Sample records for mizuwake touge nanbu

  1. The Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake and its characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irikura, Kojiro [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Disaster Prevention Research Inst.


    We applied the empirical Green`s function method for simulating strong ground motions during the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake at less and heavily damaged sites in near-source area, where the mainshock records were not obtained. We had reasonable levels of ground motions with peak acceleration of about 1,000 gals and peak velocity of 130 cm/s at the heavily damaged sites, whereas about 300 gals and 60 cm/sat the rock site in near-fault area. Since both the damaged sites and rock site are affected by almost the same forward directivity effects, the difference between them is mainly due to the basin edge effect. We concluded that the destructive motions were caused by the multiplier effect of both the forward rupture directivity and basin edge effects. Special care should be taken to ground motions amplified by the coupling of the source and geological structure effects when mapping seismic hazards in urbanized areas. (J.P.N.)

  2. January 17, 1995, Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. Viewpoint of engineering geology; Hyogoken Nanbu Jishin. Oyo chishitsugaku kara no shiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Hanshin-Awaji earthquake investigation committee was organized by Japanese Engineering Geology Society to carry out the investigation in respect of Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake occurred on January 17, 1995. In this feature edition, reports of said committee including `Crustal movement and seismic faulting`, `Earthquake motion: geology and structure damage`, `Actual circumstances and geological conditions of ground disasters` and `Groundwater fluctuations caused by the earthquake` are gathered. In compilation of `Earthquake motion and active fault`, the investigation on seismic fault and active fault is conducted and the evaluation as well as the studying theme in respect of seismic fault is summarized. In compilation of `Ground, earthquake motion and structure damage`, damage due to the earthquake motion caused by earthquake is concluded from the relations of geographical feature, geological structure and ground. In compilation of `Actual state of earthquake damage and ground condition`, the characteristics of ground damage are analyzed and the relations of such damages with geological structure and geographical feature are investigated. In compilation of `Groundwater fluctuation caused by the earthquake`, the characteristics of groundwater behaviors before and after earthquake are analyzed. 303 refs., 118 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Extending the Nanbu Collision Algorithm to Non-Spitzerian Systems and Application to Laser Heating and Damage

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Alex M


    We have generalized the Nanbu collision algorithm to accommodate arbitrary collision rates, enabling accurate kinetic modeling of short range particle interactions in non-Spitzerian systems. With this extension, we explore the effect of different collision models on the simulation of how ultra-intense lasers first begin to heat a target. The effect of collisions on plasma evolution is crucial for treating particle slowing, energy transport, and thermalization. The widely used Nanbu collision algorithm provides a fast and computationally efficient method to include the effects of collisions between charged particles in kinetic simulations without requiring that the particles already be in local thermal equilibrium. However, it is "hardwired" to use Spitzer collision rates appropriate for hot, relatively dilute plasmas. This restriction prevents the Nanbu collision algorithm from accurately describing the initial heating of a cold target, a key problem for the study of laser damage or the generation of the warm...

  4. Visualization of strong around motion calculated from the numerical simulation of Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake; Suchi simulation de miru Hyogoken nanbu jishin no kyoshindo

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    Furumura, T. [Hokkaido Univ. of Education, Sapporo (Japan); Koketsu, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute


    Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake with a focus in the Akashi straits has given huge earthquake damages in and around Awaji Island and Kobe City in 1995. It is clear that the basement structure, which is steeply deepened at Kobe City from Rokko Mountains towards the coast, and the focus under this related closely to the local generation of strong ground motion. Generation process of the strong ground motion was discussed using 2D and 3D numerical simulation methods. The 3D pseudospectral method was used for the calculation. Space of 51.2km{times}25.6km{times}25.6km was selected for the calculation. This space was discretized with the lattice interval of 200m. Consequently, it was found that the basement structure with a steeply deepened basement, soft and weak geological structure thickly deposited on the basement, and earthquake faults running under the boundary of base rock and sediments related greatly to the generation of strong ground motion. Numerical simulation can be expected to predict the strong ground motion by shallow earthquakes. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Clinical Observation on Dingchen Touge Powder for Delayed Chemotherapy-induced Vomiting%丁沉透膈散治疗化疗延迟呕吐临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏飞; 陈红侠


    Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effect of Dingchen Touge powder for chemotherapy induced gastrointestinal reaction . Methods:A total of 136 patients with delayed chemotherapy-induced vomiting were randomly divided into two groups , in chemotherapy cycle, treatment group was given Dingchen Touge powder orally;while control group was given methoxychlor tome amine and dexametha -sone.Clinical effect and adverse reaction in two groups were observed and compared .Results:The effect for symptoms of anorexia , nau-sea and vomiting in treatment group was obviously superior to control group , and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion:Dingchen Touge powder has good comprehensive effect on chemotherapy -induced gastrointestinal reaction , and is worthy to be clinically popularized and applied .%目的:观察中药丁沉透膈散治疗肿瘤化疗所致消化道反应的疗效。方法:将136例化疗所致延迟呕吐的患者随机分为2组,在化疗周期中实验组以中药丁沉透膈散汤剂口服;对照组予甲氧氯普胺+地塞米松,比较2组的临床效果与药物不良反应。结果:实验组在治疗食欲不振、抑制恶心、呕吐等方面明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P值均小于0.05)。结论:中药丁沉透膈散防治化疗药物所致消化道反应综合疗效较好,值得临床推广应用。

  6. Damages of industrial equipments in the 1995 Hyougoken-Nanbu Earthquake

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    Iwatsubo, Takuzo [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Hanshin-Awaji area has a population of approximately 3 million and many industries, including heavy industry, harbor facilities and international trading companies. The 1995 Hyougoken-Nanbu Earthquake occurred just in this area which is 25kmx2km oblong containing Kobe city. About 5,500 people were killed and 250,000 people lost their houses. Japan society of mechanical engineers organized the investigative committee of earthquake disaster of industrial equipments after the earthquake in order to investigate the disaster damages of industrial equipments and to give data for a design manual for mechanical equipments against earthquake excitation. This is an investigation report of the disaster damages of industrial machine equipments. Damages to machine equipment of industries in the high intensity region of the earthquake are illustrated. The mechanisms of the damages and measures against earthquake and safety of nuclear power plant design are discussed. Then it is known that the design of nuclear power plant is different from the general industrial facilities and the damage which was suffered in the general industrial facilities does not occur in the nuclear power plant. (J.P.N.)

  7. Results of the investigation on validity of Japanese seismic design guidelines of nuclear facilities, based on the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake

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    Watabe, Makoto [Keio Univ., Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan). Fac. of Environment and Information Engineering


    This paper describes the reviewed results and main discussions on some items thought to be problems in the `Examination Guide for Aseismatic Design of the Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities` of Japan, based on knowledge from the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake, and the conclusion that validity of the Guideline was confirmed. (J.P.N.)

  8. On the fault system and basement structure in and around the epicentral region of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake; 1995 nen Hyogoken nanbu jishin shingen shuhen no danso kiso kozo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokura, T.; Kano, N.; Yamaguchi, K.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ikawa, T.; Ota, Y.; Kawanaka, T. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    A reflection elastic wave seismic survey was carried out as part of the emergency survey of active faults in relation with the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. This paper presents an interim report on the survey covering a wide area with deep structure as the survey object. The paper mentions that processing the survey data has been nearly completed, and is in the stage of making analyses and interpretations of the result of the processing, and that the survey was an attempt of making a unified survey over land areas, shallow sea areas, and seas by setting twelve traverse lines in and around the epicenter region. The paper also introduces briefly what has been found on hypocenters used, vibration receivers, vibration intervals, and CPD intervals, and on shapes of faults, particularly the continuity (the relationship of the Ashiya fault, Koyo fault and Osaka bay fault with the above two faults, branching of the Osaka bay fault, faults between the Wada promontory fault, Awaji Island and the Osaka bay fault, the fault off the east coast at the central part of Awaji Island, the Shichiku fault on the west coast of Awaji Island, and the basement fault). Mention is given also on the basement structure chart of the Osaka bay prepared preliminarily for the purpose of reference. 2 figs.

