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Sample records for mmp-14 targeted spect

  1. miR-150-5p inhibits hepatoma cell migration and invasion by targeting MMP14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite progress in diagnostics and treatment of HCC, its prognosis remains poor because the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatocarcinogenesis are not well understood. In the study, we focused on identifying the role of miRNAs in HCC progression. miRNA microarray was used to analyze the differentially expressed miRNAs, and the results were validated by qPCR. We found that the miR-150-5p expression is down-regulated in HCC tissues compared with pair non-tumor tissues. miR-150-5p expression is also decreased in metastatic cancer tissues compared with pair primary tissues, indicating that miR-150-5p may be involved in HCC metastasis. Functionally, miR-150-5p inhibition significantly promotes hepatoma cell migration and invasion, whereas miR-150-5p overexpression suppresses cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. The matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14 is identified as a new target gene of miR-150-5p. miR-150-5p markedly inhibits MMP14 expression in hepatoma cells, and miR-150-5p expression is negative correlation with MMP14 expression in vivo. More important, re-expression of MMP14 in hepatoma cells partially reverses the effect of miR-150-5p in inhibiting cell invasion.

  2. New insight into the role of MMP14 in metabolic balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Mori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-anchored matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14 is involved broadly in organ development through both its proteolytic and signal-transducing functions. Knockout of Mmp14 (KO in mice results in a dramatic reduction of body size and wasting followed by premature death, the mechanism of which is poorly understood. Since the mammary gland develops after birth and is thus dependent for its functional progression on systemic and local cues, we chose it as an organ model for understanding why KO mice fail to thrive. A global analysis of the mammary glands’ proteome in the wild type (WT and KO mice provided insight into an unexpected role of MMP14 in maintaining metabolism and homeostasis. We performed mass spectrometry and quantitative proteomics to determine the protein signatures of mammary glands from 7 to 11 days old WT and KO mice and found that KO rudiments had a significantly higher level of rate-limiting enzymes involved in catabolic pathways. Glycogen and lipid levels in KO rudiments were reduced, and the circulating levels of triglycerides and glucose were lower. Analysis of the ultrastructure of mammary glands imaged by electron microscopy revealed a significant increase in autophagy signatures in KO mice. Finally, Mmp14 silenced mammary epithelial cells displayed enhanced autophagy. Applied to a systemic level, these findings indicate that MMP14 is a crucial regulator of tissue homeostasis. If operative on a systemic level, these findings could explain how Mmp14KO litter fail to thrive due to disorder in metabolism.

  3. VANGL2 regulates membrane trafficking of MMP14 to control cell polarity and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B Blairanne; Cantrell, V Ashley; Mundell, Nathan A; Bennett, Andrea C; Quick, Rachel E; Jessen, Jason R

    2012-05-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) describes the polarized orientation of cells within the plane of a tissue. Unlike epithelial PCP, the mechanisms underlying PCP signaling in migrating cells remain undefined. Here, the establishment of PCP must be coordinated with dynamic changes in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. During gastrulation, the membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP or MMP14) is required for PCP and convergence and extension cell movements. We report that the PCP protein Vang-like 2 (VANGL2) regulates the endocytosis and cell-surface availability of MMP14 in manner that is dependent on focal adhesion kinase. We demonstrate that zebrafish trilobite/vangl2 mutant embryos exhibit increased Mmp14 activity and decreased ECM. Furthermore, in vivo knockdown of Mmp14 partially rescues the Vangl2 loss-of-function convergence and extension phenotype. This study identifies a mechanism linking VANGL2 with MMP14 trafficking and suggests that establishment of PCP in migrating gastrula cells requires regulated proteolytic degradation or remodeling of the ECM. Our findings implicate matrix metalloproteinases as downstream effectors of PCP and suggest a broadly applicable mechanism whereby VANGL2 affects diverse morphogenetic processes.

  4. Blockade of MMP14 Activity in Murine Breast Carcinomas: Implications for Macrophages, Vessels, and Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Eleanor I.; Kozin, Sergey V.; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Seano, Giorgio; Kodack, David P.; Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Huang, Yuhui; Goel, Shom; Snuderl, Matija; Muzikansky, Alona; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Dransfield, Daniel T.; Devy, Laetitia; Boucher, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Background: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 14 may mediate tumor progression through vascular and immune-modulatory effects. Methods: Orthotopic murine breast tumors (4T1 and E0771 with high and low MMP14 expression, respectively; n = 5–10 per group) were treated with an anti-MMP14 inhibitory antibody (DX-2400), IgG control, fractionated radiation therapy, or their combination. We assessed primary tumor growth, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, macrophage phenotype, and vascular parameters. A linear mixed model with repeated observations, with Mann-Whitney or analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustment, was used to determine statistical significance. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: DX-2400 inhibited tumor growth compared with IgG control treatment, increased macrophage numbers, and shifted the macrophage phenotype towards antitumor M1-like. These effects were associated with a reduction in active TGFβ and SMAD2/3 signaling. DX-2400 also transiently increased iNOS expression and tumor perfusion, reduced tissue hypoxia (median % area: control, 20.2%, interquartile range (IQR) = 6.4%-38.9%; DX-2400: 1.2%, IQR = 0.2%-3.2%, P = .044), and synergistically enhanced radiation therapy (days to grow to 800mm3: control, 12 days, IQR = 9–13 days; DX-2400 plus radiation, 29 days, IQR = 26–30 days, P < .001) in the 4T1 model. The selective iNOS inhibitor, 1400W, abolished the effects of DX-2400 on vessel perfusion and radiotherapy. On the other hand, DX-2400 was not capable of inducing iNOS expression or synergizing with radiation in E0771 tumors. Conclusion: MMP14 blockade decreased immunosuppressive TGFβ, polarized macrophages to an antitumor phenotype, increased iNOS, and improved tumor perfusion, resulting in reduced primary tumor growth and enhanced response to radiation therapy, especially in high MMP14-expressing tumors. PMID:25710962

  5. ADAM12 redistributes and activates MMP-14, resulting in gelatin degradation, reduced apoptosis and increased tumor growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kveiborg, Marie; Hansen, Dorte Stautz

    2013-01-01

    that there is a positive correlation between MMP-14 and ADAM12 expression in human breast cancer. We demonstrated that in 293-VnR and human breast cancer cells expressing ADAM12 at the cell surface, endogenous MMP-14 was recruited to the cell surface, resulting in its activation. Subsequent to this activation, gelatin......Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-14, play a key role in various aspects of cancer pathology. Likewise, ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases), including ADAM12, are upregulated in malignant tumors and contribute to the pathology of cancers. Here, we show....... Furthermore, orthotopic implantation of ADAM12-expressing MCF7 cells in nude mice produced tumors with increased levels of activated MMP-14 and confirmed that ADAM12 protects tumor cells against apoptosis, leading to increased tumor progression. In conclusion, our data suggest that a ternary protein complex...

  6. Endothelial MMP14 is required for endothelial-dependent growth support of human airway basal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bi-Sen; Gomi, Kazunori; Rafii, Shahin; Crystal, Ronald G.; Walters, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human airway basal cells are the stem (or progenitor) population of the airway epithelium, and play a central role in anchoring the epithelium to the basement membrane. The anatomic position of basal cells allows for potential paracrine signaling between them and the underlying non-epithelial stromal cells. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that endothelial cells support growth of basal cells during co-culture through vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-mediated signaling. Building on these findings, we found, by RNA sequencing analysis, that basal cells expressed multiple fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ligands (FGF2, FGF5, FGF11 and FGF13) and that only FGF2 and FGF5 were capable of functioning in a paracrine manner to activate classical FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling. Antibody-mediated blocking of FGFR1 during basal-cell–endothelial-cell co-culture significantly reduced the endothelial-cell-dependent basal cell growth. Stimulation of endothelial cells with basal-cell-derived growth factors induced endothelial cell expression of matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14), and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endothelial cell MMP14 significantly reduced the endothelial-cell-dependent growth of basal cells. Overall, these data characterize a new growth-factor-mediated reciprocal ‘crosstalk’ between human airway basal cells and endothelial cells that regulates proliferation of basal cells. PMID:26116571

  7. Kit formulated asialoglycoprotein receptor targeting tracer based on copolymer for liver SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chang; Guo, Zhide; Zhang, Pu; Song, Manli; Zhao, Zuoquan; Wu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Specific targeting of galactose-carrying molecule to ASGP-R in normal hepatocytes has been demonstrated before. In this study, galactosyl polystyrene was synthesized from controllable ratio of functional monomers and radio-labelled with 99m Tc by formulated kit for SPECT imaging of hepatic function. Methods: p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54) was synthesized by free-radical copolymerization initiated by AIBN, purified by dialysis, lyophilized to kit with Tricine and TPPTS as co-ligands for 99m Tc labeling. Radiotracer 99m Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) was prepared and evaluated by in vitro stability, in vivo metabolism, ex vivo biodistribution and microSPECT/CT imaging in normal KM mice. MicroSPECT/CT and microMRI imaging were also performed in C57BL/b6 mice with xenograft hepatic carcinoma for hepatic function evaluation. Results: 99m Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) was obtained in high radio chemical purity (RCP) (> 99%) by using instant kit without further purification and excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The result of biodistribution showed that liver had high uptake (90.49 ± 10.68 ID%/g) at 30 min after injection and was blocked significantly by cold copolymer. MicroSPECT imaging in normal KM mice at 1 h and 4 h after injection showed good liver retention and targeting properties. Significant defect of activity was observed in the tumor site which was confirmed by MRI imaging. Conclusion: 99m Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) with lower ratio of targeting moiety has no observable effect on the specific binding affinity and liver uptake. This makes it possible to introduce more imaging units for multi-modality imaging. Furthermore, the instant kit preparation of 99m Tc-labeling provides great potential for the evaluation of hepatocyte function in clinical application

  8. Immunohistochemical expression of MMP-14 and MMP-2, and MMP-2 activity during human ovarian follicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.C.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Last, J.T.; Boed, E.A. de; Smeenk, J.M.J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of MMP-14 and MMP-2 during human ovarian follicular development using immunohistochemistry, and the activity of MMP-2 in follicular fluid using zymography. METHODS: Ovarian tissue collected from the archives of the Department of

  9. A monoclonal antibody interferes with TIMP-2 binding and incapacitates the MMP-2-activating function of multifunctional, pro-tumorigenic MMP-14/MT1-MMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiryaev, S A; Remacle, A G; Golubkov, V S

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and, especially membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP/MMP-14, are promising drug targets in malignancies. In contrast with multiple small-molecule and protein pan-inhibitors of MT1-MMP cleavage activity, the murine 9E8 monoclonal antibody targets the MMP-2-activating function...... of cellular MT1-MMP alone, rather than the general proteolytic activity and the pro-migratory function of MT1-MMP. Furthermore, the antibody does not interact in any detectable manner with other members of the membrane type (MT)-MMP family. The mechanism of this selectivity remained unknown. Using mutagenesis......, binding and activity assays, and modeling in silico, we have demonstrated that the 9E8 antibody recognizes the MT-loop structure, an eight residue insertion that is specific for MT-MMPs and that is distant from the MT1-MMP active site. The binding of the 9E8 antibody to the MT-loop, however, prevents...

  10. Kit formulated asialoglycoprotein receptor targeting tracer based on copolymer for liver SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Guo, Zhide; Zhang, Pu; Song, Manli; Zhao, Zuoquan; Wu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2014-08-01

    Specific targeting of galactose-carrying molecule to ASGP-R in normal hepatocytes has been demonstrated before. In this study, galactosyl polystyrene was synthesized from controllable ratio of functional monomers and radio-labelled with (99m)Tc by formulated kit for SPECT imaging of hepatic function. p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54) was synthesized by free-radical copolymerization initiated by AIBN, purified by dialysis, lyophilized to kit with Tricine and TPPTS as co-ligands for (99m)Tc labeling. Radiotracer (99m)Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) was prepared and evaluated by in vitro stability, in vivo metabolism, ex vivo biodistribution and microSPECT/CT imaging in normal KM mice. MicroSPECT/CT and microMRI imaging were also performed in C57BL/b6 mice with xenograft hepatic carcinoma for hepatic function evaluation. (99m)Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) was obtained in high radio chemical purity (RCP) (>99%) by using instant kit without further purification and excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The result of biodistribution showed that liver had high uptake (90.49±10.68 ID%/g) at 30 min after injection and was blocked significantly by cold copolymer. MicroSPECT imaging in normal KM mice at 1h and 4h after injection showed good liver retention and targeting properties. Significant defect of activity was observed in the tumor site which was confirmed by MRI imaging. (99m)Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) with lower ratio of targeting moiety has no observable effect on the specific binding affinity and liver uptake. This makes it possible to introduce more imaging units for multi-modality imaging. Furthermore, the instant kit preparation of (99m)Tc-labeling provides great potential for the evaluation of hepatocyte function in clinical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Tissue collagenase MMP-14 and endogenous regulators of its activity in the corpus uteri in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshenko, O S; Gureeva, T A; Kugaevskaya, E V; Zavalishina, L E; Andreeva, Yu Yu; Solovyeva, N I

    to investigate the expression of the membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP (MMP-14), its tissue inhibitor TIMP-2, and the proMMP-14 activator furin in the corpus uteri from the vaginal wall to the bottom of the uterine cavity in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCCC). Hysterectomy material was examined in patients with SCCC. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and enzyme assays were used. In SCCC, higher levels of MMP-14 expression were established in tumor cells, as evidenced by IHC (+3) and RT-PCR. IHC showed that the expression of MMP-14 was absent or insignificant in the normal uterine endometrial and myometrial tissues. However, that of MMP-14 mRNA was also found in the normal tissues to the bottom of the uterine cavity. Furin activity in the tumor was much higher than that in normal tissues. IHC indicated that TIMP-2 expression was low or absent in both the tumor and normal tissues. The expression of TIMP-2 mRNA was sufficiently obvious in both the tumor and normal tissues to the bottom of the uterine cavity. In SCCC, MMP-14 expression was substantially increased in tumors. The expression of MMP-14 and regulators of its activity is aimed at enhancing the tumor destructive (invasive) potential in the pericellular space and can occur (be induced) in the morphologically normal uterine tissue apparently with involvement of signaling through the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Data are important for understanding the role of MMP-14 in the development of a multistage process of carcinogenesis and may have prognostic value and an impact on therapeutic strategy for the patient.

  12. Evaluation of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TMTP1 as a tumor-homing imaging agent targeting metastasis with SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Cheng, Teng; Dong, Qingjian; Wei, Rui; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Luo, Danfeng; Ma, Xiangyi; Wang, Shixuan; Gao, Qinglei; Ma, Ding; Zhu, Xiaohua; Xi, Ling

    2015-03-01

    TMTP1 (NVVRQ) is a novel tumor-homing peptide, which specifically targets tumor metastases, even at the early stage of occult metastasis foci. Fusing TMTP1 to therapeutic peptides or proteins can increase its anti-cancer efficacy both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we labeled TMTP1 with (99m)Tc to evaluate its targeting properties in an ovarian cancer xenograft tumor mouse model and a gastric cancer xenograft mouse model. The invasion ability of SKOV3 and highly metastatic SKOV3.ip cell lines were performed by the Transwell Invasion Assays, and then Rhodamine-TMTP1 was used to detect its affinity to these two cells. Using the co-ligand ethylenediamine-N, N'-diacetic acid (EDDA) and the bifunctional chelator 6-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC), the TMTP1 peptide was labeled with (99m)Tc. A cell-binding assay was performed by incubating cancer cells with (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TMTP1 with or without an excess dose of cold HYNIC-TMTP1. To evaluate the probe in vivo, nude mice bearing SKOV3, SKOV3.ip and MNK-45 tumor cells were established and subjected to SPECT imaging after injection with (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TMTP1. Ex vivo γ-counting of dissected tissues from the mice was used to evaluate its biodistribution. (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TMTP1 was successfully synthesized. The radiotracer also exhibited high hydrophilicity and excellent stability in vitro and in vivo. It has strong affinity to highly metastatic cancer cell lines but not to poorly metastatic cell lines. After mice were injected with (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TMTP1, non-invasive SPECT imaging detected SKOV3.ip and MNK-45 xenograft tumors but not SKOV3 xenograft tumors. This result can be inhibited by excess HYNIC-TMTP1. The uptake of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TMTP1 in SKOV3.ip xenograft tumors was 0.182±0.017% ID/g at 2h p.i. with high renal uptake (74.32±15.05% ID/g at 2h p.i.). (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TMTP1 biodistribution and SPECT imaging demonstrated its ability to target highly metastatic tumors. Therefore, metastasis can be non-invasively investigated by SPECT

  13. Identification of the target areas to be resected in patients with non-bullous emphysema by using gas and perfusion SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugi, Kazuro; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Nawata, Kouichi; Kaneda, Yoshikazu; Nawata, Sumihiko; Esato, Kensuke

    1997-01-01

    Significant improvement of pulmonary function after the volume reduction surgery has been reported in patients with bullous emphysema. However, there has been no successful report in patients with non-bullous emphysema. The reason of failure in patients with non-bullous emphysema should lie mainly on the difficulty to identify the target areas to be resected. We describe how to identify the target areas in the patients with non-bullous emphysema by using gas and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Twelve patients with non-bullous emphysema were studied by 133 Xe gas and 99m Tc MAA SPECT, which revealed that abnormal retention and low perfusion areas were located in the apex of the upper lobe and the basal segment of the lower lobe. The resections were performed thoracoscopically focused on the target areas by hockey-stick shape resection in the upper lobe and spiral shape resection in the lower lobe without deformity formation of the residual lung. Slight but significant improvement in the pulmonary functions was observed after the surgery in patients with non-bullous emphysema. The Xe gas and Tc MAA SPECT were useful procedures to identify the target areas to be resected in patients with non-bullous emphysema. (author)

  14. Brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistel, H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG) [de

  15. A Novel ¹¹¹In-Labeled Anti-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Nanobody for Targeted SPECT/CT Imaging of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatalic, Kristell L S; Veldhoven-Zweistra, Joke; Bolkestein, Michiel; Hoeben, Sander; Koning, Gerben A; Boerman, Otto C; de Jong, Marion; van Weerden, Wytske M

    2015-07-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and a promising target for molecular imaging and therapy. Nanobodies (single-domain antibodies, VHH) are the smallest antibody-based fragments possessing ideal molecular imaging properties, such as high target specificity and rapid background clearance. We developed a novel anti-PSMA Nanobody (JVZ-007) for targeted imaging and therapy of PCa. Here, we report on the application of the (111)In-radiolabeled Nanobody for SPECT/CT imaging of PCa. A Nanobody library was generated by immunization of a llama with 4 human PCa cell lines. Anti-PSMA Nanobodies were captured by biopanning on PSMA-overexpressing cells. JVZ-007 was selected for evaluation as an imaging probe. JVZ-007 was initially produced with a c-myc-hexahistidine (his) tag allowing purification and detection. The c-myc-his tag was subsequently replaced by a single cysteine at the C terminus, allowing site-specific conjugation of chelates for radiolabeling. JVZ-007-c-myc-his was conjugated to 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (p-SCN-DTPA) via the lysines, whereas JVZ-007-cys was conjugated to maleimide-DTPA via the C-terminal cysteine. PSMA targeting was analyzed in vitro by cell-binding experiments using flow cytometry, autoradiography, and internalization assays with various PCa cell lines and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). The targeting properties of radiolabeled Nanobodies were evaluated in vivo in biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging experiments, using nude mice bearing PSMA-positive PC-310 and PSMA-negative PC-3 tumors. JVZ-007 was successfully conjugated to DTPA for radiolabeling with (111)In at room temperature. (111)In-JVZ007-c-myc-his and (111)In-JVZ007-cys internalized in LNCaP cells and bound to PSMA-expressing PDXs and, importantly, not to PSMA-negative PDXs and human kidneys. Good tumor targeting and fast blood clearance were observed for (111)In-JVZ-007-c-myc-his and (111)In

  16. In vivo detection of small tumour lesions by multi-pinhole SPECT applying a (99m)Tc-labelled nanobody targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüwel, Thomas; Nevoltris, Damien; Bode, Julia; Dullin, Christian; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick; Alves, Frauke

    2016-02-25

    The detection of tumours in an early phase of tumour development in combination with the knowledge of expression of tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important prerequisite for clinical decisions. In this study we applied the anti-EGFR nanobody (99m)Tc-D10 for visualizing small tumour lesions with volumes below 100 mm(3) by targeting EGFR in orthotopic human mammary MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 and subcutaneous human epidermoid A431 carcinoma mouse models. Use of nanobody (99m)Tc-D10 of a size as small as 15.5 kDa enables detection of tumours by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging already 45 min post intravenous administration with high tumour uptake (>3% ID/g) in small MDA-MB-468 and A431 tumours, with tumour volumes of 52.5 mm(3) ± 21.2 and 26.6 mm(3) ± 16.7, respectively. Fast blood clearance with a serum half-life of 4.9 min resulted in high in vivo contrast and ex vivo tumour to blood and tissue ratios. In contrast, no accumulation of (99m)Tc-D10 in MDA-MB-231 tumours characterized by a very low expression of EGFR was observed. Here we present specific and high contrast in vivo visualization of small human tumours overexpressing EGFR by preclinical multi-pinhole SPECT shortly after administration of anti-EGFR nanobody (99m)Tc-D10.

  17. In vivo detection of small tumour lesions by multi-pinhole SPECT applying a 99mTc-labelled nanobody targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüwel, Thomas; Nevoltris, Damien; Bode, Julia; Dullin, Christian; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick; Alves, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    The detection of tumours in an early phase of tumour development in combination with the knowledge of expression of tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important prerequisite for clinical decisions. In this study we applied the anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10 for visualizing small tumour lesions with volumes below 100 mm3 by targeting EGFR in orthotopic human mammary MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 and subcutaneous human epidermoid A431 carcinoma mouse models. Use of nanobody 99mTc-D10 of a size as small as 15.5 kDa enables detection of tumours by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging already 45 min post intravenous administration with high tumour uptake (>3% ID/g) in small MDA-MB-468 and A431 tumours, with tumour volumes of 52.5 mm3 ± 21.2 and 26.6 mm3 ± 16.7, respectively. Fast blood clearance with a serum half-life of 4.9 min resulted in high in vivo contrast and ex vivo tumour to blood and tissue ratios. In contrast, no accumulation of 99mTc-D10 in MDA-MB-231 tumours characterized by a very low expression of EGFR was observed. Here we present specific and high contrast in vivo visualization of small human tumours overexpressing EGFR by preclinical multi-pinhole SPECT shortly after administration of anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10. PMID:26912069

  18. Single photon emission computed tomographic studies (SPECT) of hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy (HAPS) in patients with colorectal liver metastases: improved tumour targetting by microspheres with angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, J A; Bradnam, M S; Kerr, D J; McKillop, J H; Bessent, R G; McArdle, C S; Willmott, N; George, W D

    1987-12-01

    As intra-arterial chemotherapy for liver metastases of colorectal origin becomes accepted, methods of further improving drug delivery to the tumour have been devised. Degradable microspheres have been shown to reduce regional blood flow by transient arteriolar capillary block, thereby improving uptake of a co-administered drug, when injected into the hepatic artery. In our study of five patients, we combined hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy (HAPS) and SPECT to assess the localization of approximately 1 X 10(5) labelled microspheres of human serum albumin (99Tcm MSA) in tumour. In addition, in three patients, we assessed the effect of an intra-arterial infusion of the vasoactive agent angiotension II during HAPS. Results were interpreted by comparing transaxial slices with corresponding slices of a tin colloid liver-spleen scan. Two of five patients showed good localization of 99Tcm MSA in tumour without an angiotensin II infusion. Of the three patients receiving angiotensin II, all showed good tumour targetting with the vasoconstrictor compared with only one of these three before its use. Thus, hepatic arterial infusion of angiotensin II greatly improves microsphere localization in tumour in some patients with colorectal liver metastases. This technique may be useful in the assessment of tumour targetting before and during locoregional therapy.

  19. A novel 111In-labeled anti-PSMA nanobody for targeted SPECT/CT imaging of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatalic, K.L.S.; Veldhoven-Zweistra, J.; Bolkestein, M.; Hoeben, S.; Koning, G.A.; Boerman, O.C.; Jong, M. de; Weerden, W.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and a promising target for molecular imaging and therapy. Nanobodies (single domain antibodies, VHH) are the smallest antibody-based fragments possessing ideal molecular imaging properties, such as high target

  20. Brain SPECT. SPECT in der Gehirndiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistel, H. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik)

    1991-12-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG).

  1. SPECT in psychiatry. SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  2. Brain SPECT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, M.; Baulieu, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author)

  3. New molecular targets for PET and SPECT imaging in neurodegenerative diseases Novos alvos moleculares para tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET e tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (SPECT em doenças neurodegenerativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Benadiba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases (ND such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD has not yet been completely elucidated. However, in the past few years, there have been great knowledge advances about intra-and extracellular proteins that may display impaired function or expression in AD, PD and other ND, such as amyloid beta (Aβ, α-synuclein, tau protein and neuroinflammatory markers. Recent developments in the imaging techniques of positron emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT now allow the non-invasive tracking of such molecular targets of known relevance to ND in vivo. This article summarizes recent findings of PET and SPECT studies using these novel methods, and discusses their potential role in the field of drug development for ND as well as future clinical applications in regard to differential diagnosis of ND and monitoring of disease progression.A fisiopatologia das doenças neurodegenerativas (DN, tais como a doença de Alzheimer (DA e a doença de Parkinson (DP, ainda não é completamente compreendida. No entanto, nos últimos anos, houve grandes avanços em termos do conhecimento sobre proteínas intra e extracelulares, tais como beta-amiloide (Aβ, α-sinucleína, proteína tau e marcadores neuroinflamatórios, que podem ter sua função ou expressão prejudicada na DA, DP ou em outras DN. Progressos recentes nas técnicas de tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET e tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (SPECT permitem hoje em dia a identificação não invasiva de tais alvos moleculares in vivo. Este artigo resume descobertas recentes de estudos de PET e SPECT cerebral usando esses alvos moleculares inovadores e discute o papel potencial dessas técnicas no campo do desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos para as DN, bem como futuras aplicações clínicas em relação ao diagnóstico diferencial e monitoramento da progressão dessas

  4. Labeled receptor ligands for spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    Receptor specific imaging agents for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can potentially be useful in the understanding of basic biochemistry and pharmacology of receptors. SPECT images may also provide tools for evaluation of density and binding kinetics of a specific receptor, information important for diagnosis and patient management. Basic requirements for receptor imaging agents are: (a) they are labeled with short-lived isotopes, (b) they show high selectivity and specific uptake, (c) they exhibit high target/background ratio, and (d) they can be modeled to obtain quantitative information. Several good examples of CNS receptor specific ligands labeled with I-123 have been developed, including iodoQNB, iodoestrogen iodobenzadiazepine, iodobenazepine, iodobenzamides for muscarinic, estrogen benzadiazepine, D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors. With the advent of newer and faster SPECT imaging devices, it may be feasible to quantitate the receptor density by in vivo imaging techniques. These new brain imaging agents can provide unique diagnostic information, which may not be available through other imaging modalities, such as CT and MRI

  5. SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barocka, A.; Feistel, H.; Ebert, D.; Lungershausen, E.

    1993-01-01

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D 2 and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.) [de

  6. Stereotactic radiosurgery planning with ictal SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerly, T.; RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC; Geso, M.; O'Keefe, G.; Smith, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is motivated by a clinical requirement to utilise ictal SPECT images for target localisation in stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning using the xknife system which only supports CT and MRI images. To achieve this, the SPECT images were converted from raw (pixel data only) format into a part 10 compliant DICOM CT fileset. The minimum requirements for the recasting of a raw format image as DICOM CT or MRI data set are described in detail. The method can be applied to the importation of raw format images into any radiotherapy treatment planning system that supports CT or MRI import. It is demonstrated that the combination of the low spatial resolution SPECT images, depicting functional information, with high spatial resolution MRI images, which show the structural information, is suitable for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  7. Brain SPECT in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquart, F.; Saliba, E.; Prunier, C.; Baulieu, F.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  8. SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, S.; Gruenwald, F.; Walter, H.; Klemm, E.; Podreka, I.; Biersack, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    In the last fifteen years different attempts have been undertaken to understand the biological basis of major psychiatric disorders. One important tool to determine patterns of brain dysfunction is single emission computed tomography (SPECT). Whereas SPECT investigations are already a valuable diagnostic instrument for the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT) there have not been consistent findings that can be referred to as specific for any other particular psychiatric diagnostic entity. Nevertheless, SPECT studies have been able to demonstrate evidence of brain dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in which other methods showed no clear abnormality of brain function. Our manuscript reviews the data which are currently available in the literature and stresses the need for further studies, especially for prediction and monitoring psychiatric treatment modalities. (orig.) [de

  9. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  10. Usefulness of brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.; Rancurel, G.; Kieffer, E.; Ricard, S.; Askienazy, S.; Moretti, J.L.; Bourdoiseau, M.; Rapin, J.; Soussaline, F.

    1983-01-01

    Brain SPECT was not effectively exploited until I-123 isopropyl amphetamine (IAMP), indicator able to penetrate the blood brain barrier, became available. Although the experience of research teams working with IAMP is quite restricted due to the high cost of the indicator, some applications now appear to be worth the cost and in some cases provide data which cannot be obtained with routine techniques, especially in cerebrovascular patients, in epilepsy and some cases of tumor. Brain SPECT appears as an atraumatic test which is useful to establish a functional evaluation of the cerebral parenchyma, and which is a complement to arteriography, X-ray scan and regional cerebral blood flow measurement

  11. Brain spect imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.G.L.; Hill, T.C.; Holman, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how the rapid development of single-photon radiopharmaceuticals has given new life to tomographic brain imaging in nuclear medicine. Further developments in radiopharmaceuticals and refinements in neuro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) instrumentation should help to reinstate brain scintigraphy as an important part of neurologic diagnosis. SPECT of the brain evolved from experimentation using prototype instrumentation during the early 1960s. Although tomographic studies provided superior diagnostic accuracy when compared to planar techniques, the arrival of X-ray CT of the head resulted in the rapid demise of technetium brain imaging

  12. Radiopharmaceuticals for brain - SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Perfusion tracers for brain SPECT imaging suitable for regional cerebral blood flow measurement and regional cerebral blood volume determination, with respect to their ability to pass the blood-brain-barrier, are described. Problems related t the use of specific radiotracers to map receptors distribution in the brain are also discussed in this lecture. 9 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Mnemonic activation by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneco, O.; Darcourt, J.; Benoit, M; Malandain, G.; Thirion, J.P.; Robert, Ph.; Vidal, R.; Desvignes, Ph.; Benoliel, J.; Ayache, N.; Bussiere, F.

    1997-01-01

    Data of literature show that SPECT is able to detect cerebral activations induced by sensory-motor stimuli. The facts are not clearly established in what concerns the cognitive activations the amplitude of which is lower. We have studied an activation paradigm such as the Grober and Bruschke test which implies the long term explicit memory. It comprises a visual presentation of words followed by their indexed recall. By using a two-day protocol, 2 SPECTs were achieved in 4 healthy right-handed voluntaries as follows: one of activation (A) and one of control (B). The fifth subject benefited by a SPECT B and of an MRI. The injection for the examination A has been done during the indexed recall stage and for the examination B at the moment when the patient repeated several times the same 3 words. The SPECT data were collected 1 hour after the injection of 370 MBq of ECD making use of a 3-head camera equipped with UHR fan collimators and ending by a LMH on the reconstructed images of 8 mm. The MRI has been achieved by means of a Signa 1.5 Tesla magnet. The SPECT A and B of the subjects 1 to 4 were matched elastically to that of the subject 5 and that of the subject 5 was rigidly matched on its MRI. In this way the individual activation cards of the 4 subjects could be averaged and superimposed on the MRI of the 5. subject. One observes an internal temporal activation (maximal activation of left tonsil, +25% and right uncus, +23%) and a right cingulum activation (maximal activation, +25%), in agreement with the neuro-physiological data. The elastic matching makes possible the inter-subject averaging, what increases the signal-to-noise ratio of activation. The inter-modality rigid matching facilitates the anatomical localisation of the activation site. With these adapted tools, the cognitive activation is thus possible by SPECT and opens perspectives for early diagnosis of neurological troubles, namely of Alzheimer's disease

  14. Metabolic imaging using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Junichi; Matsunari, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    In normal condition, the heart obtains more than two-thirds of its energy from the oxidative metabolism of long chain fatty acids, although a wide variety of substrates such as glucose, lactate, ketone bodies and amino acids are also utilised. In ischaemic myocardium, on the other hand, oxidative metabolism of free fatty acid is suppressed and anaerobic glucose metabolism plays a major role in residual oxidative metabolism. Therefore, metabolic imaging can be an important technique for the assessment of various cardiac diseases and conditions. In SPECT, several iodinated fatty acid traces have been introduced and studied. Of these, 123 I-labelled 15-(p-iodophenyl)3-R, S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) has been the most commonly used tracer in clinical studies, especially in some of the European countries and Japan. In this review article, several fatty acid tracers for SPECT are characterised, and the mechanism of uptake and clinical utility of BMIPP are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  15. The origins of SPECT and SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, Brian F. [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); University of Wollongong, Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has a long history of development since its initial demonstration by Kuhl and Edwards in 1963. Although clinical utility has been dominated by the rotating gamma camera, there have been many technological innovations with the recent popularity of organ-specific dedicated SPECT systems. The combination of SPECT and CT evolved from early transmission techniques used for attenuation correction with the initial commercial systems predating the release of PET/CT. The development and acceptance of SPECT/CT has been relatively slow with continuing debate as to what cost/performance ratio is justified. Increasingly, fully diagnostic CT is combined with SPECT so as to facilitate optimal clinical utility. (orig.)

  16. Radiotracers for SPECT imaging. Current scenario and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adak, S.; Vijaya Raj, K.K.; Mandal, S.

    2012-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been the cornerstone of nuclear medicine and today it is widely used to detect molecular changes in cardiovascular, neurological and oncological diseases. While SPECT has been available since the 1980s, advances in instrumentation hardware, software and the availability of new radiotracers that are creating a revival in SPECT imaging are reviewed in this paper. The biggest change in the last decade has been the fusion of CT with SPECT, which has improved attenuation correction and image quality. Advances in collimator design, replacement of sodium iodide crystals in the detectors with cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors as well as advances in software and reconstruction algorithms have all helped to retain SPECT as a much needed and used technology. Today, a wide spectrum of radiotracers is available for use in cardiovascular, neurology and oncology applications. The development of several radiotracers for neurological disorders is briefly described in this review, including [ 123 I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN trademark) available for Parkinson's disease. In cardiology, while technetium-99m labeled tetrofosmin and technetium-99m labeled sestamibi have been well known for myocardial perfusion imaging, we describe a recently completed multicenter clinical study on the use of [ 123 I]mIBG (AdreView trademark) for imaging in chronic heart failure patients. For oncology, while bone scanning has been prevalent, newer radiotracers that target cancer mechanisms are being developed. Technetium-99m labeled RGD peptides have been reported in the literature that can be used for imaging angiogenesis, while technetium-99m labeled duramycin has been used to image apoptosis. While PET/CT is considered to be the more advanced technology particularly for oncology applications, SPECT continues to be the modality of choice and the workhorse in many hospitals and nuclear medicine centers. The cost of SPECT instruments also makes them more

  17. Radiotracers for SPECT imaging. Current scenario and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adak, S.; Vijaya Raj, K.K.; Mandal, S. [GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, John F. Welch Technology Center, Bangalore (India).; Bhalla, R.; Pickett, R.; Luthra, S.K. [GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, The Grove Centre, Amersham (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been the cornerstone of nuclear medicine and today it is widely used to detect molecular changes in cardiovascular, neurological and oncological diseases. While SPECT has been available since the 1980s, advances in instrumentation hardware, software and the availability of new radiotracers that are creating a revival in SPECT imaging are reviewed in this paper. The biggest change in the last decade has been the fusion of CT with SPECT, which has improved attenuation correction and image quality. Advances in collimator design, replacement of sodium iodide crystals in the detectors with cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors as well as advances in software and reconstruction algorithms have all helped to retain SPECT as a much needed and used technology. Today, a wide spectrum of radiotracers is available for use in cardiovascular, neurology and oncology applications. The development of several radiotracers for neurological disorders is briefly described in this review, including [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN trademark) available for Parkinson's disease. In cardiology, while technetium-99m labeled tetrofosmin and technetium-99m labeled sestamibi have been well known for myocardial perfusion imaging, we describe a recently completed multicenter clinical study on the use of [{sup 123}I]mIBG (AdreView trademark) for imaging in chronic heart failure patients. For oncology, while bone scanning has been prevalent, newer radiotracers that target cancer mechanisms are being developed. Technetium-99m labeled RGD peptides have been reported in the literature that can be used for imaging angiogenesis, while technetium-99m labeled duramycin has been used to image apoptosis. While PET/CT is considered to be the more advanced technology particularly for oncology applications, SPECT continues to be the modality of choice and the workhorse in many hospitals and nuclear medicine centers. The cost of SPECT instruments also

  18. Neuropsychiatry: PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana F, Juan Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Functional brain imaging with PET and SPECT have a definitive and well established role in the investigation of a variety of conditions such as dementia, epilepsy and drug addiction. With these methods it is possible to detect early rCBF (regional Cerebral Blood Flow) changes seen in dementia (even before clinical symptoms) and differentiate Alzheimer's disease from other dementias by means of the rCBF pattern change. 18-F-FDG PET imaging is a useful tool in partial epilepsy because both rCBF and brain metabolism are compromised at the epileptogenic focus. During the seizure, rCBF dramatically increases locally. Using SPECT it is possible to locate such foci with 97% accuracy. In drug addiction, particularly with cocaine, functional imaging has proven to be very sensitive to detect brain flow and metabolism derangement early in the course of this condition. These findings are important in many ways: prognostic value, they are used as a powerful reinforcement tool and to monitor functional recovery with rehabilitation. There are many other conditions in which functional brain imaging is of importance such as acute stroke treatment assessment, trauma rehabilitation and in psychiatric and abnormal movement diseases specially with the development of receptor imaging (au)

  19. Attenuation correction for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoba, Minoru

    1986-01-01

    Attenuation correction is required for the reconstruction of a quantitative SPECT image. A new method for detecting body contours, which are important for the correction of tissue attenuation, is presented. The effect of body contours, detected by the newly developed method, on the reconstructed images was evaluated using various techniques for attenuation correction. The count rates in the specified region of interest in the phantom image by the Radial Post Correction (RPC) method, the Weighted Back Projection (WBP) method, Chang's method were strongly affected by the accuracy of the contours, as compared to those by Sorenson's method. To evaluate the effect of non-uniform attenuators on the cardiac SPECT, computer simulation experiments were performed using two types of models, the uniform attenuator model (UAM) and the non-uniform attenuator model (NUAM). The RPC method showed the lowest relative percent error (%ERROR) in UAM (11 %). However, 20 to 30 percent increase in %ERROR was observed for NUAM reconstructed with the RPC, WBP, and Chang's methods. Introducing an average attenuation coefficient (0.12/cm for Tc-99m and 0.14/cm for Tl-201) in the RPC method decreased %ERROR to the levels for UAM. Finally, a comparison between images, which were obtained by 180 deg and 360 deg scans and reconstructed from the RPC method, showed that the degree of the distortion of the contour of the simulated ventricles in the 180 deg scan was 15 % higher than that in the 360 deg scan. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared

  1. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  2. Serial SPECT in children with partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Machiko; Ushiku, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    We performed serial single-photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)-Iodoamphetamine to measure the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 15 children with partial epilepsy. SPECT showed focal changes in 14 cases. Ten cases had abnormalities in the initial SPECT and another four cases in the second test. The cases with normal rCBF in initial SPECT had been tested in an early phase after the onset, and then decreased rCBF were observed in the second SPECT. The cases with both abnormal rCBF in the initial SPECT and improved rCBF in the second SPECT showed good prognosis in clinico-electrophysiological evolutions. In cases with abnormal changes of rCBF in the second SPECT, clinical prognosis was found to be not so good. These findings suggest that serial SPECT may be used to follow the course of epilepsy. (author)

  3. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in seizure disorders in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vles, J.S.H.; Demandt, E.; Ceulemans, B.; de Roo, M.; Casaer, P.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In 38 children with partial seizures, the EEG, CT and NMR findings were compared to the results obtained with Tc99m HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in order to determine whether SPECT is a useful adjunct to EEG, CT and NMR in this age group. In 3 out of 7 patients with a normal EEG, SPECT showed focal abnormalities. Nine patients whose EEGs did not show adequate lateralization had an abnormal SPECT which revealed a focus. In 14 out of 21 patients with a normal CT, SPECT showed focal changes in 13 patients and diffuse changes in the other one. In 7 out of 12 patients with a normal NMR, SPECT showed focal abnormalities. Although clinical history and a careful description of the seizures are the most valuable information in partial seizure disorders, SPECT imaging gives valuable additional information, which might target treatment. SPECT was superior to CT and NMR with respect to the depiction of some kind of abnormality. (author)

  4. Complexity and accuracy of image registration methods in SPECT-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, L S; Duzenli, C; Moiseenko, V [Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Tang, L; Hamarneh, G [Computing Science, Simon Fraser University, 9400 TASC1, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Gill, B [Medical Physics, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Celler, A; Shcherbinin, S [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, 828 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8 (Canada); Fua, T F; Thompson, A; Sheehan, F [Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Liu, M [Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 13750 9th Ave, Surrey, BC, V3V 1Z2 (Canada)], E-mail: lyin@bccancer.bc.ca

    2010-01-07

    The use of functional imaging in radiotherapy treatment (RT) planning requires accurate co-registration of functional imaging scans to CT scans. We evaluated six methods of image registration for use in SPECT-guided radiotherapy treatment planning. Methods varied in complexity from 3D affine transform based on control points to diffeomorphic demons and level set non-rigid registration. Ten lung cancer patients underwent perfusion SPECT-scans prior to their radiotherapy. CT images from a hybrid SPECT/CT scanner were registered to a planning CT, and then the same transformation was applied to the SPECT images. According to registration evaluation measures computed based on the intensity difference between the registered CT images or based on target registration error, non-rigid registrations provided a higher degree of accuracy than rigid methods. However, due to the irregularities in some of the obtained deformation fields, warping the SPECT using these fields may result in unacceptable changes to the SPECT intensity distribution that would preclude use in RT planning. Moreover, the differences between intensity histograms in the original and registered SPECT image sets were the largest for diffeomorphic demons and level set methods. In conclusion, the use of intensity-based validation measures alone is not sufficient for SPECT/CT registration for RTTP. It was also found that the proper evaluation of image registration requires the use of several accuracy metrics.

  5. Molecular imaging agents for SPECT (and SPECT/CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Ballinger, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras has increased the diagnostic value of many existing single photon radiopharmaceuticals. Precise anatomical localization of lesions greatly increases diagnostic confidence in bone imaging of the extremities, infection imaging, sentinel lymph node localization, and imaging in other areas. Accurate anatomical localization is particularly important prior to surgery, especially involving the parathyroid glands and sentinel lymph node procedures. SPECT/CT plays a role in characterization of lesions, particularly in bone scintigraphy and radioiodine imaging of metastatic thyroid cancer. In the development of novel tracers, SPECT/CT is particularly important in monitoring response to therapies that do not result in an early change in lesion size. Preclinical SPECT/CT devices, which actually have spatial resolution superior to PET/CT devices, have become essential in characterization of the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of novel tracers, allowing coregistration of serial studies within the same animals, which serves both to reduce biological variability and reduce the number of animals required. In conclusion, SPECT/CT increases the utility of existing radiopharmaceuticals and plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of novel tracers. (orig.)

  6. Molecular imaging agents for SPECT (and SPECT/CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Ballinger, James R. [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    The development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras has increased the diagnostic value of many existing single photon radiopharmaceuticals. Precise anatomical localization of lesions greatly increases diagnostic confidence in bone imaging of the extremities, infection imaging, sentinel lymph node localization, and imaging in other areas. Accurate anatomical localization is particularly important prior to surgery, especially involving the parathyroid glands and sentinel lymph node procedures. SPECT/CT plays a role in characterization of lesions, particularly in bone scintigraphy and radioiodine imaging of metastatic thyroid cancer. In the development of novel tracers, SPECT/CT is particularly important in monitoring response to therapies that do not result in an early change in lesion size. Preclinical SPECT/CT devices, which actually have spatial resolution superior to PET/CT devices, have become essential in characterization of the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of novel tracers, allowing coregistration of serial studies within the same animals, which serves both to reduce biological variability and reduce the number of animals required. In conclusion, SPECT/CT increases the utility of existing radiopharmaceuticals and plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of novel tracers. (orig.)

  7. SPECT in Focal Epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion changes during seizures were first observed in the 1930s. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT was developed in the 1970s, and tracers suitable for the imaging of regional cerebral perfusion (rCP became available in the 1980s. The method was first used to study rCP in the interictal phase, and this showed areas of low perfusion in a proportion of cases, mainly in patients with temporal lobe epilepsies. However, the trapping paradigm of tracers such as hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO provided a practicable method of studying changes in rCP during seizures, and a literature was established in the late 1980s and early 1990s showing a typical sequence of changes during and after seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin; the ictal phase was associated with large increases in perfusion throughout the temporal lobe, with first the lateral, then the mesial temporal lobe becoming hypoperfused in the postictal phase. Activation and inhibition of other structures, such as the basal ganglia and frontal cortex, were also seen. Studies of seizures originating elsewhere in the brain have shown a variety of patterns of change, according to the structures involved. These changes have been used practically to aid the process of localisation of the epileptogenic zone so that epilepsy surgery can be planned.

  8. Thyroid mass estimation in Grave's disease by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, G.S.; Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, R.; Pandey, A.K.; Gupta, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: One of the important parts of treatment of Grave's disease with I-131 is the delivery of accurate dose to the target volume. Three important parameters that need to be accurately measured for dosimetry are; the 24 hr thyroid uptake (%), the thyroid mass and effective half life of I-131 in the gland. In this presentation we describe the estimation thyroid mass by SPECT. We have standardised a method to estimated thyroid volume by SPECT using thyroid phantoms of different sizes and then used them for routine thyroid mass estimation in patients with Graves' disease. Materials and Methods: Due to variation in thyroid weight in patients with Grave's disease, we standardised the scintigraphic (SPECT) technique using thyroid phantoms of different volumes such as 5 ml, 9.5 ml, 10.5 ml, 35 ml, 80 ml, 101ml and 110 ml. Each phantom was filled with 99 mTc solution with different activity concentration (100 μCi, 300 μCi, 600 μCi and 1.0 μCi) and SPECT images were acquired on a VARICAM dual head camera in 128x128 matrix. The acquired data was processed using a standardised Metz filter but without attenuation or scatter correction. Coronal slices were used with suitable threshold for edge detection. An irregular ROI was plotted around each lobe and isthmus of the thyroid gland and the enclosed slice area was measured. The area measured from all the frames was added and multiplied by the slice thickness to get the volume of the thyroid gland. The estimated volume of each phantom was compared and correlated with its actual volume. The thyroid mass in 40 patients was estimated by SPECT and compared with that estimated by ultrasonography.Results and Conclusion: The results of thyroid mass estimation with SPECT in phantom study suggested a 30% threshold for all phantom volumes. However, 35% threshold was used in patients' images for estimating thyroid volume. The estimated volumes by scintigraphy were compared with that estimated by ultrasonography. A correlation coefficient

  9. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  10. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  11. PET and SPECT in neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

    2014-07-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  12. PET and SPECT in neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Ghent Univ.; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van; Otte, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of PET and SPECT imaging of {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akihiko, E-mail: takahsr@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Sasaki, Masayuki [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Himuro, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Yasuo; Komiya, Isao [Division of Radiology, Department of Medical Technology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Baba, Shingo [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Yittrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) is traditionally thought of as a pure beta emitter, and is used in targeted radionuclide therapy, with imaging performed using bremsstrahlung single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, because {sup 90}Y also emits positrons through internal pair production with a very small branching ratio, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is also available. Because of the insufficient image quality of {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT, PET imaging has been suggested as an alternative. In this paper, the authors present the Monte Carlo-based simulation–reconstruction framework for {sup 90}Y to comprehensively analyze the PET and SPECT imaging techniques and to quantitatively consider the disadvantages associated with them. Methods: Our PET and SPECT simulation modules were developed using Monte Carlo simulation of Electrons and Photons (MCEP), developed by Dr. S. Uehara. PET code (MCEP-PET) generates a sinogram, and reconstructs the tomography image using a time-of-flight ordered subset expectation maximization (TOF-OSEM) algorithm with attenuation compensation. To evaluate MCEP-PET, simulated results of {sup 18}F PET imaging were compared with the experimental results. The results confirmed that MCEP-PET can simulate the experimental results very well. The SPECT code (MCEP-SPECT) models the collimator and NaI detector system, and generates the projection images and projection data. To save the computational time, the authors adopt the prerecorded {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung photon data calculated by MCEP. The projection data are also reconstructed using the OSEM algorithm. The authors simulated PET and SPECT images of a water phantom containing six hot spheres filled with different concentrations of {sup 90}Y without background activity. The amount of activity was 163 MBq, with an acquisition time of 40 min. Results: The simulated {sup 90}Y-PET image accurately simulated the experimental results. PET image is visually

  14. Normal anatomy of lung perfusion SPECT scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, G.W.; Levy, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Ten patients studies for possible pulmonary embolic disease had normal lung perfusion planar and SPECT scintigraphy. A computer program was developed to superimpose the CT scans on corresponding SPECT images. Superimposition of CT scans on corresponding SPECT transaxial cross-sectional images, when available, provides the needed definition and relationships of adjacent organs. SPECT transaxial sections provide clear anatomic definition of perfusion defects without foreground and background lung tissue superimposed. The location, shape, and size of the perfusion defects can be readily assessed by SPECT. An algorithm was developed for the differentiation of abnormal pulmonary perfusion patterns from normal structures on variation

  15. Radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernov, V. I., E-mail: chernov@oncology.tomsk.ru; Medvedeva, A. A., E-mail: tickayaAA@oncology.tomsk.ru; Zelchan, R. V., E-mail: r.zelchan@yandex.ru; Sinilkin, I. G., E-mail: sinilkinig@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Stasyuk, E. S.; Larionova, L. A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Slonimskaya, E. M.; Choynzonov, E. L. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with {sup 199}Tl and {sup 99}mTc-MIBI in the detection of breast, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. A total of 220 patients were included into the study: 120 patients with breast lesions (100 patients with breast cancer and 20 patients with benign breast tumors) and 100 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal diseases (80 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer and 20 patients with benign laryngeal/hypopharyngeal lesions). No abnormal {sup 199}Tl uptake was seen in all patients with benign breast and laryngeal lesions, indicating a 100% specificity of {sup 199}Tl SPECT. In the breast cancer patients, the increased {sup 199}Tl uptake in the breast was visualized in 94.8% patients, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI—in 93.4% patients. The increased {sup 199}Tl uptake in axillary lymph nodes was detected in 60% patients, and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI—in 93.1% patients. In patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer, the sensitivity of SPECT with {sup 199}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI was 95%. The {sup 199}Tl SPECT sensitivity in identification of regional lymph node metastases in the patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer was 75% and the {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT sensitivity was 17%. The data obtained showed that SPECT with {sup 199}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI can be used as one of the additional imaging methods in detection of tumors.

  16. Optimization of detector size and collimator for PG-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Kanda, K.

    2000-01-01

    A current absorbed dose evaluation method in a Boron Neutron Capture Therapy demands boron reaction rate from a boron concentration of an affected part supposed from a neutron flux and a boron concentration in blood measured by an activation method of a gold wire indirectly and converts it into an absorbed dose. So we devised a PG-SEPCT (Prompt Gamma-ray Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) system to evaluate an absorbed dose directly by measuring prompt gamma-rays. Ordinary SPECT system uses a big NaI scintillator for detector so that measurement is done in low background gamma-ray environment. However, a conventional detector and collimator system cannot be just applied to PG-SPECT system because a background radiation coexists abundantly (PG-SPECT system is set in irradiation room). Accordingly PG-SPECT system requires a dedicated detector and collimator system. In order to reduce efficiency for background gamma-rays, we arranged detectors in a collimator to shield from background gamma-rays. We examined the most suitable collimator shape. The optimization condition of a dedicated collimator system is as follows: 1) the smallest particle size that can be distinguished is 1 cm. 2) necessary counts at measurement target center is not less than 10,000. (author)

  17. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Otte, Andreas; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van

    2014-01-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  18. SPECT og PET i neurobiologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, O.B.; Lassen, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) are isotopic methods in which the distribution is registered of radiolabelled tracers given in such small amounts that they are without effect on the organism or the organism's disposal of them. Thus, a series...

  19. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  20. Effect of bypass on the motor activation SPECT compared to the acetazolamide SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Iwahashi, Hideaki; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    The authors evaluated and analyzed motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) in ischemic cerebrovascular disease compared to resting and acetazolamide (ACZ) activated SPECT studies. Seventeen cases with STA-MCA bypass performed for ischemic cerebrovascular disease were examined. The SPECT studies consisting of resting, ACZ activation, and motor activation stages were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after bypass. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as negative or positive. Before bypass: In all 17 cases, SPECT studies of the affected side showed reduction of resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduction of cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC). Eight cases were positive in the M-SPECT study. One week after bypass: The resting CBF increased in seven cases. Four showed preoperative positive M-SPECT. Eight cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Twelve cases were positive in M-SPECT, and two were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. Three months after bypass: Thirteen cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and fourteen cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Fourteen cases were positive in the M-SPECT, and among these, 6 were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. There was a discrepancy between the improvement in CVRC and M-SPECT. M-SPECT study can provide information about the degree of hemodynamic compromise and effect of bypass surgery. (author)

  1. Effect of bypass on the motor activation SPECT compared to the acetazolamide SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Iwahashi, Hideaki; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluated and analyzed motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) in ischemic cerebrovascular disease compared to resting and acetazolamide (ACZ) activated SPECT studies. Seventeen cases with STA-MCA bypass performed for ischemic cerebrovascular disease were examined. The SPECT studies consisting of resting, ACZ activation, and motor activation stages were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after bypass. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as negative or positive. Before bypass: In all 17 cases, SPECT studies of the affected side showed reduction of resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduction of cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC). Eight cases were positive in the M-SPECT study. One week after bypass: The resting CBF increased in seven cases. Four showed preoperative positive M-SPECT. Eight cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Twelve cases were positive in M-SPECT, and two were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. Three months after bypass: Thirteen cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and fourteen cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Fourteen cases were positive in the M-SPECT, and among these, 6 were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. There was a discrepancy between the improvement in CVRC and M-SPECT. M-SPECT study can provide information about the degree of hemodynamic compromise and effect of bypass surgery. (author)

  2. Molecular Imaging of Hydrolytic Enzymes Using PET and SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Rempel, Brian P.; Price, Eric W.; Phenix, Christopher P.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrolytic enzymes are a large class of biological catalysts that play a vital role in a plethora of critical biochemical processes required to maintain human health. However, the expression and/or activity of these important enzymes can change in many different diseases and therefore represent exciting targets for the development of positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracers. This review focuses on recently reported radiolabeled sub...

  3. Voxel-by-voxel analysis of ECD-brain SPECT can separate penumbra from irreversibly damaged tissue at the acute phase of stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcourt, J.; Migneco, O.; David, O.; Bussiere, F.; Mahagne, M.H.; Dunac, A.; Baron, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim. At the acute phase of ischemic stroke, the target of treatment is still salvageable hypoperfused cerebral tissue; so called penumbra. We tested the possibility of separating on early ECD brain SPECT penumbral voxels (P) from irreversibly damaged damaged tissue (IDT). We used ECD which is not only a perfusion tracer but also a metabolic marker. Materials and methods. We prospectively studied 18 patients who underwent ECD-SPECT within the 12 hours following a first-ever acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Orgogozo's scale at admission and 3 months later in order to calculate and evolution index (IE%) (Martinez-Vila et al.). SPECT data were obtained using a triple head camera equipped with fan beam collimators one hour after injection of 1000 MBq of 99mTc-ECD. On reconstructed images gray matter voxels were automatically segmented. Contralateral healthy hemisphere was used as reference leading to the identification of 3 cortical voxel types: normal (N-SPECT) above 80%; penumbra (P-SPECT) between 80% and 40% and IDT (IDT-SPECT) below 40%. 10 patients also underwent a T2 weighted 3D MRI study at 3 months. Cortical voxels with hypersignal served as reference for IDT (IDT-MRI) the others were considered normal (N-MRI). SPECT and MRI data were co-registered. Therefore each voxel belonged to one of 6 categories (3 SPECT x 2 MRI). Results. (1) The SPECT thresholds were validated on the MRI subgroup. 99% of the N-SPECT voxels were normal on late MRI. 84% of IDT-SPECT voxels corresponded to IDT-MRI. 89% of P-SPECT voxels were normal on late MRI and 11% corresponded to IDT on late MRI. Other categories of voxels (N-SPECT IDT-MRI and IDT-SPECT N-MRI) represented less than 5%. (2) Percentages of each voxel SPECT type was correlated with the EI% on the entire population (Spearman test). P-SPECT extent correlated with EI% improvement (p<0.001) and IDT-SPECT with EI% worsening (p<0.001). Conclusion. Analysis of ECD cortical

  4. Clinical evaluation of SPECT in cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshibuchi, Masao; Satoh, Mitsutaka; Kanda, Tetsuro; Nishi, Fumiaki; Yamane, Kanji; Fujimatsu, Masahiko; Edamitsu, Satoshi; Anno, Yasuro; Ohtake, Hisashi.

    1989-01-01

    In 131 patients with cerebrovascular disease, regional cerebral blood flow were determined by 123 I-IMP (N-isopropyl ( 123 I)-iodoamphetamine) or 99m Tc-HM-PAO ( 99m Tc (d, 1)-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime) SPECT and findings were compared with those of X-CT or MRI. The perfusion deficit detected by SPECT was larger than the deficit by X-CT or MRI in every case. The perfusion deficit area was more clearly demonstrated by SPECT than by X-CT or MRI in patients with acute cerebral infarction. The hypoperfusion area determined by 123 I-IMP SPECT was wider than that by 99m Tc-HM-PAO SPECT. The crossed cerebellar diaschisis was observed in 56 out of 131 cases (43%). The results of operation were quantitatively evaluated by 123 I-IMP SPECT in 25 patients. (author)

  5. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging are very useful for the management of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy. Presurgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy often included PET imaging using FDG. The use of SPECT in these patients adds some more information and gives the clinicians the possibility of having ictal imaging. Furthermore, PET and SPECT imaging are performed to better understand the pathophysiology of epilepsy. (authors)

  6. HMPAO-SPECT in cerebral seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, F.; Bockisch, A.; Reichmann, K.; Ammari, B.; Hotze, A.; Biersack, H.J.; Durwen, H.; Buelau, P.; Elger, C.E.; Rohde, A.; Penin, H.

    1988-01-01

    In nine patients with suspected psychogenic seizures and in three patients with proven epileptic seizures HMPAO-SPECT was performed prior to and during seizure. In the patients with lateron-proven psychogenic seizures no, or only slight, changes of regional cerebral blood flow were found. Patients with proven epilepsy revealed partly normal findings interictally but during seizure a markedly increased circumscript blood flow was found in all patients. Even though PET is superior to SPECT with respect to spatial resolution, in the diagnosis of seizures HMPAO-SPECT has the advantage of enabling injection of the tracer during the seizure and the performance of the SPECT study subsequently. (orig.) [de

  7. Quantitative pre-surgical lung function estimation with SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D. L.; Willowson, K. P.; Timmins, S.; Harris, B. E.; Bailey, E. A.; Roach, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:Objectives: To develop methodology to predict lobar lung function based on SPECT/CT ventilation and perfusion (V/Q) scanning in candidates for lobectomy for lung cancer. Methods: This combines two development areas from our group: quantitative SPECT based on CT-derived corrections for scattering and attenuation of photons, and SPECT V/Q scanning with lobar segmentation from CT. Eight patients underwent baseline pulmonary function testing (PFT) including spirometry, measure of DLCO and cario-pulmonary exercise testing. A SPECT/CT V/Q scan was acquired at baseline. Using in-house software each lobe was anatomically defined using CT to provide lobar ROIs which could be applied to the SPECT data. From these, individual lobar contribution to overall function was calculated from counts within the lobe and post-operative FEV1, DLCO and VO2 peak were predicted. This was compared with the quantitative planar scan method using 3 rectangular ROIs over each lung. Results: Post-operative FEV1 most closely matched that predicted by the planar quantification method, with SPECT V/Q over-estimating the loss of function by 8% (range - 7 - +23%). However, post-operative DLCO and VO2 peak were both accurately predicted by SPECT V/Q (average error of 0 and 2% respectively) compared with planar. Conclusions: More accurate anatomical definition of lobar anatomy provides better estimates of post-operative loss of function for DLCO and VO2 peak than traditional planar methods. SPECT/CT provides the tools for accurate anatomical defintions of the surgical target as well as being useful in producing quantitative 3D functional images for ventilation and perfusion.

  8. Molecular Imaging of Hydrolytic Enzymes Using PET and SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Brian P; Price, Eric W; Phenix, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Hydrolytic enzymes are a large class of biological catalysts that play a vital role in a plethora of critical biochemical processes required to maintain human health. However, the expression and/or activity of these important enzymes can change in many different diseases and therefore represent exciting targets for the development of positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracers. This review focuses on recently reported radiolabeled substrates, reversible inhibitors, and irreversible inhibitors investigated as PET and SPECT tracers for imaging hydrolytic enzymes. By learning from the most successful examples of tracer development for hydrolytic enzymes, it appears that an early focus on careful enzyme kinetics and cell-based studies are key factors for identifying potentially useful new molecular imaging agents.

  9. Technetium SPECT agents for imaging heart and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    One major goal of radiopharmaceutical research has been the development of technetium-based perfusion tracers for SPECT imaging of the heart and brain. The recent clinical introduction of the technetium complexes HM-PAO, ECD and DMG-2MP for brain imaging, and of CDO-MEB and MIBI for heart imaging promises to revolutionize the field of nuclear medicine. All of these agents appear to localize in the target tissue in proportion to blood flow, but their mechanisms of localization and/or retention may differ quite widely. In this talk, a survey of the new technetium SPECT agents will be presented. The inorganic and biological chemistry of these complexes, mechanisms of uptake and retention, QSAR studies, and potential clinical applications are discussed

  10. SPECT of aged backache patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shigehiko; Nishikimi, Junzo; Mizuno, Naokado; Watanabe, Kentaro; Kondo, Masaki; Ozaki, Satoshi; Urasaki, Tetsuya; Muro, Toshiyuki [Prefectural Tajimi Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP was performed on 53 middle-aged or elderly patients (male 20, female, 33; age range, 40-80 years old) with lumbago, i.e., 25 patients with lumbar spondylosis, 15 with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, 4 with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, 3 with compression fracture, 3 with pulurent spondylitis, 2 with spondylous osteoporosis, and 1 with spinal osteodesmosis. {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP (740 MBq) was intravenously injected and regular SPECT was performed at 3 hours. Gamma camera was performed for about 10 seconds with 5deg intervals, and 36 steps (180deg) of collection was completed after about 6 minutes. The radioisotope accumulation, the presence or absence of sthenia, and its site were evaluated. Forty-seven (88.7%) patients showed excessive accumulation, i.e., 40 (75.5%) in peripheral vertebral osteophyte, 31 (58.5%) in vertebral articulations, and 10 (18.9%) in whole vertebral body. Significantly increased bilateral excessive accumulation was admitted in the vertebral articulations of sliding disc in degenerative spondylolisthesis. SPECT is considered useful in understanding the pathophysiology of degenerative lumber diseases. (S.Y.).

