer for the chemical separation of 99 Tc and its problem when using as a tracer was discussed. The chemical recovery yield of was above 70%. The optimum conditions of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry system (ICP-MS) were set up to determine the 99 Tc after the separation process. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) was 15 mBq/kg-dry in this analytical procedure. The 99 Tc concentration in soils of Jeju and Kori were measured in the rage of 33.73-89.16 mBq/kg-dry. Those values were less than those reported in other countries and seemed to be originated from atmospheric fallout.

  12. Influence of alumina phases on the molybdenum adsorption capacity and chemical stability for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes-Silva, Cecilia C.; Ferreira, Thiago dos Santos; Paula, Carolina M. de; Otubo, Larissa, E-mail: cecilia.guedes@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Flavio M.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IGC/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2016-07-15

    Technetium-{sup 99m} is the clinically most used radionuclide worldwide. Although many techniques can be applied to separate {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc, the most commonly used method is the column chromatography with alumina as stationary phase. However, the alumina nowadays used has limited adsorption capacity of molybdate ions which implies the need to develop or improve materials to produce high specific activity generators. In this paper, alumina was obtained by a solid state method and heat treatments at different conditions. The powders had a microstructure with porous particles of γ, δ, θ and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases as well as specific surface area between 36 and 312 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Most interesting results were reached by powders calcined at 900 deg C for 5 hours which had high chemical stability and a molybdenum adsorption capacity of 92.45 mg Mo per g alumina. (author)

  13. Simultaneous determination of radioactive halogen isotopes and 99Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabai, E.; Vajda, N.; Gaca, P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simplified method for simultaneous determination of radiologically important halogen isotopes and 99 Tc from different types of samples like environmental, biological and waste samples. Due to their long half-lives (longer than 10 5 years) they play important role in the nuclear cycle, especially in environmental monitoring and protection. For a rapid response in the evaluation of 129 I, 36 Cl and 99 Tc contamination levels of these samples it is advantageous to combine the existing individual methods. According to the present procedure, iodine, chlorine and technetium are separated selectively from the same sample aliquot followed by the β spectrometry of the purified fractions. Increased sensitivities can be achieved by neutron activation (NA) especially in the case of 129 I. Our work intends to solve the problem by combining the well-known hot acidic distillation method for iodine separation with the organic extraction process characteristic for technetium separation. The major objective of the work was to separate the disturbing halides from iodine. For this purpose a selective oxidant was applied. For the sample destruction and fractionated distillation an air flow-through installation was used with hot concentrated sulphuric and nitric acids. The trap for iodine contained 3 M NaOH solution. After iodine separation the trap was exchanged for a new one containing the same solution for trapping chlorine or bromine with an addition of 0.01 M KMnO 4 solution as an oxidative agent. As expected, the main part of technetium was contained in the acidic residue after distillation. Tc purification was performed by organic extraction with TBP and TEVA column. (author)

  14. Planar scintigraphy with 123I/99mTc-sestamibi, 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT, 11C-methionine PET/CT, or selective venous sampling before reoperation of primary hyperparathyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Ryhänen, Eeva; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Seppänen, Marko; Arola, Johanna; Schildt, Jukka; Väisänen, Mika; Nelimarkka, Lassi; Lisinen, Irina; Aalto, Ville; Nuutila, Pirjo; Välimäki, Matti J

    2013-05-01

    All patients with primary hyperparathyroidism should undergo localization studies before reoperation, but it is not known which method is most accurate. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the performance of planar scintigraphy with (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi, (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT (SPECT/CT), (11)C-methionine PET/CT, and selective venous sampling (SVS) in persistent primary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-one patients referred for reoperation of persistent hyperparathyroidism were included and investigated with (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi, SPECT/CT (n = 19), (11)C-methionine PET/CT, and SVS (n = 18) before reoperation. All patients had been operated on 1-2 times previously because of hyperparathyroidism. The results of the localization studies were compared with operative findings, histology, and biochemical cure. Eighteen (86%) of 21 patients were biochemically cured. Nineteen parathyroid glands (9 adenomas, 1 atypical adenoma, and 9 hyperplastic glands) were removed from 17 patients, and 1 patient who was biochemically cured had an unclear histology result. The accuracy for localizing a pathologic parathyroid gland to the correct side of the neck was 59% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36%-79%) for (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi, 19% (95% CI, 5%-42%) for SPECT/CT, 65% (95% CI, 43%-84%) for (11)C-methionine PET/CT, and 40% (95% CI, 19%-65%) for SVS (P hyperparathyroidism and is recommended as first-line imaging before reoperation. (11)C-methionine PET/CT provides valuable additional information if (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi scan results remain negative. (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT and SVS provide no additional information, compared with the combined results of (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi and (11)C-methionine PET/CT imaging.

  15. The crisis of 99Mo. Current trends and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, René; Duatti, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    In recent years they have exacerbated the problems with the availability of 99 Mo in the international market for the production of radio isotopic generators 99 Mo / 99 mTc. The main situation is given by the shutdown, maintenance or damage to the nuclear reactors of the reductor plants. The search for solutions, analysis of alternatives and development of new methods for the 99 Mo, the well-known workhorse of nuclear medicine, are addressed in this paper. Are interesting new routes using cyclotrons. Also shown are the steps taken internationally to alleviate the growing demand against a limited supply in production. (author)

  16. The {sup 99m}Tc generator using poly zirconium chloride (PZC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Awang, Wan Anuar; Dahalan, Rehir; Kasim, Shaaban [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Selangor (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    The {sup 99m}Tc generator system has been prepared using poly zirconium chloride (PZC) to replace alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as a adsorbent. The Mo-98 (MoO{sub 3}) was irradiated using our 1 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor. The amount of Mo-99 adsorbed to the PZC has been studied and the yield from the elution was about 20%. (author)

  17. Preparation of 99Mo for 99mTc generators and the issue of further development. A survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: World production of Mo-99 for technetium generators; Typical procedures for the preparation of Mo-99; Current and expected decline in the production of Mo-99; and Directions of further development (Water reactors-irradiation systems for the preparation of Mo-99; Homogeneous reactor systems for the preparation of Mo-99 based on molten salts; Systems with accelerators; Thermal processes for the reprocessing of irradiated target material). (P.A.)

  18. Recent developments in 99mTc and 123I-radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.V.

    1991-01-01

    Availability of 123 I of high radionuclidic purity has encouraged the development of 123 I-based radiopharmaceuticals for the assessment of myocardial fatty acid metabolism, myocardial neuronal activity, and for receptor and antibody imaging. Advances in the chemistry of technetium have resulted in the development of novel agents for myocardial and cerebral perfusion and renal function studies. Monoclonal antibodies labeled with 99m Tc show promise for imaging neoplastic lesions, myocardial infarcts, and thrombus localization. Recent developments in 123 I and 99m Tc agents for myocardial and brain imaging studies are discussed. (author)

  19. Kinetic model for the dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals contaminated by Mo-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, D.R.; Pezzullo, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals tagged with Tc-99m may become contaminated with breakthrough products from the Mo-99/Tc-99m generator. If a fraction of the contaminant becomes bound to the radiopharmaceutical, the dose to the radiopharmaceutical target organ from the contaminant must be considered. The dose to the contaminant target organ may then be calculated as the sum of the doses from a) the initially unbound contaminant, and b) the contaminant later released by degradation of the radiopharmaceutical. This paper presents a model which takes the above processes into account. The model is illustrated with clinical data derived from Mo-99 contaminated radiopharmaceuticals. 5 references, 2 figures, 6 tables

  20. MIBI-{sup 99m}Tc mammary scintigraphy; Centellografia mamaria con MIBI-{sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayosky, Maria C; Parma, Elvira P; Armesto, Amparo M; Zarlenga, Ana C [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Oncologico de Medicina Nuclear; Cresta, Carlos; Azar, Maria E; Noblia, Cristina [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Servicio de Mastologia

    1999-07-01

    121 patients suspected of breast cancer were studied with MIBI-{sup 99m}Tc to evaluate the suitability of the mammary scintigraphy in patients with doubtful cancer diagnosis.The results show 93 % sensitivity and 95 % specificity and indicate the usefulness of this procedure to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis.

  1. Synthesis, radiochromatography and biodistribution of Tc99m-hexakis-(methoxyisonitrile)-technetium(I) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelberger, P.; Zbiral, E.

    1987-09-01

    Following previous experience with Tc-99m-hexakis(t-butyl-isonitrile)-technetium(I) (Tc99m-tBiN) synthetic routes to the new ligands a) 1-methoxypropyl-2-isonitrile (MPiN) and b) 2-methoxy-2-methylpropyl-1-isonitrile(MiBiN) were developed via dehydration of the corresponding formamides. Formamide (a) was prepared from the available amine (a) while formamide (b) was synthesised by a difficult 5 step sequence starting from tert.2,2,2-trichlorobutanol. Product MPiN and MiBiN was purified by vacuum distillation and characterized by elemental analysis, IR- and NMR-spectra. A labeling method was developed based on earlier work with Tc99m-tBiN :the pure isonitrile ligand in ethanolic/aqueous solution was complexed at elevated temperature with reduced Tc-99m formed in situ with dithionite at alkaline pH. The whole reaction mixture was subjected to preparative HPLC leading to identification by UV-absorption and isolation of pure n.c.a. Tc99m-MPiN (A) and Tc99m-MiBiN (B) free of unreacted ligand. Work-up of the isolated peak resulted in an injectable product (overall radiochemical yield ∼80% within ∼40 min total preparation time) which was further controlled by TLC (radiochemical purity >97%, in vitro stability >6 hrs). Biodistribution in mice compared to identical data obtained with Tc99m-tBiN revealed somewhat higher heart uptake, slightly lower lung but significantly lower liver activity and renders these new Tc99m-compounds highly promising for myocardinal perfusion studies in man. 11 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  2. Operation of plant to produce Mo-99 from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, R.O.; Cristini, P.R.; Marziale, D.P.; Furnari, E.S.; Fernandez, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    As it is well known, the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators has an outstanding place in radioisotope programs of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission. The basic raw material is Mo-99 from fission of U-235. In 1985 the production plant of this radionuclide began to operate, according to an adaptation of the method that was developed in Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The present work describes the target irradiation conditions in the reactor RA-3 (mini plates of U/Al alloy with 90% enriched uranium), the flow diagram and the operative conditions of the production process. The containment, filtration and removal conditions of the generated fission gases and the disposal of liquid and solid wastes are also analyzed. On the basis of the experience achieved in the development of more than twenty production processes, process efficiency is analyzed, taking into account the theoretical evaluation resulting from the application of the computer program 'Origin'(ORML) to the conditions of our case. The purity characteristics of the final product are reported (Zr-95 0,1 ppm; Nb-95 1 ppm; Ru-103 20 ppm; I-131 10 ppm) as well as the chemical characteristics that make it suitable to be used in the production of Mo-99/I c-99m generators. (Author)

  3. Clinical study of renoscintiphoto using sup(99m)Tc-EDTA, -DTPA and 131I-hippuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Akira; Ishii, Katsumi; Yoda, Kazushige; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1975-01-01

    The scintillation photographs of the kidneys of 35 cases were taken using sup(99m)Tc-EDTA. The photographs were compared with those taken using sup(99m)Tc-DTPA and 131 I-hippuran. In normal cases, sup(99m)Tc-EDTA which is excreted most slowly serves to take best the pictures of the parenchyma and the pelvis of the kidney. Being a sup(99m)Tc-labelled compound with a short half life time and being administrable at a substantial dose of 2-4mCi, sup(99m)Tc-EDTA provides an advantage to take continuous pictures of the blood vessel phase. This reagent can, therefore, help take a clear picture of the congestion site of the renal infarct. However, the renal dynamic test using EDTA or DTPA is difficult to catch such delicate changes as very slight rejection of the transplanted kidney or as very slight disturbance of the kidney parenchyma. In this respect, 131 I-hippuran is superior to EDTA and DTPA. In obstructive disorders of the kidney, there was no remarkable difference among these three reagents. (auth.)

  4. Crosstalk correction for simultaneous acquisition imaging by Tc-99m and I-123 in brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Lee, D. S.; Jung, J. K.; Lee, M. C.; Baek, M. Y.; Shin, S. A.

    1999-01-01

    We tend to separate a single isotope image in simultaneous acquisition image at different spatially distribution of dual isotope. Using the brain phantom to be separate two region with 2:1 ratio, each region filled with Tc-99m (140 keV) 185 MBq (1.5 mCi) and I-123 (159 keV) 55.5 MBq (1.5 mCi). We consider that Tc-99m exists in I-123 region, so inject 74 MBq Tc-99m on that region. For 10 % symmetrical energy windows centered on the Tc-99m and I-123 photopeaks we evaluate the crosstalk effects. That equation express as A140 Tcpp + KitIpp and A159 = KtiTcpp + Ipp. We acquired increase value comparable with naive value by the crosstalk. Then estimate crosstalk fraction, we can separate correction image. Through the experiment Kti and Kit are 0.38 and 0.29. Applying these values to Tc-99m energy window and I-123 window, we conclude that this method is able to separate images of each isotope. It is useful to investigate crosstalk contribution for other combinations of isotope

  5. 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy is superior to 131I-MIBG imaging in the evaluation of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Libo; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Hongming; Jing, Hongli; Du, Yanrong; Zeng, Zhengpei

    2009-03-01

    In this investigation, the efficacy of scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-labeled hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide (HYNIC-TOC) in the evaluation of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma was assessed and compared with (131)I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging. Ninety-seven patients who were suspected of having pheochromocytoma but showed no definite adrenal abnormalities on CT were evaluated by both (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy and (131)I-MIBG imaging. The results were compared with pathology findings or clinical follow-up. Of 58 patients proven to be without pheochromocytoma, (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC and (131)I-MIBG imaging excluded 56 and 58 patients, respectively, rendering a specificity of 96.6% for (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging and 100% for (131)I-MIBG imaging. In the evaluation of adrenal pheochromocytoma (14 patients), the sensitivity of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy and (131)I-MIBG imaging was 50% and 85.7%, respectively. However, in the evaluation of extraadrenal pheochromocytomas (25 patients), the sensitivity of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy and (131)I-MIBG imaging was 96.0% and 72.0%, respectively. (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy is more sensitive than (131)I-MIBG imaging in the detection of extraadrenal pheochromocytomas.

  6. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Medical Isotope Supply in the Future: Production Capacity and Demand. Forecast for the 99Mo/99mTc Market, 2015-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron

    2014-04-01

    This document presents a forecast of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc production capacity and demand in 2015-2020, when two major irradiators - the OSIRIS and NRU reactors in France and Canada - are expected to exit the global supply chain and new alternative technology projects may be commissioned. The forecast does not attempt to predict shortages, but identify periods when there is an increased risk of disrupted supply, to inform policy makers and other stakeholders. (authors)

  7. The role of Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging in primary biliary cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Shuke, N.; Kinuya, S.; Takayama, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 patients at various histopathologic stages were studied by Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and/or Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging. In the earlier stages (I and II), seven of eight patients (88%) showed uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA. Of seven patients in the same stage, however, four (57%) showed no abnormality on Tc-99m colliod imaging. In three of these four negative patients (75%), uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA was noted. In the later stages (III and IV), all seven patients showed decreased clearance with or without delayed tracer appearance in the intestine and prominent hepatic retention on Tc-99m IDA imaging; with Tc-99m colloid imaging there was enlargement of the spleen and increased activity in the spleen and bone marrow. Thus, Tc-99m IDA imaging is considered to be more useful in revealing this functional disorder at the earlier stage of primary biliary cirrhosis and in evaluating progression from an earlier to a later stage of disease. Tc-99m colloid imaging also effectively evaluated progression

  8. Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Katherine M.

    -produced 99mTc has been extensively compared with relevant United States Pharmacopeia (USP) specifications for the existing 99Mo/99mTc production strategy. Additional quality testing, including biodistribution studies of [ 99mTc]pertechnetate and [99mTc]disofenin in both mice and rabbits was also evaluated. Using the strategies and results presented throughout this dissertation, this thesis concludes with the world's first cyclotron-based 99mTc patient images obtained as part of a Phase I Clinical Trial at the University of Alberta using [99m Tc]pertechnetate.

  9. Thrombus imaging with [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO-labeled platelets and [sup 111]In-labeled monoclonal antifibrin antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorne, M.S.; Honkanen, T.T.; Lantto, T.J.; Laitinen, R.O.; Karppinen, K.J.; Jauhola, S.V. (Depts. of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Radiology, Paeijaet-Haeme Central Hospital, Lahti (Finland))

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen patients with suspicion of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities were imaged both with autologous [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO-labeled platelets (Tc-PLT) and [sup 111]In-labeled monoclonal antifibrin antibodies (In-MoAbs) on the same day. Precence or absence of thrombosis was verified by venography. Tc-PLT was given i.v. followed after 30 min by In-MoAbs. Anterior and posterior projections of the lower extremities were obtained with a large field-of-view gamma camera at 5 to 25 min, 2 h, 4 to 6 h, and 20 h after administration of the marker. Both Tc-PLT and In-MoAbs detected DVT well but less frequently than venography. Thrombi were visualized at 2 to 4 h after injection. The quality of images was better with Tc-PLT than with In-MoAbs. In the patients treated during the study, heparin significantly (p< 0.01) inhibited the uptake of Tc-PLT but not of In-MoAbs. We conclude that both Tc-PLT and In-MoAbs are suitable agents for the detection of DVT especially in patients without anticoagulation. (orig.).

  10. Proton-fission for the accelerator production of Mo-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Jungerman, J.A.; Castaneda, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The production of Mo-99 (66.0 h) via de U-238(p,f) Mo-99 fission reaction is proposed as a non-reactor source of this essential precursor of 6.6-h Tc-99m, an isotope of wide use of diagnostic nuclear medicine applications. Measurements of the total excitation function for the U-238(p,f) reaction indicated a maximum and fairly constant cross section of 1.4 barns at > 30 MeV. Combining the advances of high-current (mA) H-accelerators with dual beam (dual target) operation, and assuming a 5% fission yield, estimates of Mo-99 reaches 5 to 14 Ci/h at 1 mA. The proton fission production of Mo-99 appears to more advantageous than the reactor produced via evaporation neutron-induced fission. An accelerator method could allow securing ample supply of Mo-99 independently of the current scarce reactor operation, while also simplifying the associated waste management problems as well as some of the environmental concerns

  11. Radioactive study of Mo{sup 93} and Mo{sup 95} levels and research of subshell effects for the shell 2d 5/2; Etude, par radioactivite des niveaux de {sup 93}Mo et de {sup 95}Mo et essai de mise en evidence de la sous-couche 2d{sub 5/2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi Lesueur, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-03-15

    We studied the decay schemes of Tc{sup 93} et Tc{sup 95} to determine the spins of Mo{sup 93} and M{sup 95} levels, and especially the position of the single-particle level 1g 7/2. We found a large spacing between the neutron shells 2d 5/2 and 1g 7/2 like that observed first in Mo{sup 97}. As the subshell 2d 5/2 is so far from its neighbours, we thought that subshell effects could perhaps be discovered in the systematics of separation energies and beta-decay energies. We found such effects. (author) [French] Par l'etude des schemas de desintegration de {sup 93}Tc et {sup 95}Tc, nous avons essaye de determiner les spins des niveaux de {sup 93}Mo et {sup 95}Mo et en particulier la position du niveau de particule 1g 7/2. Nous avons ainsi confirme l'ecart important entre les couches de neutrons 2d 5/2 et 1g 7/2 deja constate a propos de {sup 97}Mo. Nous avons pense que la sous-couche 2d 5/2 ainsi isolee des couches voisines pouvait, peut etre, etre mise en evidence par l'etude des systematiques d'energies de separation et d'energies de desintegration beta. Nous avons verifie qu'il en etait bien ainsi. (auteur)

  12. Differentiation of malignant and degenerative benign bone disease using Tc-99m Citrate and Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, J.; Guo, R.; Li, S.-J.; Ren, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: For the evaluation of bone metastases in patients (pts) with cancer, 99mTcMDP bone scintigraphy is an important tool, but some limitations exist. One of these is the differential diagnosis of malignant and degenerative benign bone disease. The aim of this study was to differentiate them using 99mTcCitrate and 99mTcMDP scintigraphy. Methods: 39 pts (92 lesions) with known malignant or degenerative benign bone disease were studied. 23 pts had malignant bone disease (48 lesions, group 1), the other 16 pts had degenerative benign bone disease (44 lesions, group2), for which the results of 99mTcMDP scintigraphy were positive. In both groups, 99mTcCitrate scintigraphy was performed within a time interval of 2-7 days after 99mTcMDP scintigraphy (555∼740MBq. static, 3hr, planar or SPECT i m a g e s w h e n r e q u i r e d ) . The 99mTccitrate/99mTcMDP lesion-to-background radioisotope uptake ratio (RUR) was calculated for each lesion. Conventional techniques (histopathology, X-ray, CT, MRI and clinical follow up) were considered to be proof of the presence of bone metastases and degenerative benign bone disease. Results: Uptake of 99mTcMDP in the two groups is the same (1.96±0.25 vs. 1.87±0.21; t=1.178, P>0.20), while in 99mTcCitrate image, malignant lesions demonstrated a higher uptake of lesion activity than that of benign degenerative lesions (1.47±0.42 vs. 1.09±0.38; t=2.887, P<0.01). The mean 99mTccitrate/99mTcMDP RUR in the malignant group was significantly higher than the mean in the benign group (0.78±0.21 vs. 0.54±0.19; t=3.646, P<0.001). Conclusions: The preliminary results of the study confirm the usefulness and feasibility of 99mTcCitrate scintigraphy for differentiating malignant from benign degenerative lesions seen as areas of increased activity on 99mTcMDP bone scintigraphy. (author)

  13. Manufacturing and characterization of molybdenum pellets used as targets for 99mTc production in cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieszykowska, Izabela; Janiak, Tomasz; Barcikowski, Tadeusz; Mielcarski, Mieczysław; Mikołajczak, Renata; Choiński, Jarosław; Barlak, Marek; Kurpaska, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The method of 100 Mo metallic target preparation for production of 99m Tc by proton irradiation in 100 Mo(p,2 n) 99m Tc reaction was demonstrated. For this purpose, pressing of molybdenum powder into pellets and their subsequent sintering in reductive atmosphere were applied. The influence of parameters such as molybdenum mass and time of both pressing and sintering on the 100 Mo target durability was investigated. Under the optimized conditions, 100 Mo metallic pellet targets with density of 9.95±0.06 g/cm 3 were obtained. Morphology and structure of pressed pellets before and after sintering were studied by using standard optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Nanoindentation technique was used to investigate the mechanical properties such as nanohardness and Young modulus. Prepared 100 Mo pellets were successfully irradiated with protons and 99m Tc was efficiently isolated. - Highlights: • Pressing and sintering of 100 Mo powder into pellets. • Optimization of 100 Mo target manufacture process. • Determination of nanohardness of prepared 100 Mo targets. • Irradiation of self-supporting 100 Mo target in cyclotron.