  9. Study of underground structure of Osaka basin and seismic ground motions; Osaka bonchi no chika kozo chosa to Hyogoken nanbu jishin ni yoru jishindo

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    Iwasaki, Y. [Geo-Research Institute, Osaka, Osaka (Japan)


    This paper describes the following matters on the study of underground structure of Osaka Basin and seismic ground motions caused by the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. Elastic wave investigations using reflections intended for deep structures were carried out in the Hyogo prefectural area and the Osaka bay area by an association of the Geological Survey Institute, Hyogo Prefectural Government, Kobe Municipality and Universities. Reflection investigations were conducted in the Osaka land areas using the east-west traverse line along Yamato River (by the Geological Survey Institute), the south-north traverse line along the Naniwa street in the city of Osaka, and the east-west traverse line at the south end of the Uemachi fault. In addition, investigations using shallow bed reflections were performed in the Osaka bay area by the Hydrographic Office. Results of the active fault investigations using the reflection method may not agree with positions of faults which are estimated topographically. An existing structure model of the Osaka basin (something like of a primary approximation) and the result of inverse analysis on epicenter faults in the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake were used as the base for calculating seismic motions in the Abeno area in Osaka City. The result agreed relatively well with observations if the calculation is intended for waves having cycles longer than about two seconds. 6 figs.

  10. The Founding of Country Patrolman System in Nanbu County of Sichuan in Late Qing Dynasty An Investigation into Nanbu Archives%清末四川南部县乡镇巡警创办研究以《南部档案》为基本史料的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦峰; 李庆宏


    清末州县乡镇巡警制度的创办,既是清政府试图用近代警察制度代替旧式的团练、保甲基层组织来维护乡镇治安、稳定地方秩序的一次重要尝试,也是清末新政的重要组成部分。《南部档案》保存了清末四川南部县乡镇巡警制度创办的相关史料,从中可见南部县乡镇巡警制度创办的地域特色:巡警道统一部署与知县二元领导;警员以当地壮丁为主,文化程度参差不齐;警费以各种税捐为主要来源,且入不敷出等,后因专业警官人员匮乏、普通巡警文化水平低下、地方官消极怠慢等致南部县乡镇巡警制度创办效果不佳、成绩有限。同时,清末四川南部县乡镇巡警制度创办中还呈现出领导权限不明、警察职责混乱、管理机械僵化、分割州县职能等一系列新特点,在一定程度上宣告了基层官制改革的破产。%The founding of county and township patrolman system in the late Qing Dynasty is not only a significant attempt of the Qing government to replace the old Tuanlian and Bao-jia system with a modern police force in maintaining local security, but also an important part in New Policy. Nanbu Archives contain relevant historical data of the founding of patrolman system in Nanbu County in late Qing dynasty. We can find out some geographical features of the patrolman system from the archives. The patrolman system was under dual leadership of xunjng Dao and county magistrate,and the patrolmen mainly came from local young people with varied education backgrounds. The patrolman system was mainly funded by a variety of taxes which sometimes fell short. Due to the lack of professional staff officers,inadequate education of ordinary patrolmen,and the neg-ative attitude of local officials,the patrolman system in Nanbu failed to perform effectively. Other problems also exist in the performance of the patrolman system in Nanbu County:unclear definition of

  11. On dynamic response analysis of base-isolated structures for the Northridge earthquake and the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake; Chokka jishin ni taisuru nenshin kozo no oto kyodo ni kansuru kosatsu

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    Takayama, M.; Morita, K. [Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The January 17, 1995, Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake was occurred. This earthquake was the most damaging earthquake to have struck Japan since the great Kanto earthquake. In Los Angela area, the Northridge earthquake was occurred at January 17, 1994. In this earthquake, the large acceleration over 1G was observed. Two base-isolated buildings (computer center and research facility) in Kobe-city, and USC Hospice (base-isolated building) in Los Angeles survived these big earthquakes. In this paper, the observed response of these base-isolated buildings was introduced and the performance of base-isolated buildings was discussed. And the dynamic response analysis was carried out using the observed ground motions during the two big earthquakes. As the results, the acceleration response of base-isolated buildings which isolated period Tf is over 4 sec was below 0.1-0.2G, and the relative displacement of isolated story was under 30-50cm. 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Effect of deep structure and surface layer (a) simulation study on the heavy damage belt of the 1995 Hyogoken Nanbu earthquake; Hado simulation wo mochiita `shinsai no obi` ni tsuite no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, S.; Ishikawa, K.; Kaji, Y. [Chuokaihatsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A simulation study was done to identify the causes for the so-called heavy damage belt observed as a result of the Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake. This study determines distributions of the maximum amplitudes on the ground surfaces, and discusses the effects of deep structures and low-velocity surface layers, based on the simulation by the wave equation with the underground model of Higashinada-ku and its vicinity in the north-south direction, observed seismic records and artificial waves. The two-dimensional scalar wave equation is used for the analysis. The velocity structure model used for the simulation is established, based on the elastic wave seismic survey results. The focus function is drawn by expanding or contracting the time scale, using the seismic records at Kobe Port Island and artificial waves. The analysis results show that the damage belt coincides with the areas at which the focusing zone of the deep structure overlap the amplification zone in the low-velocity ground surfaces, where relative density is amplified 1.5 to 2 times. It is also observed that large peaks repeat 2 to 3 times on the time scale. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The Establishment of Village Fair and the County Yamen in Nanbu of Late Qing Sichuan%清代后期四川省南部县场市的设立与县衙门

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滝野正二郎; 薛云虹(译); 吴佩林(译)


    Located in the city of Nanchong, Nanbu Archives has collected some files about village fair of the late Qing period. According to records, a village fair is usually established either by those who are officials of the Baojia system or by other Very Important People in the rural society. The application to set up a village fair is mainly based on the distance of other markets, convenience of commodity trading, and social order maintenance. If permitted, the applicants are issued with certificate, payment card, Dou, and scales to maintain public order and discipline. Providing capital and labor, they are responsible for errands. The site for a village fair should be convenient for transportation and other fairs are forbidden to be set up within a radius of 10km to 30km. Village fairs generally open for three days every ten days period and stagger with adjacent markets. Managers‘ income comes from the market management, and some of it is used for public spending. However, their legitimate income is not high from the records of the archives.%现藏于南充市档案馆的《南部县档案》保存了一些关于场市的案卷。藉此可知,场市设立的申请者一般是保甲制度下有一官半职的人,或是乡村社会有势力的民人,他们在商议的基础上申请设立场市;而距离其他场市的远近、商品交易的方便程度、社会治安的维护等是其向县衙门申请设立场市的主要因素。衙门若同意设立场市,通常会给申请者颁发示谕,给付牌棍和斗、秤,以让他们管理好场市的治安秩序和风纪,同时承担差务,提供资金和劳动力。场市的选址既要交通便利,也要周围半径10~30公里范围内没有其他场市。集期一般是每旬三日,而且会错开与相邻场市的集期。管理者通过对场市的管理获得收入,并将收入的一部分用于公共事务的开支。不过仅就档案所见,场市管理者所获得的正当收入并不丰厚。