  11. SPECT of aged backache patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shigehiko; Nishikimi, Junzo; Mizuno, Naokado; Watanabe, Kentaro; Kondo, Masaki; Ozaki, Satoshi; Urasaki, Tetsuya; Muro, Toshiyuki

    1995-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 99m Tc-HMDP was performed on 53 middle-aged or elderly patients (male 20, female, 33; age range, 40-80 years old) with lumbago, i.e., 25 patients with lumbar spondylosis, 15 with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, 4 with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, 3 with compression fracture, 3 with pulurent spondylitis, 2 with spondylous osteoporosis, and 1 with spinal osteodesmosis. 99m Tc-HMDP (740 MBq) was intravenously injected and regular SPECT was performed at 3 hours. Gamma camera was performed for about 10 seconds with 5deg intervals, and 36 steps (180deg) of collection was completed after about 6 minutes. The radioisotope accumulation, the presence or absence of sthenia, and its site were evaluated. Forty-seven (88.7%) patients showed excessive accumulation, i.e., 40 (75.5%) in peripheral vertebral osteophyte, 31 (58.5%) in vertebral articulations, and 10 (18.9%) in whole vertebral body. Significantly increased bilateral excessive accumulation was admitted in the vertebral articulations of sliding disc in degenerative spondylolisthesis. SPECT is considered useful in understanding the pathophysiology of degenerative lumber diseases. (S.Y.)

  12. The current status of SPECT or SPECT/CT in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Choi, Eun Kyung; Chung, Yong An [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon Saint Mary' s HospitalThe Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The first step to nuclear medicine in Korea started with introduction of the gamma camera in 1969. Although planar images with the gamma camera give important functional information, they have the limitations that result from 2-dimensional images. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) due to its 3-dimensional image acquisition is superior to earlier planar gamma imaging in image resolution and diagnostic accuracy. As demand for a hybrid functional and anatomical imaging device has increased, integrated SPECT/CT systems have been used. In Korea, SPECT/CT was for the first time installed in 2003. SPECT/CT can eliminate many possible pitfalls on SPECT-alone images, making better attenuation correction and thereby improving image quality. Therefore, SPECT/CT is clinically preferred in many hospitals in various aspects. More recently, additional SPECT/CT images taken from the region with equivocal uptake on planar images have been helpful in making precise interpretation as part of their clinical workup in postoperative thyroid cancer patients. SPECT and SPECT/CT have various advantages, but its clinical application has gradually decreased in recent few years. While some researchers investigated the myocardial blood flow with cardiac PET using F-18 FDG or N-13 ammonia, myocardial perfusion SPECT is, at present, the radionuclide imaging study of choice for the risk stratification and guiding therapy in the coronary artery disease patients in Korea. New diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals for AD have received increasing attention; nevertheless, brain SPECT will remain the most reliable modality evaluating cerebral perfusion.

  13. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Faroese National Hospital, Department of Medicine, Torshavn (Faroe Islands); Gutte, Henrik [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Faculty of Health Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-05-15

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume coverage per rotation and faster rotation. Furthermore, the dual energy CT technique is a promising modality that can provide functional imaging in combination with anatomical information. Newer high-end CT scanners and SPECT systems are able to visualize smaller subsegmental emboli. However, consensus is lacking regarding the clinical impact and treatment. In the present review, SPECT and SPECT in combination with low-dose CT, CTPA and dual energy CT are discussed in the context of diagnosing PE. (orig.)

  14. Can perfusion SPECT aid CTPA interpretation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradinscak, D. J.; Roach, P.; Bailey, E.; Kueh, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:Objective: To determine whether fusion of perfusion SPECT and CTPA improves the diagnostic accuracy of CTPA. Methods: 35 patients with suspected PE who underwent both CTPA and SPECT V/Q within 48 hours were included. Of these, the majority (n=30) had PE as determined by the V/Q SPECT scan and the others (n=5) were negative for PE. The clinical reports of CTPA were reviewed and pulmonary emboli tabulated based on anatomical location. A second radiologist, blinded to the results of the clinical read and the V/Q SPECT scan, reviewed the CTPA with and without perfusion SPECT fusion for assistance. Results: A total 57 PE were reported on the clinical reports and 60 PE identified on the blinded read. Fused CTPA/perfursion SPECT images identified a further 5 PE not identified on the clinical read (8% increase) and 2 PE not identified on the blinded read (3% increase). The additional emboli detected resulted in a change in final diagnosis from PE negative to PE positive in 2 patients (6%) compared with the clinical read and 1 patient (3%) compared with the blinded read without SPECT fusion. Conclusion: Fused CTPA-SPECT perfusion improves the sensitivity of CTPA for the detection of PE in a small number of patients. Fused data may help guide the radiologist to identify sites of PE on CTPA.

  15. Clinical applications of SPECT-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Biersack, Hans-Juergen (eds.) [University Hospital Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-06-01

    Covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases. Includes chapters on the use of SPECT/CT for dosimetry and for therapy planning. Completely up to date. Many helpful illustrations. SPECT/CT cameras have considerably improved diagnostic accuracy in recent years. Such cameras allow direct correlation of anatomic and functional information, resulting in better localization and definition of scintigraphic findings. In addition to this anatomic referencing, CT coregistration provides superior quantification of radiotracer uptake based on the attenuation correction capabilities of CT. Useful applications of SPECT/CT have been identified not only in oncology but also in other specialties such as orthopedics and cardiology. This book covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis and therapy planning of benign and malignant diseases. Opening chapters discuss the technology and physics of SPECT/CT and its use for dosimetry. The role of SPECT/CT in the imaging of a range of pathologic conditions is then addressed in detail. Applications covered include, among others, imaging of the thyroid, bone, and lungs, imaging of neuroendocrine tumors, cardiac scintigraphy, and sentinel node scintigraphy. Individual chapters are also devoted to therapy planning in selective internal radiation therapy of liver tumors and bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT. Readers will find this book to be an essential and up-to-date source of information on this invaluable hybrid imaging technique.

  16. MR guided spatial normalization of SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, B.; Barnden, L.R.; Kwiatek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In SPECT population studies where magnetic resonance (MR) scans are also available, the higher resolution of the MR scans allows for an improved spatial normalization of the SPECT scans. In this approach, the SPECT images are first coregistered to their corresponding MR images by a linear (affine) transformation which is calculated using SPM's mutual information maximization algorithm. Non-linear spatial normalization maps are then computed either directly from the MR scans using SPM's built in spatial normalization algorithm, or, from segmented TI MR images using DARTEL, an advanced diffeomorphism based spatial normalization algorithm. We compare these MR based methods to standard SPECT based spatial normalization for a population of 27 fibromyalgia patients and 25 healthy controls with spin echo T 1 scans. We identify significant perfusion deficits in prefrontal white matter in FM patients, with the DARTEL based spatial normalization procedure yielding stronger statistics than the standard SPECT based spatial normalization. (author)

  17. Brain imaging during seizure: ictal brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottamasu, Sambasiva Rao

    1997-01-01

    The role of single photon computed tomography (SPECT) in presurgical localization of medically intractable complex partial epilepsy (CPE) in children is reviewed. 99m Technetium neurolite, a newer lipophylic agent with a high first pass brain extraction and little or no redistribution is injected during a seizure, while the child is monitored with a video recording and continuous EEG and SPECT imaging is performed in the next 1-3 hours with the images representing regional cerebral profusion at the time of injection. On SPECT studies performed with radiopharmaceutical injected during a seizure, ictal focus is generally hypervascular. Other findings on ictal brain SPECT include hypoperfusion of adjacent cerebral cortex and white matter, hyperperfusion of contralateral motor cortex, hyperperfusion of ipsilateral basal ganglia and thalamus, brain stem and contralateral cerebellum. Ictal brain SPECT is non-invasive, cost effective and highly sensitive for localization of epileptic focus in patients with intractable CPE. (author)

  18. In vivo SPECT reporter gene imaging of regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sharif-Paghaleh

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs were identified several years ago and are key in controlling autoimmune diseases and limiting immune responses to foreign antigens, including alloantigens. In vivo imaging techniques including intravital microscopy as well as whole body imaging using bioluminescence probes have contributed to the understanding of in vivo Treg function, their mechanisms of action and target cells. Imaging of the human sodium/iodide symporter via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT has been used to image various cell types in vivo. It has several advantages over the aforementioned imaging techniques including high sensitivity, it allows non-invasive whole body studies of viable cell migration and localisation of cells over time and lastly it may offer the possibility to be translated to the clinic. This study addresses whether SPECT/CT imaging can be used to visualise the migratory pattern of Tregs in vivo. Treg lines derived from CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ cells were retrovirally transduced with a construct encoding for the human Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS and the fluorescent protein mCherry and stimulated with autologous DCs. NIS expressing self-specific Tregs were specifically radiolabelled in vitro with Technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99mTcO(4(- and exposure of these cells to radioactivity did not affect cell viability, phenotype or function. In addition adoptively transferred Treg-NIS cells were imaged in vivo in C57BL/6 (BL/6 mice by SPECT/CT using (99mTcO(4(-. After 24 hours NIS expressing Tregs were observed in the spleen and their localisation was further confirmed by organ biodistribution studies and flow cytometry analysis. The data presented here suggests that SPECT/CT imaging can be utilised in preclinical imaging studies of adoptively transferred Tregs without affecting Treg function and viability thereby allowing longitudinal studies within disease models.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of cardiac SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekolla, S.G.; Bengel, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of myocardial SPECT images is a powerful tool to extract the highly specific radio tracer uptake in these studies. If compared to normal data bases, the uptake values can be calibrated on an individual basis. Doing so increases the reproducibility of the analysis substantially. Based on the development over the last three decades starting from planar scinitigraphy, this paper discusses the methods used today incorporating the changes due to tomographic image acquisitions. Finally, the limitations of these approaches as well as consequences from most recent hardware developments, commercial analysis packages and a wider view of the description of the left ventricle are discussed. (orig.)

  20. SPECT og PET i neurobiologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, O.B.; Lassen, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) are isotopic methods in which the distribution is registered of radiolabelled tracers given in such small amounts that they are without effect on the organism or the organism's disposal of them. Thus, a series...... of important biological processes in the intact organism can be studied. The methods have been used in many disciplines but in particular for neurobiological research on the brain--e.g., the brain's regional blood circulation and mapping of the brain's functional structure. The methods have also been used...

  1. Comparison of two different segmentation methods on planar lung perfusion scan with reference to quantitative value on SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Min Seok; Kang, Yeon Koo; Ha, Seung Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-06-15

    Until now, there was no single standardized regional segmentation method of planar lung perfusion scan. We compared planar scan based two segmentation methods, which are frequently used in the Society of Nuclear Medicine, with reference to the lung perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) derived values in lung cancer patients. Fifty-five lung cancer patients (male:female, 37:18; age, 67.8 ± 10.7 years) were evaluated. The patients underwent planar scan and SPECT/CT after injection of technetium-99 m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99 m-MAA). The % uptake and predicted postoperative percentage forced expiratory volume in 1 s (ppoFEV1%) derived from both posterior oblique (PO) and anterior posterior (AP) methods were compared with SPECT/CT derived parameters. Concordance analysis, paired comparison, reproducibility analysis and spearman correlation analysis were conducted. The % uptake derived from PO method showed higher concordance with SPECT/CT derived % uptake in every lobe compared to AP method. Both methods showed significantly different lobar distribution of % uptake compared to SPECT/CT. For the target region, ppoFEV1% measured from PO method showed higher concordance with SPECT/CT, but lower reproducibility compared to AP method. Preliminary data revealed that every method significantly correlated with actual postoperative FEV1%, with SPECT/CT showing the best correlation. The PO method derived values showed better concordance with SPECT/CT compared to the AP method. Both PO and AP methods showed significantly different lobar distribution compared to SPECT/CT. In clinical practice such difference according to different methods and lobes should be considered for more accurate postoperative lung function prediction.

  2. Contralateral thalamic hypoperfusion on brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun; Yoo, Kyung Moo; Yum, Ha Yong

    2000-01-01

    Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful for the localization of cerebrovascular lesion and sometimes reveals more definite lesion than radiologic imaging modality such as CT or MRI does. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with hemisensory impairment. Thirteen consecutive patients (M:F= 8:5, mean age = 48) who has hemisensory impairment were included. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD. The images were obtained using a dual-head gamma camera with ultra-high resolution collimator. Semiquantitative analysis was performed after placing multiple ROIs on cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. There were 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment and 3 patients with right-sided symptom. Only 2 patients revealed abnormal signal change in the thalamus on MRI. But brain perfusion SPECT showed decreased perfusion in the thalamus in 9 patients. Six patients among 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment revealed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. The other 4 patients revealed no abnormality. Two patients among 3 patients with right hemisensory impairment also showed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. One patients with right hemisensory impairment showed ipsilateral perfusion decrease. Two patients who had follow-up brain perfusion SEPCT after treatment revealed normalization of perfusion in the thalamus. Brain perfusion SPECT might be a useful tool in diagnosing patients with hemisensory impairment

  3. SPECT of the brain: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, F.; Lenzi, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In both PET and SPECT, most of the studies and the models have been addressed to two organs: brain and heart. So far, brain has certainly been investigated more. The several comparisons between planar scintigraphy and SPECT, between X-ray TCT and SPECT, and also between PET and SPECT, have tended to consider SPECT a cheap but scarcely useful tool for a nuclear medicine section. Again the authors feel that this is due to the fact that SPECT is really a ''physiological tomography'', with little known about its physiology or how it is measured. Thus the present state of the art of SPECT of the brain is characterized by a collection of data and reports on brain imaging and by a slowly growing basic understanding of the utilized modes. The introduction of a new brain-imaging radiopharmaceutical is immediately signaled by its ''first clinical application'' without parallel studies on the kinetics, the metabolic degradation, and the real suitability of the molecule as a tracer for measurement of regional CBF. Only a few attempts seek to narrow this discussion between clinic and biology, and the authors like to emphasize the need for nuclear medicine people to dedicate more time and effort

  4. SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation Concludes Equivocal Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Studies to Increase Diagnostic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ing-Jou; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT/CT has been reported to enhance the detection of coronary artery disease in human. This advance has created important clinical applications to coronary artery disease diagnosis and management for areas where myocardial perfusion PET tracers are not available. We present 2 clinical cases that undergone a combined test of 1-day rest/dipyridamole-stress dynamic SPECT and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT scans using an integrated imaging protocol and demonstrate that flow parameters are capable to conclude equivocal myocardial perfusion SPECT studies, therefore increasing diagnostic benefits to add value in making clinical decisions.

  5. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    The long-term goal of this research project is to develop methods to improve the utility of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECI) to quantify the biodistribution of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) labeled with clinically relevant radionuclides ( 123 I, 131 I, and 111 In) and with another radionuclide, 211 At, recently used in therapy. We describe here our progress in developing quantitative SPECT methodology for 111 In and 123 I. We have focused our recent research thrusts on the following aspects of SPECT: (1) The development of improved SPECT hardware, such as improved acquisition geometries. (2) The development of better reconstruction methods that provide accurate compensation for the physical factors that affect SPECT quantification. (3) The application of carefully designed simulations and experiments to validate our hardware and software approaches

  6. SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide activities within the human body is affected by several physical and instrumental factors including attenuation of photons within the patient, Compton scattered events, the system's finite spatial resolution and object size, finite number of detected events, partial volume effects, the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics, and patient and/or organ motion. Furthermore, other instrumentation factors such as calibration of the center-of-rotation, sampling, and detector nonuniformities will affect the SPECT measurement process. These factors are described, together with examples of compensation methods that are currently available for improving SPECT quantification. SPECT offers the potential to improve in vivo estimates of absorbed dose, provided the acquisition, reconstruction, and compensation procedures are adequately implemented and utilized. 53 references, 2 figures

  7. Brain SPECT in psychiatry: Delusion or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.G.; Davis, G.; Epstein, P.; Kohn, R.; Antonino, F.; Devore-Best, S.; Craita, I.; Liu, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The need for functional information is becoming increasingly evident for proper therapeutic approaches to the treatment and follow up of psychiatric diseases. While data on this subject already exists, there is a general lack of consensus about the use of brain SPECT in this domain and also a considerable negative prejudice due to a number of factors including poor quality imaging and unrealistic expectations. Based on a large group of brain SPECT-s performed over the past 3 years we attempted to sort and refine the indications for SPECT in psychiatry. Materials and Methods: High resolution brain SPECT was performed with triple head gamma camera, super-high resolution fan beam collimator and Tc-HMPAO. A comprehensive semiquantitative color, 3D surface as well as multi-thresholded volume display was routinely used and supplemented by automatic realignment in case of longitudinal follow-up. Results: 470 brain SPECT-s done on 432 patients were all referred by psychiatrists or neuro-psychiatrists for a wide spectrum of psychiatric diseases and ranged in age from 7 to 88 years. The most common primary reasons for referral were : attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD); anxiety; obsessive-compulsive disease, depression (refractory, chronic, bipolar ), impulse control problems; oppositional defiance, post traumatic brain injury; seizures, learning difficulties, pervasive development disorders, memory loss and differential of dementia. Among common denominators were long duration of the disease, unresponsiveness to treatment, worsening of clinical status, and presence of multiple conditions at the same time. The multiparametric display used enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the brain volume which included the hemispheric surfaces; the basal ganglia (striatum) and the thalamus, several components of the limbic and paralimbic systems: anterior and posterior cingulate and their respective subdivisions, insula-s and their subdivisions, apical and mesial

  8. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Yaffe, S.; Atlan, H.; Cohen, D.; Konstantini, S.; Meiner, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using 99m Tc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Role of brain SPECT in epilepsy exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biraben, A.; Bernard, AM.

    1996-01-01

    The management of epileptic patients is currently developing in relation with the introduction of video EEG and the opening of medical centers dedicated to epilepsy. The role of SPECT is now well established to assess the temporal and spatial dynamic phenomena during seizures. Ictal SPECT has technical and organisational requirements but is a very sensitive method, which appears to be superior to other available imaging techniques. (author)

  10. Technical approach to improvement of SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukukita, Hiroyoshi

    1985-01-01

    At present, a large number of SPECT systems are being widely used in Japan, hence, it is reasonable for us to know the physical and imaging characteristics of these SPECT devices, and also to recommend the optimum utility of SPECT systems. For this reason, a survey respect of characteristics of the commercialy available SPECT devices was carried out. In addition to this, various factors which have significant influence over SPECT image quality, such as, data acquisition matrix, reconstruction filter, γ-ray attenuation correction and daily quality control procedure, were also investigated. The materials used for this study are PET/SPECT phantom, Alderson liver phantom filled with Tc-99m solution, and either LFOV-E or ZLC-7500 interfaced to Scintipac 2400 minicomputer with 256 K byte of memory. Following are the results of this study. 1) The suitable data acquisition procedure was 128 x 128 matrix for linear sampling and approximately 64 views for angular sampling. 2) Reconstructed image using pre-processing filter with Wiener and Butterworth filters provided high quality image as compared with the Ramp filter. 3) Weighted backprojection method (WBP) proposed by Tanaka was superior to other methods, such as Sorenson method and Chang method in the object with non-uniform distribution of radionuclide. 4) It was found that uniformity correction of gamma camera and precise adjustment of the center of rotation are most important to maintain the images with a high quality. (author)

  11. Clinical evaluation of stress thallium spect in ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Osamu; Kimura, Nazuna; Soeki; Takeshi; Takeichi, Naoki; Shinohara, Hisanori; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Fukuda, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Thallium SPECT was performed in patients with significant coronary artery stenosis, 67 cases were after maximal exercise and 74 cases were during coronary vasodilation induced by ATP (adenosine triphosphate) infusion. In patients suspected of angina pectoris, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) were 88%, 78% and 82% for exercise SPECT, and 100%, 72% and 84% for ATP SPECT studies, respectively. In patients with old myocardial infarction, these were 73%, 100% and 88% for exercise SPECT and 71%, 100% and 81% for ATP SPECT. These were 75%, 49% and 60% for treadmill exercise test in the patient group including both angina and myocardial infarction. For detection of diseased vessels, the diagnostic accuracy for left anterior descending artery and right coronary artery lesions was almost equal for ATP and exercise SPECT study, but ATP SPECT study was more sensitive than exercise SPECT study in detection of left circumflex artery lesions. ATP as well as exercise SPECT studies occasionally gave false positive results in patients with single-vessel disease. ATP as well as exercise SPECT studies underestimated the severity of multi-vessel disease. In general, the results of ATP SPECT imaging were highly concordant with the results of exercise SPECT imaging. ATP stress thallium SPECT imaging provided a safe and highly accurate diagnostic tool for detection of CAD. (author)

  12. Comparison of SPECT/CT, MRI and CT in diagnosis of skull base bone invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-xu; Han, Peng-hui; Zhang, Guo-qian; Wang, Rui-hao; Ge, Yong-bin; Ren, Zhi-gang; Li, Jian-sheng; Fu, Wen-hai

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is crucial for correct staging, assessing treatment response and contouring the tumor target in radiotherapy planning, as well as improving the patient's prognosis. To compare the diagnostic efficacy of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) for the detection of skull base invasion in NPC. Sixty untreated patients with histologically proven NPC underwent SPECT/CT imaging, contrast-enhanced MRI and CT. Of the 60 patients, 30 had skull base invasion confirmed by the final results of contrast-enhanced MRI, CT and six-month follow-up imaging (MRI and CT). The diagnostic efficacy of the three imaging modalities in detecting skull base invasion was evaluated. The rates of positive findings of skull base invasion for SPECT/CT, MRI and CT were 53.3%, 48.3% and 33.3%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 93.3%, 86.7% and 90.0% for SPECT/CT fusion imaging, 96.7%, 100.0% and 98.3% for contrast-enhanced MRI, and 66.7%, 100.0% and 83.3% for contrast-enhanced CT. MRI showed the best performance for the diagnosis of skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, followed closely by SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT had poorer specificity than that of both MRI and CT, while CT had the lowest sensitivity.

  13. Small-animal SPECT and SPECT/CT: application in cardiovascular research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golestani, Reza; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Wu, Chao [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neurosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [University Medical Center Groningen, Thorax Center, Department of Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Petrov, Artiom D. [University of California, Irvine, Division of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Beekman, Freek J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neurosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Section Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Delft (Netherlands); MILabs, Utrecht (Netherlands); Boersma, Hendrikus H. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    Preclinical cardiovascular research using noninvasive radionuclide and hybrid imaging systems has been extensively developed in recent years. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the molecular tracer principle and is an established tool in noninvasive imaging. SPECT uses gamma cameras and collimators to form projection data that are used to estimate (dynamic) 3-D tracer distributions in vivo. Recent developments in multipinhole collimation and advanced image reconstruction have led to sub-millimetre and sub-half-millimetre resolution SPECT in rats and mice, respectively. In this article we review applications of microSPECT in cardiovascular research in which information about the function and pathology of the myocardium, vessels and neurons is obtained. We give examples on how diagnostic tracers, new therapeutic interventions, pre- and postcardiovascular event prognosis, and functional and pathophysiological heart conditions can be explored by microSPECT, using small-animal models of cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  14. Small-animal SPECT and SPECT/CT: application in cardiovascular research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golestani, Reza; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Wu, Chao; Tio, Rene A.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Petrov, Artiom D.; Beekman, Freek J.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical cardiovascular research using noninvasive radionuclide and hybrid imaging systems has been extensively developed in recent years. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the molecular tracer principle and is an established tool in noninvasive imaging. SPECT uses gamma cameras and collimators to form projection data that are used to estimate (dynamic) 3-D tracer distributions in vivo. Recent developments in multipinhole collimation and advanced image reconstruction have led to sub-millimetre and sub-half-millimetre resolution SPECT in rats and mice, respectively. In this article we review applications of microSPECT in cardiovascular research in which information about the function and pathology of the myocardium, vessels and neurons is obtained. We give examples on how diagnostic tracers, new therapeutic interventions, pre- and postcardiovascular event prognosis, and functional and pathophysiological heart conditions can be explored by microSPECT, using small-animal models of cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  15. Multi-centre evaluation of accuracy and reproducibility of planar and SPECT image quantification. An IAEA phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Brian E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Grosev, Darko [Univ. Hospital Centre Zagreb (Croatia); Buvat, Irene [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Paris (France); and others

    2017-08-01

    Accurate quantitation of activity provides the basis for internal dosimetry of targeted radionuclide therapies. This study investigated quantitative imaging capabilities at sites with a variety of experience and equipment and assessed levels of errors in activity quantitation in Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and planar imaging. Participants from 9 countries took part in a comparison in which planar, SPECT and SPECT with X ray computed tomography (SPECT-CT) imaging were used to quantify activities of four epoxy-filled cylinders containing {sup 133}Ba, which was chosen as a surrogate for {sup 131}I. The sources, with nominal volumes of 2, 4, 6 and 23 mL, were calibrated for {sup 133}Ba activity by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, but the activity was initially unknown to the participants. Imaging was performed in a cylindrical phantom filled with water. Two trials were carried out in which the participants first estimated the activities using their local standard protocols, and then repeated the measurements using a standardized acquisition and analysis protocol. Finally, processing of the imaging data from the second trial was repeated by a single centre using a fixed protocol. In the first trial, the activities were underestimated by about 15% with planar imaging. SPECT with Chang's first order attenuation correction (Chang-AC) and SPECT-CT overestimated the activity by about 10%. The second trial showed moderate improvements in accuracy and variability. Planar imaging was subject to methodological errors, e.g., in the use of a transmission scan for attenuation correction. The use of Chang-AC was subject to variability from the definition of phantom contours. The project demonstrated the need for training and standardized protocols to achieve good levels of quantitative accuracy and precision in a multicentre setting. Absolute quantification of simple objects with no background was possible with the strictest protocol to

  16. New SPECT and PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Imaging Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebola O. Sogbein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear cardiology has experienced exponential growth within the past four decades with converging capacity to diagnose and influence management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI with technetium-99m radiotracers or thallium-201 has dominated the field; however new hardware and software designs that optimize image quality with reduced radiation exposure are fuelling a resurgence of interest at the preclinical and clinical levels to expand beyond MPI. Other imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI continue to emerge as powerful players with an expanded capacity to diagnose a variety of cardiac conditions. At the forefront of this resurgence is the development of novel target vectors based on an enhanced understanding of the underlying pathophysiological process in the subcellular domain. Molecular imaging with novel radiopharmaceuticals engineered to target a specific subcellular process has the capacity to improve diagnostic accuracy and deliver enhanced prognostic information to alter management. This paper, while not comprehensive, will review the recent advancements in radiotracer development for SPECT and PET MPI, autonomic dysfunction, apoptosis, atherosclerotic plaques, metabolism, and viability. The relevant radiochemistry and preclinical and clinical development in addition to molecular imaging with emerging modalities such as cardiac MRI and PET-MR will be discussed.

  17. Design of common software for quality control of SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohua; Gao Ruzhen; Chen Shengzu

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study is to design a common testing system for SPECT quality control according to NEMA standard. Using the system, the performances of different types of SPECT can be tested, so that the acceptance testing, performance comparing and routine quality control for SPECT can be normalized. The system was based on IBM PC series of microcomputer. Testing data are acquired from various types of SPECT, then transferred into IBM PC through interface and tested with an unique testing program. Two parts were included: interface and SPECT testing program. It emphatically studied the managing program of RS232 interface, designing skills and the mathematic patterns of SPECT testing program. The system which was composed of 11 subroutines can be used to measure the performances for both gamma camera and SPECT. The system was tested on OMEGA 500/MCS 560 SPECT and the results showed that it is effective, accurate and easy to use

  18. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Catherine [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Hustinx, Roland [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Oncologique, CHU de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  19. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, Catherine; Hustinx, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  20. Stereotactic imaging for radiotherapy: accuracy of CT, MRI, PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karger, Christian P; Hipp, Peter; Henze, Marcus; Echner, Gernot; Hoess, Angelika; Schad, Lothar; Hartmann, Guenther H

    2003-01-01

    CT, MRI, PET and SPECT provide complementary information for treatment planning in stereotactic radiotherapy. Stereotactic correlation of these images requires commissioning tests to confirm the localization accuracy of each modality. A phantom was developed to measure the accuracy of stereotactic localization for CT, MRI, PET and SPECT in the head and neck region. To this end, the stereotactically measured coordinates of structures within the phantom were compared with their mechanically defined coordinates. For MRI, PET and SPECT, measurements were performed using two different devices. For MRI, T1- and T2-weighted imaging sequences were applied. For each measurement, the mean radial deviation in space between the stereotactically measured and mechanically defined position of target points was determined. For CT, the mean radial deviation was 0.4 ± 0.2 mm. For MRI, the mean deviations ranged between 0.7 ± 0.2 mm and 1.4 ± 0.5 mm, depending on the MRI device and the imaging sequence. For PET, mean deviations of 1.1 ± 0.5 mm and 2.4 ± 0.3 mm were obtained. The mean deviations for SPECT were 1.6 ± 0.5 mm and 2.0 ± 0.6 mm. The phantom is well suited to determine the accuracy of stereotactic localization with CT, MRI, PET and SPECT in the head and neck region. The obtained accuracy is well below the physical resolution for CT, PET and SPECT, and of comparable magnitude for MRI. Since the localization accuracy may be device dependent, results obtained at one device cannot be generalized to others

  1. Indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy in lung cancer patients: SPECT, CT or SPECT-CT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Punit; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Harmandeep; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the role of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and SPECT-CT of selected volume in lung cancer patients with indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy (BS). The data of 50 lung cancer patients (53 ± 10.3 years; range 30-75; male/female 38/12) with 65 indeterminate lesions on planar BS (January 2010 to November 2010) were retrospectively evaluated. All of them underwent SPECT-CT of a selected volume. SPECT, CT and SPECT-CT images were independently evaluated by two experienced readers (experience in musculoskeletal imaging, including CT: 5 and 7 years) in separate sessions. A scoring scale of 1 to 5 was used, in which 1 is definitely metastatic, 2 is probably metastatic, 3 is indeterminate, 4 is probably benign and 5 is definitely benign. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each modality, taking a score ≤2 as metastatic. With receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated for each modality and compared. Clinical and imaging follow-up and/or histopathology were taken as reference standard. For both readers SPECT was inferior to CT (P = 0.004, P = 0.022) and SPECT-CT (P = 0.003, P = 0.037). However, no significant difference was found between CT and SPECT-CT for reader 1 (P = 0.847) and reader 2 (P = 0.592). The findings were similar for lytic as well as sclerotic lesions. Moderate inter-observer agreement was seen for SPECT images (κ = 0.426), while almost perfect agreement was seen for CT (κ = 0.834) and SPECT-CT (κ = 0.971). CT alone and SPECT-CT are better than SPECT for accurate characterisation of indeterminate lesions on planar BS in lung cancer patients. CT alone is not inferior to SPECT-CT for this purpose and might be preferred because of shorter acquisition time and wider availability. (orig.)

  2. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.

    2006-01-01

    The application of hybrid SPECT cameras in Nuclear Medicine follows the revolutionary introduction of PET/CT. This review focuses on the advantages and limitations of SPECT/CT in its various clinical indications. It appears that SPECT/CT will be a clear factor of progress for Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  3. SPECT in patients with cortical visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, I E; Galetta, S L; Gray, L G; Moster, M; Atlas, S W; Maurer, A H; Alavi, A

    1993-09-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) was used to investigate changes in cerebral blood flow in seven patients with cortical visual impairment. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was the cause of cortical damage in two patients, cerebral ischemia in two patients and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, status epilepticus and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) each in three separate patients. The SPECT scans of the seven patients were compared to T2-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) scans of the brain to determine the correlation between functional and anatomical findings. In six of the seven patients, the qualitative interpretation of the SPECT studies supported the clinical findings (i.e., the visual field defect) by revealing altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the appropriate regions of the visual pathway. MR scans in all of the patients, on the other hand, were either normal or disclosed smaller lesions than those detected by SPECT. We conclude that SPECT may reveal altered rCBF in patients with cortical visual impairment of various etiologies, even when MRI studies are normal or nondiagnostic.

  4. Noninvasive evaluation of ischemic stroke with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, C.R.; Malik, M.M.; Gomez, S.M.; Wingkun, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Technetium Tc 99m DTPA single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) brain scans of 20 patients with acute ischemic stroke were reviewed retrospectively and compared with clinical and radiologic (CT) data. Fourteen of the patients had abnormal SPECT studies. The abnormal findings were demonstrated by static views in eight patients, by the flow study in one patient, and by both sets of images in the other five patients. All abnormalities correlated with the clinical syndrome of presentation, and only two of the patients had no corresponding lesions on CT. Of the six patients with normal SPECT scans, two had abnormal CT studies, and in the other four, no lesions were shown at all. The ability of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA SPECT to display cerebral infarctions appears to be, at best, comparable to that of CT. SPECT also provides qualitative information regarding flow dynamics in the affected hemisphere of some patients (6/20 in our review). This, we believe, represents the objective demonstration of the preexisting insufficient collateral flow in the hemisphere at risk for ischemic stroke

  5. Quantitative organ visualization using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircos, L.T.; Carey, J.E. Jr.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative organ visualization (QOV) was performed using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Organ size was calculated from serial, contiguous ECT images taken through the organ of interest with image boundaries determined using a maximum directional gradient edge finding technique. Organ activity was calculated using ECT counts bounded by the directional gradient, imaging system efficiency, and imaging time. The technique used to perform QOV was evaluated using phantom studies, in vivo canine liver, spleen, bladder, and kidney studies, and in vivo human bladder studies. It was demonstrated that absolute organ activity and organ size could be determined with this system and total imaging time restricted to less than 45 min to an accuracy of about +/- 10% providing the minimum dimensions of the organ are greater than the FWHM of the imaging system and the total radioactivity within the organ of interest exceeds 15 nCi/cc for dog-sized torsos. In addition, effective half-lives of approximately 1.5 hr or greater could be determined

  6. Contrast detail phantom for SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejas, M.L. de; Arashiro, J G; Giannone, C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camuyrano, M; Nohara, G [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad Ciencias Exactas

    1996-06-01

    A new low variable contrast phantom for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was constructed, tested and compared with other existing phantoms. It contains simulated cylindrical lesions of four different diameters (D{sub i}), embedded in a cylindrical scattering medium and a uniform section to evaluate tomographic uniformity. The concentration of tracer in the simulated lesions and the scattering medium (background) can be varied to simulate hot and cold lesions. Different applications of the phantom were tested, including determination of the minimum object contrast (OCm) necessary to detect lesions as a function of lesion size, lesion type (hot or cold) and acquisition and processing protocols by visual inspection. This parameter allows categorization of instruments comparing an `image quality index` (IQI). Preliminary comparison with the Britten contrast processing method showed that the detectable OCm was of the same order of magnitude, but the presented device seems more suitable for training and intercomparison purposes. The constructed phantom, of simple design, has proved to be useful for acquisition and processing condition evaluation, OCm estimation and external quality control. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs.

  7. A hardware investigation of robotic SPECT for functional and molecular imaging onboard radiation therapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Susu; Tough, MengHeng; Bowsher, James; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cheng, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To construct a robotic SPECT system and to demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch, as a step toward onboard functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: A robotic SPECT imaging system was constructed utilizing a gamma camera detector (Digirad 2020tc) and a robot (KUKA KR150 L110 robot). An imaging study was performed with a phantom (PET CT Phantom TM ), which includes five spheres of 10, 13, 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired either with a parallel-hole collimator or a single-pinhole collimator, both without background in the phantom and with background at 1/10th the sphere activity concentration. The imaging trajectories of parallel-hole and pinhole collimated detectors spanned 180° and 228°, respectively. The pinhole detector viewed an off-centered spherical common volume which encompassed the 28 and 22 mm spheres. The common volume for parallel-hole system was centered at the phantom which encompassed all five spheres in the phantom. The maneuverability of the robotic system was tested by navigating the detector to trace the phantom and flat-top table while avoiding collision and maintaining the closest possible proximity to the common volume. The robot base and tool coordinates were used for image reconstruction. Results: The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector radius of rotation. Without background, all five spheres were visible in the reconstructed parallel-hole image, while four spheres, all except the smallest one, were visible in the reconstructed pinhole image. With background, three spheres of 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters were readily observed with the parallel-hole imaging, and the targeted spheres (22 and 28 mm diameters) were readily observed in the pinhole

  8. SPECT I-123 iodoamphetamine brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikofsky, R.S.; Liebman, A.; Hellman, R.S.; Collier, B.D.; Voslar, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    SPECT/IMP studies of 100 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of dementia were performed with a rotating gamma camera 15-20 minutes after intravenous injection of 3.5 mCi of IMP. Of these studies, 43 were interpreted as normal for age; 28 demonstrated decreased but not absent activity bilaterally in posterior parietal/occipital regions (consistent with Alzheimer-type dementia); 28 showed unilateral abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow consistent with cerebrovascular disease; and one had mixed findings. Based on SPECT/IMP results, further diagnostic testing and/or management would be altered for 72% of patients, suggesting that SPECT/IMP provides valuable data, not available on clinical examination, to guide the evaluation and management of demented patients

  9. Brain SPECT in severs traumatic head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, F.; Eder, V.; Pottier, J.M.; Baulieu, J.L.; Fournier, P.; Legros, B.; Chiaroni, P.; Dalonneau, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the results of the early brain scintigraphy in traumatic brain injury to the long term neuropsychological behavior. Twenty four patients had an ECD-Tc99m SPECT, within one month after the trauma; scintigraphic abnormalities were evaluated according to a semi-quantitative analysis. The neuropsychological clinical investigation was interpreted by a synthetic approach to evaluate abnormalities related to residual motor deficit, frontal behavior, memory and language disorders. Fourteen patients (58%) had sequela symptoms. SPECT revealed 80 abnormalities and CT scan only 31. Statistical analysis of uptake values showed significantly lower uptake in left basal ganglia and brain stem in patients with sequela memory disorders. We conclude that the brain perfusion scintigraphy is able to detect more lesions than CT and that it could really help to predict the neuropsychological behavior after severe head injury. Traumatology could become in the future a widely accepted indication of perfusion SPECT. (authors)

  10. Applications of SPECT imaging of dopaminergic neurotransmission in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugaya, Akira; Fujita, Masahiro; Innis, R.B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine

    2000-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers selective for pre- and post-synaptic targets have allowed measurements of several aspects of dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission. In this article, we will first review our DA transporter imaging in Parkinson's disease. We have developed the in vivo dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT ((1R)-2{beta}-Carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane). This method showed that patients with Parkinson's disease have markedly reduced DAT levels in striatum, which correlated with disease severity and disease progression. Second, we applied DA imaging techniques in patients with schizophrenia. Using amphetamine as a releaser of DA, we observed the enhanced DA release, which was measured by imaging D2 receptors with [{sup 123}I]IBZM (iodobenzamide), in schizophrenics. Further we developed the measurement of basal synaptic DA levels by AMPT (alpha-methyl-paratyrosine)-induced unmasking of D2 receptors. Finally, we expanded our techniques to the measurement of extrastriatal DA receptors using [{sup 123}I]epidepride. The findings suggest that SPECT is a useful technique to measure DA transmission in human brain and may further our understanding of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. (author)

  11. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landvogt, C.

    2007-01-01

    In preoperative localisation of epileptogenic foci, nuclear medicine diagnostics plays a crucial role. FDG-PET is used as first line diagnostics. In case of inconsistent MRI, EEG and FDG-PET findings, 11 C-Flumazenil-PET or ictal and interictal perfusion-SPECT should be performed. Other than FDG, Flumazenil can help to identify the extend of the region, which should be resected. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, further data analysis using voxelbased statistical analyses or SISCOM (substraction ictal SPECT coregistered MRI) should be performed

  12. Scatter and attenuation correction in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungberg, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The adsorbed dose is related to the activity uptake in the organ and its temporal distribution. Measured count rate with scintillation cameras is related to activity through the system sensitivity, cps/MBq. By accounting for physical processes and imaging limitations we can measure the activity at different time points. Correction for physical factor, such as attenuation and scatter is required for accurate quantitation. Both planar and SPECT imaging can be used to estimate activities for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry. Planar methods have been the most widely used but is a 2D technique. With accurate modelling for imagine in iterative reconstruction, SPECT methods will prove to be more accurate

  13. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) findings on patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). The M-SPECT studies were carried out on 91 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The M-SPECT study was performed using the finger opposition task in each case. The SPECT images were superimposed on the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each case using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex after the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among the 91 cases examined, 53 (58%) were categorized as positive in the M-SPECT study. Among the negative M-SPECT cases treated with revascularization surgery, there were some cases showing positive M-SPECT results postoperatively. The cases without any revascularization surgery did not change the M-SPECT findings in each during the follow-up period. The M-SPECT procedure for examining intracranial lesions could provide the cortical localization of the motor function. The M-SPECT procedure in the ischemic CVDs contributes to knowledge about the choices of treatment and the evaluation of the treatment result. (author)

  14. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) findings on patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). The M-SPECT studies were carried out on 91 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The M-SPECT study was performed using the finger opposition task in each case. The SPECT images were superimposed on the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each case using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex after the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among the 91 cases examined, 53 (58%) were categorized as positive in the M-SPECT study. Among the negative M-SPECT cases treated with revascularization surgery, there were some cases showing positive M-SPECT results postoperatively. The cases without any revascularization surgery did not change the M-SPECT findings in each during the follow-up period. The M-SPECT procedure for examining intracranial lesions could provide the cortical localization of the motor function. The M-SPECT procedure in the ischemic CVDs contributes to knowledge about the choices of treatment and the evaluation of the treatment result. (author)

  15. Advances in SPECT Instrumentation (Including Small Animal Scanners). Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenico, G.; Zavattini, G.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamental major efforts have been devoted to the development of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging modality over the last few decades. Recently, a novel surge of interest in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) technology has occurred, particularly after the introduction of the hybrid SPECT-CT imaging system. This has led to a flourishing of investigations in new types of detectors and collimators, and to more accurate refinement of reconstruction algorithms. Along with SPECT-CT, new, fast gamma cameras have been developed for dedicated cardiac imaging. The existing gap between PET and SPECT in sensitivity and spatial resolution is progressively decreasing, and this trend is particularly apparent in the field of small animal imaging where the most important advances have been reported in SPECT tomographs. An outline of the basic features of SPECT technology, and of recent developments in SPECT instrumentation for both clinical applications and basic biological research on animal models is described. (author)

  16. Evaluation of usefulness of bone SPECT for lumbar spondylolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Osamu; Hashimoto, Manabu; Tomura, Noriaki; Watarai, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of 99m Tc-MDP SPECT (bone SPECT) for lumbar spondylolysis. We analyzed 11 cases with 17 lesions. All cases were compared using plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), planar bone scintigraphy (PBS), and bone SPECT. Four lesions that showed a wide defect on CT were negative on bone SPECT and may have been chronic lesions. Thirteen lesions that were positive on bone SPECT were narrow or showed no defect on CT and may have been early lesions. Two cases showed no defect on CT but were positive on bone SPECT, and one of them progressed to bilateral spondylolysis after one year. This may have been a very early lesion. Thus bone SPECT is useful for the diagnosis of lumbar spondylolysis, especially in its early stage. (author)

  17. Evaluation of usefulness of bone SPECT for lumbar spondylolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Osamu; Hashimoto, Manabu; Tomura, Noriaki; Watarai, Jiro [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP SPECT (bone SPECT) for lumbar spondylolysis. We analyzed 11 cases with 17 lesions. All cases were compared using plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), planar bone scintigraphy (PBS), and bone SPECT. Four lesions that showed a wide defect on CT were negative on bone SPECT and may have been chronic lesions. Thirteen lesions that were positive on bone SPECT were narrow or showed no defect on CT and may have been early lesions. Two cases showed no defect on CT but were positive on bone SPECT, and one of them progressed to bilateral spondylolysis after one year. This may have been a very early lesion. Thus bone SPECT is useful for the diagnosis of lumbar spondylolysis, especially in its early stage. (author)

  18. Myocardial Infarction Area Quantification using High-Resolution SPECT Images in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mejia, Jorge [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Lataro, Renata Maria; Frassetto, Sarita Nasbine [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Fazan, Rubens Jr.; Salgado, Hélio Cesar [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Simões, Marcus Vinícius, E-mail: msimoes@fmrp.usp.br [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Imaging techniques enable in vivo sequential assessment of the morphology and function of animal organs in experimental models. We developed a device for high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging based on an adapted pinhole collimator. To determine the accuracy of this system for quantification of myocardial infarct area in rats. Thirteen male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent experimental myocardial infarction by occlusion of the left coronary artery. After 4 weeks, SPECT images were acquired 1.5 hours after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi. The tomographic reconstruction was performed by using specially developed software based on the Maximum Likelihood algorithm. The analysis of the data included the correlation between the area of perfusion defects detected by scintigraphy and extent of myocardial fibrosis assessed by histology. The images showed a high target organ/background ratio with adequate visualization of the left ventricular walls and cavity. All animals presenting infarction areas were correctly identified by the perfusion images. There was no difference of the infarct area as measured by SPECT (21.1 ± 21.2%) and by histology (21.7 ± 22.0%; p=0.45). There was a strong correlation between individual values of the area of infarction measured by these two methods. The developed system presented adequate spatial resolution and high accuracy for the detection and quantification of myocardial infarction areas, consisting in a low cost and versatile option for high-resolution SPECT imaging of small rodents.

  19. Clinical application of cardiac SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Shigeyuki

    1999-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has replaced planar imaging techniques for myocardial scintigraphy. Thallium-201 was the dominant agent employed for myocardial perfusion imaging. Today new technetium-99m labelled radionuclides have been used as excellent alternatives to 201 Tl for detection of coronary artery disease, prognostification, and even assessment of myocardial viability. Pharmacologic stress imaging using either dipyridamole, adenosine or dobutamine is a substitute for exercise stress. Accurate determination of myocardial viability is vitally important for clinical decision making for patients with LV dysfunction who will most benefit from revascularization. Stunned and hibernated myocardium may result in profound regional LTV dysfunction in absence of necrosis. The various approach such as stress-redistribution-reinjection imaging, rest-redistribution imaging and stress-redistribution-24 hours delayed imaging has been utilized to assess myocardial viability with 201 Tl. Quantitative assessment of 99m Tc MIBI uptake reflect the degree of viability. 123 I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), an analog of norepinephrine, has been used for scintigraphic assessment of regional cardiac adrenergic innervation. Cardiac sympathetic denervation, assessed by 123 I-MIBG, due to ischemia in non-Q myocardial infarction and unstable angina has been shown. Quantitative cardiac MIBG scintigram was shown to have prognostic value in patients with severe congestive heart failure. 23 I-BMIPP (ρ-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid) has been used to assess myocardial fatty acid utilization. BMIPP has the memory function of ischemia in unstable angina, since decreased BMIPP uptake persists several days after ischemic episode. Nuclear cardiology in Japan has experienced an expansion in the techniques including use of new radionuclides, 99m Tc perfusion agents, 123 I-MIBG and 23 I-BMIPP and in associated clinical application to the various cardiac diseases

  20. Application of SPECT to psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT using 99m Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) was applied to psychiatric diseases with aid of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for analysis of data. To evaluate influence of aging on brain perfusion, noninvasive measurements of cerebral blood flow using 99m Tc-ECD were performed in 53 normal volunteers, age 18 to 87 years old. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was 43.9±5.0 ml/100 g/min and showed weak negative correlation with aging (r=0.451). Perisylvian cerebral cortices and medial frontal areas including anterior cingulate gyri showed greater negative correlation than other areas. These findings suggest the necessity of age-matched control regional CBF (rCBF) data to investigate rCBF abnormality in patients. Four drug-naive schizophrenic patients showed flow decrease in bilateral frontal and superior temporal areas and a left infero-posterior temporal area. Haloperidol administration induced flow decrease in bilateral frontal and left parietal areas, while flow increase in bilateral striatal and right hippocampal areas. Ten aged depressive patients showed flow decrease in bilateral frontal and left temporo-parietal areas. Even after remission patients showed flow decrease in the left frontal area as compared with normal subjects. Remission induced flow increase in the right frontal, right parietal, and right orbitofrontal areas compared with depression. These results suggest that CBF measurements using 99m Tc-ECD were useful for objective evaluation of regional abnormality in brain function in psychiatric diseases. (author)

  1. SPECT in psychiatry; Die Bedeutung der Hirn-SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, S [Universitaetsklinik fuer Psychiatrie, Wien (Austria); Gruenwald, F [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Danos, P [Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik, Bonn (Germany); Walter, H [Universitaetsklinik fuer Psychiatrie, Wien (Austria); Klemm, E [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Bruecke, T [Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurologie, Wien (Austria); Podreka, I [Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurologie, Wien (Austria); Biersack, H J [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1994-10-01

    In the last fifteen years different attempts have been undertaken to understand the biological basis of major psychiatric disorders. One important tool to determine patterns of brain dysfunction is single emission computed tomography (SPECT). Whereas SPECT investigations are already a valuable diagnostic instrument for the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT) there have not been consistent findings that can be referred to as specific for any other particular psychiatric diagnostic entity. Nevertheless, SPECT studies have been able to demonstrate evidence of brain dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in which other methods showed no clear abnormality of brain function. Our manuscript reviews the data which are currently available in the literature and stresses the need for further studies, especially for prediction and monitoring psychiatric treatment modalities. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den vergangenen 15 Jahren wurde durch verschiedene methodologische Ansaetze versucht, die biologischen Ursachen psychiatrischer Erkrankungen naeher zu erforschen. Als eine bedeutende Methode hat sich dabei die Single-Photonen-Emissions-Computertomographie (SPECT) herausgestellt. Waehrend die SPECT-Untersuchungen bereits Eingang in die Routinediagnostik bei Demenzen vom Alzheimer-Typ gefunden haben, konnten fuer weitere psychiatrische Erkrankungen noch keine eindeutigen Befunde etabliert werden. Mit der SPECT-Methode ist es jedoch gelungen, funktionelle Veraenderungen des Gehirns von psychiatrischen Erkrankungen darzustellen, wie z.B. Schizophrenie, Depression, Angsterkrankungen bzw. Substanzmissbrauch. In Forschungsprotokollen wird durch die SPECT-Methode versucht, abzuklaeren, inwieweit es moeglich ist, innerhalb der Erkrankungsentitaeten psychiatrischer Erkrankungen oder auch diese uebergreifend eine Subklassifizierung zu finden und evtl. Gehirnsysteme ausfindig zu machen, die mit einer spezifischen

  2. Performance evaluation of D-SPECT: a novel SPECT system for nuclear cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Kjell; Kacperski, Krzysztof; van Gramberg, Dean; Hutton, Brian F.

    2009-05-01

    D-SPECT (Spectrum Dynamics, Israel) is a novel SPECT system for cardiac perfusion studies. Based on CZT detectors, region-centric scanning, high-sensitivity collimators and resolution recovery, it offers potential advantages over conventional systems. A series of measurements were made on a β-version D-SPECT system in order to evaluate its performance in terms of energy resolution, scatter fraction, sensitivity, count rate capability and resolution. Corresponding measurements were also done on a conventional SPECT system (CS) for comparison. The energy resolution of the D-SPECT system at 140 keV was 5.5% (CS: 9.25%), the scatter fraction 30% (CS: 34%), the planar sensitivity 398 s-1 MBq-1 per head (99mTc, 10 cm) (CS: 72 s-1 MBq-1), and the tomographic sensitivity in the heart region was in the range 647-1107 s-1 MBq-1 (CS: 141 s-1 MBq-1). The count rate increased linearly with increasing activity up to 1.44 M s-1. The intrinsic resolution was equal to the pixel size, 2.46 mm (CS: 3.8 mm). The average reconstructed resolution using the standard clinical filter was 12.5 mm (CS: 13.7 mm). The D-SPECT has superior sensitivity to that of a conventional system with similar spatial resolution. It also has excellent energy resolution and count rate characteristics, which should prove useful in dynamic and dual radionuclide studies.

  3. PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Gent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-04-01

    Addresses a variety of aspects of neurotransmission in the brain. Details the latest results in probe development. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT of Neurobiological Systems combines the expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the development of novel probes and techniques for the investigation of neurobiological systems has achieved international recognition. Various aspects of neurotransmission in the brain are discussed, such as visualization and quantification of (more than 20 different) neuroreceptors, neuroinflammatory markers, transporters, and enzymes as well as neurotransmitter synthesis, ?-amyloid deposition, cerebral blood flow, and the metabolic rate of glucose. The latest results in probe development are also detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by radiochemists and nuclear medicine specialists to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to anyone in the field of clinical or preclinical neuroscience, from the radiochemist and radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested neurobiologist and general practitioner. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences. Other volumes focus on PET and SPECT in psychiatry and PET and SPECT in neurology''.

  4. Chilaiditi's syndrome demonstrated by SPECT/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini S Perumal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chilaiditi’s syndrome is a rare condition commonly diagnosed as an incidental radiological finding. The aim of this report is to show the role of SPECT-CT in this syndrome and state the functional and anatomical role of this hybrid imaging modality. Materials and Methods: A case report. Results: A 49-year-old female patient was referred for gallium-67 citrate for a possible granulomatous myositis and underwent SPECT-CT of the abdomen to assess the area of decreased gallium uptake on planar images of the liver. The combined SPECT and CT modality demonstrated findings consistent with the clinical evidence of Chilaiditi’s syndrome. The anatomical part of this hybrid modality made it easier to evaluate the area of gallium lack of uptake which was due to air in the colon. Conclusion: This case does not only show the role of SPECT-CT in this syndrome but also suggest that the use of such modality should be considered whenever available in the evaluation of patients in whom the localization of active disease becomes imperative.

  5. SPECT and PET in Eating Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Audenaert, Kurt; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; den Boer, Johan A

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging techniques like PET and SPECT have been applied for investigation of brain function in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Regional abnormalities have been detected in cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism, the availability of several neurotransmitter receptors (serotonin 1A and 2A,

  6. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas ov...

  7. Brain SPECT with Tl-201 DDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruine, J.F. de.

    1988-01-01

    The development, animal and human experiments and the first clinical results of a new blood flow tracer thallium-201 diethyldithiocarbamate (Tl-201 DDC) are discussed for functional brain imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). 325 refs.; 43 figs.; 22 tabs

  8. Anything wrong with brain SPECT? Not really

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.G.; Davis, G.; Craita, I.; Liu, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Despite increased evidence about the usefulness of Brain SPECT in Neuro-Psychiatry, it continues to represent only a low percentage of Nuclear Medicine procedures. The prevalent perception is that it is an inadequate diagnostic tool, and/or is not changing patient management. There are objective reasons for this, as the lack of awareness by Psychiatrists about the value of SPECT, but most important is the frequently poor quality of images provided. This can be due to inadequate gamma cameras but is mostly due to poor quality software. Materials and Methods: High resolution brain SPECT via triple head gamma camera, super-high resolution fan beam collimator and Tc-HMPAO. A combination of commercial software and local optimization was used for the final displays as well as for realignment of sequential brain SPECT studies. Results: We found out that 6 basic software improvements are needed to generate a final display where features can be clearly distinguished and which can be also easily assimilated by the referring physician. 1) Color scales: simple and efficient tools needed to generate user friendly and semiquantitative color shades as needed. Unfortunately various color scales may be needed depending on printer and paper used. 2): 3 D displays allowing, multiple standardized thresholdings, any number of groupings, differential coloring (with functional meaning) and adequate labeling. Should be completely or at least mostly automatic. 3) Automatic realignment of sequential studies: such programs exist in various forms (free WWW versions, proprietary Beta versions, etc.) but are still not supplied by the gamma camera vendors for general use. Should provide SPECT -SPECT and SPECT MRI options. 4) Localization of structures and slices a) Triangulation of structures and b) Identification of section location. 5) Graphics improvement for generating any number of optimized summary displays to accompany reports. 6) Availability of voxel based quantification software

  9. Brain pertechnetate SPECT in perinatal asphyxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfakianakis, G.; Curless, R.; Goldberg, R.; Clarke, L.; Saw, C.; Sfakianakis, E.; Bloom, F.; Bauer, C.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain was performed in 6 patients with perinatal asphyxis aged 8-26 days. A single-head (LFOV) commercial SPECT system (Picker) was used and data were acquired 2-3 hr after an IV injection of 1-2 mCi Tc-99m-pertechnetate (360/sup 0/ rotation, 60 views, 64 x 64 matrix, 50K cts/view). Reconstruction in three planes was performed using MDS software (Hanning medium resolution filter, with or without attenuation correction using Sorenson's technique). For each clinical study, a ring type phantom source was used to identify the level of reconstruction noise in the tomographic planes. Abnormalities were found in all patients studied, 3 central (moderate intensity), 2 peripheral (1 severe, 1 moderate) and 1 diffuse (mild intensity). Despite use of oral perchlorate (50 mg) in one patient the choroid plexus was visible. Since attenuation correction tended to amplify noise, the clinical studies were interpreted both with and without this correction. All 3 patients with central lesions were found abnormal on early (1-4 mo) neurologic follow-up examination, whereas the others were normal. No correlation was found between SPECT and 24 hr blood levels of CPK, ammonia, base excess, or the Apgar scores. Ct scans were reported abnormal (3 diffuse, 1 peripheral, 1 central and 1 questionable). Planar scintigrams obtained immediately after SPECT were normal (2), questionable (2) and abnormal (2). Follow-up SPECT brain scintigrams in two of the patients showed partial resolution. SPECT of the brain appears promising in perinatal asphyxia but long-term correlation with patient development is necessary.

  10. Ventilation-perfused studies using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwijnenburg, A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the quantitative analysis of ventilation-perfusion SPECT studies is decribed and an effort is made to evaluate its usefullness. The technical details of the emthod are described. In the the transaxial reconstructions of the tomographic studies the contour of the lungs is detected and regional values of lung volume, ventilation, perfusion and ventilation-perfusion ratios are calculated. The method is operator independent. The lung volume calculations from the SPECT studies are validated by comparing them with lung volume measurements using the helium dilution technique. A good correlation (r=0.91) was found between the two volumes. SPECT volume was greater than the volume measured with helium dilution, which was attributed to non-gas-containing structures in the. lungs. The use of ventilation-perfusion ratio SPECT is described to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on the lungs in patients treated with mantle field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease. Perfusion changes appear as early as 2 months after the start of irradiation. Ventilation changes appear later and relatively minor. No changes are seen outside the radiation portals. The ventilation-perfusion inequality in pulmonary sarcoidosis is treated. It is suggested that the decrease D LCO in these patients may be partly due to an even distribution of ventilation perfusion ratios. An effort is made to establish the properties of a new tracer used for the assessment of the metabolic function of the pulmonary endothelium. The lung uptake of I-123 IMP mimics the distribution of a perfusion tracer and it is suggested that this tracer may be useful for the early detection of pulmonary vascular damage, even when blood flow is still intact. Some aspects of the use of Kr-81m as a ventilation tracer are discussed as well as the effect of noise on Kr-81m SPECT reconstructions. (author). 146 refs.; 39 figs.; 8 tabs

  11. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  12. Small animal SPECT and its place in the matrix of molecular imaging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikle, Steven R; Kench, Peter; Kassiou, Michael; Banati, Richard B

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging refers to the use of non-invasive imaging techniques to detect signals that originate from molecules, often in the form of an injected tracer, and observe their interaction with a specific cellular target in vivo. Differences in the underlying physical principles of these measurement techniques determine the sensitivity, specificity and length of possible observation of the signal, characteristics that have to be traded off according to the biological question under study. Here, we describe the specific characteristics of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) relative to other molecular imaging technologies. SPECT is based on the tracer principle and external radiation detection. It is capable of measuring the biodistribution of minute ( -10 molar) concentrations of radio-labelled biomolecules in vivo with sub-millimetre resolution and quantifying the molecular kinetic processes in which they participate. Like some other imaging techniques, SPECT was originally developed for human use and was subsequently adapted for imaging small laboratory animals at high spatial resolution for basic and translational research. Its unique capabilities include (i) the ability to image endogenous ligands such as peptides and antibodies due to the relative ease of labelling these molecules with technetium or iodine (ii) the ability to measure relatively slow kinetic processes (compared with positron emission tomography, for example) due to the long half-life of the commonly used isotopes and (iii) the ability to probe two or more molecular pathways simultaneously by detecting isotopes with different emission energies. In this paper, we review the technology developments and design tradeoffs that led to the current state-of-the-art in SPECT small animal scanning and describe the position SPECT occupies within the matrix of molecular imaging technologies. (topical review)

  13. Dopamine transporter density of the basal ganglia assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT in methamphetamine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Kewm, Do Hun

    2005-01-01

    Functional imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT) defines integrity of the dopaminergic system, and DAT is the target site of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Functional imaging the DAT may be a sensitive and selective indicator of neurotoxic change by the drug. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical implications of qualitative/quantitative analyses of dopamine transporter imaging in methamphetamine abusers. Six detoxified methamphetamine abusers (abuser group) and 4 volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. Brain MRI was performed in all of abuser group. Abuser group underwent psychiatric and depression assessment using brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), respectively. All of the subjects underwent I-123 IPT SPECT (IPT SPECT). IPT SPECT image was analysed with visual qualitative method and quantitative method using basal ganglia dopamine transporter (DAT) specific/non-specific binding ratio (SBR). Comparison of DAT SBR between abuser and control groups was performed. We also performed correlation tests between psychiatric and depression assessment results and DAT SBR in abuser group. All of abuser group showed normal MRI finding, but had residual psychiatric and depressive symptoms, and psychiatric and depressive symptom scores were exactly correlated (r=1.0, ρ =0.005) each other. Five of them showed abnormal finding on qualitative visual I-123 IPT SPECT. Abuser group had lower basal ganglia DAT SBR than that of control (2.38 ± 0.20 vs 3.04 ± 0.27, ρ =0.000). Psychiatric and depressive symptoms were negatively well correlated with basal ganglia DAT SBR (r=-0.908, ρ =0.012, r=-0.924, ρ =0.009) This results suggest that dopamine transporter imaging using I-123 IPT SPECT may be used to evaluate dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia and the clinical status in methamphetamine abusers

  14. Dopamine transporter density of the basal ganglia assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT in methamphetamine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kewm, Do Hun [National Bugok Mental Hospital, Changryung (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-10-15

    Functional imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT) defines integrity of the dopaminergic system, and DAT is the target site of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Functional imaging the DAT may be a sensitive and selective indicator of neurotoxic change by the drug. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical implications of qualitative/quantitative analyses of dopamine transporter imaging in methamphetamine abusers. Six detoxified methamphetamine abusers (abuser group) and 4 volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. Brain MRI was performed in all of abuser group. Abuser group underwent psychiatric and depression assessment using brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), respectively. All of the subjects underwent I-123 IPT SPECT (IPT SPECT). IPT SPECT image was analysed with visual qualitative method and quantitative method using basal ganglia dopamine transporter (DAT) specific/non-specific binding ratio (SBR). Comparison of DAT SBR between abuser and control groups was performed. We also performed correlation tests between psychiatric and depression assessment results and DAT SBR in abuser group. All of abuser group showed normal MRI finding, but had residual psychiatric and depressive symptoms, and psychiatric and depressive symptom scores were exactly correlated (r=1.0, {rho} =0.005) each other. Five of them showed abnormal finding on qualitative visual I-123 IPT SPECT. Abuser group had lower basal ganglia DAT SBR than that of control (2.38 {+-} 0.20 vs 3.04 {+-} 0.27, {rho} =0.000). Psychiatric and depressive symptoms were negatively well correlated with basal ganglia DAT SBR (r=-0.908, {rho} =0.012, r=-0.924, {rho} =0.009) This results suggest that dopamine transporter imaging using I-123 IPT SPECT may be used to evaluate dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia and the clinical status in methamphetamine abusers.