  14. Robust high-yield ~1 TBq production of cyclotron based sodium [99mTc]pertechnetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, J D; Thomas, B; Selivanova, S V; Berthelette, E; Wilson, J S; McEwan, A J B; Gagnon, K

    2018-03-02

    This paper presents the irradiation and processing of high-current 100 Mo targets at the University of Alberta (UofA) in a GMP compliant setting. For purpose of comparison with a second production facility, additional studies at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS) are also described. More than 70% of today's diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals are based on 99m Tc, however the conventional supply chain for obtaining 99m Tc is fragile. The aim of this work was to demonstrate reliable high yield production and processing of 99m Tc with medium-energy, high-current, cyclotrons. We used two cyclotrons (TR-24, Advanced Cyclotron Systems, Inc) for irradiations with 22 MeV or 24 MeV incident energy and 400 μA current up to a maximum of 6 h. The irradiated 100 Mo was dissolved using peroxide, basified using ammonium carbonate, and purified using a PEG-based solid phase extraction technique. High-yield productions with 22 MeV (400 μA, 6 h) yielded an average isolated [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - yield of 878 GBq ± 99 GBq (23.7 Ci ± 2.7 Ci) decay corrected to EOB, n = 8 (isolated saturation yield: 4.36 ± 0.49 GBq/μA). Irradiations with 24 MeV (400 μA, 6 h) resulted in an average isolated [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - yield of 993 GBq ± 100 GBq (26.8 Ci ± 2.7 Ci) decay corrected to EOB, n = 7 (isolated saturation yield: 4.97 ± 0.50 GBq/μA). These yields corresponds to 600-700 GBq (16-19 Ci) of [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - at release (i.e. 3 hour post-EOB). For all tested batches, the QC results were within the recently published specifications in the European Pharmacopoeia. Reliable near-TBq production yields for 99m Tc can be obtained using medium-energy cyclotrons. This work presents evidence that medium-energy high-current cyclotrons can provide high yields of [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - with radionuclidic impurities levels within the specifications of the existing European Pharmacopoeia monograph, indicating that this

  15. Hepato-biliary scan using sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene isoleucine (sup(99m)Tc-PI) and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, S; Watahiki, H; Takeda, I; Kitamura, K; Ichikawa, H [Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    1978-05-01

    The hepato-biliary scan with sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene Isoleucine (sup(99m)Tc-PI) was able to demonstrate the biliary system much more clearly than that using usual radiopharmaceuticals such as /sup 131/I-BSP of /sup 131/I-Rose Bengal. The hepato-biliary scan with sup(99m)Tc-PI demonstrated the hepatobiliary system more clearly than DIC in 47.6% of all cases studied. Especially the demonstration of changes of intra-hepatic biliary tree in cases with intra-hepatic gall stone and cholangiocarcinoma was quite superior to DIC, although there was somewhat difficulty in getting information about the right hepatic duct. For the diagnosis of gall stone in the gall bladder, DIC was more suitable than sup(99m)Tc-PI hepatobiliary scan. The sup(99m)Tc-PI hepato-biliary scan was able to demonstrate the biliary system even in cases having moderate jaundice, in which cases DIC could not demonstrate the biliary system. This sup(99m)Tc-PI hepato-biliary scan was proved to be useful in determing a certain cause of defects shown on the conventional liver scan. No side effect was noticed in this series of the study.

  16. Feasibility study on mass production of (n,γ)99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Byung Jin; Tanimoto, Masataka; Kimura, Akihiro; Hori, Naohiko; Izumo, Hironobu; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko

    2011-01-01

    The world is currently suffering from a severe shortage of 99 Mo and various efforts have been given for its availability. The (n,γ) method is one of candidates for the alternative supply of 99 Mo. The only but critical shortage of (n,γ) 99 Mo is its extremely low specific activity, which gives inconveniency in the extraction of 99m Tc and is consequently converted to additional cost. Potential technologies which make the (n,γ) 99 Mo competitive by reducing the additional cost are already available. It is expected that verification of such technologies is much easy and cost effective compared to any other options known for the alternative 99 Mo production. Because Japan and Korea import all 99 Mo from long distance, the cost benefit of local (n,γ) 99 Mo production in these countries is especially large. If five high flux reactors in China, Japan and Korea are utilized for the cross backup supply of (n,γ) 99 Mo, stable availability of 99 Mo in the region can be secured. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate its feasibility on (n,γ) 99 Mo production in the Asia region. In this report, we studied feasibility of the mass (n,γ) 99 Mo production from viewpoints of global and regional status of 99 Mo demand and supply, competitiveness with other production methods, requirements and flow of the 99 Mo, production capability, cost, convenience in usage, and alternative technologies to overcome its shortage. (author)

  17. European Union's efforts to sustain the supply of 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remigiusz Baranczyk; Stamatios Tsalas; Turquet de Beauregard, G.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The Molybdenum-99/Technetium-99m ( 99 Mo/ 99m Tc) supply disruptions occurred in the recent years prompted the European Commission and industry to establish in 2012 a European Observatory on the Supply of Medical Radioisotopes, aimed at bringing together all relevant information to the decision makers in the European Union (EU) institutions and national governments in order to assist them in defining strategies as well as policies for their implementation. The Observatory follows the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency-OECD/NEA principles established by the High Level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR), of which the European Commission is a Member, and focuses on the specificities of their implementation in the EU, recognizing at the same time that the supply is of a global nature and requires broader international cooperation. The Observatory has four general strategic objectives: to support a secure 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply across the European Union, ensure that the issue of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply is given high political visibility, encourage the creation of a sustainable economic structure of the supply chain and establish periodic reviews of the supply capacities and demand. (author)

  18. Production of Mo99 in Europe: Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; David, B.; Ponsard, B.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine relies on Mo 99 /Tc 99m , for 80 % of the 25 million diagnoses made annually all over the world, for tracking diseases in cancerology, cardiology, neurology ... . Other isotopes such as I 131 , Y 90 , ... are also used for therapy procedures which are currently promising significant developments. Mo 99 together with I 131 , Xe 133 and Sr 90 are fission products generated by irradiating HEU targets in high flux test reactors and then purified by chemical process in a hot cell facility. This involves a complex process which is only mastered by four major producers in the world, two of them located in Europe are producing about 50 % of the world demand, making use of four reactors in four different European countries. To ensure continuous and reliable supply of Mo 99 , isotope with a short half life precluding any significant storage, sufficient irradiation capacity has to be available 365 days per year and requests appropriate coordination of these reactors operating schedule as well as mastering many other obstacles related to procurement of material, transportation, waste management, ... and licenses. We will review all these aspects in the present situation and the perspectives of development of the production of fission isotopes in Europe and in the world, addressing in particular the possible approaches for securing tomorrow the necessary irradiation capacity. (author)

  19. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination...... with iodine-labeled human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 15 healthy volunteers, simultaneous plasma volume measurements with (99m)Tc-HSA and (125)I-HSA were performed after ½ hour in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the injection...... for accurate retropolation from the plasma counts to time zero to correct for leakage of the isotopes from the circulation. RESULTS: The mean difference (bias) between plasma volume measured with (125)I-albumin and (99m)Tc-albumin was 8 ml (0.1 ml/kg) with limits of agreement (bias ±1.96 SD) ranging from -181...

  20. MIBI-99mTc mammary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayosky, Maria C.; Parma, Elvira P.; Armesto, Amparo M.; Zarlenga, Ana C.; Cresta, Carlos; Azar, Maria E.; Noblia, Cristina

    1999-01-01

    121 patients suspected of breast cancer were studied with MIBI- 99m Tc to evaluate the suitability of the mammary scintigraphy in patients with doubtful cancer diagnosis.The results show 93 % sensitivity and 95 % specificity and indicate the usefulness of this procedure to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis

  1. Accuracy of 99Molybdenum assays in /sup 99m/Technetium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.C.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Grossman, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the accuracy of 99 Mo measurements using three commercial dose calibrators with their 99 Mo assay shields. One 99 Mo assay shield allowed excessive penetration by the lower energy /sup 99m/Tc photons, resulting in the calibrator's falsely high interpretation of the activity of 99 Mo present in the high-activity /sup 99m/Tc eluates. All three calibrators performed adequately with a National Bureau of Standards 99 Mo standard in equilibrium with /sup 99m/Tc. By using low-activity aliquots of 99 Mo and /sup 99m/Tc, a low-level linearity test was performed. Only one of the calibrators was found to reflect accurately the activity of 99 Mo present under all conditions tested

  2. Usefulness of L,L-ethylenedicysteine - 99mTc complex (EC-99mTc) for the kidney investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, M.J.; Wiewiora, J.; Kapuscinksi, J.; Liniecki, J.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of own EC- 99m Tc complex for the kidney function examination, the renoscintigraphy with EC- 99m Tc and clearance determinations were performed. During renoscintigraphy the kidney images were of superb quality, with overlaying organs (liver, spleen) not visualized. Renograms showed typical shapes, their TMAX and T1/2 values being insignificantly different from the obtained with other radiopharmaceuticals, used in renoscintigraphy (MAG 3 , hippuran). Very strict correlations were found between values of EC- 99m Tc and OIH- 131 I clearances (r=0.91) and excretion rate constants (r=0.92) of both radiopharmaceuticals. The correlation enabled formulation of an equation by which ERPF could be established from EC- 99m Tc clearance: ERPF OIH =1.245 x Cl EC +51.52. On the basis of this equation a lower boundary of the normal EC- 99m Tc clearance was established; it amounts to 300 ml/min/1.73 m 2 . (author). 17 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  3. Clinical evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI (sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-pyridoxylidene isoleucine) in the various hepatobiliary disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, S; Iio, M; Yamada, H; Murata, H; Chiba, K [Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Medical Center (Japan)

    1978-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hepatobiliary scanning using sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in clinical diagnosis of various hepatobiliary disorders. Nineteen patients were scanned with sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI. The results were as follows: 1) The stability of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI examined by paper chromatography using saline as a solvent showed satisfied result at scanning time. sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in the blood was assumed to be bound to serum proteins immediately after injection. sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in the urine was assumed to keep the form of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI. 2) The appearance times of kidney, liver, bile duct, gallbladder, and intestine in the normal case were 5, 5, 10 and 15 minutes respectively after injection. The peak times of hepatogram in the normal case, drug induced hepatitis and obstructive jaundice were 12, 15 and 18 minutes respectively after injection. The images obtained by sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI was superior to the images obtained by /sup 131/I-BSP. 3) The blood clearance and urinary excretion rate of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI also provided us clinical usefulness. 4) The scanning of Dubin-Johnson syndrome of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI showed almost normal hepatobiliary image similar to the sequential scan by /sup 131/I-RB as was reported previously by authors. In conclusion, the hepatobiliary scan using sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI provided clear hepatobiliary images. Other parameters such as blood clearance, urinary excretion rate and diameter of choledochus were also favorable. By combining it with sup(99m)Tc-HIDA a differential diagnosis of congenital jaundice is also expected.

  4. Clinical evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI [sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-pyridoxylidene isoleucine] in the various hepatobiliary disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Schinichiro; Iio, Masahiro; Yamada, Hideo; Murata, Hajime; Chiba, Kazuo

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hepatobiliary scanning using sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in clinical diagnosis of various hepatobiliary disorders. Nineteen patients were scanned with sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI. The results were as follows: 1) The stability of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI examined by paper chromatography using saline as a solvent showed satisfied result at scanning time. sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in the blood was assumed to be bound to serum proteins immediately after injection. sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in the urine was assumed to keep the form of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI. 2) The appearance times of kidney, liver, bile duct, gallbladder, and intestine in the normal case were 5, 5, 10 and 15 minutes respectively after injection. The peak times of hepatogram in the normal case, drug induced hepatitis and obstructive jaundice were 12, 15 and 18 minutes respectively after injection. The images obtained by sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI was superior to the images obtained by 131 I-BSP. 3) The blood clearance and urinary excretion rate of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI also provided us clinical usefulness. 4) The scanning of Dubin-Johnson syndrome of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI showed almost normal hepatobiliary image similar to the sequential scan by 131 I-RB as was reported previously by authors. In conclusion, the hepatobiliary scan using sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI provided clear hepatobiliary images. Other parameters such as blood clearance, urinary excretion rate and diameter of choledochus were also favorable. By combining it with sup(99m)Tc-HIDA a differential diagnosis of congenital jaundice is also expected. (author)

  5. The Use of Technetium-99m as a Clinical Scanning Agent for Thyroid, Liver and Brain; Utilisation du {sup 99m}Tc comme Agent d'Exploration Clinique de la Thyroide, du Foie et du Cerveau; Ispol'zovanie Tc{sup 99m} kak klinicheskogo agenta pri skennirovanii shchitovidnoj zhelezy, pecheni i mozga; Empleo del {sup 99m}Tc como Agente para la Exploracion Clinica de la Tiroides, el Higado y el Cerebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, P. V.; Lathrop, K. A.; McCardle, R. J.; Andros, G. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital and Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Hospitals and Clinics, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1964-10-15

    In the search for an isotope that will be ''ideal'' for scanning, Tc{sup 99m} appears to offer many advantages. This substance emits a clean 140-keV {gamma}-ray (9% converted) with no particle radiation, has a 6-h physical half-life, and is readily available at reasonable cost as the daughter of 2.7-d Mo{sup 99}, from which it is readily separated on an alumina column. In its usual form (Tc{sup 99m}O{sub 4}{sup -}) it is distributed in the body in a manner very similar to CIO{sub 4}{sup -} and I{sup -}, being rapidly distributed in the extracellular space and specifically trapped by the thyroid, stomach and salivary glands. Excretion data indicate a biological half-life of about 2 d. Thyroid scans of a superior quality, with an estimated radiation dosage of 100 mrad to the gland and 5 mrad total-body radiation, may be made between one-half and one hour after a 1-mc dose of this material - a very great improvement over I{sup 131}. TcO{sub 4} does not cross the blood-brain barrier freely, so that spectacular brain scans have been obtained with 2 to 5 min scanning time by making use of the high count-rate available from 5 to 10-mc doses of Tc{sup 99m}. As the pentavalent thiocyanate dissolved in fat emulsion, Tc{sup 99m} localizes in the liver to a large extent; the high count-rate available again permits rapid scans of this gland with improved resolution. It is anticipated that further gains with this isotope may be made possible by the use of probes of increased efficiency and by further manipulation of biological and chemical parameters. (author) [French] Dans la recherche du radioisotope 'ideal' pour la gammagraphie, {sup 99m}Tc- semble offrir de nombreux avantages. C'est un emetteur gamma pur de 140 keV (converti a 9%, sans rayonnement particulaire, ayant une periode de 6 h; on peut l'obtenir facilement et a peu de frais comme produit de filiation de {sup 99}Mo, qui a une periode de 67 h, dont on le separe aisement sur une colonne d'alumine. Sous sa forme

  6. A Study on 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake in various thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Jae; Min, Hae Sook; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1974-01-01

    The 99m Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake rates(20 min) were measured in 24 healthy normal subjects, 140 patients with nontoxic goiter and 98 patients with thyrotoxicosis who were treated at the Thyroid Clinic, Seoul National University Hospital, from August 1972 to August 1973. Diagnostic reliabilities and correlations between 99m TcO 4 -thyroid uptake rate (20 min) and other thyroid function tests were evaluated. The observed results were as follows:1) The 99m TcO 4 - thyroid uptake rates (20 min) in normal subjects, euthyroid group and hyperthyroid group were 4.1±0.9%, 5.2±1.8% and 29.7±10.6%. There was a significant difference between the mean of the euthyroid group and the mean of the hyperthyroid group and so differentiation between them can be easy. 2) In the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, the reliabilities of 99m TcO 4 - thyroid uptake rate(20 min), 131 I thyroid uptake rate (24 hrs), serum T 3 resin uptake rate, serum T 4 and T 7 were 87.9-97.9%, 81.2-94.4%, 87.9-97.9%, 90.5-99.3% and 93.7-100%. 99m TcO 4 -thyroid uptake rate (20 min) is more accurate than 131 I thyroid uptake rate (24 hrs) in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. 3) 99m TcO 4 -thyroid uptake rate (20 min) was well correlated with 131 I thyroid uptake rate (24 hrs), serum T 3 resin uptake rate, serum T 4 and T 7 . Points in favor of 99m Tc are that it gives a small radiation dose to the thyroid, that tests can be repeated at the short interval, the study can be completed at a single patient visit and it is particularly well suited for the assessment of thyroid function in patients being treated with an antithyroid drug.

  7. Determination of radiochemical purity and pharmacokinetic parameters of sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid and sup(99m)Tc-tin colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, V.; Konstantinovska, D.; Milivojevic, K.; Bzenic, J.

    1981-01-01

    Labelling yield and radiochemical purity, higher than 95%, of sup(99m)Tc-colloid preparations were determined by using the paper chromatography method. Less than 3% of labelled citric acid, added to the preparation as a buffer solution, has been found in sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid. High radiochemical purity and optimum size of colloid particles has also been proved by biodistribution studies on experimental animals. The analysis performed has shown that more than 50% of sup(99m)Tc-colloid preparations excreted by urine is sup(99m)TcO - , the remaining past 50% being protein bound sup(99m)Tc. Biological half-time of excretion of the fast phase is the same for both preparations, i.e. 10 min, while for the slow component it is 120 min in sup(99m)Tc-S-colloid and 160 min in sup(99m)Tc-Sn colloid. (orig.) [de

  8. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc99m (DTPA) / Tc99m (Mag3) and Tc99m (Dmsa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez A, M.; Murillo C, F.; Castillo D, C.; Rocha J, J.; Sifuentes D, Y.; Sanchez S, P.; Idrogo C, J.; Marquez P, F.

    2015-10-01

    The absorbed dose in the kidneys of adult patients has been assessed using the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing Tc 99m (DTPA) / Tc 99m (Mag3) or Tc 99m (Dmsa).The absorbed dose was calculated using the formalism MIRD and the Cristy-Eckerman representation for the kidneys. The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc 99m (DTPA) / Tc 99m (Mag3), are given by 0.00466 mGy.MBq -1 / 0.00339 mGy.MBq -1 . Approximately 21.2% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder (content) and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc 99m (DTPA) / Tc 99m (Mag3). The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc 99m (Dmsa) is 0.17881 mGy.MBq -1 . Here, 1.7% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder, spleen, liver and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc 99m (Dmsa). (Author)

  9. Biodistribution of 99mTc-ketoconazole in infection initiated by candida albicans, staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizky Juwita Sugiharti; Iim Halimah; Isa Mahendra; Maula Eka Sriyani

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain a major health problem and cause of death worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Nuclear medicine imaging, with better sensitivity, offers an attractive option for diagnosis of infections. 99m Tc-ketoconazole was radiolabeled antibiotic which synthesized by labeling ketoconazole with radionuclide technetium-99m. This radiopharmaceutical is expected to be applied for detection of infection in nuclear medicine therefore 99m Tc-ketoconazole must be selectively concentrated in infection sites. Hence, evaluations of 99m Tc-ketoconazole to detect and locate infection caused by some microorganisms in mice have been conducted. The biodistribution study showed accumulation of 99m Tc ketoconazole in infected thigh at 1 hour p.i with target/non target ratio (T/NT) 3.04 for Candida albicans, 1.93 for Staphylococcus aureus and 2.81 for Escherichia coli. This study showed that 99m Tc-ketoconazole is a promising radiopharmaceutical to detect infection rapidly with high sensitivity. (author)

  10. Accumulation of 99Tc in duckweed Lemna minor L. as a function of growth rate and 99Tc concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattink, J.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on the question of whether short-term studies can be used to forecast the accumulation of the long-lived fission product 99 Tc in duckweed, Lemna minor L., grown in the field; in other words, are the accumulation parameters independent of changing growth rates typical of natural populations of duckweed. Two processes determine the 99 Tc accumulation: (i) uptake and release of 99 TcO 4 - , characterised by a concentration factor, K d , and (ii) first-order reduction and complexation of Tc VII , characterised by k red . At various 99 Tc concentrations, the growth, total Tc and TcO 4 - accumulation were monitored over 10 days; parameters were fitted and compared with earlier results. Both K d and k red turn out to be independent of time, concentration and growth rate up to a concentration of 10 -6 mol l -1 99 TcO 4 - . Concentrations above this level result in toxic effects. The Tc accumulation in field populations of duckweed at Tc concentrations which generally occur in the environment can be forecasted by using the results from short-term experiments

  11. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in management of patients with head and neck somatostatin receptor positive tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogrlic, Mate; Tezak, Stanko

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to determine the value of technetium-99m-hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide (99mTc-ED-DA/HYNIC-TOC) in patients with somatostatin receptor (SSR) positive tumors of head and neck region. A total number of 16 patients were enrolled in this study. Planar whole body (WB) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were acquired at 2 and 4 hours after the injection of approximately 670 MBq of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. Additional single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images of the head and neck region were acquired at 4h post tracer injection. Clinical and imaging follow up were taken as the reference standard. There were 10 female and 6 male patients of age 57.7 ± 12.9 years (58.5; 32-78) years. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) was TP in 13 patients, TN in two and FP in one. Follow up period for SRS was 31.1 ± 19.4 (29; 2-63) months. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy provided additional information in 50% of patients, with impact on patient management in the same percentage of patients. Distant metastases were found in nine out of 16 patients (56%). 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC SRS had sensitivity of 100% (75.3-100%), specificity of 66.7% (9.4-99.2%), accuracy of 93.7%, positive predictive value of 92.9% (66.1-99.8%), and negative predictive value of 100% (15.8-100%). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC is very useful imaging method in the evalu-ation of patients with SSR positive tumors of head and neck region.