  14. General report on investigations of fault, earthquake motion and damage due to the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake; 1995 nen Hyogoken nanbu jishin ni okeru danso, jishindo, higai ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Compiled herein are the results of various investigations and examinations conducted concerning the 1995 Hyogoken-nambu earthquake. Along the boundary surface between the granite and Osaka group, and in the Osaka group, accumulated displacements and flexural structures are found, supposedly attributable to faulting, by high-density electric prospecting and underground radar prospecting near the Nojima earthquake fault. Displaced structures in the unconsolidated covering layer are detected to the depth of 10-odd meters. Displacement of ground water due to earthquake is different between the shallow and deep layers, which can be explained by a simplified model. The dynamic stress drop in the main shock is equal to the maximum ({Delta}{gamma}) value of each of the aftershocks, and there exists a certain ceiling over the {Delta}{gamma}dependence on the earthquake moment. The maximum acceleration of the earthquake motion estimated from waveforms in the rock is approximately 300 gals, which probably results from the concentration in one direction of the inputted energy wherein long period components are dominant. The newly developed nonlinear analysis technique simulates the attenuation and amplification of acceleration accompanied by liquefaction, and the buckling behavior of bridge columns may be explained by this technique. 72 refs., 84 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Proposal from the Japan Society of Engineering Geology in the report meeting on Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake; Hyogoken nanbu jishin hokokukai ni okeru Nippon oyo chishitsu gakkai kara no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Contribution to disaster protection measures and earthquake resistance technology are important activities except application of geology for Japan Society of Engineering Geology. The society carries out field measurement and analysis, and offers analytical method and inverse analytical method for engineering analyses of data. An analytical method uses physical properties of ground and seismic forces as input data, and verifies the stability and safety of some supposed structures at earthquake. It is important to acquire physical properties of ground enough and to measure accurately information of external forces. An inverse analytical method surveys various phenomena at earthquake, and diagnoses the causes of such phenomena. In this time, the engineering survey, evaluation and analysis of active faults and seismic faults are insufficient. It is also one of the issues that the society couldn`t acquire data systematically from the observation hole of underground water. It is also important to consider the point of contact with the actual world. 2 figs.

  16. 2D inversion results and interpretation of CSAMT data in the Itaya prospect, Northern Honshu, Japan; Tohoku nanbu chiiki Itaya chiku ni okeru CSAMT ho nijigen kaiseki kekka to sono kaishaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, K.; Hishida, H.; Katayama, H. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Takakura, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    A two-dimensional analysis was carried out on electric exploration data obtained by using the CSAMT method in the Itaya prospect in the southern part of the Tohoku region in Japan. Considerations were given on mine exploration targets. Gold produced in this area is contained in stockwork or vein deposited quartz in silicified hydrothermal breccia. Therefore, the exploration targets are silicified rocks that show high resistivity. The field investigation using the CSAMT method was conducted by installing a dipole source of about 1.9 km as a transmission source at a location about 6 km apart from the investigation area, and by measuring transmission currents from 8 to 10A and ten frequencies from 4 to 2048 Hz. The two-dimensional analysis was performed by using programs of a forward calculation that used a finite element method and of an inversion calculation that used a least-squares method. Analysis utilizing resistivity of the boring cores made minimizing RMS misfit possible. As a result, estimations were made on distribution of silicification and claying alteration from the detailed resistivity distribution around the Itaya mine. 5 ref., 8 figs.

  17. Generation of seismic base map using satellite images in the southern deltaic area, People`s Republic of Bangladesh; Eisei data ni motozuku jishin tansa base map no sakusei (Bangladesh nanbu delta no rei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotera, Y. [Japan Energy Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ochi, M. [Nikko Exploration and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hato, M. [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    Assuming a two-dimensional seismic survey in a mangrove jungle in the southeast part of People`s Republic of Bangladesh and trially making a basemap for the survey plan from images of satellites such as LANDSAT, the paper considered the use and marginal use in the case of using satellite remote sensing for such a use field. When utilizing water channels in the mangrove jungle in the southwest of Bangladesh and using the seismic survey method for shallow sea, it is important to grasp the distribution of channels in the planning stage of the survey. Satellite remote sensing data are extremely important for knowing the wide-regional information including factors of hourly variations. In the area for this survey, for directly recognizing the channel, it is good only if the difference in reflectance between water and substances except water is indicated in the image because of flatness of the topography. There was seen few difference in accuracy between the passive multispectral image and the active SAR image which is sensitive to topographical changes. 2 figs.

  18. Investigation of phenomena of Southern Hyogo Earthquake, and observation of thunderbolts in winter using the integrated thunderbolt observation system; Hyogoken nanbu jishin no gensho no kaimei, sogo kaminari kansoku system ni yoru toki kaminari kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, C.; Shindo, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    The focal region of this earthquake was in the upper part of crusher zone of granite, and the maximum horizontal acceleration was about 300 gal which was increased at the surface into two times. Energy input would be concentrated between the first and second waves, to act on the structures resulting in the immediate destruction. The non-linear analysis method based on the effective stress was applied. As a result, the damping of horizontal acceleration and enhancing of vertical acceleration accompanied with liquefaction, and the amount of ground subsidence at the foundation of main tower of Akashi Bridge on the sand/gravel ground could be well simulated. The position of the fault and deformation structure in the surface layer could be detected down to the depth of more than 10 m by means of high density electrical exploration and underground radar exploration. (2) To observe thunderbolt field at various points and collect these data effectively, a remote control thunderbolt observation system was constructed. Thunderbolts in winter at Fukui were observed by integrating this system with the conventional optical observation, observation of thunder current, and observation of thunder cloud using Doppler radar. About a half of thunderstrokes in winter were due to the straight polarity discharge. It was also confirmed that generation of upward thunderbolts relates closely to the electrical activities in the thunder cloud. 6 figs.

  19. The Mid-Latitude Trough. A Review (United States)


    Time Auroral Oval of Feldstein and Starkov [1967] .............................................................. 5 3 Simultaneous Measurements of Ion...and Starkov [19671. 505 (a) (b) ORIT t360 1S J.RY 11976 S.ORBIT S412 AUGUST 1976JO 0.5 -. l S I’ I I I I I VI ~MAN ,o ,.. TOUG,0 OLE S102 I3’z L / N

  20. Direct simulation Monte Carlo schemes for Coulomb interactions in plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Dimarco, Giacomo; Pareschi, Lorenzo


    We consider the development of Monte Carlo schemes for molecules with Coulomb interactions. We generalize the classic algorithms of Bird and Nanbu-Babovsky for rarefied gas dynamics to the Coulomb case thanks to the approximation introduced by Bobylev and Nanbu (Theory of collision algorithms for gases and plasmas based on the Boltzmann equation and the Landau-Fokker-Planck equation, Physical Review E, Vol. 61, 2000). Thus, instead of considering the original Boltzmann collision operator, the schemes are constructed through the use of an approximated Boltzmann operator. With the above choice larger time steps are possible in simulations; moreover the expensive acceptance-rejection procedure for collisions is avoided and every particle collides. Error analysis and comparisons with the original Bobylev-Nanbu (BN) scheme are performed. The numerical results show agreement with the theoretical convergence rate of the approximated Boltzmann operator and the better performance of Bird-type schemes with respect to t...

  1. Statistical fluctuations in Monte Carlo calculations. [for solution of rarefied flow problems (United States)

    Boyd, I. D.; Stark, J. P. W.


    The time counter and modified Nanbu simulation techniques are analyzed, with emphasis placed on the convergence of the calculations to a steady macroscopic state. Such variables as translational and rotational temperature, and flow velocity, sampled at several points in the flowfield, are considered. Both macroscopic averages and molecular distribution functions are analyzed. The calculation of inelastic collisions, in which transfer of energy between translational and internal energy modes is performed, is achieved through the use of the Larsen-Borgnakke phenomenological model. It is noted that, with reference to translational temperature, the time counter method shows less statistical scatter than that found with the modified Nanbu simulation technique.

  2. Study on dynamic response of embedded long span corrugated steel culverts using scaled model shaking table tests and numerical analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of scaled-model shaking table tests and its simulation analyses using dynamic finite element method were performed to clarify the dynamic behaviors and the seismic stability of embedded corrugated steel culverts due to strong earthquakes like the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake. The dynamic strains of the embedded culvert models and the seismic soil pressure acting on the models due to sinusoidal and random strong motions were investigated. This study verified that the corrugated culvert model was subjected to dynamic horizontal forces (lateral seismic soil pressure) from the surrounding ground,which caused the large bending strains on the structure; and that the structures do not exceed the allowable plastic deformation and do not collapse completely during strong earthquake like Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake. The results obtained are useful for design and construction of embedded long span corrugated steel culverts in seismic regions.