  15. Multi-pinhole collimator design for small-object imaging with SiliSPECT: a high-resolution SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokouhi, S; Peterson, T E; Metzler, S D; Wilson, D W

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a multi-pinhole collimator for a dual-headed, stationary SPECT system that incorporates high-resolution silicon double-sided strip detectors. The compact camera design of our system enables imaging at source-collimator distances between 20 and 30 mm. Our analytical calculations show that using knife-edge pinholes with small-opening angles or cylindrically shaped pinholes in a focused, multi-pinhole configuration in combination with this camera geometry can generate narrow sensitivity profiles across the field of view that can be useful for imaging small objects at high sensitivity and resolution. The current prototype system uses two collimators each containing 127 cylindrically shaped pinholes that are focused toward a target volume. Our goal is imaging objects such as a mouse brain, which could find potential applications in molecular imaging.

  16. In vivo quantification by SPECT of [{sup 123}I] ADAM bound to serotonin transporters in the brains of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, X.-X. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Hwang, J.-J. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, J.-F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chi-Mei Foundation Medical Center, Yungkang City 710, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-C. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jcchen@ym.edu.tw; Chou, Y.-T. [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Tu, K.-Y. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mackey Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan 104 (China); Wey, S.-P. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 333 (China); Ting Gann [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Tao- Yuan 335, Taiwan (China)

    2004-11-01

    Background: A novel radioiodine ligand [{sup 123}I] ADAM (2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine) has been suggested as a promising serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agent for the central nervous system. In this study, the biodistribution of SERTs in the rabbit brain was investigated using [{sup 123}I] ADAM and mapping images of the same animal produced by both single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and microautoradiography. A semiquantification method was adopted to deduce the optimum time for SPECT imaging, whereas the input for a simple fully quantitative tracer kinetic model was provided from arterial blood sampling data. Methods: SPECT imaging was performed on female rabbits postinjection of 185 MBq [{sup 123}I] ADAM. The time-activity curve obtained from the SPECT images was used to quantify the SERTs, for which the binding potential was calculated from the kinetic modeling of [{sup 123}I] ADAM. The kinetic data were analyzed by the nonlinear least squares method. The effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) on rabbits were also evaluated. After scanning, the same animal was sacrificed and the brain was removed for microautoradiography. Regions-of-interest were analyzed using both SPECT and microautoradiography images. The SPECT images were coregistered manually with the corresponding microautoradiography images for comparative study. Results: During the time interval 90-100 min postinjection, the peak specific binding levels in different brain regions were compared and the brain stem was shown to have the highest activity. The target-to-background ratio was 1.89{+-}0.02. Similar studies with fluoxetine and PCA showed a background level for SERT occupation. Microautoradiography demonstrated a higher level of anatomical details of the [{sup 123}I] ADAM distribution than that obtained by SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain. Conclusion: SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain with

  17. In vivo quantification by SPECT of [123I] ADAM bound to serotonin transporters in the brains of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, X.-X.; Hwang, J.-J.; Hsieh, J.-F.; Chen, J.-C.; Chou, Y.-T.; Tu, K.-Y.; Wey, S.-P.; Ting Gann

    2004-01-01

    Background: A novel radioiodine ligand [ 123 I] ADAM (2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine) has been suggested as a promising serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agent for the central nervous system. In this study, the biodistribution of SERTs in the rabbit brain was investigated using [ 123 I] ADAM and mapping images of the same animal produced by both single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and microautoradiography. A semiquantification method was adopted to deduce the optimum time for SPECT imaging, whereas the input for a simple fully quantitative tracer kinetic model was provided from arterial blood sampling data. Methods: SPECT imaging was performed on female rabbits postinjection of 185 MBq [ 123 I] ADAM. The time-activity curve obtained from the SPECT images was used to quantify the SERTs, for which the binding potential was calculated from the kinetic modeling of [ 123 I] ADAM. The kinetic data were analyzed by the nonlinear least squares method. The effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) on rabbits were also evaluated. After scanning, the same animal was sacrificed and the brain was removed for microautoradiography. Regions-of-interest were analyzed using both SPECT and microautoradiography images. The SPECT images were coregistered manually with the corresponding microautoradiography images for comparative study. Results: During the time interval 90-100 min postinjection, the peak specific binding levels in different brain regions were compared and the brain stem was shown to have the highest activity. The target-to-background ratio was 1.89±0.02. Similar studies with fluoxetine and PCA showed a background level for SERT occupation. Microautoradiography demonstrated a higher level of anatomical details of the [ 123 I] ADAM distribution than that obtained by SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain. Conclusion: SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain with [ 123 I] ADAM showed

  18. Functional neuroimaging in epilepsy: FDG-PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2003-01-01

    Finding epileptogenic zone is the most important step for the successful epilepsy surgery. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used in the localization of epileptogenic foci. In medial temporal lobe epilepsy, the diagnostic sensitivity of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT is excellent. However, detection of hippocampal sclerosis by MRI is so certain that use of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT in medial temporal lobe epilepsy is limited for some occasions. In neocortical epilepsy, the sensitivities of FDG-PET or ictal SPECT are fair. However, FDG-PET and ictal SPECT can have a crucial role in the localization of epileptogenic foci for non-lesional neocortical epilepsy. Interpretation of FDG-PET has been recently advanced by voxel-based analysis and automatic volume of interest analysis based on a population template. Both analytical methods can aid the objective diagnosis of epileptogenic foci. lctal SPECT was analyzed using subtraction methods and voxel-based analysis. Rapidity of injection of tracers, ictal EEG findings during injection of tracer, and repeated ictal SPECT were important technical issues of ictal SPECT. SPECT can also be used in the evaluation of validity of Wada test

  19. Functional neuroimaging in epilepsy: FDG-PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    Finding epileptogenic zone is the most important step for the successful epilepsy surgery. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used in the localization of epileptogenic foci. In medial temporal lobe epilepsy, the diagnostic sensitivity of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT is excellent. However, detection of hippocampal sclerosis by MRI is so certain that use of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT in medial temporal lobe epilepsy is limited for some occasions. In neocortical epilepsy, the sensitivities of FDG-PET or ictal SPECT are fair. However, FDG-PET and ictal SPECT can have a crucial role in the localization of epileptogenic foci for non-lesional neocortical epilepsy. Interpretation of FDG-PET has been recently advanced by voxel-based analysis and automatic volume of interest analysis based on a population template. Both analytical methods can aid the objective diagnosis of epileptogenic foci. lctal SPECT was analyzed using subtraction methods and voxel-based analysis. Rapidity of injection of tracers, ictal EEG findings during injection of tracer, and repeated ictal SPECT were important technical issues of ictal SPECT. SPECT can also be used in the evaluation of validity of Wada test.

  20. The clinical use of brain SPECT imaging in neuropsychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amen, Daniel G; Wu, Joseph C; Carmichael, Blake

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on brain SPECT imaging in brain trauma, dementia, and temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain SPECT allows clinicians the ability to view cerebral areas of healthy, low, and excessive perfusion. This information can be correlated with what is known about the function or dysfunction of each area. SPECT has a number of advantages over other imaging techniques, including wider availability, lower cost, and high quality resolution with multi-headed cameras. There are a number of issues that compromise the effective use of SPECT, including low quality of some imaging cameras, and variability of image rendering and readings (Au)

  1. Influence of void on image quality of industrial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J G; Jung, S H; Kim, J B; Moon, J; Kim, C H

    2013-01-01

    Industrial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a promising technique to determine the dynamic behavior of industrial process media and has been developed in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present study evaluated the influence of a void, which is presence in multiphase reactors of industrial process, on the image quality of an industrial SPECT. The results are very encouraging; that is, the performance of the industrial SPECT system is little influenced by the presence of a void, which means that industrial SPECT is an appropriate tool to estimate the dynamic characteristics of the process media in a water-air phase bubble column with a static gas sparger

  2. The effect of Compton scattering on quantitative SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.W.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Starmer, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate the response of a SPECT system. The accuracy of the code has been verified and has been used in this research to study and illustrate the effects of Compton scatter on quantitative SPECT measurements. The effects of Compton scattered radiation on gamma camera response have been discussed by several authors, and will be extended to rotating gamma camera SPECT systems. The unique feature of this research includes the pictorial illustration of the Compton scattered and the unscattered components of the photopeak data on SPECT imaging by simulating phantom studies with and without Compton scatter

  3. Methods of gated-blood-pool-spect data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosa, I.; Mester, J.; Tanaka, M.; Csernay, L.; Mate, E.; Szasz, K.

    1991-01-01

    Three techniques of gated SPECT were evaluated. The methods of Integral SPECT (ISPECT), enddyastole-endsystole SPECT (ED-ES SPECT) and Fourier SPECT were adapted and developed on the Hungarian nuclear medicine data processing system microSEGAMS. The methods are based on data reduction before back projection which results in processing times acceptable for the clinical routine. The clinical performance of the introduced techniques was tested in 10 patients with old posterior myocardial infarction and in 5 patients without cardiac disease. The left ventricular ejection faction determined by ISPECT correlated well with the planar values. The correlation coefficient was 0.89. The correlation coefficient of EF values determined by ED-ES SPECT and planar radionuclide ventriculography was lower (0.70). For the identification of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities ED-ES SPECT and Fourier SPECT exhibited a favourable performance, but ISPECT only moderate suitability. In the detection of regional phase delay Fourier-SPECT demonstrated higher sensitivity than the planar radionuclide ventriculography. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. I-123 Iofetamine SPECT scan in children with neurological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamini, J.R.; Konkol, R.J.; Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    I-123 Iofetamine (IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the brain in 42 patients (ages 14 days to 23 years) was compared with other localizing studies in children with neurological diseases. All had an EEG and at least one imaging study of the brain (computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or both). Seventy-eight percent of the patients had an EEG within 24-72 hours of the IMP-SPECT scan. Thirty-five (83%) had a history of seizures, and the remainder had other neurological conditions without a history of seizures. In most cases, a normal EEG reading with normal CT or MRI result predicted a normal SPECT study. When the EEG was abnormal the majority of the IMP-SPECT scans were abnormal and localized the abnormality to the same region. A comparison with CT and MRI showed that structural abnormalities involving the cortex were usually well demonstrated with IMP-SPECT imaging. Structural lesions confined to the white matter were generally not detectable with IMP-SPECT. In a few cases, SPECT scans revealed abnormalities in deep brain areas not identified by EEG. IMP-SPECT imaging is a valuable technique for the detection and localization of abnormal cerebral metabolic activity in children with seizure disorders. A correlation with CT or MRI is essential for proper interpretation of abnormalities detected with IMP SPECT imaging

  5. Measurement of lung water with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.Y.L.; Ficken, V.J.; Ekeh, S.U.; Ryals, C.J.; Allen, E.W.; Basmadjian, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of iodoantipyrine (IAP) labeled with radioactive iodine (I-123) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) to measure lung water. I-123 IAP was injected intravenously to six New Zealand White rabbits under anesthesia. After 1 hour, Tc-99m macroaggregates of albumin (MAA) were injected. SPECT imaging was performed in dual-energy mode. After a blood sample was drawn, the animals were sacrificed, and the lungs were removed. Blood samples were assayed for radioactivity. The lungs were weighed, dried, and weighted again to determine water content. The product of area defined by MAA in a tomogram and IAP count rate of central pixels of that region in the corresponding tomogram was taken as the relative amount of IAP in each lung

  6. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    radiolabeled liquid aerosols are not restricted to the presence of obstructive lung disease. Radiolabeled macroaggregated human albumin is the imaging agent of choice for perfusion scintigraphy. An optimal combination of nuclide activities and acquisition times for ventilation and perfusion, collimators......Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas over......, and imaging matrix yields an adequate V/Q SPECT study in approximately 20 minutes of imaging time. The recommended protocol based on the patient remaining in an unchanged position during the initial ventilation study and the perfusion study allows presentation of matching ventilation and perfusion slices...

  7. New SPECT and PET dementia tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergote, J.; Chalon, S.; Emond, P.; Vercouillie, J.; Guilloteau, D.; Vergote, J.; Guilloteau, D.; Pappata, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are techniques to study in vivo neurotransmitter systems, neuro inflammation and amyloid deposits in normal human brain and in dementia. These methods used to explore the integrity of dopaminergic, cholinergic and serotonergic systems in Alzheimer's disease and in other dementias allowed to understand how the neurotransmission was modified in these disorders. Progress in the understanding of pathophysiological and clinical signs of dementia requires an evolution of the radioligands used to carry out an increasingly early and differential diagnosis in addition to monitoring the progression of disease and the effects of therapies. New emerging radiotracers for neuro inflammation or amyloid deposits are essential. In this article, new SPECT and PET tracers are presented. (authors)

  8. SPECT/CT in pediatric patient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadel, Helen R.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging is becoming the standard of care in pediatric imaging. Indications are mainly for oncologic imaging including mIBG scintigraphy for neuroblastoma and I-123 post surgical imaging of children with thyroid carcinoma, bone scintigraphy for back pain, children referred from sports medicine and neurodevelopmentally delayed children presenting with pain symptoms. The studies provide improved diagnostic accuracy, and oncologic imaging that includes optimized CT as part of the SPECT/CT study may decrease the number of studies and sedation procedures an individual child may need. The studies, however, must be tailored on an individual basis as the addition of the CT study can increase exposure to the child and should only be performed after appropriate justification and with adherence to optimized low dose pediatric protocols. (orig.)

  9. Silicon Detectors for PET and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Eric R.

    Silicon detectors use state-of-the-art electronics to take advantage of the semiconductor properties of silicon to produce very high resolution radiation detectors. These detectors have been a fundamental part of high energy, nuclear, and astroparticle physics experiments for decades, and they hold great potential for significant gains in both PET and SPECT applications. Two separate prototype nuclear medicine imaging systems have been developed to explore this potential. Both devices take advantage of the unique properties of high resolution pixelated silicon detectors, designed and developed as part of the CIMA collaboration and built at The Ohio State University. The first prototype is a Compton SPECT imaging system. Compton SPECT, also referred to as electronic collimation, is a fundamentally different approach to single photon imaging from standard gamma cameras. It removes the inherent coupling of spatial resolution and sensitivity in mechanically collimated systems and provides improved performance at higher energies. As a result, Compton SPECT creates opportunities for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals based on higher energy isotopes as well as opportunities to expand the use of current isotopes such as 131I due to the increased resolution and sensitivity. The Compton SPECT prototype consists of a single high resolution silicon detector, configured in a 2D geometry, in coincidence with a standard NaI scintillator detector. Images of point sources have been taken for 99mTc (140 keV), 131I (364keV), and 22Na (511 keV), demonstrating the performance of high resolution silicon detectors in a Compton SPECT system. Filtered back projection image resolutions of 10 mm, 7.5 mm, and 6.7 mm were achieved for the three different sources respectively. The results compare well with typical SPECT resolutions of 5-15 mm and validate the claims of improved performance in Compton SPECT imaging devices at higher source energies. They also support the potential of

  10. Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Giovannini, Elisabetta; Meniconi, Martina; Cuccurullo, Vincenzo; Gaeta, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the SPECT/CT hybrid modality has led to a rapid development of imaging techniques in nuclear medicine, opening new perspectives for imaging staff and patients as well. However, while, the clinical role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is well consolidated, the diffusion and the consequent value of single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) has yet to be weighed, Hence, there is a need for a careful analysis, comparing the "potential" benefits of the hybrid modality with the "established" ones of the standalone machine. The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of this hybrid tool on the diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system, comparing strengths and weaknesses of both modalities through the use of SWOT analysis.

  11. SPECT/CT in pediatric patient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, Helen R. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Pediatric Radiologist and Nuclear Medicine Physician, Division of Nuclear Medicine Department of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging is becoming the standard of care in pediatric imaging. Indications are mainly for oncologic imaging including mIBG scintigraphy for neuroblastoma and I-123 post surgical imaging of children with thyroid carcinoma, bone scintigraphy for back pain, children referred from sports medicine and neurodevelopmentally delayed children presenting with pain symptoms. The studies provide improved diagnostic accuracy, and oncologic imaging that includes optimized CT as part of the SPECT/CT study may decrease the number of studies and sedation procedures an individual child may need. The studies, however, must be tailored on an individual basis as the addition of the CT study can increase exposure to the child and should only be performed after appropriate justification and with adherence to optimized low dose pediatric protocols. (orig.)

  12. Adaptive Angular Sampling for SPECT Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Nan; Meng, Ling-Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach for performing adaptive angular sampling in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. It allows for a rapid determination of the optimum sampling strategy that minimizes image variance in regions-of-interest (ROIs). The proposed method consists of three key components: (a) a set of close-form equations for evaluating image variance and resolution attainable with a given sampling strategy, (b) a gradient-based algor...

  13. Brain perfusion SPECT in dementia syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libus, P.; Stupalova, J.; Kuzelka, I.; Konrad, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Brain perfusion SPECT is used in differential diagnostics of dementia syndromes. First of all the aim is to distinguish vascular dementia from degenerative dementia and to differentiate dementia from delirium, psychiatric syndromes, depression and secondary dementia, which is important in relation to therapy. The purpose of our study was to detect significance of BP SPECT and include it into the diagnostic process in dementia syndromes. Materials and methods: 51 women and 63 men aged 55 - 88 were evaluated in the study. The patients correspond to the general criteria of dementia diagnosis. They were sent to the examination by neurological, internal and psychiatric departments and out-patient departments. All patients were examined by 99mTc ECD SPECT using a double head camera PRISM 200 VP with LEHR collimator. The scintigraphic data were evaluated by the visual and semiquantitative analysis. Results: It was established that most patients in our group had vascular dementia, while Alzheimer's disease was second. In other groups we found out dementia at strategic infarct location, e.g. in gyrus angularis in the dominant hemisphere, frontal temporal lobe dementia and alcoholic dementia. Twenty-four patients had a normal diagnosis. Fifteen of them had a somatic reason of the delirious state and were re-classified into pseudodementia. Nine patients were not diagnostically included and the examination will repeated in four months time. Conclusion: We have found out a good applicability of brain perfusion SPECT in dementia syndromes diagnosis in our work. The best diagnosticable and most specific were the findings in multi-infarct dementia, Alzheimer's disease and frontal temporal lobe dementia. When vascular dementia is concerned we can even distinguish dementia at strategic infarction location, e.g. in thalamus, basal frontal telencefalon, in gyrus angularis of the dominant hemisphere, etc

  14. Neuropharmacological studies with SPECT in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Andreas; Jones, Douglas W.; Raedler, Thomas; Coppola, Richard; Knable, Michael B.; Weinberger, Daniel R. E-mail: weinberd@intra.nimh.nih.gov

    2000-10-01

    The last decade saw a rapid development of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) from a tool to assess cerebral blood flow to the study of specific neurotransmitter systems. Because of the relatively long half-life of SPECT radioisotopes, it is practical to measure the availability of neuroreceptors and transporters in conditions approaching equilibrium. The cost-efficiency of SPECT allowed studies in relatively large samples of patients with various neuropsychiatric disorders. We have applied this approach in studies of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and muscarinergic neurotransmission in patients with dementia, extrapyramidal disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism. No simple associations were observed between a single defect in one neurotransmitter system and a certain neuropsychiatric disease. Instead, complex dysfunction of several neurotransmitter systems in multiple, partially connected brain circuits have been implicated. Treatment effects also have been characterized. Microdialysis and neurotransmitter depletion studies showed that most radioligands and endogenous neurotransmitters compete for binding at receptors and transporters. Future research directions include the assessment of endogenous neurotransmitter concentrations measured by depletion studies and of genetic effects on neuroreceptor and transporter expression.

  15. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Tomography in nuclear medicine did not originate after the introduction of X-ray computerized tomography (CT). Even in the days of rectilinear scanner, tomography was attempted with multiple detector heads rotating around the patient, but the counts at each plane were never very high to obtain a satisfactory image. A high resolution focusing collimator can look at different depths but taking several slices in one projection was a time consuming process. Rectilinear scanners lose lot of counts in the collimator to look at one point, at on time, in one plane. It is true that attempts to do tomography with gamma camera really got a boost after the success of CT. By that time, algorithms for doing reconstruction of images also were highly refined and for advanced. Clinical application of SPECT has become widespread now, because of the development of suitable radiopharmaceuticals and improvement in instrumentation. The SPECT provides a direct measure of regional organ function and is performed with nuclides such as 123 I and 99 Tc m that emit a mono-image photon during their decay. SPECT is far less expensive than positron emission tomography

  16. Individual patient dosimetry using quantitative SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Oliva, J.; Baum, R.; Fisher, S.

    2002-01-01

    An approach is described to provide individual patient dosimetry for routine clinical use. Accurate quantitative SPECT imaging was achieved using appropriate methods. The volume of interest (VOI) was defined semi-automatically using a fixed threshold value obtained from phantom studies. The calibration factor to convert the voxel counts from SPECT images into activity values was determine from calibrated point source using the same threshold value as in phantom studies. From selected radionuclide the dose within and outside a sphere of voxel dimension at different distances was computed through dose point-kernels to obtain a discrete absorbed dose kernel representation around the volume source with uniform activity distribution. The spatial activity distribution from SPECT imaging was convolved with this kernel representation using the discrete Fourier transform method to yield three-dimensional absorbed dose rate distribution. The accuracy of dose rates calculation was validated by software phantoms. The absorbed dose was determined by integration of the dose rate distribution for each volume of interest (VOI). Parameters for treatment optimization such as dose rate volume histograms and dose rate statistic are provided. A patient example was used to illustrate our dosimetric calculations

  17. Neuropharmacological studies with SPECT in neuropsychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, Andreas; Jones, Douglas W.; Raedler, Thomas; Coppola, Richard; Knable, Michael B.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    The last decade saw a rapid development of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) from a tool to assess cerebral blood flow to the study of specific neurotransmitter systems. Because of the relatively long half-life of SPECT radioisotopes, it is practical to measure the availability of neuroreceptors and transporters in conditions approaching equilibrium. The cost-efficiency of SPECT allowed studies in relatively large samples of patients with various neuropsychiatric disorders. We have applied this approach in studies of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and muscarinergic neurotransmission in patients with dementia, extrapyramidal disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism. No simple associations were observed between a single defect in one neurotransmitter system and a certain neuropsychiatric disease. Instead, complex dysfunction of several neurotransmitter systems in multiple, partially connected brain circuits have been implicated. Treatment effects also have been characterized. Microdialysis and neurotransmitter depletion studies showed that most radioligands and endogenous neurotransmitters compete for binding at receptors and transporters. Future research directions include the assessment of endogenous neurotransmitter concentrations measured by depletion studies and of genetic effects on neuroreceptor and transporter expression

  18. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganatra, R D

    1993-12-31

    Tomography in nuclear medicine did not originate after the introduction of X-ray computerized tomography (CT). Even in the days of rectilinear scanner, tomography was attempted with multiple detector heads rotating around the patient, but the counts at each plane were never very high to obtain a satisfactory image. A high resolution focusing collimator can look at different depths but taking several slices in one projection was a time consuming process. Rectilinear scanners lose lot of counts in the collimator to look at one point, at on time, in one plane. It is true that attempts to do tomography with gamma camera really got a boost after the success of CT. By that time, algorithms for doing reconstruction of images also were highly refined and for advanced. Clinical application of SPECT has become widespread now, because of the development of suitable radiopharmaceuticals and improvement in instrumentation. The SPECT provides a direct measure of regional organ function and is performed with nuclides such as {sup 123}I and {sup 99}Tc{sup m} that emit a mono-image photon during their decay. SPECT is far less expensive than positron emission tomography

  19. Blood lipid levels and SPECT of myocardium perfusion to type 2 asymptomatic diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena Quian, Yamile; Fernandez-Britto Rodriguez, Jose; Coca Perez, Marco A; Batista Cuellar, Juan F; Rochela Vazquez, Luis Manuel

    2006-01-01

    SPECT, coronary angiography and laboratories test were performed on 31 asymptomatic type 2 diabetes patients, in order to determine the relationship among the lipid levels in blood and the results of the SPECT. Patients were classified in two groups (positive SPECT or negative SPECT). Simple descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables in both groups. Positive SPECT was detected in 35,5% of the patients and negative SPECT in 64,5%.The coronary angiography and SPECT showed good correlation. Low values of HDLc showed significant association with the positive results of the SPECT. The logistical regression showed an increment of the capacity to predict a positive SPECT if the values of HDLc are used. Conclusion: The present investigation demonstrated a significant association among the low levels of HDLc in blood and the positive results of the SPECT. The low values of HDLc could predict the possibility of a positive SPECT in asymptomatic diabetic type 2 patients (au)

  20. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsia; SPECT und PET in der Diagnostik von Epilepsien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landvogt, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2007-09-15

    In preoperative localisation of epileptogenic foci, nuclear medicine diagnostics plays a crucial role. FDG-PET is used as first line diagnostics. In case of inconsistent MRI, EEG and FDG-PET findings, {sup 11}C-Flumazenil-PET or ictal and interictal perfusion-SPECT should be performed. Other than FDG, Flumazenil can help to identify the extend of the region, which should be resected. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, further data analysis using voxelbased statistical analyses or SISCOM (substraction ictal SPECT coregistered MRI) should be performed.

  1. Dopamine-transporter SPECT and Dopamine-D2-receptor SPECT in basal ganglia diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, S.; Barthel, H.; Seese, A.; Sabri, O.

    2007-01-01

    The basal ganglia comprise a group of subcortical nuclei, which are essential for motor control. Dysfunction of these areas, especially in dopaminergic transmission, results in disordered movement and neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, or Huntington disease. Positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have enhanced the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, but they much more contribute to the early differential diagnosis of patients suffering from Parkinsonian syndrome in routine care. The present article provides dopamine transporter and D 2 receptor SPECT findings in selected movement disorders. (orig.)

  2. SPECT data acquisition and image reconstruction in a stationary small animal SPECT/MRI system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyan; Chen, Si; Yu, Jianhua; Meier, Dirk; Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2010-04-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate data acquisition strategies and image reconstruction methods for a stationary SPECT insert that can operate inside an MRI scanner with a 12 cm bore diameter for simultaneous SPECT/MRI imaging of small animals. The SPECT insert consists of 3 octagonal rings of 8 MR-compatible CZT detectors per ring surrounding a multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator sleeve. Each pinhole is constructed to project the field-of-view (FOV) to one CZT detector. All 24 pinholes are focused to a cylindrical FOV of 25 mm in diameter and 34 mm in length. The data acquisition strategies we evaluated were optional collimator rotations to improve tomographic sampling; and the image reconstruction methods were iterative ML-EM with and without compensation for the geometric response function (GRF) of the MPH collimator. For this purpose, we developed an analytic simulator that calculates the system matrix with the GRF models of the MPH collimator. The simulator was used to generate projection data of a digital rod phantom with pinhole aperture sizes of 1 mm and 2 mm and with different collimator rotation patterns. Iterative ML-EM reconstruction with and without GRF compensation were used to reconstruct the projection data from the central ring of 8 detectors only, and from all 24 detectors. Our results indicated that without GRF compensation and at the default design of 24 projection views, the reconstructed images had significant artifacts. Accurate GRF compensation substantially improved the reconstructed image resolution and reduced image artifacts. With accurate GRF compensation, useful reconstructed images can be obtained using 24 projection views only. This last finding potentially enables dynamic SPECT (and/or MRI) studies in small animals, one of many possible application areas of the SPECT/MRI system. Further research efforts are warranted including experimentally measuring the system matrix for improved geometrical accuracy, incorporating the co

  3. Implementation and Evaluation of Pinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArtain Anne Marie

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this work was to implement Pinhole SPECT into a working Nuclear Medicine department. It has been reported that pinhole SPECT has been successfully performed to visualise pathology in ankle bones using gamma camera and the images were constructed using a standard filtered back-projection algorithm (Bahk YW, 1998). The objective of this study was to produce and evaluate this technique with the equipment available in the nuclear medicine department. The system performance was assessed using both the low-energy high resolution and the pinhole collimators. Phantoms constructed using capillary tubes, filled with technetium 99m (pertechnetate) were imaged in different arrays to identify possible limitations in the reconstruction software. A thyroid phantom with hot and cold inserts was also imaged. Data was acquired in ''tep-and-shoot'' mode as the camera was rotated 180 degrees or 360 degrees around the phantom. Images were reconstructed using standard parallel back-projection algorithm and a weighted backprojection algorithm (Nowak). An attempt was made to process images of the phantom in Matlab using the Iradon function modified by application of a cone-beam type algorithm (Feldkamp L, 1984). Visual comparison of static images between the pinhole and the LEHR collimators showed the expected improved spatial resolution of the pinhole images. Pinhole SPECT images should be reconstructed using the appropriate cone beam algorithm. However, it was established that reconstructing pinhole SPECT images using a standard parallel backprojection algorithm yielded results which were deemed to be clinically useful. The Nowak algorithm results were a distinct improvement on those achieved with the parallel backprojection algorithm. Likewise the results from the cone beam algorithm were better than the former but not as good as those obtained from the Nowak algorithm. This was due to the fact that the cone beam algorithm did not include a weighting factor. Implementation

  4. A small-animal imaging system capable of multipinhole circular/helical SPECT and parallel-hole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jianguo; Bradley, Eric L.; Majewski, Stan; Popov, Vladimir; Saha, Margaret S.; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Welsh, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and built a small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system equipped with parallel-hole and multipinhole collimators and capable of circular or helical SPECT. Copper-beryllium parallel-hole collimators suitable for imaging the ∼35 keV photons from the decay of 125 I have been built and installed to achieve useful spatial resolution over a range of object-detector distances and to reduce imaging time on our dual-detector array. To address the resolution limitations in the parallel-hole SPECT and the sensitivity and limited field of view of single-pinhole SPECT, we have incorporated multipinhole circular and helical SPECT in addition to expanding the parallel-hole SPECT capabilities. The pinhole SPECT system is based on a 110 mm diameter circular detector equipped with a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator array (1x1x5 mm 3 /pixel). The helical trajectory is accomplished by two stepping motors controlling the rotation of the detector-support gantry and displacement of the animal bed along the axis of rotation of the gantry. Results obtained in SPECT studies of various phantoms show an enlarged field of view, very good resolution and improved sensitivity using multipinhole circular or helical SPECT. Collimators with one, three and five, 1-mm-diameter pinholes have been implemented and compared in these tests. Our objective is to develop a system on which one may readily select a suitable mode of either parallel-hole SPECT or pinhole circular or helical SPECT for a variety of small animal imaging applications

  5. Frequencies and implications of discordant findings of interictal SPECT and itcal SPECT in patients with intractable epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Lee, S. K.; Jeong, J. K.; Lee, M. C.; Ko, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Interictal SPECT could be used at best as a reference image to ictal SPECT, and cause sometimes confusion if it had given unexplained discordant findings from ictal SPECT. We investigated implications of discordant findings which occurred in 26 among 268 which found their epileptogenic zones using ictal EEG and/or operative outcome. Sensitivity of interictal SPECT was only 36%. Among these 268, 69 patients had no structural lesions on MR, 14 of whom had decreased perfusion on interictal SPECT (8 trues and 6 falses (adjacent or contralateral)). Structural lesion were found in 199 on MR, 103 of whom had decreased perfusion (89 trues and 14 falses). Among 26 having discordant cases, 10 interictal SPECT were proved wrong after operation and/or invasive EEG and the other 16 were on speculation using PET and ictal EEG. Ictal hyperperfusion was observed in 14 patients in these interictal SPECT. Six ictal studies were found postictal accompanied by contralateral propagation or not. Two patients had dual pathology, and the remaining 2 unknown. Interictal SPECT was done on the 2nd day after ictal study(24), the 3rd day (18), the 4th day(16), the 5th day (23). Four among 24 interictal studies (17%) of the 2nd day and the other 4 among 57 of 3rd to 5th day revealed ictal hyperperfusion on interictal SPECT. Six interictal studies (2.7% among 221) acquired on the indifferent day showed also ictal hyperperfusion. We could suggest that the next day is not desirable for interictal SPECT after ictal study, as ictal hyperperfusion on interictal study confounded more than postictal findings of ictal SPECT in the discrete localization than reassuring ictal study

  6. Frequencies and implications of discordant findings of interictal SPECT and itcal SPECT in patients with intractable epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D S; Lee, S K; Jeong, J K; Lee, M C; Ko, C S [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Interictal SPECT could be used at best as a reference image to ictal SPECT, and cause sometimes confusion if it had given unexplained discordant findings from ictal SPECT. We investigated implications of discordant findings which occurred in 26 among 268 which found their epileptogenic zones using ictal EEG and/or operative outcome. Sensitivity of interictal SPECT was only 36%. Among these 268, 69 patients had no structural lesions on MR, 14 of whom had decreased perfusion on interictal SPECT (8 trues and 6 falses (adjacent or contralateral)). Structural lesion were found in 199 on MR, 103 of whom had decreased perfusion (89 trues and 14 falses). Among 26 having discordant cases, 10 interictal SPECT were proved wrong after operation and/or invasive EEG and the other 16 were on speculation using PET and ictal EEG. Ictal hyperperfusion was observed in 14 patients in these interictal SPECT. Six ictal studies were found postictal accompanied by contralateral propagation or not. Two patients had dual pathology, and the remaining 2 unknown. Interictal SPECT was done on the 2nd day after ictal study(24), the 3rd day (18), the 4th day(16), the 5th day (23). Four among 24 interictal studies (17%) of the 2nd day and the other 4 among 57 of 3rd to 5th day revealed ictal hyperperfusion on interictal SPECT. Six interictal studies (2.7% among 221) acquired on the indifferent day showed also ictal hyperperfusion. We could suggest that the next day is not desirable for interictal SPECT after ictal study, as ictal hyperperfusion on interictal study confounded more than postictal findings of ictal SPECT in the discrete localization than reassuring ictal study.

  7. Pre-evaluation study in SPECT images using a phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Marina de Sa; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi; Abe, Rubens; Moura, Lincoln

    1996-01-01

    An alternative solution for the reconstruction of SPECT images using a Poisson Noise Model is presented. The proposed algorithm was applied on a real phantom and compared to the standard clinical procedures. Results have shown that the proposed method improves the quality of the SPECT images

  8. Ictal cerebral perfusion patterns in partial epilepsy: SPECT subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyang Woon; Hong, Seung Bong; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sang Eun; Seo, Dae Won; Jeong, Seung Cheol; Yi, Ji Young; Hong, Seung Chyul

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the various ictal perfusion patterns and find the relationships between clinical factors and different perfusion patterns. Interictal and ictal SPECT and SPECT subtraction were performed in 61 patients with partial epilepsy. Both positive images showing ictal hyperperfusion and negative images revealing ictal hypoperfusion were obtained by SPECT subtraction. The ictal perfusion patterns of subtracted SPECT were classified into focal hyperperfusion, hyperperfusion-plus, combined hyperperfusion-hypoperfusion, and focal hypoperfusion only. The concordance rates with epileptic focus were 91.8% in combined analysis of ictal hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion images of subtracted SPECT, 85.2% in hyperperfusion images only of subtracted SPECT, and 68.9% in conventional ictal SPECT analysis. Ictal hypoperfusion occurred less frequently in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) than extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Mesial temporal hyperperfusion alone was seen only in mesial TLE while lateral temporal hyperperfusion alone was observed only in neocortical TLE. Hippocampal sclerosis had much lower incidence of ictal hypoperfusion than any other pathology. Some patients showed ictal hypoperfusion at epileptic focus with ictal hyperperfusion in the neighboring brain regions where ictal discharges propagated. Hypoperfusion as well as hyperperfusion in ictal SPECT should be considered for localizing epileptic focus. Although the mechanism of ictal hypoperfusion could be an intra-ictal early exhaustion of seizure focus or a steal phenomenon by the propagation of ictal discharges to adjacent brain areas, further study is needed to elucidate it.=20

  9. Ictal cerebral perfusion patterns in partial epilepsy: SPECT subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyang Woon; Hong, Seung Bong; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sang Eun; Seo, Dae Won; Jeong, Seung Cheol; Yi, Ji Young; Hong, Seung Chyul [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the various ictal perfusion patterns and find the relationships between clinical factors and different perfusion patterns. Interictal and ictal SPECT and SPECT subtraction were performed in 61 patients with partial epilepsy. Both positive images showing ictal hyperperfusion and negative images revealing ictal hypoperfusion were obtained by SPECT subtraction. The ictal perfusion patterns of subtracted SPECT were classified into focal hyperperfusion, hyperperfusion-plus, combined hyperperfusion-hypoperfusion, and focal hypoperfusion only. The concordance rates with epileptic focus were 91.8% in combined analysis of ictal hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion images of subtracted SPECT, 85.2% in hyperperfusion images only of subtracted SPECT, and 68.9% in conventional ictal SPECT analysis. Ictal hypoperfusion occurred less frequently in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) than extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Mesial temporal hyperperfusion alone was seen only in mesial TLE while lateral temporal hyperperfusion alone was observed only in neocortical TLE. Hippocampal sclerosis had much lower incidence of ictal hypoperfusion than any other pathology. Some patients showed ictal hypoperfusion at epileptic focus with ictal hyperperfusion in the neighboring brain regions where ictal discharges propagated. Hypoperfusion as well as hyperperfusion in ictal SPECT should be considered for localizing epileptic focus. Although the mechanism of ictal hypoperfusion could be an intra-ictal early exhaustion of seizure focus or a steal phenomenon by the propagation of ictal discharges to adjacent brain areas, further study is needed to elucidate it.

  10. The assessment of whole body bone SPECT in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scortechini, Shonika

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: To assess the significance and practicability of oncology whole body bone SPECT as part of the standard skeletal survey and its impact on the traditional planar whole body bone imaging protocol. Method: Three consenting oncology patients were injected with a standard adult dose of Tc-99m MOP. Delayed Imaging of whole body sweep and SPECT acquisitions were performed on a Siemens Symbia T6. The patient was positioned supine with arms down with a SPECT scan length covering vortex to thighs. SPECT data was reconstructed and a single whole body zipped file created. Normal SPECT slices along with a cine/MIP of the zipped data were created for review. Results: Both image data sets were reviewed to assess if SPECT provided any further diagnostic clinical information not apparent in planer imaging. In our limited review, whole body SPECT did not add extra value to the planar whole body scans performed; it did however demonstrate vertebral involvement with greater resolution. The processing software and system limitations in seamlessly knitting data sets (creating image artefacts) was a major limiting factor in not pursuing further studies. Conclusion: Both imaging techniques offer differing advantages and limitations, however due to image artefact in the triple knitted SPECT approach with current software technology, it cannot be substituted for whole body imaging at this time.

  11. SP-ECT imaging and its physical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Fujimi

    1983-01-01

    Recently, more than a hundred hospitals are provided with SPECT system for clinical examination in Japan. However, a standardization of measuring method and performance test of the systems is ont yet made. We have been studying some basic problems of SPECT system with special phantoms originaly designed by ourselves. We got a conclusion that a standardized phantom is necessary for comparing performances between SPECT systems. In clinical experiences with 3,332 cases, we think that SPECT image combined with conventional image presents much more informations for accurate diagnosis, especially in brain, bone and tumor imagings. Synthesized image of SPECT and XCT, double tracer image and transmission image are useful to visualize the body contour and the clinical diagnosis. (author)

  12. Study on SPECT image for children with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wenhuang; Xie Zhichun; Chen Yucai; Lin Haoxue; Zheng Aidong; Xie Hui

    1998-01-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of SPECT image for children with cerebral infarction (CCI), comparative research was made on 26 cases undergoing regional cerebral perfusion (rCP) image between SPECT imaging and CT scanning. The results showed that the rCP in the infarct and its distant area was decreased. The positive rate of SPECT and CT were 92.3% (24/26) and 84.5% (22/26) respectively. The difference was not significant (P = 0.67, P>0.05). But, the positive rate of SPECT image 2 days after onset in 9 CCI was 100% (9/9), significantly higher than 55.6% (5/9) in CT scanning (P = 0.04, P<0.05). These findings suggested that the SPECT imaging is a sensitive method for the early diagnosis of CCI, and also helpful for observation of the therapeutic effect and evaluation of the prognosis

  13. Radionuclide cisternography: SPECT and 3D-rendering. Radionuklidzisternographie: SPECT- und 3D-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkes, H; Huber, G; Piepgras, U [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Hierholzer, J [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Cordes, M [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Belzberg Lab. of Neuroscience

    1991-10-01

    Radionuclide cisternography is indicated in the clinical work-up for hydrocephalus, when searching for CSF leaks, and when testing whether or not intracranial cystic lesions are communicating with the adjacent subarachnoid space. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and diagnostic value of SPECT and subsequent 3D surface rendering in addition to conventional rectilinear CSF imaging in eight patients. Planar images allowed the evaluation of CSF circulation and the detection of CSF fistula. They were advantageous in examinations 48 h after application of {sup 111}In-DTPA. SPECT scans, generated 4-24 h after tracer application, were superior in the delineation of basal cisterns, especially in early scans; this was helpful in patients with pooling due to CSF fistula and in cystic lesions near the skull base. A major drawback was the limited image quality of delayed scans, when the SPECT data were degraded by a low count rate. 3D surface rendering was easily feasible from SPECT data and yielded high quality images. The presentation of the spatial distribution of nuclide-contaminated CSF proved especially helpful in the area of the basal cisterns. (orig.).

  14. [Myokard-Perfusions-SPECT. Myocardial perfusion SPECT - Update S1 guideline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Oliver; Bengel, Frank; Burchert, Wolfgang; Dörr, Rolf; Hacker, Marcus; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Schäfers, Michael A; Schmidt, Matthias; Schwaiger, Markus; Vom Dahl, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Rainer

    2017-08-14

    The S1 guideline for myocardial perfusion SPECT has been published by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) and is valid until 2/2022. This paper is a short summary with comments on all chapters and subchapters wich were modified and amended.

  15. Task Equivalence for Model and Human-Observer Comparisons in SPECT Localization Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anando; Kalantari, Faraz; Gifford, Howard C.

    2016-06-01

    While mathematical model observers are intended for efficient assessment of medical imaging systems, their findings should be relevant for human observers as the primary clinical end users. We have investigated whether pursuing equivalence between the model and human-observer tasks can help ensure this goal. A localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study tested prostate lesion detection in simulated In-111 SPECT imaging with anthropomorphic phantoms. The test images were 2D slices extracted from reconstructed volumes. The iterative ordered sets expectation-maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used with Gaussian postsmoothing. Variations in the number of iterations and the level of postfiltering defined the test strategies in the study. Human-observer performance was compared with that of a visual-search (VS) observer, a scanning channelized Hotelling observer, and a scanning channelized nonprewhitening (CNPW) observer. These model observers were applied with precise information about the target regions of interest (ROIs). ROI knowledge was a study variable for the human observers. In one study format, the humans read the SPECT image alone. With a dual-modality format, the SPECT image was presented alongside an anatomical image slice extracted from the density map of the phantom. Performance was scored by area under the LROC curve. The human observers performed significantly better with the dual-modality format, and correlation with the model observers was also improved. Given the human-observer data from the SPECT study format, the Pearson correlation coefficients for the model observers were 0.58 (VS), -0.12 (CH), and -0.23 (CNPW). The respective coefficients based on the human-observer data from the dual-modality study were 0.72, 0.27, and -0.11. These results point towards the continued development of the VS observer for enhancing task equivalence in model-observer studies.

  16. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Seizure Disorder: Comparison Brain SPECT, MRI / CT and EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyung In [Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Ju Hyuk; Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; No, Jae Kyu; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    We studied 115 patients with seizure who had been performed brain SPECT brain MRI of CT and EEG. To evaluate the pattern of brain SPECT in seizure patients 28 of them had secondary epilepsies, 87 had primary epilepsies. In primary epilepsies, 42 were generalized seizure and 45 were partial seizure. The causes of secondary epilepsies were congenital malformation, cerebromalacia, cerebral infarction ultiple sclerosis, AV-malformation. granuloma and etc, in order. In 28 secondary epilepsies, 25 of them, brain SPECT lesions was concordant with MRI or CT lesions. 3 were disconcordant. The brain SPECT findings of generalized seizure were normal in 22 patients, diffuse irregular decreased perfusion in 8, decreased in frontal cortex in 4. temporal in 5 and frontotemporal in 3. In 45 partial seizure, 19 brain SPECT were concordant with EEG (42.4%).

  17. 99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Seizure Disorder: Comparison Brain SPECT, MRI / CT and EEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyung In; Im, Ju Hyuk; Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; No, Jae Kyu; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon

    1994-01-01

    We studied 115 patients with seizure who had been performed brain SPECT brain MRI of CT and EEG. To evaluate the pattern of brain SPECT in seizure patients 28 of them had secondary epilepsies, 87 had primary epilepsies. In primary epilepsies, 42 were generalized seizure and 45 were partial seizure. The causes of secondary epilepsies were congenital malformation, cerebromalacia, cerebral infarction ultiple sclerosis, AV-malformation. granuloma and etc, in order. In 28 secondary epilepsies, 25 of them, brain SPECT lesions was concordant with MRI or CT lesions. 3 were disconcordant. The brain SPECT findings of generalized seizure were normal in 22 patients, diffuse irregular decreased perfusion in 8, decreased in frontal cortex in 4. temporal in 5 and frontotemporal in 3. In 45 partial seizure, 19 brain SPECT were concordant with EEG (42.4%).

  18. Myocardial Perfusion SPECT 2015 in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchert, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Hacker, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim The working group Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine of the German Society of Nuclear Medicine presents the results of the 7th survey of myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) of the reporting year 2015. Method 268 questionnaires (173 practices [PR], 67 hospitals [HO], 28 university hospitals [UH]) were evaluated. Results of the last survey from 2012 are set in squared brackets. Results MPS of 121 939 [105 941] patients were reported. 98 % [95 %] of all MPS were performed with Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and 2 % [5 %] with Tl-201. 78 % [79 %] of all patients were studied in PR, 14 % [15 %] in HO, and 8 % [6 %] in UH. A pharmacological stress test was performed in 43 % [39 %] (22 % [24 %] adenosine, 20 % [9 %] regadenoson, 1% [6 %] dipyridamole or dobutamine). Attenuation correction was applied in 25 % [2009: 10 %] of MPS. Gated SPECT was performed in 78 % [70 %] of all rest MPS, in 80 % [73 %] of all stress and in 76 % [67 %] of all stress and rest MPS. 53 % [33 %] of all nuclear medicine departments performed MPS scoring by default, whereas 24 % [41 %] did not apply any quantification. 31 % [26 %] of all departments noticed an increase in their counted MPS and 29 % [29 %] no changes. Data from 89 departments which participated in all surveys showed an increase in MPS count of 11.1 % (PR: 12.2 %, HO: 4.8 %, UH: 18.4 %). 70 % [60 %] of the MPS were requested by ambulatory care cardiologists. Conclusion The 2015 MPS survey reveals a high-grade adherence of routine MPS practice to current guidelines. The positive trend in MPS performance and number of MPS already observed in 2012 continues. Educational training remains necessary in the field of SPECT scoring. PMID:27909712

  19. IMP-SPECT at patients with hallucinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podreka, I.; Mamoli, B.; Lesch, O.; Suess, E.; Wimberger, D.; Mayr, N.; Havelec, L.; Mueller, C.; Steiner, M.; Deecke, L.

    1986-01-01

    IMP-SPECT was performed in 14 normal volunteers. A 'regional index=RI' of tracer distribution was calculated for 18 regions in each hemisphere RI=(cts/voxel ROI)/(mean cts/voxel of all ROI's). 30 seizure patients (E) and 12 patients with acoustic, partialy also visual hallucinations (H) were investigated. Regions were defined as hypo- or hyperperfused if the RI exceeded the value of the corresponding normal-RI +- 2 std. EEG was recorded in all (E). 93.3% of EEG-findings were abnormal, 50% showed a focus, 46.7% paroxysmal activity. SPECT detected in 93.3% of (E) hypoperfused regions, mostly located in the temporal lobe. All (H) had decreased rCBF, predominantly in the frontal cortex. ANOVA and t-test revealed significant RI-differences in the frontal lobe, both hippocampi, right and left inferior occipital cortex, and right anterior basal ganglia. (H) had lower RI's in frontal lobes, higher RI's in both hippocampal regions as well as inferior occipital regions and anterior basal ganglia Differences between (E) and (H) were found in the frontal lobe ((H)sub(→)), right superior temporal region ((H)sup(→)), left hippocampus ((H)sup(→)), both inferior occipital regions ((H)sup(→)) and right anterior basal ganglia ((H)sup(→)). The study shows that by means of IMP-SPECT hypo- and hyperperfused areas can be detected in the hemispheres of (E) and (H), corresponding to disturbed brain function. Higher hippocampal CBF in (E) and (H) may be related to the role of this limbic structure in generation of seizures and psychotic states. Hallucinations are associated with increased CBF in the right temporal and associative visual cortex. (Author)

  20. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte

    2014-01-01

    the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume......Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar...

  1. Brain SPECT in neurology: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartenstein, P.; Essen Univ.; Weiller, C.; Essen Univ.

    1994-01-01

    SPECT of the brain with radiopharmaceuticals monitoring regional cerebral blood flow, receptor binding and metabolism offers a wide variety of potentially clinically useful applications. These can be found in neuro-oncology, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases, extrapyramidal disorders, dementia and the determination of brain death. The evaluation of the benefit of these methods in routine use requires a close cooperation between nuclear medicine physicians and neurologists, not only in the interpretation and analysis of the actual clinical studies, but also in the design and realization of clinically oriented research with large series of patients. (orig.) [de

  2. An automatic MRI/SPECT registration algorithm using image intensity and anatomical feature as matching characters: application on the evaluation of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-D.; Huang, C.-H.; Weng, Y.-H.; Lin, K.-J.; Chen, C.-T.

    2007-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of dopamine transporters with 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 has recently been proposed to offer valuable information in assessing the functionality of dopaminergic systems. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and SPECT imaging are important in the noninvasive examination of dopamine concentration in vivo. Therefore, this investigation presents an automated MRI/SPECT image registration algorithm based on a new similarity metric. This similarity metric combines anatomical features that are characterized by specific binding, the mean count per voxel in putamens and caudate nuclei, and the distribution of image intensity that is characterized by normalized mutual information (NMI). A preprocess, a novel two-cluster SPECT normalization algorithm, is also presented for MRI/SPECT registration. Clinical MRI/SPECT data from 18 healthy subjects and 13 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are involved to validate the performance of the proposed algorithms. An appropriate color map, such as 'rainbow,' for image display enables the two-cluster SPECT normalization algorithm to provide clinically meaningful visual contrast. The proposed registration scheme reduces target registration error from >7 mm for conventional registration algorithm based on NMI to approximately 4 mm. The error in the specific/nonspecific 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 binding ratio, which is employed as a quantitative measure of TRODAT receptor binding, is also reduced from 0.45±0.22 to 0.08±0.06 among healthy subjects and from 0.28±0.18 to 0.12±0.09 among PD patients

  3. Juvenile spondylolysis: a comparative analysis of CT, SPECT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.S.D.; Grainger, A.J.; Hide, I.G.; Papastefanou, S.; Greenough, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate whether MRI correlates with CT and SPECT imaging for the diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis, and to determine whether MRI can be used as an exclusive image modality. Juveniles and young adults with a history of extension low back pain were evaluated by MRI, CT and SPECT imaging. All images were reviewed blindly. Correlative analyses included CT vs MRI for morphological grading and SPECT vs MRI for functional grading. Finally, an overall grading system compared MRI vs CT and SPECT combined. Statistical analysis was performed using the kappa statistic. Seventy-two patients (mean age 16 years) were recruited. Forty pars defects were identified in 22 patients (31%), of which 25 were chronic non-union, five acute complete defects and ten acute incomplete fractures. Kappa scores demonstrated a high level of agreement for all comparative analyses. MRI vs SPECT (kappa: 0.794), MRI vs CT (kappa: 0.829) and MRI vs CT/SPECT (kappa: 0.786). The main causes of discrepancy were between MRI and SPECT for the diagnosis of stress reaction in the absence of overt fracture, and distinguishing incomplete fractures from intact pars or complete defects. MRI can be used as an effective and reliable first-line image modality for diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis. However, localised CT is recommended as a supplementary examination in selected cases as a baseline for assessment of healing and for evaluation of indeterminate cases. (orig.)

  4. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT in imaging the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huellner, Martin W.; Strobel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Today, SPECT/CT is increasingly used and available in the majority of larger nuclear medicine departments. Several applications of SPECT/CT as a supplement to or replacement for traditional conventional bone scintigraphy have been established in recent years. SPECT/CT of the upper and lower extremities is valuable in many conditions with abnormal bone turnover due to trauma, inflammation, infection, degeneration or tumour. SPECT/CT is often used in patients if conventional radiographs are insufficient, if MR image quality is impaired due to metal implants or in patients with contraindications to MR. In complex joints such as those in the foot and wrist, SPECT/CT provides exact anatomical correlation of pathological uptake. In many cases SPECT increases the sensitivity and CT the specificity of the study, increasing confidence in the final diagnosis compared to planar images alone. The CT protocol should be adapted to the clinical question and may vary from very low-dose (e.g. attenuation correction only), to low-dose for anatomical correlation, to normal-dose protocols enabling precise anatomical resolution. The aim of this review is to give an overview of SPECT/CT imaging of the extremities with a focus on the hand and wrist, knee and foot, and for evaluation of patients after joint arthroplasty. (orig.)

  5. Quantitative assessment of 201TlCl myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Toshiisa

    1987-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of the quantitative analysis of Tl-201 myocardial tomography by SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) was performed in comparison with visual evaluation. The method of quantitative analysis has been already reported in our previous paper. In this study, the program of re-standardization in the case of lateral myocardial infarction was added. This program was useful mainly for the evaluation of lesions in the left circumflex coronary artery. Regarding the degree of diagnostic accuracy of myocardial infarction in general, quantitative evaluation of myocardial SPECT images was highest followed by visual evaluation of myocardial SPECT images, and visual evaluation of myocardial planar images. However, in the case of anterior myocardial infarction, visual evaluation of myocardial SPECT images has almost the same detectability as quantitative evaluation of myocardial SPECT images. In the case of infero-posterior myocardial infarction, quantitative evaluation was superior to visual evaluation. As for specificity, quantitative evaluation of SPECT images was slightly inferior to visual evaluation of SPECT images. An infarction map was made by quantitative analysis and this enabled us to determine the infarction site, extent and degree according to easily recognizable patterns. As a result, the responsible coronary artery lesion could be inferred correctly and the calculated infarction score could be correlated with the residual left ventricular function after myocardial infarction. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT imaging findings in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ozyurt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare with histopathological findings the findings of prostate cancer imaging by SPECT method using Tl-201 as a tumor seeking agent. Methods: The study comprised 59 patients (age range 51-79 years, mean age 65.3 ± 6.8 years who were planned to have transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided biopsies due to suspicion of prostate cancer between April 2011 and September 2011. Early planar, late planar and SPECT images were obtained for all patients. Scintigraphic evaluation was made in relation to uptake presence and patterns in the visual assessment and to Tumor/Background (T/Bg ratios for both planar and SPECT images in the quantitative assessment. Histopathological findings were compatible with benign etiology in 36 (61% patients and malign etiology in 23 (39% patients. Additionally, comparisons were made to evaluate the relationships between uptake patterns,total PSA values and Gleason scores. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the benign and malignant groups in terms of uptake in planar and SPECT images and T/Bg ratios and PSA values. No statistically significant difference was found between uptake patterns of planar and SPECT images and Gleason scores in the malignant group. Conclusions: SPECT images were superior to planar images in the comparative assessment. Tl-201 SPECT imaging can provide an additional contribution to clinical practice in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and it can be used in selected patients.

  7. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT in imaging the extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huellner, Martin W. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Strobel, Klaus [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Today, SPECT/CT is increasingly used and available in the majority of larger nuclear medicine departments. Several applications of SPECT/CT as a supplement to or replacement for traditional conventional bone scintigraphy have been established in recent years. SPECT/CT of the upper and lower extremities is valuable in many conditions with abnormal bone turnover due to trauma, inflammation, infection, degeneration or tumour. SPECT/CT is often used in patients if conventional radiographs are insufficient, if MR image quality is impaired due to metal implants or in patients with contraindications to MR. In complex joints such as those in the foot and wrist, SPECT/CT provides exact anatomical correlation of pathological uptake. In many cases SPECT increases the sensitivity and CT the specificity of the study, increasing confidence in the final diagnosis compared to planar images alone. The CT protocol should be adapted to the clinical question and may vary from very low-dose (e.g. attenuation correction only), to low-dose for anatomical correlation, to normal-dose protocols enabling precise anatomical resolution. The aim of this review is to give an overview of SPECT/CT imaging of the extremities with a focus on the hand and wrist, knee and foot, and for evaluation of patients after joint arthroplasty. (orig.)

  8. Juvenile spondylolysis: a comparative analysis of CT, SPECT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R.S.D. [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J. [Leeds General Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Hide, I.G. [Freeman Hospital, Department of Radiology, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Papastefanou, S. [James Cook University Hospital, Department Radiology, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Greenough, C.G. [James Cook University Hospital, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate whether MRI correlates with CT and SPECT imaging for the diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis, and to determine whether MRI can be used as an exclusive image modality. Juveniles and young adults with a history of extension low back pain were evaluated by MRI, CT and SPECT imaging. All images were reviewed blindly. Correlative analyses included CT vs MRI for morphological grading and SPECT vs MRI for functional grading. Finally, an overall grading system compared MRI vs CT and SPECT combined. Statistical analysis was performed using the kappa statistic. Seventy-two patients (mean age 16 years) were recruited. Forty pars defects were identified in 22 patients (31%), of which 25 were chronic non-union, five acute complete defects and ten acute incomplete fractures. Kappa scores demonstrated a high level of agreement for all comparative analyses. MRI vs SPECT (kappa: 0.794), MRI vs CT (kappa: 0.829) and MRI vs CT/SPECT (kappa: 0.786). The main causes of discrepancy were between MRI and SPECT for the diagnosis of stress reaction in the absence of overt fracture, and distinguishing incomplete fractures from intact pars or complete defects. MRI can be used as an effective and reliable first-line image modality for diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis. However, localised CT is recommended as a supplementary examination in selected cases as a baseline for assessment of healing and for evaluation of indeterminate cases. (orig.)

  9. Proceedings of clinical SPECT [single photon emission computed tomography] symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  10. SPECT/CT Fusion in the Diagnosis of Hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Tamura, Akihisa; Okazaki, Hajime; Kurose, Taichi; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Kuraoka, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze the relationship between the diagnostic ability of fused single photon emission computed tomography/ computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images in localization of parathyroid lesions and the size of adenomas or hyperplastic glands. Five patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and 4 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) were imaged 15 and 120 minutes after the intravenous injection of technetium99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI). All patients underwent surgery and 5 parathyroid adenomas and 10 hyperplastic glands were detected. Pathologic findings were correlated with imaging results. The SPECT/CT fusion images were able to detect all parathyroid adenomas even with the greatest axial diameter of 0.6 cm. Planar scintigraphy and SPECT imaging could not detect parathyroid adenomas with an axial diameter of 1.0 to 1.2 cm. Four out of 10 (40%) hyperplastic parathyroid glands were diagnosed, using planar and SPECT imaging and 5 out of 10 (50%) hyperplastic parathyroid glands were localized, using SPECT/CT fusion images. SPECT/CT fusion imaging is a more useful tool for localization of parathyroid lesions, particularly parathyroid adenomas, in comparison with planar and or SPECT imaging

  11. Rapid gated Thallium-201 perfusion SPECT - clinically feasible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B.; Wilkinson, D.; Abatti, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Standard dose energy window optimised Thallium-201 (Tl-201) SPECT has about half the counts of a standard dose from Technetium-99m Sestamibi (Tc99m-Mibi) gated perfusion SPECT. This study investigates the clinical feasibility of rapid energy window optimised Tl-201 gated perfusion SPECT (gated-TI) and compares quantitative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and visually assessed image quality for wall motion and thickening to analogous values obtained from Tc99m-Mibi gated perfusion SPECT (gated - mibi). Methods: We studied 60 patients with a rest gated Tl-201 SPECT (100 MBq, 77KeV peak, 34% window, 20 sec/projection) followed by a post stress gated Sestamibi SPECT (1GBq, 140KeV, 20% window, 20 sec/projection) separate dual isotope protocol. LVEF quantitation was performed using commercially available software (SPECTEF, General Electric). Visual grading of image quality for wall thickening and motion was performed using a three-point scale (excellent, good and poor). Results: LVEF for gated Tl-201 SPECT was 59.6 ± 12.0% (Mean ± SD). LVEF for gated Sestamibi SPECT was 60.4 ±11.4% (Mean ± SD). These were not significantly different (P=0.27, T-Test). There was good correlation (r=0.9) between gated-TI and gated-mibi LVEF values. The quality of gated-Tl images was ranked as excellent, good and poor in 12, 50 and 38% of the patients respectively. Image quality was better in gated-mibi SPECT, with ratings of 12, 62 and 26% respectively. Conclusion: Rapid gated Thallium-201 acquisition with energy window optimisation can be effectively performed on majority of patients and offers the opportunity to assess not only myocardial perfusion and function, as with Technetium based agents, but also viability using a single day one isotope protocol

  12. Improvements in SPECT technology for cerebral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esser, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    Advancement in three major areas of SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) technology have resulted in improved image quality for cerebral studies. In the first area, single-crystal camera electronics, extensive use of microprocessors, custom digital circuitry, an data bus architecture have allowed precise external control of all gantry motions and improved signal processing. The new digital circuitry permits energy, uniformity, and linearity corrections to be an integral part of the processing electronics. Calibration of these correlations is controlled by algorithms stored in the camera's memory. The second area of improved SPECT technology is camera collimation and related imaging techniques. In this area, system resolution has been improved without loss of sensitivity by decreasing the air gap between patient and collimator surface. Since cerebral studies characteristically image high-contrast regions less than 1 cm in size, image quality has been improved by increasing collimator resolution even at the expense of sensitivity. Increased resolution also improved image contrast for studies using 123 I-labeled pharmaceuticals with 3% to 4% 124 I contamination. 65 references

  13. Rheumatoid arthritis: Clinical, SPECT and MRI investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascoli, G.; Cinti, P.; Nonni, M.; Rossi, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate psychometric test and neuroimaging technic capacity in subclinical conditions of cerebral affection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; to demonstrate agreement between topographic cerebral site and morphological signs in neuroimaging study; to evaluate agreement between cognitive deficits and rheumatoid severity. Material and Method: We have enrolled 20 patients, 17 pts. (85%) showed low score evocative for executive function limitation; 6 pts. (33%) showed attention anomaly, movement organization and verbal fluency. SPECT acquisition shows frontal lobe uptake in 95% (19/20 pts.) extended to parietal lobs in 42% (8/19pts.); 1 pt. Shows normal uptake and very high score. RMN study shows a specific sign of leukoencephalopaty in 35% (7/20pts.) and liquoral spaces increased in 25% (5/20 pts.). Conclusions: Frequent cognitive functions alteration during rheumatoid arthritis; very high topographic agreement between cognitive deficits and cerebral perfusion uptake showed by SPECT study; significant correlation between severity index and disease activity and cognitive deterioration; necessity of further longitudinal study for greater number of patient; pathogenetic disconnect mechanism cortical-subcortical by vasculitic reason or deafferentation jointed to negative interaction between motor limit and cognitive deficit

  14. Patient position matching between SPECT and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eubig, C.; Lodhi, L.M.; Trueblood, J.H.; Kingsbury, T.; Burke, G.; Flickenger, F.