  12. Evaluation of renal function using 99mTc-MAG3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Teruhiko; Aburano, Tamio; Shuke, Noriyuki

    1993-01-01

    The utility of 99m Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) was studied clinically. In the renography obtained with 99m Tc-MAG3, the abdominal aorta and the common iliac arteries were clearly visualized in the vascular phase. Due to less background activity and high target to background ratio, the quality of 99m Tc-MAG3 image was superior to that of 123 I-OIH or 99m Tc-DTPA image. The parameters on the renogram including T max , T 2/3 , and T 1/2 were compared. The correlation of T max and T 2/3 or T 1/2 were not significant between 99m Tc-MAG3 and 123 I-OIH. Another parameter of C 20 /C max , where C 20 and C max are renal activities at 20 min after injection and at T max respectively, showed an excellent correlation between 99m Tc-MAG3 and 123 I-OIH. Using C 20 /C max , pattern of renogram can be characterized numerically. Concerning the relation between C 20 /C max and renogram pattern, standard renogram pattern showed the C 20 /C max value of less than 0.4, while hypofunctioning pattern showed more than 0.5. The correlation coefficient between the renal uptake of 99m Tc-MAG3 and 123 I-OIH was 0.880 with a correlation plot: 'Y=1.16X-0.043', where X and Y represent renal uptake of 99m Tc-MAG3 and 123 I-OIH, respectively. It can be concluded that 99m Tc-MAG3 is a useful renal imaging agent as an alternative to 123 I-OIH, in order to evaluate the proximal tubular function and calculate ERPF. (author)

  13. Morphological and dynamic studies of the accumulation of 123I and 99Tc sup (m) in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederquist, E.; Naversten, Y.; Persson, R.B.R.; Strand, S.E.

    1975-05-01

    This investigation was undertaken to compare the use of 131 I, 123 I and 99 Tc sup (m) for scintigraphic studies of the thyroid. 123 I has the most ideal physical and biological characteristics for this purpose. The detectability of 123 I with scintillation camera was found to be more than 200 times better than of 131 I in consideration of the absorbed dose to the patient. We have found that an activity of about 200μCi 123 I is enough for thyroid scintigraphy. This activity will give about the same count rate with the scintillation camera as when 2 mCi 99 Tc sup (m)-pertechnetate is used. Oblique scintillation camera views, which have been found to be of value especially when cold areas were present in the thyroid, can be performed with both 123 I and sup 99Tc sup (m). But when sup 99Tc sup (m) is used, a greater fraction of circulating activity is registered. After i.v. administration of 123 I or 99 Tc sup (m) -pertechnetate sequential scintigrams were registered over the thyroid and the aortic region with a scintillation camera. The activity time curves were analyzed and uptake parameters were evaluated with a computer. The initial trapping curve could thus be studied in patients with different thyroid disorders. (author)

  14. Volume corrections factors in the measurement of 99mTc and 123I activities in radionuclide calibrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Amanda Ribeiro; Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre; Iwahara, Akira; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Tauhata, Luiz; Chaves, Taina Olivieri

    2012-01-01

    To determine correction factors for the variation in volume of radiopharmaceuticals in containers of different geometries, comparing the influence of such factors on the determination of 99m Tc and 123 I activity with two types of calibrators - one with ionization chamber and another with Geiger-Mueller (G-M) detector -; and to evaluate calibrators performance in the measurement of 99m Tc and 1 '2 3 I activities. Materials and Methods: Eight calibrators, 10R glass vials, 3 and 5 mL plastic syringes and 99m Tc and 123 I solutions were utilized. The correction factors were determined with basis on practical measurements of the variation in the calibrators' response according to the volume of radionuclide solution in the glass vials. The performance was evaluated according to the acceptance criterion of +- 10% accuracy required by the Brazilian standard. Results: The variation of the calibrators' response according to the variation in radionuclide volume was reasonably greater in the calibrator with G-M detector. It was also greater for 123 I than for 99m Tc. Conclusion: The results confirm that the calibrators' response depends on the radionuclide volume contained in the vials. Such dependence is more critical for the calibrators equipped with G-M detector and for 123 I as compared with 99m Tc. (author)

  15. Occupational exposure to 99mTc and 131I in a radiopharmacy room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, Bruna P.; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Sa, Lidia Vasconcellos de; Souza, Wanderson; Santos, Maristela; Medeiras, Geiza; Conceicao, Cirilo S.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has about 310 nuclear medicine services and 90% of these services use Molybdenum/Technetium generators to prepare several radiopharmaceuticals to diagnostics; about 70% use also 131 I for diagnosis and therapy. These radionuclides are associated to compounds in liquid form and during the manipulation to prepare and administer the patient dose some radioactive airborne particle can be generated. As consequence the workers can be exposed to airborne particles in the respirable fraction containing 99m Tc and 131 I. The aim of this study is develop a simple and rapid method to verify if the exhaust systems installed in the SMN are efficient in preventing the inhalation of radionuclides airborne particles by workers. In order to estimate the occupational exposure a nuclear medicine service was selected and aerosol samples were collected using personal air sampler with a cyclone. The samples were analyzed using a germanium detector system and the 99m Tc and 131 I average concentrations were obtained as 16,6 ± 14,34 mBq/m 3 and 0.72 ± 0.36 mBq/m 3 , respectively. It was not observed a correlation among air concentration and total activity processed in laboratory. These results show that the worker inhales airborne particles containing 99m Tc and 131 I. (author)

  16. Applicability of Sol-Gel Derived Adsorbent for the Production of (n,f) 99Mo Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun-Sig; Lee, Jong-Sup; Park, Ul-Jae; Son, Kwang-Jae; Han, Hyon-Soo; Kim, Myung Sic; Koo, Sung Chan; Chung, Young-Ju

    2007-01-01

    High performance adsorbents as the column material for (n,γ) 99 Mo/ 99 mTc and 188 W/ 188 Re generators have been developed at KAERI. These adsorbents should have enough loading capacities to produce such generators with high activities as the loading isotopes are not carrier-free. In this regard, the adsorbents are synthesized by sol-gel processing in which the ligand density can easily be adjusted and maximized. The marginal capacity of such adsorbents should be higher than 200 mg/g for molybdenum. From the previous works, the sol-gel processing techniques are adequately applied to meet the criteria. Further studies are being undertaken to employ the adsorbents for the production of high capacity (n,f) 99 Mo/ 99 mTc. Domestically, a private company has lined up the production facility of the molybdenum generator in the activity range of 300 ∼ 1,000 mCi/ea. The column elements are composed of manganese oxide doped on silica and alumina at the backup layer. In this column, the manganese oxide is the main reactive layer to retain (n,f) 99 Mo. The sol-gel derived adsorbent, in this study, is employed as the replacement of the manganese oxide doped silica in the column and tested for the loading efficiency of (n,f) 99 Mo, elution of 99 mTc, labeling property of the eluted 99 mTc. The same loading and elution procedures as the commercial production are applied for the tests and quality controls

  17. 99mTc-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA complexes as hydrological tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, J.; Borroto, J.; Nazco, J.; Perez, E.; Gamboa, R.; Cruz, J.

    2002-01-01

    The [ 99m Tc-DTPA] 2- and [ 99m Tc-EDTA] 1- were evaluated as radiotracers for short time hydrological studies. Their complex stability after labelling with 9.25 GBq of 99m Tc, the behaviour against pH variations, from 5 to 9, in simulated solutions and in natural river waters and the sorption of these compounds on the river sediments, were tested in laboratory experiments. Finally field double tracing experiments were carried out for each of labelling complexes and Rhodamine WT. From recovery calculations not losses of the 99m Tc activity were observed. The shape of the RTD curves of the [ 99m Tc-DTPA] 2- and [ 99m Tc-EDTA] 1 were quite similar to the Rhodamine Wt ones. May be concluded that both complexes behaved conservatively on the studied environmental conditions. (author)

  18. Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) in annual growth segments of knotted wrack (Ascophyllum nodosum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise, E-mail: Hilde.Heldal@imr.no [Institute of Marine Research (IMR), PO Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Sjotun, Kjersti, E-mail: Kjersti.Sjotun@bio.uib.no [University of Bergen (UoB), Department of Biology, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2010-10-15

    The distribution of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) in annual growth segments of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) from the southwestern coast of Norway is examined in samples collected from January to November 2006. A twenty-fold increase in the {sup 99}Tc-concentration from the youngest to the oldest growth segments was found. The concentrations ranged from 42 to 98 Bq/kg dry weight (d.w.) and from 964 to 1000 Bq/kg d.w. in growth segments formed in 2006 and 1996, respectively. In addition, a seasonal variation in the {sup 99}Tc concentration was observed in the actively growing 2006-segments: concentrations decreased from 98 Bq/kg d.w. in April to 54 Bq/kg d.w. in June; there was a further reduction from June to August (42 Bq/kg d.w.); and, finally there was an increase from August to November (93 Bq/kg d.w.). In most of the segments formed between 2000 and 2005, there was a tendency of slightly decreasing {sup 99}Tc-concentrations between June and November but this pattern was not observed for the older growth segments. In order to find an explanation for the non-homogenous distribution of {sup 99}Tc within thalli of A. nodosum, different hypotheses are discussed. Uptake and elimination of {sup 99}Tc appears to be most pronounced in the actively growing segments. To date, such non-homogenous distribution of {sup 99}Tc within thalli of A. nodosum has not been taken into consideration, neither in connection with sample collection nor analysis. This paper shows that special protocols must be followed if A. nodosum is going to be used as a bioindicator for {sup 99}Tc in the marine environment. A sampling strategy is proposed.

  19. Questionnaire survey of SPECT studies after the supply shortage of Tc-99m and model analysis concerning earnings and expenditure of generator use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Ryo; Kosuda, Shigeru; Koike, Katsumi; Arai, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate decrease in SPECT studies and its causes after the cessation of long supply shortage of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generators. Of the replies by the chief nuclear medicine technologists, no necessity for 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generator use or for domestic supply of 99 mTc unexpectedly accounted for 25% and 46%, respectively. Generator use leads to an additional profit by 8654 yen per patient, compared to purchase of commercially available 99 mTc-labeled kits. It is essential to install a 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generator to perform emergency SPECT studies, increase a profit in hospital management, reduction of financial issues in patients, and pediatric studies. This adverse circumstance, however, may provide a good opportunity to instruct nuclear medicine specialists to be aware of the importance mentioned above in medical meetings. (author)

  20. 99mTc-MIBI/123I-Na subtraction scanning for localized parathyroid adenoma in patients with asymptomatic/mild primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yuji; Funahashi, Hiroomi; Imai, Tsuneo

    1996-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is most commonly detected as a mild elevation of the serum calcium concentration. In the present study, the utility of 99m Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) imaging before initial surgery was evaluated for localizing abnormal parathyroid glands in patients with asymptomatic and mild primary hyperparathyroidism. The results were compared with those of thallium-technetium subtraction scanning (TTSS). 99m Tc-MIBI/ 123 I-Na subtraction scanning was performed in 11 patients, and TTSS was performed in 10 of them. The sensitivity was 100% and the positive predictive value was 92% for 99m Tc-MIBI/ 123 I-Na, while the sensitivity was 50% and the positive predictive value was 100% for TTSS. The smallest gland detected weighed 85 mg in 99m Tc-MIBI/ 123 I-Na, and 570 mg in TTSS. There was a difference between the median weight of adenomas which were detected by 99m Tc-MIBI/ 123 I-Na (754 mg), and those which were detected by TTSS (1,195 mg). These results suggest that TTSS parathyroid scintigraphy could give way to 99m Tc-MIBI/ 123 I-Na parathyroid scintigraphy for improved detection of low-weight abnormal parathyroid glands. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3) and Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa); Evaluacion de la dosis absorbida en los rinones debido al Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (MAG3) y Tc{sup 99m} (DMSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez A, M.; Murillo C, F.; Castillo D, C.; Rocha J, J.; Sifuentes D, Y.; Sanchez S, P. [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Trujillo (Peru); Idrogo C, J.; Marquez P, F., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Av. Angamos 2520, Lima (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    The absorbed dose in the kidneys of adult patients has been assessed using the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3) or Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa).The absorbed dose was calculated using the formalism MIRD and the Cristy-Eckerman representation for the kidneys. The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3), are given by 0.00466 mGy.MBq{sup -1} / 0.00339 mGy.MBq{sup -1}. Approximately 21.2% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder (content) and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3). The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa) is 0.17881 mGy.MBq{sup -1}. Here, 1.7% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder, spleen, liver and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa). (Author)

  2. Effective detection of the tumors causing osteomalacia using [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hongli; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Hongming; Wang, Zhenghua; Tian, Jian; Xing, Xiaoping; Jin, Jin; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhang, Jingjing

    2013-11-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an endocrine disorder caused by tumors producing excessive fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). The causative tumors are generally small, slow-growing benign mesenchymal tumors. The only cure of the disease depends on resection of the tumors, which are extremely difficult to localize due to their small sizes and rare locations. Since these tumors are known to express somatostatin receptors, this research was undertaken to evaluate efficacy of [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body imaging in this clinical setting Images of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scans and clinical chart from 183 patients with hypophosphatemia and clinically suspected TIO were retrospectively reviewed. The scan findings were compared to the results of histopathological examinations and clinical follow-ups. Among 183 patients, 72 were confirmed to have TIO while 103 patients were found to have other causes of hypophosphatemia. The possibility of TIO could not be either diagnosed or excluded in the remaining 8 patients. For analytical purposes, these 8 patients who could neither be diagnosed nor excluded as having TIO were regarded as having the disease, bringing the total of TIO patients to 80. The 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scan identified 69 tumors in 80 patients with TIO, which rendered a sensitivity of 86.3% (69/80). 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy excluded 102 patients without TIO with a specificity of 99.1% (102/103). The overall accuracy of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC whole body scan in the localization of tumors responsible for osteomalacia is 93.4% (171/183). Whole body 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC imaging is effective in the localization of occult tumors causing TIO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effective detection of the tumors causing osteomalacia using [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Hongli; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Hongming; Wang, Zhenghua; Tian, Jian; Xing, Xiaoping; Jin, Jin; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhang, Jingjing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an endocrine disorder caused by tumors producing excessive fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). The causative tumors are generally small, slow-growing benign mesenchymal tumors. The only cure of the disease depends on resection of the tumors, which are extremely difficult to localize due to their small sizes and rare locations. Since these tumors are known to express somatostatin receptors, this research was undertaken to evaluate efficacy of [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body imaging in this clinical setting Methods: Images of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scans and clinical chart from 183 patients with hypophosphatemia and clinically suspected TIO were retrospectively reviewed. The scan findings were compared to the results of histopathological examinations and clinical follow-ups. Results: Among 183 patients, 72 were confirmed to have TIO while 103 patients were found to have other causes of hypophosphatemia. The possibility of TIO could not be either diagnosed or excluded in the remaining 8 patients. For analytical purposes, these 8 patients who could neither be diagnosed nor excluded as having TIO were regarded as having the disease, bringing the total of TIO patients to 80. The 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scan identified 69 tumors in 80 patients with TIO, which rendered a sensitivity of 86.3% (69/80). 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy excluded 102 patients without TIO with a specificity of 99.1% (102/103). The overall accuracy of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC whole body scan in the localization of tumors responsible for osteomalacia is 93.4% (171/183). Conclusions: Whole body 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC imaging is effective in the localization of occult tumors causing TIO

  4. Effective detection of the tumors causing osteomalacia using [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Hongli, E-mail: annsmile1976@sina.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Fang, E-mail: lifang@pumch.cn [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhuang, Hongming, E-mail: zhuang@email.chop.edu [Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, 34th and Civic Ctr Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Wang, Zhenghua, E-mail: ccq1214@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Tian, Jian, E-mail: tianjian4809@hotmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Xing, Xiaoping, E-mail: xingxp@126.com [Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Jin, Jin, E-mail: jinjin9010@126.com [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhong, Dingrong, E-mail: ZhongDR@pumch.cn [Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhang, Jingjing, E-mail: zhangjingjingtag@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an endocrine disorder caused by tumors producing excessive fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). The causative tumors are generally small, slow-growing benign mesenchymal tumors. The only cure of the disease depends on resection of the tumors, which are extremely difficult to localize due to their small sizes and rare locations. Since these tumors are known to express somatostatin receptors, this research was undertaken to evaluate efficacy of [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body imaging in this clinical setting Methods: Images of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scans and clinical chart from 183 patients with hypophosphatemia and clinically suspected TIO were retrospectively reviewed. The scan findings were compared to the results of histopathological examinations and clinical follow-ups. Results: Among 183 patients, 72 were confirmed to have TIO while 103 patients were found to have other causes of hypophosphatemia. The possibility of TIO could not be either diagnosed or excluded in the remaining 8 patients. For analytical purposes, these 8 patients who could neither be diagnosed nor excluded as having TIO were regarded as having the disease, bringing the total of TIO patients to 80. The 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scan identified 69 tumors in 80 patients with TIO, which rendered a sensitivity of 86.3% (69/80). 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy excluded 102 patients without TIO with a specificity of 99.1% (102/103). The overall accuracy of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC whole body scan in the localization of tumors responsible for osteomalacia is 93.4% (171/183). Conclusions: Whole body 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC imaging is effective in the localization of occult tumors causing TIO.

  5. Determination of 131I as contaminant in samples of fission 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghazarian, V.P.; Nunez, O.J.; Duran, Adrian P.; Mondino, Angel V.

    2003-01-01

    A method for 99 Mo production from fission products was developed at the Ezeiza Atomic Center 15 years ago. A complete quality control of the product, preceding its use in nuclear medicine, is a basic requirement. One of the main purposes of this work was to improve the resolution of the 364.5 keV and 366.4 keV peaks, from respectively 131 I and 99 Mo, due to the fact that the former could not be detected in the presence of high activities of the later. A new procedure is described for determination of 131 I impurity contents present in the 99 Mo samples. A highly specific 131 I separation from an alkaline solution has been developed, which utilizes porous metallic silver. Elemental silver was prepared by reduction of Ag + with ascorbic acid. The isotopes of iodine were fixed as Ag 131 I and then, the iodide ion was eluted from the column with a Na 2 S solution. Finally, the 131 I activity could be quantitatively determined. All the parameters were fitted in order to obtain a suitable statistic in counting times within 2000-5000 seconds, short enough for on-line controls. (author)

  6. 99mTc-N4-[Tyr3]Octreotate Versus 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr3]Octreotide: an intrapatient comparison of two novel Technetium-99m labeled tracers for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Michael; Decristoforo, Clemens; Maina, Theodosia; Nock, Berthold; vonGuggenberg, Elisabeth; Cordopatis, Paul; Moncayo, Roy

    2004-02-01

    Tetraamine-[Tyr3]octreotate (Demotate) is a somatostatin (SST) analogue that can be easily labeled with 99mTc at high specific activities and showed promising preclinical properties for SST receptor scintigraphy. This study reports on the first intra-patient comparison of 99mTc-Demotate and another 99mTc-labeled SST analogue, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (HYNIC-TOC). Five patients with carcinoid tumors (n = 2) and endocrine pancreatic tumors (n = 3) were investigated with both radiopharmaceuticals. 99mTc-Demotate rapidly visualized somatostatin receptor positive tumors as early as 15 minutes post-injection (p.i.) with maximum tumor uptake and tumor/organ ratios already 1 hour p.i. Organs of predominant physiological uptake were the spleen and the kidneys with no intestinal excretion detectable up to 24 hours. 99mTc-Demotate exhibited faster pharmacokinetic properties compared to HYNIC-TOC. Tumor/organ ratios at equivalent time points were higher or comparable for 99mTc-Demotate in three patients with a matching scan result. Equivocal findings were observed in two patients, i.e. comparable uptake behavior in larger lesions with differences in smaller ones. 99mTc-Demotate is a promising agent for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy providing images of excellent quality as early as 1 hour after injection.