  3. 地域の潜在的危険因子の評価に関する研究 : 神戸市の日常災害と阪神・淡路大震災を事例に(E.突発災害,事故)


    志垣, 智子; 生田, 英輔; 宮野, 道雄; Tomoko, SHIGAKI; Eisuke, IKUTA; Michio, MIYANO; 大阪市立大学大学院生活科学研究科; Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University


    According to the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake, more than 6400 death were reported including indirect causes. It is said that most death were senior citizens. In daily accidents, risk of death shows the same tendency. According to this point of view, we consider that the damage due to natural disasters correlate various factors in regional scale. We would like to point out that the potential risk factors in regional scale is very important to understand the relationship between natural disa...

  4. 人工衛星データによる阪神・淡路大震災の被災地抽出調査


    後藤, 恵之輔; 全, 炳徳; 西川, 麗


    The Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake occurred on January 17, 1995 in Kobe district. This earthquake caused a heavy loss of human lives. There were huge damages by liquefaction, landslide, fire and so on. In this paper, stricken areas before the earthquake are compared with the same areas after that by using satellite image data of MOS and LANDSAT, and analyzed environmental factors. The possibility of disaster investigation by using satellite image data is checked, furthermore liquefaction damage, f...

  5. Study on the characteristics of earthquake ground motion in the Hanshin area based on microtremor measurements; Bido kansoku ni motozuku Hanshin chiiki no jiban shindo tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.; Seo, K.; Yamanaka, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake in 1995 was a local earthquake that has hit directly a large urban area, having caused damages the greatest since the War mainly in the city of Kobe. The present study has noticed the areas of Sumiyoshi, Nada Ward, Kobe City and Nanbu, Nishinomiya City where damages show different distribution; elucidated the characteristics of earthquake ground motion based on microtremor measurements; and discussed the relation thereof with the earthquake damage distribution. It was verified that microtremors and seismic motions are in rough agreement in the Sumiyoshi area, by comparing and discussing the spectrum ratio between the microtremors and the seismic motions. No correspondence was recognized in the Sumiyoshi area between distribution of the average microtremor spectrum ratio with cycles of 0.2 to 0.8 second and distribution of damages caused by the Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake. The ground characteristics evaluation alone is insufficient to explain distribution of the damages in a relatively wide range in the city of Nishinomiya, for which effects of distance decay should be taken into consideration. 6 refs., 7 figs.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Shi-bo; LIAN Lian; REN Ping; HUANG Guo-liang


    This article presents the newly designed oblique towing test in the horizontal plane for the scaled model of 4 500 m deep sea open-framed Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV),which is being researched and developed by Shanghai Jiao Toug University.Accurate hydrodynamics coefficients measurement is significant for the maneuverability and control system design.The scaled model of ROV was constructed by 1∶1.6.Hydrodynamics tests of large drift angle were conducted through Large Amplitude Horizontal Planar Motion Mechanism (LAHPMM) under low speed.Multiple regression method is adopted to process the test data and obtain the related hydrodynamic coefficients.Simulations were designed for the horizontal plane motion of large drift angle to verify the coefficients calculated.And the results show that the data can satisfy with the design requirements of the ROV developed.

  7. 30万吨/年合成氨气化炉耐热Cr-Mo钢焊接材料的研制%The Development of Heat-resistance Cr-Mo Steel Welding Material for the Gasifier Used for 300,000 Ton/Year Ammonia Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建俊; 郑见明; 黄有仁; 郑秀芹; 孙业宏


    This article briefly describes the development process of th e heat resistance Cr-Mo steel welding material for the gasifier used for 300,000 Ton/Year ammonia project,which includes the technical specification,the formulat ion selection and all test results.The successful development of this welding ma terial with excellent high temperature properity as well as low temperature toug hness (AKV>54J,at-20℃),not only satisfies the design and fabrication req uirements of the gasifier,but also changes the situation that the welding materi al can only depend on import in ths past,which saves the country plenty of forei gn exchanges.

  8. Renormalization of the fragmentation equation: exact self-similar solutions and turbulent cascades. (United States)

    Saveliev, V L; Gorokhovski, M A


    Using an approach developed earlier for renormalization of the Boltzmann collision integral [Saveliev and Nanbu, Phys. Rev. E 65, 051205 (2002)], we derive an exact divergence form for the fragmentation operator. Then we reduce the fragmentation equation to the continuity equation in size space, with the flux given explicitly. This allows us to obtain self-similar solutions and to find the integral of motion for these solutions (we call it the bare flux). We show how these solutions can be applied as a description of cascade processes in three- and two-dimensional turbulence. We also suggested an empirical cascade model of impact fragmentation of brittle materials.

  9. Serviceability behavior of Reinforcement Concrete beams with polypropylene and steel fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Serviceability Limit States (SLS may lead to the design of concrete elements internally reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP.In many types of concrete structure loss the serviceability due to wide cracks, number of cracks or large deflection is not uncommon behaviour in concrete structures or concrete beams.The flexural ductility affects the serviceability deflection of RC beams once flexural cracking take place.Imprvement will be focused on the use of polypropilene fibres , which is the subject of thispaper. The performance of concrete with fibers is judged by the flexural toughness obtained by load-deflection curves. The flexural toughness of concrete is depend on different types of fibersin use.Its tougness will be reperesent in the behaviour of RC memebres at failure. Sometimes, it is difficult to use the flexural toughness to judge the behavior of concrete structures under service load. The result of cracking on concrete beam due to the applied load and the method of loading to monitor and check the performance of concrete with different types of fiber arediscussed in this paper. The reductionin the dimension of cracks and the effect of energy disipations of polypropilene fibres will be the main aim of this research work.

  10. Facts learnt from the Hanshin-Awaji disaster and consideration on design basis earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Heki [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper will deal with how to establish the concept of the design basis earthquake for critical industrial facilities such as nuclear power plants in consideration of disasters induced by the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake (Southern Hyogo-prefecture Earthquake-1995), so-called Kobe earthquake. The author once discussed various DBEs at 7 WCEE. At that time, the author assumed that the strongest effective PGA would be 0.7 G, and compared to the values of accelerations to a structure obtained by various codes in Japan and other countries. The maximum PGA observed by an instrument at the Southern Hyogo-pref. Earthquake-1995 exceeded the previous assumption of the author, even though the evaluation results of the previous paper had been pessimistic. According to the experience of Kobe event, the author will point out the necessity of the third earthquake S{sub s} adding to S{sub 1} and S{sub 2}, previous DBEs. (author)

  11. Transport Parameters For Positive IONS In Pure H2O DC Discharge (United States)

    Petrovic, Zoran; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Jovanovic, Jasmina; Maric, Dragana


    Transport properties of positive ions originating from H2O (H2O+, OH+) in DC fields and at the room temperature were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation technique. Initially, the relevant cross section sets were assessed by using Denpoh-Nanbu theory for resolving between elastic and reactive collision events and then resolving contribution of exothermic processes from available experimental data. Newest experimentally or theoretically determined cross sections were compiled and included wherever possible. We present transport coefficients for low and moderate reduced electric fields E / N (N-gas density) accounting for non-conservative processes. Acknowledgment to Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of Republic Serbia, Projects No. 171037 and 410011.

  12. Study on the method of forecasting the drought and flood grades based on Markov Chains%基于马尔科夫链的旱涝等级预测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      本文利用 Z 指数对四川省南部国家气象观测站观测建站以来逐年汛期(5-9月)总降水量进行旱涝等级划分,分为极涝、大涝、偏涝、正常、偏旱、大旱、极旱共7个等级,再按照马尔科夫链基本原理,统计转移概率,构建不同时间步长的转移概率矩阵,预测2002年至2011年南部的旱涝等级,根据预测结果和实际情况验证分析得出,预测结果最大值均为等级4,如果预测结果有明显的第二大值,则预测年份旱涝等级为第二大值等级,如无明显第二大值则预测年份旱涝等级为正常。%  This paper uses the Z-index to classify the drought and flood grades based on the statstics of the total precipitation in floods season(May--September) that is col ected from the establishment of Nanbu meteorological observation station of Sichuan Province. It can be divided into 7 grade,namely extreme-floods, heavy-floods, slight-floods, normal, slight-drought, heavy-drought, extreme-drought; then the basic principle of Markov chain and the transition probability statistics are used to build a transfer-probability matrix of different time steps, It is believed that the maximum from 2002 to 2011 of Nanbu County wil be level 4.If the forecast result shows that there is a obvious second largest eigenvalue, then the forecast year’s drought and flood grades should be extremely floods; if not, the grade should be normal.