    1990-01-01

    Since the authors had previously developed an ability for accurate repositioning of patients by means of video imaging of their external features, it was their purpose to determine if separate video systems placed in SPECT and CT rooms could be positioned and a calibration procedure for each modality developed to assure easy identification and acquisition of corresponding congruent axial image sections through the patient. A video frame grabber is used to acquire an image of the patient in one room and superimpose it on a similar image of the patient in the other room. A radioactive ruler visible at CT images obtained with a gamma camera computer, and a CT scout image are used to adjust the initial relative position of the video cameras and calibrate the acquisition parameters of both systems. The success of this alignment procedure was tested with a body phantom. The body phantom studies indicate that this method of positioning the patient and acquiring corresponding aligned CT and SPECT axial sections can be successful where internal organ shift between the acquisitions is minimal. This should lead to a reduction of the time and computer resources necessary to fuse or superimpose images of corresponding patient sections acquired with different modalities

  15. Interactions of collimation, sampling and filtering on spect spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, B.M.W.; Jaszczak, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The major factors which affect the spatial resolution of single-photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) include collimation, sampling and filtering. A theoretical formulation is presented to describe the relationship between these factors and their effects on the projection data. Numerical calculations were made using commercially available SPECT systems and imaging parameters. The results provide an important guide for proper selection of the collimator-detector design, the imaging and the reconstruction parameters to avoid unnecessary spatial resolution degradation and aliasing artifacts in the reconstructed image. In addition, the understanding will help in the fair evaluation of different SPECT systems under specific imaging conditions

  16. The role of brain SPECT in children with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingdang; Liu Yongchang; Lin Xiangtong

    1996-01-01

    The rCBF brain SPECT with 99m Tc-HMPAO was performed in 15 children with interictal epilepsy, and some cases were compared with EEG, X-ray CT and MRI. The results showed that the positive rate of SPECT was the highest (93.33%,), then the EEG (92.31%), and the CT and MRI were the lowest (66.67% and 75%). This study indicated that brain SPECT was an effective method for diagnosis and foci localization in epileptic children, and also was useful to the study of prognosis and relationship between changes of rCBF and progress in clinical pictures

  17. The future of SPECT in a time of PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Floris P.; Vanderheyden, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    As positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is becoming more prevalent in clinical practice, it is reasonable to ask if there will be a role for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the future. This article considers that question, focusing on areas where SPECT can differentiate itself from PET for fundamental reasons: breadth of available radionuclides, simultaneous imaging of multiple agents, cost-effectiveness and adaptability to specific imaging situations. The conclusion is that SPECT will continue to evolve and exist alongside PET and will grow the field of molecular imaging with improved efficiency and patient workflow

  18. Atlas of Skeletal SPECT/CT Clinical Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The atlas focuses specifically on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in musculoskeletal imaging, and thus illustrates the inherent advantages of the combination of the metabolic and anatomical component in a single procedure. In addition, the atlas provides information on the usefulness of several sets of specific indications. The publication, which serves more as a training tool rather than a textbook, will help to further integrate the SPECT and CT experience in clinical practice by presenting a series of typical cases with many different patterns of SPECT/CT seen in bone scintigraphy

  19. Transmission computed tomography data acquisition with a SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, K.L.; Harris, C.C.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Coleman, R.E.; Hedlund, L.W.; Floyd, C.E.; Manglos, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Phantom and animal transmission computed tomography (TCT) scans were performed with a camera-based single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system to determine system linearity as a function of object density, which is important in the accurate determination of attenuation coefficients for SPECT attenuation compensation. Results from phantoms showed promise in providing a linear relationship in measuring density while maintaining good image resolution. Animal images were essentially free of artifacts. Transmission computed tomography scans derived from a SPECT system appear to have the potential to provide data suitable for incorporation in an attenuation compensation algorithm at relatively low (calculated) radiation doses to the subjects

  20. HM-PAO SPECT in the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, M.; Rummeny, E.; Reissmann, M.; Fox, K.; Panitz, N.; Pfannenstiel, P.

    1987-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after injection of 99m-Tc-HM-PAO was used to examine 34 patients whose clinical findings could not exclude a cerebrovascular disease. In all patients an X-ray computed tomography examination was inconclusive for the clinical-neurological findings. The regional cerebral bloodflow was pathologically disturbed in 10 of 34 patients in the HM-PAO SPECT examination. The detection of the regional cerebral bloodflow with HM-PAO SPECT is helpful in the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease. (orig.) [de

  1. Ventilation/perfusion SPECT or SPECT/CT for lung function imaging in patients with pulmonary emphysema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeling, Vera; Heimann, Uwe; Huebner, Ralf-Harto; Kroencke, Thomas J; Maurer, Martin H; Doellinger, Felix; Geisel, Dominik; Hamm, Bernd; Brenner, Winfried; Schreiter, Nils F

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the utility of attenuation correction (AC) of V/P SPECT images for patients with pulmonary emphysema. Twenty-one patients (mean age 67.6 years) with pulmonary emphysema who underwent V/P SPECT/CT were included. AC/non-AC V/P SPECT images were compared visually and semiquantitatively. Visual comparison of AC/non-AC images was based on a 5-point likert scale. Semiquantitative comparison assessed absolute counts per lung (aCpLu) and lung lobe (aCpLo) for AC/non-AC images using software-based analysis; percentage counts (PC = (aCpLo/aCpLu) × 100) were calculated. Correlation between AC/non-AC V/P SPECT images was analyzed using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient; differences were tested for significance with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Visual analysis revealed high conformity for AC and non-AC V/P SPECT images. Semiquantitative analysis of PC in AC/non-AC images had an excellent correlation and showed no significant differences in perfusion (ρ = 0.986) or ventilation (ρ = 0.979, p = 0.809) SPECT/CT images. AC of V/P SPECT images for lung lobe-based function imaging in patients with pulmonary emphysema do not improve visual or semiquantitative image analysis.

  2. Incremental value of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT over whole-body planar scintigraphy and SPECT in patients with neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogrlic, Mate; Težak, Stanko

    2017-06-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the additional value of 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT over planar whole-body (WB) scintigraphy and SPECT alone in the detection and accurate localisation of neuroendocrine tumour (NET) lesions. This study included 65 patients with a definitive histological diagnosis of NET prior to scintigraphy. Planar WB scintigraphy, SPECT, and SPECT/CT images were acquired at 4 h post-administration of 670 MBq 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC. Additional SPECT images at 10 min after tracer administration were also acquired. Clinical and imaging follow-up findings were considered as the reference standards (minimum follow-up period, 15 months). Patient and lesion-based analyses of the efficacies of the imaging modalities were performed. While 38 patients exhibited metastasis of NETs, 27 presented no evidence of metastasis. Upon patient-based analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of SPECT/CT were found to be 88.9 and 79.3 %, respectively. The diagnostic accuracies of WB scintigraphy, 4h-SPECT, and SPECT/CT were 72.3, 73.8, and 84.6 %, respectively. The area under curve (AUC) value for SPECT/CT (0.84) was the highest, followed by those for 4h-SPECT (0.75) and WB scintigraphy (0.74). The accuracy and AUC values of SPECT/CT were significantly better compared to those of WB scintigraphy (p < 0.001), 10 min-SPECT (p < 0.001), and 4 h-SPECT (p = 0.001). The findings of SPECT/CT led to the change in treatment plan of 11 patients (16.9 %). The sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of SPECT/CT in the evaluation of NET lesions outperforms planar WB imaging or SPECT alone.

  3. FlipADAM: a potential new SPECT imaging agent for the serotonin transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Julie L.; Deutsch, Eric C. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Oya, Shunichi [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, Hank F., E-mail: kunghf@gmail.co [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the brain is a useful tool for examining normal physiological functions and disease states involving the serotonergic system. The goal of this study was to develop an improved SPECT radiotracer with faster kinetics than the current leading SPECT tracer, [{sup 123}I]ADAM, for selective SERT imaging. Methods: The in vitro binding affinities of (2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4'-iodophenylthio)benzenamine) (FlipADAM) (1c), were determined using Hampshire pig kidney cells stably overexpressing the serotonin, norepinephrine (NET) or dopamine transporter (DAT). Localization of [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) was evaluated through biodistribution and autoradiography in male Sprague Dawley rats, and the specificity of binding was assessed by injecting selective SERT or NET inhibitors prior to [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c). Results: FlipADAM (1c) displayed a high binding affinity for SERT (K{sub i}=1.0 nM) and good selectivity over NET and DAT binding (43-fold and 257-fold, respectively). [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) successfully penetrated the blood brain barrier, as evidenced by the brain uptake at 2 min (1.75% dose/g). [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM(1c) also had a good target to non-target (hypothalamus/cerebellum) ratio of 3.35 at 60 min post-injection. In autoradiography studies, [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) showed selective localization in SERT-rich brain regions such as the thalamic nuclei, amygdala, dorsal raphe nuclei and other areas. Conclusion: [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) exhibited faster clearance from the brain and time to binding equilibrium when compared to [{sup 125}I]2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-phenylthio)-5-iodophenylamine [{sup 125}I]ADAM (1b) and a higher target to non-target ratio when compared to [{sup 125}I]5-iodo-2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-phenylthio)benzyl alcohol [{sup 125}I]IDAM (1a). Therefore, [{sup 123}I]FlipADAM (1c) may be an improved

  4. Comparison with myocardial perfusion MRI and myocardial perfusion SPECT in the diagnostic performance of coronary artery disease. A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Kunihiro; Kubota, Makoto; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    We compared the diagnostic abilities of stress myocardial perfusion MRI (myocardial perfusion MRI) and myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using a meta-analysis method. We investigated the diagnostic abilities of MRI and SPECT in similar subject groups in reports written in English or Japanese. The reports to be used for analysis were selected according to a ''screening standard,'' which was established in advance. After consolidating the data from the selected reports, we compared the integrated odds ratio, the point estimation values of sensibility/specificity, and the summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. For the analysis, six reports were selected (subjects: 153, coronary-artery target sites: 447). Meta-analysis revealed that the diagnostic ability of myocardial perfusion MRI was superior to that of myocardial perfusion SPECT regarding each of the parameters. This is considered to be supportive evidence of the usefulness of myocardial perfusion MRI. (author)

  5. SPECT for smokers brain perfusion evaluation; SPECT para avaliacao da perfusao cerebral em fumantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliska, C.M.; Martins, E.F.; Barros, D.S.; Lopes, M.M.S.; Lourenco, C.; Goncalves, S.; Goncalves, M.B.; Miranda, M.M.B.G.; Neto, L.M.; Penque, E.; Antonucci, J.B. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Cigarette smoking increases brain stroke risk, however,five to fifteen years after ceasing this habit, brain perfusion recovers normal pattern. We propose to compare brain perfusion patterns performing brain SPECT scans of smokers and non-smokers. Thirteen volunteers age range 20-30 years old) composed of six non-smokers and seven smokers were studied by brain scans (SPECT).We used ECD- {sup 99m} Tc radiolabelled as recommended by the manufacturer. All patients received 740 MBq of the radiopharmaceutical through intravenous injection, with their eyes opened and their ears unplugged, in a quiet room. We used a one head SPECT camera ( General Electric/ StarCam 4000 and Siemens/ E.Cam) with low-energy ultrahigh resolution collimator. Imaging begin 40 minutes after tracer injection. For reconstruction we used a Butterworth filter.The preliminary results showed brain perfusion deficit areas on five of the smokers while all non- smokers had normal brain perfusion scans. We believe that smoking increases the possibility of brain perfusion deficits. (author)

  6. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Khmelinskii

    Full Text Available Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability. The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers (99mTc-methylene diphosphonate ((99mTc-MDP and (99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate ((99mTc-HDP were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for "incomplete" data (large chunks of skeleton missing and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT

  7. Imaging the DNA damage response with PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, James C.; Koustoulidou, Sofia; Cornelissen, Bart [University of Oxford, CR-UK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    DNA integrity is constantly challenged by endogenous and exogenous factors that can alter the DNA sequence, leading to mutagenesis, aberrant transcriptional activity, and cytotoxicity. Left unrepaired, damaged DNA can ultimately lead to the development of cancer. To overcome this threat, a series of complex mechanisms collectively known as the DNA damage response (DDR) are able to detect the various types of DNA damage that can occur and stimulate the appropriate repair process. Each DNA damage repair pathway leads to the recruitment, upregulation, or activation of specific proteins within the nucleus, which, in some cases, can represent attractive targets for molecular imaging. Given the well-established involvement of DDR during tumorigenesis and cancer therapy, the ability to monitor these repair processes non-invasively using nuclear imaging techniques may facilitate the earlier detection of cancer and may also assist in monitoring response to DNA damaging treatment. This review article aims to provide an overview of recent efforts to develop PET and SPECT radiotracers for imaging of DNA damage repair proteins. (orig.)

  8. Risk assessment after coronary angioplasty with SPECT myocardial perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilletti, Jorge A.; Erriest, Juan; Mele, Anibal A.

    2007-01-01

    The chest pain can be use for stratifying the risk of the patients after coronary angioplasty. Nevertheless this strategy has shown to have a low accuracy in the detection of restenosis and myocardial ischemia. Aims: To establish the usefulness of the SPECT studies in the risk stratification after the coronary angioplasty. Evaluate the incidence of silent ischemia or symptomatic, and its impact on the prognosis. Method: There were included 107 patients (p) submitted to a gated SPECT between the year of the coronary angioplasty. The analysis of the images was performed according to different scores (SSS, SRS, SDS). These data was correlated with the symptoms of the patients. We define group 1 (G1) as the asymptomatic without ischemia (n 59p), group 2 (G2) as silent ischemia (n = 28p) and group 3 (G3) as symptomatic with ischemia (n = 20p). A clinical follow-up was done in search of events (target vessel revascularization, unstable angina, AMI and death). Results: Significant differences were not observed in the clinical variables between the different groups. The SSS was lower in the G1 compare with G2 and G3 (p 0.0001) and was similar between the last two, p = NS (SSS: G1: 2.2 ± 4.9; G2: 7.6 ± 5.9; G3: 9.5 ± 6.8). The SDS was greater in G3 vs. G1 and G2, p = 0.0001, and greater in G2 vs. G1, p = 0.0001 (SDS: G1: 0; G2: 4.8 ± 3.5; G3: 7.2 ± 6.5). No differences where observed in the SRS between the three groups. In the follow-up the total percentage of events was lesser when compare the G1 with the G2 and G3 (G1: 3.3%; G2 and G3: 18.7%; p 0.02). The percentage of annual events of the G3 symptomatic with ischemia (11.03%) and G2 silent ischemia (4.04%) did not present differences (p 0.7). When the events of the G2 (4.04%) were compared with the G1 (1.24%) we observed a trend to major frequency of events in the G2 (p = 0.6). Conclusions: The presence of myocardial ischemia after coronary angioplasty is a determinant of the prognosis. Nevertheless, the extension

  9. Brain lesion analysis using three-dimensional SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Iekado; Onagi, Atsuo; Kuroki, Takao

    1995-01-01

    A three-headed gamma camera (PRISM 3000) is capable to scan the protocol of early dynamic SPECT and to analyze two radioisotopes at the same time. We have framed three-dimensional brain SPECT images for several brain diseases by using the Application Visualization System (AVS). We carried out volume measurements in brain tumors and/or AVMs by applying this methodology. Thallium-201 and/or 123I-IMP were used for brain SPECT imaging. The dynamic scan protocol was changed in accordance with the given disease. The protocol for brain tumors was derived from a preliminary comparative study with thallium-201 and 123I-IMP that had suggested a disparity in the detection of brain tumors and the differentiation between tumor tissue and normal brain. The three-dimension SPECT image represented the brain tumor or AVM in a striking fashion, and the changes with respect to tumor or AVM after radiosurgery or embolization were understood readily. (author)

  10. Initial Investigation of preclinical integrated SPECT and MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Mark J; Ha, Seunghoon; Roeck, Werner W; Wagenaar, Douglas J; Meier, Dirk; Patt, Bradley E; Nalcioglu, Orhan

    2010-02-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide specific functional information while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-spatial resolution anatomical information as well as complementary functional information. In this study, we utilized a dual modality SPECT/MRI (MRSPECT) system to investigate the integration of SPECT and MRI for improved image accuracy. The MRSPECT system consisted of a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) nuclear radiation detector interfaced with a specialized radiofrequency (RF) coil that was placed within a whole-body 4 T MRI system. The importance of proper corrections for non-uniform detector sensitivity and Lorentz force effects was demonstrated. MRI data were utilized for attenuation correction (AC) of the nuclear projection data and optimized Wiener filtering of the SPECT reconstruction for improved image accuracy. Finally, simultaneous dual-imaging of a nude mouse was performed to demonstrated the utility of co-registration for accurate localization of a radioactive source.

  11. Clinical application of SPECT and PET in cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ra, Young Shin

    2003-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) and positron emission tomography(PET) are modern imaging techniques that allow for both qualitative are quantitative assessment of hemodynamic changes in cerebrovascular diseases. SPECT has been becoming an indispensable method to investigate regional cerebral blood flow because equipment and isotope are easily available in most general hospitals. Acetazolamide stress SPECT has also been proved to be useful to evaluate the cerebrovascular reserve of occlusive cerebrovascular diseases and to select surgical candidate. PET has gained wide spread clinical use in the evaluation of the hemodynamic and metabolic consequences of extracranial or intracranial arterial obstructive disease despite its complexity and limited availability. PET has been established as an invaluable tool in the pathophysilogy investigation of acute ischemic stroke. The potentials, limitations, and clinical applications of SPECT and PET in various cerebrovascular diseases will be discussed in this article with reviews of literatures

  12. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yujin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency. (authors)

  13. Examination of brain function using PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Yasuhito; Momose, Toshinitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Oku, Shinya; Nishikawa, Junichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the presentation is to elucidate the unique role of PET (positron emission computed tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) in assessing physiological and biochemical functions of the brain.

  14. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko

    1993-01-01

    Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-d,l-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) was performed twice in a 78-year-old man clinically diagnosed as brain death according to the standard criteria of the Japanese Ministry of Welfare. The first brain SPECT demonstrated the tracer accumulation in the brain, indicating preserved cerebral blood flow. The second brain SPECT performed 3 days later revealed cessation of the blood flow. In patients with preserved cerebral blood flow, the diagnosis of brain death cannot be made, even if they meet the existing criteria, because previous report noted the recovery in some of those patients. Brain perfusion SPECT plays an important role as a confirmatory test for the diagnosis of brain death. (author)

  15. Two dimensional polar display of cardiac blood pool SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Takishima, Teruo; Hasegawa, Noriko; Hashimoto, Masanori; Ohno, Ken

    1989-01-01

    A new method of ECG gated cardiac blood pool SPECT to illustrate the left ventricular (LV) wall motion in a single static image, two dimensional polar display (2DPD), was described. Circumferential profiles of the difference between end diastolic and end systolic short axis images of the LV were displayed in a similar way to the bull's eye plot of 201 Tl myocardial SPECT. The diagnoses by 2DPDs agreed with those by cinematic displays of ECG gated blood pool SPECT in 74 out of 84 segments (85.5%) of abnormal motion, and 155 out of 168 segments (80.3%) of normal motion. It is concluded that 2DPD can evaluate regional wall motion by a single static image in a significant number of patients, and is also useful in comparing with the bull's eye image of 201 Tl myorcardial SPECT. (orig.)

  16. Clinical application of SPECT and PET in cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ra, Young Shin [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) and positron emission tomography(PET) are modern imaging techniques that allow for both qualitative are quantitative assessment of hemodynamic changes in cerebrovascular diseases. SPECT has been becoming an indispensable method to investigate regional cerebral blood flow because equipment and isotope are easily available in most general hospitals. Acetazolamide stress SPECT has also been proved to be useful to evaluate the cerebrovascular reserve of occlusive cerebrovascular diseases and to select surgical candidate. PET has gained wide spread clinical use in the evaluation of the hemodynamic and metabolic consequences of extracranial or intracranial arterial obstructive disease despite its complexity and limited availability. PET has been established as an invaluable tool in the pathophysilogy investigation of acute ischemic stroke. The potentials, limitations, and clinical applications of SPECT and PET in various cerebrovascular diseases will be discussed in this article with reviews of literatures.

  17. SPECT/CT in the Diagnosis of Skull Base Osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Praveen; Jaganthan, Sriram; Patnecha, Manish; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Bandopadhyaya, Gurupad; Malhotra, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Skull base osteomyelitis is a potentially fatal disease. We demonstrate here the utility of SPECT/CT in diagnosing this entity, which was not obvious on a planar bone scan. A 99mT c MDP bone scan with SPECT/CT was carried out on a patient with clinically suspected skull base osteomyelitis. Findings were correlated with contrast enhanced CT (CECT) and MRI. Planar images were equivocal, but SPECT/CT showed intense uptake in the body of sphenoid and petrous temporal bone as well as the atlas corresponding to irregular bone destruction on CT and MRI. These findings indicate that SPECT/CT may have an additional role beyond planar imaging in the detection of skull base osteomyelitis.

  18. Tc-99m MAG3 SPECT on transplanted kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jong Gul; Kim, Soon; Zeon, Seok Kil

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of a technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m MAG3) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed on transplanted kidney. Thirty renal transplant patients were included in this study. Planar scan was performed for 30 minutes using 555 MBq Tc-99m MAG3. A post-voiding SPECT scan was acquired on the third, seventh, fourteenth and twenty eighth day after transplantation. SPECT scan showed interpretable image quality in 26 of 30 patients (86.7%) and 84 in 120 scans (70%). Fourteen of 26 patients with interpretable SPECT image showed decreased or increased radioactivity, but only 5 had abnormal findings on the planar scan. Focal SPECT defects were seen in allografts with normal function (n=3), acute tubular necrosis (n=3), and acute rejection (n=2). The defects are thought to reflect focally underperfused renal parenchyme or, in normal allografts, an artifact from uneven radioactivity distribution. Four of 10 paints with renal arterial variation showed focally decreased radioactivity and SPECT helped guide further studies that confirmed the exact cause. Five of 10 patients with acute tubular necrosis or acute rejection showed focally decreased radioactivity, but its relation to the patients' clinical course was not clear. Focally increased radioactivity was observed in 5 allografts with normal function and 1 with double ureter in which local clearance delay was observed. Tc-99m MAG3 SPECT renal scan can detect additional focal abnormalities compared to planar scan. Further study is necessary to elucidate the exact clinical significance of the SPECT findings

  19. MRI and SPECT findings in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukada, F.; Sawada, H.; Seriu, N.; Shindou, K.; Nishitani, N.; Kameyama, M.

    1992-01-01

    MRI was performed in 21 patients and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p- 123 I iodoamphetamine in 16 patients, to visualize upper motor neurone lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. T2-weighted MRI revealed high signal along the course of the pyramidal tract in the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle in 4 of 21 patients. SPECT images were normal in 4 patients, but uptake was reduced in the cerebral cortex that includes the motor area in 11. (orig.)

  20. Brain SPECT using dipyridamole for evaluation of vascular reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Zy; Park, Chan Hee; Yoon, Soo Hwan; Pai, Moon Sun; Yoon, Suk Nam; Cho, Kyung Kee

    1997-01-01

    Baseline and stress brain SPECT studies using CO 2 inhalation, acetazolamide (Diamox R ) and adenosine administrations have been used in the evaluation of cerebral vascular reserve. Recently dipyridamole (Persantine R ) which is one of the pharmacologic myocardial perfusion SPECT agents as a potent vasodilator is suggested as another cerebral vasodilator. IV Diamox R is not available in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate dipyridamole in stress brain SPECT in patients with Moya Moya disease. Eight patients with angiographically proven Moya Moya disease were studied. Their ages ranged from 7 to 62 year old. There were 4 males and 4 females. Each patient had a baseline and persantine brain SPECT studies with 1 to 3 days' interval. Dipyridamole was given intravenously at a dose of 0.56 mg/kg over 4 minutes while watching vital signs such as blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiogram. Three minutes after the completion of the infusion, 99mTc-ECD (0.2 mCi/Ib body weight) was injected. Brain SPECT was performed 30 minutes later using a tripple head gamma camera equipped with LEHR collimators. A total of 128 projections with an acquisition time of 30 second per projection was obtained and reconstructed by filtered back projections without attenuation correction. The difference between the baseline and persantine studies was analysed by visual and semiquantitavely. During the infusion of persantine, heart rate, blood pressure and side effects such as headache, chest discomfort were similar to the persantine myocardial SPECT studies. Five of eight patients showed a significant decrease in rCBF on persantine brain SPECT in comparison to the baseline study. The remaining three revealed no significant change in rCBF. Our study suggests that the dipyridamole stress brain SPECT is feasible and useful in assessing cerebral blood flow reserve. However we need to evaluate more number of patients in the future

  1. PET and SPECT investigations in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenbaum, S.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear medicine offers a wide range of possibilities to investigate dementia. Various SPECT and PET tracers will be introduced in this article first. Different questions concerning evaluation of dementia are discussed taking Alzheimer's disease (AD) as an example. It is important to perform nuclear medicine investigations on high technical level, using standardized methods as statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for evaluation. If neuroprotective therapies are available, an early diagnosis, the determination of risk factors and longitudinal investigations will be the focus of interest and the main goal of nuclear medicine. Apart from measuring cerebral perfusion and glucose metabolism the development of new ligands, concerning the cholinergic system and the visualization of amyloid plaques, is of great importance. (orig.) [de

  2. Cerebral postischemic hyperperfusion in PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Inn Ho

    2001-01-01

    Cerebral post-ischemic hyperperfusion has been observed at the acute and subacute periods of ischemic stroke. In the animal stroke model, early post-ischemic hyperperfusion is the mark of recanalization of the occluded artery with reperfusion. In the PET studies to both humans and experimental animals, early post-ischemic hyperperfusion is not a key factor in the development of tissue infarction and indicates the spontaneous reperfusion of the ischemic brain tissue without late infarction or with small infarction. But late post-ischemic hyperperfusion shows the worse prognosis with reperfusion injury associated with brain tissue necrosis. Early post-ischemic hyperperfusion defined by PET and SPECT may be useful in predicting the prognosis of ischemic stroke and the effect of thrombolytic therapy

  3. Cervical SPECT Camera for Parathyroid Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-08-31

    Primary hyperparathyroidism characterized by one or more enlarged parathyroid glands has become one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world affecting about 1 per 1000 in the United States. Standard treatment is highly invasive exploratory neck surgery called Parathyroidectomy. The surgery has a notable mortality rate because of the close proximity to vital structures. The move to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is hampered by the lack of high resolution pre-surgical imaging techniques that can accurately localize the parathyroid with respect to surrounding structures. We propose to develop a dedicated ultra-high resolution (~ 1 mm) and high sensitivity (10x conventional camera) cervical scintigraphic imaging device. It will be based on a multiple pinhole-camera SPECT system comprising a novel solid state CZT detector that offers the required performance. The overall system will be configured to fit around the neck and comfortably image a patient.

  4. Myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with myocardial bridging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Wei; Qiu Hong; Yang Weixian; Wang Feng; He Zuoxiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging was used to assess myocardial ischemia in patients with myocardial bridging. Methods: Ninety-six patients with myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending artery documented by coronary angiography were included in this study. All under- went exercise or pharmacological stress myocardial perfusion SPECT assessing myocardial ischemia. None had prior myocardial infarction. One year follow-up by telephone interview was performed in all patients. Results The mean stenotic severity of systolic phase on angiography was (65 ± 19)%. In the SPECT study, 20 of 96 (20.8%) patients showed abnormal perfusion. This percentage was significantly higher than that of stress electrocardiogram (ECG). The higher positive rate of SPECT perfusion images was showed in the group of patients with severe systolic narrowing (≥75%) than that with mild-to-moderate systolic narrowing (50% vs 6.3%, P<0.001). The prevalence of abnormal image was significantly higher in ELDERLY PEOPLE; patients with STT change on rest ECG than in those with normal rest ECG (54.2% vs 9.7%, P<0.001). During follow-up, one patient with abnormal SPECT perfusion image sustained angina and accepted percutaneous coronary intervention, and no cardiac event occurred in patients with normal images. Conclusions: Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging can be used effectively for assessing myocardial ischemia and has potential prognostic value for patients with myocardial bridging. (authors)

  5. Usefulness of hyperventilation myocardial SPECT for diagnosing vasospastic angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, Yorio; Shimoyama, Katsuya; Nishimura, Tooru; Sasaki, Akira; Taya, Makoto; Mizuno, Haruyoshi; Ono, Akifumi; Tsuya, Tsuneo; Ishikawa, Kyozo

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of hyperventilation myocardial scintigraphy (HV-SPECT) for diagnosing vasospastic angina pectoris. The subjects consisted of 11 patients with rest angina and 13 with rest and exertional angina in whom coronary spasm was demonstrated by coronary angiography, and 6 with exertional angina in whom a significant stenotic lesion was observed by coronary angiography. Hyperventilation was performed at a rate of 40/min for 5 minutes in all the patients. Ischemia was considered to be present when defect and redistribution were observed by SPECT. HV-SPECT revealed positive findings in 8 patients with rest angina (73%) and 9 with exertional and rest angina (69%) but only in 1 with exertional angina (17%). Ischemic ST changes on monitor ECG were observed in 13 of the 30 patients (43%); ST was enhanced in 4 patients and depressed in 9 patients. In the patients with rest angina, HV-SPECT induced ischemic findings more frequently than exercise SPECT (73% vs 55%). HV-SPECT seems to be useful as a non-invasive method for diagnosing angina pectoris resulting from coronary spasm. (author)

  6. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin SPECT of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Min Ki [Good Samaritan Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Won Sick [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Tc-99m ciprofloxacin is available for imaging infection. However, there has been no study on employing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with using Tc-99m ciprofloxacin to image active pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the efficacy of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-one participants were enrolled in this prospective study. They were divided into two groups according to the clinical and radiological assessment. Group one (Gr. 1) consisted of five normal volunteers and six patients with inactive pulmonary tuberculosis. Group two (Gr. 2) consisted of ten patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. SPECT was performed 3 h after injecting 555 MBq (15 mCi) of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin. The findings of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were interpreted by a nuclear medicine specialist and then the results were analyzed according to the patients' clinical and radiological classifications. The results of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were as follows: eight true-positive cases, ten true-negative cases, one false-positive case and two false-negative cases. The sensitivity and specificity was 80.0% and 90.0%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 88.9% and the negative predictive value was 83.3%. Conclusions Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT is feasible for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is a useful nuclear-imaging method for discriminating between the active and inactive tuberculosis states in patients with a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  7. Importance of SPECT/CT for knee and hip joint prostheses; Stellenwert der SPECT/CT bei Knie- und Hueftgelenkprothesen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, K.; Steurer-Dober, I.; Huellner, M.W.; Veit-Haibach, P.; Allgayer, B. [Luzerner Kantonsspital (Switzerland). Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin und Roentgendiagnostik

    2012-07-15

    Complications, such as loosening or infections are common problems after hip or knee arthroplasty. If conventional X-rays are equivocal bone scintigraphy is the classical second-line imaging modality. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) offers metabolic and morphologic information in one imaging step and is becoming increasingly more available in larger hospitals. The SPECT/CT procedure is a promising method and is increasingly being used in daily routine to evaluate joint arthroplasty. The additional benefit compared with classical conventional bone scintigraphy has to be evaluated in further prospective studies. In our hospital SPECT/CT regularly gives important additional information regarding prosthetic joint complications. SPECT/CT is increasingly being used as the second step imaging standard modality if conventional X-rays are equivocal. (orig.) [German] Komplikationen wie Lockerung und Infekt stellen ein haeufiges Problem nach Hueft- und Kniegelenkprothesen dar. Wenn die konventionelle Roentgenaufnahme nicht zum Ziel fuehrt, ist die klassische konventionelle Skelettszintigraphie die am haeufigsten verwendete ''Second-line''-Bildgebung. Die ''single photon emission computed tomography''/CT (SPECT/CT) bietet metabolische und morphologische Informationen bzgl. Prothesenkomplikationen in einem Untersuchungsgang und ist zunehmend in groesseren Kliniken verfuegbar. Die SPECT/CT ist eine viel versprechende Methode und wird im klinischen Alltag bei der Evaluation von Gelenkprothesen zunehmend eingesetzt. Es sind noch mehr prospektive Studien noetig, um die Leistungsfaehigkeit und den Zusatznutzen gegenueber der klassischen Szintigraphie zu evaluieren. In unserer Klinik wird die Knochenszintigraphie bei der Abklaerung von Prothesenkomplikationen zumeist mit einer SPECT/CT kombiniert und liefert regelmaessig wichtige Zusatzinformationen. Die SPECT/CT entwickelt sich zunehmend zum Standard

  8. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of SPECT coupled to tomodensitometry (SPECT-CT) in the daily practice of bone scintigraphy at the Nuclear Medical station of Nancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netter, F.; Journo, A.; Mayer, J.C.; Grandpierre, S.; Daragon, N.; Karcher, G.; Olivier, P.; Scigliano, S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of SPECT coupled to computed axial tomography (SPECT- CT) in our daily practice of bone scintigraphy. Subjects and methods: SPECT- CT obtained as a complement to the planar bone scintigraphy in 39 patients were studied. Each type of image was retrospectively read by two different observers: a nuclear medicine physician who was unaware of SPECT- CT results analysed planar bone scintigraphy, a second one who was unaware of planar bone scintigraphy results analysed SPECT- CT images. In this population of patients, 17 patients were addressed in an oncologic setting. The 22 other patients were addressed for pain of indeterminate origin without neoplastic context. Results: In 13% of the cases, SPECT- CT specified the precise location of increased uptake foci seen on planar bone scintigraphy. In 38% of cases, SPECT- CT confirmed a diagnosis suspected by the planar bone scintigraphy. In 10% of cases, SPECT- CT established a diagnosis that was uncertain with planar bone scintigraphy. In 26% of cases, SPECT- CT brought no additional information. Finally in 3% of cases, SPECT- CT proved to be more sensitive than planar images. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the utility of SPECT- CT in the daily practice of bone scintigraphy, this complementary imaging study benefited to 74% of our patients. (authors)

  9. 123I-iomazenil brain receptor SPECT in focal epilepsy. In comparison with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT, MRI and Video/EEG monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Wang Tongge; Huang Li; Michael Cordes

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical value of 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT in diagnosis of focal epilepsy in comparison with 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT, MRI and Video/EEG monitoring. Methods 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT was performed on 40 patients with focal epilepsy. The results were compared with those obtained by 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT, MRI and Video/EEG monitoring. Results: In 40 patients, the sensitivity of Video/EEG monitoring for localization of epileptogenic area was 95% (38/40). The sensitivity of 123 I-iomazenil brain receptor SPECT, 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI for localization of epileptogenic area compared with Video/EEG monitoring ('gold standard') was 65.8%(25/38), 55.3%(21/38) and 47.4%(18/38), respectively. The localization of epileptogenic area with 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT was in concordance with Video/EEG monitoring in 20 patients, 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT in 15 patients and MRI in 16 patients, respectively. The sensitivity of 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT combined with MRI for localization of epileptogenic area was 84.2%(32/38). Conclusions: 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT is a useful method in detecting and localizing epileptogenic area. The combination of 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT and MRI has a high sensitivity for detecting epileptogenic area

  10. Sequential SPECT/CT imaging starting with stress SPECT in patients with left bundle branch block suspected for coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engbers, Elsemiek M.; Mouden, Mohamed [Isala, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Timmer, Jorik R.; Ottervanger, Jan Paul [Isala, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the impact of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on sequential single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/ CT imaging starting with stress-first SPECT. Consecutive symptomatic low- to intermediate-risk patients without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for SPECT/CT were included from an observational registry. If stress SPECT was abnormal, additional rest SPECT and, if feasible, coronary CT angiography (CCTA) were acquired. Of the 5,018 patients, 218 (4.3 %) demonstrated LBBB. Patients with LBBB were slightly older than patients without LBBB (65±12 vs. 61±11 years, p<0.001). Stress SPECT was more frequently abnormal in patients with LBBB (82 % vs. 46 %, p<0.001). After reviewing stress and rest images, SPECT was normal in 43 % of the patients with LBBB, compared to 77 % of the patients without LBBB (p<0.001). Sixty-four of the 124 patients with LBBB and abnormal stress-rest SPECT underwent CCTA (52 %), which could exclude obstructive CAD in 46 of the patients (72 %). Sequential SPECT/CT imaging starting with stress SPECT is not the optimal imaging protocol in patients with LBBB, as the majority of these patients have potentially false-positive stress SPECT. First-line testing using CCTA may be more appropriate in low- to intermediate-risk patients with LBBB. (orig.)

  11. Preclinical imaging characteristics and quantification of Platinum-195m SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalbersberg, E.A.; Wit-van der Veen, B.J. de; Vegt, E.; Vogel, Wouter V. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI-AVL), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zwaagstra, O.; Codee-van der Schilden, K. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    In vivo biodistribution imaging of platinum-based compounds may allow better patient selection for treatment with chemo(radio)therapy. Radiolabeling with Platinum-195m ({sup 195m}Pt) allows SPECT imaging, without altering the chemical structure or biological activity of the compound. We have assessed the feasibility of {sup 195m}Pt SPECT imaging in mice, with the aim to determine the image quality and accuracy of quantification for current preclinical imaging equipment. Enriched (>96%) {sup 194}Pt was irradiated in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, The Netherlands (NRG). A 0.05 M HCl {sup 195m}Pt-solution with a specific activity of 33 MBq/mg was obtained. Image quality was assessed for the NanoSPECT/CT (Bioscan Inc., Washington DC, USA) and U-SPECT{sup +}/CT (MILabs BV, Utrecht, the Netherlands) scanners. A radioactivity-filled rod phantom (rod diameter 0.85-1.7 mm) filled with 1 MBq {sup 195m}Pt was scanned with different acquisition durations (10-120 min). Four healthy mice were injected intravenously with 3-4 MBq {sup 195m}Pt. Mouse images were acquired with the NanoSPECT for 120 min at 0, 2, 4, or 24 h after injection. Organs were delineated to quantify {sup 195m}Pt concentrations. Immediately after scanning, the mice were sacrificed, and the platinum concentration was determined in organs using a gamma counter and graphite furnace - atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) as reference standards. A 30-min acquisition of the phantom provided visually adequate image quality for both scanners. The smallest visible rods were 0.95 mm in diameter on the NanoSPECT and 0.85 mm in diameter on the U-SPECT{sup +}. The image quality in mice was visually adequate. Uptake was seen in the kidneys with excretion to the bladder, and in the liver, blood, and intestine. No uptake was seen in the brain. The Spearman correlation between SPECT and gamma counter was 0.92, between SPECT and GF-AAS it was 0.84, and between GF-AAS and gamma counter it was0.97 (all p < 0

  12. Diagnostic role of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for early and atypical bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Liang; Li, Qian; Cao, Lin; Jiang, Shi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    The bone metastasis appeared early before the bone imaging for most of the above patients. (99)Tc(m)-MDP ((99)Tc(m) marked methylene diphosphonate) bone imaging could diagnosis the bone metastasis with highly sensitivity, but with lower specificity. The aim of this study is to explore the diagnostic value of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for the early period atypical bone metastases. 15 to 30 mCi (99)Tc(m)-MDP was intravenously injected to the 34 malignant patients diagnosed as doubtful early bone metastases. SPECT, CT and SPECT/CT images were captured and analyzed consequently. For the patients diagnosed as early period atypical bone metastases by SPECT/CT, combining the SPECT/CT and MRI together as the SPECT/MRI integrated image. The obtained SPECT/MRI image was analyzed and compared with the pathogenic results of patients. The results indicated that 34 early period doubtful metastatic focus, including 34 SPECT positive focus, 17 focus without special changes by using CT method, 11 bone metastases focus by using SPECT/CT method, 23 doubtful bone metastases focus, 8 doubtful bone metastases focus, 14 doubtful bone metastases focus and 2 focus without clear image. Totally, SPECT/CT combined with SPECT/MRI method diagnosed 30 bone metastatic focus and 4 doubtfully metastatic focus. In conclusion, (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging shows a higher diagnostic value for the early period bone metastases, which also enhances the diagnostic accuracy rate.

  13. Inter-observer variation of diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Motoo; Machida, Kikuo; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    2001-01-01

    SPECT shows characteristic distribution in Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this study is to define inter-observer variations in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Fifty-seven patients, included 19 Alzheimer's disease were collected from four institutions. Five-graded score was used to interprete SPECT in 18 regions. Ten nuclear medicine physicians interpreted SPECT referred with MMSE and clinical information. Among 57 cases 19 Alzheimer's disease were selected in this study. Statistics were performed between SPECT score and MMSE score. In conclusion, inter-observer variation is present in SPECT interpretation. There was a good correlation SPECT and MMSE with proper brain SPECT physicians. They are superior to in the interpretation not only resident, but other specialists. Education in the interpretation of brain SPECT looks important. (author)

  14. Proceedings of clinical SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  15. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in neurocysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Francisco Jose H. N; Santos, Antonio C; Takanayagui, Oswaldo M; Agapejev, Svetlana; Maes, A

    2002-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a parasitic infectious disease caused by Taenia solium eggs that set in the brain. Its incidence is increasing both in the developing and the developed world, as a result of low economical and hygiene levels and immigration, respectively. Clinical manifestation of disease varies from no symptoms to epilepsy, increased intra-cranial pressure, arachnoiditis and dementia. In order to evaluate function (perfusion) of affected brains, we studied 40 patients (21 females and 19 males, 19-71 yo) by means of SPECT (ECD, ethyl cysteinate dimer, labelled with 99mTc) and with and without contrast CT. SPECT studies were all abnormal. No difference was noted between active and inactive disease. Two SPECT patterns were noted: a) several areas of focally reduced uptake, resulting from coalescent and big lesions and large destruction of brain tissue (small, isolated and symmetric cysts seen in CT were missed by SPECT); b) diffuse atrophy with reduction of the tracer uptake, associated with ventricle dilatation, corresponding to the cases where ventricular NC was important. Interestingly, we noted diffuse hypoperfusion, with the scintigraphic pattern of atrophy in 5 cases of massive parenchymal infection; in such cases, CT signs of atrophy were clearly less prominent. The first scintigraphic aspect can be explained by the destruction of large areas of brain, which produces focal absence of perfusion; generalised vasculitis and the destruction of large portions of brain tissue could explain the difference noted between the SPECT and the CT aspects in the 5 cases of massive parenchimal infection, and this may be interesting for prognosis. Dilatation of ventricles and Sylvian fissures were interestingly prominent in SPECT. SPECT may be of great value to evaluate brain perfusion in NC (Au)

  16. Usefulness of CT based SPECT Fusion Image in the lung Disease : Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Kim, Tae Hyung; Shin, Ji Yun

    2012-01-01

    Recently, SPECT/CT system has been applied to many diseases, however, the application is not extensively applied at pulmonary disease. Especially, in case that, the pulmonary embolisms suspect at the CT images, SPECT is performed. For the accurate diagnosis, SPECT/CT tests are subsequently undergoing. However, without SPECT/CT, there are some limitations to apply these procedures. With SPECT/CT, although, most of the examination performed after CT. Moreover, such a test procedures generate unnecessary dual irradiation problem to the patient. In this study, we evaluated the amount of unnecessary irradiation, and the usefulness of fusion images of pulmonary disease, which independently acquired from SPECT and CT. Using NEMA PhantomTM (NU2-2001), SPECT and CT scan were performed for fusion images. From June 2011 to September 2010, 10 patients who didn't have other personal history, except lung disease were selected (male: 7, female: 3, mean age: 65.3±12.7). In both clinical patient and phantom data, the fusion images scored higher than SPECT and CT images. The fusion images, which is combined with pulmonary vessel images from CT and functional images from SPECT, can increase the detection possibility in detecting pulmonary embolism in the resin of lung parenchyma. It is sure that performing SPECT and CT in integral SPECT/CT system were better. However, we believe this protocol can give more informative data to have more accurate diagnosis in the hospital without integral SPECT/CT system.

  17. Left ventricular ejection fraction determined by gated Tl-201 perfusion SPECT and quantitative software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, In Young; Kim, Sung Eun; Seo, Jeong Kee; Hong, Eui Soo; Kwan, Jun; Park, Keum Soo; Lee, Woo Hyung

    2000-01-01

    We compared estimates of ejection fraction (EF) determined by gated Tl-201 perfusion SPECT (g-Tl-SPECT) with those by gated blood pool (GBP) scan. Eighteen subjects underwent g-Tl-SPECT and GBP scan. After reconstruction of g-Tl-SPECT, we measured EF with Cedars software. The comparison of the EF with g-Tl-SPECT and GBP scan was assessed by correlation analysis and Bland Altman plot. The estimates of EF were significantly different (p<0.05) with g-Tl-SPECT (40%±14%) and GBP scan (43%±14%). There was an excellent correlation of EF between g-Tl-SPECT and GBP scan (r=3D0.94, p<0.001). The mean difference of EF between GBP scan and g-Tl-SPECT was +3.2%. Ninety-five percent limits of agreement were ±9.8%. EF between g-Tl-SPECT and GBP scan were in poor agreement. The estimates of EF by g-Tl-SPECT was well correlated with those by GBP scan. However, EF of g-Tl-SPECT doesn't agree with EF of GBP scan. EF of g-Tl-SPECT can't be used interchangeably with EF of GBP scan.=20

  18. SPECT imaging of cardiac reporter gene expression in living rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying; Lan Xiaoli; Zhang Liang; Wu Tao; Jiang Rifeng; Zhang Yongxue

    2009-01-01

    This work is to demonstrate feasibility of imaging the expression of herpes simplex virus 1-thymidine kinase (HSVI-tk) reporter gene in rabbits myocardium by using the reporter probe 131 I-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-l-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil ( 131 I-FIAU) and SPECT. Rabbits of the study group received intramyocardial injection of Ad5-tk and control group received aseptic saline injection. Two sets of experiments were performed on the study group. Rabbits of the 1st set were injected with 131 I-FIAU 600 μCi at Day 2 after intramyocardial transfection of Ad5-tk in 1xl0 9 , 5x10 8 , 1x10 8 , 5x10 7 and 1x10 7 pfu, and heart SPECT imaging was done at different hours. Rabbits of the 2nd were transferred various titers of Ad5-tk (1x10 9 , 5x10 8 , 1x10 8 , 5x10 7 , 1x10 7 pfu) to determine the threshold and optimal viral titer needed for detection of gene expression. Two days later, 131 I-FIAU was injected and heart SPECT imaging was performed at 6, 24 and 48 h, before killing them for gamma counting of the hearts. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to verify the transferred HSVI-tk gene expression. Semi-quantitative analysis derived of region of interest (ROI) of SPECT images and RT-PCR images was performed and the relationship of SPECT images with ex vivo gamma counting and mRNA level were evaluated. SPECT images conformed 131 I-FIAU accumulation in rabbits injected with Ad5-tk in the anterolateral wall. The optimal images quality was obtained at 24-48 h for different viral titers. The highest radioactivity in the focal myocardium was seen at 6 h, and then declined with time. The threshold was 5x10 7 pfu of virus titer. The result could be set better in 1-5x10 8 pfu by SPECT analysis and gamma counting. ROI-derived semi-quantitative study on SPECT images correlated well with ex vivo gamma counting and mRNA levels from RT-PCR analysis. The HSVI-tk/ 131 I-FIAU reporter gene/reporter probe system is feasible for cardiac SPECT reporter

  19. [99mTc]/[123I] Simultaneous dual-isotope brain striatum phantom SPECT study: preparing for simultaneous [99mTc]TRODAT-1/[123I]-IBZM pre- and post-synaptic dopamine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, PF; Hsu, HT; Tzen, KY; Wey, SP

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The brain dopamine transporters (DAT) and dopamine D2 receptors are implicated in all kinds of movement disorders. Both sites are also targets for drug treatment, Therefore, brain dopamine system is important in both basic and clinical neurological researches. Kung HF et al. developed [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-l for DAT and [ 123 I]IBZM for D2 receptor SPECT imaging in living human brain. In this work, the possibility of doing [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1/[ 123 I]IBZM simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT for both DAT/D2 receptor imaging was studied. The SPECT acquisition protocol, the percent of 99m Tc/ 123 I energy cross contamination, and the reproducibility of striatal /background ratios were studied with a striatal phantom to confirm the accuracy of 99m Tc/ 123 I dual-isotope simultaneous SPECT technique. Materials and Methods: In each set of experiment, the 4 striatum (target) chambers and the rest of the brain (background) were filled with solutions containing 99m Tc only, 123 I only, and both isotopes. Several sets of experiment with different target/background ratios were tested. For SPECT image acquisition, a triple-head gamma camera equipp with high resolution fan-beam collimators (Siemens Multi-SPECT3). Energy window settings of a 15% centered window at 140KeV for 99m Tc and a 10% asymmetric window with a lower bound at 159KeV for 123 I were used. After filtered backprojection and Chang's attenuation correction, regions of interest were defined at the bilateral basal ganglia and occipital areas. The reproducibility of counting activity and the different target/background ratios from each isotope were observed. Results: The results of the study revealed that the energy crossed contaminations from I-123 into Tc- 99m and vice verse were 22±12.4 % and 0.4±1.0 %, respectively. The correlation of striatum/background ratios between single isotope and simultaneous was excellent (R2 = 0.99). The success of this simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT technique is suggestive of the

  20. Affordable CZT SPECT with dose-time minimization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugg, James W.; Harris, Brian W.; Radley, Ian

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE Pixelated CdZnTe (CZT) detector arrays are used in molecular imaging applications that can enable precision medicine, including small-animal SPECT, cardiac SPECT, molecular breast imaging (MBI), and general purpose SPECT. The interplay of gamma camera, collimator, gantry motion, and image reconstruction determines image quality and dose-time-FOV tradeoffs. Both dose and exam time can be minimized without compromising diagnostic content. METHODS Integration of pixelated CZT detectors with advanced ASICs and readout electronics improves system performance. Because historically CZT was expensive, the first clinical applications were limited to small FOV. Radiation doses were initially high and exam times long. Advances have significantly improved efficiency of CZT-based molecular imaging systems and the cost has steadily declined. We have built a general purpose SPECT system using our 40 cm x 53 cm CZT gamma camera with 2 mm pixel pitch and characterized system performance. RESULTS Compared to NaI scintillator gamma cameras: intrinsic spatial resolution improved from 3.8 mm to 2.0 mm; energy resolution improved from 9.8% to reconstruction, result in minimized dose and exam time. With CZT cost improving, affordable whole-body CZT general purpose SPECT is expected to enable precision medicine applications.

  1. Brain SPECT in childhood; Temp cerebrale chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquart, F; Saliba, E; Prunier, C; Baulieu, F; Besnard, J C; Guilloteau, D; Baulieu, J L [Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Unite Inserm 316, 37 - Tours (France)

    2001-04-01

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  2. The characteristics of SPECT images in childhood benign partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Shaowei; Liao Jianxiang; Liu Xiaoyan; Zheng Xiyuan; Qin Jiong; Pan Zhongyun; Zuo Qihua

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate childhood benign partial epilepsy (BPE) with SPECT. Methods: Double SPECT imaging was performed on 21 cases of BPE at the stage of wake (interval spike discharge) and sleep (spike discharge), under EEG monitoring. The transverse images were reconstructed after digital image subtraction. The quantitative analysis was conducted with brain flow change rate (BFCR) % mathematical model. Results: EEG monitoring demonstrated approximately normal background of 21 cases of BPE during the stage of wake, and spike discharge frequency markedly increased during the stage of sleep, 117 foci were showed by SPeCT in cases of BPE, and the average was 5.6 +- 1.6 foci/case. The characteristics of SPECT transverse images were 1) multiple foci of mirror, 2) mostly seen in Rolandic region, 3) circular symbol, 4) the radioactivity in foci decreased during the stage of wake (interval spike discharge) and increased during the stage of sleep (spike discharge). The concordance of SPECT and EEG was 93.1% (109/117 foci). The BFCR% of all epileptogenic foci exceeded normal limit (99% confidence interval). There was no correlation between the spike discharge frequency and BFCR% (r = 0.45, P>0.05). Conclusions: Regional cerebral blood flow and function were abnormal during the epileptogenic foci were discharging abnormally in BPE

  3. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in childhood epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Sheffali; Kalra, Veena; Bal, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The success of epilepsy surgery is determined strongly by the precise location of the epileptogenic focus. The information from clinical electrophysiological data needs to be strengthened by functional neuroimaging techniques. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) available locally has proved useful as a localising investigation. It evaluates the regional cerebral blood flow and the comparison between ictal and interictal blood flow on SPECT has proved to be a sensitive nuclear marker for the site of seizure onset. Many studies justify the utility of SPECT in localising lesions to possess greater precision than interictal scalp EEG or anatomic neuroimaging. SPECT is of definitive value in temporal lobe epilepsy. Its role in extratemporal lobe epilepsy is less clearly defined. It is useful in various other generalized and partial seizure disorders including epileptic syndromes and helps in differentiating pseudoseizures from true seizures. The need for newer radiopharmaceutical agents with specific neurochemical properties and longer shelf life are under investigation. Subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI is a promising new modality. (author)

  4. 111In-Pentetreotide SPECT/CT in Pulmonary Carcinoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Spanu, Angela; Danieli, Roberta; Dore, Francesca; Piras, Bastiana; Falchi, Antonio; Tavolozza, Mario; Madeddu, Giuseppe; Schillaci, Orazio

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with (111)In-pentetreotide incremental value in pulmonary carcinoid (PC) diagnosis compared to contrast enhanced Computed Tomography (ceCT). We enrolled 81 patients with ascertained PC, 39 at initial staging and 42 in follow-up; the primary tumor had already been excised in 68 cases. Single Photon emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) images were reconstructed with the iterative method and fused with non-enhanced Computed tomography (CT) images. Primary PC or metastatic lesions were ascertained in 55/81 patients and SPECT/CT was positive in 50/55 cases, while ceCT was positive in 44/55. Comparing SPECT/CT with ceCT results, we found a sensitivity of 96 vs. 87.5%, and specificity of 92% vs. 97% for the detection of primary lesion or recurrent disease. A total of 198 lesions were ascertained at SPECT/CT, while 161 at ceCT, with values of sensitivity and specificity of 85.5% and 84.6% for SRS and 75.2% and 90.5% respectively. (111)In-Pentetreotide SPECT/CT proved to be more sensitive and accurate than ceCT, thus enhancing its role in evaluating patients with PC. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. IQ-SPECT for thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging: effect of normal databases on quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Takahiro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Yoneyama, Hiroto; Matsuo, Shinro; Shibutani, Takayuki; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Kinuya, Seigo

    2017-07-01

    Although IQ-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides rapid acquisition and attenuation-corrected images, the unique technology may create characteristic distribution different from the conventional imaging. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of IQ-SPECT using Japanese normal databases (NDBs) with that of the conventional SPECT for thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). A total of 36 patients underwent 1-day 201 Tl adenosine stress-rest MPI. Images were acquired with IQ-SPECT at approximately one-quarter of the standard time of conventional SPECT. Projection data acquired with the IQ-SPECT system were reconstructed via an ordered subset conjugate gradient minimizer method with or without scatter and attenuation correction (SCAC). Projection data obtained using the conventional SPECT were reconstructed via a filtered back projection method without SCAC. The summed stress score (SSS) was calculated using NDBs created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine working group, and scores were compared between IQ-SPECT and conventional SPECT using the acquisition condition-matched NDBs. The diagnostic performance of the methods for the detection of coronary artery disease was also compared. SSSs were 6.6 ± 8.2 for the conventional SPECT, 6.6 ± 9.4 for IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and 6.5 ± 9.7 for IQ-SPECT with SCAC (p = n.s. for each comparison). The SSS showed a strong positive correlation between conventional SPECT and IQ-SPECT (r = 0.921 and p IQ-SPECT with and without SCAC was also good (r = 0.907 and p IQ-SPECT without SCAC; and 88.5, 86.8, and 87.3%, respectively, for IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively. The area under the curve obtained via receiver operating characteristic analysis were 0.77, 0.80, and 0.86 for conventional SPECT, IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively (p = n.s. for each comparison). When appropriate NDBs were used, the diagnostic performance of 201 Tl IQ-SPECT

  6. Receptor mapping in psychiatric patients with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes some data of our studies with the single-photon-emission-computerized tomography (SPECT), focussing on the dopamine-D2- and the benzodiazepine receptor mapping. Benzodiazepine receptors: Central benzodiazepine receptors (BZr) can be visualized with iomazenil which is an analogue of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil, labeled with 123-iodine. Since the involvement of the BZr system is discussed in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression, patients with these disorders were investigated. A third study investigated the BZr-occupancy during benzodiazepine treatment (lorazepam). Results: (a) Patients with panic disorders had lower iomazenil uptake values compared to epileptic patients. (b) Depressed patients showed a positive correlation between severity of illness and frontal uptake. (c) BZr occupancy during lorazepam treatment was measurable, but not associated with lorazepam plasma levels. Dopamine-D2-receptors: With 123-I-iodobenzamide (IBZM), and iodine-labeled dopamine receptor ligand, the D2 receptor density can be measured by a semiquantitative approach (striatum/frontal cortex=ST/FC). Therefore, we investigated the D2-receptor occupancy during treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics in relationship to dosages (normalized with different formulas of chlorpromazine equivalents), side effects, and prolactin plasma levels. Results: Dependent on the selected formula for chlorpromazine equivalents, the ST/FC ratio was correlated with dosages. Side effects and prolactin plasma levels showed a negative association with lower ST/FC ratios. (orig.) [de

  7. Quantitative SPECT reconstruction of iodine-123 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilland, D.R.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Many clinical and research studies in nuclear medicine require quantitation of iodine-123 ( 123 I) distribution for the determination of kinetics or localization. The objective of this study was to implement several reconstruction methods designed for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 123 I and to evaluate their performance in terms of quantitative accuracy, image artifacts, and noise. The methods consisted of four attenuation and scatter compensation schemes incorporated into both the filtered backprojection/Chang (FBP) and maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) reconstruction algorithms. The methods were evaluated on data acquired of a phantom containing a hot sphere of 123 I activity in a lower level background 123 I distribution and nonuniform density media. For both reconstruction algorithms, nonuniform attenuation compensation combined with either scatter subtraction or Metz filtering produced images that were quantitatively accurate to within 15% of the true value. The ML-EM algorithm demonstrated quantitative accuracy comparable to FBP and smaller relative noise magnitude for all compensation schemes

  8. I-123 IMP SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Keita; Tachibana, Kyudai; Sugita, Minoru

    1990-01-01

    To examine semiquantitatively regional cerebral blood flow, SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) was undertaken in 17 patients with Parkinson's disease. Seven patients with Alzheimer's disease and 9 senile control subjects were also imaged for comparison. Both the Parkinson's disease group and the Alzheimer's disease group had a decreased uptake of I-123 IMP in the frontal lobe, in comparison with the control group. A remarkably decreased uptake was seen in the lateral and parietal lobes in the group of Parkinson's disease associated with dementia, as well as in the Alzheimer's disease group. A significantly decreased uptake was observed in the frontal lobe, lateral lobe, thalamus, and basal ganglia in the Parkinson's disease group, irrespective of the presence or absence of dementia. For Parkinson's disease associated with dementia, there was much more significant decrease in I-123 IMP uptake. The pattern of regional cerebral blood flow in the Alzheimer's disease group was analogous to that in the Parkinson's disease group associated with dementia. This supports the hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease may be somewhat involved in the occurrence of dementia for Parkinson's disease. (N.K.)