  7. Analysis of 99Mo Production Capacity in Uranyl Nitrate Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor using ORIGEN and MCNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Isnaeni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 99mTc is a very useful radioisotope in medical diagnostic procedure. 99mTc is produced from 99Mo decay. Currently, most of 99Mo is produced by irradiating 235U in the nuclear reactor. 99Mo mostly results from the fission reaction of 235U targets with a fission yield about 6.1%. A small additional amount is created from 98Mo neutron activation. Actually 99Mo is also created in the reactor fuel, but usually we do not extract it. The fuel will become spent fuel which is a highly radioactive waste. 99Mo production system in the aqueous homogeneous reactor offers a better method, because all of the 99Mo can be extracted from the fuel solution. Fresh reactor fuel solution consists of uranyl nitrate dissolved in water. There is no separation of target and fuel in an aqueous homogeneous reactor where target and fuel become one liquid solution, and there is no spent fuel generated from this reactor. Simulation of the extraction process is performed while reactor in operation (without reactor shutdown. With an extraction flow rate of 3.6 L/h, after 43 hours of reactor operation the production of 99Mo is relatively constant at about 98.6 curie/hour

  8. Experimental study of per-rectal portal scintigraphy using 99mTc-EHIDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Satoshi; Shinotsuka, Akira; Takenaka, Hiroki

    1991-01-01

    We discovered that 99m Tc-diethyl iminodiacetic acid ( 99m Tc-EHIDA) commonly used for hepatobiliary scintigraphy could also be administered per-rectally, with adequate absorption and optimal visualization of the portal system. To evaluate its usefulness, we experimented on rabbits using the method. Portal scintigraphy with rectal administration of 99m Tc-EHIDA, 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) and 99m Tc-red blood cell ( 99m Tc-RBC) were performed in normal rabbits and in extrahepatic portal shunt model rabbits. Images of the liver and thorax were obtained and shunt indices were calculated from the count values of liver and lung or heart. Then the shunt indices were compared with shunt rate derived from direct injection of 99m Tc-macroaglutinated albumin ( 99m Tc-MAA) into inferior mesenteric vein. Correlation between shunt rate of 99m Tc-MAA and shunt indices of 99m Tc-RBC, 123 I-IMP and 99m Tc-EHIDA were 0.64, 0.75 and 0.78, respectively, with 99m Tc-EHIDA having the most favorable results. We concluded that 99m Tc-EHIDA per-rectal portal scintigraphy is a noninvasive, quantitative, inexpensive and simple method for evaluation of portal circulation system. Also, we think that this method would be applicable to human usage from our experience with normal volunteers. (author)

  9. 99mTc-Demotate 1: first data in tumour patients - results of a pilot/phase I study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decristoforo, Clemens; Gabriel, Michael; Moncayo, Roy; Maina, Theodosia; Nock, Berthold; Cordopatis, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor (SSTR) scintigraphy with indium-111 DTPA-octreotide has become a routine diagnostic procedure in oncology. However, it suffers some drawbacks concerning the limited availability, suboptimal imaging properties and elevated radiation burden of 111 In. We have recently been involved in the development of a new tetraamine-functionalised [Tyr 3 ]octreotate derivative (Demotate 1) that can be easily labelled with technetium-99m at high specific activities. 99m Tc-Demotate 1 showed promising properties in preclinical studies. In this study we report on the first experience with 99m Tc-Demotate 1 in patients. Six patients (mean age 56 years) with carcinoid tumours (n=2) or endocrine pancreatic tumours (n=4) with previously positive SSTR scintigraphy were enrolled in the study. Patients were injected with 500-600 MBq 99m Tc-Demotate 1. Clinical and laboratory parameters were controlled up to 3 months p.i. Blood samples were taken at various time points up to 24 h p.i., and urine was collected up to 24 h. Whole-body images were acquired at 15-30 min, 1-2 h, 4 h and 24 h p.i. with additional single-photon emission tomography imaging at 1-4 h. Blood excretion was very rapid, with 99m Tc-Demotate 1 detected 11 lesions while In-Oct detected ten; differences in uptake behaviour were observed in three patients. This study shows for the first time that peptides derivatised with a tetraamine ligand for labelling with 99m Tc show suitable properties for receptor imaging in patients. 99m Tc-Demotate 1 is a promising agent for the visualisation of SSTR-positive lesions in patients, allowing rapid imaging as early as 1 h p.i.; some differences are observed in pharmacokinetic behaviour compared with 111 In-DTPA-octreotide. (orig.)

  10. Multicenter trial validation of a camera-based method to measure Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine, or Tc-99m MAG3, clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A; Manatunga, A; Morton, K; Reese, L; Prato, F S; Greenberg, E; Folks, R; Kemp, B J; Jones, M E; Corrigan, P E; Galt, J; Eshima, L

    1997-07-01

    To evaluate an improved camera-based method for calculating the clearance of technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) in a multicenter trial. Tc-99m MAG3 scintigraphy was performed in 49 patients at three sites in the United States and Canada. The percentage of the injected dose of Tc-99m MAG3 in the kidney at 1-2, 1.0-2.5, and 2-3 minutes after injection was correlated with the plasma-based Tc-99m MAG3 clearances. The data were combined with the results obtained in 20 additional patients in a previously published pilot study. Regression models correlating the plasma-based Tc-99m MAG3 clearance with the percentage uptake in the kidney for each time interval were developed; there was no statistically significant difference among sites in the regression equations. Correction for body surface area statistically significantly (P time interval. For the 1.0-2.5-minute interval, the body surface area-corrected correlation coefficient for the four combined sites was .87, and it improved to .93 when one outlier was omitted from the analysis. Similar results were obtained with the other time intervals. Independent processing by two observers showed no clinically important differences in the percentage dose in the kidney or in relative function. An improved camera-based method to calculate the clearance of Tc-99m MAG3 was validated in a multicenter trial.

  11. Studies of post-elution concentration of 99m-Tc eluted from a gel type chromatographic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katia N.; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals most used in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine are those labeled with the metastable technetium ( 99m Tc) due to its ideal physical properties of decay (t 1/2 6.01 h, Eγ 140 keV), low cost and availability facilitated through the commercial generator 99 Mo / 99m Tc. This radionuclide is formed by the β - decay of 99 Mo adsorbed on an alumina column of the generator and collected in the form of sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) by elution with saline solution (0.9%). The Radiopharmacy Center (CR) of the IPEN-CNEN/SP developed a gel type chromatographic generator of MoZr with 99 Mo produced by 98 Mo(n, γ) 99 Mo reaction that occurs in IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor. The gel is composed of zirconium molybdate with elution volume of 12 ml with an activity of 11100 MBq (300 mCi) producing a radioactive concentration of 925 MBq (34 mCi) / ml. The fission generator gives a higher radioactive concentration around 1850 MBq (69 mCi) / ml. The aim of this work is to study a system of post-elution concentration using ion exchange cartridges in tandem (cation - anion) for the attainment of a high enough radioactive concentration to meet the demand of market, with a proved quality. This system of concentration will be made based in the technique of solid phase extraction (SPE) using commercial cartridges of extraction, which contains the solid phase and eluent saline solution (0.9%). As the eluent results of this system used in the gel generator of MoZr will be compared with the fission generator currently produced by IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  12. Radionuclides used in nuclear medicine ({sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 99}Tc) in sewage system and in the marine environment of Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil; Radionuclideos usados em medicina nuclear ({sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 99}Tc) no sistema de esgoto e no ambiente marinho da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Daniele Santos de

    2014-08-01

    The nuclear medicine is a specialty that uses radioisotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose. In Brazil there are around 340 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), 27 of them, are located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The most widely used radionuclides in the country are {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc. The radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc decays to {sup 99}Tc, which is a beta emitter with a long half-life (10{sup 5} years). The aim of this study is to perform a survey to estimate the {sup 131}I and {sup 99}Tc discharged levels at the Canal do Cunha, the main pathways for environmental dispersion and evaluate the radiological impact to non-human biota and to the populations exposed to these radionuclides. The Alegria Station receives sewage from most clinics of Rio de Janeiro mid was therefore chosen as a study case. The station receives approximately 4.50 x 10{sup 5} Bq/year of {sup 99}Tc e 7.12 x 10{sup 12} Bq/year of {sup 131}I. After passing through all stages of treatment, the effluent is discharged into the Canal do Cunha and flows into the Guanabara Bay. To assess the radiological impact of these radionuclide discharges, a comparative study was made considering three computational models: the CROM, which is based on a model of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the PC-CREAM, widely used by the European Union and the GENII, which is the most widely used model in the United States. Two exposure scenarios were considered: 1 - people that bathe directly in the discharge of the effluent; 2 - community living 1200 meters from the discharge point, bathing in the river and consuming local fish. Concentration and doses values for the scenarios according to the applicability of each computer code were estimated. The dose values at the discharge point were 7.47 x 10{sup -6}mSv for {sup 131}I and 2.87 x 10{sup -14} mSv for {sup 99}Tc, while for scenario II the value of the total dose was approximately 10{sup -1} mSv/year for {sup 131}I and 10{sup -10} mSv/year for {sup

  13. Comparison of relative renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, F.C.; Fujikawa, G.Y.; Decker, H.; Alonso, G.; Pereira, J.C.; Duarte, P.S. [Centro de Diagnostico Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Medicina Nuclear; Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Saude Publica. Dept. de Epidemiologia]. E-mail: paulo.duarte@fleury.com.br

    2006-07-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the renal function measured with either {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA or {sup 99m}Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Methods: the values of relative renal function measured in 111 renal dynamic scintigraphies performed either with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (55 studies) or with {sup 99m}Tc-EC (56 studies) were compared with the relative function measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy performed within a 1-month period. The comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The number of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and {sup 99m}Tc-EC studies that presented relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, using chi square test were also compared. Results: the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-EC is not statistically different from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA (p = 0.97). The relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was statistically different from that measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, but with a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). The number of studies with relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA is higher for the {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA scintigraphy (p 0.04) than for {sup 99m}Tc-EC. Conclusion: the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphy is comparable with that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy, while the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy presents a significant statistical difference from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. (author)

  14. Comparison of relative renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, F.C.; Fujikawa, G.Y.; Decker, H.; Alonso, G.; Pereira, J.C.; Duarte, P.S.; Sao Paulo Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured using 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Methods: the values of relative renal function measured in 111 renal dynamic scintigraphies performed either with 99m Tc-DTPA (55 studies) or with 99m Tc-EC (56 studies) were compared with the relative function measured using 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy performed within a 1-month period. The comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The number of 99m Tc-DTPA and 99m Tc-EC studies that presented relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA, using chi square test were also compared. Results: the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-EC is not statistically different from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA (p = 0.97). The relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-DTPA was statistically different from that measured using 99m Tc-DMSA, but with a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). The number of studies with relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA is higher for the 99m Tc-DTPA scintigraphy (p 0.04) than for 99m Tc-EC. Conclusion: the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphy is comparable with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy, while the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy presents a significant statistical difference from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. (author)

  15. Radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (131I, 99mTc e 99Tc) in sewage system and in the marine environment of Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Daniele Santos de

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear medicine is a specialty that uses radioisotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose. In Brazil there are around 340 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), 27 of them, are located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The most widely used radionuclides in the country are 131 I and 99m Tc. The radionuclide 99m Tc decays to 99 Tc, which is a beta emitter with a long half-life (10 5 years). The aim of this study is to perform a survey to estimate the 131 I and 99 Tc discharged levels at the Canal do Cunha, the main pathways for environmental dispersion and evaluate the radiological impact to non-human biota and to the populations exposed to these radionuclides. The Alegria Station receives sewage from most clinics of Rio de Janeiro mid was therefore chosen as a study case. The station receives approximately 4.50 x 10 5 Bq/year of 99 Tc e 7.12 x 10 12 Bq/year of 131 I. After passing through all stages of treatment, the effluent is discharged into the Canal do Cunha and flows into the Guanabara Bay. To assess the radiological impact of these radionuclide discharges, a comparative study was made considering three computational models: the CROM, which is based on a model of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the PC-CREAM, widely used by the European Union and the GENII, which is the most widely used model in the United States. Two exposure scenarios were considered: 1 - people that bathe directly in the discharge of the effluent; 2 - community living 1200 meters from the discharge point, bathing in the river and consuming local fish. Concentration and doses values for the scenarios according to the applicability of each computer code were estimated. The dose values at the discharge point were 7.47 x 10 -6 mSv for 131 I and 2.87 x 10 -14 mSv for 99 Tc, while for scenario II the value of the total dose was approximately 10 -1 mSv/year for 131 I and 10 -10 mSv/year for 99 Tc, and fish consumption is the main responsible for the dose. An analysis by gamma

  16. Bone turnover markers are correlated with total skeletal uptake of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenora, Janaka; Norrgren, Kristina; Thorsson, Ola; Wollmer, Per; Obrant, Karl J; Ivaska, Kaisa K

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal uptake of 99m Tc labelled methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-MDP) is used for producing images of pathological bone uptake due to its incorporation to the sites of active bone turnover. This study was done to validate bone turnover markers using total skeletal uptake (TSU) of 99m Tc-MDP. 22 postmenopausal women (52–80 years) volunteered to participate. Scintigraphy was performed by injecting 520 MBq of 99m Tc-MDP and taking whole body images after 3 minutes, and 5 hours. TSU was calculated from these two images by taking into account the urinary loss and soft tissue uptake. Bone turnover markers used were bone specific alkaline phosphatase (S-Bone ALP), three different assays for serum osteocalcin (OC), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b (S-TRACP5b), serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (S-CTX-I) and three assays for urinary osteocalcin (U-OC). The median TSU of 99m Tc-MDP was 23% of the administered activity. All bone turnover markers were significantly correlated with TSU with r-values from 0.52 (p = 0.013) to 0.90 (p < 0.001). The two resorption markers had numerically higher correlations (S-TRACP5b r = 0.90, S-CTX-I r = 0.80) than the formation markers (S-Total OC r = 0.72, S-Bone ALP r = 0.66), but the difference was not statistically significant. TSU did not correlate with age, weight, body mass index or bone mineral density. In conclusion, bone turnover markers are strongly correlated with total skeletal uptake of 99m Tc-MDP. There were no significant differences in correlations for bone formation and resorption markers. This should be due to the coupling between formation and resorption

  17. Usefulness of 99mTc-ECD SPECT in diseases of central nerve system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shimato; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Mimura, Hiroaki

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of a new cerebral perfusion imaging radiopharmaceutical, 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD), was clinically evaluated. The subjects of this study were 14 patients with neurological disorders including 10 patients with cerebral infarction and 4 patients with other diseases. A total of 15 examinations was performed. 99m Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ( 99m Tc-HM-PAO) or 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) SPECTs were performed simultaneously, and the findings from those examinations were compared with 99m Tc-ECD. As to the count ratio of lesions to normal area (L/N), the L/N ratio in severe ischemic patients was lower in 99m Tc-ECD than in 99m Tc-HM-PAO or 123 I-IMP. In mild ischemic patients, on the other hand, the L/N ratio was the lowest in 123 I-IMP. When the relationship between regional cerebral blood flows (rCBFs) obtained from 123 I-IMP and the values of L/N in 99m Tc-ECD or 99m Tc-HM-PAO was compared, the values of L/N in 99m Tc-ECD or 99m Tc-HM-PAO were found to have decreased linearity with increasing rCBF. In a patient showing luxury perfusion, the accumulation pattern of 99m Tc-ECD was different from that of the other two radiopharmaceuticals, and focal defect was revealed in 99m Tc-ECD SPECT. On the dynamic SPECT of 99m Tc-ECD in a patient with meningioma, the tumor showed a change from high to low perfusion with the passage of time. This finding indicated that care should be taken in the evaluation of accumulation of 99m Tc-ECD. Therefore, 99m Tc-ECD was found to be useful as a cerebral perfusion agent. In addition, as accumulation of 99m Tc-ECD might somehow reflect metabolism in some cases, further careful investigation of many cases should be carried out. (author)

  18. Production technologies for molybdenum-99 and technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    Technetium-99m (6.02 h) is the most widely used radioisotope in nuclear medicine, accounting for more than 80% of all diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is almost exclusively produced from the decay of its parent 99 Mo. The present sources of 99 Mo are research reactors by using the (n,γ) nuclear reaction with natural Mo ( 98 Mo, ∼24%), resulting in inexpensive but low-specific activity 99 Mo, or by neutron-induced fission of 235 U, which results in expensive but high specific activity 99 Mo. This publication covers several aspects related to the production of 99 Mo and 99m Tc. The contributed papers reflect the current status of the technology and discuss potential alternative methodologies for the production of 99 Mo and 99m Tc for medical use. The first four papers address the technologies using nuclear reactors, including the description of a new method using an aqueous homogenous reactor core for production of fission 99 Mo and the latest development efforts to fabricate 235 U low enriched targets (LEU, 235 U). The next five papers discuss the potential of utilizing particle accelerators and assess the current status of the available nuclear data for the production of both, 99 Mo and 99m Tc with proton and deuteron beams. The last paper discusses a new technology based on gel system for the preparation of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators using low specific activity 99 Mo produced in research reactors by the neutron activation of natural and inexpensive molybdenum oxide targets. Each individual paper was indexed and abstracted

  19. Studies of labelling conditions for gentamicin with99mTc Biological uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, O.G. de; Almeida, M.A.T.M. de; Muramoto, E.

    1989-10-01

    Gentamicin sulphate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic type specifically used for treatment of infections produced by Gram-negative bacterias but on the hand it presents ototoxic reactions as a serious side effect. The optimal labelling conditions of gentamicin sulphate with 99m Tc, using sodium pertechnetate solutions eluted from a 99 Mo - 99m Tc generator, were stablished by testing differents masses of antibiotic and reducing agent (SnCl 2 .2H 2 O), and also different reaction times and final labelling pH. The labelling yields were determined through ascendent type crimatographic analysis using metylacetone and 0,9% NaCl solution as solvents. From the studies of the biological uptake of 99m Tc gentamicin sulphate per gram of eight different organs and tissues from Wistar rats, it was shown that for a dose of 0,3 mg of 99m Tc-gentamicin intravenously administered. The kidneys, presented the greatest affinity for the drug, being thus the main excretory organs of the product. (author) [pt

  20. {sup 201}Tl, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin: relative retention and clearance kinetics in retrogradely perfused guinea pig hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Wolfgang M.; Moka, Detlef E-mail: detlef.moka@uni-koeln.de; Brockmann, Holger A.; Schomaecker, Klaus; Schicha, Harald

    2002-02-01

    Myocellular kinetics of {sup 201}Tl, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin were investigated using retrogradely-perfused guinea-pig hearts. Relative retention decreased in the order {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin. {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI exhibited bi- (t1,t2), {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin triexponential (t1,t2,t3) time-activity-curves. Latest-phase elimination-half-life increased from {sup 201}Tl (t2) {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (t2) {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (t3) {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin (t3), showing a significant increase in deteriorating myocardium for all tracers but {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin. Delayed elimination in deteriorating myocardium explains at least partly the redistribution phenomenon of {sup 201}Tl, and suggests a similar phenomenon for {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin.

  1. Pharmacological study of 99mTc-CO-MIBI, a new mycoardial perfusion imaging agent comparison to 99mTc-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiandong; Wang Jincheng; Mi Hongzhi

    2004-01-01

    For many years, 99m Tc-MIBI has been widely used for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Although it has been regarded as a successful myocardial imaging agent, it has a notable defect of high liver radioactivities due to high uptake and slowly excrete. Recently, researchers had developed a new intermediate [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 (OH 2 ) 3 ] + , considering 99m Tc-MIBI excellent biodistribution, they synthesized a new class of compound- 99m Tc-CO-MIBI with [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 ] + core and ligand MIBI. Previous studies have preliminary demonstrated the following favorable properties: rapid blood-pool clearance, high myocardial extraction and rapid clearance kinetics from liver that indicated 99m Tc-CO-MIBI a promising new myocardial perfusion imaging agent. Furthermore, researchers separated the compound by changing liquid pH value and prepared single alkaline component 99m Tc-CO-MIBI. The pharmacological experiments in rat have provided better results on its biodistribution in vivo and much faster clearance kinetics from liver compared to 99mTc-MIBI. To evaluate the potential application of 99m Tc-CO-MIBI, further investigations are necessary to determine the evidence for enhanced ability in clinical decision making as a novel new myocardial perfusion imaging agent. Objective: Here, perform pharmacological experiment of 99m Tc-CO-MIBI, a new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial imaging agent compared to 99m Tc-MIBI in canines. To identify whether it is feasible in clinical application as a novel myocardial imaging agent, or not. Results: Accordingly, prepared the single alkaline component of 99m Tc-CO-MIBI. The complex was stable up to at least 7 hours after synthesized in vitro at either room temperature or 37 degree C water bath. Labeling yield and radiochemical purity (RCP) of the complex were evaluated by TLC and HPLC, the labeling percent was 93%-97% and the RCP was over 90%. Then administer 555MBq to every dog each times. A total of 5 dogs were involved. The data of

  2. Development of Tc-99m labeled myocardial imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J. M.; Jang, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, H. W.; Ray, G.; Lee, M. S.