  13. Synthesis of Conformationally Locked 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Xiao-bing


    [1]Isono, K. , J. Antibiotcs. , XLI, 1 711(1988)[2]Nielsen, P. , Pfundheller, H. M. , Wengel, J. Chem. Commun. , 825(1997)[3]Obika, S. , Morio, K. , Nanbu, D. et al. , Chem. Commun. , 1 643(1997)[4]Obika, S. , Nanbu, D. , Hari, Y. et al. , Tetrahedron Lett., 38, 8 735(1997)[5]Singh, S. K. , Nielsen, P. , Koshkin, A. A. et al. , J. Chem. Commun. , 455(1998)[6]Koshkin, A. A. , Wengel, J. , J. Org. Chem. , 63, 2 788(1998)[7]Koshkin, A. A. , Singh, S. K. , Nielsen, P. et al. , J. Tetrahedron, 54, 3 607(1998)[8]Christensen, N. K. , Petersen, M. , Nielsen, P. et al. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 120, 5 458(1998)[9]Winter,H. D., Lescrinier, E. , Aerschot, A. V. et al. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 120, 5 381(1998)[10]Wang, G. , Tetrahdron Lett., 40, 6 343(1999)[11]Marquez, V. E. , Ezzitouni, A. , Russ, P. C. et al. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 120, 2 780(1998)[12]Obika, S. , Andoh, J. , Sugimoto, T. et al., Tetrahedron Lett. , 40, 6 465(1999)[13]Siddiqui, M. , Ford, Jr, H. , George, C. et al. , Nucleosides & Nucleotides. , 15, 235(1996)[14]Marquez, V. E. , Siddiqui, M. , Ezzitouni, A. et al. , J. Med. Chem. , 39, 3 739(1996)[15]Marshall, R. , Dalley, N. K. , Savage, P. B. , Tetrahedron Lett., 39, 3 923(1998)[16]Pickering, L. , Nair, V. , Nucleosides & Nucleotides. , 16, 1 435(1997)[17]Tian X. B. , Min J. M. , Zhang L. H. , Tetrahedron.. Asymmetry, in press[18]Bolon, P., Jahnke, T. S. , Nair, V. , Tetrahedron. , 51, 10 443(1995)[19]Yang, Z. J. , Yu, H. W. , Mia, J. M. et al., Tetrahedron: Asymmetry, 8, 2 739(1997)[20]Hedgley, E.J. , Mérész, O. , Overend, W. G. , J. Chem. Soc. (c), 888(1967)

  14. Usefulness of visual evaluation of the anterior thalamic radiation by diffusion tensor tractography for differentiating between Alzheimer’s disease and elderly major depressive disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niida A


    Full Text Available Akira Niida,1 Richi Niida,2 Kazumasa Kuniyoshi,3 Makoto Motomura,4 Akihiko Uechi51Department of Radiology, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, Japan; 3Department of Neuropathic Internal Medicine, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 4Department of Human Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami Country, Okinawa, Japan; 5Cognitive Neuroscience Research Project, Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, JapanBackground and objective: Many surveys of neural integrity of the cerebral white matter with psychiatric diseases on diffusion tensor imaging have recently been performed, but these mainly utilize fractional anisotropy (FA and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values, and the results were inconsistent and not fully applied clinically. In this study, we investigated the possibility of differentiating between Alzheimer’s disease (AD and elderly major depressive disorder (MDD patients in whom early-stage symptoms are difficult to diagnose, by visually evaluating cerebral nerve fascicles utilizing diffusion tensor tractography. We also measured and evaluated FA and ADC values at the same time.Subjects and methods: The subjects included 13 AD patients (age: 69.5 ± 5.1 years, 19 MDD patients (65.8 ± 5.7 years, and 22 healthy control (HC subjects (67.4 ± 4.8 years. Images were acquired using a 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging device and analyzed by diffusion tensor tractography analysis software.Results: Depiction of the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR tended to be poor in AD patients unlike in MDD patients and HC subjects. The FA values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and fornix (FX in AD patients were significantly different from those in MDD patients and HC subjects. The ADC values in the bilateral ATR and left superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and FX in AD patients were

  15. Adopted Children in City Education Problem and Inspiration%城市寄养儿童家庭教育存在的问题与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着城市80后独生子女为人父为人母,工作环境竞争的日益激烈,越来越多的年轻父母或因为工作压力大,或因为逃避养育责任等选择把孩子交给保姆或孩子的祖父母、外祖父母甚至其他亲戚代为抚养,这种代为抚养的儿童称为“城市寄养儿童”。和完整家庭的孩子相比,寄养儿童的家庭教育在一定程度上是不完整的,尤其在心理情感、教育内容和教育观念等方面存在严重问题,提前建立抚养人和寄养儿童的感情、强化抚养人的家庭功能以及强化学校对寄养儿童的教育与关怀是解决城市寄养儿童家庭教育问题的主要途径。%when single children who born in 80’s turn to parents,work competition becomes toug-her.More and more young parents send their children to be adopted by children’s nurse,their grappa, grappa in law,or other relation people.It was called Adopted Children in City.Compare with children in their own family,adopted children don’t have education completely,and there are big problem,espe-cially in psychological,education content and education concept,set up ahead of time to raise and A-dopted children’s feelings,strengthen the supporter of family functions and strengthening school educa-tion and care for children is the main way to solve the problem of education Adopted Children in City.

  16. Collapse ratios of buildings due to the 1995 Kobe earthquake and interference between S-wave and the second surface wave at basin edge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhixin; XU Jiren; Ryuji Kubota; Wakizawa Yasuhiko; Kajikawa Syozo


    The distribution characteristics of collapse ratios of buildings in Kobe city due to the 1995 M7.2 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan (Kobe) earthquake and the interferences due to SH or P-SV and the second surface waves propagating in heterogeneous medium are discussed in this paper by using numerical simulation technique of wave equation. The staggered grid real value fast Fourier transform differentiation (SGRFFTD) is used in the pseudospectral method of ground motion simulations because of its speed, high stability and accuracy. The results show that the maximum amplitude of simulated acceleration waveforms on the ground coincides well with the complicated distributions of collapse ratios of buildings. The peak collapse ratio of buildings away from the earthquake fault also coincides well with the peak ground acceleration. The spatial interference process is analyzed by using the snap shots of seismic wave propagation. The peak ground acceleration is probably caused by the interferences due to the second surface wave transmitting from the bedrock to sedimentary basin and the upward body wave. Analyses of the interference process show that seismic velocity structure and geologic structure strongly influence the distribution of the maximum amplitude of acceleration waveforms. Interferences occurring near the basin boundary are probably the cause of the peak collapse ratio of buildings away from the fault. Therefore it is necessary to analyze wave propagations and interference process using numerical simulation strategy for studies on the seismic disasters.