  9. TH-C-17A-06: A Hardware Implementation and Evaluation of Robotic SPECT: Toward Molecular Imaging Onboard Radiation Therapy Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, S; Touch, M; Bowsher, J; Yin, F; Cheng, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To construct a robotic SPECT system and demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch. The system has potential for on-board functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: A robotic SPECT imaging system was developed utilizing a Digirad 2020tc detector and a KUKA KR150-L110 robot. An imaging study was performed with the PET CT Phantom, which includes 5 spheres: 10, 13, 17, 22 and 28 mm in diameter. Sphere-tobackground concentration ratio was 6:1 of Tc99m. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired with a parallel-hole collimator and a single pinhole collimator. The robotic system navigated the detector tracing the flat-top table to maintain the closest possible proximity to the phantom. For image reconstruction, detector trajectories were described by six parameters: radius-of-rotation, x and z detector shifts, and detector rotation θ, tilt ϕ and twist γ. These six parameters were obtained from the robotic system by calibrating the robot base and tool coordinates. Results: The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector-to-COR (center-ofrotation) distance. In acquisitions with background at 1/6th sphere activity concentration, photopeak contamination was heavy, yet the 17, 22, and 28 mm diameter spheres were readily observed with the parallel hole imaging, and the single, targeted sphere (28 mm diameter) was readily observed in the pinhole region-of-interest (ROI) imaging. Conclusion: Onboard SPECT could be achieved by a robot maneuvering a SPECT detector about patients in position for radiation therapy on a flat-top couch. The robot inherent coordinate frame could be an effective means to estimate detector pose for use in SPECT image reconstruction. PHS/NIH/NCI grant R21-CA156390-01A1

  10. Validation and the limits of SPECT for patients suffering from cerebrovascular accidents. Evaluations based on simultaneous PET and SPECT examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizukawa, Norihiko; Yano, Ichiro; Tenjin, Hiroshi (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)) (and others)

    1989-02-01

    Contemporaneous single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) were performed in 10 patients with cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), whose ages ranged from 11 to 67 years. I-123-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine (IMP) and/or Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) were used for SPECT. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) were measured by an O-15 labelled gas continuous-inhalation method. SPECT images were quite similar to CBF and CMRO{sub 2} during the chronic stage of CVA. Two patietns with vasospasm during the subacute stage had apparently low CBF and CMRO{sub 2} on PET, but did not have low perfusion on SPECT. Luxury perfusion areas were detected in 4 subacute stage patients and one chronic stage patient. A redistribution of IMP was detected in two patients with infarction during subacute stage. CMRO{sub 2} value in such an area was 2.0 ml/100 g/min. Low CBF and/or CMRO{sub 2} areas were well visualized by IMP rather than by HM-PAO SPECT. (N.K.).

  11. Reliability evaluation of I-123 ADAM SPECT imaging using SPM software and AAL ROI methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bang-Hung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Sung-Yi [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Imaging Medical, St.Martin De Porres Hospital, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Yuan-Hwa [Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chia-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jyh-Cheng, E-mail: jcchen@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-21

    The level of serotonin was regulated by serotonin transporter (SERT), which is a decisive protein in regulation of serotonin neurotransmission system. Many psychiatric disorders and therapies were also related to concentration of cerebral serotonin. I-123 ADAM was the novel radiopharmaceutical to image SERT in brain. The aim of this study was to measure reliability of SERT densities of healthy volunteers by automated anatomical labeling (AAL) method. Furthermore, we also used statistic parametric mapping (SPM) on a voxel by voxel analysis to find difference of cortex between test and retest of I-123 ADAM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Twenty-one healthy volunteers were scanned twice with SPECT at 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of {sup 123}I-ADAM. The image matrix size was 128x128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. All images were obtained through filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) definition was performed based on the AAL brain template in PMOD version 2.95 software package. ROI demarcations were placed on midbrain, pons, striatum, and cerebellum. All images were spatially normalized to the SPECT MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) templates supplied with SPM2. And each image was transformed into standard stereotactic space, which was matched to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Then differences across scans were statistically estimated on a voxel by voxel analysis using paired t-test (population main effect: 2 cond's, 1 scan/cond.), which was applied to compare concentration of SERT between the test and retest cerebral scans. The average of specific uptake ratio (SUR: target/cerebellum-1) of {sup 123}I-ADAM binding to SERT in midbrain was 1.78{+-}0.27, pons was 1.21{+-}0.53, and striatum was 0.79{+-}0.13. The cronbach's {alpha} of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92. Besides, there was also no significant statistical finding in cerebral area using SPM2

  12. Clinical Significance of Brain SPECT in Zipeprol Abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dai Ok; Kim, Jae Phil; Kim, Deog Yoon; Yang, Hyung In; Koh, Eun Mi; Kim, Kwang Won; Choi, Young Kil [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    Drug abuse is widespread in worldwide and has been associated with neurologic complication. Zipeprol is one of drugs which been abused for psychological satisfaction in some adolescents. This agent is non-opioid antitussive agent, which is not legally considered as being capable of creating dependence or abuse liability at therapeutic serum levels. But it has been reported that acute or chronic overdose create neurologic complication such as convulsion as well as dependence. Recently we experienced six zipeprol abusers who admitted due to convulsion and variable neurologic symptoms. The aim of our study was to determine the role of Tc-99m- HMPAO brain SPECT in those patients. EEG and brain CT showed no abnormal finding, but brain SPECT showed focal or multiple perfusion abnormalities in frontal, parietal, occipital cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and especially at temporal cortex. These results suggest that brain SPECT may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate the cerebral dysfunction induced by zipeprol abuse.

  13. Problems in the optimum display of SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    The instrumentation, computer hardware and software, and the image display system are all very important in the production of diagnostically useful SPECT images. Acquisition and processing parameters are discussed which can affect the quality of SPECT images. Regular quality control of the gamma camera and computer is important to keep the artifacts due to instrumentation to a minimum. The choice of reconstruction method will depend on the statistics in the study. The paper has shown that for high count rate studies, a high pass filter can be used to enhance the reconstructions. For lower count rate studies, pre-filtering is useful and the data can be reconstructed into thicker slices to reduce the effect of image noise. Finally, the optimum display for the images must be chosen, so that the information contained in the SPECT data can be easily perceived by the clinician. (orig.) [de

  14. SPECT and MRI in the diagnosis of epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, F.; Biersack, H.J.; Bockisch, A.; Elger, C.E.; Durwen, H.F.; Penin, H.

    1989-01-01

    This study presents the results obtained using SPECT and MRI in epilepsy - mainly based on presurgical investigation in therapy-resistant cases of temporal lobe epilepsy. MRI was positive in 61% of 102 examined patients, SPECT was positive in 84%. In 46 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy subjected to partial temporal lobectomy was performed later on there was agreement of the results obtained with regard to the lateralisation in 74%. Although MRI, due to its sensitivity is superior to CT in diagnosis of epilepsy, CT should be performed in any case because some morphological changes - especially small arteriovenous malformations - are only seen in CT. MRI and SPECT should be considered as two complementary methods in epilepsy diagnosis, serving to evaluate morphology and function. A definite statement as to the predictive value of both methods remains to be made depending on a comparison of the results with the postoperative outcome referring to seizure frequency and cognitive function. (orig.) [de

  15. The application of PET, SPECT and MRS in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Aisheng; Tian Jianming

    2005-01-01

    PET and SPECT provide the means to studying in vivo the neurochemical, hemodynamic or metabolic consequences of the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamineric system in Parkinson's disease (PD). Activation studies using cerebral blood flow and metabolism measurements during a motor task reveal an impaired ability to activate the supplementary motor area and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in PD. The extent of striatal dopaminergic denervation can be quantified with PET and SPECT. Striatal uptake of 18 F-dopa is markedly decreased in PD, more in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus, and inversely correlates with the severity of motor signs and with duration of disease. PET and SPECT make possible the assessment by noninvasive means of the changes in dopamine receptor density. Meanwhile, MRS can reveal changes in concentration of several hydrogenate and phosphoric compounds in the brain. The functional information of brain in PD can be obtained with these complementary techniques. (authors)

  16. Practical method of breast attenuation correction for cardiac SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Anderson de; Nogueira, Tindyua; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga; Megueriam, Berdj Aram; Santos, Goncalo Rodrigues dos

    2007-01-01

    The breast attenuation effects on SPECT (Single Photon Emission Tomography) myocardium perfusion procedures have been lately scope of continuous inquiry. The requested attenuation correction factors are usually achieved by transmission analysis, making up the exposure of a standard external source to the SPECT, as a routine step. However, its high cost makes this methodology not fully available to the most of nuclear medicines services in Brazil and abroad. To overcome the problem, a new trend is presented in this work, implementing computational models to balance the breast attenuation effects on the left ventricle anterior wall, during myocardium perfusion scintigraphy procedures with SPECT. A neural network was put on in order to provide the attenuation correction indexes, based upon the following patients individual biotypes features: mass, age, height, chest and breast thicknesses, heart size, as well as the imparted activity intake levels. (author)

  17. Practical method of breast attenuation correction for cardiac SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Anderson de; Nogueira, Tindyua; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Medicas e Industriais (CGMI)]. E-mails: anderson@cnen.gov.br; tnogueira@cnen.gov.br; rguterre@cnen.gov.br; Megueriam, Berdj Aram [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: megueriam@hotmail.com; Santos, Goncalo Rodrigues dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: goncalo@cnen.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The breast attenuation effects on SPECT (Single Photon Emission Tomography) myocardium perfusion procedures have been lately scope of continuous inquiry. The requested attenuation correction factors are usually achieved by transmission analysis, making up the exposure of a standard external source to the SPECT, as a routine step. However, its high cost makes this methodology not fully available to the most of nuclear medicines services in Brazil and abroad. To overcome the problem, a new trend is presented in this work, implementing computational models to balance the breast attenuation effects on the left ventricle anterior wall, during myocardium perfusion scintigraphy procedures with SPECT. A neural network was put on in order to provide the attenuation correction indexes, based upon the following patients individual biotypes features: mass, age, height, chest and breast thicknesses, heart size, as well as the imparted activity intake levels. (author)

  18. Clinical Significance of Brain SPECT in Zipeprol Abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dai Ok; Kim, Jae Phil; Kim, Deog Yoon; Yang, Hyung In; Koh, Eun Mi; Kim, Kwang Won; Choi, Young Kil

    1993-01-01

    Drug abuse is widespread in worldwide and has been associated with neurologic complication. Zipeprol is one of drugs which been abused for psychological satisfaction in some adolescents. This agent is non-opioid antitussive agent, which is not legally considered as being capable of creating dependence or abuse liability at therapeutic serum levels. But it has been reported that acute or chronic overdose create neurologic complication such as convulsion as well as dependence. Recently we experienced six zipeprol abusers who admitted due to convulsion and variable neurologic symptoms. The aim of our study was to determine the role of Tc-99m- HMPAO brain SPECT in those patients. EEG and brain CT showed no abnormal finding, but brain SPECT showed focal or multiple perfusion abnormalities in frontal, parietal, occipital cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and especially at temporal cortex. These results suggest that brain SPECT may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate the cerebral dysfunction induced by zipeprol abuse.

  19. Preliminary application of brain perfusion SPECT imaging in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhixing; Guo Chanliu; Li Xingbao; Liang Rongxiang; Zhao Jun; Yan Tingxiu

    1996-01-01

    The clinical value of 99m Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT imaging was evaluated in patients with schizophrenia. 32 patients with schizophrenia and 21 normal controls were analyzed with 99m Tc-ECD SPECT. 93.8% (30/32) of the patients showed decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). There was normal rCBF in controls. In the patient group rCBF decreased significantly in bilateral frontal lobes, left temporal lobe and right basal ganglion. The rCBF of left temporal lobe was significantly lower than that of right temporal lobe. The decreasing rCBF was not significantly related to previous treatment and duration of illness. 99m Tc-ECD SPECT is useful for the study and diagnosis of patients with schizophrenia

  20. A very accurate method for sentinel lymph node investigation: Gamma detecting probe associated with SPECT examination for depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascoli, G.; Cinti, P.; Nonni, M.; Rossi, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: aim of this study is to magnify the lymphoscintigraphy examination by gamma probe with SPECT acquisition for very accurate detection of depth of axilla node in patients affected by melanoma. Methods: according to physiological peculiarities the lymphatic system plays a very important role and represents the most important barrier to neoplastic cells spreading. The 'sentinel node' is the first lymph node draining the affected area. The tendency for surgery is a 'preventive' axillary dissection, even in presence of a clinically negative examination. In fact a high percentage of clinically negative lymph node shows a positive histology (presence of metastatic cells). The nuclear medicine method for researching 'sentinel node' is represented by a regional lymphoscintigraphy with normal gamma camera with a large field of view followed by examination with gamma detecting probe and, in following day, controlled in operating room to confirm the presence of the node early identified. We have completed this protocol with SPECT examination of affected axilla by use of injected laboratory capillary around axilla to perform an exact investigation of node depth. Discussion: Our experience in 150 cases in 18 months shows 100% of axilla 'sentinel node' detection, 25 cases with positive histologic examination and subsequently axillary dissection. Conclusions: In conclusion the scintigraphic examination with lymphoscintigraphy represents a good tool for management of patient with melanoma and the use of ''targeting' with collimated SPECT represent a very aid for the surgeon in reduction time for detection and dissection of lymph node, with high reduction of anesthesia duration

  1. Multimodality imaging: transfer and fusion of SPECT and MRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knesaurek, K.

    1994-01-01

    Image fusion is a technique which offers the best of both worlds. It unites the two basic types of medical images: functional body images(PET or SPECT scans), which provide physiological information, and structural images (CT or MRI), which provide an anatomic map of the body. Control-point based registration technique was developed and used. Tc-99m point sources were used as external markers in SPECT studies while, for MRI and CT imaging only anatomic landmarks were used as a control points. The MRI images were acquired on GE Signa 1.2 system and CT data on a GE 9800 scanner. SPECT studies were performed 1h after intravenous injection of the 740 MBq of the Tc-99m-HMPAO on the triple-headed TRIONIX gamma camera. B-spline and bilinear interpolation were used for the rotation, scaling and translation of the images. In the process of creation of a single composite image, in order to retain information from the individual images, MRI (or CT) image was scaled to one color range and a SPECT image to another. In some situations the MRI image was kept black-and-white while the SPECT image was pasted on top of it in 'opaque' mode. Most errors which propagate through the matching process are due to sample size, imperfection of the acquisition system, noise and interpolations used. Accuracy of the registration was investigated by SPECT-CT study performed on a phantom study. The results has shown that accuracy of the matching process is better, or at worse, equal to 2 mm. (author)

  2. SPECT/CT imaging in general orthopedic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    The availability of hybrid devices that combine the latest single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technology with multislice computed tomography (CT) scanning has allowed us to detect subtle, nonspecific abnormalities on bone scans and interpret them as specific focal areas of pathology. Abnormalities in the spine can be separated into those caused by pars fractures, facet joint arthritis, or osteophyte formation on vertebral bodies. Compression fractures can be distinguished from severe degenerative disease, both of which can cause intense activity across the spine on either planar or SPECT imaging. Localizing activity in patients who have had spinal fusion can provide tremendous insight into the causes of therapeutic failures. Infections of the spine now can be diagnosed with gallium SPECT/CT, despite the fact that gallium has long been abandoned because of its failure to detect spine infection on either planar or SPECT imaging. Small focal abnormalities in the feet and ankles can be localized well enough to make specific orthopedic diagnoses on the basis of their location. Moreover, when radiographic imaging provides equivocal or inadequate information, SPECT/CT can provide a road map for further diagnostic studies and has been invaluable in planning surgery. Our ability to localize activity within a bone or at an articular surface has allowed us to distinguish between fractures and joint disease. Increased activity associated with congenital anomalies, such as tarsal coalition and Bertolotti's syndrome have allowed us to understand the pathophysiology of these conditions, to confirm them as the cause of the patient's symptoms, and to provide information that is useful in determining appropriate clinical management. As our experience broadens, SPECT/CT will undoubtedly become an important tool in the evaluation and management of a wider variety of orthopedic patients.

  3. The Addition of SPECT/CT Lymphoscintigraphy to Breast Cancer Radiation Planning Spares Lymph Nodes Critical for Arm Drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheville, Andrea L., E-mail: Cheville.andrea@mayo.edu [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Brinkmann, Debra H.; Ward, Shelly B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Durski, Jolanta [Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Laack, Nadia N.; Yan, Elizabeth; Schomberg, Paula J.; Garces, Yolanda I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Suman, Vera J. [Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Background: This prospective cohort study was designed to determine whether the amount of radiation delivered to the nonpathological lymph nodes (LNs) that drain the arm can be significantly reduced by integrating single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scans into radiation treatment planning. Methods: SPECT-CT scans were acquired for the 28 patients with stage I or II breast cancer and fused with the routinely obtained radiation oncology planning CT scans. Arm-draining LNs were contoured with 0.5-cm margins automatically using a threshold of 50% maximum intensity. Two treatment plans were generated: 1 per routine clinical practice (standard; STD) and the second (modified; MOD) with treatment fields modified to minimize dose to the arm-draining LNs visible on SPECT/CT images without interfering with the dosage delivered to target tissues. Participants were treated per the MOD plans. Arm volumes were measured prior to radiation and thereafter at least three subsequent 6-month intervals. Results: Sixty-eight level I-III arm-draining LNs were identified, 57% of which were inside the STD plan fields but could be blocked in the MOD plan fields. Sixty-five percent of arm-draining LNs in the STD versus 16% in the MOD plans received a mean of ≥10 Gy, and 26% in the STD versus 4% in the MOD plans received a mean of ≥40 Gy. Mean LN radiation exposure was 23.6 Gy (standard deviation 18.2) with the STD and 7.7 Gy (standard deviation 11.3) with the MOD plans (P<.001). No participant developed lymphedema. Conclusions: The integration of SPECT/CT scans into breast cancer radiation treatment planning reduces unnecessary arm-draining LN radiation exposure and may lessen the risk of lymphedema.

  4. The addition of SPECT/CT lymphoscintigraphy to breast cancer radiation planning spares lymph nodes critical for arm drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheville, Andrea L; Brinkmann, Debra H; Ward, Shelly B; Durski, Jolanta; Laack, Nadia N; Yan, Elizabeth; Schomberg, Paula J; Garces, Yolanda I; Suman, Vera J; Petersen, Ivy A

    2013-03-15

    This prospective cohort study was designed to determine whether the amount of radiation delivered to the nonpathological lymph nodes (LNs) that drain the arm can be significantly reduced by integrating single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scans into radiation treatment planning. SPECT-CT scans were acquired for the 28 patients with stage I or II breast cancer and fused with the routinely obtained radiation oncology planning CT scans. Arm-draining LNs were contoured with 0.5-cm margins automatically using a threshold of 50% maximum intensity. Two treatment plans were generated: 1 per routine clinical practice (standard; STD) and the second (modified; MOD) with treatment fields modified to minimize dose to the arm-draining LNs visible on SPECT/CT images without interfering with the dosage delivered to target tissues. Participants were treated per the MOD plans. Arm volumes were measured prior to radiation and thereafter at least three subsequent 6-month intervals. Sixty-eight level I-III arm-draining LNs were identified, 57% of which were inside the STD plan fields but could be blocked in the MOD plan fields. Sixty-five percent of arm-draining LNs in the STD versus 16% in the MOD plans received a mean of ≥10 Gy, and 26% in the STD versus 4% in the MOD plans received a mean of ≥40 Gy. Mean LN radiation exposure was 23.6 Gy (standard deviation 18.2) with the STD and 7.7 Gy (standard deviation 11.3) with the MOD plans (P<.001). No participant developed lymphedema. The integration of SPECT/CT scans into breast cancer radiation treatment planning reduces unnecessary arm-draining LN radiation exposure and may lessen the risk of lymphedema. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A survey of head movement during clinical brain SPECT using an optical tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandos, G.; Barnden, L.; Lineage, H.; Smith, T.; Unger, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to survey patient motion during clinical brain SPECT using a commercial motion detection system called Polaris. Polaris is an optical tracker that remotely tracks head position and orientation via a small target attached to the patient. Its accuracy for position measurement is 1mm or 1 degree (deg), 33% moved > 2mm or 2deg and 10% moved > 4mm or 4deg. 65% of subjects moved 3 or more times. Motion in the D and P groups was equally likely to be small (<3mm or <3deg) or large and equally likely to occur early or late during acquisition. Motion in the N, F and C groups was less likely to be large and for N and F more likely to occur late in the acquisition suggesting fatigue was the main cause. The most common large movements were anterior-posterior translations and axial (Z) rotations. Significant head movement is common in brain SPECT, particularly in dementia and psychiatric subjects, and accurate motion correction is desirable to maintain image quality. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  6. (123I)β-CIT and SPECT in essential tremor and Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenbaum, S.; Bruecke, T.; Pirker, W.; Bencsits, G.; Pruckmayer, M.; Angelberger, P.

    1997-01-01

    Resting and postural tremor may occur in essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the cocaine derivative [ 123 I] β-CIT, which labels striatal dopamine transporters, and SPECT in differentiating these diseases. Methods: 30 healthy volunteers, 32 patients with ET and 29 patients with idiopathic PD of Hoehn/Yahr stage I were investigated. Specific over nondisplaceable binding ratios (target/cerebellum-1) were calculated for the striatum, the caudate nucleus and the putamen separately as well as a ratio putamen/caudate and the percent deviation of each patient's ratio from ageexpected control values. Results: striatal ( 123 I]β-CIT binding ratios in ET were within normal ranges and showed only a discrete elevation to age-expected control values (+ 14.6 %). In PD significantly reduced specific binding was evident not only contralaterally to the clinically affected side (putamen: - 62 %, caudate nucleus: - 35 %), but also ipsilaterally (putamen: - 45 %, caudate nucleus: - 22 %). All investigated parameters differed significantly between PD and controls and ET respectively. Conclusion: imaging striatal dopamine transporters with ( 123 I)β-CIT and SPECT could clearly distinguish between ET and PD in an early stage of the disease. Findings do not suggest a subclinical involvement of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons in ET. (author)

  7. Coronary flow reserve index corrected by exercise load using Tl-201 SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yasushi; Sugihara, Hiroki; Azuma, Akihiro

    1990-01-01

    For simple, non-invasive evaluation of coronary flow reserve during exercise, we investigated the coronary flow reserve index using the ratio of change of fractional distribution in the regional myocardium to oxygen demand. The subjects included 24 patients with effort angina pectoris and 11 normal volunteers. PTCA was peformed for 11 patients. Using the biological properties of Tl-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed at submaximal exercise and at rest by two successive injections of Tl-201 within a short time interval (double dose method). The correlation between the fractional distribution in the myocardium (Δ-Fract) and the oxygen demand during exercise and at rest were evaluated. Δ-Fract correlated well with the rate of change of the pressure rate product (Δ-PRP), and Δ-Fract/Δ-PRP (CRI) was a good indicator of the coronary flow reserve index. CRI in the ischemic region correlated well with the percent area stenosis of the supplying coronary artery and improved with resolution of percent area stenosis of the target coronary artery after PTCA, but in some cases they were not above the normal range. CRI as obtained by exercise SPECT using the double dose method is useful for non-invasively estimating the coronary flow reserve during exercise, and it can be used for evaluating the effect before and after PTCA. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the diagnosis for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiaxiu

    1992-01-01

    A heart phantom-7070 was used to measure the wall thickness of cardiac chambers. Two methods were employed: (1) profile curve measurement, (2) calculation of the thickness of cardiac walls. 9 normal cases and 13 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were studied using 99m Tc-CDI SPECT. 4 patterns were obtained: (1) Local hypertrophy of ventricular septum; (2) The predominant hypertrophy localized in left ventricular lateral wall; (3) Markedly hypertrophied septum and also involving left ventricular walls, especially the apical region; (4) Markedly hypertrophied papillary muscles with perfusion defects in the left wall and septum. These results suggest that myocardial SPECT is a promising and noninvasive method for the diagnosis of HCM

  9. Quantification in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this lecture is to understand the possibilities and limitations of the quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. It is also to identify the conditions to be fulfilled to obtain reliable quantitative measurements from images. Content: 1 - Introduction: Quantification in emission tomography - definition and challenges; quantification biasing phenomena; 2 - quantification in SPECT, problems and correction methods: Attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movement, tomographic reconstruction, calibration; 3 - Synthesis: actual quantification accuracy; 4 - Beyond the activity concentration measurement

  10. The use of SPECT in the study of depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jing; The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical Univ., Dalian; Tang Yiyuan

    2007-01-01

    Functional imaging is an effective methods in the study of psychological disturbances. The SPECT imaging methods commonly used in the study of depression are cerebral blood flow imaging, cerebral metabolic imaging and neuroreceptor imaging, which reflect the cerebral blood perfusion, cerebral metabolism, and the distribution and function of neuroreceptors respectively. The techniques in data processing include and statistical parametric mapping. This review summarizes the feature of the imaging and data processing methods, the manifestation of SPECT images in depressive patients, the brain region with abnormal blood flow and the findings in neuroreceptor imaging; analyzes the problems in current reports and prospects future studies. (authors)

  11. HMPAO-SPECT during epileptic seizures: Early and late images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overbeck, B.; Gruenwald, F.; Bockisch, A.; Biersack, H.J.; Reinke, U.; Gratz, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    For presurgical evaluation of epilepsy a 44-year old patient with complex-partial seizures underwent HMPAO-SPECT. The morphology of the seizures, the MRI-scan, psychometry and ictal as well as interictal EEGs showed a left temporal origin of the seizures. Early images were obtained 20 min and late images 24 h following injection. On both scans a marked hyperperfusion was observed in the left temporal area. A crossed cerebellar diaschisis was also seen on both SPECTs. It could be shown that during ictal examinations there is no bloodflow-dependent wash-out from brain tissue. (orig.) [de

  12. 1-123 iodoamphetamine SPECT findings in paranoid schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Walker, B.S.; Matthieson, S.; Miller, C.D.; Raese, J.

    1989-01-01

    To find out if frontal metabolic and cerebral blood flow differ between normal subjects and patients with paranoid schizophrenia (PAR), the authors have examined regional synaptic amine metabolism. Using [I- 123]iodoamphetamine (IMP), the authors compared 85 subjects (61 PAR patients and 24 normal subjects) with single-head single-photon emission CT (SPECT). Virtually automatic analysis assigned relative tracer uptake to the frontal, anterior temporoparietal (TP), and posterior TP regions. Consistent with the visual inspection of two clinicians familiar with SPECT IMP images, this objective method yielded T-tests that showed higher relative frontal lobe ratios in normal subjects than in PAR patients (P =.03)

  13. Brain perfusion SPECT in children with frequent fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiskala, H.; Launes, J.; Pihko, H.; Nikkinen, P.; Santavuori, P.

    1993-01-01

    We studied 14 children with frequent fits using 99m Tc-HM-PAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). There were 11 patients with partial secondary generalized epilepsy (PSGE) and 3 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). The typical regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) finding in PSGE was a single area of abnormally low perfused cortex, and that in LGS, multiple hypoperfused areas. Clinically, the LGS patients were more severely affected. SPECT was more sensitive in detecting abnormalities than EEG, CT or MRI. Extensive impairment of rCBF may thus indicate unfavourable development of intellectual performance and poor seizure control. (author)

  14. The impact of exercise myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging on the selection of patients for coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liping; He Zuoxiang; Liu Xiujie; Shi Rongfang; Liu Yunzhong; Tian Yueqin; Zhang Xiaoli; Qin Xuewen; Chen Jilin; Gao Runlin

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Exercise 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT is accurate for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study assessed the impact of exercise myocardial perfusion imaging on the selection of patients for coronary angiography. Methods: 2188 consecutive patients who underwent exercise myocardial perfusion SPECT in authors' department in 1999 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 1807 were men, 381 women (average age: 53.5 +- 7.2 years). Overall, exercise myocardial SPECT was normal in 1731 patients, abnormal in 359 cases, and equivocal in 98 patients. There were 141 patients who underwent CAG within 60 days after myocardial SPECT. Results: Overall, 12% of the patients with abnormal SPECT imaging underwent coronary angiography, but only 5% of the patients with a normal SPECT imaging did (P < 0.001). Among these 141 patients who underwent coronary angiography, significant coronary stenosis was present in 91% of the patients who had had an abnormal SPECT imaging, but only 8% of those who had had a normal SPECT imaging (P < 0.001). In those patients who underwent coronary angiography, revascularization rate was 25% for the patients with abnormal SPECT imaging, but only 1% for the patients with a normal SPECT imaging. Conclusion: The results of exercise myocardial perfusion SPECT have a significant impact on the selection of patients for coronary angiography and revascularization

  15. Is SPECT useful in imaging of abdominal inflammatory processes using 99mTc-HMPAO-WBCs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smole, M.S.; Stantic, T.S.; Fettich, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to determine whether SPECT gives additional information in the assessment of inflammation of the abdominal region with labelled white blood cells as compared with usual planar imaging. Patients And Methods: SPECT and planar imaging was performed in 26 patients with suspected inflammatory process in the abdomen, within three hours after injection of autologous white blood cells labelled with 99m Tc HMPAO. Planar images where acquired as static spot images using high resolution low energy collimator on 256 x 256 matrix. SPECT was performed using the same collimator on 128 x 128 matrix in 128 projections. Filtered back projection was used for reconstruction and volume rendering was performed. Results: The lesions in the abdomen were classified as jejunum, colon ascendents, colon transversum, colon descendents, sigmoid, and lesions outside GIT. All lesions, which were seen on planar images, except one, were also seen on SPECT. Five equivocal lesions seen on planar images were reconfirmed as pathological on SPECT. Additionally SPECT revealed three lesions not seen on planar images. Fourteen lesions were seen by both imaging techniques. All together SPECT improved diagnostic accuracy of 99m Tc - HMPAO - WBC scintigraphy in 7/28 patients. Conclusion: more inflammatory lesions in the abdomen are revealed by SPECT and volume rendering, than by planar imaging equivocal lesions seen on planar images can be characterised as positive or negative by SPECT. SPECT artefacts can cause possible false positive results; therefore usual planar imaging cannot be omitted if SPECT is performed

  16. Femoral chondrosarcoma discovered by SPECT-T.D.M. osseous scintigraphy; Chondrosarcome femoral decouvert par scintigraphie osseuse SPECT-TDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourahla, K.; Nguyen, L.; Rolling, P.; Schott, A.; Di Salvo, R. [CLCC Paul-Strauss, Strasbourg, (France)

    2009-05-15

    Objectives: the SPECT/T.D.M. imaging can allow a quick diagnosis direction by the concomitant exploitation of scintigraphy data and morphological data brought by the T.D.M.. We present the case of a chondrosarcoma diagnosed in nuclear medicine thanks to the exploitation of the data supplied by the SPECT/T.D.M. that allowed to direct rapidly the later explorations while reducing the time of the patient coverage. Conclusions: A knowledge of the most characteristic morphological data allows to give some diagnosis at first sight during the scintigraphy explorations coupled SPECT/T.D.M. and this in the interest of the patient by reducing his coverage while including the nuclear doctor more broadly in some diagnosis approaches previously remote from his reach. (N.C.)

  17. Feasibility of one-eighth time gated myocardial perfusion SPECT functional imaging using IQ-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caobelli, Federico; Thackeray, James T.; Bengel, Frank M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Hannover (Germany); Soffientini, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Guerra, Ugo Paolo [Fondazione Poliambulanza, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    IQ-SPECT, an add-on to general purpose cameras based on multifocal collimation, can reduce myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) acquisition times to one-fourth that of standard procedures (to 12 s/view). In a phantom study, a reduction of the acquisition time to one-eighth of the standard time (to 6 s/view) was demonstrated as feasible. It remains unclear whether such a reduction could be extended to clinical practice. Fifty patients with suspected or diagnosed CAD underwent a 2-day stress-rest {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi MPI protocol. Two consecutive SPECT acquisitions (6 and 12 s/view) were performed. Electrocardiogram-gated images were reconstructed with and without attenuation correction (AC). Polar maps were generated and visually scored by two blinded observers for image quality and perfusion in 17 segments. Global and regional summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS) and summed difference score (SDS) were determined. Left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction were calculated based on automated contour detection. Image quality was scored higher with the 12 s/view acquisition, both with and without AC. Summed scores were statistically comparable between the 6 s/view and the 12 s/view acquisition, both globally and in individual coronary territories (e.g. in images with AC, SSS were 6.6 ± 8.3 and 6.2 ± 8.2 with 6 s and 12 s/view, respectively, p = 0.10; SRS were 3.9 ± 5.6 and 3.5 ± 5.3, respectively, p = 0.19; and SDS were 2.8 ± 5.7 and 2.6 ± 5.7, respectively, p = 0.59). Both acquisitions allowed MPI-based diagnosis of CAD in 25 of the 50 patients (with AC). Calculated end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were modestly higher with the 6 s/view acquisition than with the 12 s/view acquisition (EDV +4.8 ml at rest and +3.7 ml after stress, p = 0.003; ESV +4.1 ml at rest and +2.6 ml after stress, p = 0.01), whereas the ejection fraction did not differ (-1.2 % at rest, p = 0.20, and -0.9 % after stress, p = 0.27). Image quality and

  18. Utility of the cerebral SPECT in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuguerot, C.H.; Lopez-Lerena, J.J.; Quagliata, A.; Hermida, J.C.; Oliveira, M.C.; Anastasia, H.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare cortical and subcortical cerebral perfusion in schizophrenics patients with normal controls, and analyze the relation to clinical patterns and neuroleptic treatment. Method: 18 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia under neuroleptic treatment (except 3 cases), evaluated with clinical scales (BPRS and PANSS). The control group included 5 subjects in good health. All subjects were studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99 etilencisteinato (99mTc-ECD) as a tracer. Region of interest (ROI) were defined in cerebral cortex and thalamus-basal ganglia areas. The cortical cerebral blood flow was measured with a quantitative analysis, expressed as a ratio of regional tracer uptake to occipital cortex uptake. In basal ganglia and thalamus, regional blood flow was evaluated with a semiquantitative methodology, defining categories. Results: Schizophrenics patients showed a significant reduction of perfusion on a left anterior frontal cortex ('hipofrontality') and global decrease of perfusion on left hemisphere. The interhemispheric (left/right) ratio of perfusion was incremented respect control group. In thalamic-basal ganglia complex, a significant hypoperfusion was found in neuroleptic-free patients and control group. On the other hand, neuroleptic-treated patients revealed normal or increased regional blood flow in thalamus and basal ganglia. Only the clinical item 'thought disorder' had significant high correlation with perfusion on left structures (left anterior frontal, left lateral frontal, left temporo-parietal); the other items correlated with right structures. Conclusions: The findings suggest a pattern o left cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with an incremented interhemispheric ratio of cerebral blood flow. The pivotal role of thalamic and basal ganglia areas in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and neuroleptic action was reaffirmed; apparently, perfusion in thalamic-basal ganglia

  19. Increased MMP-2 activity during intervertebral disc degeneration is correlated to MMP-14 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutges, J. P. H. J.; Kummer, J. A.; Oner, F. C.; Verbout, A. J.; Roestenburg, H. J. A.; Dhert, W. J. A.; Creemers, L. B.

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is associated with the increased expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-2. However, little is known about the actual activity of MMP-2 in healthy and degenerated discs, or what mechanisms are involved in its activation. A

  20. Anatomically standardized statistical mapping of 123I-IMP SPECT in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Yasushi; Akimoto, Manabu; Matsushita, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Takano, Shingo; Matsumura, Akira

    2010-01-01

    123 I-iodoamphetamine Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (IMP SPECT) is used to evaluate cerebral blood flow. However, application of IMP SPECT to patients with brain tumors has been rarely reported. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumor that shows delayed IMP uptake. The relatively low spatial resolution of SPECT is a clinical problem in diagnosing brain tumors. We examined anatomically standardized statistical mapping of IMP SPECT in patients with brain lesions. This study included 49 IMP SPECT images for 49 patients with brain lesions: 20 PCNSL, 1 Burkitt's lymphoma, 14 glioma, 4 other tumor, 7 inflammatory disease and 3 without any pathological diagnosis but a clinical diagnosis of PCNSL. After intravenous injection of 222 MBq of 123 I-IMP, early (15 minutes) and delayed (4 hours) images were acquired using a multi-detector SPECT machine. All SPECT data were transferred to a newly developed software program iNeurostat+ (Nihon Medi-physics). SPECT data were anatomically standardized on normal brain images. Regions of increased uptake of IMP were statistically mapped on the tomographic images of normal brain. Eighteen patients showed high uptake in the delayed IMP SPECT images (16 PCNSL, 2 unknown). Other tumor or diseases did not show high uptake of delayed IMP SPECT, so there were no false positives. Four patients with pathologically proven PCNSL showed no uptake in original IMP SPECT. These tumors were too small to detect in IMP SPECT. However, statistical mapping revealed IMP uptake in 18 of 20 pathologically verified PCNSL patients. A heterogeneous IMP uptake was seen in homogenous tumors in MRI. For patients with a hot IMP uptake, statistical mapping showed clearer uptake. IMP SPECT is a sensitive test to diagnose of PCNSL, although it produced false negative results for small posterior fossa tumor. Anatomically standardized statistical mapping is therefore considered to be a useful method for improving the diagnostic

  1. SPECT and PET in cerebrovascular diseases. SPECT und PET bei cerebrovaskulaeren Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, W.H. (Herzzentrum Nordrhein-Westfalen, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1993-02-01

    Investigations using recently emerged perfusion tracers for SPECT, Tc-99m-HMPAO in particular, and studies of local glucose metabolism and oxygen utilisation with PET have deepened our knowledge of the pathophysiology in development and in the sequel of stroke. Studies of local cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reserve capacity are indicated in case of neurological symptoms suspected to be caused by transient ischemic attacks or in case of significant narrowing of the cerebral arteries. PET investigations of local metabolism (at the present state) are indicated in patients with incompleted stroke or with infarction and extended ischemic border zone. The differential diagnosis between multi-infarct-dementia and primarily neurodegenerative dementias is facilitated, in some individuals, by the characteristic topography of reduced flow. (orig./MG).

  2. Salivary SPECT and factor analysis in Sjoegren's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Oshiumi, Y.; Yonetsu, K.; Muranaka, T.; Sakai, K.; Kanda, S.; National Fukuoka Central Hospital

    1991-01-01

    Salivary SPECT and factor analysis in Sjoegren's syndrome were performed in 17 patients and 6 volunteers as controls. The ability of SPECT to detect small differences in the level of uptake can be used to separate glands from background even when uptake is reduced as in the patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. In control and probable Sjoegren's syndrome groups the uptake ratio of the submandibular gland to parotid gland on salivary SPECT (S/P ratio) was less than 1.0. However, in the definite Sjoergren's syndrome group, the ratio was more than 1.0. Moreover, the ratio in all patients with sialectasia, which is characteristic of Sjoegren's syndrome, was more than 1.0. Salivary factor analysis of normal parotid glands showed slowly increasing patterns of uptake and normal submandibular glands had rapidly increasing patterns of uptake. However, in the definite Sjoegren's syndrome group, the factor analysis patterns were altered, with slowly increasing patterns dominating both in the parotid and submandibular glands. These results suggest that the S/P ratio in salivary SPECT and salivary factor analysis provide additional radiologic criteria in diagnosing Sjoegren's syndrome. (orig.)

  3. Subcortical aphasia and cerebral blood flow using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celsis, P.; Puel, M.; Demonet, J.P.; Bonafe, A.; Cardebat, D.; Viallard, G.; Pujol, T.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Rascol, A.

    1985-01-01

    Possible cerebral blood flow (CBF) alteration in subcortical aphasia was investigated by single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). The results confirm the capsulo-striatal lesions and also point to the high rate of ipsilateral thalamic and cortical dysfunction. (author). 8 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  4. Cerebral fat embolism studied with MRI and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, E. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Namer, I.J. (Inst. of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France)); Saribas, O. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Aras, T. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine Ankara (Turkey)); Tan, E. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Bekdik, C. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine Ankara (Turkey)); Zileli, T. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey))

    1993-03-01

    In a patient with fat embolism to the brain CT showed no abnormality. MRI performed after recovery from coma, when the patient had aphasia and quadriparesis, demonstrated multiple high signal abnormalities in the white matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images. HMPAO-SPECT showed left-sided hypoperfusion which resolved in parallel with clinical improvement 1 month later. (orig.)

  5. Radionuclide cisternography: SPECT and 3D-rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkes, H.; Huber, G.; Piepgras, U.; Hierholzer, J.; Cordes, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography is indicated in the clinical work-up for hydrocephalus, when searching for CSF leaks, and when testing whether or not intracranial cystic lesions are communicating with the adjacent subarachnoid space. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and diagnostic value of SPECT and subsequent 3D surface rendering in addition to conventional rectilinear CSF imaging in eight patients. Planar images allowed the evaluation of CSF circulation and the detection of CSF fistula. They were advantageous in examinations 48 h after application of 111 In-DTPA. SPECT scans, generated 4-24 h after tracer application, were superior in the delineation of basal cisterns, especially in early scans; this was helpful in patients with pooling due to CSF fistula and in cystic lesions near the skull base. A major drawback was the limited image quality of delayed scans, when the SPECT data were degraded by a low count rate. 3D surface rendering was easily feasible from SPECT data and yielded high quality images. The presentation of the spatial distribution of nuclide-contaminated CSF proved especially helpful in the area of the basal cisterns. (orig.) [de

  6. Clinical application of domestica manufactured BHP6601 SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuwen; Tian Jiahe; Liu Zilai; He Yijie; Shao Mingzhe; Zhang Jinming

    2005-01-01

    Clinical imaging of 150 patients with varying demand is carried out with BHP6601 SPECT manufactured locally, and the results are compared with that obtained by an E. CAM system manufactured by Siemens. The results show that BHP6601 had an acceptable and stable performance from a technical point of view. It offers a sufficient ability for organ imaging of clinical requirement. (authors)

  7. SPECT/CT: main applications in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera Pintado, Alejandro; Torres Aroche, Leonel A.; Vergara Gil, Alex; Batista Cuéllar, Juan F.; Prats Capote, Anaís

    2017-01-01

    SPECT/CT has represented not only the possibility of acquiring anatomical and functional images in one single study, but also a revolution for the clinical management of several diseases, taking the better of each one of these imaging modalities. The present work is aimed at presenting an overview of the most important applications of the SPECT/CT in the field of oncology, cardiology and neurology. New technological advances in the design of innovative solid state detectors and related equipment have had a positive effect on the performance of this kind of dual modality. This hybrid technique improves the sensitivity and the specificity of gammagraphic studies, as well as shortens the acquisition times and gives attenuation correction of co-registered images, which, in turn, makes their analysis easier. Some of the main applications for the study of oncological diseases are the following: localization and follow-up of different kinds of tumors, their metastasis and relapses, as well as the optimization of radiotherapy doses. This technique has been useful to evaluate the coronary artery disease allowing an adequate attenuation correction of images, the determination of calcium score, and performing angio-CT studies, according to the CT quality. SPECT/CT has also gained ground in the assessment of some neurological diseases. Conclusions: The introduction of new technological advances and radiopharmaceuticals thus predicting a more relevant place for SPECT/CT in clinical practice. (author)

  8. Ocular melanoma: Detection using iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, S.H.; Leonard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of iodine-123-iodoamphetamine has been demonstrated in malignant melanoma using planar imaging techniques and has been used to detect an ocular melanoma at 12 hr postinjection. Using SPECT technique, an ocular melanoma is identified in a 64-yr-old male at 1 hr postinjection

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow in SPECT pattern in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenart-Jankowska, D.; Junik, R.; Sowinski, J.; Gembicki, M.; Wender, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our work was to compare the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in SPECT examination in Parkinson's disease with (17 cases) and without (7 cases) dementia and in various clinical stages of the disease. The patients underwent SPECT examination 5-40 min after intravenous application of HMPAO (Ceretec, Amersham) with 740 Mbq (20 mCi) pertechnate 99m Tc. SPECT was performed with a Siemens Diacam single-head rotating gamma camera coupled to a high resolution collimator and Icon computer system provided by the manufacturer. The results were defined in relative values of ROI in relation to cerebellum. Patients with Parkinson's disease showed hypoperfusion in cerebral lobes and in deep cerebral structures including the basal ganglia. Regional perfusion deficit in SPECT was seen with and without associated dementia and already in early stage of the disease. Parkinson's disease is provoked by the lesions of dopaminergic neurons of the central nervous system leading to domination of extrapyramidal symptoms. There are many indications that also the neurotransmitters associated with cognitive functions as acetylcholine demonstrate some abnormalities. However, only in some cases of Parkinson's disease dementia is the dominating symptom. Our results of regional cerebral blood flow testify that in Parkinson's disease the dysfunction of the central nervous system is more diffuse than has previously been suggested. (author)

  10. Topodiagnosis in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by HMPAO-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, N.; Farahati, J.; Heinz, A.; Buettner, T.; Przuntek, H.; Reiners, C.

    1993-01-01

    A 80-year old female presented with an early stage of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with clinical, neurophysiological and neuropathological findings suggesting a focal involvement of the brain. HMPAO SPECT disclosed asymmetries of regional cerebral perfusion, thus suggesting that it may be a further diagnostic instrument in this disease. (orig.) [de

  11. Small hepatocellular carcinomas in chronic liver disease: Detection with SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, M.; Hirasa, M.; Takakuwa, H.; Ibuki, Y.; Fujimi, K.; Miyamura, M.; Tomita, S.; Komori, H.; Todo, A.; Kitaura, Y.

    1986-06-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed using a rotating gamma camera was compared with ..cap alpha../sub 1/-fetoprotein (AFP) assay, conventional liver scintigraphy, ultrasound (US) imaging, computed tomography (CT), and selective celiac angiography in 40 patients with a total of 50 small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs;<5 cm). The detection rates of US and CT were determined on an initial screening study and on a second, more precisely focused study. The detection rate of small HCCs by the various modalities was as follows: AFP, 13%; liver scintigraphy, 36%; SPECT, 72%; initial screening US, 80%; second, more precise US studies, 94%; initial screening CT, 64%; second, more precise CT study, 82%; angiography, 88%. Although SPECT was inferior to the initial screening US examination in detecting HCCs less than 2 cm in size, its sensitivity was identical to that of the initial screening US study for detecting HCCs of 2-5 cm. The combination of SPECT and US was an excellent method for the early detection of HCCs, yielding a detection rate of 94%.

  12. Reduced contralateral hemispheric flow measured by SPECT in cerebellar lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmezoğlu, K; Sperling, B; Henriksen, T

    1993-01-01

    Four patients with clinical signs of cerebellar stroke were studied twice by SPECT using 99mTc-HMPAO as a tracer for cerebral blood flow (CBF). When first scanned 6 to 22 days after onset, all had a region of very low CBF in the symptomatic cerebellar hemisphere, and a mild to moderate CBF reduct...

  13. Leg 201Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkadri, N.; Slim, I.; Blondet, C.; Choquet, Ph.; Constantinesco, A.; Lecocq, J.

    2004-01-01

    Leg 201 Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome Background: The chronic exertional compartment syndrome is one of the most frequent origins regarding leg pain due to sport training. The diagnosis can be established by invasive compartment pressure measurement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role that could have 201 Tl-SPECT for patients with suspicion of compartment syndrome. Patients and methods: 51 leg 201 Tl-SPECT exams were performed (exercise - and rest without reinjection) in 49 patients; 28 had compartment syndrome confirmed by pressure measurement. About 100 MBq of 201 Tl were injected during exercise, when pain appeared or at least after 25 minutes exercise. We studied mean percentages of level uptake for each compartment, referred to the maximal uptake of both legs. Results: 47 compartments were concerned by compartment syndrome and 361 compartments were not. Scintigraphic patterns in compartments are reversible ischaemia (45%), uptake stability (36%) or reverse redistribution (19%); these patterns are not linked to compartment syndrome. However, there is a significant difference of rest 201 Tl level uptake between compartments with and without compartment syndrome and a significant correlation between muscular pressure measurement and rest level uptake. Conclusion: 201 Tl-SPECT shows that only ischaemia does not explain compartment syndrome. Moreover, it allows to predict pressure variation during exercise but it does not offer any interest in order to select patients for muscular invasive pressure measurement. (author)

  14. The role of SPECT in the evaluation of skeletal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, I P.C. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick (Australia)

    1993-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has, in the last decade, established a critical role in routine diagnosis. Skeletal scintigraphy exemplifies the impact in improving detection of lesions by delineation of their site and size. The advantage of minimizing the superimposed radioactivity from overlying and underlying structures is typified by the readiness with which avascular necrosis of the femoral head can be identified by removal of the surrounding hyperaemia which masks the classical photopaenia. However, the ability to achieve an accurate image at a plane at a prescribed depth is most characteristically shown by the study of a vertebra, a bone of irregular contour and subject to a variety of pathological disorders at different sites within it. The various focal abnormalities resulting from these can be localized exactly, readily distinguishing, for example, those in the body from those in the natural arch. In particular, the alterations resulting from trauma, such as pars interarticularis stress fracture, are readily seen. Consequently SPECT has an indispensable role in the investigation and management of low back pain. However, the ability of SPECT to delineate abnormal accumulation has provided a new approach to the evaluation of knee pain, especially when acute such as that resulting from athletic injury, since the identification of the presence or absence of focal abnormalities can be critical to patient management. The frequency of these various disorders in which SPECT is so useful explains why the procedure has become such a routine high-volume examination in so many departments. (author).

  15. Skeletal scintigraphy and SPECT/CT in orthopedic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaeser, B.; Walter, M.; Krause, T.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging with SPECT-CT in orthopaedics combines the excellent sensitivity of scintigraphy with the morphological information of CT as a key for specific interpretation of findings in bone scans. The result is an imaging modality with the clear potential to prove of value even in a competitive setting dominated by MRI, and to significantly add to diagnostic imaging in orthopaedics. SPECT-CT is of great value in the diagnostic evaluation after fractures, and - in contrast to MRI - it is well suited for imaging in patients with osteosyntheses and metallic implants. In sports medicine, SPECT-CT allows for a sensitive and specific detection of osseous stress reactions before morphological changes become detectable by CT or MRI. In patients with osseous pain syndromes, actively evolving degenerative changes as a cause of pain can be identified and accurately localized. Further, particularly prospective diagnostic studies providing comparative data are needed to strengthen the position of nuclear imaging in orthopaedics and sports medicine and to help implementing SPECT/CT in diagnostic algorithms. (orig.)

  16. The need of appropriate brain SPECT templates for SPM comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbelli, S.; Altrinetti, V.; Piccardo, A.; Rodriguez, G.; Brugnolo, A.; Nobili, F.; Mignone, A.; Pupi, A.; Koulibaly, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is used worldwide to compare brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. The default template within the SPM package used for SPECT image normalization includes images of a group of healthy subjects studied with 99m TcHMPAO. Since [ 99m Tc] HMPAO and [ 99m Tc] ECD have shown to distribute differently in SPECT studies, we formulated the hypothesis that comparing set of [ 99m Tc]ECD data normalized by means of a [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template may lead to incorrect results. A customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template was built with SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of 22 neurologically healthy women. Then, two sets of subjects, i.e. a group of patients with very early Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and a matched control group, studied by means of [ 99m Tc]ECD SPECT, were chosen for comparisons. The same statistical approach (t-test between eAD patients and controls and correlation analysis between brain SPECT and a cognitive score) was applied twice, i.e. after normalization with either the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template or the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template. In the comparison between eAD and controls, a cluster of difference in the posterior-cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres was only highlighted when using the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template, but was missed when using the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template. In the correlation between brain perfusion and a cognitive score, the significant cluster was more significant and far more extended, also including the right superior temporal gyrus, using the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template than using the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template. These data suggest the need of customized, radiopharmaceutical-matched SPECT templates to be used within the SPM package. The present customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template is now freely available on the web. (authors)

  17. Imaging fusion (SPECT/CT) in degenerative disease of spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Bermudez, S.; Ocampo, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To determine the utility of Fusion Imaging SPECT/CT in degenerative pathology of the spine and to establish the impact of the use of fusion imaging in spinal pain due to degenerative changes of the spine. Materials and methods: 44 Patients (M=21, F=23) average age of 63 years and with degenerative pathology of spine were sent to Diagnosis Imaging department in FSFB. Bone scintigraphy (SPECT), CT of spine (cervical: 30%, Lumbar 70%) and fusion imaging were performed in all of them. Bone scintigraphy was carried out in a gamma camera Siemens Diacam double head attached to ESOFT computer. The images were acquired in matrix 128 x 128, 20 seg/imag, 64 images. CT of spine was performed same day or two days after in Helycoidal Siemens somatom emotion CT. The fusion was done in a Dicom workstation in sagital, axial and coronal reconstruction. The findings were evaluated by 2 Nuclear Medicine physicians and 2 radiologists of the staff of FSFB in an independent way. Results: Bone scan (SPECT) and CT of 44 patients were evaluated. CT showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 27 (61.3%) patients, uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 7 (15.9%), bulging disc in 9(20.4%), spinal nucleus lesion in 7(15.9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%), spinal foraminal stenosis in 7 (15.9%), spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis in 4 (9%). Bone scan showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 29 (65.9%), uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 4 (9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%) and normal 3 (6.8%). The imaging fusion showed coincidence findings (main lesion in CT with high uptake in scintigraphy) in 34 patients (77.2%) and no coincidence in 10 (22.8%). In 15 (34.09%) patients the fusion provided additional information. The analysis of the findings of CT and SPECT showed similar results in most of the cases and the fusion didn't provide additional information but it allowed to confirm the findings but when the findings didn't match where the CT showed several findings and SPECT only one area with high uptake

  18. Role of SPECT imaging in symptomatic posterior element lumbar stress injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debnath U

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Diagnosis of stress injuries of spine is very difficult with conventional radiography. Methods : In a observational study, 132 subjects were recruited (between 8 and 38 years of age, who had lumbar spondylolysis or posterior element stress injuries. All these patients underwent clinical examination followed by plain X-rays, planar bone scintigraphy and SPECT (single photon emission computerised tomography. SPECT scans can identify the posterior element lumbar stress injuries earlier than other imaging modalities. As the lesions evolve and the completed spondylolysis becomes chronic, the SPECT scans tend to revert to normal even though healing of the defect has not occurred. The aim of the study was to determine the time lag after which SPECT imaging tends to be negative. We divided the patients into two groups, one SPECT positive group and the other SPECT negative group. Pre treatment background variables such as age, gender, back pain in extension or flexion, sporting activities, time of onset of symptoms, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI were used in a univariate logistic regression model to find the strong predictors of positive SPECT imaging results. Determinants of positivity versus negativity of SPECT were identified by discriminant analysis using multivariate logistic regression. Results : Seventy nine patients had positive SPECT scans whereas 53 patients had negative SPECT scans. Bilateral increased uptake was more common than unilateral uptake. Increased uptake at the L5 lumbar spine was more common (70% in SPECT positive group. Low back pain in extension was significantly more common in SPECT positive subjects. Active sporting individuals had higher probability of having a positive SPECT scan. The mean time lag from the onset of low back pain to SPECT imaging was 7 months in SPECT positive group and 25 months in the SPECT negative group. Multivariate analysis predicted that there is a significant difference in positivity of

  19. A correlation of clinical, MRI and brain SPECT in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, S.; Indirani, M.; Gokhale, S.; Anirudhan, N.; Sivakumar, M.R.; Jaganathan, K.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterised by acquired impairment in multiple neuropsycologic and behavior domains including memory, language, speech, visuospatial ability, cognition and mood/personality. Dementia produces deficits in perfusion reflecting decreased metabolic needs. Neuroimaging techniques help in determining whether the cognitive symptoms are organic and in which pattern of cognitive loss the patient may evolve. AIM: To differentiate various types of Dementia, based on the regional perfusion abnormalities seen in Brain SPECT and correlate this with Clinical and MRI findings. Material and methods: Patients suffering from memory impairment and memory loss were referred to our department for Brain SPECT as a part of work up for Dementia. They had undergone a detailed clinical examination, psychometry, mini mental status examination (MMSE), memory/cognitive testing and an MRI. Brain SPECT was done after injecting Tc 99m ECD (Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer ) and imaging after 45 minutes. The images obtained were reconstructed in a conventional way. The various patterns of perfusion abnormalities seen in the SPECT images was studied and correlated with MRI and clinical findings. The patients were thus classified as having Multi Infarct Dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Fronto-Temporal Dementia and Mixed variety. Results: Twenty One Patients were included in our study from February 2003 to February 2004. The mean age of the patients was 73 years ( 37 to 81). 15 were males and 6 were females. Out of 21 patients, 12 had Multi Infarct Dementia, 4 had Alzheimer's disease, 1 had Fronto- Temporal Dementia and 4 had Mixed variety. Conclusion: Brain SPECT aids in substantiating the clinical findings and in correlation with MRI helps in distinguishing various types of Dementia and thus has prognostic implications and helps in instituting early appropriate treatment to the patient. In our study, the majority of the patients have Multi Infarct Dementia

  20. Partial volume correction in SPECT reconstruction with OSEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, Kjell, E-mail: k.erlandsson@ucl.ac.uk [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London and University College London Hospital, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Thomas, Ben; Dickson, John; Hutton, Brian F. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London and University College London Hospital, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-21

    SPECT images suffer from poor spatial resolution, which leads to partial volume effects due to cross-talk between different anatomical regions. By utilising high-resolution structural images (CT or MRI) it is possible to compensate for these effects. Traditional partial volume correction (PVC) methods suffer from various limitations, such as correcting a single region only, returning only regional mean values, or assuming a stationary point spread function (PSF). We recently presented a novel method in which PVC was combined with the reconstruction process in order to take into account the distance dependent PSF in SPECT, which was based on filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction. We now present a new method based on the iterative OSEM algorithm, which has advantageous noise properties compared to FBP. We have applied this method to a series of 10 brain SPECT studies performed on healthy volunteers using the DATSCAN tracer. T1-weighted MRI images were co-registered to the SPECT data and segmented into 33 anatomical regions. The SPECT data were reconstructed using OSEM, and PVC was applied in the projection domain at each iteration. The correction factors were calculated by forward projection of a piece-wise constant image, generated from the segmented MRI. Images were also reconstructed using FBP and standard OSEM with and without resolution recovery (RR) for comparison. The images were evaluated in terms of striatal contrast and regional variability (CoV). The mean striatal contrast obtained with OSEM, OSEM-RR and OSEM-PVC relative to FBP were 1.04, 1.42 and 1.53, respectively, and the mean striatal CoV values are 1.05, 1.53, 1.07. Both OSEM-RR and OSEM-PVC results in images with significantly higher contrast as compared to FBP or OSEM, but OSEM-PVC avoids the increased regional variability of OSEM-RR due to improved structural definition.

  1. Comparison of SPECT and whole-body planar imaging in radioimmunoscintigraphy with Tc-labeled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacic, K.; Bokulic, T.; Lukac, J.; Dakovic, N.; Kusic, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The authors of some recent clinical studies suggested 20-24 hours SPECT imaging as a mandatory procedure in radioimmunoscintigraphy with Tc-labeled antibodies. The aim of our study was to compare whole-body (WB) planar imaging versus SPECT as well as 4-6 hours SPECT to 20-24 hours one. For this purpose we analyzed 33 lesions in 12 postsurgical patients with colorectal carcinoma. Each patient received intravenously 0.5-1.0 mg anti-CEA BW 431/26 murine monoclonal IgG-antibodies labeled with Tc-99m (814-1110 MBq). WB and SPECT imaging were performed at 4-6 and 20-24 hours post infusion. 20-24 hours WB scan imaged more 'hot' and less 'cold' lesions than 4-6 hours one. SPECT scan showed significantly more lesions than WB scan. 20-24 hours SPECT scan detected more 'hot' lesions than 4-6 hours SPECT. At the same time the number of 'cold' lesions decreased in 20-24 hours SPECT in comparison to 4-6 hours one. As a conclusion we can say that our results suggest a superiority of SPECT imaging in comparison to WB scan. Except that, in our opinion performing of a 20-24 hours SPECT scan in radioimmunoscintigraphy with Tc-labeled antibodies should be mandatory. (author)

  2. Comparison of SPECT and whole-body planar imaging in radioimmunoscintigraphy with Tc-labeled antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacic, K; Bokulic, T; Lukac, J; Dakovic, N; Kusic, Z [Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice, Zagreb (Croatia). Dept. of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine

    1994-10-01

    The authors of some recent clinical studies suggested 20-24 hours SPECT imaging as a mandatory procedure in radioimmunoscintigraphy with Tc-labeled antibodies. The aim of our study was to compare whole-body (WB) planar imaging versus SPECT as well as 4-6 hours SPECT to 20-24 hours one. For this purpose we analyzed 33 lesions in 12 postsurgical patients with colorectal carcinoma. Each patient received intravenously 0.5-1.0 mg anti-CEA BW 431/26 murine monoclonal IgG-antibodies labeled with Tc-99m (814-1110 MBq). WB and SPECT imaging were performed at 4-6 and 20-24 hours post infusion. 20-24 hours WB scan imaged more `hot` and less `cold` lesions than 4-6 hours one. SPECT scan showed significantly more lesions than WB scan. 20-24 hours SPECT scan detected more `hot` lesions than 4-6 hours SPECT. At the same time the number of `cold` lesions decreased in 20-24 hours SPECT in comparison to 4-6 hours one. As a conclusion we can say that our results suggest a superiority of SPECT imaging in comparison to WB scan. Except that, in our opinion performing of a 20-24 hours SPECT scan in radioimmunoscintigraphy with Tc-labeled antibodies should be mandatory. (author).

  3. Effect of STA-MCA bypass based on the motor activation SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Uranishi, Ryunosuke; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The effect of STA-MCA bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) on pure motor function using motor activation SPECT was evaluated and analyzed, and this effect with the resting cerebral blood flow and reserved capacity was compared. Motor activation SPECT were carried out on 22 cases with STA-MCA bypass for symptomatic ischemic CVDs. All motors activation SPECT using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after the bypass. Visual inspection was used to determine whether the result of the motor activation SPECT was as negative or positive. The activated region was detected anatomically precisely by superimposing the SPECT on the MRI. Before this study, the same examination was performed on normal controls. In controls, 91% showed the activated area on the sensorimotor cortex after the finger opposition tasks. Before bypass, the resting SPECT revealed reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on the affected side in all cases. All cases also showed a disturbed response to acetazolamide (ACZ). Nine cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. One month after bypass, the resting CBF increased in 11 cases. Seven showed preoperative positive motor activation. Fifteen cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Three months after bypass, 20 cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and 19 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Ten cases were negative in the preoperative motor activation SPECT. At one month after surgery, ACZ activation SPECT was performed in 12 cases. Five showed improvement of the response to ACZ. At 3 months after surgery, 8 of 12 cases treated with ACZ activation SPECT showed improved response to ACZ. In most of the cases, improved response to ACZ could be seen after response to motor activation improved. STA-MCA bypass is useful not only for resting CBF but also for pure motor function based on motor activation SPECT. (K.H.)

  4. Effect of STA-MCA bypass based on the motor activation SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Uranishi, Ryunosuke; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    The effect of STA-MCA bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) on pure motor function using motor activation SPECT was evaluated and analyzed, and this effect with the resting cerebral blood flow and reserved capacity was compared. Motor activation SPECT were carried out on 22 cases with STA-MCA bypass for symptomatic ischemic CVDs. All motors activation SPECT using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after the bypass. Visual inspection was used to determine whether the result of the motor activation SPECT was as negative or positive. The activated region was detected anatomically precisely by superimposing the SPECT on the MRI. Before this study, the same examination was performed on normal controls. In controls, 91% showed the activated area on the sensorimotor cortex after the finger opposition tasks. Before bypass, the resting SPECT revealed reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on the affected side in all cases. All cases also showed a disturbed response to acetazolamide (ACZ). Nine cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. One month after bypass, the resting CBF increased in 11 cases. Seven showed preoperative positive motor activation. Fifteen cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Three months after bypass, 20 cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and 19 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Ten cases were negative in the preoperative motor activation SPECT. At one month after surgery, ACZ activation SPECT was performed in 12 cases. Five showed improvement of the response to ACZ. At 3 months after surgery, 8 of 12 cases treated with ACZ activation SPECT showed improved response to ACZ. In most of the cases, improved response to ACZ could be seen after response to motor activation improved. STA-MCA bypass is useful not only for resting CBF but also for pure motor function based on motor activation SPECT. (K.H.)