    2006-02-01

    Lipophilic cations have been widely used for myocardial SPECT. We synthesized novel +1 charged lipophilic Tc-99m-labeled N,N'-disubstituted N2S2 derivatives and investigated their biodistribution. The N,N'-dimethyl-, N,N'-diethyl-, N,N'-bis(methoxyethyl)-, and N,N'-bis(ethoxyethyl)N2S2 derivatives were synthesized by alkylating disulfide form of N2S2 with corresponding alkyl halides and subsequently reduced with LAH in THF. To label with Tc-99m, 50% gluconic acid (0.1 ml), SnCl2·2H2O (10 μg), Tc-99m-pertechnetate (370 MBq/2.5 ml) and 0.5 M Na2CO3 (0.3 ml) were added to the compounds. These mixtures were reacted in boiling water bath for 30∼60 min. Radiochemical purities were checked by Whatman No.1 chromatography (normal saline, Rf 0.3∼0.4). Biodistribution of each compound was investigated after injecting 74 kBq (0.1 ml) of each Tc-99m-labeled compound to ICR-mice through the tail vein. Chemical structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by GC-MSD and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. All of the Tc-99m-labeled compound showed labeling efficiencies of higher than 93%. In biodistribution study, the myocardial uptake of Tc-99m-N,N'-dimethylN2S2, Tc-99m-N,N'-diethylN2S2, Tc-99m-N,N'-bis(methoxyethyl)N2S2 and Tc-99m-N,N'-bis(ethoxyethyl)N2S2 were 5.38 ±0.96, 2.98 ±0.16, 4.27 ±0.47, 7.24 ±1.01% ID/g at 10 min and 5.34 ±1.57, 2.05 ±0.40, 1.02 ±0.16, 1.69 ±0.04% ID/g at 2 hr, respectively. We successfully synthesized Tc-99m-labeled N,N-disubstituted N2S2 derivatives that are novel lipophilic +1 charged compounds. We thought our results prove the feasibility of these compounds to use for myocardial SPECT agent

  3. Biodistribution of 99Mo in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Raphael Sancho Sisley de; Ribeiro, Bianca da Silva; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao; Bernardo Filho, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The modification of 99 Mo standard metabolism in the presence of MDP would alter the dosimetry of this radionuclide in nuclear medicine patients. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate the influence of MDP in the biodistribution of 99 Mo. Wistar rats were divided in two groups of six animals, being inoculated respectively 99 Molibdate and 99 Mo+MDP via plex ocular. The biodistribution study was carried out after 10 and 120 minutes respectively. The organs were counted with a NaI(Tl) detector. The uptake values did not present significant differences among the groups. An in vitro study through planar chromatography was carried out to determine the affinity between molybdenum and MDP. The results show that 99 Mo has low affinity both to propanone and NaCl-0.9% solution. However, 99 Mo in the presence of MDP presented affinity to NaCl-0.9% solution and low affinity to propanone suggesting that 99 Mo was bound to MDP under the conditions of the experiment. (author)

  4. Preparation and labelling hydroxyapatite with 223Ra and 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkova, E.; Micolova, P.; Vlk, M.; Kozempel, J.; Rabyk, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the preparation, studies and investigation of novel nanoparticles suitable for targeted delivery of 223 Ra and 99 mTc. Preliminary experiments were focused on the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) and their affinity to 223 Ra and 99m Tc. Technetium-99m ( 99 mTc, T 1 /2 = 6.0 h) is the most commonly used medical radionuclide for diagnostic procedures. Radium-223 is the first -emitting radionuclide approved for targeted radionuclide therapy. The physical half-life of 223 Ra of 11.4 days is providing sufficient time for the synthesis, distribution and administration of the radiopharmaceutical to patients. HANPs labelling yields with 223 Ra were 95 - 100 % and with 99m Tc were 93 - 94 % depending on the reaction conditions. HANPs were studied on FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRPD (X-Ray Powder Diffraction), DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering), and the sizes of nanoparticles were studied at temperatures 80, 120 and 200 grad C. (authors)

  5. Studies of liver scintigram by sup(99m)Tc-sodium phytate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Masahide; Matsui, Kengo; Chiba, Kazuo; Yamada, Hideo; Iio, Masahiro

    1974-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate occurs in nature either free or in compounds (phytic acid). It is soluble in water and becomes a microcolloid by chelating serum calcium after intravenous injection, and forming insoluble calcium phytate, which undergoes reticuloendothelial localization. Case reports were made on all patients who had liver scan studies between August and December, 1973. Eighty-eight patients were studied with a total of 96 liver scans with sup(99m)Tc-phytate. Among these, the hepatic blood flow of eighteen were studied with sup(99m)Tc-phytate and 198 Au-colloid simultaneously. Labeling of sup(99m)Tc-phytate was easy, it remained stable for a long time and only a few free technetium were revealed (labeling yield: average 93.6%). The blood clearance of sup(99m)Tc-phytate was slower than that of 198 Au-colloid. This suggests that the liver scan must begin more than twenty minutes after the injection. Comparing their affinities for the reticuloendothelial system, sup(99m)Tc-phytate shows a greater accumulation in the spleen than does 198 Au-colloid. sup(99m)Tc-phytate is a useful diagnostic scanning agent of the liver and spleen. Because of its superior physical characteristics excellent scans are readily obtained with minimal radiation to the patient and there have been no side effects who have received sup(99m)Tc-phytate. (author)

  6. 99mTc-MIBI, 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-Q12 in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Bert F.; Krenning, Eric P.; Breeman, Wout A. P.; Ensing, Geert; Benjamins, Harry; Bakker, Willem H.; Visser, Theo J.; Jong, Marion de

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare uptake of 99m Tc-MIBI, 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and 99m Tc-Q12 in vitro and biodistribution in vivo in rats. In vitro, uptake decreased in the order MIBI→tetrofosmin→Q12. Uptake of MIBI and tetrofosmin, but not of Q12, in cultured tumor cells was dependent on the plasma membrane and mitochondrial potential. In vivo, heart uptake of all three compounds was high and stable. Tumor uptake decreased in the order MIBI→Q12→tetrofosmin and the tumor/blood ratio in the order MIBI→tetrofosmin→Q12

  7. Precision measurement of the half-life of {sup 90m}Nb and {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikunaga, H.; Fujisawa, H.; Ooe, K. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Graduate School of Science] [and others

    2011-07-01

    We have produced {sup 90m}Nb and {sup 99m}Tc in the reactions of {sup nat}Zr(p, xn){sup 90m}Nb and {sup 100}Mo({gamma}, n){sup 99}Mo, followed by disintegration to {sup 99m}Tc, respectively, and measured the halflives of these nuclides by using a reference source method. In order to determine the short half-lives of {sup 90m}Nb precisely, an on-line gas-jet system has been employed. As a result, the half-lives of these nuclides were determined with good precision on the order of magnitude of 0.1%. (orig.)

  8. Radionuclide study of thyroid function in pediatrics, using sup(99m)Tc, 123I or 131I: 150 case-reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P.; Guillet, G.

    1981-01-01

    THe best radioisotope for in vivo thyroid investigations is the one which provides the highest quality scintigrams with the least radiation exposure. The choice of 131 I, 123 I or sup(99m)Tc in 150 children is discussed. Cases included 25 dysgenesis, 4 goiters with hypothyroidism, 56 goiters without thyroid dysfunction, 3 thyroiditis, and 11 cold nodules. When thyroid scanning is performed with 131 I, the gland's radiation exposure is high. 123 I is preferable since a fairly high activity can be obtained without delivering an excessive radiation dose. (approximately 2 rad to the thyroid for 50 microCi/m 2 ). sup(99m)Tc which is readily available is not a true iodine analog. It does not give a true picture of iodine metabolism. 123 I was generally used in cases of hypothyroidism, goiter (whenever a defect in thyroid hormone synthesis was suspected) and hyperthyroidism. sup(99m)Tc was generally used in other cases. The low radiation doses delivered by these radioisotopes allows study of thyroid function in the neonate [fr

  9. Alternative generators of the 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.

    2004-01-01

    9 9mTc is the most widely used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. 9 9mTc radionuclide is obtained from a generator, in which 9 9Mo servest as the parent radionuclide. In the generator 9 9mTc and 9 9Mo radionuclides are found in genetic balance and 9 9mTc radionuclide is chemically extracted from the system periodically. Although there already exists many ways and variants of manufacturing 9 9mTc generators, search for new variants of the 9 9Mo → 9 9mTc generator systems continue. An example is the investigations carried out with the support of the IAEA. In these research works, generators based on elution of poly molybdate gels have been developed and evaluated. These generators will be serving as alternative technologies for production of 9 9mTc radionuclide, which use 9 9Mo produced by non-fission means. It is known that in Australia and China more than 30% of 9 9mTc generators are gel-generators. The works of authors are devoted to the problem of searching new perspective materials as a column material that will serve as adsorbent. The main purpose of all the research on alternative technologies is the usage of parent radionuclide 9 9Mo that is obtained from 9 8Mo(n, γ) 9 9Mo reaction instead of as a fission product. Our work examines the possibility of reception of generators 9 9Mo → 9 9mTc using non-fission 9 9Mo that is based on insoluble salts of molybdate

  10. Accumulation of {sup 99}Tc in duckweed Lemna minor L. as a function of growth rate and {sup 99}Tc concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattink, J. E-mail: jhattink@hotmail.com; Wolterbeek, H.Th

    2001-07-01

    This study focuses on the question of whether short-term studies can be used to forecast the accumulation of the long-lived fission product {sup 99}Tc in duckweed, Lemna minor L., grown in the field; in other words, are the accumulation parameters independent of changing growth rates typical of natural populations of duckweed. Two processes determine the {sup 99}Tc accumulation: (i) uptake and release of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, characterised by a concentration factor, K{sub d}, and (ii) first-order reduction and complexation of Tc{sup VII}, characterised by k{sub red}. At various {sup 99}Tc concentrations, the growth, total Tc and TcO{sub 4}{sup -} accumulation were monitored over 10 days; parameters were fitted and compared with earlier results. Both K{sub d} and k{sub red} turn out to be independent of time, concentration and growth rate up to a concentration of 10{sup -6} mol l{sup -1} {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. Concentrations above this level result in toxic effects. The Tc accumulation in field populations of duckweed at Tc concentrations which generally occur in the environment can be forecasted by using the results from short-term experiments.

  11. Preoperative radiological diagnosis by 99mTc·MIBI-99mTc subtraction scintigraphy for primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouye, Takahiro; Tomita, Toshiki; Shinden, Seiichi; Takagi, Hitoshi; Kano, Shigeru.

    1996-01-01

    Preoperative radiological diagnosis constitutes the most important factor for the surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism. In this regard, MRI is useful for detecting the abnormal parathyroid, but it is often difficult to localize it using MRI only. It is thus necessary to combine this procedure with excellent subtraction scintigraphy. We performed both 201 Tl- 99m Tc and 99m Tc·MIBI- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy in seven patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and compared them the radiological results. Five patients presented parathyroid adenomas and the rest hypertrophy of the parathyroid. We could detect the abnormal parathyroid in four patients (57.1%) by 201 Tl- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy and in six patients (85.7%) by 99m Tc·MIBI- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy. We therefore believe that 99m Tc·MIBI- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy will become an essential examination for primary hyperparathyroidism rather than the presently employed 201 Tl- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy. (author)

  12. Clinical evaluation of hepatic scintigraphy using 99mTc-GSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Katsumi; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Tadokoro, Katsumi; Ikeda, Toshiaki; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Ishii, Kodo

    1992-01-01

    Functional hepatic imaging was performed using 99m Tc-DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA), a radiolabeled ligand that reacts specifically to the asialoglycoprotein receptor that resides at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes, in 21 patients: five with chronic active hepatitis (CAH), 14 with compensative liver cirrhosis (LC), one with chronic inactive hepatitis and one with acute hepatitis. The former two diseases were mainly investigated. Serial liver images were acquired at the rates of 10 sec/frame for 0-5 min and 2 min/frame for 6-30 min after the injection of 99m Tc-GSA, and the images were compared with 99m Tc-phytase images in 2 patients with CAH and 11 with LC, and those with portal scintigrams using 123 I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in 3 patients with LC. The images using 99m Tc-GSA were in better agreement with hepatic function than those using 99m Tc-phytase, and with the findings of portal scintigraphy using 123 I-IMP. LHL15 (liver/liver and heart radioactivities at 15 min after injection of 99m Tc-GSA) correlated with the hepaplastin test (r=0.978 in CAH, and r=0.544 in LC), indicators of hepatic reserve. These results suggest that liver scintigraphy using 99m Tc-GSA might be a useful method for evaluating liver function. (author)

  13. Comparison of thallium-201, Tc-99m MIBI and I-131 scan in the follow-up assessment after I-131 ablative therapy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jae Sung; Lee, Sung Keun; Kim, Doe Min; Park, Sae Jong; Jang, Kyong Sun; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Chong Soon

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a comparative study to evaluate the diagnostic values of Tl-201, Tc-99m MIBI and I-131 scans in the follow-up assessment after ablative I-131 therapy in differentiated thyroid cancer. The study population consisted of 20 patients who underwent surgical removal of thyroid cancer and ablative radioactive iodine therapy, and followed by one or more times of I-131 retreatment (33 cases). In all patients, Tl-201, Tc-99m MIBI, diagnostic and therapeutic I-131 scans were performed and the results were analyzed retrospectively. Also serum thyroglobulin levels were measured in all patients. The final diagnosis of recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer was determined by clinical, biochemical, radiologic and/or biopsy findings. Positive rates (PR) of Tc-99m MIBI, Tl-201, diagnostic and therapeutic I-131 scans in detecting malignant thyroid tissue lesions were 70% (19/27), 54% (15/28), 35% (17/48) and 63% (30/48), respectively. The PR in the group of 20 cases (28 lesions) who underwent concomitant Tl-201 and I-131 scans were in the order of therapeutic 131 scan 71%, Tl-201 scan 54% and diagnostic I-131 scan 36%. There was no statistically significant difference between Tl-201 and diagnostic I-131 scans (p>0.05). In the group of 20 cases (27 lesions) who underwent concomitant Tc-99m MIBI and I-131 scans, the PR were in the order of Tc-99m MIBI scan 70%, I-131 therapeutic scan 52% and I-131 diagnostic scan 33%. The PR of Tc-99m MIBI was significantly higher than that of diagnostic I-131 scan (p<0.05). Tc-99m MIBI scan is superior to diagnostic I-131 scan in detecting recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer following ablation therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Tl-201 scan did not showed significantly higher positive rate than diagnostic I-131 scan. Instead of diagnostic I-131 scan before the I-131 retreatment, Tc-99m MIBI scan without discontinuing thyroid hormone replacement would be a prudent and effective approach in the management of these

  14. The development and characterization of Tc-99m mecaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Eshima, D.

    1990-01-01

    I-131 orth-iodohippuric (OIH) acid is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical but it is limited due to the suboptimal imaging properties of the I-131 radionuclide and the relatively high radiation dose. Recent work has focused on the development of Tc-99m renal tubular function agents which would utilize the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of Tc-99m, provide comparable clinical information to that obtained with OIH and allow the evaluation of renal perfusion. The triamide mercaptide (N 3 S) donor ligand system has yielded the most promising Tc-99m tubular function agent to date. Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine MAG 3 does not enter the red blood cell. A simple kit formulation has been developed which yields a stable Tc-99m MAG 3 complex in high radiochemical purity. Studies in normal volunteers and patients indicate that Tc-99m MAG 3 is an excellent Tc-99m renal tubular agent but its clearance is only 50-60% that of OIH. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Clinical evaluation of renal scintigram with 123I-OIH and sup(99m)Tc-DTPA in renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Akira; Fujino, Awato; Ikeda, Shigeru; Ishii, Katsumi; Nakazawa, Keiji

    1983-01-01

    We have carried out 85 renal scintigrams on the 29 renal transplants last 6 months. Clinical usefulness of 123 I-IIH (ortho-iodohippurate) specially prepared compared with that of sup(99m)Tc-DTPA. The parameters of the vascular phase, perfusion index (PI) and (mean) transit time (TT), for the 123 I-OIH and sup(99m)Tc-DTPA renal scintigrams, were almost identical. Therefore it might be thought that renal circulation of 123 I-OIH is similar to that of sup(99m)Tc-DTPA. Moreover 123 I-OIH can afford us specific information on the exretory phase. The complicated renal transplants are well differentiated from normal functioning ones by B/K ratio of 123 I-OIH. B/K ratio is one of the parameters for the excretory phase. 123 I-OIH could be a useful agent for the clinical evaluation after renal transplantation. (author)

  16. Feasibility studies of producing 99 Mo by capture in the IEA-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concilio, Roberta; Mendonca, Arlindo Gilson; Maiorino, Jose Rubens

    1998-01-01

    Everyday the production of 99 Mo for 99m Tc generators, becomes more necessary, whose properties are ideal for medical diagnosis. This works presents a description and an analysis of the production of 99 Mo by radioactive capture at 98 Mo using the research reactor IEA-R1 in 5 MW and operating 5 days a week, referring to the use of targets, separation methods, total and specific activity attained and its limitations. (author)

  17. Synthesis quality control and biodistribution of technetium-99m triamcinolone (99mTc-TA) complex: An inflammation tracer agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvii, Faheem Askari; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Mehdi, Muhammad; Roohi, Samina; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Sohaib, Muhammad; Rasheed, Rashid

    2017-01-01

    In present study synthesis of 99m Tc-triamcinolone acetonide ( 99m Tc-TA) complex and its stability using set of quality control parameters such as ligand concentration, reducing agent concentration, pH, temperature and reaction time was assessed. 99m Tc-TA complex was characterized in terms of percent (%) yield, stability in saline and serum using chromatographic procedures. Radiochemically the 99m Tc-TA complex was found quite stable in saline and serum. After 30 min of reaction the complex showed maximum radiochemical yield of 96.32% which decreased to 96.25 % after 4 h incubation period. In serum, the % yield of radiochemical was remained same up to 2 h which decreased to 93.5% at 24 h time point. Normal biodistribution pattern in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed liver, stomach and kidneys as areas of high 99m Tc-TA complex uptake (8.44 ±1.32, 8.75 ± 1.03 and 12.67 ± 1.21%, respectively) at 1 h post injection time point. Scintigraphy of 99m Tc-TA in rabbits showed similar eco as observed in biodistribution study. Based on the promising results obtained in context of in vitro and in vivo stability and biodistribution, 99m Tc-TA complex could be further studied to identify the inflammation based diseases

  18. Performance of PZC-Mo generator and labeling results prepared with its eluate and MDP kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yishu Liu

    2006-01-01

    This paper described the performance of Tc-99m generator prepared with Mo adsorbent PZC and irradiated nature MoO 3 , and the labeling results of MDP kit prepared with Tc-99m eluted from PZC-Mo generator and MDP was report as well. ThreeTc-99m generators was prepared with different batches of PZC and reactor irradiated nature Mo. The adsorption efficiency of two batches of the PZC is good (96.4% and 93.4%) and that of one batch of PZC is not satisfy (77.8%). The elution efficiency is not so high, and it increases along with the elution date. The elution file is very broad till to 30 ml and the Mo breakthrough is high to unacceptable. The labelling efficiency of MDP kit, prepared with Tc-99m eluate eluted with saline containing 0.05% NaClO from Mo-PZC generator, is approximately 77∼84% and it can reach to >98% labelling with eluate without containing 0.05%HClO in eluate. (author)

  19. Sequential hepatobiliary scintigraphy of the patients with constitutional jaundice, ICG excretory defect disease and hepatocellular carcinoma with 99mTc-PI, 99mTc-HIDA and 99mTc-EHIDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Tsuyoshi

    1987-01-01

    Sequential 2 min scintiphotos were obtained with a scintilation camera after intravenous injection of 3 mCi of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI. Digital matrix images were simultaneously recorded with computer. Sequential samples for the blood clearance of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI were obtained for 120 min following injection to the patient of constitutional hyperbilirubinemia and ICG excretory defect disease. In Dubin-Johnson syndrome, the hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-HIDA was faster or normal but the excretion was extremely slower than in normal cases. Both hepatic uptake and excretion of 99m Tc-PI were almost normal. In Rotor's disease, hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI was very poor, showing almost no hepatic images in all time. In Gilbert's disease and ICG excretory defect disease, hepatic uptake and excretion of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI were within normal limit. From these results, Dubin-Johnson syndrome, Rotor's disease and Gilbert's disease show the different patterns between hepatic uptake and excretion of 99m Tc-HIDA and 99m Tc-PI hepatobiliary scintigraphy and these patterns contribute to the differential diagnosis of constitutional jaundice. The usefulness of hepatobiliary imaging with 99m Tc-EHIDA in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was studied in 15 patients with histologically verified HCC. In 15 patients, 3 patients (20 %) showed increased radioactivity with 99m Tc-EHIDA image, where liver scan with 99m Tc-Sn colloid showed filling defect. These results indicate that use of 99m Tc-EHIDA scan and 67 Ga-citrate imaging is useful for positive visualization of HCC. (author)

  20. Reagent' sets for the concentration of sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco de Salas, G.N.; Arciprete, J.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1976-10-01

    A simple technique for the concentration of the eluates from 99 Mo/sup(99m)Tc and 113 Sn/sup(113m)In generators is described. The reagents' sets provided by the C.N.E.A. for the labelling of different radiopharmaceuticals can be used by only reducing their volumes proportionally. Both concentration techniques for Tc-99m and In-113m will be supplied to users as reagents' sets. (author) [es

  1. Experimental study of per-rectal portal scintigraphy using 99mTc-HM-PAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Hayato; Shinotsuka, Akira; Takenaka, Hiroki; Tamaki, Satoshi.

    1994-01-01

    Usefulness of per-rectal portal scintigraphy by 123 I-IMP has already been admitted. We assessed whether 99m Tc-HM-PAO, another agent used for cerebral blood flow scintigraphy, could be utilized for scintigraphic evaluation of the portal system. Animal experiments were carried out to evaluate the usefulness of the examination. Shunt indices obtained from per-rectal portal scintigraphy by 123 I-IMP and 99m Tc-HM-PAO in shunt models and shunt rate obtained by direct injection of 99m Tc-MAA into the inferior mesenteric vein under laparotomy were compared. Correlation coefficient of each agent with 99m Tc-MAA was 0.90 for 99m Tc-HM-PAO and 0.80 for 123 I-IMP. It was also noted that as larger quantity of the tracer could be administered in 99m Tc-HM-PAO than in 123 I-IMP, absorption from rectum was optimum and liver extraction fraction was 94.4%. Therefore, we concluded that 99m Tc-HM-PAO was useful for per-rectal portal scintigraphy. (author)

  2. 99mTc-Novobiocin: a novel radiotracer for infection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.Q.; Khan, M.R.; Khan, A.U.