  17. New technological approach in reconstructing Hanshin expressway. Base isolation for continuous rigid frame bridge; Hanshin kosoku doro fukkyu deno aratana kokoromi. Rittai ramen kyokyaku kabu menshinkyo wo chushin to shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, H. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper presents new technological approach in reconstructing Hanshin expressway damaged by Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. The expressway of Benten section was composed of 6 three-span continuous RC floor slab girders supported by RC single columns, and 2 simple girders. Among them, 3 girders fell and 5 girders were largely damaged. As the study result of various structures for reconstruction, the 19-span continuous steel plate deck rigid frame bridge was adopted which is supported by steel piers with plane aseismic base isolation structure first in the world. Static and dynamic analyses of 3-D model were carried out to evaluate structure characteristics. The result of static analysis revealed that pile reaction forces are allowable, and horizontal forces due to earthquake or temperature at the bottom of piers considerably decrease. The result of eigenvalue analysis revealed that all of preferential lower- order modes are horizontal mode, and their frequencies are as low as 0.7Hz. The designed damping factor of aseismic bearings was estimated to be 15% or more. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Reduction of artificial source effect in the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the Hanshin region; Hanshin chiiki no komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa ni okeru jinko noise source no eikyo no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Makino, M.; Morijiri, R.; Okuma, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in December 1995 on areas from Kobe City to Kyoto City in relation to the Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake in 1995. It was found in the survey that effects of electric trains driven by direct current and man-made structures cannot be avoided, working as a large noise factor in extraction and analysis of geological information. This paper describes a quantitative analysis on magnetic anomaly suspected to have been caused from artificial sources seen in the magnetic map of the Hanshin area obtained from the above exploration data. The paper also gives considerations on methods to remove the effects therefrom. It then describes a quantitative analysis and the result of attempts on removal of the anomaly, taking up the following factors: (1) distribution of specific and remarkable magnetic anomalies which correspond to railroad positions of the Hanshin Railways running through the Nishinomiya-Toyonaka area, (2) the magnetic anomaly trend in positive and negative pair seen in the seafront area of Kobe City, and (3) typical bipolar isolated type magnetic anomaly in the north-west part of Kobe City. The cause for (1) was loop current flown for the railway operation, that for (2) was man-made structures in the improved seafront area, and that for (3) was a provisionally built metal waste storage yard. 9 figs.

  19. Deep sedimentary structure model beneath the Osaka plain; Osaka heiya ni okeru shinbu chika kozo no model ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, K.; Kagawa, T.; Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)


    Restructuring was carried out on a sedimentary basin structure model of the Osaka plain including Osaka Bay by using newly obtained underground structural data. After the Hygoken-nanbu Earthquake of 1995, a large number of underground structure investigations have been performed in Osaka Bay and urban areas of Kobe and Osaka. However, very few surveys have been done in areas peripheral to Osaka Prefecture, such as the Ikoma area. Therefore, an attempt has been made to increase the number of measuring points to acquire underground structural data of these areas. Estimation of basic rock depths has utilized the dominant cycles in H/V spectra obtained from micro vibration survey, and good correlation of the base rock depths derived by a refraction exploration and a deep-bed boring investigation. With regard to bed division and P- and S- wave velocities in sedimentary beds in the Osaka sedimentary basin, an underground structure model was prepared, which was divided into four beds according to the refraction exploration and the micro vibration investigation. Data obtained by using this model agreed well with depth data acquired from physical exploration and other types of investigations. However, no good agreement was recognized in the data for such areas where the basic depth changes abruptly as the Rokko fault and the Osaka bay fault. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. A seismic design of nuclear reactor building structures applying seismic isolation system in a seismicity region-a feasibility case study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Tetsuo [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Tomofumi; Sato, Kunihiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Jimbo, Masakazu [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama (Japan); Imaoka, Tetsuo [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Umeki, Yoshito [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)


    A feasibility study on the seismic design of nuclear reactor buildings with application of a seismic isolation system is introduced. After the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake in Japan of 1995, seismic isolation technologies have been widely employed for commercial buildings. Having become a mature technology, seismic isolation systems can be applied to NPP facilities in areas of high seismicity. Two reactor buildings are discussed, representing the PWR and BWR buildings in Japan, and the application of seismic isolation systems is discussed. The isolation system employing rubber bearings with a lead plug positioned (LRB) is examined. Through a series of seismic response analyses using the so-named standard design earthquake motions covering the design basis earthquake motions obtained for NPP sites in Japan, the responses of the seismic isolated reactor buildings are evaluated. It is revealed that for the building structures examined herein: (1) the responses of both isolated buildings and isolating LRBs fulfill the specified design criteria; (2) the responses obtained for the isolating LRBs first reach the ultimate condition when intensity of motion is 2.0 to 2.5 times as large as that of the design-basis; and (3) the responses of isolated reactor building fall below the range of the prescribed criteria.

  1. Deformation structure of surface unconsolidated layer along the Nojima earthquake fault; Nojima jishin danso de kansatsusareta mikoketsuna hyoso jiban no henkei kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, K.; Ueta, K.; Abe, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Nakata, H. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Hayashi, H.


    For the study of deformation produced in an unconsolidated surface layer by faulting in the ground, the Nojima Fault that emerged in the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake is investigated. Deformation produced in a ground surface by an earthquake stay intact but a short period of time, and therefore investigations are to be carried out immediately after the earthquake. A 1m-mesh net is formed to cover the object area, and a 1/50 scale detailed sketch is prepared. Levelling is also carried out. As for deformation deeper in the ground, it is surveyed at four spots in Nojima-Ezaki and Nashimoto using the underground radar method. As the result, it is found that the positional relationship of various shear mechanisms and the direction of their displacement as observed on the ground surface are harmonious with those that are produced in a fault model experiment using dry sand. This finding suggests that interpretation of the shear mechanism is in some degree possible by assuming a simple shear mode. But the direction along which shear develops in the layer, that is, the angle at which the direction diagonally meets the fault line, fails to be explained fully. 34 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Synthetic seismograms of ground motion near earthquake fault using simulated Green's function method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhixin; ZHAO Zhao; XU Jiren; Ryuji Kubota


    Seismograms near source fault were synthesized using the hybrid empirical Green's function method where he discretely simulated seismic waveforms are used for Green's functions instead of the observed waveforms of small earthquakes. The Green's function seismic waveforms for small earthquake were calculated by solving wave equation using the pseudo-spectral method with the staggered grid real FFT strategy under a detailed 2-D velocity structure in Kobe region. Magnitude and seismic moment of simulated Green's function waveforms were firstly determined by using the relationship between fault length and corner frequency of source spectrum. The simulated Green's function waveforms were employed to synthesize seismograms of strong ground motion near the earthquake fault. The synthetic seismograms of the target earthquake were performed based on the model with multiple source rupture processes. The results suggest that synthesized seismograms coincide well with observed seismic waveforms of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. The simulated Green's function method is very useful for prediction of the strong ground motion in region without observed seismic waveforms.The present technique spreads application field of the empirical Green's function method.

  3. Rupture, waves and earthquakes (United States)

    UENISHI, Koji


    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but “extraordinary” phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable. PMID:28077808

  4. The Effects of Land Uses on Purplish Soil Erosion in Hilly Area of Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gangcai; ZHANG Jianhui; TIAN Guanglong; WEI Chaofu


    In order to evaluate the soil erosion rate for different land uses and make recommendations on land-use alternatives for erosion control in hilly and mountain areas on a Purplish soil (Regosols in FAO taxonomy), experimental data were obtained from three continuously monitored sites located at Yanting,Nanbu and Pengxi of Sichuan province. The data showed that the rank of erosion rate is farmland >unfenced grassland > fenced grassland > forestland.The erosion rate of farmland was more than 3 times higher than that of forestland and fenced grassland,indicating that restricting human activity is crucial for over-erosion. The erodibility was higher at the initial period of rainy season for all the three types of land use. The erosion rates of fenced grassland and mature afforestation land were not proportional to rainfall intensity because these land uses changed impact energy of the rainfall. This research showed that restricting human activity, intensifying the management of initial period of rainy season, and increasing the cover rate of land surface are the three major measures for soil erosion prevention. It is recommended that farmers should cease cultivation on farmland at the top of hills and steep slope land return those lands back to grassland or forestland.