  5. Usefulness of isoproterenol stress thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Masuoka, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Twenty patients complaining of chest pain were referred for isoproterenol stress thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (ISO-SPECT). The findings were compared with those obtained from isoproterenol stress ECG testing (ISO-ECG) and exercise SPECT (EX-SPECT). Isoproterenol was iv injected in a dose of 0.02 μg/kg/min. The amount was continuously increased until limited by chest pain, ST depression, and/or determined heart rate criteria. The patients were scanned immediately and three hours after giving isoproterenol. Transient hypoperfusion was regarded as myocardial ischemia. Washout rate, obtained from circumferential profile analysis on the short axis SPECT images, was expressed by Bull's eye display. Fifteen patients with angiographically significant stenosis of 75% or greater were diagnosed as having coronary artery disease (CAD). The other five patients had normal coronary artery (NC). In diagnosing CAD, ISO-ECG and ISO-SPECT had a sensitivity of 80% and 92%, respectively. Because the NC group had negative findings for redistribution on ISO-SPECT, the specificy of ISO-SPECT seemed to be high. For multi-vessel disease, redistribution on ISO-SPECT tended to underestimate coronary lesions. The underestimation was, however, corrected by calculating washout rate. For evaluable 11 patients undergoing concurrent EX-SPECT, ISP-SPECT was equivalent or superior to EX-SPECT in diagnostic sensitivity. None of the patients had severe side effects of isoproterenol, except for some having arrhythmia. The results indicated that ISO-SPECT is a safe, high sensitive diagnostic approach that is comparable to Ex-SPECT. (N.K.)

  6. Topodiagnosis in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by HMPAO-SPECT. Topodiagnostik der Creutzfeldt-Jakobschen Krankheit durch HMPAO-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heye, N. (Neurologische Klinik, St. Josef Hospital, Bochum Univ. (Germany)); Farahati, J. (Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)); Heinz, A. (Neurologische Klinik, St. Josef Hospital, Bochum Univ. (Germany)); Buettner, T. (Neurologische Klinik, St. Josef Hospital, Bochum Univ. (Germany)); Przuntek, H. (Neurologische Klinik, St. Josef Hospital, Bochum Univ. (Germany)); Reiners, C. (Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany))

    1993-02-01

    A 80-year old female presented with an early stage of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with clinical, neurophysiological and neuropathological findings suggesting a focal involvement of the brain. HMPAO SPECT disclosed asymmetries of regional cerebral perfusion, thus suggesting that it may be a further diagnostic instrument in this disease. (orig.)

  7. Skeletal scintigraphy and SPECT/CT in orthopedic imaging; Knochenszintigrafie und SPECT/CT bei orthopaedischen Fragestellungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaeser, B.; Walter, M.; Krause, T. [Inselspital Bern (Switzerland). Universitaetsklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2011-03-15

    Multi-modality imaging with SPECT-CT in orthopaedics combines the excellent sensitivity of scintigraphy with the morphological information of CT as a key for specific interpretation of findings in bone scans. The result is an imaging modality with the clear potential to prove of value even in a competitive setting dominated by MRI, and to significantly add to diagnostic imaging in orthopaedics. SPECT-CT is of great value in the diagnostic evaluation after fractures, and - in contrast to MRI - it is well suited for imaging in patients with osteosyntheses and metallic implants. In sports medicine, SPECT-CT allows for a sensitive and specific detection of osseous stress reactions before morphological changes become detectable by CT or MRI. In patients with osseous pain syndromes, actively evolving degenerative changes as a cause of pain can be identified and accurately localized. Further, particularly prospective diagnostic studies providing comparative data are needed to strengthen the position of nuclear imaging in orthopaedics and sports medicine and to help implementing SPECT/CT in diagnostic algorithms. (orig.)

  8. Automated MicroSPECT/MicroCT Image Analysis of the Mouse Thyroid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Hollingsworth, Brynn; Scarberry, Daniel; Shen, Daniel H; Powell, Kimerly; Smart, Sean C; Beech, John; Sheng, Xiaochao; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Menq, Chia-Hsiang; Jhiang, Sissy M

    2017-11-01

    The ability of thyroid follicular cells to take up iodine enables the use of radioactive iodine (RAI) for imaging and targeted killing of RAI-avid thyroid cancer following thyroidectomy. To facilitate identifying novel strategies to improve 131 I therapeutic efficacy for patients with RAI refractory disease, it is desired to optimize image acquisition and analysis for preclinical mouse models of thyroid cancer. A customized mouse cradle was designed and used for microSPECT/CT image acquisition at 1 hour (t1) and 24 hours (t24) post injection of 123 I, which mainly reflect RAI influx/efflux equilibrium and RAI retention in the thyroid, respectively. FVB/N mice with normal thyroid glands and TgBRAF V600E mice with thyroid tumors were imaged. In-house CTViewer software was developed to streamline image analysis with new capabilities, along with display of 3D voxel-based 123 I gamma photon intensity in MATLAB. The customized mouse cradle facilitates consistent tissue configuration among image acquisitions such that rigid body registration can be applied to align serial images of the same mouse via the in-house CTViewer software. CTViewer is designed specifically to streamline SPECT/CT image analysis with functions tailored to quantify thyroid radioiodine uptake. Automatic segmentation of thyroid volumes of interest (VOI) from adjacent salivary glands in t1 images is enabled by superimposing the thyroid VOI from the t24 image onto the corresponding aligned t1 image. The extent of heterogeneity in 123 I accumulation within thyroid VOIs can be visualized by 3D display of voxel-based 123 I gamma photon intensity. MicroSPECT/CT image acquisition and analysis for thyroidal RAI uptake is greatly improved by the cradle and the CTViewer software, respectively. Furthermore, the approach of superimposing thyroid VOIs from t24 images to select thyroid VOIs on corresponding aligned t1 images can be applied to studies in which the target tissue has differential radiotracer retention

  9. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe; Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina; Daniele, Stefania; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR (≥85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  10. Design and evaluation of two multi-pinhole collimators for brain SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Tsui, Benjamin M W; Mok, Greta S P

    2017-10-01

    SPECT is a powerful tool for diagnosing or staging brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) but is limited by its inferior resolution and sensitivity. At the same time, pinhole SPECT provides superior resolution and detection efficiency trade-off as compared to the conventional parallel-hole collimator for imaging small field-of-view (FOV), which fits for the case of brain imaging. In this study, we propose to develop and evaluate two multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator designs to improve the imaging of cerebral blood flow and striatum. We set the target resolutions to be 12 and 8 mm, respectively, and the FOV at 200 mm which is large enough to cover the whole brain. The constraints for system optimization include maximum and minimum detector-to-center-of-FOV (CFOV) distances of 344 and 294 mm, respectively, and minimal radius-of-rotation (ROR) of 135 mm to accommodate patients' shoulder. According to the targeted FOV, resolutions, and constraints, we determined the pinhole number, ROR, focal length, aperture acceptance angle, and aperture diameter which maximized the system sensitivity. We then assessed the imaging performance of the proposed MPH and standard low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimators using analytical simulations of a digital NCAT brain phantom with 99m Tc-HMPAO/ 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 distributions; Monte Carlo simulations of a hot-rod phantom; and a Defrise phantom using GATE v6.1. Projections were generated over 360° and reconstructed using the 3D MPH/LEHR OS-EM methods with up to 720 updates. The normalized mean square error (NMSE) was calculated over the cerebral and striatal regions extracted from the reconstructed images for 99m Tc-HMPAO and 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 simulations, respectively, and average normalized standard deviation (NSD) based on 20 noise realizations was assessed on selected uniform 3D regions as the noise index. Visual assessment and image profiles were applied to the results of Monte Carlo

  11. Activity concentration measurements using a conjugate gradient (Siemens xSPECT) reconstruction algorithm in SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ian S; Hoffmann, Sandra A

    2016-11-01

    The interest in quantitative single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) shows potential in a number of clinical applications and now several vendors are providing software and hardware solutions to allow 'SUV-SPECT' to mirror metrics used in PET imaging. This brief technical report assesses the accuracy of activity concentration measurements using a new algorithm 'xSPECT' from Siemens Healthcare. SPECT/CT data were acquired from a uniform cylinder with 5, 10, 15 and 20 s/projection and NEMA image quality phantom with 25 s/projection. The NEMA phantom had hot spheres filled with an 8 : 1 activity concentration relative to the background compartment. Reconstructions were performed using parameters defined by manufacturer presets available with the algorithm. The accuracy of activity concentration measurements was assessed. A dose calibrator-camera cross-calibration factor (CCF) was derived from the uniform phantom data. In uniform phantom images, a positive bias was observed, ranging from ∼6% in the lower count images to ∼4% in the higher-count images. On the basis of the higher-count data, a CCF of 0.96 was derived. As expected, considerable negative bias was measured in the NEMA spheres using region mean values whereas positive bias was measured in the four largest NEMA spheres. Nonmonotonically increasing recovery curves for the hot spheres suggested the presence of Gibbs edge enhancement from resolution modelling. Sufficiently accurate activity concentration measurements can easily be measured on images reconstructed with the xSPECT algorithm without a CCF. However, the use of a CCF is likely to improve accuracy further. A manual conversion of voxel values into SUV should be possible, provided that the patient weight, injected activity and time between injection and imaging are all known accurately.

  12. Preparation and anatomical distribution study of 67Ga-alginic acid nanoparticles for SPECT purposes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidarieh Marzieh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergosan contains 1% alginic acid extracted from two brown sea weeds. Little is known about the target organs and anatomical distribution of Ergosan (alginic acid in fish. Therefore, feasibility of developing alginic acid nanoparticles to detect target organ in rainbow trout is interesting. To make nanoparticles, Ergosan extract (alginic acid was irradiated at 30 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Results from TEM images showed that particle sizes of irradiated alginic acid ranged from 30 to 70 nm. The FTIR results indicated that gamma irradiation had no significant influence on the basic structure of alginic acid. Later, alginic acid nanoparticles were successively labelled with 67Ga-gallium chloride. The biodistribution of irradiated Ergosan in normal rainbow trout showed highest uptake in intestine and kidney and then in liver and kidney at 4- and 24-h post injection, respectively. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images also demonstrated target specific binding of the tracer at 4- and 24-h post injection. In conclusion, the feed supplemented with alginic acid nanoparticles enhanced SPECT images of gastrointestinal morphology and immunity system in normal rainbow trout.

  13. A methodology for generating normal and pathological brain perfusion SPECT images for evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods: application in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grova, C [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Jannin, P [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Biraben, A [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Buvat, I [INSERM U494, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Paris (France); Benali, H [INSERM U494, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Paris (France); Bernard, A M [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Centre Eugene Marquis, Rennes (France); Scarabin, J M [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Gibaud, B [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2003-12-21

    Quantitative evaluation of brain MRI/SPECT fusion methods for normal and in particular pathological datasets is difficult, due to the frequent lack of relevant ground truth. We propose a methodology to generate MRI and SPECT datasets dedicated to the evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods and illustrate the method when dealing with ictal SPECT. The method consists in generating normal or pathological SPECT data perfectly aligned with a high-resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI using realistic Monte Carlo simulations that closely reproduce the response of a SPECT imaging system. Anatomical input data for the SPECT simulations are obtained from this 3D T1-weighted MRI, while functional input data result from an inter-individual analysis of anatomically standardized SPECT data. The method makes it possible to control the 'brain perfusion' function by proposing a theoretical model of brain perfusion from measurements performed on real SPECT images. Our method provides an absolute gold standard for assessing MRI/SPECT registration method accuracy since, by construction, the SPECT data are perfectly registered with the MRI data. The proposed methodology has been applied to create a theoretical model of normal brain perfusion and ictal brain perfusion characteristic of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To approach realistic and unbiased perfusion models, real SPECT data were corrected for uniform attenuation, scatter and partial volume effect. An anatomic standardization was used to account for anatomic variability between subjects. Realistic simulations of normal and ictal SPECT deduced from these perfusion models are presented. The comparison of real and simulated SPECT images showed relative differences in regional activity concentration of less than 20% in most anatomical structures, for both normal and ictal data, suggesting realistic models of perfusion distributions for evaluation purposes. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry coefficients measured on simulated data were

  14. A combined static-dynamic single-dose imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Maria; Shrestha, Uttam M; Seo, Youngho; Gullberg, Grant T; Botvinick, Elias H

    2017-08-03

    SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a clinical mainstay that is typically performed with static imaging protocols and visually or semi-quantitatively assessed for perfusion defects based upon the relative intensity of myocardial regions. Dynamic cardiac SPECT presents a new imaging technique based on time-varying information of radiotracer distribution, which permits the evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). In this work, a preliminary feasibility study was conducted in a small patient sample designed to implement a unique combined static-dynamic single-dose one-day visit imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT for improving the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifteen patients (11 males, four females, mean age 71 ± 9 years) were enrolled for a combined dynamic and static SPECT (Infinia Hawkeye 4, GE Healthcare) imaging protocol with a single dose of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin administered at rest and a single dose administered at stress in a one-day visit. Out of 15 patients, eleven had selective coronary angiography (SCA), 8 within 6 months and the rest within 24 months of SPECT imaging, without intervening symptoms or interventions. The extent and severity of perfusion defects in each myocardial region was graded visually. Dynamically acquired data were also used to estimate the MBF and CFR. Both visually graded images and estimated CFR were tested against SCA as a reference to evaluate the validity of the methods. Overall, conventional static SPECT was normal in ten patients and abnormal in five patients, dynamic SPECT was normal in 12 patients and abnormal in three patients, and CFR from dynamic SPECT was normal in nine patients and abnormal in six patients. Among those 11 patients with SCA, conventional SPECT was normal in 5, 3 with documented CAD on SCA with an overall accuracy of 64%, sensitivity of 40% and specificity of 83%. Dynamic SPECT image

  15. Development of advanced industrial SPECT system with 12-gonal diverging-collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jang Guen; Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Moon, Jinho; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2014-01-01

    Industrial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a promising diagnosis technique to investigate the dynamic behavior of process media. In the present study, a 12-gonal industrial SPECT system was developed using diverging collimators, and its performance was compared with those of hexagonal and 24-gonal systems. Of all of the systems, the 12-gonal type showed the best performance, providing (1) a detection-efficiency map without edge artifacts, (2) the best image resolution, and (3) reconstruction images that correctly furnish multi-source information. Based on the performance of the three different types of configurations, a SPECT system with 12-gonal type configuration was found most suitable for investigating and visualization of flow dynamics in industrial process systems. - highlights: • Industrial SPECT provides the dynamic behavior of multiphase industrial processes. • The present study compared performance of various industrial SPECT systems. • The 12-gonal SPECT system with diverging-collimator provides the best performance

  16. Study of cerebrovascular diseases and SPECT with 99mTc HMPAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazo de la Maza, A.; Borron Molinos, M.; Barroso, E.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty eight patients with Cerebrovascular disease, that had suffered a Thrombotic brain infraction, demonstrated by Computed electroencephalogram or Brain Mapping (BM) and Computerized Tomography (CT) were investigated with '99' '9' 'm' Tc HM-PAO brain SPECT. Their ages ranged from 37 to 73 years old, 18 males and 20 female. Some of them were followed up with these diagnostic methods. The acquisition and processing of the SPECT studies were donw with a SOPHY DS7 Gamma Camera. The results showed that the global diagnostic sensibility of the SPECT was 79%. The sensibility of SPECT in the Acute stage was 75 %, CT 57% and BM 92%. In Steady stage we found a high positivity of SPECT with 83 %, Ct 66% and BM 66%. In the Recuperation Stage SPECT was 77%, CT 66% and 45%. Some phenomenon like the Luxury Perfusion and Diaschisis were studied and it is possible to found some prognostic relation

  17. Cortical region of interest definition on SPECT brain images using X-ray CT registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzourio, N.; Sutton, D. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot); Joliot, M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot INSERM, Orsay (France)); Mazoyer, B.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot Antenne d' Information Medicale, C.H.U. Bichat, Paris (France)); Charlot, V. (Hopital Louis Mourier, Colombes (France). Service de Psychiatrie); Salamon, G. (CHU La Timone, Marseille (France). Service de Neuroradiologie)

    1992-11-01

    We present a method for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis based on individual registration of anatomical (CT) and functional ([sup 133]Xe regional cerebral blood flow) images and on the definition of three-dimensional functional regions of interest. Registration of CT and SPECT is performed through adjustment of CT-defined cortex limits to the SPECT image. Regions are defined by sectioning a cortical ribbon on the CT images, copied over the SPECT images and pooled through slices to give 3D cortical regions of interest. The proposed method shows good intra- and interobserver reproducibility (regional intraclass correlation coefficient [approx equal]0.98), and good accuracy in terms of repositioning ([approx equal]3.5 mm) as compared to the SPECT image resolution (14 mm). The method should be particularly useful for analysing SPECT studies when variations in brain anatomy (normal or abnormal) must be accounted for. (orig.).

  18. 123I-IMP single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) study in childhood epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Masafumi; Shimomura, Osamu; Kojima, Akihiro; Izunaga, Hiroshi; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Taku, Keiichi; Miike, Teruhisa; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    1990-01-01

    N-isopropyl-p[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine (IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), X-ray computed tomography (X-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in 18 children with idiopathic seizures. In children with idiopathic seizures SPECT identified abnormal lesions in the highest rate (50%) compared with X-CT (11%) and MRI (13%), but the findings of SPECT poorly correlated with the foci on electroencephalography (EEG). Idiopathic epilepsy with abnormal uptake on SPECT was refractory to medical treatments and frequently associated with mental and/or developmental retardation. Perfusion defects identified on SPECT probably influenced the development of the brains in children. IMP SPECT is useful in the diagnosis and medical treatment in children with seizures. (author)

  19. Attenuation correction of myocardial SPECT images with X-ray CT. Effects of registration errors between X-ray CT and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Murase, Kenya; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Motomura, Nobutoku

    2002-01-01

    Attenuation correction with an X-ray CT image is a new method to correct attenuation on SPECT imaging, but the effect of the registration errors between CT and SPECT images is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the registration errors on myocardial SPECT, analyzing data from a phantom and a human volunteer. Registerion (fusion) of the X-ray CT and SPECT images was done with standard packaged software in three dimensional fashion, by using linked transaxial, coronal and sagittal images. In the phantom study, and X-ray CT image was shifted 1 to 3 pixels on the x, y and z axes, and rotated 6 degrees clockwise. Attenuation correction maps generated from each misaligned X-ray CT image were used to reconstruct misaligned SPECT images of the phantom filled with 201 Tl. In a human volunteer, X-ray CT was acquired in different conditions (during inspiration vs. expiration). CT values were transferred to an attenuation constant by using straight lines; an attenuation constant of 0/cm in the air (CT value=-1,000 HU) and that of 0.150/cm in water (CT value=0 HU). For comparison, attenuation correction with transmission CT (TCT) data and an external γ-ray source ( 99m Tc) was also applied to reconstruct SPECT images. Simulated breast attenuation with a breast attachment, and inferior wall attenuation were properly corrected by means of the attenuation correction map generated from X-ray CT. As pixel shift increased, deviation of the SPECT images increased in misaligned images in the phantom study. In the human study, SPECT images were affected by the scan conditions of the X-ray CT. Attenuation correction of myocardial SPECT with an X-ray CT image is a simple and potentially beneficial method for clinical use, but accurate registration of the X-ray CT to SPECT image is essential for satisfactory attenuation correction. (author)

  20. Radiolabeled Peptide Scaffolds for PET/SPECT - Optical in Vivo Imaging of Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutscher, Susan

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this research is to develop phage display-selected peptides into radio- and fluoresecently- labeled scaffolds for the multimodal imaging of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. While numerous protein and receptor systems are being explored for the development of targeted imaging agents, the targeting and analysis of carbohydrate-lectin complexes in vivo remains relatively unexplored. Antibodies, nanoparticles, and peptides are being developed that target carbohydrate-lectin complexes in living systems. However, antibodies and nanoparticles often suffer from slow clearance and toxicity problems. Peptides are attractive alternative vehicles for the specific delivery of radionuclides or fluorophores to sites of interest in vivo, although, because of their size, uptake and retention may be less than antibodies. We have selected high affinity peptides that bind a specific carbohydrate-lectin complex involved in cell-cell adhesion and cross-linking using bacteriophage (phage) display technologies (1,2). These peptides have allowed us to probe the role of these antigens in cell adhesion. Fluorescent versions of the peptides have been developed for optical imaging and radiolabeled versions have been used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo imaging (3-6). A benefit in employing the radiolabeled peptides in SPECT and PET is that these imaging modalities are widely used in living systems and offer deep tissue sensitivity. Radiolabeled peptides, however, often exhibit poor stability and high kidney uptake in vivo. Conversely, optical imaging is sensitive and offers good spatial resolution, but is not useful for deep tissue penetration and is semi-quantitative. Thus, multimodality imaging that relies on the strengths of both radio- and optical- imaging is a current focus for development of new in vivo imaging agents. We propose a novel means to improve the efficacy of radiolabeled and fluorescently

  1. Mnemonic activation by SPECT; Activation mnesique en TEMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migneco, O.; Darcourt, J.; Benoit, M; Malandain, G.; Thirion, J.P.; Robert, Ph.; Vidal, R.; Desvignes, Ph.; Benoliel, J.; Ayache, N.; Bussiere, F. [Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, INRIA (France)

    1997-12-31

    Data of literature show that SPECT is able to detect cerebral activations induced by sensory-motor stimuli. The facts are not clearly established in what concerns the cognitive activations the amplitude of which is lower. We have studied an activation paradigm such as the Grober and Bruschke test which implies the long term explicit memory. It comprises a visual presentation of words followed by their indexed recall. By using a two-day protocol, 2 SPECTs were achieved in 4 healthy right-handed voluntaries as follows: one of activation (A) and one of control (B). The fifth subject benefited by a SPECT B and of an MRI. The injection for the examination A has been done during the indexed recall stage and for the examination B at the moment when the patient repeated several times the same 3 words. The SPECT data were collected 1 hour after the injection of 370 MBq of ECD making use of a 3-head camera equipped with UHR fan collimators and ending by a LMH on the reconstructed images of 8 mm. The MRI has been achieved by means of a Signa 1.5 Tesla magnet. The SPECT A and B of the subjects 1 to 4 were matched elastically to that of the subject 5 and that of the subject 5 was rigidly matched on its MRI. In this way the individual activation cards of the 4 subjects could be averaged and superimposed on the MRI of the 5. subject. One observes an internal temporal activation (maximal activation of left tonsil, +25% and right uncus, +23%) and a right cingulum activation (maximal activation, +25%), in agreement with the neuro-physiological data. The elastic matching makes possible the inter-subject averaging, what increases the signal-to-noise ratio of activation. The inter-modality rigid matching facilitates the anatomical localisation of the activation site. With these adapted tools, the cognitive activation is thus possible by SPECT and opens perspectives for early diagnosis of neurological troubles, namely of Alzheimer`s disease

  2. SPECT-CT bone scintigraphy in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergieva, S; Alexandrova, A.; Nikolova, N.; Dimcheva, M.; Baichev, G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: SPECT-CT study allows the precise correlation between functional and morphological data on the same image. Methods: Whole body bone scan (WBBS) is a diagnostic modality still firmly established as a valuable tool to assess skeleton abnormalities. CT is an imaging method for characterizing destruction of the bone spongy lesions, their consolidation or calcium accumulation. This fact allows differentiation of the osteolytic metastases from the osteosclerotic and mixed lesions and also from degenerative ones. Whole body bone scan followed by SPECT-CT scanning increases the accuracy of the study and potentially accelerates the diagnosis of the patient based on a single imaging session. This is especially important in cancer patients. Results and discussion: After retrospectively review of WBBS and SPECT-CT fused images 141 bone lesions in 89 pts were analyzed The skeletal findings with previously uncertain character were classified as definitely benign, indeterminate or definitely malignant. 1. 47 (33%) of all lesions in 36 pts could be correlated with benign degenerative findings on SPECT-CT images. 5 (3%) lesions in 3 of these pts were indeterminate on the SPECT-CT images. They were localized in the area of articulation parts and corpus of the thoracic vertebra and ribs. After additional MRT examination and 6 months follow-up these changes were considered degenerative: osteopathy changes and presence of spondyloarthrosis and osteochondrosis; compression fractures due to advanced osteoporosis. These pts were with prolonged chormono/chemotherapy; chronic inflammatory disease of the coxofemoral articulation, coxarthrosis, aseptic necrosis of the femoral head and postoperative sacroiliitis; post-traumatic fractures or surgical intervention; hyperplastic degenerative lesions in the skeleton and asymmetrical pelvic bone structures due to M. Paget. 2. 41 (28,1%) single osseous metastatic spots (up to 3 foci) were scanned in 31 pts. 3. 13 (10

  3. {sup 67}Ga-SPECT/CT with a hybrid system in the clinical management of lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Sivolella, Silvio; Palumbo, Renato [University of Perugia, Nuclear Medicine Section, Department of Radiological Sciences, Perugia (Italy); Palumbo, Isabella; Liberati, Anna Marina [University of Perugia, Internal Medicine and Oncology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Perugia (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the added value of co-registered fusion imaging using a hybrid system in patients with lymphoma. Twenty-four lymphoma patients underwent {sup 67}Ga-SPECT/CT using a hybrid tomograph consisting of a dual-head, variable-angle gamma camera and a low-dose X-ray tube. Results were compared with those of SPECT alone. Forty-five lesions were identified by SPECT alone, while 49 were detected by SPECT/CT. Forty out of the 45 lesions observed on SPECT were confirmed as lymphoma, but five were due to other causes (thoracic aorta blood pool activity, sialoadenitis in the submandibular gland, bowel activity, rib fracture and bone marrow activation due to radiotherapy). SPECT/CT identified nine more neoplastic lesions compared with SPECT alone: four areas of radiopharmaceutical accumulation were observed in para-aortic lymph nodes, three in the spleen, one in the liver and one in para-iliac lymph nodes. In five cases, SPECT/CT provided additional anatomical information over SPECT alone. In four patients, four large areas of {sup 67}Ga uptake (one mediastinal, two supraclavicular and one para-aortic) were better characterised; in one subject uptake was localised in the seventh thoracic vertebra only by SPECT/CT. Hybrid imaging provided additional data in 13 patients (54.2%), thus inducing oncologists to reconsider the therapeutic approach in eight subjects (33.2%): unnecessary treatment was avoided in four (16.6%) while therapy was altered in another four (16.6%). SPECT/CT hybrid system is able to provide information not obtained by SPECT alone. It allows the anatomical localisation of lymphoma and physiological radiopharmaceutical uptake, facilitates the diagnosis of tumours located in the abdomen (subdiaphragmatic lesions) and provides information that may cause a change in therapeutic strategy. (orig.)

  4. Recovered neuronal viability revealed by Iodine-123-iomazenil SPECT following traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Fujisawa, Hirosuke; Kurokawa, Tetsu; Suehiro, Eiichi; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated cortical damages following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the acute phase with [123I] iomazenil (IMZ) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In all, 12 patients with cerebral contusion following TBI were recruited. All patients underwent IMZ SPECT within 1 week after TBI. To investigate the changes in distribution of IMZ in the cortex in the chronic phase, after conventional treatment, patients underwent IMZ SPECT again. A decrease in the accumulation of radioligand...

  5. Brain SPECT in children; Explorations scintigraphiques en neurologie et psychiatrie de l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyot, M. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)

    1996-12-31

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author). 18 refs.

  6. SPECT and PET Serve as Molecular Imaging Techniques and in Vivo Biomarkers for Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Buresta, Tommaso; Nuvoli, Susanna; Spanu, Angela; Schillaci, Orazio; Fravolini, Mario Luca; Palumbo, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear medicine techniques (single photon emission computerized tomography, SPECT, and positron emission tomography, PET) represent molecular imaging tools, able to provide in vivo biomarkers of different diseases. To investigate brain tumours and metastases many different radiopharmaceuticals imaged by SPECT and PET can be used. In this review the main and most promising radiopharmaceuticals available to detect brain metastases are reported. Furthermore the diagnostic contribution of the combination of SPECT and PET data with radiological findings (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) is discussed. PMID:24897023

  7. Detection of breast cancer microcalcification using 99mTc-MDP SPECT or Osteosense 750EX FMT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, Dayo D.; Gore, John C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In previous work, we demonstrated the presence of hydroxyapetite (type II microcalcification), HAP, in triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We used 18 F-NaF to detect these types of cancers in mouse models as the free fluorine, 18 F − , binds to HAP similar to bone uptake. In this work, we investigate other bone targeting agents and techniques including 99m Tc-MDP SPECT and Osteosense 750EX FMT imaging as alternatives for breast cancer diagnosis via targeting HAP within the tumor microenvironment. Methods: Thirteen mice were injected subcutaneously in the right flank with 10 6 MDA-MB-231 cells. When the tumor size reached ~ 0.6 cm 3 , mice (n = 9) were injected with ~ 37 MBq of 99m Tc-MDP intravenously and then imaged one hour later in a NanoSPECT/CT or injected intravenously with 4 nmol/g of Osetosense 750EX and imaged 24 hours later in an FMT (n = 4). The imaging probe concentration in the tumor was compared to that of muscle. Following SPECT imaging, the tumors were harvested, sectioned into 10 μm slices, and underwent autoradiography or von Kossa staining to correlate 99m Tc-MDP binding with HAP distribution within the tumor. The SPECT images were normalized to the injected dose and regions-of-interest (ROIs) were drawn around bone, tumor, and muscle to obtain the radiotracer concentration in these regions in units of percent injected dose per unit volume. ROIs were drawn around bone and tumor in the FMT images as no FMT signal was observed in normal muscle. Results: Uptake of 99m Tc-MDP was observed in the bone and tumor with little or no uptake in the muscle with concentrations of 11.34 ± 1.46 (mean ± SD), 2.22 ± 0.95, and 0.05 ± 0.04 %ID/cc, respectively. Uptake of Osteosense 750EX was also observed in the bone and tumor with concentrations of 0.35 ± 0.07 (mean ± SD) and 0.04 ± 0.01 picomoles, respectively. No FMT signal was observed in the normal muscle. There was no significant difference in the bone-to-tumor ratio between

  8. EANM procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT and SPECT/CT: 2015 revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verberne, Hein J.; Eck-Smit, Berthe L.F. van; Wit, Tim C. de; Acampa, Wanda; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Ballinger, Jim; Bengel, Frank; Bondt, Pieter De; Buechel, Ronny R.; Kaufmann, Philip A.; Cuocolo, Alberto; Flotats, Albert; Hacker, Marcus; Hindorf, Cecilia; Lindner, Oliver; Ljungberg, Michael; Lonsdale, Markus; Manrique, Alain; Minarik, David; Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.; Traegaardh, Elin; Hesse, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in 2005, many small and some larger steps of progress have been made, improving MPI procedures. In this paper, the major changes from the updated 2015 procedural guidelines are highlighted, focusing on the important changes related to new instrumentation with improved image information and the possibility to reduce radiation exposure, which is further discussed in relation to the recent developments of new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Introduction of the selective coronary vasodilator regadenoson and the use of coronary CT-contrast agents for hybrid imaging with SPECT/CT angiography are other important areas for nuclear cardiology that were not included in the previous guidelines. A large number of minor changes have been described in more detail in the fully revised version available at the EANM home page: http://eanm.org/ publications/guidelines/2015 0 7 E ANM F INAL myocardial p erfusion g uideline.pdf. (orig.)

  9. EANM procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT and SPECT/CT: 2015 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verberne, Hein J.; Eck-Smit, Berthe L.F. van; Wit, Tim C. de [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, F2-238, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Acampa, Wanda [National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos [Academy of Athens, Center for Experimental Surgery, Clinical and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation, Athens (Greece); Ballinger, Jim [Guy' s Hospital - Guy' s and St Thomas' Trust Foundation, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Bengel, Frank [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Bondt, Pieter De [OLV Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aalst (Belgium); Buechel, Ronny R.; Kaufmann, Philip A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Flotats, Albert [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hacker, Marcus [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Hindorf, Cecilia [Skaane University Hospital, Department of Radiation Physics, Lund (Sweden); Lindner, Oliver [University Hospital of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia, Institute for Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Ljungberg, Michael [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund (Sweden); Lonsdale, Markus [Bispebjerg Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Manrique, Alain [Caen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Service Commun Investigations chez l' Homme, GIP Cyceron, Caen (France); Minarik, David [Skaane University Hospital, Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden); Scholte, Arthur J.H.A. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Traegaardh, Elin [Skaane University Hospital and Lund University, Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Malmoe (Sweden); Hesse, Birger [University Hospital of Copenhagen, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-11-15

    Since the publication of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in 2005, many small and some larger steps of progress have been made, improving MPI procedures. In this paper, the major changes from the updated 2015 procedural guidelines are highlighted, focusing on the important changes related to new instrumentation with improved image information and the possibility to reduce radiation exposure, which is further discussed in relation to the recent developments of new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Introduction of the selective coronary vasodilator regadenoson and the use of coronary CT-contrast agents for hybrid imaging with SPECT/CT angiography are other important areas for nuclear cardiology that were not included in the previous guidelines. A large number of minor changes have been described in more detail in the fully revised version available at the EANM home page: http://eanm.org/ publications/guidelines/2015{sub 0}7{sub E}ANM{sub F}INAL myocardial{sub p}erfusion{sub g}uideline.pdf. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of cone beam SPECT with conventional SPECT by means of cardiac-thorax phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, M.A.; Manglos, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Because of poor energy characteristics of Tl-201 used for myocardial perfusion imaging, the high sensitivity of cone-beam collimation is highly desirable. Using a cardiac-thorax phantom, the authors have compared single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images obtained with a cone-beam collimator to those from a parallel hole collimator commonly used for thallium studies. A water-filled circular phantom with a cardiac insert was imaged. The myocardial shell was filled with Tl-201 (220 μCi). Two solid inserts within the myocardium simulated perfusion defects. The phantom ignores truncation effects in this preliminary experiment. For the authors' collimator, the resolution was designed to be similar to the authors' all-purpose, parallel-hole collimator at 10 cm. The focal length was 50 cm. The experimental protocol was chosen to be similar to their clinical protocol. A filtered back projection algorithm was used for cone-beam data. The same algorithm was used for the parallel-hole data, but with focal length set to infinity

  11. Evaluation of pulmonary emphysema by the fused image of CT image and ventilation SPECT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Ituko; Maruno, Hiromasa; Mori, Kazuaki; Kohno, Tadashi; Kokubo, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated pulmonary emphysema using a diagnostic device that could obtain a CT image, a ventilation single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image and a lung perfusion SPECT image in one examination. The fused image made from the CT image and SPECT image had very little position gap between images, and the precision was high. From the fused image, we were able to detect the areas in which emphysematous change was the most marked in the CT image, while the accumulation decrease was most remarkable in the ventilation SPECT image. Thus it was possible to obtain an accurate status of pulmonary emphysema, and our method was regarded as a useful technique. (author)

  12. Usefulness of change ratio map in 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT with acetazolamide enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    1996-01-01

    Although a sequential 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT technique with Diamox test (seq-SPECT) is a simple and time-saving procedure to assess brain perfusion reserve, the influence of the first dose of the tracer on the second one is not negligible. Therefore, a subtraction of the rest-SPECT from the 2nd SPECT is widely-used. However, subtracted SPECT images not only need to be corrected for the injected dose and the radiochemical purity due to inherent instability of HMPAO but also are usually degraded in quality. This study was undertaken to resolve these problems utilizing a change ratio (CR) map. The CR map was obtained by dividing 2nd SPECT by rest-SPECT. Prior to subtraction, the 2nd SPECT was normalized with the ratio of the mean whole brain counts between both SPECTs. To validate CR map, 7 patients were studied with both seq-SPECT and 133 Xe inhalation CBF measurement (Xe-CBF). The right to left count ratio obtained from the ROIs placed on MCA territory of CR map correlated well with that from Xe-CBF (r=0.89, p<0.01). Fifty-three patients with stroke underwent the seq-SPECT which was compared with the cerebral angiography (CAG) and classified into 4 groups according to the CR map. In 25 patients, all of the rest-, the subtracted-SPECT and the CR map did not show any difference between the affected side and the contralateral normal side. Seven patients with normal rest-SPECT showed decreased subtracted-SPECT counts and CR on the affected side. Three of them showed more than 75% stenosis on CAG. Four patients with the decreased counts both at the rest-and the subtracted-SPECT revealed no difference on the CR map suggesting the matched decrease of both blood flow and metabolism in the affected side. In conclusion, the CR map was a simple and useful method to evaluate the brain perfusion reserve with the seq-SPECT. (author)

  13. Clinical evaluation of 123I-IMP SPECT in patients with various neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Naoto

    1993-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP SPECT) was performed in 57 patients with various neurological disease, and compared with the findings of brain CT, MRI, and EEG. The author also evaluated the relationship between the findings on 123 I-IMP SPECT and the condition of the control of the attack after treatment with antiepileptic drugs in idiopathic epileptic patients. Abnormality of accumulation of 123 I-IMP SPECT was observed in 62.3% of all cases. Focal abnormality was detected in 28.3% of all cases by brain CT and 54.1% by MRI. The detectability of focal abnormality in brain CT and MRI was found to be lower than that of 123 I-TMP SPECT. There was very little significance in detectability between 123 I-IMP SPECT and EEG. But it infers that 123 I-IMP SPECT can detect the subictal state in epileptic patients. One comparative study of the relationship between the findings on 123 I-IMP SPECT and the condition of the control of the attack by antiepileptic drugs in patients with idiopathic epilepsy, abnormality of 123 I-IMP SPECT findings was found to be higher in patients who were not controlled sufficiently than in patients who were controlled sufficiently, and a significant difference is found by X 2 test. 123 I-IMP SPECT is useful for the evaluation of treatment in patients with epilepsy. (author)

  14. DMSA SPECT imaging using oblique reconstruction in a paediatric population - benefits and technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, G.; Ford, M.; Crisp, J.; Bernard, E.; Howman-Giles, R.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: DMSA renal scans are frequently requested for the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pyelonephritis and cortical scarring. This study was designed to:- 1. evaluate oblique reconstruction of DMSA SPECT over standard plane reconstruction and planar imaging; and 2. report on the technical aspects important in obtaining high quality DMSA SPECT, particularly in neonates. Over seven months, 210/231 (91 %) of DMSA scans were performed with SPECT on children from age nine days to 16 years, the median age being 2.5 years. 65 patients (31 %) were under one year and 39 (18%) were under six months. Planar and SPECT imaging with standard plane reconstruction and oblique reorientation was performed on the Siemens triple-headed gamma camera. High quality SPECT images were obtained on the smallest babies using a paediatric palette, and were of comparable quality to those of older children. At the time of reporting, the nuclear medicine physician assessed the diagnostic value of the three types of date presented: (1) planar images; (2) standard plane SPECT reconstruction; and (3) oblique SPECT reconstruction. Cortical defects were identified separately for upper, middle and lower poles. Three physicians concluded that high quality SPECT is superior to planar images when assessing the renal cortex. In addition, oblique reorientation is superior to standard reconstruction, particularly at the upper and lower poles. SPECT is now performed routinely on patients of all ages, and the oblique sagittal and coronal reorientation is now used in place of the standard reconstruction

  15. Potential value of serial cerebral SPECT scanning in the evaluation of psychiatric illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notardonato, H.; Gonzalez-Avilez, A.; Van Heertum, R.L.; O'Connell, R.A.; Yudd, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral SPECT imaging has the potential to make an important contribution to clinical psychiatry. Cerebral SPECT scanning, stimulated by the work with PET, is readily available and much less expensive than PET. This paper reports a case demonstrating the potential value of cerebral SPECT scanning with I-123 IMP, specifically in the serial evaluation of a schizophrenic patient with auditory hallucinations. The initial scan revealed focal areas of increased uptake in the caudate nuclei of the basal ganglia, and in the right temporal lobe. After pharmacological treatment with clinical improvement, the follow-up SPECT scan demonstrated significant improvement in the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical

  16. Optimization of SPECT calibration for quantification of images applied to dosimetry with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Samira Marques de

    2018-01-01

    SPECT systems calibration plays an essential role in the accuracy of the quantification of images. In this work, in its first stage, an optimized SPECT calibration method was proposed for 131 I studies, considering the partial volume effect (PVE) and the position of the calibration source. In the second stage, the study aimed to investigate the impact of count density and reconstruction parameters on the determination of the calibration factor and the quantification of the image in dosimetry studies, considering the reality of clinical practice in Brazil. In the final step, the study aimed evaluating the influence of several factors in the calibration for absorbed dose calculation using Monte Carlo simulations (MC) GATE code. Calibration was performed by determining a calibration curve (sensitivity versus volume) obtained by applying different thresholds. Then, the calibration factors were determined with an exponential function adjustment. Images were performed with high and low counts densities for several source positions within the simulator. To validate the calibration method, the calibration factors were used for absolute quantification of the total reference activities. The images were reconstructed adopting two approaches of different parameters, usually used in patient images. The methodology developed for the calibration of the tomographic system was easier and faster to implement than other procedures suggested to improve the accuracy of the results. The study also revealed the influence of the location of the calibration source, demonstrating better precision in the absolute quantification considering the location of the target region during the calibration of the system. The study applied in the Brazilian thyroid protocol suggests the revision of the calibration of the SPECT system, including different positions for the reference source, besides acquisitions considering the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the images. Finally, the doses obtained with the

  17. Cerebral blood flow SPECT scanning in cortico-basal degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slawek, J.; Walczak, A.; Krupa-Olchawa, J.; Lass, P.; Dubaniewicz, M.

    1999-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease accounts for ca. 75% of all cases of Parkinsonism. Corticobasal degeneration is a relatively rare example of the so-called ''Parkinson-plus'' syndrome. The authors present the case of a 56-year-old woman with rigidity and atypical tremor of upper extremity followed by gait apraxia, dysarthria, bilateral pyramidal signs and myoclonus. There was no improvement after treatment with L-dopa. The disease has progressed, but the patient is still alive. On the basis of clinical data a diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration has been established. Cerebral blood flow SPECT scanning revealed diffuse hypoperfusion of left frontal lobe, antero-inferior part of the left temporal lobe and left basal ganglia. The case illustrates the usefulness of brain SPECT in atypical forma of Parkinson's disease. (author)

  18. The role of SPECT in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a widespread debilitating neurological disorder which normally affects people in their later life. The personal and financial impact of this disease on patients and their families is enormous, with round-the-clock care being required for those severely affected. There is no single test available to diagnose the disease and, at this time, diagnosis is by a process of elimination. The author considers that neuroimaging has played an important role to this effect, and the use of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is playing an increasing part in helping to eliminate other forms of dementia which may cause similar symptoms to Alzheimer's. It is expected that the relative availability and low cost of SPECT would make it the imaging method of choice in the future. 11 refs., tabs., figs

  19. First Robotic SPECT for Minimally Invasive Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Bernhard; Sprung, Julian; Pinto, Francisco; Frisch, Benjamin; Wendler, Thomas; Simon, Hervé; Mengus, Laurent; van den Berg, Nynke S; van der Poel, Henk G; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; Navab, Nassir

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present the usage of a drop-in gamma probe for intra-operative Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging in the scope of minimally invasive robot-assisted interventions. The probe is designed to be inserted and reside inside the abdominal cavity during the intervention. It is grasped during the procedure using a robotic laparoscopic gripper enabling full six degrees of freedom handling by the surgeon. We demonstrate the first deployment of the tracked probe for intra-operative in-patient robotic SPECT enabling augmented-reality image guidance. The hybrid mechanical- and image-based in-patient probe tracking is shown to have an accuracy of 0.2 mm. The overall system performance is evaluated and tested with a phantom for gynecological sentinel lymph node interventions and compared to ground-truth data yielding a mean reconstruction accuracy of 0.67 mm.

  20. HM-PAO-SPECT in complicated migraine. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenwald, F.; Ruhlmann, J.; Biersack, H.J.; Durwen, H.; Penin, H.

    1988-10-01

    Three HM-PAO-SPECT investigations have been performed in a female patient with a complicated migraine. 2.5 hours after an attack with right-sided numbness and atonic hemiparesis, at the left side a reduced blood flow was seen parietotemporally and in the subcortical structures. The cerebellum showed crossed diaschisis. During a symptom-free interval the SPECT showed a slightly increased parietotemporal blood blow and a reduced right temporooccipital blood flow. During a seizure with left-sided facial spasm, unsystematic clonic movements in all extremities and a following left-sided hemiparesis, the uptake in the visual cortex was increased by 60%. In the right frontotemporal and left temporal region a slightly increased accumulation was found.

  1. SPECT/CT in gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, R.; Hadzhiyska, V.; Petrov, T.

    2015-01-01

    Gingival squamous cell carcinoma have a relatively poor prognosis and large differential diagnosis (periodontitis, osteomyelitis, etc.), therefore, it is usually diagnosed at a late stage. Hematogenous dissemination occurs in only about 10% of cases, including lung (66%), bone (22%), liver (10%), skin, bone marrow and mediastinum. Bone metastases are very rare compared to other malignancies, most commonly affect the axial skeleton (spine, pelvis, ribs and lumbar spine). In our case, we presented a patient with gingival squamous cell carcinoma and bone metastasis in the forearm detected with Whole Body Bone Scintigraphy (WBS), combined with Single Photon Emission Tomography /Computed Tomography (SPECT /CT). The obtained data suggest that the single use of WBS was not informative enough for making the final diagnosis, but the result of combined functional-morphological approach was the most pathognomonic. Thus, with single study can be obtained a complex information, which leads to a fast therapeutic decision. Key words: SPECT/CT. GINGiVAL. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

  2. Corrections in clinical Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nijs, Robin

    infants. In Iodine-123 SPECT the problem of downscatter was addressed. This thesis is based on two papers. Paper I deals with the problem of motion in Single Voxel Spectroscopy. Two novel methods for the identification of outliers in the set of repeated measurements were implemented and compared...... a detrimental effect of the extra-uterine environment on brain development. Paper II describes a method to correct for downscatter in low count Iodine-123 SPECT with a broad energy window above the normal imaging window. Both spatial dependency and weight factors were measured. As expected, the implicitly...... be performed by the subtraction of an energy window, a method was developed to perform scatter and downscatter correction simultaneously. A phantom study has been performed, where the in paper II described downscatter correction was extended with scatter correction. This new combined correction was compared...

  3. Infective endocarditis detection through SPECT/CT images digital processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Albino; Valdés, Raquel; Jiménez, Luis; Vallejo, Enrique; Hernández, Salvador; Soto, Gabriel

    2014-03-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a difficult-to-diagnose pathology, since its manifestation in patients is highly variable. In this work, it was proposed a semiautomatic algorithm based on SPECT images digital processing for the detection of IE using a CT images volume as a spatial reference. The heart/lung rate was calculated using the SPECT images information. There were no statistically significant differences between the heart/lung rates values of a group of patients diagnosed with IE (2.62+/-0.47) and a group of healthy or control subjects (2.84+/-0.68). However, it is necessary to increase the study sample of both the individuals diagnosed with IE and the control group subjects, as well as to improve the images quality.

  4. 201Thallium SPECT, accuracy in astrocytoma diagnosis and treatment evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellen, K.

    1999-10-01

    The aims of the studies included in this thesis were: - to investigate the reliability of 201 Thallium single photon emission computed tomography. Tl SPECT for preoperative diagnosis and histological staging of malignant astrocytomas in comparison with CT; - to develop a method for quantification of cerebral thallium uptake, and to evaluate the quantitative measurement in comparison with CT, for astrocytoma treatment follow-up purposes; - to compare quantitative Tl SPECT and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) with conventional MR imaging for astrocytoma monitoring, and to evaluate associations between change of morphological tumour characteristics during treatment and changes of cerebral thallium uptake and metabolic ratios. Results and conclusions: - High TI-index, calculated as a ratio comparing tumour uptake to uptake in the contralateral hemisphere, is an indicator of highly malignant astrocytoma. Differentiation between the high-grade astrocytomas, the low-grade astrocytomas, and infectious lesions is only partial, with an overlap of Tl-indexes between these groups. High-grade astrocytomas that do not show contrast enhancement on CT, and astrocytomas with central necrosis and moderate ring-enhancement, tend to be underestimated when evaluated by Tl-index calculation. Tl SPECT is not a reliable method for non-invasive tumour staging among the group of highly malignant astrocytomas. - Quantification of cerebral TI-uptake, defining the volume of viable tumour tissue, is a new method for astrocytoma chemotherapy monitoring. Results suggest that the method provides prognostic information, and information of treatment efficacy, at an earlier stage than CT. - We did not find a higher accuracy of quantitative Tl SPECT than of MR for monitoring purposes and our results indicated that treatment induced MR changes were interrelated with TI-uptake variations. - Multi-voxel H-MRS was difficult to apply for astrocytoma treatment monitoring, due to the anatomical

  5. Value of myocardial perfusion SPECT in pediatric population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, T.; Coll, C.; Prat, H.; Gonzalez, P.; Doggenweiller, P.; Castillo, M.E.; Solis, A.

    2002-01-01

    Isotopic myocardial perfusion studies are less frequently used in children than in adults and their indications are also different. Our goal was to analyze retrospectively the experience with stress perfusion myocardial SPECT in pediatric population. Method: Since 1998 to 2001, ten studies were performed to 5 girls and 3 boys. Their mean age was 7±3 years ranging from 1-11. Three of them presented abnormal coronary arteries pre and post surgical intervention with or without coil; three had Kawasaki disease with coronary aneurysms and the other two, congenital cardiopathies (Cantrell pentalogy and great vessel transposition,both with posterior left ventricular hypokinesia post surgery). Stress was obtained using dipyridamole infusion (0.56 mg/kg) in 6 cases and treadmill exercise using Bruce protocol in 4. All those tests were well tolerated. Sestamibi Tc99m was selected in 80% of the cases and Tl 201 in the rest. Only 2 small children required anesthesia during SPECT acquisition. Results: Stress EKG did not demonstrated ischemia in any case. Coronary angiography was performed only in 50% of the patients, it was concordant with SPECT features in all, two of those patients presented transient perfusion defects (one Kawasaki and one abnormal coronary artery with a fistulae).The repaired pentalogy presented ischemia and septal infarction; in that patient echocardiographic hipokinesia was concordant with fixed hypoperfusion. One case with abnormal coronary plus mitral regurgitation (without isotopic ischemia) was submitted to embolization posteriorly, obtaining motion improvement. Clinical outcome was concordant with the presence or absence of isotopic ischemia in the rest of the patients. Conclusion: SPECT myocardial perfusion was helpful in the therapeutic approach and in prediction of outcome in children

  6. Pharmacologic stress-induced stunning: evaluation with quantitative gated SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K. A.; Cho, I. H.; Won, K. J.; Lee, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The after-effect of pharmacologic stress (adenosine) on left ventricular (LV) function, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated after pharmacologic stress with Tl-201 and 99m Tc-MIBI SPECT using an automated program in 153 subjects. The subjects were grouped as follows: 1) Tl-201 group (n=35, male 18, female 17, mean age: 58 years); normal scan (n=24), ischemia (n=8) and infarction (n=3). 2) 99m Tc-MIBI group (n=118, male 60, female 58, mean age: 62 years); normal scan (n=73), ischemia (n=20) and infarction (n=25) based on the interpretation of perfusion images. All patients were in sinus rhythm during the study. 1)Tl-201 group; In patients with ischemia (the mean time interval between injection and acquisition is 12.3 min), post-stress LVEF was significantly depressed after adenosine infusion (51.2 ± 6.3% vs 59.8± 8.2%, p 99m Tc-MIBI group; In patients with ischemia (the mean time interval between injection and acquisition is 80 min), post-stress LVEF was significantly depressed after adenosine infusion (p<0.001) and ΔLVEF was 5.1%. Eight patients (40%) showed an increase in LVEF greater than 5% from poststress to rest. Poststress ESV (37.1±17.3 ml) was significantly higher than ESV (31.3±15.5 ml, p<0.001) at rest, but no significant difference in EDV. These results showed that pharmacologic stress induced stunning is well noted in the early quantitative gated SPECT in ischemic patients and also observed in the delayed gated SPECT, even though the rate of stunning is less than the early SPECT

  7. The data acquisition system for a SPECT with cylindrical detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yongjie; Liu Yinong; Li Yuanjing

    1995-01-01

    The data acquisition and position estimation system has been developed for a multi-crystal SPECT with modular cylindrical detector. The electronics screen photon energy determines the detector module stricken by incident photon. The relevant PMT outputs are digitized and passed onto a Pentium PC. Then PMT gain normalization, detector bar identification, energy correction, event coordinates calculation and linearity correction are real-time performed by the PC. The system has been employed in clinical brain imaging

  8. What does rCBF-SPECT offer in schizophrenia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, G.M.S.; Barrett, J.J.; Toone, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric problem common in the younger population. Structural imaging and findings on autopsy have not yet revealed a specific deficit in these patients. Uncertainty in clinical diagnosis based on a set of signs and symptoms is another drawback in the management of this patient population. Regional cerebral blood flow studies (rCBF) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offers the opportunity to study the underlying phenomenon and to detect the specific functional deficits in schizophrenia. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of pelvic ring injuries using SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheyerer, Max J. [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Trauma Surgery, Department of Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); University Medical Center, Centre for Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Cologne (Germany); Huellner, Martin; Pietsch, Carsten [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Werner, Clement M.L. [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Trauma Surgery, Department of Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Veit-Haibach, Patrick [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-08-12

    The incidence of pelvic fractures is relatively low compared with other fracture locations. The low incidence is in great contrast to the high morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the elderly, with apparently isolated fractures of the pubic rami, these observations are believed to be due to additional occult lesions of the posterior pelvic ring. In these cases diagnosis cannot be established by conventional imaging alone and SPECT/CT is considered as a diagnostic adjunct. The aim of this study was to assess concomitant bony or soft tissue lesions within the pelvic ring in a population of patients with fractures of the anterior elements. In all patients with no obvious lesions of the posterior pelvic ring on X-rays and CT or with suspicious but inconclusive findings on CT an additional SPECT/CT was carried out in a non-acute setting within 3 days of the trauma. In all cases additional lesions within the pelvic ring were found. Most lesions were vertical sacral fractures, followed by transverse fractures, one non-dislocated fracture of the acetabulum on the side of the pubic rami fracture, and one post-traumatic dilatation of the sacroiliac joint with increased tracer uptake. According to our results after SPECT/CT all patients with pubic rami fracture suffered additional lesions, none detectable previously by X-ray or CT, within the pelvic ring. In this context SPECT/CT has proved to be very helpful in the clinical routine to visualize occult fractures and instability within the sacroiliac joint. (orig.)

  10. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in oediatric migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistella, P.A.; Pitassi, I.; Ruffilli, R.; Boniver, C.; Suppiej, A.; Casara, G.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow in pediatric patients suffering from different types of migraine is analyzed by SPECT with 99m Tc HM-PAO, during the pain free intervals. The results indicate that such studies may give further information toward the understanding of common and classic forms of migraine and the difference in the CBF patterns of these forms support the hypothesis of a possible different pathogenesis. (H.W.). 13 refs.; 1 tab

  11. Brain SPECT with iodine-123-amphetamine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, I.G.; Ludolph, A.C.; Elger, C.E.; Lottes, G.

    1988-01-01

    The study of 17 patients with ALS by 123 I-amphetamine (BIMP) SPECT revealed reduced CBF/amphetamine uptake correlation with the clinical status and course of the disease. ALS appears to involve fronto-temporal structures/functions in the early stage finally leading to generalization with the exclusion of the cerebellum. Thus, in ALS an involvement of also other than only motor cerebral structures/functions, which may be reversible, has to be considered. (orig.)

  12. Kinetic parameter estimation from SPECT cone-beam projection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesman, Ronald H.; Reutter, Bryan W.; Zeng, G. Larry; Gullberg, Grant T.

    1998-01-01

    Kinetic parameters are commonly estimated from dynamically acquired nuclear medicine data by first reconstructing a dynamic sequence of images and subsequently fitting the parameters to time-activity curves generated from regions of interest overlaid upon the image sequence. Biased estimates can result from images reconstructed using inconsistent projections of a time-varying distribution of radiopharmaceutical acquired by a rotating SPECT system. If the SPECT data are acquired using cone-beam collimators wherein the gantry rotates so that the focal point of the collimators always remains in a plane, additional biases can arise from images reconstructed using insufficient, as well as truncated, projection samples. To overcome these problems we have investigated the estimation of kinetic parameters directly from SPECT cone-beam projection data by modelling the data acquisition process. To accomplish this it was necessary to parametrize the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiopharmaceutical within the SPECT field of view. In a simulated chest image volume, kinetic parameters were estimated for simple one-compartment models for four myocardial regions of interest. Myocardial uptake and washout parameters estimated by conventional analysis of noiseless simulated cone-beam data had biases ranging between 3-26% and 0-28%, respectively. Parameters estimated directly from the noiseless projection data were unbiased as expected, since the model used for fitting was faithful to the simulation. Statistical uncertainties of parameter estimates for 10 000 000 events ranged between 0.2-9% for the uptake parameters and between 0.3-6% for the washout parameters. (author)

  13. Automatic extraction of left ventricle in SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Zhao Shujun; Yao Zhiming; Wang Daoyu

    1999-01-01

    An automatic method of extracting left ventricle from SPECT myocardial perfusion data was introduced. This method was based on the least square analysis of the positions of all short-axis slices pixels from the half sphere-cylinder myocardial model, and used a iterative reconstruction technique to automatically cut off the non-left ventricular tissue from the perfusion images. Thereby, this technique provided the bases for further quantitative analysis

  14. The analysis of software system in SOPHY SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chikang

    1993-01-01

    The FORTH software system of the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) made by French SOPHA MEDICAL Corp. are analysed. On the basis of brief introduction to the construction principle and programming methods of FORTH language the whole structure and lay-out of the Sophy system are described. With the help of some figures the modular structure, the allocation of the hard disk and internal storage, as well as the running procedure of the system are introduced in details

  15. Some observations about quality control tests of Spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilotta, C.C.; Rebelo, M.F.S.; Oliveira, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Some observations about quality control tests done in the tomographic system of Heart Institute are described. Among the tests, the traditional test of quality control with scintillation camera and the specific test for tomography systems are induced. The traditional tests are essential, but not sufficient for evaluating the Spect equipment and the specific tests have been effectuated in controlled conditions. (C.G.C.) [pt

  16. Utility of bone SPECT in temporomandibular joint pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dong Hunn; Sung, Mi Sook; Lee, Jung Whee; Chung, Soo Kyo; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1997-01-01

    Temporomandibular (TM) joint pain results from many etiologic factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of Bone SPECT in patients with TM joint pain. The subjects were 34 patients with TM joint pain. All patients underwent plain radiography, planar bone scan, and Bone SPECT. The intensity of radioisotope uptake at TM joint was graded into three; no increased uptake above the background activity as grade 0, uptake similar to occipital bone as grade I, and uptake similar to maxillary sinus as grade II. Clinical findings and therapeutic methods were reviewed. Twenty-seven patients (80%) out of 34 patients with TM joint pain had increased uptake in bone SPECT. Twenty-one (78%) out of 27 patients had increased uptake in the mandibular condyle and remaining six patients (22%) had uptake in the mandibular and maxillary arch, which proved to be dental problem. Seven patients (21%) out of 34 were grade as 0, four (12%) were grade I, 23 (68%) were grade. II. Four patients with grade I had clicking sound and symptoms which were subsided with medication in all cases. Among 23 patients with grade II, 7 patients had clicking sound and 14 patients underwent medication and decompression therapy. With Planar bone scan, 11 cases (32%) had increased uptake in TM joint area. Plain radiography revealed narrowing, distension, erosion and limitation of TM joint in 16 cases (47%). Bone SPECT can be valuable for screening and managing the patients with TM joint pain. Patients with grade II needed intensive treatment such as joint aspiration. However degree of the radioisotope uptake did not well correlated with clinical symptoms

  17. The research on biodistribution of bearing sarcoma mice and rabbit SPECT imaging of 177Lu-DOTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xinrong; Xiang Xueqin; Li Fenglin; Fan Caiyun; Liu Zihua; Luo Zhifu; Chen Yang

    2012-01-01

    Cyclen (1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane) and H 3 PO 3 were used to synthesis DOTMP (1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-Tetraaminomethylenephosphonate), and then DOTMP was labelled with 177 Lu. The research of biodistribution of 177 Lu-DOTMP in model mice bearing S180 sarcoma and SPECT imaging in Japanese white rabbit were also carried out. The results of biodistribution of bearing S180 mice indicated that 177 Lu-DOTMP cleared rapidly from blood and was selectively delivered to target bone. The radioactivity uptake was mainly in bone and less in other organs and tissues. The results of SPECT imaging of Japanese white rabbit showed that the radioactivity was accumulated in bladder. 177 Lu-DOTMP was mainly excreted by kidney. The uptake of the activity in the skeleton was observed significantly within 22 h post-injection and it became quite significant at 46 h post-injection. It indicated that 177 Lu-DOTMP has good bone targeting and is worthy of further study. (authors)

  18. Physiological imaging with PET and SPECT in Dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagust, W.J. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Neurology Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1989-10-01

    Dementia is a medical problem of increasingly obvious importance. The most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for at least 50% of all cases of dementia, with multi-infarct dementia the next most common cause of the syndrome. While the accuracy of diagnosis of AD may range from 80 to 90%, there is currently no laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis. Functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offer diagnostic advantages since brain function is unequivocally disturbed in all dementing illnesses. Both PET and SPECT have been utilized in the study of dementia. While both techniques rely on principles of emission tomography to produce three dimensional maps of injected radiotracers, the differences between positron and single photon emission have important consequences for the practical applications of the two procedures. This briefly reviews the technical differences between PET and SPECT, and discusses how both techniques have been used in our laboratory to elucidate the pathophysiology of dementia. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Role of myocardial perfusion SPECT in asymptomatic diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, I.; Chun, K.; Won, K.; Lee, H.; Park, J.; Shin, D.; Kim, Y.; Shim, B.; Lee, J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: It is important that early diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients, but there are few reports on the prevalence of stress-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities and the rates of cardiac event in patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the scan findings on gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in asymptomatic diabetic patients. Methods: We performed pharmacological stress test and gated perfusion SPECT in 69 diabetic patients without cardiovascular symptom (mean age: 65 year, male 31 and female 38). Patients underwent two-day imaging protocol and stress study was performed injection of Tc-99m MIBI during adenosine infusion. We followed up these patients by reviewing medical records. Results: Fifty-two of 69 patients (74.5%) showed normal scan findings and 17 patients (24.6%) showed reversible or fixed perfusion defects. Three of 52 patients with normal scan findings showed decreased LV ejection fraction and decreased wall motion. Twenty-three patients with normal scan findings were possible to follow up for more than 1yr (mean time: 18.3±3.3 mo.) and they all had no cardiac event. Three patients with reversible perfusion defects were performed coronary angioplasty. Conclusion: Myocardial perfusion SPECT is a noninvasive method and maybe useful in early diagnosis and predicting prognosis in diabetic patients

  20. Brain SPECT with 123I-isopropyl amphetamine in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Reske, S.N.; Rasche, A.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C.