    2011-01-01

    The radiosynthesis of 99m Tc-Novobiocin ( 99m Tc-NBN) complex and its suitability as a radiotracer for infection imaging was assessed. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the 99m Tc-NBN complex was determined using radio-TLC and radioactive HPLC and biodistribution was studied in artificially infected (A.I.) rats and rabbit, using single well gamma counter (SWGRC) interface with scalar count rate meter (SCRM) and Gamma Camera (γ-CM). The maximum RCP observed for the preparation having 2 mg of NBN, 111 MBq of sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) and 125 μL of SnF 2 (1 μg/μL in 0.01 N HCl) at a pH 5.6 was 98.97±0.40% and remained stable >90% up to 120 min. The activity of the 99m Tc-NBN in the infected muscle (TI) was significantly increased from 6.50±0.15 to 19.00±0.17% and decreased in the inflamed muscle (TII), normal muscle (NT), blood, liver, spleen, stomach and intestine within 120 min. The TI/NT and TII/NT ratios were 7.60±1.08 and 1.60±1.14. The Whole Body Static (WBS) images of A.I. rabbit were obtained at 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after the I.V. administration of 111 MBq of 99m Tc-NBN to the A.I. rabbit. The stability in saline and serum, higher TI/NT, lower TII/NT ratios and WBS images confirmed the feasibility of the 99m Tc-NBN complex as an infection imaging agent. (orig.)

  3. Studies of post-elution concentration of {sup 99m}-Tc eluted from a gel type chromatographic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Katia N.; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: norisuzuki6@yahoo.com.br; jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals most used in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine are those labeled with the metastable technetium ({sup 99m}Tc) due to its ideal physical properties of decay (t{sub 1/2} 6.01 h, E{gamma} 140 keV), low cost and availability facilitated through the commercial generator {sup 99}Mo /{sup 99m}Tc. This radionuclide is formed by the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 99}Mo adsorbed on an alumina column of the generator and collected in the form of sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) by elution with saline solution (0.9%). The Radiopharmacy Center (CR) of the IPEN-CNEN/SP developed a gel type chromatographic generator of MoZr with {sup 99}Mo produced by {sup 98}Mo(n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo reaction that occurs in IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor. The gel is composed of zirconium molybdate with elution volume of 12 ml with an activity of 11100 MBq (300 mCi) producing a radioactive concentration of 925 MBq (34 mCi) / ml. The fission generator gives a higher radioactive concentration around 1850 MBq (69 mCi) / ml. The aim of this work is to study a system of post-elution concentration using ion exchange cartridges in tandem (cation - anion) for the attainment of a high enough radioactive concentration to meet the demand of market, with a proved quality. This system of concentration will be made based in the technique of solid phase extraction (SPE) using commercial cartridges of extraction, which contains the solid phase and eluent saline solution (0.9%). As the eluent results of this system used in the gel generator of MoZr will be compared with the fission generator currently produced by IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  4. Procedure for the production of PZC based chromatographic Tc-99m generator to be available for clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van So; Pham Ngoc Dien; Truong Hong Nghia; Nguyen Thi Thu; Nguyen Cong Duc; Vo Thi Cam Hoa; Bui Van Cuong

    2004-01-01

    The chemical synthesis for the preparation of polymer compound of Zirconium (PZC) and the column pre-loading procedure for the preparation of PZC based chromatographic Tc-99m generators were described in detail. In-process documentation, flow-chart of process, specific Tc-99m generator designs and picturially illustrative description of Tc-99 generator production process were systematically reported. The column pre-loading procedure was highly evaluated as a competent technology for the preparation of PZC based Tc-99m chromatographic generator of high performance using (n,γ) 99 Mo of low specific radioactivity produced on low power research reactors. (author)

  5. Development of production of {sup 99}Mo from LEU target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adang, H G; Mutalib, A; Lubis, H [Radioisotope Production Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency, Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong (Indonesia); and others

    1998-10-01

    {sup 99}TC, the most popular radioisotope in nuclear medicine, is daughter of {sup 99}Mo. {sup 99}Mo is produced in research reactor by irradiating of high enriched uranium (HEU). However, in recent year, strict regulation that has been implemented by USA DOE and NPT has led to the difficulty in getting HEU. Therefore, BATAN has tried to develop the production of {sup 99}Mo by using low enriched uranium (LEU). The research involves the use of LEU in the production of {sup 99}Mo. This research was started in 1994 by joint-research between BATAN and Argonne National Laboratory USA. This program is divided into three research groups. The first group emphasizes its research on fabrication of LEU foil that is going to be irradiated. The second group studies the irradiation`s aspects and physical characteristic of irradiated LEU foils. The third group studies the radiochemical separation process of fission product {sup 99}Mo from solution of irradiated LEU foils. There are five steps that are carried out in studying of radiochemical separation of {sup 99}Mo from irradiated LEU. First is designing a dissolver that is going to be used in dissolving of LEU foil and testing its reliability. Second is dissolving LEU in the new design dissolver. Third is evaluation the modified of Cintichem`s radiochemical separation process of {sup 99}Mo from LEU. Forth is modifying the Cintichem`s radiochemical separation process of {sup 99}Mo from the solution of irradiated LEU. And fifth is using the modified of Cintichem`s radiochemical separation process for separation {sup 99}Mo from solution of irradiated LEU. The first through the forth steps of experiments were already carried out and will be reported in this workshop, whereas the fifth step of experiment is going to be conducted in February 1998. (author)

  6. Evaluation of radionuclide calibrator performance with Tc-99m and I-123 in nuclear medicine centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ji Young; Kim, Gwe Ya; Yang, Hyun Kyu; Lim, Chun Il; Lee, Hyun Koo; Kim, Byung Tae; Jeong, Hee Kyo

    2004-01-01

    To minimize unnecessary radiation dose to patients, it is important to ensure that the radiopharmaceutical administered is accurately measured. Tc-99m is one of the popular radionuclide used in nuclear medicine and I-123 is also used widely in nuclear medicine. To investigate the level of measurement performance and to provide the participants with a traceable standard to check and review their calibration factors for these particular radionuclides, Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) as a national secondary standard dosimetry laboratory conducted comparison program for Tc-99m and I-123 in nuclear medicine centers. 72 nuclear medicine centers (78 calibrators) participated in the comparison program for Tc-99m in 2003 and 37 centers (41 calibrators) for I-123 in 2004. For a comparison, Tc-99m and I-123 were accurately sub-divided into a series of 4 ml aliquots in 10 ml P6 vial and delivered to participants. Participants were invited to assay their P6 vial in each of their radionuclide calibrators and to report their results directly to KFDA. For the evaluation of raionuclide, KFDA used NPL-CRC radionuclide calibrator that is traceable to NPL (National Physical Laboratory) primany standard. The difference between the value reported by the hospital (A h ospital) and of the KFDA (A k fda) is expressed as a percent deviation (DEV (%) = 100 (A h ospital - A k fda)/A k fda). If there were calibrators over 10 % deviations, those were checked again with the same procedure. In Tc-99m, 65% of the calibrators showed deviations within 5 % and 18 % were in the range of 5 % < | DEV | ≤10 %, and 17 % were over 10 % deviations. In I-123, 41 % of the calibrators were within ±5 % and 29 % were in the range of 5 % < | DEV | ≤10 % and 30 % were over 10 %. The results have shown that such comparisons are necessary to improve the accuracy of the measurement and to identify radionuclide calibrators that are malfunctioning

  7. Preliminary studies of 99mTc labeled fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yuzhi; Kung, H.F.; Mack, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Radio iodine labelled fatty acid analogs are potential myocardial imaging agents for SPECT. In this paper are reported three new 99m Tc labbeled fatty acid analogs: 9 '9 m Tc-BAT-TDA, 99m Tc-BAT-PDA and 99m Tc-BAT-H x DA. Ligand exchange reaction with 99m Tc stannous glucoheptonate in 50% aqueous ethanol is used for labelling. The yield of reactions is 87%, 70%, 49% respectively. 99m Tc-fatty acid is purified by extraction into chloroform and the purity as determined by reverse phase HPLC is 98%. In order to determine the structure of Tc-BAT-fatty acid, 99 Tc-BAT-PDA is synthesized with 99 Tc ammonium pertechnetate in 50% citric acid buffer (pH=6)/ethanol using stannous chloride as the reducing agent. 99 Tc-BAT-PDA displays the expected Tc=O UV absorption at 420nm and strong peak at 900cm -1 in the FTIR spectrum. Biodistribution studies of three 99m Tc-fatty acid analogs are conducted in rats using 125 I-ω- (p-iodophenyl) -penta-decanoic acid (IPPDA) as internal standard. The initial heart uptake of them is significantly lower than that of 125 I-IPPDA

  8. Accumulation of Tc-99m-MIBI and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin in tumor cells. Uptake and washout studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Aghajanian, A.A.; Sinzinger, H.; Kalinowska, W.; Zielinski, C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To investigate in-vitro the uptake and washout of Tc-99m-MIBI and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin in human breast adenocarcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma cell lines. Methods: The uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin (at 37 0 C, 10, 30 and 60 minutes after incubation with 7.4x10E5 Bq each tracer) was investigated in breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells, synovial sarcoma SW 982 cells and chondrosarcoma SW 1353 cells (concentration of 1x10E6 cells/ml incubation medium). Tracer uptake in cells incubated with ouabain (Na/K-ATPase pump inhibitor; 100 μM and 1mM; 15 and 30 minutes), nigericin (increases mitochondrial potential and disrupts cell membrane potential; 5 and 50 μg/ml; 15 minutes) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) (depolarizes mitochondrial membrane; 10 and 100 μM; 30 minutes) was compared to that in cells without incubation with chemical agents (control cells). The washout (at 37 0 C, 10-60 minutes, 30 and 60 minutes after tracer incubation) of Tc-99m-MIBI and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin was studied in MCF-7 cells, SK-BR-3 cells , SW 1353 cells and fibrosarcoma SW 684 cells. Results: Cellular tracer uptake decreased with ouabain (decrease of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin > Tc-99m-MIBI in SK-BR-3 cells and SW 982 cells) and increased with nigericin (increase of Tc-99m-MIBI > Tc-99m-tetrofosmin in all cells) as compared to the uptake in control cells. With CCCP, decrease of Tc-99m-MIBI uptake in cells preincubated with nigericin was higher than that in cells under basal conditions, whereas a similar decrease of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin uptake in these two group of cells was found. Washout of Tc-99m-MIBI from all cells was lower than that of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin. No significant difference in cell-associated activity of both tracers was found between washout after 30 minutes and that after 60 minutes of incubation, in all cells. Washout of Tc-99m-MIBI from SK-BR-3 cells Tc-99m-tetrofosmin) and Na/K-ATPase pump (Tc-99m-tetrofosmin > Tc-99m-MIBI). Tc-99m-MIBI and

  9. Mo-99 production by fission and future projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, E.C.; Novello, A.; Bronca, M.; Cestau, D.; Bavaro, R.; Centurion, R.; Bravo, C.; Bronca, P.; Gualda, E.; Fraguas, F.; Giomi, A.; Ivaldi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Description of the I-131 and Mo-99 production process: The process starts with the irradiation of uranium-aluminum mini plates in the RA-3, Argentinean Reactor No.3, Ezeiza Atomic Center. In a nuclear reactor there is a constant flow of neutrons and when a neutron with proper energy impacts on a nucleus of U-235, it is absorbed at the same time generate an unstable configuration nuclear. For this reason, the nucleus formed is fission, getting two different atoms. Approximately 6% of the fissions produce Mo-99 and 3% produce I-131; the percentage remaining corresponds to formation of atoms without interest for use in medicine. In conclusion, the objective of the process developed in the Fission Plant, is starting from uranium mini plates, separate the Mo-99 and I-131 generated, the remaining elements formed. - Evolution of Mo-99 Production in the last 10 years: The Fission Mo-99 Plant Production begins routine production of Mo-99 in 1985, using targets made of uranium enriched at 90% U-235. In the 1990s, global concern regarding the use of highly enriched uranium, due to non-proliferation issues, caused the interruption of supply of nuclear material (HEU enriched at 90% of U-235). Following this, Argentina developed target based on low-enriched uranium (less than 20% U-235), becoming in 2002 the first country in the world to produce Mo-99 with LEU targets. From 2002 to date, the activity produced of Mo-99 has been tripled annually (author)

  10. Effects of triiodothyronine upon the 131I and sup(99m)Tc uptake by the submandibular salivary glands in A2G mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houssay, A.B.; Gamper, C.H.; Curbelo, H.M.

    1977-01-01

    The organ:plasma ratios and the isotope uptake in thyroid and submandibular glands were measured at different time intervals after a tracer dose of 131 I or sup(99m)Tc. Triiodothyronine depressed markedly the isotope uptake in both glands, but the inhibition of 131 I or sup(99m)Tc uptake by the thyroids was obtained with much lower doses. Thyrotrophin, while increasing markedly the 131 I or sup(99m)Tc uptake by the thyroids, did not produce any change in the 131 I or sup(99m)Tc uptake by the submandibular glands, when given either to normal or to triiodothyronine-inhibited mice. (author)

  11. Production and availability of 99mTc generators and of 99Mo: technology considerations and the IAEA's contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.; )

    2007-01-01

    The serendipitous discovery of 99m T c generator at the BNL, USA in 1957 laid the foundation for the subsequent revolution of in vivo imaging of physiological functions in humans to aid diagnostic decisions and patient management. The widespread use of diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine would not have attained a pre-eminent status world over but for the 99m T c generator and 99m T c labelled products. In order to sustain the nearly 20 million studies annually performed using 99m T c , it is of utmost importance to assure access to appropriate technologies for continued, reliable availability of 99m T c generators and in turn, that of the raw material radionuclide 99 Mo required in extremely large quantities. A walk down the path of their production technologies to trace the trends and issues reveals several major milestones. The IAEA has been involved for well over three decades in fostering developments in 99m T c generator systems through (i) implementation of a number of CRPs including an on-going one related to the production of 99 Mo using LEU targets, (ii) arranging expert reviews through Technical/Consultancy Meetings and (iii) publication of various technical documents, e.g. IAEA-TECDOC: 515 (1989), 852, (1995), 1051 (1998) and 1065 (1999). The IAEA has also supported a number of interested Member States in establishing and/or operating 99m T c generator production facilities, as for example in Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Iran, Pakistan and Syria. The author has been involved in several of the above initiatives of the IAEA and was also an active participant in the Indian programmes on 99m T c generators during 1972 to 2003. The present review is accordingly tailored as a narration, interspersed with the IAEA's important contributions and glimpses of the Indian scenario. (author)

  12. Pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3} and {sup 131}I-OIH. Comparative study based on 2 compartment model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuke, Noriyuki; Takashio, Tetsuya; Sato, Junichi [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan). Hospital] [and others

    1996-05-01

    We studied 50 patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction to compare pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3} with that of {sup 131}I-OIH. After simultaneous bolus injection of both {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3} and {sup 131}I-OIH, 8-point venous blood sampling was performed from 2 to 44 min post injection. Aliquoted plasma samples were counted for radioactivity along with the injected standard to obtain % injected dose/ml plasma for each tracer. Using obtained time-concentration data, classical 2 compartment model analysis was performed for both tracers to obtain various pharmacokinetic parameters, including distribution volumes (Vds), intercompartmental rate constants, and plasma clearance. In these parameters, Vd of central compartment, Vd at steady state, central to peripheral inter-compartmental rate constant, and plasma clearance were significantly larger for {sup 131}I-OIH. In all parameters, significant correlation was found between {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3} and {sup 131}I-OIH. The best correlation was seen in plasma clearance (r=0.891, p<0.0001). Plasma clearance ratio ({sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}/{sup 131}I-OIH), however, showed weak but significant negative correlation with serum creatinine, although this correlation was not likely to affect the overall correlation of clearance between {sup 131}I-OIH and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}. From these results, we comfirmed that {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3} clearance could be used as an alternative to {sup 131}I-OIH clearance, although pharmacokinetic behavior of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3} was not exactly the same as that of {sup 131}I-OIH. (author)

  13. Development of {sup 99m}Tc extraction-recovery by solvent extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Akihiro; Nishikata, Kaori; Izumo, Hironobu; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Ishihara, Masahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Tanase, Masakazu; Fujisaki, Saburo; Shiina, Takayuki; Ohta, Akio; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro [Chiyoda Technol Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    {sup 99m}Tc is used as a radiopharmaceutical in the medical field for the diagnosis, and manufactured from {sup 99}Mo, the parent nuclide. In this study, the solvent extraction with MEK was selected, and preliminary experiments were carried out using Re instead of {sup 99m}Tc. Two tests were carried out in the experiments; the one is the Re extraction test with MEK from Re-Mo solution, the other is the Re recovery test from the Re-MEK. As to the Re extraction test, and it was clear that the Re extraction yield was more than 90%. Two kinds of Re recovery tests, which are an evaporation method using the evaporator and an adsorption/elution method using the alumina column, were carried out. As to the evaporation method, the Re concentration in the collected solution increased more than 150 times. As to the adsorption/elution method, the Re concentration increased in the eluted solution more than 20 times. (author)

  14. [99mTc[TRODAT-1: a novel technetium-99m complex as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung Meiping; Stevenson, D.A.; Ploessl, K.; Meegalla, S.K.; Beckwith, A.; Essman, W.D.; Mu, M.; Lucki, I.; Kung, H.F.

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide in routine nuclear medicine imaging procedures. Development of 99m Tc-labeled receptor-specific imaging agents for studying the central nervous system is potentially useful for evaluation of brain function in normal and disease states. A novel 99m Tc-labeled tropane derivative, [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. After i.v. injection into rats, [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 displayed specific brain uptake in the rat striatal region (striatum-cerebellum/cerebellum ratio 1.8 at 60 min), where dopamine neurons are concentrated. The specific striatal uptake could be blocked by pretreating rats with a dose of competing dopamine transporter ligand, β-CIT (or RTI-55, i.v., 1 mg/kg). However, the specific striatal uptake of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 was not affected by co-injection of excess free ligand (TRODAT-1, up to 200 μg per rat) or by pretreating the rats with haloperidol (i.v., 1 mg/kg). The specific uptake in striatal regions of rats that had prior 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in the substantia nigra area showed a dramatic reduction. The radioactive material recovered from the rat striatal homogenates at 60 min after i.v. injection of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 showed primarily the original compound (>95%), a good indication of in vivo stability in brain tissue. Similar and comparable organ distribution patterns and brain regional uptakes of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 were obtained for male and female rats. (orig./AJ). With 4 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Basic and clinical studies on hepatobiliary function test with sup(99m)Tc-PI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Isamu; Shigemoto, Hirosada; Ito, Yasuhiko; Muranaka, Akira; Ohtsuka, Nobuaki

    1979-01-01

    In these basic and clinical studies, the usefulness of sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxilideneisoleucine, a new hepatobiliary agent, was evaluated for a hepatobiliary function test in comparison with sup(99m)Tc-N-[N-(2,6 dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl] iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) and 131 I-rose bengal (RB). The experiments were performed with 2.5 - 5 kg rabbits. Hepatic uptake and the excretion of sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene isoleucine (PI) were earlier than those of 131 I-RB. However, biliary excretions of sup(99m)Tc-PI and sup(99m)Tc-HIDA were less than that of 131 I-RB, because urinary excretions of sup(99m)Tc-labeled compounds were greater. During the first 2.5 - 5 min, sup(99m)Tc-labeled agents had lower blood levels than 131 I-RB. At 6 days after the choledochal ligation, no hepatic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-PI was noted, although 131 I-RB concentrated to the liver. Blood retention of sup(99m)Tc-PI might not always reflect hepatobiliary function, especially in the hyperbilirubinemia. On the other hand, hepatograms from a region of interest corresponding to the liver varied with changes in the serum bilirubin level, although no hepatic uptake was detected in the complete obstructive jaundice and severe parenchymal liver disease being over 7 mg/dl in the serum bilirubin level. (author)

  16. Quality audit programme for {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I radioactivity measurements with radionuclide calibrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Leena [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: leena@barc.gov.in; Anuradha, R.; Kulkarni, D.B. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2008-06-15

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy has increased over the years with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I being most widely used. Quality audit programmes for radioactivity measurements of {sup 131}I have been ongoing and the 12th audit was recently conducted among seventy nuclear medicine centres (NMC) in India. An audit for the activity measurements of {sup 99m}Tc was conducted for the first time among ten NMCs in Mumbai, India. These programmes for radioactivity measurements have become very important to establish traceability of measurements to national and international standards and ensure accurate calibration of radionuclide calibrators. The results of both the audits are very encouraging. Ninety-four percent of the NMCs for {sup 131}I activity measurements were within a window of {+-}10% and for {sup 99m}Tc one NMC was deviating more than {+-}10%. The methodology adopted for the audit and results are discussed in detail in this paper.

  17. Study to modify the elution system in a sup(99m)Tc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado S, Baldomero.

    1979-01-01

    The sup(99m)Tc generator is a system that allows us to obtain sup(99m)Tc through the radioactive desintegration of 99 Mo, a radionuclide absorbed in an alumine chromatographic column, the sup(99m)Tc extraction is accomplished by elution and the 99 Mo remains at the column. In this work we try to modify the elution procedure of the generator. At present after eluating the generator, it must be dried with air, in order to support the column in an oxidant atmosphere to avoid the reduction of the technetiate. This reduction causes a low yield of elution, since the reduced species of the technetium can not be eluated. The drying of the column with air complicates a little the elution procedure, and we look to simplify it, the employed methods to resolve the problem were: a) adding an oxidant agent to the elution saline solution, b) adsorbing an oxidant in the alumina chromatographic column, after that the 99 Mo was settled. In the case a) the used oxidant agents were KMnO 4 , K 2 Cr 2 O 7 , NaNo 2 , etc. At concentration rates of 10 -7 M the obtained yields in high activity generators were of the 25-30%. In the case b) variable amounts of a disolution of 2.5 mg/ml of K 2 CrO 4 were adsorbed, the obtained yields in high activity generators were about 85-90%, this second procedure was better, it lets us keep the column wet and it is not necessary to dry it with air, and in this way it can be carried out more easily and efficiently the elution procedure. (author)

  18. Values of (99m)Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile imaging after first-time large-dose (131)I therapy in treating differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaomei; Duan, Dong; Zhu, Yuquan; Pang, Hua; Guan, Lili; Lv, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the use of (99m)Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) imaging for evaluating the treatment response of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after the first administration of a high dose of (131)I. Patients with DTC who received (131)I therapy underwent (99m)Tc-MIBI imaging after successive increases in the therapeutic dose of (131)I, and the serum levels of thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured. A total of 191 patients were enrolled in the final analysis, including 65 metastases and/or thyroid remnant-positive patients (22 patients with metastases and 43 patients with thyroid remnants). The sensitivity of (99m)Tc-MIBI imaging for detecting positive cases and thyroid remnants was 56.9% and 39.5%, respectively, which was significantly lower than that of (131)I imaging (92.3% and 100%, respectively, PTc-MIBI imaging for detecting metastases was 90.9%, which was slightly higher than that of (131)I imaging (77.3%, P>0.05). The Tg levels in the positive group were significantly higher than that in the negative group (PTc-MIBI(+)/(131)I(-) group were significantly higher than that in the (131)I(+)/(99m)Tc-MIBI group (PTc-MIBI imaging was able to detect the existence of metastatic lesions in patients with DTC better, its assessment for the removal efficiency of thyroid remnants was unsatisfactory. The results of (99m)Tc-MIBI imaging showed good correlations with the Tg level.