  5. Prediction of strong acceleration motion depended on focal mechanism; Shingen mechanism wo koryoshita jishindo yosoku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, Y.; Ejiri, J. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes simulation results of strong acceleration motion with varying uncertain fault parameters mainly for a fault model of Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. For the analysis, based on the fault parameters, the strong acceleration motion was simulated using the radiation patterns and the breaking time difference of composite faults as parameters. A statistic waveform composition method was used for the simulation. For the theoretical radiation patterns, directivity was emphasized which depended on the strike of faults, and the maximum acceleration was more than 220 gal. While, for the homogeneous radiation patterns, the maximum accelerations were isotopically distributed around the fault as a center. For variations in the maximum acceleration and the predominant frequency due to the breaking time difference of three faults, the response spectral value of maximum/minimum was about 1.7 times. From the viewpoint of seismic disaster prevention, underground structures including potential faults and non-arranging properties can be grasped using this simulation. Significance of the prediction of strong acceleration motion was also provided through this simulation using uncertain factors, such as breaking time of composite faults, as parameters. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. On seismic intensities of questionnaires for 1996 earthquake near Akita-Miyagi prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M.; Sasaki, N. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education; Nakamura, M. [Nippon Geophysical Prospecting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The earthquake occurred in 1996 near the border of Akita and Miyagi Prefectures was a seismic activity in mountainous area with low population density. However, since a necessity was felt to make a seismic intensity survey, a questionnaire investigation was carried out. The investigation placed a focus on the following points: (1) to learn seismic intensity distribution in the vicinity of the epicenter by using replies to the questionnaire and (2) to learn what evacuation activities the residents have taken to avoid disasters from the earthquake, which is an inland local earthquake occurred first since the Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake in 1995. Because the main shock has occurred in the Akita prefecture side, the shocks were concentrated at Akinomiya, Takamatsu, Sugawa and Koyasu areas where the intensities were 4.0 to 4.5 in most cases. The largest aftershocks were concentrated to the Miyagi prefecture side, with an intensity of 6.0 felt most, followed by 5.5. The questionnaire on evacuation actions revealed a result of about 37% of the reply saying, ``I have jumped out of my house before I knew what has happened`` and ``I remember nothing about what I did because I was acting totally instinctively``. The answers show how intense the experience was. This result indicates how to make the unconscious actions turned into conscious actions is an important issue in preventing disasters. 11 figs.

  7. Estimation of underground structures in the Osaka-Kobe area by array-network observations of microtremors; Bido no array kansoku ni yoru Osaka-Hyogo chiiki no chika kozo no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, H.; Ishikawa, K.; Ling, S. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Sasabe, K. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan)


    Microtremor observations have been carried out with an objective to estimate underground structures including the foundation depth in the Osaka-Kobe area which has been greatly damaged by the Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake in 1995. Different organizations have made seismic surveys and boring investigations in this area, by which elucidation has been made on the underground structures. The present observations are intended to identify S-wave velocity distribution in a wide area from the ground surface to the foundation, which is difficult to be verified by using conventional surveys and investigations. Methods to detect surface waves which are contained in microtremors include the frequency-wave number method (the F-K method) and the spatial autocorrelation method (the SPAC method). The SPAC method can estimate phase velocities of longer waves for the size of an array than with the F-K method, and is more advantageous in estimating ground structures at greater depths. S-wave velocity structure was estimated down to the foundation rocks existing in depths of about 0.5 to 2.0 km. For estimating the phase velocities in Raleigh waves, the SPAC method and the expanded spatial autocorrelation method were used. The underground structures thus derived showed a good agreement with the results of explorations using other methods. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Geological structure of Osaka basin and characteristic distributions of structural damage caused by earthquake; Osaka bonchi kozo to shingai tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, K.; Shiono, K.; Inoue, N.; Senda, S. [Osaka City University, Osaka (JP. Faculty of Science); Ryoki, K. [Osaka Polytechnic Collage, Osaka (Japan); Shichi, R. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science


    The paper investigates relations between the damage caused by the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and the deep underground structures. A characteristic of the earthquake damage distribution is that the damage concentrated near faults. Most of the damages were seen on the side of faults` relatively falling rather than right above the faults and of their slightly slanting to the seaside. Distribution like this seems to be closely related to underground structures. Therefore, a distribution map of the depth of basement granite in Osaka sedimentary basin was drawn, referring to the data on basement rock depth obtained from the distribution map of gravity anomaly and the result of the survey using the air gun reflection method. Moreover, cubic underground structures were determined by 3-D gravity analysis. The result was concluded as follows: when observing the M7 zone of the low land, in particular, where the damage was great from an aspect of gravity anomaly, the basement rock below the zone declined near the cliff toward the sea, which indicates a great possibility of its being a fault. There is a high possibility that the zone suffered mostly from the damage caused by focusing by refraction and total reflection of seismic wave rays. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Interferometric SAR and land deformation. Analysis using the dislocation model; Interferometric SAR to chikaku hendo. Dislocation model wo mochiita kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J.; Otaki, T.; Tanaka, A.; Miyazaki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    The diastrophism by the earthquake-induced dislocation is investigated by interferometry (INSAR) which represents the diastrophism by the interference fringes of equiphase difference lines. A joint research group at Geographical Survey Institute and National Space Development Agency showed the diastrophism in the vicinity of the ground surfaces before and after the Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake by the INSAR interference images in 1995. This paper discusses the effects of observation in the vision line direction from the satellite and dislocation parameters on the interference images. The dislocation model uses a slanted rectangular model in a semi-infinite medium, to calculate static displacements and strain distributions at the ground surface, when dislocation changes. It is found that the INSAR interference images, detecting displacements in the vision line direction from the satellite, significantly change as the vision line direction changes, and that the actual displacement cannot be given by the images alone. This paper also shows sensitivity of the interference images to the dislocation parameters. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Gravity anomalies and basement structure in Osaka plain; Osaka heiya no juryoku ijo to kiban kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, N.; Nakagawa, K. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science; Ryoki, K. [Osaka Polytechnical College, Osaka (Japan)


    Many kinds of new information about the underground structure are necessary for elucidating problems on the distribution characteristics of the structural damage and the ground failure due to the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. The gravity anomalies in and around the Osaka sedimentary basin, which is mainly composed of Mesozoic granitic basement and post Tertiary sedimentary layers covering the basement, has been compiled with the data additional gravity measurements in the Hanshin-Osaka area. Basement configuration plays the important role in concentration or dispersion of seismic waves. In general, trends of the gravity anomalies should be removed from obtained gravity anomalies in order to estimate the sub-surface structures. The local free-air anomalies, which are residual anomalies obtained by applying regression technique to regional trends, exhibit linear relationship with the depth to the basement surface. In this study, therefore, the underground structure of the Osaka basin was estimated from the local free-air anomalies. First approximate model of basement surface was constructed by means of the method mentioned above, based upon the two layer (basement rock and the sedimentary cover) model. Further three dimensional model was developed based on the characteristic distribution of density inferred from seismic exploration analysis. 19 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Distinct element analysis of overburden subjected to reverse oblique-slip fault (United States)

    Taniyama, Hisashi


    The deformation of overburden subjected to a reverse oblique-slip fault was examined in this study using the distinct element method, and the results were compared with the shears measured at the Nojima fault during the 1995 Hyogoken Nanbu earthquake. Shear deformation was found to occur mainly on the footwall side of the overburden in a narrow zone and to be caused by the reverse fault component. The stress due to both the reverse fault and strike-slip movement led to the development of failure surfaces with a convex-upward shape in cross section and an en echelon pattern in plan view. The width of the zones of high incremental strain obtained in the present analysis was found to be in agreement with the observed width of the shears; however, the observed and simulated intervals and orientations of the shears did not agree. The simulation results suggest that short shears that form in the deep part in the early stages of the deformation join to form longer shears as they propagate toward the surface.

  12. Quantum mechanical calculation of energy dependence of OCl/OH product branching ratio and product quantum state distributions for the O(1D) + HCl reaction on all three contributing electronic state potential energy surfaces. (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Han, Ke-Li; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Nakamura, Hiroki; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G; Zhang, Hong; Smith, Sean C; Hankel, Marlies


    OCl/OH product branching ratios are calculated as a function of total energy for the O( (1) D) + HCl reaction using quantum wavepacket methods. The calculations take account of reaction on all the three electronic state potential energy surfaces which correlate with both reactants and products. Our results show that reaction on the excited electronic state surfaces has a large effect on the branching ratio at higher energies and that these surfaces must therefore be fully taken into account. The calculations use the potential energy surfaces of Nanbu and co-workers. Product vibrational and rotational quantum state distributions are also calculated as a function of energy for both product channels. Inclusion of the excited electronic state potential energy surfaces improves the agreement of the predicted product vibrational quantum state distributions with experiment for the OH product channel. For OCl agreement between theory and experiment is retained for the vibrational quantum state distributions when the excited electronic state potential energy surfaces are included in the analysis. For the rotational state distributions good agreement between theory and experiment is maintained for energies at which experimental results are available. At higher energies, above 0.7 eV of total energy, the OCl rotational state distributions predicted using all three electronic state potential energy surfaces shift to markedly smaller rotational quantum numbers.