    1983-01-01

    Ten patients were studied with N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was carried out by hand of a rotating gamma camera system (Gammatome T9000/CGR, high resolution collimator). During 1 rotation (360 0 ) 64 frames (4k matrix) were acquired within 20 min 1 hour after injection of 6.5 mCi I-123 labeled amphetamine. The content of I-124 was less than 2%. After reconstruction of transverse slices coronar and sagittal reconstructions were rapidly performed using an array processor. Nine patients suffered from epilepsy and one from severe migraine. Excellent differentiation between gray and white matter of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia was evident in all of the cases. In 2 out of 3 patients with epilepsy and negative CT results SPECT revealed circumscribed areas with increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the EEG findings. In 4 out of 6 cases with positive CT findings SPECT lesions with diminished amphetamine uptake could be established. One patient with severe migraine showed focal increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the respective clinical results. (orig.)

  1. Novel SPECT Technologies and Approaches in Cardiac Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Slomka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent novel approaches in myocardial perfusion single photon emission CT (SPECT have been facilitated by new dedicated high-efficiency hardware with solid-state detectors and optimized collimators. New protocols include very low-dose (1 mSv stress-only, two-position imaging to mitigate attenuation artifacts, and simultaneous dual-isotope imaging. Attenuation correction can be performed by specialized low-dose systems or by previously obtained CT coronary calcium scans. Hybrid protocols using CT angiography have been proposed. Image quality improvements have been demonstrated by novel reconstructions and motion correction. Fast SPECT acquisition facilitates dynamic flow and early function measurements. Image processing algorithms have become automated with virtually unsupervised extraction of quantitative imaging variables. This automation facilitates integration with clinical variables derived by machine learning to predict patient outcome or diagnosis. In this review, we describe new imaging protocols made possible by the new hardware developments. We also discuss several novel software approaches for the quantification and interpretation of myocardial perfusion SPECT scans.

  2. Adaptive Autoregressive Model for Reduction of Noise in SPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Takalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents improved autoregressive modelling (AR to reduce noise in SPECT images. An AR filter was applied to prefilter projection images and postfilter ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM reconstruction images (AR-OSEM-AR method. The performance of this method was compared with filtered back projection (FBP preceded by Butterworth filtering (BW-FBP method and the OSEM reconstruction method followed by Butterworth filtering (OSEM-BW method. A mathematical cylinder phantom was used for the study. It consisted of hot and cold objects. The tests were performed using three simulated SPECT datasets. Image quality was assessed by means of the percentage contrast resolution (CR% and the full width at half maximum (FWHM of the line spread functions of the cylinders. The BW-FBP method showed the highest CR% values and the AR-OSEM-AR method gave the lowest CR% values for cold stacks. In the analysis of hot stacks, the BW-FBP method had higher CR% values than the OSEM-BW method. The BW-FBP method exhibited the lowest FWHM values for cold stacks and the AR-OSEM-AR method for hot stacks. In conclusion, the AR-OSEM-AR method is a feasible way to remove noise from SPECT images. It has good spatial resolution for hot objects.

  3. Cerebral SPECT, a new diagnostic marker in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    Over the past twenty years the functional brain imagenology has improved greatly. Today the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic response are possible in psychiatry and neurology. The functional denomination in psychiatry has been known for more than a 100 years and it can be evident in the brain images. The relation between the blood brain flux and the brain can be seen as pictures in the Brain SPECT as hyper and hypo function areas. To carry out SPECT a venous injection of Tc-99m Technetium and (HMPAO) or (ECD) is applied in the arm. The images correspond to a period of two minutes after injection. The exam can be done until six hours after the brain fixation. The study is carried out in conditions, with the patient in repose, relaxed and without medication. The final result is an brain in colors. The yellow color gives us 95% of decrease and white color 95% of increase of the brain function. The red color gives a normal perfusion. The object of the study is to find that the Brain SPECT could be used as a new diagnostic marker of depression. The sample was 73 outpatients with major depression Our diagnostic marker is the prefrontal cortex ventral hypoperfusion (orbit frontal) in almost 100% of the patients and only 32% dorsal hypoperfusion (executive area), unlike most authors (Au)

  4. Anatomy guided automated SPECT renal seed point estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Shekhar; Kumar, Sailendra

    2010-04-01

    Quantification of SPECT(Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) images can be more accurate if correct segmentation of region of interest (ROI) is achieved. Segmenting ROI from SPECT images is challenging due to poor image resolution. SPECT is utilized to study the kidney function, though the challenge involved is to accurately locate the kidneys and bladder for analysis. This paper presents an automated method for generating seed point location of both kidneys using anatomical location of kidneys and bladder. The motivation for this work is based on the premise that the anatomical location of the bladder relative to the kidneys will not differ much. A model is generated based on manual segmentation of the bladder and both the kidneys on 10 patient datasets (including sum and max images). Centroid is estimated for manually segmented bladder and kidneys. Relatively easier bladder segmentation is followed by feeding bladder centroid coordinates into the model to generate seed point for kidneys. Percentage error observed in centroid coordinates of organs from ground truth to estimated values from our approach are acceptable. Percentage error of approximately 1%, 6% and 2% is observed in X coordinates and approximately 2%, 5% and 8% is observed in Y coordinates of bladder, left kidney and right kidney respectively. Using a regression model and the location of the bladder, the ROI generation for kidneys is facilitated. The model based seed point estimation will enhance the robustness of kidney ROI estimation for noisy cases.

  5. Physiological imaging with PET and SPECT in Dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagust, W.J.

    1989-10-01

    Dementia is a medical problem of increasingly obvious importance. The most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for at least 50% of all cases of dementia, with multi-infarct dementia the next most common cause of the syndrome. While the accuracy of diagnosis of AD may range from 80 to 90%, there is currently no laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis. Functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offer diagnostic advantages since brain function is unequivocally disturbed in all dementing illnesses. Both PET and SPECT have been utilized in the study of dementia. While both techniques rely on principles of emission tomography to produce three dimensional maps of injected radiotracers, the differences between positron and single photon emission have important consequences for the practical applications of the two procedures. This briefly reviews the technical differences between PET and SPECT, and discusses how both techniques have been used in our laboratory to elucidate the pathophysiology of dementia. 32 refs., 2 figs

  6. Prognostic value of SPECT in newly diagnosed symptomatic west syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Megumi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kato, Tomomi; Futagi, Yasuyuki [Osaka Medical Center and Research Inst. for Maternal and Child Health, Izumi (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In 19 cases with newly diagnosed symptomatic West syndrome, we assessed interictal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) before ACTH therapy with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Based on the SPECT findings, we divided these cases into 3 groups: normal rCBF (Group A, 7 cases), abnormal rCBF corresponding to cerebral lesions on MRI and CT (Group B, 6 cases), and abnormal rCBF in areas different from lesions on MRI and CT (Group C, 6 cases). We compared clinical features, response to initial treatment, and short-term outcome among these 3 groups. No significant differences were found in clinical characteristics (sex, age of onset, prior seizures before onset of spasms, EEG findings). Four cases in Group B (67%) and 5 in Group C (83%) showed complete cessation of spasms after initial treatment (high dose vitamin B{sub 6}{yields}zonisamide{yields}ACTH therapy), while in Group A only 2 patients (29%, p>0.05; compared to Group B or Group C) responded. Although not statistically significant, short-term prognosis (both seizures and development) after a mean follow-up of 2 years and 8 months was also worst in Group A. Our results suggest that normal SPECT findings may be predictive of unfavorable prognosis in infants with symptomatic West syndrome. (author)

  7. Examination of statistical noise in SPECT image and sampling pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Akihiro; Soma, Tsutomu; Murase, Kenya; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Tomonori; Kawakami, Kazunori; Teraoka, Satomi; Kojima, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Statistical noise in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image was examined for its relation with total count and with sampling pitch by simulation and phantom experiment to obtain their projection data under defined conditions. The former SPECT simulation was performed on assumption of a virtual, homogeneous water column (20 cm diameter) as an absorbing mass. In the latter, used were 3D-Hoffman brain phantom (Data Spectrum Corp.) filled with 370 MBq of 99m Tc-pertechnetate solution and a facing 2-detector SPECT machine with a low-energy/high-resolution collimator, E-CAM (Siemens). Projected data by the two methods were reconstructed through the filtered back projection to make each transaxial image. The noise was evaluated by vision, by their root mean square uncertainty calculated from average count and standard deviation (SD) in the region of interest (ROI) defined in reconstructed images and by normalized mean squares calculated from the difference between the reference image obtained with common sampling pitch to and all of obtained slices of, the simulation and phantom. As a conclusion, the pitch was recommended to be set in the machine as to approximating the value calculated by the sampling theorem, though the projection counts per one angular direction were smaller with the same total time of data acquisition. (R.T.)

  8. SVD-Based Evaluation of Multiplexing in Multipinhole SPECT Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron K. Jorgensen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipinhole SPECT system design is largely a trial-and-error process. General principles can give system designers a general idea of how a system with certain characteristics will perform. However, the specific performance of any particular system is unknown before the system is tested. The development of an objective evaluation method that is not based on experimentation would facilitate the optimization of multipinhole systems. We derive a figure of merit for prediction of SPECT system performance based on the entire singular value spectrum of the system. This figure of merit contains significantly more information than the condition number of the system, and is therefore more revealing of system performance. This figure is then compared with simulated results of several SPECT systems and is shown to correlate well to the results of the simulations. The proposed figure of merit is useful for predicting system performance, but additional steps could be taken to improve its accuracy and applicability. The limits of the proposed method are discussed, and possible improvements to it are proposed.

  9. Evaluating low pass filters on SPECT reconstructed cardiac orientation estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Shekhar

    2009-02-01

    Low pass filters can affect the quality of clinical SPECT images by smoothing. Appropriate filter and parameter selection leads to optimum smoothing that leads to a better quantification followed by correct diagnosis and accurate interpretation by the physician. This study aims at evaluating the low pass filters on SPECT reconstruction algorithms. Criteria for evaluating the filters are estimating the SPECT reconstructed cardiac azimuth and elevation angle. Low pass filters studied are butterworth, gaussian, hamming, hanning and parzen. Experiments are conducted using three reconstruction algorithms, FBP (filtered back projection), MLEM (maximum likelihood expectation maximization) and OSEM (ordered subsets expectation maximization), on four gated cardiac patient projections (two patients with stress and rest projections). Each filter is applied with varying cutoff and order for each reconstruction algorithm (only butterworth used for MLEM and OSEM). The azimuth and elevation angles are calculated from the reconstructed volume and the variation observed in the angles with varying filter parameters is reported. Our results demonstrate that behavior of hamming, hanning and parzen filter (used with FBP) with varying cutoff is similar for all the datasets. Butterworth filter (cutoff > 0.4) behaves in a similar fashion for all the datasets using all the algorithms whereas with OSEM for a cutoff < 0.4, it fails to generate cardiac orientation due to oversmoothing, and gives an unstable response with FBP and MLEM. This study on evaluating effect of low pass filter cutoff and order on cardiac orientation using three different reconstruction algorithms provides an interesting insight into optimal selection of filter parameters.

  10. Detection of a possible epilepsy focus in a preoperated patient by perfusion SPECT and computer-aided subtraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolova, I.; Wilke, F.; Clausen, M.; Buchert, R.; Lindenau, M.; Stodieck, S.; Fiehler, J.; Heese, O.

    2008-01-01

    Ictal perfusion SPECT with either 9 9mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) or 9 9mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) has been reported to provide very good sensitivity for the determination of the SOA in fTLE. Sensitivity of interictal perfusion SPECT is much lower. However, interictal perfusion SPECT might enhance the specificity of ictal SPECT findings by improving the discrimination between seizure related local hyperperfusion and intersubject variability of perfusion (physiologic hyperperfusion). In addition, the combination of interictal and ictal perfusion SPECT might provide improved sensitivity compared to ictal SPECT alone, particularly when computer-aided subtraction of ictal and interictal SPECT is used instead of traditional side-by-side visual comparison. The combination of ictal and interictal perfusion SPECT eliminates not only physiological inter-subject variance, but it can also eliminate severe partial volume effects. Computer-aided subtraction analysis appears particularly useful in this case

  11. The capabilities of simultaneous use of SPECT and MRI findings at removal of brain tumors using neuronavigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makejev, S.S.; Rozumenko, V.D.; Rozumenko, A.V.; Chuvashova, O.Yu.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine the capabilities of SPECT and MRI at intra-operative determining of interrelation of the tumor and FIA. MRI revealed the peculiarities of the tumor structure, SPECT - highly proliferating tumors.

  12. Detection of a possible epilepsy focus in a preoperated patient by perfusion SPECT and computer-aided subtraction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolova, I.; Wilke, F.; Clausen, M.; Buchert, R. [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Lindenau, M.; Stodieck, S. [Protestant Hospital Alsterdorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurology and Epileptology; Fiehler, J. [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Heese, O. [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Neurological Surgery

    2008-07-01

    Ictal perfusion SPECT with either {sup 9}9mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) or {sup 9}9mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) has been reported to provide very good sensitivity for the determination of the SOA in fTLE. Sensitivity of interictal perfusion SPECT is much lower. However, interictal perfusion SPECT might enhance the specificity of ictal SPECT findings by improving the discrimination between seizure related local hyperperfusion and intersubject variability of perfusion (physiologic hyperperfusion). In addition, the combination of interictal and ictal perfusion SPECT might provide improved sensitivity compared to ictal SPECT alone, particularly when computer-aided subtraction of ictal and interictal SPECT is used instead of traditional side-by-side visual comparison. The combination of ictal and interictal perfusion SPECT eliminates not only physiological inter-subject variance, but it can also eliminate severe partial volume effects. Computer-aided subtraction analysis appears particularly useful in this case.

  13. Concordance between myocardial perfusion scan assessed by SPECT and fractional flow reserve findings for detection of significant ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: FFR and MPI with SPECT techniques showed significant concordance for detection of myocardial ischemia, regardless of the type of diseased coronary arteries. In this context, SPECT has high sensitivity and NPV for detection of ischemia compared with FFR.

  14. A pilot study of SPECT/CT-based mixed-reality navigation towards the sentinel node in patients with melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma of a lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Nynke S; Engelen, Thijs; Brouwer, Oscar R; Mathéron, Hanna M; Valdés-Olmos, Renato A; Nieweg, Omgo E; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2016-08-01

    To explore the feasibility of an intraoperative navigation technology based on preoperatively acquired single photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images during sentinel node (SN) biopsy in patients with melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Patients with a melanoma (n=4) or Merkel cell carcinoma (n=1) of a lower extremity scheduled for wide re-excision of the primary lesion site and SN biopsy were studied. Following a Tc-nanocolloid injection and lymphoscintigraphy, SPECT/CT images were acquired with a reference target (ReTp) fixed on the leg or the iliac spine. Intraoperatively, a sterile ReTp was placed at the same site to enable SPECT/CT-based mixed-reality navigation of a gamma ray detection probe also containing a reference target (ReTgp).The accuracy of the navigation procedure was determined in the coronal plane (x, y-axis) by measuring the discrepancy between standard gamma probe-based SN localization and mixed-reality-based navigation to the SN. To determine the depth accuracy (z-axis), the depth estimation provided by the navigation system was compared to the skin surface-to-node distance measured in the computed tomography component of the SPECT/CT images. In four of five patients, it was possible to navigate towards the preoperatively defined SN. The average navigational error was 8.0 mm in the sagittal direction and 8.5 mm in the coronal direction. Intraoperative sterile ReTp positioning and tissue movement during surgery exerted a distinct influence on the accuracy of navigation. Intraoperative navigation during melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma surgery is feasible and can provide the surgeon with an interactive 3D roadmap towards the SN or SNs in the groin. However, further technical optimization of the modality is required before this technology can become routine practice.

  15. Diagnostic impact of SPECT-CT in the assessment of endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Badaoui, A.; Clermont, H. de; Valli, N.; Caignon, J.M.; Fernandez, P.; Allard, M.; Barat, J.L.; Ducassou, D.; Clermont, H. de; Valli, N.; Caignon, J.M.; Fernandez, P.; Allard, M.; Barat, J.L.; Ducassou, D.; Clermont, H. de; Allard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Image fusion using single photon emission computed tomography - computed tomography (SPECT - CT) associates functional and morphological images. This study evaluates the added value of SPECT- CT, obtained with a hybrid SPECT- CT gamma camera, on anatomic localization and diagnostic impact in assessment of endocrine tumours and pheochromocytomas. Method: Six months prospective study was undertaken including 33 consecutive exams encompassing 20 Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphies (S.R.S.) and 13 123 I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (Mibg) scans. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians independently analysed independently planar and SPECT images in a first time, then, SPECT- CT fused images in a second time. They evaluated two parameters: SPECT- CT impact on anatomic localization (L.A.) and its diagnostic impact (I.D.). Each parameter was scored according three levels of evaluation. Results: An added value of SPECT- CT images was evidenced in 55% of cases on the anatomic localization and in 41% of the patients on the diagnostic impact. Therefore, a more important benefit was noted when SPECT was positive (L.A.: 90%; I.D.: 70%) than when it was negative (L.A.: 15%; I.D.: 8%). Furthermore, the added value proved higher for the S;R.S. compared to Mibg scans. Conclusion: SPECT- CT fusion images obtained by a hybrid system is more relevant to determine anatomic localization and more accurate than SPECT alone, particularly in the assessment of endocrine tumours. The added value of SPECT- CT seems to be lower for Mibg scans in the assessment of pheochromocytomas. (authors)

  16. High resolution SPECT imaging for visualization of intratumoral heterogeneity using a SPECT/CT scanner dedicated for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Izumi O.; Tani, Kotaro; Tsuda, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Tumor interiors are never homogeneous and in vivo visualization of intratumoral heterogeneity would be an innovation that contributes to improved cancer therapy. But, conventional nuclear medicine tests have failed to visualize heterogeneity in vivo because of limited spatial resolution. Recently developed single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scanners dedicated for small animal imaging are of interest due to their excellent spatial resolution of 111 In and simulations of actual small animal imaging. The optimal conditions obtained were validated by in vivo imaging of sarcoma 180-bearing mice. Larger number of counts must be obtained within limited acquisition time to visualize tumor heterogeneity in vivo in animal imaging, compared to cases that simply detect tumors. At an acquisition time of 30 min, better image quality was obtained with pinhole apertures diameter of 1.4 mm than of 1.0 mm. The obtained best spatial resolution was 1.3 mm, it was acceptable for our purpose, though a little worse than the best possible performance of the scanner (1.0 mm). Additionally, the reconstruction parameters, such as noise suppression, voxel size, and iteration/subset number, needed to be optimized under the limited conditions and were different from those found under the ideal condition. The minimal radioactivity concentration for visualization of heterogeneous tumor interiors was estimated to be as high as 0.2-0.5 MBq/mL. Liposomes containing 111 In met this requirement and were administered to tumor-bearing mice. SPECT imaging successfully showed heterogeneous 111 In distribution within the tumors in vivo with good spatial resolution. A threshold of 0.2 MBq/g for clear visualization of tumor heterogeneity was validated. Autoradiograms obtained ex vivo of excised tumors confirmed that the in vivo SPECT images accurately depicted the heterogeneous intratumoral accumulation of liposomes. Intratumoral heterogeneity was successfully visualized under the optimized

  17. Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging using thallium-201 with a novel multifocal collimator SPECT/CT: IQ-SPECT versus conventional protocols in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Wakabayash, Hiroshi; Okuda, Koichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2015-06-01

    A novel multifocal collimator, IQ-SPECT (Siemens) consists of SMARTZOOM, cardio-centric and 3D iterative SPECT reconstruction and makes it possible to perform MPI scans in a short time. The aims are to delineate the normal uptake in thallium-201 ((201)Tl) SPECT in each acquisition method and to compare the distribution between new and conventional protocol, especially in patients with normal imaging. Forty patients (eight women, mean age of 75 years) who underwent myocardial perfusion imaging were included in the study. All patients underwent one-day protocol perfusion scan after an adenosine-stress test and at rest after administering (201)Tl and showed normal results. Acquisition was performed on a Symbia T6 equipped with a conventional dual-headed gamma camera system (Siemens ECAM) and with a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator. Imaging was performed with a conventional system followed by IQ-SPECT/computed tomography (CT). Reconstruction was performed with or without X-ray CT-derived attenuation correction (AC). Two nuclear physicians blinded to clinical information interpreted all myocardial perfusion images. A semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion was analyzed by a 17-segment model with a 5-point visual scoring. The uptake of each segment was measured and left ventricular functions were analyzed by QPS software. IQ-SPECT provided good or excellent image quality. The quality of IQ-SPECT images without AC was similar to those of conventional LEHR study. Mid-inferior defect score (0.3 ± 0.5) in the conventional LEHR study was increased significantly in IQ-SPECT with AC (0 ± 0). IQ-SPECT with AC improved the mid-inferior decreased perfusion shown in conventional images. The apical tracer count in IQ-SPECT with AC was decreased compared to that in LEHR (0.1 ± 0.3 vs. 0.5 ± 0.7, p IQ-SPECT was significantly higher than that from the LEHR collimator (p = 0.0009). The images of IQ-SPECT acquired in a short time are equivalent to that of conventional LEHR

  18. A parallel Monte Carlo code for planar and SPECT imaging: implementation, verification and applications in (131)I SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaraja, Yuni K; Ljungberg, Michael; Majumdar, Amitava; Bose, Abhijit; Koral, Kenneth F

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the implementation of the SIMIND Monte Carlo code on an IBM SP2 distributed memory parallel computer. Basic aspects of running Monte Carlo particle transport calculations on parallel architectures are described. Our parallelization is based on equally partitioning photons among the processors and uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library for interprocessor communication and the Scalable Parallel Random Number Generator (SPRNG) to generate uncorrelated random number streams. These parallelization techniques are also applicable to other distributed memory architectures. A linear increase in computing speed with the number of processors is demonstrated for up to 32 processors. This speed-up is especially significant in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) simulations involving higher energy photon emitters, where explicit modeling of the phantom and collimator is required. For (131)I, the accuracy of the parallel code is demonstrated by comparing simulated and experimental SPECT images from a heart/thorax phantom. Clinically realistic SPECT simulations using the voxel-man phantom are carried out to assess scatter and attenuation correction.

  19. Effects of cross talk on dual energy SPECT imaging between [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Masato; Narita, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Juro; Fukutake, Naoshige; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Fukuchi, Minoru (Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine how much cross talk influences the visual assessment of dual energy single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images with iodine 123 beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (I-123 BMIPP) and thallium-201 in 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction. After single SPECT with I-123 BMIPP was undertaken, simultaneous dual SPECT with I-123 BMIPP and Tl-201 were undertaken in all patients. Three patients also underwent single SPECT with Tl-201. I-123 BMIPP and Tl-201 uptake was graded in four-score for the comparison between single and dual SPECT images. There was good correlation between dual energy SPECT and both single I-123 BMIPP SPECT (pS=0.97) and single Tl-201 SPECT (pS=0.59). Uptake scores were increased on dual energy SPECT, compared with single I-123 SPECT (8 out of 132 segments) and single Tl-201 SPECT (12 out of 36 segments). Overall, there was a comparatively well correlation between single SEPCT with either I-123 BMIPP or Tl-201 and dual energy SPECT images. However, one tracer uptake sometimes increased in the other tracer defect areas. This was noticeable when I-123 BMIPP exerted an effect on Tl-201. (N.K.).

  20. Effects of cross talk on dual energy SPECT imaging between 123I-BMIPP and 201Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Masato; Narita, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Juro; Fukutake, Naoshige; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1994-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine how much cross talk influences the visual assessment of dual energy single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images with iodine 123 beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (I-123 BMIPP) and thallium-201 in 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction. After single SPECT with I-123 BMIPP was undertaken, simultaneous dual SPECT with I-123 BMIPP and Tl-201 were undertaken in all patients. Three patients also underwent single SPECT with Tl-201. I-123 BMIPP and Tl-201 uptake was graded in four-score for the comparison between single and dual SPECT images. There was good correlation between dual energy SPECT and both single I-123 BMIPP SPECT (pS=0.97) and single Tl-201 SPECT (pS=0.59). Uptake scores were increased on dual energy SPECT, compared with single I-123 SPECT (8 out of 132 segments) and single Tl-201 SPECT (12 out of 36 segments). Overall, there was a comparatively well correlation between single SEPCT with either I-123 BMIPP or Tl-201 and dual energy SPECT images. However, one tracer uptake sometimes increased in the other tracer defect areas. This was noticeable when I-123 BMIPP exerted an effect on Tl-201. (N.K.)

  1. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Final performance report, March 1992--November 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    Research is described in the following areas: development and evaluation quantitatively of reconstruction algorithms with improved compensations for attenuation, scatter, and geometric collimator response; evaluation of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantification of iodine 123 and astatine 211; and the development and evaluation of SPECT pinhole imaging for low and medium energy photons

  2. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Final performance report, March 1992--November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    Research is described in the following areas: development and evaluation quantitatively of reconstruction algorithms with improved compensations for attenuation, scatter, and geometric collimator response; evaluation of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantification of iodine 123 and astatine 211; and the development and evaluation of SPECT pinhole imaging for low and medium energy photons.

  3. Implementation of angular response function modeling in SPECT simulations with GATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descourt, P; Visvikis, D; Carlier, T; Bardies, M; Du, Y; Song, X; Frey, E C; Tsui, B M W; Buvat, I

    2010-01-01

    Among Monte Carlo simulation codes in medical imaging, the GATE simulation platform is widely used today given its flexibility and accuracy, despite long run times, which in SPECT simulations are mostly spent in tracking photons through the collimators. In this work, a tabulated model of the collimator/detector response was implemented within the GATE framework to significantly reduce the simulation times in SPECT. This implementation uses the angular response function (ARF) model. The performance of the implemented ARF approach has been compared to standard SPECT GATE simulations in terms of the ARF tables' accuracy, overall SPECT system performance and run times. Considering the simulation of the Siemens Symbia T SPECT system using high-energy collimators, differences of less than 1% were measured between the ARF-based and the standard GATE-based simulations, while considering the same noise level in the projections, acceleration factors of up to 180 were obtained when simulating a planar 364 keV source seen with the same SPECT system. The ARF-based and the standard GATE simulation results also agreed very well when considering a four-head SPECT simulation of a realistic Jaszczak phantom filled with iodine-131, with a resulting acceleration factor of 100. In conclusion, the implementation of an ARF-based model of collimator/detector response for SPECT simulations within GATE significantly reduces the simulation run times without compromising accuracy. (note)

  4. Implementation of angular response function modeling in SPECT simulations with GATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descourt, P; Visvikis, D [INSERM, U650, LaTIM, IFR SclnBioS, Universite de Brest, CHU Brest, Brest, F-29200 (France); Carlier, T; Bardies, M [CRCNA INSERM U892, Nantes (France); Du, Y; Song, X; Frey, E C; Tsui, B M W [Department of Radiology, J Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Buvat, I, E-mail: dimitris@univ-brest.f [IMNC-UMR 8165 CNRS Universites Paris 7 et Paris 11, Orsay (France)

    2010-05-07

    Among Monte Carlo simulation codes in medical imaging, the GATE simulation platform is widely used today given its flexibility and accuracy, despite long run times, which in SPECT simulations are mostly spent in tracking photons through the collimators. In this work, a tabulated model of the collimator/detector response was implemented within the GATE framework to significantly reduce the simulation times in SPECT. This implementation uses the angular response function (ARF) model. The performance of the implemented ARF approach has been compared to standard SPECT GATE simulations in terms of the ARF tables' accuracy, overall SPECT system performance and run times. Considering the simulation of the Siemens Symbia T SPECT system using high-energy collimators, differences of less than 1% were measured between the ARF-based and the standard GATE-based simulations, while considering the same noise level in the projections, acceleration factors of up to 180 were obtained when simulating a planar 364 keV source seen with the same SPECT system. The ARF-based and the standard GATE simulation results also agreed very well when considering a four-head SPECT simulation of a realistic Jaszczak phantom filled with iodine-131, with a resulting acceleration factor of 100. In conclusion, the implementation of an ARF-based model of collimator/detector response for SPECT simulations within GATE significantly reduces the simulation run times without compromising accuracy. (note)

  5. Perfusion differences on SPECT and PWI in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuutinen, Juho; Liu, Yawu; Laakso, Mikko P.; Karonen, Jari O.; Vanninen, Esko J.; Kuikka, Jyrki T.; Aronen, Hannu J.; Vanninen, Ritva L.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to compare the flow defect volumes on perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PWI) and 99m Tc-labeled ethylcysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at acute and subacute stages of ischemic stroke and to analyze the relationship between the detected flow defects on the two methods and neurological status and clinical outcomes. Perfusion defects on PWI and SPECT were measured within 48 h and on day 8 of the onset of stroke from 22 patients with their first-ever acute supratentorial ischemic stroke. The primary neurological status was evaluated prior to the imaging. Clinical outcome was assessed at 3 months after the onset of the stroke. The volumes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) defects did not differ between SPECT and PWI within the 48-h examinations. However, the volume of CBF defect was significantly larger on SPECT than on PWI on day 8 (p = 0.03). Within the 48-h examinations, the CBF defect volumes on SPECT and PWI were comparably related to the neurological status. On day 8, the CBF defect volume on SPECT showed higher correlation to the neurological status and more precisely predicted the clinical outcomes at 3 months than PWI. 99m TC-ECD-SPECT and PWI both have ability to detect cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with ischemic stroke but with some differences. The value of SPECT is more accurate in terms of the delayed outcome, such as prognosis and rehabilitation planning. (orig.)

  6. SPECT/CT in patients with painful knee arthroplasty - what is the evidence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschmann, Michael T.; Henckel, Johann; Rasch, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    SPECT/CT is increasingly recognized as a promising imaging modality for the investigation of patients with a painful knee after knee arthroplasty. In this review article, we give an overview of the clinical value and current and future applications of SPECT/CT for patients with knee pain following joint arthroplasty. A detailed evidence-based literature review is performed and presented. (orig.)

  7. SPECT/CT in patients with painful knee arthroplasty - what is the evidence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschmann, Michael T. [Kantonsspital Baselland-Bruderholz, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Bruderholz (Switzerland); Henckel, Johann [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Rasch, Helmut [Kantonsspital Baselland-Bruderholz, Institute for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bruderholz (Switzerland)

    2013-09-15

    SPECT/CT is increasingly recognized as a promising imaging modality for the investigation of patients with a painful knee after knee arthroplasty. In this review article, we give an overview of the clinical value and current and future applications of SPECT/CT for patients with knee pain following joint arthroplasty. A detailed evidence-based literature review is performed and presented. (orig.)

  8. Study of regional cerebral blood flow SPECT imaging for sudden sensorineural deafness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Changhui; Kui Xixiao; Xiong Qibin; Wen Hui; Xie Jiabiao

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the clinical value of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT imaging for sudden sensorineural deafness (SSD). Methods: 10 normal persons, 19 conductive deafness and 31 SSD patients were examined by rCBF SPECT imaging, and compared with X CT at the same time. All SSD patients were followed up for 6∼12 months with repeated rCBF SPECT imaging. Results: 1) The radioactivity of diseased and normal horizontal temporal gyrus ratio (T/NT) in SSD patients was the lowest among three groups (P < 0.01). 2) The sensitivity (80.6%) and accurate rate (88.3%) of rCBF SPECT imaging in SSD patients were much higher than those of CT (3.2% and 50%, P < 0.01). 3) There was a significant correlation between degree of deafness and T/NT in SSD patients. 4) Good prognosis of SSD patients with normal rCBF SPECT was found. 5) The rCBF SPECT had close concordance between rCBF SPECT imaging and clinical prognosis (84.6%). Conclusions: rCBF SPECT imaging was superior to X CT in diagnosis of SSD and played an important clinical role

  9. GATE simulation of a new design of pinhole SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsahin, D. Uzun; Bläckberg, L.; Fakhri, G. El; Sabet, H.

    2017-01-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging has gained an increased interest over the past decade since it is an excellent tool for developing new drugs and tracers. Therefore, there is a huge effort on the development of cost-effective SPECT detectors with high capabilities. The aim of this study is to simulate the performance characteristics of new designs for a cost effective, stationary SPECT system dedicated to small animal imaging with a focus on mice brain. The conceptual design of this SPECT system platform, Stationary Small Animal SSA-SPECT, is to use many pixelated CsI:TI detector modules with 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm pixels in order to achieve excellent intrinsic detector resolution where each module is backed by a single pinhole collimator with 0.3 mm hole diameter. In this work, we present the simulation results of four variations of the SSA-SPECT platform where the number of detector modules and FOV size is varied while keeping the detector size and collimator hole size constant. Using the NEMA NU-4 protocol, we performed spatial resolution, sensitivity, image quality simulations followed by a Derenzo-like phantom evaluation. The results suggest that all four SSA-SPECT systems can provide better than 0.063% system sensitivity and < 1.5 mm FWHM spatial resolution without resolution recovery or other correction techniques. Specifically, SSA-SPECT-1 showed a system sensitivity of 0.09% in combination with 1.1 mm FWHM spatial resolution.

  10. Evaluation of role of brain SPECT in diagnosis of post stroke dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousepour, G.; Alavi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Post stroke dementia is one of the most common complications of stroke that is preventable and relatively treatable too. The purpose of the study is comparison between the positive findings in the brain CT scan and brain perfusion SPECT. 15 patients who were complicated by dementia after cerebrovascular accident and also 5 patients as a control group enrolled in this study. Brain CT scan and brain SPECT were performed during at most one week after stroke. Abnormal findings in both brain CT scan and SPECT were seen in 46% of patients. Brain CT scan disclosed more abnormal findings compared to brain SPECT (33.3%). While brain SPECT findings were more information than brain CT scan (20%) this study is indicating that brain CT scan and the brain SPECT concomitantly for each other in better diagnosis of post stroke dementia. We did not find any specific diagnostic pattern in brain SPECT of patients suffering from post stroke dementia. The low quality of brain SPECT in spite of uniformity of gamma camera may be suggestive of low quality of Iran produced ECD kit that needs further evaluation

  11. The additive prognostic value of perfusion and functional data assessed by quantitative gated SPECT in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.G.C.J. America (Yves); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); H. Boersma (Eric); M. Stokkel (Marcel); E.E. van der Wall (Ernst)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of technetium-99m tetrofosmin gated SPECT imaging in women using quantitative gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Methods: We followed 453 consecutive female patients. Average follow-up was

  12. The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack

    2006-01-01

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s. (review)

  13. The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2006-07-07

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s. (review)

  14. REVIEW: The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack

    2006-07-01

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s.

  15. The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack

    2006-07-07

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s.

  16. Fusion of SPECT/TC images: Usefulness and benefits in degenerative spinal cord pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, Monica; Ucros, Gonzalo; Bermudez, Sonia; Morillo, Anibal; Rodriguez, Andres

    2005-01-01

    The objectives are to compare CT and SPECT bone scintigraphy evaluated independently with SPECT-CT fusion images in patients with known degenerative spinal pathology. To demonstrate the clinical usefulness of CT and SPECT fusion images. Materials and methods: Thirty-one patients with suspected degenerative spinal disease were evaluated with thin-slice, non-angled helical CT and bone scintigrams with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), both with multiplanar reconstructions within a 24-hour period After independent evaluation by a nuclear medicine specialist and a radiologist, multimodality image fusion software was used to merge the CT and SPECT studies and a final consensus interpretation of the combined images was obtained. Results: Thirty-two SPECT bone scintigraphy images, helical CT studies and SPECT-CT fusion images were obtained for 31 patients with degenerative spinal disease. The results of the bone scintigraphy and CT scans were in agreement in 17 pairs of studies (53.12%). In these studies image fusion did not provide additional information on the location or extension of the lesions. In 11 of the study pairs (34.2%), the information obtained was not in agreement between scintigraphy and CT studies: CT images demonstrated several abnormalities, whereas the SPECT images showed only one dominant lesion, or the SPECT images did not provide enough information for anatomical localization. In these cases image fusion helped establish the precise localization of the most clinically significant lesion, which matched the lesion with the greatest uptake. In 4 studies (12.5%) the CT and SPECT images were not in agreement: CT and SPECT images showed different information (normal scintigraphy, abnormal CT), thus leading to inconclusive fusion images. Conclusion: The use of CT-SPECT fusion images in degenerative spinal disease allows for the integration of anatomic detail with physiologic and functional information. CT-SPECT fusion improves the

  17. Handheld single photon emission computed tomography (handheld SPECT) navigated video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery of computer tomography-guided radioactively marked pulmonary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Joachim; Putora, Paul Martin; Schneider, Tino; Zeisel, Christoph; Brutsche, Martin; Baty, Florent; Markus, Alexander; Kick, Jochen

    2016-09-01

    Radioactive marking can be a valuable extension to minimally invasive surgery. The technique has been clinically applied in procedures involving sentinel lymph nodes, parathyroidectomy as well as interventions in thoracic surgery. Improvements in equipment and techniques allow one to improve the limits. Pulmonary nodules are frequently surgically removed for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons; here video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is the preferred technique. VATS might be impossible with nodules that are small or located deep in the lung. In this study, we examined the clinical application and safety of employing the newly developed handheld single photon emission tomography (handheld SPECT) device in combination with CT-guided radioactive marking of pulmonary nodules. In this pilot study, 10 subjects requiring surgical resection of a pulmonary nodule were included. The technique involved CT-guided marking of the target nodule with a 20-G needle, with subsequent injection of 25-30 MBq (effective: 7-14 MBq) Tc-99m MAA (Macro Albumin Aggregate). Quality control was made with conventional SPECT-CT to confirm the correct localization and exclude possible complications related to the puncture procedure. VATS was subsequently carried out using the handheld SPECT to localize the radioactivity intraoperatively and therefore the target nodule. A 3D virtual image was superimposed on the intraoperative visual image for surgical guidance. In 9 of the 10 subjects, the radioactive application was successfully placed directly in or in the immediate vicinity of the target nodule. The average size of the involved nodules was 9 mm (range 4-15). All successfully marked nodules were subsequently completely excised (R0) using VATS. The procedure was well tolerated. An asymptomatic clinically insignificant pneumothorax occurred in 5 subjects. Two subjects were found to have non-significant discrete haemorrhage in the infiltration canal of the needle. In a single subject, the

  18. SPECT versus planar bone radionuclide imaging in the detection of spondylolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, C.G.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Chang, P.J.; Seabold, J.E.; Found, E.M.; Renfrew, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relative performance and ease of interpretation of SPECT versus planar radionuclide bone imaging in the detection of spondylolysis. The authors studied all patients presenting with back pain suggestive of spondylolysis from November 1989 to January 1991 who underwent bone scanning; patients underwent both planar and SPECT imaging. The planar and SPECT images were randomly mixed and independently interpreted by four observers for presence or absence of spondylolysis and ease of interpretation for each scan. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Of 72 patients, 19 had confirmed spondylolysis, and 53 did not. While ROC analysis showed that SPECT performed slightly better than planar imaging for all four observers, the difference was not statistically significant. ANOVA results suggest that planar imaging was significantly easier to use than SPECT and that ease of use was strongly correlated with the observer's confidence in the diagnosis

  19. Development of a new statistical evaluation method for brain SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Ryuta; Sato, Kazunori; Ito, Hiroshi; Koyama, Masamichi; Goto, Ryoui; Yoshioka, Seiro; Ono, Shuichi; Sato, Tachio; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new statistical evaluation method for brain SPECT images. First, we made normal brain image databases using 99m Tc-ECD and SPECT in 10 normal subjects as described previously. Each SPECT images were globally normalized and anatomically standardized to the standard brain shape using Human Brain Atlas (HBA) of Roland et al. and each subject's X-CT. Then, mean and SD images were calculated voxel by voxel. For the next step, 99m Tc-ECD SPECT images of a patient were obtained, and global normalization and anatomical standardization were performed as the same way. Then, a statistical map was calculated as following voxel by voxel; (P-Mean)/SDx10+50, where P, mean and SD indicate voxel value of patient, mean and SD images of normal databases, respectively. We found this statistical map was helpful for clinical diagnosis of brain SPECT studies. (author)

  20. Quantative pre-surgical lung function estimation with SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Dale L.; Timmins, Sophi; Harris, Benjamin E.; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Roach, Paul J.; Willowson, Kathy P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: To develop methodology to predict lobar lung function based on SPECT/CT ventilation 6 k perfusion (V/Q) scanning in candidates for lobectomy for lung cancer. This combines two development areas from our group: quantitative SPECT based on CT-derived corrections for scattering and attenuation of photons, and SPECT V/Q scanning with lobar segmentation from CT Six patients underwent baseline pulmonary function testing (PFT) including spirometry, measurement of DLCO and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing. A SPECT/CT V/Q scan was acquired at baseline. Using in-house software each lobe was anatomically defined using CT to provide lobar ROIs which could be applied to the SPECT data. From these, individual lobar contribution to overall function was calculated from counts within the lobe and post-operative FEVl, DLCO and V02 peak were predicted. This was compared with the quantitative planar scan method using 3 rectangular ROIs over each lung.

  1. Validation of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction with the IQ•SPECT System in Small-Heart Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Hiroto; Shibutani, Takayuki; Konishi, Takahiro; Mizutani, Asuka; Hashimoto, Ryosuke; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Okuda, Koichi; Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2017-09-01

    The IQ•SPECT system, which is equipped with multifocal collimators ( SMART ZOOM) and uses ordered-subset conjugate gradient minimization as the reconstruction algorithm, reduces the acquisition time of myocardial perfusion imaging compared with conventional SPECT systems equipped with low-energy high-resolution collimators. We compared the IQ•SPECT system with a conventional SPECT system for estimating left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with a small heart (end-systolic volume IQ•SPECT. End-systolic volume, end-diastolic volume, and LVEF were calculated using quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) and cardioREPO software. We compared the LVEF from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT to that from echocardiographic measurements. Results: End-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and LVEF as obtained from conventional SPECT, IQ•SPECT, and echocardiography showed a good to excellent correlation regardless of whether they were calculated using QGS or using cardioREPO. Although LVEF calculated using QGS significantly differed between conventional SPECT and IQ•SPECT (65.4% ± 13.8% vs. 68.4% ± 15.2%) ( P = 0.0002), LVEF calculated using cardioREPO did not (69.5% ± 10.6% vs. 69.5% ± 11.0%). Likewise, although LVEF calculated using QGS significantly differed between conventional SPECT and IQ•SPECT (75.0 ± 9.6 vs. 79.5 ± 8.3) ( P = 0.0005), LVEF calculated using cardioREPO did not (72.3% ± 9.0% vs. 74.3% ± 8.3%). Conclusion: In small-heart patients, the difference in LVEF between IQ•SPECT and conventional SPECT was less when calculated using cardioREPO than when calculated using QGS. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  2. Interictal brain SPECT in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy; SPECT cerebral interictal em pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal de dificil controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraus, Maria Emilia Cosenza

    2000-06-01

    The brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is s functional neuroimaging method that can detect localized changes in cerebral blood flow. The temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common epileptic syndrome in adults, and more than 50% are medically refractory. The SPECT can contribute to investigation of epileptogenic focus and is one of the methods of pre-surgical evaluation of these patients. (author)

  3. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT: New hybrid nuclear medicine imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    Interest in multimodality imaging shows no sign of subsiding. New tracers are spreading out the spectrum of clinical applications and innovative technological solutions are preparing the way for yet more modality marriages: hybrid imaging. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has enabled the evaluation of disease processes based on functional and metabolic information of organs and cells. Integration of X ray computed tomography (CT) into SPECT has recently emerged as a brilliant diagnostic tool in medical imaging, where anatomical details may delineate functional and metabolic information. SPECT/CT has proven to be valuable in oncology. For example, in the case of a patient with metastatic thyroid cancer, neither SPECT nor CT alone could identify the site of malignancy. SPECT/CT, a hybrid image, precisely identified where the surgeon should operate. However SPECT/CT is not just advantageous in oncology. It may also be used as a one-stop-shop for various diseases. Clinical applications with SPECT/CT have started and expanded in developed countries. It has been reported that moving from SPECT alone to SPECT/CT could change diagnoses in 30% of cases. Large numbers of people could therefore benefit from this shift all over the world. This report presents an overview of clinical applications of SPECT/CT and a relevant source of information for nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists and clinical practitioners. This information may also be useful for decision making when allocating resources dedicated to the health care system, a critical issue that is especially important for the development of nuclear medicine in developing countries. In this regard, the IAEA may be heavily involved in the promotion of programmes aimed at the IAEA's coordinated research projects and Technical Cooperation projects

  4. Investigating the role of SPECT/CT in dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy for penile cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Ziauddin Zia; Bomanji, Jamshed [University College Hospitals London, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); UCLH NHS Foundation Trust, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 5th Floor, London (United Kingdom); Omorphos, Savvas; Malone, Peter; Nigam, Raj; Muneer, Asif [University College Hospitals London, Department of Urology, London (United Kingdom); Michopoulou, Sofia; Gacinovic, Svetislav [University College Hospitals London, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    Currently, most centres use 2-D planar lymphoscintigraphy when performing dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy in penile cancer patients with clinically impalpable inguinal nodes. This study aimed to investigate the role of SPECT/CT following 2-D planar lymphoscintigraphy (dynamic and static) in the detection and localization of sentinel lymph nodes in the groin. A qualitative (visual) review was performed on planar followed by SPECT/CT lymphoscintigraphy in 115 consecutive patients (age 28-86 years) who underwent injection of {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid followed by immediate acquisition of dynamic (20 min) and early static scans (5 min) initially and further delayed static (5 min) images at 120 min followed by SPECT/CT imaging. The lymph nodes detected in each groin on planar lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT were compared. A total of 440 and 467 nodes were identified on planar scintigraphy and SPECT/CT, respectively. Overall, SPECT/CT confirmed the findings of planar imaging in 28/115 cases (24%). In the remaining 87 cases (76%), gross discrepancies were observed between planar and SPECT/CT images. SPECT/CT identified 17 instances of skin contamination (16 patients, 13%) and 36 instances of in-transit lymphatic tract activity (24 patients, 20%) that had been interpreted as tracer-avid lymph nodes on planar imaging. In addition, SPECT/CT identified 53 tracer-avid nodes in 48 patients (42%) that were not visualized on planar imaging and led to reclassification of the drainage basins (pelvic/inguinal) of 27 tracer-avid nodes. The addition of SPECT/CT improved the rate of detection of true tracer-avid lymph nodes and delineated their precise (3-D) anatomic localization in drainage basins. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of image reconstruction methods for 123I-MIBG-SPECT. A rank-order study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, Marcus; Mattsson, Soeren; Oddstig, Jenny; Uusijaervi-Lizana, Helena; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Valind, Sven; Thorsson, Ola; Garpered, Sabine; Prautzsch, Tilmann; Tischenko, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is an opportunity to improve the image quality and lesion detectability in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by choosing an appropriate reconstruction method and optimal parameters for the reconstruction. Purpose: To optimize the use of the Flash 3D reconstruction algorithm in terms of equivalent iteration (EI) number (number of subsets times the number of iterations) and to compare with two recently developed reconstruction algorithms ReSPECT and orthogonal polynomial expansion on disc (OPED) for application on 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-SPECT. Material and Methods: Eleven adult patients underwent SPECT 4 h and 14 patients 24 h after injection of approximately 200 MBq 123 I-MIBG using a Siemens Symbia T6 SPECT/CT. Images were reconstructed from raw data using the Flash 3D algorithm at eight different EI numbers. The images were ranked by three experienced nuclear medicine physicians according to their overall impression of the image quality. The obtained optimal images were then compared in one further visual comparison with images reconstructed using the ReSPECT and OPED algorithms. Results: The optimal EI number for Flash 3D was determined to be 32 for acquisition 4 h and 24 h after injection. The average rank order (best first) for the different reconstructions for acquisition after 4 h was: Flash 3D 32 > ReSPECT > Flash 3D 64 > OPED, and after 24 h: Flash 3D 16 > ReSPECT > Flash 3D 32 > OPED. A fair level of inter-observer agreement concerning optimal EI number and reconstruction algorithm was obtained, which may be explained by the different individual preferences of what is appropriate image quality. Conclusion: Using Siemens Symbia T6 SPECT/CT and specified acquisition parameters, Flash 3D 32 (4 h) and Flash 3D 16 (24 h), followed by ReSPECT, were assessed to be the preferable reconstruction algorithms in visual assessment of 123 I-MIBG images

  6. Impact of additional SPECT in bone scanning in tumor patients with suspected metastatic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolova, I.; Goelcuek, E.; Buchert, R.; Brenner, W.; Bohuslavizki, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the additional value of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for patient staging compared to planar bone scanning in an unselected cohort of cancer patients. The study included 271 consecutive tumor patients in whom planar imaging and two-bed position SPECT of the spine and the pelvis had been performed. Retrospective image interpretation was performed independently for planar and SPECT scans. Findings were categorized as 'benign', 'equivocal', or malignant' on a lesion base, and as 'no metastatic disease', 'equivocal', or metastatic disease' on a patient base. Four hundred and forty seven lesions were detected by SPECT. Missing of lesions in planar images was rare (4.3% of all SPECT lesions). Planar findings differed from SPECT findings in 149 lesions (33.3%). Most of these 'inconsistent' lesions were rated as equivocal in the planar images but benign (14.5% of all lesions) or malignant (11.0%) by SPECT. On a patient base, 81.6% of patients with planar equivocal staging were classified as either benign (55.3%) or malignant (26.3%) by SPECT. Patients definitively staged as 'no metastatic disease' or 'metastatic disease' in planar images were staged differently by SPECT in only 3.7% of cases (up-staging in 2.6% and down-staging in 1.1%). Single-photon emission computed tomography changed a definite staging as based on planar images in less than 4% of the patients. In patients with planar equivocal staging, however, SPECT allowed a definite diagnosis in more than 80% of these cases, and, thus, should be performed routinely in patients with equivocal findings. (author)

  7. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in pediatric patients with neurological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Mitsuko

    1994-01-01

    In 125 pediatric patients with suspected brain diseases, EEG, CT and MRI findings were compared with those obtained with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain using Tc-99m-d, 1-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO), to determine the usefulness of SPECT as an adjunct to EEG, CT and MRI in this age group. The incidences of abnormal finding in the 125 patients were 53.6, 75.2, 60.6 and 51.4% using 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT, EEG, CT and MRI respectively. In localization-related epilepsy and cerebrovascular diseases, the incidence of abnormality was higher with 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT than with either CT or MRI. There was a tendency for mean age to be higher and mean IQ or DG lower in patients with more extensive abnormality in comparison to those who had normal or only focally abnormal SPECT findings. Nevertheless, some patients showed focal hypofusion in the frontal or occipital area without significant mental retardation. Epileptic foci detected by EEG corresponded to defects found using 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT in 34.8% of the symptomatic localization-related epileptic patients. Pathological lesions detected by CT or MRI corresponded with SPECT findings in 48.1% of patients. Furthermore, the incidence of abnormal findings on SPECT was 30% in patients in whom CT or MRI was normal. Epileptic foci detected by EEG did not correspond well with the area of focal hyperfusion found on SPECT. Focal hyperfusion may sometimes occur even in the interictal period or postictal period in childhood seizure disorders. In conclusion, 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT revealed abnormal findings at a moderate incidence in neuropediatric patients. Correlations with EEG, CT and MRI findings as well as assessment of clinical signs, including the investigation of epileptic foci, are essential for adequate interpretation of brain functions. (author)

  8. Construction of McSPECT II - a clinical brain SPECT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, W.; Jin, Y.; Liu, J. [Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke`s Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Since reported the design concept and system configuration of the McSPECT II last year, we have settled the design details and moved on to the construction phase. The major components being developed in this phase are: detector, collimator, electronics, interfaces, acquisition and processing software, and gantry systems. To provide adequate number of angular sampling (= views), we have increased the number of transverse detector elements to 120 NaI(Tl) bar-detectors in the new cylindrical detector system. These bar-detector are housed in 24 detector modules. Since we have developed a new light-guide and implemented a new 2-step centriod position calculation, the intrinsic performance of the detector modules has been substantially improved. These improvements lead to a simpler position estimation which yields < 4 mm FWHM spatial resolution in the 12 cm axial FOV. The imaging volume is 21 cm (dia.) x 12.8 (axial) cm. The number of collimator units (= rays) is increased to 100 to achieve high linear sampling density (2.3 mm) and sampling resolution ({approximately}5.6 mm). The collimator is still being manufacture. The electronics, acquisition, and processing systems are all in the final phases of debugging through simulated testing. The electronics is divided into 24 independent channels, one for each module. A 10-bit 1.0{mu}s ADC is connected to each of the 72 PMTs. A Pentium based PC performs real-time position calculation in 20 {mu}s/event. After de-randomizing, we expect 50 K/sec count-rate performance with little loss. Linearity and energy corrections are being implemented, in a separate calibration procedure, to yield <0.5 mm non-linearity and {approximately}10% energy resolution at 140 keV. The gantry construction is moving along well but slowly. The large (27.5 cm) aperture and the adjustable orientation of the gantry plane promise easy operation and patient comfort. The system construction should be completed soon to allow imaging studies to be performed.

  9. Diagnoses behind patients with hard-to-classify tremor and normal DaT-SPECT: A clinical follow up study

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel eMenéndez-González; Manuel eMenéndez-González; Manuel eMenéndez-González; Francisco eTavares; Nahla eZeidan; José M Salas-Pacheco; Oscar eArias-Carrión

    2014-01-01

    The [123I]ioflupane - a dopamine transporter radioligand - SPECT (DaT-SPECT) has proven to be useful in the differential diagnosis of tremor. Here, we investigate the diagnoses behind patients with hard-to-classify tremor and normal DaT-SPECT. Therefore, 30 patients with tremor and normal DaT-SPECT were followed up for 2 years. In 18 cases we were able to make a diagnosis. The residual 12 patients underwent a second DaT-SPECT, were then followed for additional 12 months and thereafter the dia...

  10. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT for the detection of brain tumor. Comparison with {sup 201}Tl SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Motoo; Sasaki, Yasushi; Kikuchi, Yoshirou; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Furui, Shigeru [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Konoeda, Kouichi; Karigome, Masato; Yoshida, Katsuhiko

    1997-01-01

    For the evaluation of brain tumor (n=15), we performed both dynamic and static {sup 99m}Tc-ECD (ECD) SPECT studies. {sup 201}Tl SPECT was also used for comparison with the results of ECD SPECT. Dynamic ECD SPECT was obtained following the injection of 600 MBq of ECD. Five min after the injection of ECD, static ECD SPECT was performed. {sup 201}Tl SPECT was obtained 10 min after the injection of 74 MBq. Abnormal uptake was recognized in 7 of 15 tumors with dynamic ECD; 5 of 7 meningiomas, 1 of 1 glioblastoma and 1 of 1 astrocytoma. However, no abnormal uptake was seen in 3 of 3 benign tumors (1 low grade astrocytoma, 1 hemangioma, 1 craniopharyngioma) and in 2 of 2 brain metastases. In contrast abnormal uptake was seen in 11 of 15 tumors with {sup 201}Tl; 7 of 7 meningiomas, 2 of 2 brain metastases, 1 of 1 glioblastoma and 1 of 1 craniopharyngioma. No abnormal uptake was seen in 3 of 3 benign tumors (1 hemangioma and 2 low grade astrocytomas). Equivocal uptake was seen in 1 low grade astrocytoma with dynamic ECD and {sup 201}Tl. The mechanism of the accumulation of dynamic ECD to brain tumor is unclear. However, it may reflect not only blood flow, but also metabolism. (author)

  11. The group study of diagnostic efficacy of cerebro-vascular disease by I-123 IMP SPECT images obtained with ring type SPECT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Matsumoto, Toru

    1991-01-01

    We performed two image reading experiments in order to investigate the diagnostic capability of I-123 IMP SPECT obtained by the ring type SPECT scanner in cerebro-vascular disease. Fourteen physicians diagnosed SPECT images of 55 cases with reference to clinical neurological information, first without brain XCT images and second with XCT images. Each physician detected perfusion defects and redistributions of I-123 IMP and assigned a confidence level of abnormality for these SPECT findings by means of five rating method. From results obtained by ROC analysis, we concluded as follows. (1) Generally, I-123 IMP SPECT is a stable diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of cerebro-vascular disease and the image reading of XCT had no effects on the diagnosis of SPECT on the whole of physician. (2) However, there were unnegligible differences among individuals in the detectability of findings and the effect of XCT image reading. (3) Detectability of redistribution of I-123 IMP was lower than that of perfusion defect and inter-observer variation in the diagnostic performance for redistribution was larger than that of perfusion defect. The results suggest that it is necessary to standardize diagnostic criteria among physicians for redistribution of I-123 IMP. (author)

  12. {alpha}4 {beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a study with 5-[I-123]iodo-A-85380 SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    It has been reported that the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the degree of cholinergic deficit is correlated with cognitive impairment. We examined neuronal nAChR distribution of AD patients using 5-[I-123]iodo-A85380 (5-IA) SPECT and correlated it with the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolic impairment and the severity of cognitive impairment. Five clinically diagnosed AD patients, 5 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied with 5-IA SPECT and brain FDG PET. 5-IA SPECT was performed for 30 min at 120 min after radiotracer injection. FDG PET was done within one month interval. Neuropsychological tests were done for cognitive evaluation. A nAChR parameter DV was calculated in brain regions using cerebellum as reference tissue. All scan images were analyzed using SPM2 and ANOVA was done for group comparison. P value less than 0.005 was considered significant. 5-IA SPECT images of AD patients revealed significantly reduced nAChR distribution in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and the left temporal cortex. MCI patients demonstrated decreased receptor distribution mainly in the subcortical areas. Cortical nAChR distribution showed correlation with cortical glucose metabolism and subcortical with that of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Episodic memory and semantic verbal fluency showed significant correlation with nAChR distribution of periventricular white matter (PVWM), visuospatial function evaluated with RCFT with that of PCC, left temporoparietal cortex, and frontal lobe white matter, and MMSE with that of PVWM, frontal cortex, and striatum. These data demonstrate reduction of nAChR distribution in patients with AD, which has significant correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism and cognitive impairment. It might be useful for diagnosis of AD, and for monitoring individualized treatments targeted at nAChRs.

  13. α4 β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a study with 5-[I-123]iodo-A-85380 SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the degree of cholinergic deficit is correlated with cognitive impairment. We examined neuronal nAChR distribution of AD patients using 5-[I-123]iodo-A85380 (5-IA) SPECT and correlated it with the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolic impairment and the severity of cognitive impairment. Five clinically diagnosed AD patients, 5 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied with 5-IA SPECT and brain FDG PET. 5-IA SPECT was performed for 30 min at 120 min after radiotracer injection. FDG PET was done within one month interval. Neuropsychological tests were done for cognitive evaluation. A nAChR parameter DV was calculated in brain regions using cerebellum as reference tissue. All scan images were analyzed using SPM2 and ANOVA was done for group comparison. P value less than 0.005 was considered significant. 5-IA SPECT images of AD patients revealed significantly reduced nAChR distribution in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and the left temporal cortex. MCI patients demonstrated decreased receptor distribution mainly in the subcortical areas. Cortical nAChR distribution showed correlation with cortical glucose metabolism and subcortical with that of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Episodic memory and semantic verbal fluency showed significant correlation with nAChR distribution of periventricular white matter (PVWM), visuospatial function evaluated with RCFT with that of PCC, left temporoparietal cortex, and frontal lobe white matter, and MMSE with that of PVWM, frontal cortex, and striatum. These data demonstrate reduction of nAChR distribution in patients with AD, which has significant correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism and cognitive impairment. It might be useful for diagnosis of AD, and for monitoring individualized treatments targeted at nAChRs

  14. Multipinhole collimator with 20 apertures for a brain SPECT application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Ellin, Justin R.; Shrestha, Uttam; Seo, Youngho, E-mail: youngho.seo@ucsf.edu [Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California 94107 (United States); Huang, Qiu [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Gullberg, Grant T. [Department of Radiotracer Development and Imaging Technology, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94702 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Several new technologies for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) instrumentation with parallel-hole collimation have been proposed to improve detector sensitivity and signal collection efficiency. Benefits from improved signal efficiency include shorter acquisition times and lower dose requirements. In this paper, the authors show a possibility of over an order of magnitude enhancement in photon detection efficiency (from 7.6 × 10{sup −5} to 1.6 × 10{sup −3}) for dopamine transporter (DaT) imaging of the striatum over the conventional SPECT parallel-hole collimators by use of custom-designed 20 multipinhole (20-MPH) collimators with apertures of 0.75 cm diameter. Methods: Quantifying specific binding ratio (SBR) of {sup 123}I-ioflupane or {sup 123}I-iometopane’s signal at the striatal region is a common brain imaging method to confirm the diagnosis of the Parkinson’s disease. The authors performed imaging of a striatal phantom filled with aqueous solution of I-123 and compared camera recovery ratios of SBR acquired between low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) parallel-hole collimators and 20-MPH collimators. Results: With only two-thirds of total acquisition time (20 min against 30 min), a comparable camera recovery ratio of SBR was achieved using 20-MPH collimators in comparison to that from the LEHR collimator study. Conclusions: Their systematic analyses showed that the 20-MPH collimator could be a promising alternative for the DaT SPECT imaging for brain over the traditional LEHR collimator, which could give both shorter scan time and improved diagnostic accuracy.

  15. Towards the Experimental Assessment of the DQE in SPECT Scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountos, G. P.; Michail, C. M.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to introduce the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems using a flood source. A Tc-99m-based flood source (Eγ = 140 keV) consisting of a radiopharmaceutical solution of dithiothreitol (DTT, 10-3 M)/Tc-99m(III)-DMSA, 40 mCi/40 ml bound to the grains of an Agfa MammoRay HDR Medical X-ray film) was prepared in laboratory. The source was placed between two PMMA blocks and images were obtained by using the brain tomographic acquisition protocol (DatScan-brain). The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) was evaluated using the Iterative 2D algorithm. All imaging experiments were performed in a Siemens e-Cam gamma camera. The Normalized Noise Power spectra (NNPS) were obtained from the sagittal views of the source. The higher MTF values were obtained for the Flash Iterative 2D with 24 iterations and 20 subsets. The noise levels of the SPECT reconstructed images, in terms of the NNPS, were found to increase as the number of iterations increase. The behavior of the DQE was influenced by both MTF and NNPS. As the number of iterations was increased, higher MTF values were obtained, however with a parallel, increase of magnitude in image noise, as depicted from the NNPS results. DQE values, which were influenced by both MTF and NNPS, were found higher when the number of iterations results in resolution saturation. The method presented here is novel and easy to implement, requiring materials commonly found in clinical practice and can be useful in the quality control of SPECT scanners.