  19. Results of four one-day electron-accelerator irradiations of enriched Mo-100 targets for the production of Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemerisov, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jonah, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, V. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tkac, P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Virgo, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A series of four one-day irradiations was conducted with 100Mo-enriched disk targets. After irradiation, the enriched disks were removed from the target and dissolved. The resulting solution was processed using a NorthStar RadioGenix™ 99mTc generator either at Argonne National Laboratory or at the NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes facility. Runs on the RadioGenix system produced inconsistent analytical results for 99mTc in the Tc/Mo solution. These inconsistencies were attributed to the impurities in the solution or improper column packing. During the irradiations, the performance of the optic transitional radiation (OTR) and infrared cameras was tested in high radiation field. The OTR cameras survived all irradiations, while the IR cameras failed every time. The addition of X-ray and neutron shielding improved camera survivability and decreased the number of upsets.

  20. A comparative study of 99mTc-HL91 and 99mTc-MIBI imaging in experimental tumor and inflammatory models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, W.; Zhang, X.Y.; An, R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: 99m Tc-HL91 is a newly developed hypoxic imaging agent for ischemic myocardium and tumor imaging. 99m Tc-MIBI is one of imaging agent for mammary tumor imaging. The aim of this experiment is to evaluate the diagnostic value of 99m Tc-HL91 in detection of solid tumor in experimental tumor and inflammatory models, via comparative study with 99m Tc-MIBI. Material and Methods: HL91 kits was provided by China Nine Star Co. Three kinds of bearing solid neoplasm mice groups (bearing Ehrlich carcinoma mice, bearing H 22 carcinoma mice and bearing human ovarian COC 1 neoplasm nude mice) and two inflammatory model groups (chemical and bacterial inflammation) underwent static whole body planar images at 1 and 4 hours post injection of 99m Tc-HL91. Two kinds of bearing neoplasm mice groups (bearing Ehrlich carcinoma mice, bearing H 22 carcinoma mice) and two inflammatory model groups (chemical and bacterial inflammation) underwent static planar images post injection of 99m Tc-MIBI, at early phase (10∼20 minutes) and delayed phase (2 hrs). All of mice were sacrificed at 4 hrs. The tumors, or inflammatory lesions, blood and contralateral muscles were removed, weighed and the radioactivity was measured. Regions of interesting (ROIs) were drawn around tumor, inflammatory lesions and contralateral muscles in planar images, and the radioactivity ratios of target (tumor or inflammatory lesions)-to-blood (T/B), target-to-non target (contralateral muscles) i. e. T/NT was calculated. Results: Neoplasm can be clearly visible in planar images at 1hr and 4 hrs post injection of 99m Tc-HL91 in all tumor models. At same time inflammatory lesions cannot be seen clearly. Neoplasm can be seen in delayed phase in 99m Tc-MIBI groups, but not easy to distinguish them from inflammation. Conclusion: Compared with 99m Tc-MIBI imaging, 99m Tc-HL91 has much more diagnostic value in detection of solid neoplasm, and can distinguish neoplasm from inflammation

  1. What is wise in the production of 99Mo? A comparison of eight possible production routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bert Wolterbeek; Jan Leen Kloosterman; Danny Lathouwers; Martin Rohde; August Winkelman; Lodewijk Frima; Frank Wols

    2014-01-01

    The present paper addresses eight possible routes of producing 99 Mo, and discusses both yield and 99 Mo specific activities (SA) in the context of anticipated worldwide demand. Target dimensions are modelled by considering both limits set by cooling and by inside-target radiation attenuation characteristics. Energy deposition profiles are set up by MCNP6, reaction probabilities are taken from TALYS/TENDL and JANIS codes, and both are used in arriving at the produced 99 Mo. The outcomes suggest that U neutron-fission may remain one of the most relevant and efficient means of producing 99 Mo at the world-demand level, but that within this domain new developments may surface, such as ADSR or AHR production modes. Accelerator-based 99 Mo production is discussed as asking for developments in both target cooling and new concepts in post-EOB upgrading of 99 Mo SA, and/or new concepts for 99 Mo/ 99m Tc-generators, the latter possibly in both volumes (mass) and 99 Mo capacities. (author)

  2. A new method for 99mTc-labelling of proteins, leucocytes and platelets for nuclear medicine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundrehagen, E.

    1984-01-01

    A reduced state of 99mTc was obtained by concentrated hydrocloric acid treatment of the 99mTc(VII)/0.15 M NaCl eluate from 99Mo/99mTc generators. Non-acidic reduced state of 99mTc in dry NaCl deposit was obtained by vacuum evaporation of concentrated HCl and water. A monitored vacuum evaporator built for this purpose is presented, as well as methods of formation of various 99mTc-protein and 99mTc-polypeptide complexes. After careful protein precipation or anionic adsorption of pertechnetate and 99mTc-gentisic acid complexes, high radiochemical purities of labelled proteins were demonstrated by gel chromatography studies, radioimmunological methods, radioaffinity testing studies and ampholyte displacement radiochromatography. Preparative methods for 99mTc-plasmin (at pH=2), 99mTc-secretin (at pH=3) and 99mTc-IgG (at pH=4) are presented. The role and the limitations of 99mTc-plasmin for diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis were investigated in experimentally induced jugular vein thrombosis in rabbits. The in vivo distribution of intravenously injected 99mTc-secretin was found to be in correspondance with that of unlabelled secretin. Labelling of platelets and leucoytes from human blood with 99mTc was carried out at pH=7.2. Data for a remarkable high stability of the labelled cells are presented

  3. 99mTc-MAG3: can it be a viable alternative to 99mTc-DTPA ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, C.S.; Padhy, A.K.; Nair, R.; Gopinath, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potentials of 99m Tc MAG 3 to replace universally used 99m Tc-DTPA as a routine renal agent. Five patients with different nephrological problems were first studied with 99m Tc MAG 3 and then reinvestigated with 99m Tc-DTPA two to seven days later. Renal MAG 3 gamma camera images were found to be almost identical with those of 99m Tc-DTPA images except high hepatic and splenic uptake of the former compound in four out of five patients (80%) irrespective of kidney function. MAG 3 and DTPA renograms showed identical differential renal uptake function (r=0.87) with slightly higher uptake in right kidneys. Time to reach the peak correlated well (r=0.91). Time to reach half maximum renal activity was also found to be almost identical (r=0.97) for MAG 3 and DTPA. It was felt that the age old 99m Tc-DTPA is as good a compound as 99m Tc MAG 3 with regard to imaging and assessment of renal uptake, drainage and differential renal functions. 99m Tc-DTPA is much cheaper, readily available in India and stable to suit the logistics in a busy nuclear medicine department for routine renography. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Laboratory research on back end issues of the Mo-99 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon, M.; Russo, A.; Schickendantz, F.; Vaccaro, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Argentinean National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is now beginning to produce fission 99Mo (parent of the radionuclide 99mTc, widely used in medicine) by irradiation of targets containing 20% enriched uranium. The reduction from the previously employed enrichment of 90% implies an increase in the mass of uranium necessary to produce the same 99Mo activity. This, and the fact that the irradiated uranium has a very low burn-up, led to the decision of studying the feasibility of a method for the recovery (and later reuse) of the irradiated uranium, in order to reduce purchase and post-irradiation storage costs. This task is part of a project for to improving several aspects of the 99Mo production process (including the recovery and purification of other valuable fission products, such as 137Cs, 90Sr and 133Xe). (author)

  5. 99Mo Yield Using Large Sample Mass of MoO3 for Sustainable Production of 99Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Kazuaki; Nagai, Yasuki; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Kawabata, Masako; Minato, Futoshi; Saeki, Hideya; Motoishi, Shoji; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2018-04-01

    A neutron source from the C(d,n) reaction has the unique capability of producing medical radioisotopes such as 99Mo with a minimum level of radioactive waste. Precise data on the neutron flux are crucial to determine the best conditions for obtaining the maximum yield of 99Mo. The measured yield of 99Mo produced by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction from a large sample mass of MoO3 agrees well with the numerical result estimated with the latest neutron data, which are a factor of two larger than the other existing data. This result establishes an important finding for the domestic production of 99Mo: approximately 50% of the demand for 99Mo in Japan could be met using a 100 g 100MoO3 sample mass with a single accelerator of 40 MeV, 2 mA deuteron beams.

  6. Hot Cell Facility modifications at Sandia National Laboratories to support 99Mo production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, M.; Philbin, J.; Berry, D.

    1997-01-01

    In September, 1996, following the completion of an extensive Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), a record of decision (ROD) was issued by DOE selecting Sandia as the facility to take on the 99 Mo production mission. 99 Mo is the precursor to 99m Tc which is used in 36,000 medical procedures per day in the US. to meet US 99 Mo medical demands, 20 kCi of 99 Mo must be delivered to the pharmaceutical companies each week. This could be accomplished by the processing of twenty-five targets (total fission product of 15 kCi/target) each week within the SNL Hot Cell Facility (HCF). To accomplish this new mission, significant modifications to the HCF will have to be undertaken. This paper presents a brief history of the HCF, and describes modifications necessary to achieve DOE directives

  7. Simultaneous /sup 99m/Tc-p-butyl-IDA and 131I-rose bengal scintigraphy in neonatal jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, B.D.; Treves, S.; Davis, M.A.; Heyman, S.; Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Eight neonates with jaundice were studied simultaneously with /sup 99m/Tc-p-butyl-IDA and 131 I-rose bengal. Due to physical decay, /sup 99m/Tc-p-butyl-IDA failed to demonstrate delayed excretion through the patent extrahepatic biliary tract in 3 of 5 patients with concomitant hepatitis; 131 I-rose bengal showed small-bowel activity in all 5. Neither agent demonstrated small-bowel activity in 3 neonates with extrahepatic biliary atresia. Based on this clinical trial, 131 I-rose bengal remains the radiopharmaceutical of choice for distinguishing between hepatitis and biliary atresia in these patients

  8. Clinical application of 99mTc-DTPA-HSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yasuaki; Yamazaki, Junichi; Okuzumi, Ichio

    1989-01-01

    A newly developed blood pool imaging agent, Tc-99m DTPA-HSA (Tc-99m HSA-D), was clinically assessed in blood pool studies of patients with heart disease. Twenty mCi of Tc-99m HSA-D was iv injected to the patients. Similarly, conventional Tc-99m HSA was injected one week later for comparison. Blood counts of Tc-99m HSA-D were significantly higher than those of Tc-99m HSA at 30 minutes after iv injection (p<0.01) and at one, 3, and 6 hours (p<0.001). For the heart, liver, and lungs, sequential counts of Tc-99m HSA-D were also significantly higher than those of Tc-99m HSA. Free Tc-99m uptake in the stomach, thyroid gland, and kidneys was higher on Tc-99m HSA images than Tc-99m HSA-D images. Hepatic and pulmonary uptake of free Tc-99m that were visualized on Tc-99m HSA-D did not influence the diagnostic ability. None of the patients had clinical toxicity of Tc-99m HSA-D. The results indicate that Tc-99m HSA-D is a stable blood pool imaging agent. (Namekawa, K)

  9. Present status of the use of LEU in aqueous reactors to produce Mo-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Russell M.; Pavshook, V.A.; Khvostionov, V.Ye.

    1998-01-01

    An operating aqueous homogeneous reactor, the ARGUS at Kurchatov Institute, has been used to produce fission product molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), widely used in nuclear medicine to produce technetium-99m (Tc-99m). The Mo-99 has been extracted from the sulfate solution using an organic sorbent after operation at 1 kW/liter. after purification, the material has been assayed and the result is well within required specification of the USPharmacopaeia. Operation calculation are presented to show the sources and quantity of alpha activity when LEU is used. (author)

  10. 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT in five patients with MELAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Shinako; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Kitano, Masashi; Horiike, Shigeharu; Kan, Shinichi; Ishii, Katsumi; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Sakai, Fumihiko

    1998-01-01

    Cerebral perfusion was studied in five patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes syndrome (MELAS), using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) or 99m Tc-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime ( 99m Tc-HM-PAO). In four cases, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated by the method reported by Mastuda et al. Immediately after the stroke-like episodes, accumulation of the tracer was relatively increased in the temporooccipital lobe, and also increased rCBF was shown in the same area. However, the region showed decreased radioactivity at the chronic stage, and rCBF decreased also. These findings are consistent with positron emission tomography (PET) at the acute stage and autopsy. 99m Tc-ECD SPECT and 99m Tc-HM-PAO SPECT may be useful in the diagnosis and assessment of the progress of the MELAS. (author)

  11. Discordant results in Tc-99m tetrofosmin and Tc-99m sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphies; Resultados discordantes em cintilografias das paratireoides realizadas com tetrofosmin-99mTc e com sestamibi-99mTc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Domingues, Fernanda C.; Santi Costa, Michele; Brandao, Cynthia; Oliveira, Marco A.C. de; Vieira, Jose G.H. [Fleury - Centro de Medicina Diagnostica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: paulo.duarte@fleury.com.br

    2007-10-15

    Parathyroid scintigraphies have been used to detect pathological parathyroid glands either before as well as after the parathyroid resection surgery in patients with hyperparathyroidism. One of the most utilized techniques to perform the studies is the double-phase images with Tc-99m sestamibi, which has been shown to be very accurate in the localization of enlarged parathyroid glands. Similar to Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m tetrofosmin is a radiopharmaceutical initially developed to perform myocardial perfusion study that has been used to perform parathyroid scintigraphies. Although most of the papers suggest that the overall sensitivities of both radiopharmaceuticals are similar, there are some papers questioning the accuracy of Tc-99m tetrofosmin to detect abnormal parathyroid glands. In the present article, we report a case with discordant results by both methods. (author)

  12. Cyclotron produced Tc-99m: testing compatibility with established kits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Ráliš, Jan; Hradilek, Pavel; Hanč, Petr; van Lier, E. J.; Zyuzin, A.; Moša, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S424-S425 ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cyclotron U-120M * Tc-99m * 100Mo Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders

  13. The Noah's Ark experiment: species dependent biodistributions of cationic 99mTc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, Edward; Ketring, A.R.; Libson, Karen; Vanderheyden, J.-L.; Hirth, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    The time dependent biodistributions of three related 99m Tc complexes of 1, 2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (DMPE) were evaluated in several animal species including humans: trans-[ 99m Tc v (DMPE) 2 O 2 ] + , trans-[ 99m Tc III (DMPE) 2 Cl 2 ] + and [ 99m Tc I (DMPE) 3 ] + . Imaging studies were performed in 10 animal species to evaluate these complexes as myocardial perfusion imaging agents. Animal models adequately predict the uninteresting behaviour of the Tc(V) cation in humans, predict to only a very limited extent the behaviour of the Tc(III) cation in humans and totally fail to predict the behaviour of the Tc(I) cation in humans. (U.K.)

  14. Tc Generator Development: Up-to-Date Tc Recovery Technologies for Increasing the Effectiveness of Mo Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on the Mo sources available today and on the Tc generators developed up to date for increasing the effectiveness of Mo utilisation is performed in the format of detailed description of the features and technical performance of the technological groups of the Mo production and Tc recovery. The latest results of the endeavour in this field are also surveyed in regard of the technical solution for overcoming the shortage of Mo supply. The technological topics are grouped and discussed in a way to reflect the similarity in the technological process of each group. The following groups are included in this review which are high specific activity Mo: the current issues of production, the efforts of more effective utilisation, and the high specific activity Mo-based Tc generator and Tc concentration units; low specific activity Mo: the Mo production based on neutron capture and accelerators and the direct production of Tc and the methods of increasing the specific activity of Mo using Szilard-Chalmers reaction and high electric power isotopic separator; up-to-date technologies of Tc recovery from low specific activity Mo: the solvent extraction-based Tc generator, the sublimation methods for Mo/Tc separation, the electrochemical method for Tc recovery, and the column chromatographic methods for Tc recovery. Besides the traditional Tc-generator systems, the integrated Tc generator systems (Tc generator column combined with postelution purification/concentration unit are discussed with the format of process diagram and picture of real generator systems. These systems are the technetium selective sorbent column-based generators, the high Mo-loading capacity column-based integrated Tc generator systems which include the saline-eluted generator systems, and the nonsaline aqueous and organic solvent eluent-eluted generator systems using high Mo-loading capacity molybdategel and recently developed sorbent columns. Tc concentration methods used in the

  15. New bisaminoethanethiol (BAT) ligands which form two interconvertible Tc-99m complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Shunichi; Kung, Mei-Ping; Frederick, Dana; Kung, Hank F.

    1995-01-01

    Most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine are labeled with Tc-99m. This is due to its superior physical characteristics (T (1(2)) = 6 h and gamma energy 140 KeV) and convenient availability from the 99 Mo/ 99mm Tc generator. In an attempt to fine tune the properties of Tc-99m complexes, the synthesis and radiolabeling of two novel N 2 S 2 ligands, N,-2-mercaptobenzyl-N'-(1-oxo-2-mercapto-2-methyl)propyl ethylenediamine,8, and N,-2-methylthiobenzyl-N'-(1-oxo-2-mercapto-2-methyl)propyl ethylenediamine, 11, with an ionizable SH or unionizable SMe group, respectively, for the formation of complexes with Tc v O center cores, have been examined. Both ligands initially formed one apparently stable, lipophilic and neutral complex (HPLC, Rt = 7 min, reverse-phase column, acetonitrile: buffer, pH 7.0; (55(45)); V/V; partition coefficient between 1-octanol and buffer of 410 and 335, respectively) with [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate in the presence of stannous chloride. After treatment with a reducing agent, NaCNBH 3 , the initial [ 99m Tc]8 and 11 complexes were reduced; the reduced complexes were less lipophilic (shorter retention time, Rt = 5 min, on the same reversed phase HPLC). However, only the oxidized form showed sufficient stability. The reduced forms of both [ 99m Tc]8 and 11 were readily and completely converted back to the oxidized forms by a stream of air. Biodistribution studies in rats demonstrated that the [ 99m Tc]8 (oxidized form) penetrated the blood-brain barrier (0.67% dose/organ at 2 min postinjection), but washed out from the brain quickly (0.29% dose/organ at 30 min postinjection). On the contrary, [ 99m Tc]11 (oxidized form) did not show any brain uptake (0.03% dose/organ at 2 min postinjection), despite its higher lipophilicity. The disparity between these two Tc-99m complexes may be related to the relative instability of [ 99m Tc]11 (oxidized form) by the introduction of the unionizable methylated thiol group as one of the donor

  16. Comparison of carrier-added [99mTc] EDTMP and carrier-free preparations of [99mTc] EDTMP and [99mTc] DPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krcal, A.; Kletter, K.; Dudczak, R.; Pirich, C.; Mitterhauser, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: High uptake of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in malignant bone lesions is a prerequisite for adequate bone scanning. Visual image analysis is impaired due to high soft-tissue activity with currently available [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP-kits. This study aimed to compare carrier-added [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP with carrier-free [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP and [ 99m Tc]-DPD preparations in clinical routine. 15 μg and 150 μg perrhenic acid respectively were added to [ 99m Tc]-pertechnetate (>6 GBq in 3 ml phys. saline). The solution was then transferred into a vial, containing 1 mg of EDTMP, 3.6 mg stannous(II)chloride and 10 mg ascorbic acid under inert conditions. Under vigorous stirring the reaction mixture was heated to 45 o C for 10 min. After cooling down to room temperature the labelling mixture was sterile filtrated (millipore 0.22 μm). Quality control was performed using radio-ITLC (Whatman SG; acetone or ethanol: R f perrhenate/pertechnetate 0.87, colloid/product 0.05; phys. saline: R f colloid 0.00, perrhenate/pertechnetate and product 0.9) allowing rapid and efficient assessment of the product. Carrier free [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP and [ 99m Tc]-DPD were prepared according to instructions of the manufacturer. Clinical studies were performed in 29 patients according to a routine bone scanning protocol by injecting 700-800 MBq of the respective tracer and whole body imaging 3 h thereafter. Radiochemical purity and radiochemical yield relied on various parameters such as concentration of carrier and reducing agent and reaction conditions (pH, reaction time, temperature). Means of the labelling yield were 22 % for the preparation using 150 μg of carrier (5 preparations), 80 % for the preparation using 15 μpg of carrier (10 preparations) and 91 % for the carrier free products (5 preparations). Radiochemical purity was >96 % in all experiments. Colloid was formed in very low amounts, and was completely removed by sterile filtration. In clinical studies quantitative analysis

  17. Kinetic study on ligand exchange reaction between ethylenedicysteine and 99mTc- glucoheptonate (99mTc-GH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.Y.; Ji, S.R.; Lu, C.X.; Ding, S.Y.; Chen, Z.P.; Lin, X.T.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: 99m Tc-L,L-ethylenedicysteine( 99m Tc-EC)is a new type of renal imaging agent. It can be labeled very easily and efficiently at room temperature through direct labeling at pH 12. The need for direct labeling at pH 12 does not compromise the simplicity and ease of preparation of 99m Tc-EC and its practical usefulness in daily routine. On the basis of the labeling experiments, we developed a ligand exchange labeling method, in which the labeling EC with 99m Tc can be performed at pH 8. In order to provide a theoretic basis, a detailed kinetic study of ligand exchange reaction between 99m Tc- glucoheptonate( 99m Tc-GH) and EC was carried out. Materials and Methods: 99m Tc-EC is prepared as follows: 99m Tc-GH + EC → 99m Tc-EC + GH, labeling can be easily performed by adding 99m TcO 4 - (2∼6ml generator elute) to glucoheptonate solution containing SnCl 2 .2H 2 O solution to form 99m Tc-GH, then freshly prepared 99m Tc-GH is transferred to the aqueous solution of different concentrations of EC at different pH value, after being shaken, 99m Tc-EC was formed. Radiolabeling yield(RLY) and radiochemical purity(RCP) of 99m Tc-GH and 99m Tc-EC were measured by Xinhua No.1 paper with developing system of Me 2 CO/H 2 O/con.NH 3 .H 2 O=9/3/1(V/V). 99m Tc-GH(RCP must be over 98%, 80ul, 3.6∼7.4MBq) was added to 1ml of 0.5mol/L phosphate buffer(pH 12) containing different amount of EC(150, 75, 50 and 15ug), the sample was taken out at different time intervals and RCP was determined. The solution of EC(30ul, 5g/L) was added to 1ml of 0.5mol/L phosphate buffer at different pH value(pH11, 10, 9, 8, 7), after completely vortexed, 99m Tc-GH(RCP must be over 98%, 80ul, 3.6∼7.4MBq) was then added, the sample was taken out and RCP was determined as above. The rate constant(k) of ligand exchange reaction at different concentrations of EC and different reaction pH values were calculated out by integrating. Plot ln[1/(1-RLY)] vs t(time) showed a liner relationship, and the rate

  18. Method to produce a sup(99m)Tc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.L.; Harris, O.A.

    1977-01-01

    A 400 millicurie Tc generator for medical application is made on the basis of chromatographic Al 2 O3 plased in a glass generator clumn. The Al 2 O 3 is subjected to thermal activation at 394K. A charge with sodium molybdate 99 solution training a pH value of 3.5 fallowe. After washing the generator with acetic, a 0.9% NaCl solution is added. The remaining solution is sucked off by introducing air through the column. The eluate has a molybdenum cost ent of 0.001 to 0.005 μCi Mo/mCi Tc 99m. The pH-value of the eluate is between 5.0 and 5.3. The aluminium ion content is less than 0.3 g/ml. (DG) [de

  19. Occupational exposure to {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I in a radiopharmacy room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Bruna P.; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Sa, Lidia Vasconcellos de; Souza, Wanderson; Santos, Maristela; Medeiras, Geiza; Conceicao, Cirilo S. [Universidade do Estado, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico. Dept. de Modelagem Computacional], e-mail: brunapvalle@gmail.com, e-mail: kenya@ird.gov.br, e-mail: lidia@ird.gov.br, e-mail: wander@ird.gov.br, e-mail: mstela@ird.gov.br; Abrantes, Marcio Borges de [Centro de Medicina Nuclear Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: marcioabrantes@pop.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Brazil has about 310 nuclear medicine services and 90% of these services use Molybdenum/Technetium generators to prepare several radiopharmaceuticals to diagnostics; about 70% use also {sup 131}I for diagnosis and therapy. These radionuclides are associated to compounds in liquid form and during the manipulation to prepare and administer the patient dose some radioactive airborne particle can be generated. As consequence the workers can be exposed to airborne particles in the respirable fraction containing {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I. The aim of this study is develop a simple and rapid method to verify if the exhaust systems installed in the SMN are efficient in preventing the inhalation of radionuclides airborne particles by workers. In order to estimate the occupational exposure a nuclear medicine service was selected and aerosol samples were collected using personal air sampler with a cyclone. The samples were analyzed using a germanium detector system and the {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I average concentrations were obtained as 16,6 {+-} 14,34 mBq/m{sup 3} and 0.72 {+-} 0.36 mBq/m{sup 3}, respectively. It was not observed a correlation among air concentration and total activity processed in laboratory. These results show that the worker inhales airborne particles containing {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I. (author)

  20. Analysis of 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals by high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Toshio

    1990-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equiped with on line radiometric and optical detectors (i.e. radio-HPLC) have been applied to the radiochemical analysis of commonly-used 99m Tc-radio pharma ceuticals with a view point to check the radiochemical purities of the compounds. Chromatographic conditions were determined by examination of the types of column, mobile phase and pH. An aqueous size-exclusion (Shim-pack Diol-300) and reversed-phase column (Zorbax-ODS) were found to be suitable for 99m Tc-HSA and the other 99m Tc-agents, respectively. The analysis of low molecular weight 99m Tc-agents (e.g. 99m Tc-DTPA, 99m Tc-DMSA, 99m Tc-pyrophosphate, 99m Tc-phytic acid, 99m Tc-MDS, 99m Tc-HMDP) were done by reversed-phaseion pairing chromatography using a optimized mobile phase consisted on a mixture of 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and 2 mM TBA (tetra nbutyl) ammonium hydroxide) in 30 % methanol. The mobile phases for analysis of medium molecular weight 99m Tc-HSA were consisted of a mixture of 50 mM phosphate buffer (ph 7.0) in 30 % methanol, and a mixtures of 1 % SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfonate) in Tris buffer (pH. 7.0), respectively. It was apparent from the radio-chromatograms obtained from these chromatographic conditions, that impurity of 99m TcO 4 was observed in 99m Tc-pyrophosphate, 99m Tc-phytic acid, 99m Tc-MDP, 99m Tc-HMDP, and impurities of 99m Tc-labeled species and 99m TcO 4 , were observed in 99m Tc-HIDA, 99m Tc-HIDA, 99m Tc-HSA. The radiochemical impurities of the 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals were ranged between 90 and 100 %. From these results, radio-HPLC has been shown to be suitable method for analysis of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals, with rapidity and excellent precision. (author)

  1. Radionuclide study of thyroid function in pediatrics, using sup(99m)Tc, /sup 123/I or /sup 131/I: 150 case-reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, J.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P. (Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France)); Guillet, G. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA). Div. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1981-11-01

    THe best radioisotope for in vivo thyroid investigations is the one which provides the highest quality scintigrams with the least radiation exposure. The choice of /sup 131/I, /sup 123/I or sup(99m)Tc in 150 children is discussed. Cases included 25 dysgenesis, 4 goiters with hypothyroidism, 56 goiters without thyroid dysfunction, 3 thyroiditis, and 11 cold nodules. When thyroid scanning is performed with /sup 131/I, the gland's radiation exposure is high. /sup 123/I is preferable since a fairly high activity can be obtained without delivering an excessive radiation dose. (approximately 2 rad to the thyroid for 50 microCi/m/sup 2/). sup(99m)Tc which is readily available is not a true iodine analog. It does not give a true picture of iodine metabolism. /sup 123/I was generally used in cases of hypothyroidism, goiter (whenever a defect in thyroid hormone synthesis was suspected) and hyperthyroidism. sup(99m)Tc was generally used in other cases. The low radiation doses delivered by these radioisotopes allows study of thyroid function in the neonate.

  2. Imaging of irradiated liver with Tc-99m-sulfur colloid and Tc-99m-IDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Saha, S.; Aron, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    In three cases, irradiated regions of liver failed to concentrate Tc-99m-sulfur colloid. In two of these three, imaging with Tc-99m-acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (IDA) agents within five days showed near normal hepatic uptake of this hepatobiliary imaging agent. The hepatic parenchymal cells may be imaged with Tc-99m-IDA in some irradiated regions of liver, despite loss of reticuloendothelial cell function

  3. Clinical evaluation of hepatic scintigraphy using sup 99m Tc-GSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Katsumi; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Tadokoro, Katsumi; Ikeda, Toshiaki; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Ishii, Kodo (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Functional hepatic imaging was performed using {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-GSA), a radiolabeled ligand that reacts specifically to the asialoglycoprotein receptor that resides at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes, in 21 patients: five with chronic active hepatitis (CAH), 14 with compensative liver cirrhosis (LC), one with chronic inactive hepatitis and one with acute hepatitis. The former two diseases were mainly investigated. Serial liver images were acquired at the rates of 10 sec/frame for 0-5 min and 2 min/frame for 6-30 min after the injection of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA, and the images were compared with {sup 99m}Tc-phytase images in 2 patients with CAH and 11 with LC, and those with portal scintigrams using {sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in 3 patients with LC. The images using {sup 99m}Tc-GSA were in better agreement with hepatic function than those using {sup 99m}Tc-phytase, and with the findings of portal scintigraphy using {sup 123}I-IMP. LHL15 (liver/liver and heart radioactivities at 15 min after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA) correlated with the hepaplastin test (r=0.978 in CAH, and r=0.544 in LC), indicators of hepatic reserve. These results suggest that liver scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-GSA might be a useful method for evaluating liver function. (author).

  4. {sup 99m}Tc-Novobiocin: a novel radiotracer for infection imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, S.Q. [Univ. of Peshawar, Nuclear Medicine Research Lab. (NMRL), Peshawar (Pakistan); Khan, M.R. [Univ. of Peshawar, Phyotopharmaceutical and Neutraceuticals Research Lab. (PNRL), Peshawar (Pakistan); Khan, A.U. [Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-07-01

    The radiosynthesis of {sup 99m}Tc-Novobiocin ({sup 99m}Tc-NBN) complex and its suitability as a radiotracer for infection imaging was assessed. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the {sup 99m}Tc-NBN complex was determined using radio-TLC and radioactive HPLC and biodistribution was studied in artificially infected (A.I.) rats and rabbit, using single well gamma counter (SWGRC) interface with scalar count rate meter (SCRM) and Gamma Camera ({gamma}-CM). The maximum RCP observed for the preparation having 2 mg of NBN, 111 MBq of sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) and 125 {mu}L of SnF{sub 2} (1 {mu}g/{mu}L in 0.01 N HCl) at a pH 5.6 was 98.97{+-}0.40% and remained stable >90% up to 120 min. The activity of the {sup 99m}Tc-NBN in the infected muscle (TI) was significantly increased from 6.50{+-}0.15 to 19.00{+-}0.17% and decreased in the inflamed muscle (TII), normal muscle (NT), blood, liver, spleen, stomach and intestine within 120 min. The TI/NT and TII/NT ratios were 7.60{+-}1.08 and 1.60{+-}1.14. The Whole Body Static (WBS) images of A.I. rabbit were obtained at 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after the I.V. administration of 111 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-NBN to the A.I. rabbit. The stability in saline and serum, higher TI/NT, lower TII/NT ratios and WBS images confirmed the feasibility of the {sup 99m}Tc-NBN complex as an infection imaging agent. (orig.)

  5. Separation of 99Mo from 132Te using thiourea as complexing agent. Application to the separation of 99Mo from the fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestnik, S.A.C.

    1987-01-01

    A radiochemical method to isolate 99 Mo from 132 Te both produced in the fission of 235 U has been developed. The method is based on the formation of a cationic complex of tellurium with thiourea in acid medium wich is retained (98.7+-0.5) % on a cation exchange resin (Dowex 50W-X8, 100-200 mesh) wile (99.8+-0.05)% 99 Mo passes through it, due to the non formation of such complex in the same experimental conditions. The radiochemical purity of the separated 99 Mo verified by using gamma spectrometry was found to be suitable for the preparation of 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators. The retention of 99 Mo on an alumina column as function of pH was investigated. The best pH range for this purpose was found to be between 4.0-4.5. Yellow crystals with melting point of 115 0 C were formed when non-irradiated tellurium reacted with thiourea. Elemental analysis, ultra-violet and infra-red absorption spectrophotometry as well as thermogravimetry were used to characterize the complex formed. In the studies made in order to characterize the compound it has been observed: 1. the most probable chemical composition of the complex studied is [Te(SCN 2 H 4 ) 4 ] (SO 4 ) 2 ; 2. the coordination takes place between tellurium and sulphur atoms; 3. the maximum absorption in the ultra-violet region occurs near 310nm. The thermogravimetric curves obtained allowed to propose the concerned thermodecomposition mechanism. (author) [pt

  6. Synthesis, characterization and identification of the hexakis (trimethylphosphite) [Tc-99m]technetium(I) cation as a myocardial imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, R.T.; Adams, M.D.; Miller, F.W.; Robbins, M.S.; Wester, D.W.; White, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Hexakis(trimethylphosphite)[Tc-99m]technetium(I), a monocationic complex, was synthesized for evaluation as a myocardial imaging agent. The above product was synthesized by reacting a methanolic solution of NaTcO/sub 4/ with trimethyl phosphite in an inert atmosphere at 100 0 for 30 min. Using the Tc-99 isotope, mg quantities were isolated for full characterization by precipitation from the reaction mixture using sodium tetraphenylborate. Recrystallization from methanol gave crystals of the tetraphenylborate salt. Elemental analyses, Tc-99 and P-31 NMR, mass spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra, ir and X-ray crystal structure were all consistent with a hexacoordinate octahedral structure of the proposed monocation. The products formed from the Tc-99 isotope and the Tc-99m isotope were shown to be identical by HPLC using simultaneous radiometric and UV detection. The myocardial imaging properties of the title compound were evaluated by rat biodistribution and dog imaging. Five minutes after intravenous administration in rats, 3% dose/gm was in the heart with tissue ratios of heart/blood of 30, heart/liver of 4, heart/lung of 2. These compare to T1-201 values of 6% dose/gm in the heart with tissue ratios of heart/blood of 24, heart/liver of 6, heart/lung of 1. Imaging in an anesthetized dog revealed excellent myocardial uptake with persistent images through a 60 minute period. From these data the hexakis(trimethylphosphite)[Tc-99m]technetium(I) cation was identified as a myocardial imaging agent suitable for further evaluation

  7. [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1: a novel technetium-99m complex as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiping, Kung [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Stevenson, D A [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Ploessl, K [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Meegalla, S K [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Beckwith, A [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Essman, W D [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Mu, M [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Lucki, I [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Kung, H F [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Technetium-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide in routine nuclear medicine imaging procedures. Development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled receptor-specific imaging agents for studying the central nervous system is potentially useful for evaluation of brain function in normal and disease states. A novel {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tropane derivative, [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. After i.v. injection into rats, [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 displayed specific brain uptake in the rat striatal region (striatum-cerebellum/cerebellum ratio 1.8 at 60 min), where dopamine neurons are concentrated. The specific striatal uptake could be blocked by pretreating rats with a dose of competing dopamine transporter ligand, {beta}-CIT (or RTI-55, i.v., 1 mg/kg). However, the specific striatal uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 was not affected by co-injection of excess free ligand (TRODAT-1, up to 200 {mu}g per rat) or by pretreating the rats with haloperidol (i.v., 1 mg/kg). The specific uptake in striatal regions of rats that had prior 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in the substantia nigra area showed a dramatic reduction. The radioactive material recovered from the rat striatal homogenates at 60 min after i.v. injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 showed primarily the original compound (>95%), a good indication of in vivo stability in brain tissue. Similar and comparable organ distribution patterns and brain regional uptakes of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 were obtained for male and female rats. (orig./AJ). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of (99)  (m)TcN-MPO as a new myocardial perfusion imaging agent in normal dogs and in an acute myocardial infarction canine model: comparison with (99)  (m)Tc-sestamibi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lihong; Li, Renfei; Jin, Zhongnan; Wen, Xiaofei; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Baofeng; Shen, Baozhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-02-01

    (99)  (m)TcN-MPO ([(99)  (m)TcN(mpo)(PNP5)](+): mpo = 2-mercaptopyridine oxide and PNP5 = N-ethoxyethyl-N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-methoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]amine) is a cationic (99)  (m)Tc-nitrido complex, which has favorable biodistribution and myocardial uptake with rapid liver clearance in Sprague Dawley rats. The objective of this study was to compare the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of (99)  (m)TcN-MPO and (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi in normal dogs, and to evaluate the potential of (99)  (m)TcN-MPO as a myocardial perfusion agent in canines with acute myocardial infarction. Five normal mongrel dogs were injected intravenously with (99)  (m)TcN-MPO. Venous blood samples were collected via a femoral vein catheter at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 90 min post-injection (p.i.). Anterior-posterior planar images were acquired by γ-camera at 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min p.i. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the heart, liver, and lungs. The heart/liver and heart/lung ratios were calculated by dividing the mean counts in heart ROI by the mean counts in the liver and lung ROI, respectively. For comparison, (99)  (m)Tc-sestamibi was also evaluated in the same five dogs. The interval period between the two examinations was 1 week to eliminate possible interference between these two radiotracers. In addition, single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) images in the canine infarct model were collected 24 h after myocardial infarction at 30 and 60 min after the administration of (99)  (m)TcN-MPO (n = 4) or (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi (n = 4). It was found that (99)  (m)TcN-MPO and (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi displayed very similar blood clearance characteristics during the first 90 min p.i. Both (99)  (m)TcN-MPO and (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi had a rapid blood clearance with less than 50% of initial radioactivity remaining at 1 min and less than 5% at 30 min p.i. (99)  (m)TcN-MPO and (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi both showed good

  9. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-05: Radiation Dosimetry of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, a SPECT Agent for Angiogenesis Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Tc-99m labeled IDA-D-[c(RGDfK){sub 2} ( {sup 99m}Tc-RGD) is a recently developed radiotracer for gamma camera or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and promising agent for the visualization of angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the internal radiation dosimetry of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD in humans. Methods: Six normal controls (F:M=4:2; 68.3±3.2 years; 56.5±10.7 kg) were participated in this study. Simultaneous anterior and posterior scans of whole-body were performed using dual head gamma camera system. Before the emission scan, transmission scan was performed just before injection of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD using Co-57 flood source. After an intravenous injection of 388.7±29.3 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD, six serial emission scans were performed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours post-injection. The anterior and posterior images were geometrically averaged and attenuation correction was applied using transmission scan image. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on liver, gallbladder, kidneys, urinary bladder, spleen, brain, and large intestine. Time activity curves were obtained from serial emission scan and ROIs. The number of disintegrations per unit activity administered (residence time) were calculated from the area under the curve of time activity curves and injected dose of each patient. Finally, the radiation dose for each organ and effective doses were obtained using OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software and residence time. Results: High radiation doses were reported on renal and biliary excretion tracks such as urinary bladder wall, upper large intestine, kidneys, liver and gallbladder wall and their doses were 19.15±6.84, 19.28±4.78, 15.67±0.90, 9.13±1.71 and 9.09±2.03 µGy/MBq, respectively. The effective dose and effective dose equivalent were 5.08±0.53 and 7.11±0.58 µSv/MBq, respectively. Conclusion: We evaluated the radiation dose of 99mTc-RGD, which has an acceptable effective radiation dose compare to the other Tc-99m labeled radio-tracers.

  10. On the separation of 99mTcO4-, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-citrate as marker species for the determination of Tc chemical forms in plant material using capillary zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, G.C.; Claessens, H.A.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper addresses the potential use of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) as an anal. tool in 99Tc speciation studies. To optimize sampling, storage and anal. procedures, the three marker compds. 99mTcO4-, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-citrate were synthesized and used in test-measurements with

  11. Comparison of sup(99m)Tc-MDP to sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate by computerized quantitative joint scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekonen, A.; Moettoenen, T.; Oka, M.

    1982-01-01

    99mTc-pertechnetate was compared to 99mTc-MDP in joint pairs with asymmetric arthritis. Markedly elevated joint activity ratios (inflamed/uninflamed joint) were measured in all the joint pairs studied. In the joints affected by reactive arthritis and without roentgenologic changes the mean joint activity was the same with both tracers. A very high activity ratio with 99mTc-MDP was found in septic arthritis. In rheumatoid arthritis the sensitivity of 99mTc-MDP as an indicator of active arthritis seemed to be better than that of 99mTc-pertechnetate. Even in joints without erosions in roentgenograms the joint activity ratios were markedly elevated with 99mTc-MDP. This suggests, that high activity in 99mTc-MDP scanning might be prognostic of erosive joint changes. In this work a profile curve was used for quantitation differences between joints

  12. 99mTc labelled peptides for imaging of peripheral receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustanser, J.; Anjum, A.

    2001-01-01

    Several peptides are being used as radiopharmaceuticals for receptor imaging scintigraphy. The peptide receptors are found in the tumours of various sites in the human body. Somatostatin is one of those, which is expressed by a variety of tumours say in brain cortex, medullary carcinoma of thyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas and gut. Therefore neuropeptides based on somatostatin analogues are labelled with different radionuclide, 123 I and 111 In. Efforts are underway to label RC-160 (an analogue of somatostatin) with 99m Tc because of its favourable radiation dosimetry, short half-life, low price, high count rate and better diagnostic efficacy. In this project various methods of labelling RC-160 with different radionuclides 125 I and 99m Tc have been studied in detail. Radioiodination of RC-160 was tried with 125 I using the iodogen method as directed and then with Chloramine T method. Labelling of RC-160 peptide with 99m Tc was done using two different aspects. Direct labelling with 99m Tc and indirect labelling with 99m Tc using double chelating agents. Radiochemical quality control was carried out applying instant thin layer chromatography using ITLC-SG strips in 85% of methanol. Later the HPLC analysis was used for its evaluation. To label RC-160 with 99m Tc the approach of direct labelling was attempted first. 46% labelling could be achieved with 95% of radiochemical purity. The biodistribution of 99m Tc-RC-160 complex in rats has also been studied to determine uptake in various sites of somatostatin receptors. Eventually, attempt was made to synthesize biomolecule by conjugating Boc protec