  16. Fourier analysis of heart SPECT slices: from remodelation to function?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigman, M.; Prpic, H.; Lokner, V.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine character of the spatial distribution of marked erythrocytes in heart chambers, lungs and great blood vessels in relation to function of the left and right heart. Investigation included total of 142 subjects, 28 of which were without subjective and clinical signs of heart disease as well as 56 after myocardial infarction (30 of anterior localization, 26 of inferior infarction), 35 with predominant left heart disease (aortic valve disease, dilatative myocardiopathy, etc.) and 23 with predominant right heart disease (atrial septal defect, mitral valve disease). Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) at rest, and thorax SPECT were performed in all subjects with 740 MBq Tc-99m after in vivo erythrocyte labelling with pyrophosphate. Ultrasound investigation was performed on all the subjects with heart disease and 87 of them underwent invasive cardiac investigation. RNV analysis revealed scintigraphic data on left and right ventricle: global ejection fraction (GEF), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), fast tilling rate (FFR), fast emptying rate (FER) as well as regional wall motion shortening. Reconstruction of 64x64x8 SPECT images resulted in 3x64 slices (transversal, coronal and sagittal slices). Fourier analysis of 20-32 reconstructed slices in all three dimensions gave amplitude image of the intensity distribution of marked erythrocytes in heart chambers lungs and great blood vessels as well as phase display of spatial localization of regional amplitude values. Results of joint ROC curves constructed for detection, localization and character of heart disease in all subjects revealed significant clinical information content of SPECT data. Evaluation of RI retention using amplitude images in 3D provides insight in regional changes of volume, particular for atrial and lung involvement. (author)

  17. A CT-based method for fully quantitative TI SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willowson, Kathy; Bailey, Dale; Baldock, Clive

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: To develop and validate a method for quantitative 2 0 l TI SPECT data based on corrections derived from X-ray CT data, and to apply the method in the clinic for quantitative determination of recurrence of brain tumours. Method: A previously developed method for achieving quantitative SPECT with 9 9 m Tc based on corrections derived from xray CT data was extended to apply to 2 0 l Tl. Experimental validation was performed on a cylindrical phantom by comparing known injected activity and measured concentration to quantitative calculations. Further evaluation was performed on a RSI Striatal Brain Phantom containing three 'lesions' with activity to background ratios of 1: 1, 1.5: I and 2: I. The method was subsequently applied to a series of scans from patients with suspected recurrence of brain tumours (principally glioma) to determine an SUV-like measure (Standardised Uptake Value). Results: The total activity and concentration in the phantom were calculated to within 3% and I % of the true values, respectively. The calculated values for the concentration of activity in the background and corresponding lesions of the brain phantom (in increasing ratios) were found to be within 2%,10%,1% and 2%, respectively, of the true concentrations. Patient studies showed that an initial SUV greater than 1.5 corresponded to a 56% mortality rate in the first 12 months, as opposed to a 14% mortality rate for those with a SUV less than 1.5. Conclusion: The quantitative technique produces accurate results for the radionuclide 2 0 l Tl. Initial investigation in clinical brain SPECT suggests correlation between quantitative uptake and survival.

  18. A new reconstruction strategy for image improvement in pinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeniya, Tsutomu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Teramoto, Noboru; Hayashi, Takuya; Iida, Hidehiro; Aoi, Toshiyuki; Sohlberg, Antti; Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is able to provide information on the biodistribution of several radioligands in small laboratory animals, but has limitations associated with non-uniform spatial resolution or axial blurring. We have hypothesised that this blurring is due to incompleteness of the projection data acquired by a single circular pinhole orbit, and have evaluated a new strategy for accurate image reconstruction with better spatial resolution uniformity. A pinhole SPECT system using two circular orbits and a dedicated three-dimensional ordered subsets expectation maximisation (3D-OSEM) reconstruction method were developed. In this system, not the camera but the object rotates, and the two orbits are at 90 and 45 relative to the object's axis. This system satisfies Tuy's condition, and is thus able to provide complete data for 3D pinhole SPECT reconstruction within the whole field of view (FOV). To evaluate this system, a series of experiments was carried out using a multiple-disk phantom filled with 99m Tc solution. The feasibility of the proposed method for small animal imaging was tested with a mouse bone study using 99m Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. Feldkamp's filtered back-projection (FBP) method and the 3D-OSEM method were applied to these data sets, and the visual and statistical properties were examined. Axial blurring, which was still visible at the edge of the FOV even after applying the conventional 3D-OSEM instead of FBP for single-orbit data, was not visible after application of 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data. 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data dramatically reduced the resolution non-uniformity and statistical noise, and also demonstrated considerably better image quality in the mouse scan. This system may be of use in quantitative assessment of bio-physiological functions in small animals. (orig.)

  19. The Effect and Side Effect of Dipyridamole in Myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyung In; Lee, Dong Soo; Yeo, Jeong Suk; Bae, Sang Kyun; Choi, Chang Woon; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon

    1993-01-01

    Dipyridamole is an agent that may be used to noninvasively evaluate coronary artery disease. The effect of dipyridamole infusion its generally related to its induced peripheral vasodilatory effect. In normal person, heart rate is generally increased slightly while blood pressure decrease, but the achieved double product and related myocardial oxygen consumption have no significant change. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect and side effect of dipyridamole, and to compare different response to dipyridamole among the patients. We evaluated 847 patients who underwent dipyridamole stress myocardial SPECT. 93.6% of them had induced hypotension 0.9% showed no change of blood pressure, 5.5% had increased blood pressure 8.3% had no change of pulse rate more than 10% of basal pulse rate. Among diabetes, 16.9% was not change of pulse rate, 6.7% in non-diabetes. There was no significant correlation between age and rate pressure product rest(RPPr), in patients without perfusion defects on SPECT(y=7.1x+48.4r=0.13 p>0.01). As increasing age, RPPs/RPPr was declined(y=-11.6x+68.9 r=0.17 p<0.01), similar results were obtained in patients with perfusion defect. The size of perfusion defect on myocardial SPECT have no correlation between RPPr and RPPs/RPPr. The side effects of dipyridamole included chest pain and chest tightness, headache, abdominal pain, dizziness, nausea, and dyspnea. As increasing age, dipyridamole-induced cardiac work at rest was increased, cardiac response to dipyridamole was decreased.

  20. SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for imaging chronic inflammatory diseases in the last decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzola, L. K.; Galli, F.; Dierckx, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, many radiopharmaceuticals have been described for the diagnosis of inflammatory chronic diseases. Several peptides, receptor ligands and monoclonal antibodies have been radiolabelled, allowing in-vivo visualization of inflammatory processes at a cellular and molecular level. The labelling of cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-12 and MCP-1 has facilitated the identification of inflamed synovia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, active Crohn’s disease, vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and other targets. The possibility of using monoclonal antibodies against TNF-α, CD2, CD3, CD4 and anti-selectin has not only allowed the localization of inflamed sites but had also a significant impact in helping the selection of patients who can benefit from biological therapies. Regarding radiolabelled peptides, it is important to highlight the increasing use of somatostatin analogues targeting somatostatin receptors in inflammatory diseases, particularly for rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome and autoimmune thyroid diseases. In the present review we describe the state of the art of SPECT radiopharmaceuticals to image chronic inflammatory diseases.

  1. Development of a Novel SPECT Tracer to Image c-Met Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in a Human Tumor Xenograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoguo; Xiao, Yadi; Wang, Kai; Yan, Ji; Xiao, Zunyu; Fang, Fang; Jin, Zhongnan; Liu, Yang; Sun, Xilin; Shen, Baozhong

    2018-05-18

    Rationale: Elevated expression of the c-Met receptor plays a crucial role in cancers. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), aberrant activation of c-Met signaling pathway contributes to tumorigenesis and cancer progression, and may mediate acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy. c-Met is therefore emerging as a promising therapeutic target for treating NSCLC, and the methods for noninvasive in vivo assessment of c-Met expression will improve NSCLC treatment and diagnosis. Methods: A new peptide-based (cMBP) radiotracer targeting c-Met, 99m Tc-hydrazine nicotinamide (HYNIC)-cMBP, was developed for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Cell uptake assays were performed on two NSCLC cell lines with different c-Met expression: H1993 (high expression) and H1299 (no expression). In vivo tumor specificity was assessed by SPECT imaging in tumor-bearing mice at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h after injection of the probe. Blocking assays, biodistribution and autoradiography were also conducted to determine probe specificity. Results: 99m Tc-HYNIC-cMBP was prepared with high efficiency and showed higher uptake in H1993 cells than H1299 cells. Biodistribution and autoradiography also showed significantly higher accumulation of 99m Tc-HYNIC-cMBP in H1993 tumors than H1299 (H1993: 4.74±1.43 %ID/g and H1299: 1.00±0.37 %ID/g at 0.5h, pc-Met was demonstrated by competitive block with excess un-radiolabeled peptide. Conclusion: We developed a novel SPECT tracer, 99m Tc-HYNIC-cMBP, for c-Met-targeted imaging in NSCLC that specifically bound to c-Met with favorable pharmacokinetics in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  2. 'Motion frozen' quantification and display of myocardial perfusion gated SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slomka, P.J.; Hurwitz, G.A.; Baddredine, M.; Baranowski, J.; Aladl, U.E.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Gated SPECT imaging incorporates both functional and perfusion information of the left ventricle (LV). However perfusion data is confounded by the effect of ventricular motion. Most existing quantification paradigms simply add all gated frames and then proceed to extract the perfusion information from static images, discarding the effects of cardiac motion. In an attempt to improve the reliability and accuracy of cardiac SPECT quantification we propose to eliminate the LV motion prior to the perfusion quantification via automated image warping algorithm. Methods: A pilot series of 14 male and 11 female gated stress SPECT images acquired with 8 time bins have been co-registered to the coordinates of the 3D normal templates. Subsequently the LV endo and epi-cardial 3D points (300-500) were identified on end-systolic (ES) and end-diastolic (ED) frames, defining the ES-ED motion vectors. The nonlinear image warping algorithm (thin-plate-spline) was then applied to warp end-systolic frame was onto the end-diastolic frames using the corresponding ES-ED motion vectors. The remaining 6 intermediate frames were also transformed to the ED coordinates using fractions of the motion vectors. Such warped images were then summed to provide the LV perfusion image in the ED phase but with counts from the full cycle. Results: The identification of the ED/ES corresponding points was successful in all cases. The corrected displacement between ED and ES images was up to 25 mm. The summed images had the appearance of the ED frames but have been much less noisy since all the counts have been used. The spatial resolution of such images appeared higher than that of summed gated images, especially in the female scans. These 'motion frozen' images could be displayed and quantified as regular non-gated tomograms including polar map paradigm. Conclusions: This image processing technique may improve the effective image resolution of summed gated myocardial perfusion images used for

  3. Geometric calibration method for multiple head cone beam SPECT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizo, Ph.; Grangeat, P.; Guillemaud, R.; Sauze, R.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for performing geometric calibration on Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) cone beam systems with multiple cone beam collimators, each having its own orientation parameters. This calibration method relies on the fact that, in tomography, for each head, the relative position of the rotation axis and of the collimator does not change during the acquisition. In order to ensure the method stability, the parameters to be estimated in intrinsic parameters and extrinsic parameters are separated. The intrinsic parameters describe the acquisition geometry and the extrinsic parameters position of the detection system with respect to the rotation axis. (authors) 3 refs

  4. Noise suppressed partial volume correction for cardiac SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chung; Liu, Chi, E-mail: chi.liu@yale.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Liu, Hui [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Grobshtein, Yariv [GE Healthcare, Haifa 3910101 (Israel); Stacy, Mitchel R. [Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Sinusas, Albert J. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: Partial volume correction (PVC) methods typically improve quantification at the expense of increased image noise and reduced reproducibility. In this study, the authors developed a novel voxel-based PVC method that incorporates anatomical knowledge to improve quantification while suppressing noise for cardiac SPECT/CT imaging. Methods: In the proposed method, the SPECT images were first reconstructed using anatomical-based maximum a posteriori (AMAP) with Bowsher’s prior to penalize noise while preserving boundaries. A sequential voxel-by-voxel PVC approach (Yang’s method) was then applied on the AMAP reconstruction using a template response. This template response was obtained by forward projecting a template derived from a contrast-enhanced CT image, and then reconstructed using AMAP to model the partial volume effects (PVEs) introduced by both the system resolution and the smoothing applied during reconstruction. To evaluate the proposed noise suppressed PVC (NS-PVC), the authors first simulated two types of cardiac SPECT studies: a {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scan and a {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scan on a dedicated cardiac multiple pinhole SPECT/CT at both high and low count levels. The authors then applied the proposed method on a canine equilibrium blood pool study following injection with {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs at different count levels by rebinning the list-mode data into shorter acquisitions. The proposed method was compared to MLEM reconstruction without PVC, two conventional PVC methods, including Yang’s method and multitarget correction (MTC) applied on the MLEM reconstruction, and AMAP reconstruction without PVC. Results: The results showed that the Yang’s method improved quantification, however, yielded increased noise and reduced reproducibility in the regions with higher activity. MTC corrected for PVE on high count data with amplified noise, although yielded the worst performance among all the methods

  5. Determination of optimum filter in inferolateral view of myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takavar; Eftekhari, M.; Fallahi, B.; Shamsipour, Gh.; Sohrabi, M.; Saghari, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging, images are degraded by photon attenuation, distance-dependent collimator, detector response and photon scattering. As filters greatly affect quality of nuclear medicine images, in this study determination of optimum filter for inferolateral view is our prime objective. Materials and Methods: .A phantom simulating heart left ventricle was built. About 1mCi of 99m Tc, was injected into the phantom. Images were taken from this phantom. Parzen, Hamming, Hanning, Butter worth and Gaussian filters were exerted on the images obtained from the phantom.. By defining some criteria such as contrast, signal to noise ratio, and defect size delectability, the best filter was determined for our ADAC spect system at our nuclear medicine center. In this study, 27 patients who previously had undergone coronary angiography were chosen to be included. All of these patients revealed significant stenosis in the left circumflex artery. Myocardial SPECT images of these patients had inferolateral defect. The images of these patients were processed with 12 filters including the optimum filters obtained from phantom study and some other non-optimum filters. A nuclear medicine physician quantified the results by assigmng mark from 0 to 4. to every image. 0 mark for images that didn't show the defect properly and 4 for the best one. The data from patient study were analyzed with non-related, non -parametric Friedman test. Results: Nyquist frequency of 0.325 and 0.5 were obtained as the optimum cut-off frequencies for hamming and Hanning filters respectively. Order 11 and cut-off frequency of 0.45 and order 20. with cut-off frequency of 0.5 were found to be optimum for Butter worth and Gaussian filters. In patient studies it was found that, Butter worth filter with cut-off frequency of 0.45 and order of 11 produced the best quality images. Conclusion: In this study. Butter worth filter with cut-off frequency of 0.45 and order of 11 was the

  6. Evaluation on effects of isradipine on renal protection by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fengpo; Dong Shenan; Zhang Wei; Wu Xinghong; Lu Guoyuan

    1999-01-01

    The protective effects of isradipine on renal function were evaluated in a study on 40 patients with mild-moderate essential hypertension. Isradipine was administered at ado-sage of 2.5 mg twice daily for 4 weeks after receiving placebo for one week. SPECT were used for detecting renal function. The results of these evaluation indicated that there was significantly increasing in ERPF and GFR (P<0.01) and significant decreasing in resistance of renal vessel (P<0.01), and FF remained unchanged. It suggests that isradipine has a protective effect on renal function and it is beneficial for the long-term therapy

  7. I-123 iodoamphetamine brain SPECT of leukoencephalopathy in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, E.L.; George, A.E.; Sanger, J.J.; De Leon, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Six elderly patients with dementia underwent I-123 iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT and CT or MR imaging of the brain. In five of six, CT or MR imaging showed changes in the temporal lobes consistent with Alzheimer disease (AD). IMP scans in these five showed temporal and parietal defects. In five of six, CT or MR imaging showed white-matter lucencies and/or basal ganglia infarcts. In these, IMP defects corresponded to focal CT abnormalities but were more extensive and also involved structural normal adjacent cortex. IMP demonstrates the deficits of AD and leukoencephalopathy and may help clarify the contribution of small-vessel disease to dementia in the elderly

  8. Applications of SPECT / CT at the Institute of Nephrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayas Crespo, Francisco; Batlle Leal, Fernando; Mesa Dueñas, Niurka

    2016-01-01

    The main applications of SPECT-CT in the diagnosis of various diseases, as well as the experiences gained from the operation of this hybrid system are described. To date we have studied more than 100 patients from different hospitals in the capital and other nearby provinces, including. Including major diseases: kidney, bone, oncological and endocrine. So far, the results achieved have enabled diagnostic evaluation of higher accuracy and detail, even improving in a significant number of patients the initial diagnosis or modifying this fully. (author)

  9. SPECT brain perfusion imaging in mild traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Juan; Liu Baojun; Zhao Feng; He Lirong; Xia Yucheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value of SPECT brain perfusion imaging after mild traumatic brain injury and to evaluate the mechanism of brain blood flow changes in the brain traumatic symptoms. Methods: SPECT 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain perfusion imaging was performed on 39 patients with normal consciousness and normal computed tomography. The study was performed on 23 patients within 3 months after the accidental injury and on 16 patients at more than 3 months post-injury. The cerebellum was used as the reference site (100% maximum value). Any decrease in cerebral perfusion in cortex or basal ganglia to below 70%, or even to below 50% in the medial temporal lobe, compared to the cerebellar reference was considered abnormal. Results: The results of 23 patients (59%) were abnormal. Among them, 20 patients showed 74 focal lesions with an average of 3.7 per patient (15 studies performed within 3 months and 8 studies performed more than 3 months after injury). The remaining 3 showed diffuse hypoperfusion (two at the early stage and one at more than 3 months after the injury). The 13 abnormal studies performed at the early stage showed 58 lesions (average, 4.5 per patient), whereas there was a reduction to an average of 2.3 per patient in the 7 patients (total 16 lesions) at more than 3 months post-injury. In the 20 patients with focal lesions, mainly the following regions were involved: frontal lobes 43.2% (32/74), basal ganglia 24.3% (18/74) and temporal lobes 17.6% (13/74). Conclusions: 1) SPECT brain perfusion imaging is more sensitive than computed tomography in detecting brain lesions of mild traumatic brain injury. 2) SPECT brain perfusion imaging is more sensitive at early stage than at late stage after injury. 3) The most common complaints were headache, dizziness, memory deficit. The patients without loss of consciousness may present brain hypoperfusion, too. 4) The changes may explain a neurological component of the patient symptoms in

  10. Molecular imaging of cancer using PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    for molecular imaging of cancer. Especially the possibility of a quick transfer of methods developed in animals to patients (translational research) is an important strength. This article will briefly discuss the newest applications and their importance and perspective in relation to the shift in paradigm......Molecular imaging allows for the study of molecular and cellular events in the living intact organism. The nuclear medicine methodologies of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) posses several advantages, which make them particularly suited...

  11. Implications of CT noise and artifacts for quantitative 99mTc SPECT/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, K. W.; Kappadath, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper evaluates the effects of computed tomography (CT) image noise and artifacts on quantitative single-photon emission computed-tomography (SPECT) imaging, with the aim of establishing an appropriate range of CT acquisition parameters for low-dose protocols with respect to accurate SPECT attenuation correction (AC). Methods: SPECT images of two geometric and one anthropomorphic phantom were reconstructed iteratively using CT scans acquired at a range of dose levels (CTDI vol = 0.4 to 46 mGy). Resultant SPECT image quality was evaluated by comparing mean signal, background noise, and artifacts to SPECT images reconstructed using the highest dose CT for AC. Noise injection was performed on linear-attenuation (μ) maps to determine the CT noise threshold for accurate AC. Results: High levels of CT noise (σ ∼ 200–400 HU) resulted in low μ-maps noise (σ ∼ 1%–3%). Noise levels greater than ∼10% in 140 keV μ-maps were required to produce visibly perceptible increases of ∼15% in 99m Tc SPECT images. These noise levels would be achieved at low CT dose levels (CTDI vol = 4 μGy) that are over 2 orders of magnitude lower than the minimum dose for diagnostic CT scanners. CT noise could also lower (bias) the expected μ values. The relative error in reconstructed SPECT signal trended linearly with the relative shift in μ. SPECT signal was, on average, underestimated in regions corresponding with beam-hardening artifacts in CT images. Any process that has the potential to change the CT number of a region by ∼100 HU (e.g., misregistration between CT images and SPECT images due to motion, the presence of contrast in CT images) could introduce errors in μ 140 keV on the order of 10%, that in turn, could introduce errors on the order of ∼10% into the reconstructed 99m Tc SPECT image. Conclusions: The impact of CT noise on SPECT noise was demonstrated to be negligible for clinically achievable CT parameters. Because CT dose levels that affect

  12. Comparison of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT and MRI after Acute and Subacute Closed-Head Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Won Jong; Lee, Sang Hoon; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Lee, Han Jin; Park, Jeong Mi; Chung, Soo Kyo; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee; Shin, Kyung Sub [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT with MRI after acute and subacute closed head injury. There were thirty two focal lesions in all cases of these, Fifteen lesions(47%) were seen on both MRI and SPECT. Fourteen lesions(44%) were seen only on MRI. Three lesions(9%) were seen only on SPECT. Of the 14 lesions seen only on MRl, one was epidural hematoma, two were subdural hematoma, three were subdural hygroma, one was intracerebral hematoma, four were contusion, and three were diffuse axonal injuries. SPECT detected 52% of the focal lesions found on MRI. For the detection of lesions, MRl was superior to SPECT in fourteen cases, while SPECT was superior to MRI in three cases. In conclusion, there was a tendency that detection rate of the traumatic lesions was higher on MRI, but the SPECT could delineate more wide extent of lesion.

  13. Impact of extraneous mispositioned events on motion-corrected brain SPECT images of freely moving animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, Georgios I.; Ryder, William J.; Bashar, Rezaul; Meikle, Steven R.; Fulton, Roger R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain imaging of freely moving small animals would allow a wide range of important neurological processes and behaviors to be studied, which are normally inhibited by anesthetic drugs or precluded due to the animal being restrained. While rigid body motion of the head can be tracked and accounted for in the reconstruction, activity in the torso may confound brain measurements, especially since motion of the torso is more complex (i.e., nonrigid) and not well correlated with that of the head. The authors investigated the impact of mispositioned events and attenuation due to the torso on the accuracy of motion corrected brain images of freely moving mice. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of a realistic voxelized mouse phantom and a dual compartment phantom were performed. Each phantom comprised a target and an extraneous compartment which were able to move independently of each other. Motion correction was performed based on the known motion of the target compartment only. Two SPECT camera geometries were investigated: a rotating single head detector and a stationary full ring detector. The effects of motion, detector geometry, and energy of the emitted photons (hence, attenuation) on bias and noise in reconstructed brain regions were evaluated. Results: The authors observed two main sources of bias: (a) motion-related inconsistencies in the projection data and (b) the mismatch between attenuation and emission. Both effects are caused by the assumption that the orientation of the torso is difficult to track and model, and therefore cannot be conveniently corrected for. The motion induced bias in some regions was up to 12% when no attenuation effects were considered, while it reached 40% when also combined with attenuation related inconsistencies. The detector geometry (i.e., rotating vs full ring) has a big impact on the accuracy of the reconstructed images, with the full ring detector being more

  14. Impact of SPECT/CT in imaging inflammation and infection; Wertigkeit der SPECT/CT fuer die nuklearmedizinische Entzuendungsdiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Bremen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Kuwert, T. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik

    2011-03-15

    Even today infection remains a significant concern, and the diagnosis and localization of infectious foci is an important health issue. As an established infection-imaging modality, nuclear medicine plays a vital health-care role in the diagnosis and subsequent effective treatment of this condition. Several techniques in nuclear medicine significantly aid infection diagnosis, including triple-phase bone scanning, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET and imaging with {sup 111}In-oxine-, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes. Each radiopharmaceutical has specific advantages and disadvantages that makes it suitable to diagnose different infectious processes (e.g., soft-tissue sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, osteomyelitis, occult fever, fever of unknown origin, and infections commonly found in immuno-compromised patients). However, their clinical applications may be limited by the relatively low spatial resolution and the lack of anatomic landmarks of a highly specific tracer with only scarce background uptake to use as a framework for orientation. Anatomic imaging modalities such as CT provide a high-quality assessment of structural abnormalities related to infection, but these structural abnormalities may be unspecific. Furthermore, to detect infection before anatomical changes are present, functional imaging could have some advantages over anatomical imaging. Scintigraphic studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity to an infectious process. Diagnosis and precise delineation of infection may be challenging in certain clinical scenarios, rendering decisions concerning further patient management difficult. The SPECT/CT-technology combines the acquisition of SPECT and CT data with the same imaging device enabling perfect overlay of anatomical and functional images. SPECT/CT imaging data has been shown to be beneficial for many clinical settings such as indeterminate findings in bone scintigraphy, orthopaedic disorders, endocrine, and neuroendocrine tumors. Therefore

  15. SPECT versus planar scintigraphy for quantification of splenic sequestration of 111In-labelled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, S.; Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital

    1992-01-01

    The splenic uptake of thrombocytes and spleen size were studied in 25 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) using two methods: anterior/posterior scintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Various factors (acquisition and reconstruction protocols) influencing the quality of 111 In SPECT were studied. The splenic uptake, measured by SPECT, was found to be significantly higher in patients with a high level of autoantibodies in the blood than in patients without such antibodies. The correlation between the spleen SPECT volume and the geometric mean size calculated as geometric mean of anterior and posterior images differed by more than 50% from the SPECT volume in some patients. Based on these observations and on the results of phantom studies, it is concluded that a reasonable estimate of the spleen:liver uptake ratio may be obtained using planar imaging, but to estimate the spleen volume and the absolute splenic uptake of platelets SPECT imaging is needed, in spite of the present technical limitations of SPECT. (Author)

  16. [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT study in dementia and aphasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Otsuka, Makoto; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Masuda, Kouji; Ichimiya, Atsushi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-09-01

    We studied clinical significance of [sup 99m]Tc-L,L,-ethyl cysteine dimer ([sup 99m]Tc-ECD) SPECT study in dementia and aphasia, and compared it with [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT study. The subjects consisted of 13 patients, including 10 patients with dementia and 3 patients with aphasia. Hypoperfusion areas were detected in 5 out of 10 patients with dementia and 2 out of 3 patients with aphasia in [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT, and in 4 out of 10 patients with dementia and all of 3 patients with aphasia in [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT. The count rate ratios in [sup 99m]Tc-ECD and [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT were correlated well with each other, and the contrast of the [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT image was equivalent or slightly higher as compared with [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO. Therefore, [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT study was considered to be useful for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion in dementia and aphasia. (author).

  17. Herpes simplex encephalitis: increased retention of Tc-99m HMPAO on acetazolamide enhanced brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Kwon Hyung; Kim, Seung Hyun; Cho, Suk Shin

    1998-01-01

    We present an interesting case of herpes simplex encephalitis, which showed increased upta unilateral temporal cortex on brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO, but in bilateral tem cortex after acetazolamide administration. A 42-year-old man was admitted via emergency room, due to rapidly progressing hea disorientation and mental changes. On neurologic examination, neck stiffness and Kernig sign noted. CSF examination showed pleocytosis with lymphcyte predominance. MRI showed swelling bilateral temporal lobe with left predominance, suggestive of herpes simplex encephalitis. Baseline/ Acetazolamide brain perfusion SPECT were acquired consecutively at the same position IV administration of 740MBq and additional 1480 MBq of Tc-99m HMPAO respectively. The temporal and inferior frontal cortex showed markedly increased perfusion on the baseline acetazolamide-enhanced SPECT images. The right temporal cortex showed normal uptake on the b SPECT images, and markedly increased uptake after acetazolamide administration, which seemed to the abundant vascularity at the acute inflammation site without marked brain damage. The fo brain perfusion SPECT after 6 months showed perfusion defect in left temporal cortex but norm perfusion in right temporal cortex. Therefore, we can conclude that baseline SPECT is helpful for the prediction of the prognosis acetazolamide SPECT for the evaluation of the extent of herpes simples encephalitis

  18. MRI and brain spect findings in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and normal CT scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carrilho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy clinically documented by several abnormal interictal surface EEGs with typical unitemporal epileptiform activity and a normal CT scan were studied. Interictal99mTC HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI were performed in all subjects. Abnormalities were shown in 61.5% of MRI (n=16 and 65.4% of SPECT (n=17. Hippocampal atrophy associated to a high signal on T2-weighted MRI slices suggesting mesial temporal sclerosis was the main finding (n=12; 75% of abnormal MRI. MRI correlated well to surface EEG in 50% (n=13. There was also a good correlation between MRI and SPECT in 30.7% (n=8. SPECT and EEG were in agreement in 57.7% (n=l5. MRI, SPECT and EEG were congruent in 26.9% (n=7. These results support the usefulness of interictal brain SPECT and MRI in detecting lateralized abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy. On the other hand, in two cases, interictal SPECT correlated poorly with surface EEG. This functional method should not be used isolately in the detection of temporal lobe foci. MRI is more useful than CT as a neuroimaging technique in temporal lobe epilepsy. It may detect small structural lesions and mesial temporal lobe sclerosis which are not easily seen with traditional CT scanning.

  19. The Performance of Ictal Brain SPECT for Localizing Epileptogenic Foci in Temporal Lobe epilepsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Sil; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Sang Kun; Chung, Chun Kee

    1995-01-01

    Anterior temporal lobectomy has become a widely used respective surgery in patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsies. Prerequisites of this resection include the accurate localization of the epileptogenic focus and the determination that the proposed resection would not result in unacceptable postoperative memory or language deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of ictal SPECT compared to MRI findings for localization of epileptogenic foci in this group of patients. 11 patients who had been anterior temporal oral lobectomy were evaluated with ictal 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT and MRI. MRI showed 8/11(73%) concordant lesion to the side of surgery and ictal SPECT also showed 8/11(73%) concordant hyperperfusion. In 3 cases with incorrect or nonlocalizing findings of MRI, ictal SPECT showed concordant hyperperfusion. In 2 cases confirmed by pre-resectional invasive EEG, MRI showed bilateral and contralateral lesion but ictal SPECT showed concordant hyperperfusion. 3 delayed injection of ictal SPECT showed discordant hyperperfusion. Thus, ictal SPECT was a useful method for localizing epileptogenic foci in temporal lobe epilepsies and appeared complementay to MRI.

  20. 123I-amphetamine-SPECT in the diagnosis of neurological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Kreiten, K.; Hartmann, A.; Friedrich, G.; Linck, H.A.; Winkler, C.; Bonn Univ.; Rheinische Landesklinik, Bonn

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to conventional brain scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, SPECT with 123 I-IMP enables visualization of the brain tissue itself. The relevance of this imaging technique was evaluated in 54 patients with cerebral disorders. SPECT of the brain was performed with a rotating gamma camera. In 6 of 24 epileptic patients, SPECT revealed foci consistent with EEG-findings which were, however, not detected by CCT. In 4 of 25 patients with cerebrovascular disease, hypoperfused areas were detected by SPECT despite negative results obtained with CCT. In 50% (10/20) of the patients with cerebrovascular disease, SPECT showed a greater functional extent of the lesions than CCT. In 3 patients with migraine and normal CCT, regional perfusion disturbancers were found. SPECT with 123 I-labeled amphetamines, therefore, enables diagnosis of functional perfusion disorders and metabolic disturbances that are not revealed by CCT. In addition, SPECT can be used to exactly demonstrate the functional extent of lesions detected by CCT. (orig.) [de

  1. 99mTc-ECD SPECT study in dementia and aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Otsuka, Makoto; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Masuda, Kouji; Ichimiya, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    We studied clinical significance of 99m Tc-L,L,-ethyl cysteine dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) SPECT study in dementia and aphasia, and compared it with 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT study. The subjects consisted of 13 patients, including 10 patients with dementia and 3 patients with aphasia. Hypoperfusion areas were detected in 5 out of 10 patients with dementia and 2 out of 3 patients with aphasia in 99m Tc-ECD SPECT, and in 4 out of 10 patients with dementia and all of 3 patients with aphasia in 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT. The count rate ratios in 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT were correlated well with each other, and the contrast of the 99m Tc-ECD SPECT image was equivalent or slightly higher as compared with 99m Tc-HMPAO. Therefore, 99m Tc-ECD SPECT study was considered to be useful for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion in dementia and aphasia. (author)

  2. The usefulness of myocardial SPECT for the preoperative cardiac risk evaluation in noncardiac surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Won Jon; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether myocardial SPECT had additional usefulness to clinical, functional or surgical indices for the preoperative evaluation of cardiac risks in noncardiac surgery. 118 patients ( M: F=66: 52, 62.7±10.5 years) were studied retrospectively. Eighteen underwent vascular surgeries and 100 nonvascular surgeries. Rest Tl-201/ stress Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT was performed before operation and cardiac events (hard event: cardiac death and myocardial infarction; soft event: ischemic ECG change, congestive heat failure and unstable angina) were surveyed through perioperative periods (14.6±5.6 days). Clinical risk indices, functional capacity, surgery procedures and SPECT findings were tested for their predictive values of perioperative cardiac events. Peri-operative cardiac events occurred in 25 patients (3 hard events and 22 soft events). Clinical risk indices, surgical procedure risks and SPECT findings but functional capacity were predictive of cardiac events. Reversible perfusion decrease was a better predictor than persistent decrease. Multivariate analysis sorted out surgical procedure risk (p=0.0018) and SPECT findings (p=0.0001) as significant risk factors. SPECT could re-stratify perioperative cardiac risks in patients ranked with surgical procedures. We conclude that myocardial SPECT provides additional predictive value to surgical type risks as well as clinical indexes or functional capacity for the prediction of preoperative cardiac events in noncardiac surgery

  3. /sup 123/I-amphetamine-SPECT in the diagnosis of neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Kreiten, K.; Hartmann, A.; Friedrich, G.; Linck, H.A.; Winkler, C.

    1985-03-01

    In contrast to conventional brain scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, SPECT with /sup 123/I-IMP enables visualization of the brain tissue itself. The relevance of this imaging technique was evaluated in 54 patients with cerebral disorders. SPECT of the brain was performed with a rotating gamma camera. In 6 of 24 epileptic patients, SPECT revealed foci consistent with EEG-findings which were, however, not detected by CCT. In 4 of 25 patients with cerebrovascular disease, hypoperfused areas were detected by SPECT despite negative results obtained with CCT. In 50% (10/20) of the patients with cerebrovascular disease, SPECT showed a greater functional extent of the lesions than CCT. In 3 patients with migraine and normal CCT, regional perfusion disturbancers were found. SPECT with /sup 123/I-labeled amphetamines, therefore, enables diagnosis of functional perfusion disorders and metabolic disturbances that are not revealed by CCT. In addition, SPECT can be used to exactly demonstrate the functional extent of lesions detected by CCT.

  4. Presentation of regional cerebral blood flow in amphetamine abusers by 99Tcm-HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of 99 Tc m -hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ( 99 Tc m -HMPAO) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in amphetamine abusers. Twenty-one amphetamine abusers were included and 99 Tc m -HMPAO brain SPECT performed to evaluate rCBF. The drug-using periods ranged from 1 month to several years. The demonstrated neuropsychogenic symptoms and signs of the abusers were from normal presentation to various neurologic complications. The brain SPECT scans were interpreted visually as either normal or abnormal. The degree of abnormality was classified into mild or severe. The results revealed that (a) most SPECT studies in abusers show small defects (95%, 20/21 cases); 71% (15/21) of cases revealed multiple defects over both hemispheres (classified as severe); 24% (5/21) of the cases had focal defects (classified as mild); and only one case (5%, 1/21) demonstrated a normal SPECT finding; (b) the degree of abnormality on SPECT scans was not related to the dose and duration of drug use or the severity of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs. In conclusion, 99 Tc m -HMPAO brain SPECT is a sensitive but not specific test for neuropsychogenic abnormalities associated with amphetamine abuse. (Author)

  5. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in MELAS syndrome: comparison with MR finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Joon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Jai Keun; Nam, Ji Eun; Lee, Jong Doo; Lee, Byung Hee; Shin, Hyung Cheol

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate SPECT findings of MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy and correlate them with MR findings in search of specific imaging features and to assess the role of SPECT in MELAS syndrome. Five patients (four females and one male; age range, 1 to 25 years) who presented with repeated stroke-like episodes or seizures or developmental delay or were asymptomatic but had elevated lactic acid in CSF and serum were evaluated with conventional noncontrast MR imaging and SPECT. MRI demonstrated increased T2 signal intensities in the affected areas of gray and white matters mainly on the parietal (4/5) and occipital lobes (4/5) and in the basal ganglias (1/5), which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. SPECT demonstrated decreased uptake of Tc-99m ECD on parietal (5/5) and occipital (4/5) and temporal (2/5) and frontal (1/5) lobe and basal ganglia (2/5) and thalami (2/5). In a patient with mitochondrial myopathy who had normal MRI, decreased perfusion is noted on left parietal area and bilateral thalami. Comparison of the numbers of abnormal findings revealed that decreased perfusion seen on SPECT were more numerous than anatomical abnormalities seen on MRI. SPECT may be a sensitive method for pathophysiological study of metabolic disturbances in MELAS. Moreover, in patients with mitochondrial myopathy without clinical encephalopathy, SPECT may play a role in evaluating subclinical encephalopathy even with normal conventional MR findings

  6. Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection of brain perfusion SPECT improves diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo

    2003-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is diagnosed by either inspection of the brain perfusion SPECT, or three-dimensional stereotactic surface display (3D-SSP). The purpose was to compare diagnostic performances of these methods. Sixteen nuclear medicine physicians independently interpreted 99m Tc-ECD SPECT in one session and SPECT with 3D-SSP in another session without clinical information for 50 studies of AD patients and 40 studies of healthy volunteers. Probabilities of AD were reported according to a subjective scale from 0% (normal) to 100% (definite AD). Receiver operating characteristics curves were generated to calculate areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (Az's) for the inspection as well as for an automated diagnosis based on a mean Z value in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri in a 3D-SSP template. Mean Az for visual interpretation of SPECT alone (0.679±0.058) was significantly smaller than that for visual interpretation of both SPECT and 3D-SSP (0.778±0.060). Az for the automated diagnosis (0.883±0.037) was significantly greater than that for both modes of visual interpretation. 3D-SSP enhanced performance of the nuclear medicine physicians inspecting SPECT. Performance of the automated diagnosis exceeded that of the physicians inspecting SPECT with and without 3D-SSP. (author)

  7. Interest of hybrid SPECT-CT imaging for diagnosis of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, A.; Farid, K.; Guyot, M.; Jeandot, R.; Allard, M.; Fernandez, P.; Clermont, H. de; Dauchy, F.; Dupon, M.; Fernandez, P.

    2008-01-01

    Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography-Computerized Tomography (SPECT-CT) is a new hybrid technique which offers new diagnostic capabilities in daily nuclear medicine practice. This technique not only allows to acquire merged anatomic and functional images in the same time, but also, it increases sensitivity and accuracy of SPECT thanks to attenuation and scattering corrections got from transmission data. Until now, SPECT-CT data have been mainly obtained in oncology and cardiology, but now, many authors use it in many scan studies and particularly for infectious diseases. In inflammatory bowel diseases, SPECT-CT seems to increase diagnostic performances and to modify management of many patients. In suspected vascular sepsis, SPECT-CT could increase sensitivity of white blood cell scintigraphy but also its specificity thanks to spatial resolution of CT. In osteo-articular sepsis, SPECT-CT has the advantage to distinguish osteomyelitis from soft tissue infection and to guide biopsies. Nevertheless, in the light of PET-CT works, SPECT-CT development will probably modify nuclear medicine practice and many studies have to be conducted to highlight consensual procedure guidelines. (authors)

  8. Pinhole SPECT: high resolution imaging of brain tumours in small laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franceschim, M.; Bokulic, T.; Kusic, Z.; Strand, S.E.; Erlandsson, K.

    1994-01-01

    The performance properties of pinhole SPECT and the application of this technology to evaluate radionuclide uptake in brain in small laboratory animals were investigated. System sensitivity and spatial resolution measurements of a rotating scintillation camera system were made for a low energy pinhole collimator equipped with 2.0 mm aperture pinhole insert. Projection data were acquired at 4 degree increments over 360 degrees in the step and shoot mode using a 4.5 cm radius of rotation. Pinhole planar and SPECT imaging were obtained to evaluate regional uptake of Tl-201, Tc-99m-MIBI, Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-DTPA in tumor and control regions of the brain in a primary brain tumor model in Fisher 344 rats. Pinhole SPECT images were reconstructed using a modified cone- beam algorithm developed from a two dimensional fan-beam filtered backprojection algorithm. The reconstructed transaxial resolution of 2.8 FWHM and system sensitivity of 0.086 c/s/kBq with the 2.0 mm pinhole collimator aperture were measured. Tumor to non-tumor uptake ratios at 19-28 days post tumor cell inoculation varied by a factor > 20:1 on SPECT images. Pinhole SPECT provides an important new approach for performing high resolution imaging: the resolution properties of pinhole SPECT are superior to those which have been achieved with conventional SPECT or PET imaging technologies. (author)

  9. A clinical gamma camera-based pinhole collimated system for high resolution small animal SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y., E-mail: mejia_famerp@yahoo.com.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Molecular; Castro, A.A. de; Simoes, M.V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Leite, J.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento; Braga, J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica

    2010-11-15

    The main objective of the present study was to upgrade a clinical gamma camera to obtain high resolution tomographic images of small animal organs. The system is based on a clinical gamma camera to which we have adapted a special-purpose pinhole collimator and a device for positioning and rotating the target based on a computer-controlled step motor. We developed a software tool to reconstruct the target's three-dimensional distribution of emission from a set of planar projections, based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. We present details on the hardware and software implementation. We imaged phantoms and heart and kidneys of rats. When using pinhole collimators, the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the imaging system depend on parameters such as the detector-to-collimator and detector-to-target distances and pinhole diameter. In this study, we reached an object voxel size of 0.6 mm and spatial resolution better than 2.4 and 1.7 mm full width at half maximum when 1.5- and 1.0-mm diameter pinholes were used, respectively. Appropriate sensitivity to study the target of interest was attained in both cases. Additionally, we show that as few as 12 projections are sufficient to attain good quality reconstructions, a result that implies a significant reduction of acquisition time and opens the possibility for radiotracer dynamic studies. In conclusion, a high resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system was developed using a commercial clinical gamma camera, allowing the acquisition of detailed volumetric images of small animal organs. This type of system has important implications for research areas such as Cardiology, Neurology or Oncology. (author)

  10. 99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Patients with Post-Traumatic Organic Mental Disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Dong Jin; Shong, Min Ho; Kang, Min Hee; Ghi, Ick Sung; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT can reflect the functional lesions better than X-ray computerized tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in the cerebral disorders. In order to evaluate the clinical utilities of 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT in patients with post-traumatic chronic organic mental disorder(OMD). We included 28 patients diagnosed as OMD in department of psychiatry after traumatic head injury. And we compared the results of 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT with those of MRI, EEG and MINI mental status examination(MMSE). The results were as follows 1) All patients diagnosed as OMD showed diffuse or focal decreased cerebral perfusion on 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT. 2) Most frequent lesion on brain 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT was decreased perfusion on both frontal lobe. And most frequent lesion on brain 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT was decreased perfusion on both frontal lobe. And most frequent lesion on brain 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT showing normal brain MRI result was also decreased both frontal perfusion. 3) Eight of 28 patients showed focal brain MRI lesions(4 small frontal hygroma, 3 small cerebral infarction and 1 cerebellar encephalomalacia) which were not detected in brain 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT. 4) The patients showing less than 20 points on MMSE disclosed abnormal results of EEG more frequently than those disclosing more than 20 points. In conclusion, we think that 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT is sensitive method to detect functional lesions of the brains in patients with chronic post-traumatic organic mental disorder.

  11. Lymphoscintigraphic sentinel node identification in patients with breast cancer: the role of SPECT-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerman, H.; Metser, U.; Lievshitz, G.; Sperber, F.; Shneebaum, S.; Even-Sapir, E.

    2006-01-01

    Lymph node status is a major factor in determining the stage, appropriate therapy and outcome in patients with breast cancer. It is therefore of clinical importance to accurately identify all sentinel nodes (SNs) for each individual tumour before surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of SPECT-CT lymphoscintigraphy in SN identification in patients with breast cancer. Lymphoscintigraphy comprising planar and SPECT-CT acquisition was performed in 157 consecutive patients with breast cancer (mean age 54.7±10.6, range 27-81 years) with a palpable mass (n=100), with a non-palpable mass (n=52) or post lumpectomy (n=5). Planar and SPECT-CT images were interpreted separately and the two imaging techniques were compared with respect to their ability to identify hot nodes. Planar imaging alone was negative for identification of hot nodes in 15% of the patients. SPECT-CT alone was negative in 10% and both techniques were negative in 9% of the patients. Forty-six of the total of 361 (13%) hot nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were detected only on SPECT-CT, including 21 nodes obscured by the scattered radiation from the injection site, nine adjacent nodes misinterpreted on planar images as a single node and 16 nodes which were missed on planar images and detected on SPECT data. SPECT-CT detected additional sites of drainage unexpected on planar images, including axillary (n=23 patients), internal mammary (n=5 patients), interpectoral (n=3 patients) and intramammary (n=2 patients) lymph node sites. Fourteen of the 329 (4%) hot lesions seen on planar images were false positive non-nodal sites of uptake that were accurately assessed by SPECT-CT and further validated by surgery. In a single patient, SPECT-CT was negative while planar images identified the SN. (orig.)

  12. The value of SPECT bone scans in diagnosis of patients with zygapophseal joint pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jiajia; Liang Yu; Li Biao; Zhu Chengmo; Chen Gang; Wang Chao; Tian Weijia; Qu Liumin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Bone scintigraphy with SPECT of the lumbar spine allows identification of lesions not seen with planar imaging, in patients with chronic low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of SPECT bone scans in diagnosis of patients with zygapophyseal joint pain. Methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients in Ruijin hospital from July 2006 to March 2007 with low back pain were en- rolled. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with SPECT. According to the results of SPECT, patients with isotope-uptake joints received injections at the levels where abnormalities were identified on the scan. Patients with negative scans received other treatment (conservative treatment or surgery) but not facet joint injection. Clinical records were collected at 1-, 3-, and 6-month in SPECT-positive group after their initial treatment. And the SPECT-negative group were followed up at 6-month after therapy. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 10.0. Patients with SPECT-positive and -negative results were performed with the grouped t-test. Visual analog scales (VAS) were with the paired t-test used in patients with positive scans at before and after treatment. Results: Fifteen cases had facetal uptake of isotope on SPECT bone scans. After facet joint injection, 85.7% patients (12/14, 1 patient was excluded for operation) had improvement in pain score at 1-month, 78.6% (11/14) at 3-month, and 50.0% (7/14) at 6-month. Of 20 negative cases, 3 were treated by surgery and 17 by conservative treatment. All 20 cases were followed up for 6 months and 70.0% (14/20) had long time pain relief. Conclusion: SPECT bone scans are helpful to identify patients with low back pain who would benefit from facet joint injections. (authors)

  13. Memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer's disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstroem, Torbjoern; Riklund, Katrine Aa.; Elgh, Eva; Naesman, Birgitta; Larsson, Anne; Nyberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease that progressively affects all brain functions, with devastating consequences for the patient, the patient's family and society. Rest regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) could have a strategic role in differentiating between AD patients and normal controls, but its use for this purpose has a low discriminatory capacity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the diagnostic sensitivity of rCBF single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be increased by using an episodic memory task provocation, i.e. memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT (MP-SPECT). Eighteen persons (73.2±4.8 years) with mild AD and 18 healthy elderly (69.4±3.9 years) were included in the study. The subjects were injected with 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) during memory provocation with faces and names, followed by an rCBF-SPECT study. The rCBF 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Peaks with a false discovery rate corrected value of 0.05 were considered significant. On MP-SPECT, the AD group showed a significant rCBF reduction in the left parietal cortex in comparison with healthy elderly. At rest, no significant group differences were seen. Memory provocation increased the sensitivity of rCBF-SPECT for the detection of AD-related blood flow changes in the brain at the group level. Further studies are needed to evaluate MP-SPECT as a diagnostic tool at the individual level. If a higher sensitivity for AD at the individual level is verified in future studies, a single MP-SPECT study might be sufficient in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  14. Functional brain imaging with SPECT in normal again and dementia. Methodological, pathophysiological, and diagnostic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldemar, G.

    1996-03-01

    New developments in instrumentation, radiochemistry, and data analysis, particularly the introduction of 99m Tc-labeled brain-retained tracers for perfusion studies, have opened up a new era of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this review critical methodological issues relating to the SPECT instrument, the radioactive tracers, the scanning procedure, the data analysis and interpretation of data, and subject selection are discussed together with the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed in normal aging. An overview is given of the topography and the pathophysiological and diagnostic significance of focal rCBF deficits in Alzheimer's disease and in other dementia disorders, in which SPECT is capable of early or preclinical disease detection. In Alzheimer's disease, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of focal rCBF deficits measured with SPECT and brain-retained tracers are very high, in particular when combined with medial temporal lob atrophy on CT. Together with neuropsychological testing, SPECT serves to map the topography of brain dysfunction. Thus, in the clinical setting, SPECT provides information that is supplemental to that obtained in other studies. Future applications include neuroreceptor studies and treatment studies, in which SPECT may serve as a diagnostic aid in the selection of patients and as a potential mean for monitoring treatment effects. Although positron emission tomography is the best characterized tool for addressing some of these clinical and research issues in dementia, only the less expensive and technically simpler SPECT technique will have the potential of being available as a screening diagnostic instrument in the clinical setting. It is concluded that, properly approached, functional brain imaging with SPECT represents an important tool in the diagnosis, management, and research of dementia disorders. (au) 251 refs

  15. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Examination protocol and basic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    We examined and analyzed the region activated by the unilateral finger opposition task using motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT). M-SPECT studies were carried out on 11 cases, all of whom were normal volunteers (mean age: 49.4 years), none of whom showed any abnormal findings on magnetic resonance images (MRIs) or any neurological abnormalities. The SPECT images for each case were superimposed on the MRIs using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT study was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensori-motor cortex during the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among 11 patients, 10 cases (90.9%) showed positive M-SPECT findings, and the eleventh case showed negative M-SPECT findings. The asymmetry index (AI) was calculated on the sensorio-motor cortex in the SPECT images before and after motor activation, with the 10 cases with positive M-SPECT having an AI before motor activation of 0.99{+-}0.06 (mean{+-}standard deviation) and an AI after motor activation of 1.14{+-}0.07. This change was statistically significant (p<0.05). In the single case categorized as negative, the AI before motor activation was 1.04, and the AI after motor activation was 1.01. There was no significant difference of AI values between the resting and motor activation stages. The positive M-SPECT was seen in 90.9% of the normal volunteer series using a visual inspection method. In these cases, the blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex significantly increased after application of the finger opposition task using the semi-quantitative method. (author)

  16. V/P SPECT as a diagnostic tool for pregnant women with suspected pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajc, Marika; Olsson, Berit; Joegi, Jonas [Skaane University Hospital and Lund University, Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Lund (Sweden); Gottsaeter, Anders [Skaane University Hospital, Vascular Diseases, Malmoe (Sweden); Hindorf, Cecilia [Skaane University Hospital, Radiation Physics, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and other lung diseases among pregnant women with suspected PE and to calculate the radiation exposure to patient and fetus in this population. As a secondary aim, we evaluated the negative predictive value of a normal ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (V/P SPECT) examination in pregnancy. We studied all 127 pregnant women who had suspected PE and had undergone V/P SPECT at our institution in the course of a 5-year period. Radiation exposure to patient and fetus and the negative predictive value of a normal V/P SPECT examination were also measured. V/P SPECT identified PE in 11 women (9 %). Moreover, in 15 women (12 %) the examination revealed pneumonia (in 2 cases in addition to PE) and in 1 woman signs of airway obstruction were revealed. Among the 116/127 women (91 %) where PE was ruled out by V/P SPECT, none was diagnosed subsequently with PE or deep venous thrombosis (DVT) during the same pregnancy or puerperal period. For P SPECT, the calculated fetal absorbed dose was < 0.6 mGy,and the calculated breast absorbed dose 0.6 mGy. For V SPECT, the calculated fetal absorbed dose was < 0.014 mGy and the breast absorbed dose 0.25 mGy. The prevalence of PE was low (9 %) among pregnant women with suspected disease. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 12 % of patients. The negative predictive value of V/P SPECT was high, and the radiation exposure from V/P SPECT was low both for fetus and patient. (orig.)

  17. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, James; Giles, William; Yin, Fang-Fang; Yan, Susu; Roper, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard SPECT. Methods: Computer-aided design (CAD) studies were performed to assess the feasibility of maneuvering a robotic SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. In order to obtain fast, high-quality SPECT images, a 49-pinhole SPECT camera was designed which provides high sensitivity to photons emitted from an imaging region of interest. This multipinhole system was investigated by computer-simulation studies. Seventeen hot spots 10 and 7 mm in diameter were placed in the breast region of a supine female phantom. Hot spot activity concentration was six times that of background. For the 49-pinhole camera and a reference, more conventional, broad field-of-view (FOV) SPECT system, projection data were computer simulated for 4-min scans and SPECT images were reconstructed. Hot-spot localization was evaluated using a nonprewhitening forced-choice numerical observer. Results: The CAD simulation studies found that robots could maneuver SPECT cameras about patients in position for radiation therapy. In the imaging studies, most hot spots were apparent in the 49-pinhole images. Average localization errors for 10-mm- and 7-mm-diameter hot spots were 0.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively, for the 49-pinhole system, and 3.1 and 5.7 mm, respectively, for the reference broad-FOV system. Conclusions: A robot could maneuver a multipinhole SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. The system could provide onboard functional and molecular imaging with 4-min

  18. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowsher, James, E-mail: james.bowsher@duke.edu; Giles, William; Yin, Fang-Fang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Yan, Susu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Roper, Justin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard SPECT. Methods: Computer-aided design (CAD) studies were performed to assess the feasibility of maneuvering a robotic SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. In order to obtain fast, high-quality SPECT images, a 49-pinhole SPECT camera was designed which provides high sensitivity to photons emitted from an imaging region of interest. This multipinhole system was investigated by computer-simulation studies. Seventeen hot spots 10 and 7 mm in diameter were placed in the breast region of a supine female phantom. Hot spot activity concentration was six times that of background. For the 49-pinhole camera and a reference, more conventional, broad field-of-view (FOV) SPECT system, projection data were computer simulated for 4-min scans and SPECT images were reconstructed. Hot-spot localization was evaluated using a nonprewhitening forced-choice numerical observer. Results: The CAD simulation studies found that robots could maneuver SPECT cameras about patients in position for radiation therapy. In the imaging studies, most hot spots were apparent in the 49-pinhole images. Average localization errors for 10-mm- and 7-mm-diameter hot spots were 0.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively, for the 49-pinhole system, and 3.1 and 5.7 mm, respectively, for the reference broad-FOV system. Conclusions: A robot could maneuver a multipinhole SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. The system could provide onboard functional and molecular imaging with 4-min

  19. Comparison of SPECT and CT in detecting skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Wang Jinchuan; Pu Nuo; Song Wenzhong; Chen Mingxi

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the detecting ability of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and CT in skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Sixty-three patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were examined by whole body and skull base SPECT and CT of nasopharynx and skull base before radiotherapy. The results were double-blind compared and evaluated. Results: The overall positive rates of skull base invasion detected by SPECT and CT were 63.5% and 25.4%. In patients with headache, cranial nerve palsy and both, they were 87.9%, 93.3%, 92.3% and 42.4%, 46.7%, 46.2%. In patients with T 1 + T 2 and T 3 + T 4 lesions, they were 37.5%, 90.3% and 0.0%, 51.6%. In patients with N 0 + N 1 and N 2 + N 3 lesions, they were 63.9%, 63.0% and 19.4%, 33.3%. The positive rates of SPECT were higher than those of CT (McNemar Test, P < 0.05). The conformation rate between SPECT and CT was 61.9% and the dissimilitude rate was 38.1%. Binary Logistic regression analysis showed that headache and T stages were risk factors of positive SPECT rate (ORheadache = 3.864, ORTstage= 6.422) while Tstage and Nstage were the risk factors for positive CT rate (ORTstage = 48.932, ORNstage = 2.860). Conclusions: The detection sensitivity of SPECT in skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is superior to that of CT. But its specificity is inferior to that of CT. The detecting results in SPECT are better related to symptoms, signs and stage. Combining headache and cranial nerve palsy with T and N stage, the authors may much improve the results of SPECT and CT in the detection of skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Further study is warranted

  20. Clinical significance of I-123 IMP brain SPECT in children with brain diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takishima, Teruo; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Noriko

    1990-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain using N-isopropyl p-I-123-iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) was performed in 43 children with suspected brain diseases. Forty-three children (25 males and 18 females), with an age range of 24 days-15 years (mean: 6.6 years), were included in the study. Six patients were subsequently diagnosed as normal. Early SPECT of the brain was performed 30 minutes after intravenous administration of 74-111 MBq (2-3 mCi) I-123 IMP using a rotating gamma camera equipped with a 30-degree slant hole and medium energy collimator. Transverse images were reconstructed by Shepp-Logan filtered back projection method with attenuation correction after spatial filtering using an 8th order Butterworth-Wiener filter. Findings of I-123 IMP SPECT were compared with those of X-ray computed tomography (CT) and electroencephalography (EEG). The results showed that in I-123 IMP SPECT, abnormality was found in 30 out of 37 children with brain diseases. The incidence of abnormal findings in the 37 patients was 81% in I-123 IMP SPECT, 61% in X-ray CT, and 78% in EEG; in both cryptogenic and secondary epilepsy, the incidence of abnormality was higher in I-123 IMP SPECT than in X-ray CT. (70% and 94% vs 50% and 81% respectively), and epileptic foci detected by EEG did not correspond with defects found using I-123 IMP SPECT in 27% of the patients; and in asphyxiated infants, a high incidence of abnormality was observed on both I-123 IMP SPECT (86%) and X-ray CT (86%). In conclusion, I-123 IMP SPECT is a clinically useful examination in children with brain disease. (author)

  1. Diagnosis of functional loss using with PET or SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Tetsuya; Nagata, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Described are outlines of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, and their application to diagnosis of brain diseases accompanying functional loss. PET imaging by annihilation photons is useful to see the brain metabolic activity with use of compounds labeled by positron emitters like 11 C, 15 O, 13 N and 18 F. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), CB volume and oxygen extraction fraction correlate well with the cerebral activity and can be measured by PET with C 15 O 2 , H 2 15 O or 15 O 2 . 18 F-glucose is usable to measure the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose. SPECT imaging by γ-rays of 133 Xe, 123 I-iofetamine (IMP), 99m Tc-hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) and 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) is useful also to measure CBF in different mechanisms from agent to agent, which often reflect the pathophysiology of the lesion in problem. These imaging techniques are applied to the diagnosis of regional functional loss in ischemic brain diseases like infarction, dementia (Alzheimer and multiple vascular) and Parkinsonism, of which characters and details of actual images are presented herein. Authors say that although the imaging diagnosis for brain functional loss has progressed, the integration of neurological finding, clinical process and simple morphological brain image as well is still important in the routine examination. (K.T.)

  2. Assessment of personality disorder by means of NeuroSPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena G, Ismael; Nader N, Armando; Valdes M, Cecilia; Riquelme V, Raul

    2012-01-01

    We report on functional imaging results in 24 patients of Personality Disorder (P.D.) performed with NeuroSPECT by means of Tc99m HMPAO, in Basal state and during frontal cortical activation by means of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Results demonstrate that we can make the diagnosis of P.D. when we detect significant hypoperfusion (- 2 Stand/ Deviations below the normal mean for the same age group) in the subgenual area (Area 25 of Brodmann) and in Area 24 of Brodmann, the anterior cingulated gyrus. Both areas are paradoxically more hypoperfused during the Wisconsin Test. Among patients diagnosed with P.D. NeuroSPECT can distinguish between patients of Cluster B from the ones from Cluster C in both Basal and Activation State, while Cluster A from B could be differentiated only in Basal State. On the other hand Motor Impulsivity patients could be differentiated from the Cognitive group due to paradoxical hypoperfusion in motor areas 1,2,3, and 4 of Brodmann. While the number of patients studied appears reduced these results demonstrate the capability of diagnosing Personality Disorder and also the capability to improved understanding of the subgroups of this Disorder

  3. Optimizing multi-pinhole SPECT geometries using an analytical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentmeester, M C M; Have, F van der; Beekman, F J

    2007-01-01

    State-of-the-art multi-pinhole SPECT devices allow for sub-mm resolution imaging of radio-molecule distributions in small laboratory animals. The optimization of multi-pinhole and detector geometries using simulations based on ray-tracing or Monte Carlo algorithms is time-consuming, particularly because many system parameters need to be varied. As an efficient alternative we develop a continuous analytical model of a pinhole SPECT system with a stationary detector set-up, which we apply to focused imaging of a mouse. The model assumes that the multi-pinhole collimator and the detector both have the shape of a spherical layer, and uses analytical expressions for effective pinhole diameters, sensitivity and spatial resolution. For fixed fields-of-view, a pinhole-diameter adapting feedback loop allows for the comparison of the system resolution of different systems at equal system sensitivity, and vice versa. The model predicts that (i) for optimal resolution or sensitivity the collimator layer with pinholes should be placed as closely as possible around the animal given a fixed detector layer, (ii) with high-resolution detectors a resolution improvement up to 31% can be achieved compared to optimized systems, (iii) high-resolution detectors can be placed close to the collimator without significant resolution losses, (iv) interestingly, systems with a physical pinhole diameter of 0 mm can have an excellent resolution when high-resolution detectors are used

  4. An accurate projection algorithm for array processor based SPECT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Cool, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    A data re-projection algorithm has been developed for use in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on an array processor based computer system. The algorithm makes use of an accurate representation of pixel activity (uniform square pixel model of intensity distribution), and is rapidly performed due to the efficient handling of an array based algorithm and the Fast Fourier Tran