  13. Rupture, waves and earthquakes. (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji


    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaijian YUAN; Qiangguo CAI; Yingmin CHU


    Based on the measuring data and Digital Elevation Data (DEM) in a typical watershed--Hemingguan Watershed, Nanbu County, Sichuan Province of China, a GIS-based distributed soil erosion model was developed particularly for the purple soil type. It takes 20 m × 20 m grid as calculating unit and operates at 10-minute time interval. The required input data to the model include DEM, soil, land use, and time-series of precipitation and evaporation loss. The model enables one to estimate runoff, erosion and sediment yield for each grid cell and route the flow along its flow path to the watershed outlet. Furthermore, the model is capable of calculating the total runoff; erosion and sediment yield for the entire watershed by recursion algorithm. The validation of the model demonstrated that it could quantitatively simulate the spatial distribution of hydrological variables in a watershed, such as runoff, vegetation entrapment, soil erosion, the degree of soil and water loss. Moreover, it can evaluate the effect of land use change on the runoff generation and soil erosion with an accuracy of 80% and 75% respectively. The application of this model to a neighboring watershed with similar conditions indicates that this distributed model could be extended to other similar regions in China.

  15. Sea bottom gravity survey of Osaka bay and its study; Osakawan kaitei juryoku chosa to sono kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komazawa, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ota, Y.; Shibuya, S.; Kumai, M.; Murakami, M. [Japex Geoscience Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports a sea bottom gravity survey conducted with an objective to identify deep underground structure in the vicinity of the epicenter of the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. The surveyed areas are the whole Osaka Bay area north of the north latitude of 34 degrees and 20 minutes, and the eastern part of the Sea of Harima east of the east longitude of 134 degrees and 40 minutes, excluding the areas difficult of performing measurements. A square lattice with sides each about 2 km was arranged with 408 measurement points. The measurement was carried out by using an observation vessel mounted with a sea bottom gravimeter made by LaCoste and Romberg Corporation, which was lowered down to the sea bottom at the measurement points. Errors in positions and water depths at the gravity measuring points were suppressed to less than 0.002 minutes and 0.1 m, respectively. The measurement data were given necessary corrections by using a unified method applicable also to land areas, and a Bouguer anomaly chart was prepared. Based on the chart, this paper summarizes features in the Bouguer anomaly in the surveyed areas (such as the low-gravity anomaly band extending the central part of the Osaka bay from north-east to south-west, and the gradient structure existing on the Awaji island side). 6 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Preliminaries on core image analysis using fault drilling samples; Core image kaiseki kotohajime (danso kussaku core kaisekirei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, T.; Ito, H. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    This paper introduces examples of image data analysis on fault drilling samples. The paper describes the following matters: core samples used in the analysis are those obtained from wells drilled piercing the Nojima fault which has moved in the Hygoken-Nanbu Earthquake; the CORESCAN system made by DMT Corporation, Germany, used in acquiring the image data consists of a CCD camera, a light source and core rotation mechanism, and a personal computer, its resolution being about 5 pixels/mm in both axial and circumferential directions, and 24-bit full color; with respect to the opening fractures in core samples collected by using a constant azimuth coring, it was possible to derive values of the opening width, inclination angle, and travel from the image data by using a commercially available software for the personal computer; and comparison of this core image with the BHTV record and the hydrophone VSP record (travel and inclination obtained from the BHTV record agree well with those obtained from the core image). 4 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Numerical stress analysis of crack at welded beam-to-column connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the past, brittle fracture of steel structure was reported rarely under earthquake. However, recent earthquakes, especially Northridge Earthquake (USA) and Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake (Japan), astonished engineers in the field of construction. The experience from recent earthquakes of USA and Japan shows that brittle fracture of welded steel structure always starts from high stress zone with welded crack[1~5]. As backing bar for grooved weld on beam flange exists, artificial crack is formed because of lack-of-fusion at the root of flange weld. In this paper stress distribution of connection is computed with FEM, and stress concentration at the root of flange weld is also analyzed. Stress intensity factors (SIFs), KI, at the root of flange weld are computed in the method of fracture mechanics. The computation shows that stress intensity factor on bottom flange weld is obviously higher than that on top flange weld. It is proved by the fact that brittle fracture is liable to start at the root of bottom flange weld on actual earthquake[1,4]. Finally measures are brought forward to avoid fracture of weld structure against earthquake.

  18. Benchmark of a new multi-ion-species collision operator for $\\delta f$ Monte Carlo neoclassical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Satake, Shinsuke; Pianpanit, Theerasarn; Sugama, Hideo; Nunami, Masanori; Matsuoka, Seikichi; Ishiguro, Seiji; Kanno, Ryutaro


    A numerical method to implement a linearized Coulomb collision operator for multi-ion-species neoclassical transport simulation using two-weight $\\delta f$ Monte Carlo method is developed. The conservation properties and the adjointness of the operator in the collisions between two particle species with different temperatures are verified. The linearized operator in a $\\delta f$ Monte Carlo code is benchmarked with other two kinetic simulation codes, i. e., a $\\delta f$ continuum gyrokinetic code with the same linearized collision operator and a full-f PIC code with Nanbu collision operator. The benchmark simulations of the equilibration process of plasma flow and temperature fluctuation among several particle species show very good agreement between $\\delta f$ Monte Carlo code and the other two codes. An error in the H-theorem in the two-weight $\\delta f$ Monte Carlo method is found, which is caused by the weight spreading phenomenon inherent in the two-weight $\\delta f$ method. It is demonstrated that the w...

  19. Cross sections for Scattering and Mobility of OH- and H3 O+ ions in H2 O (United States)

    Petrovic, Zoran; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Maric, Dragana; Jovanovic, Jasmina


    Modelling of plasmas in liquids and in biological and medical applications requires data for scattering of all charged and energetic particles in water vapour. We present swarm parameters for OH- and H3 O+, as representatives of principal negative and positive ions at low pressures in an attempt to provide the data that are not yet available. We applied Denpoh-Nanbu procedure to calculate cross section sets for collisions of OH- and H3 O+ ions with H2 O molecule. Swarm parameters for OH- and H3 O+ ions in H2 O are calculated by using a well tested Monte Carlo code for a range of E / N(E -electric field, N-gas density) at temperature T = 295 K, in the low pressure limit. Non-conservative processes were shown to strongly influence the transport properties even for OH- ions above the average energy of 0.2 eV(E / N >200 Td). The data are valid for low pressure water vapour or small amounts in mixtures. They will provide a basis for calculating properties of ion-water molecule clusters that are most commonly found at higher pressures and for modelling of discharges in liquids. Acknowledgment to Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of Serbia.

  20. Experiment for deep seismic reflections in Hidaka, Hokkaido. Comparison between Vibroseis and explosive data; Hidaka chiiki ni okeru shinbu hanno data no shutoku jikken. Vibroseis to dynamite no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, N.; Ikawa, T. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T.; Tsumura, N.; Shinohara, M.; Ikawa, T. Ikawa, H.; Asano, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Miyazono, N. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Arita, K.; Moriya, T.; Otsuka, K.; Omura, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kimura, M. [Osaka Prefectural University, Osaka (Japan); Hirata, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Okuike, S.


    This is a prompt report. These days the importance of acquiring knowledge about the structure from the lower crust down to the upper mantle is often discussed with reference taken to Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. The Hidaka collision belt where the lower crust is exposed on the surface is a rare phenomenon in the world and has been the subject of seismic survey. As a part of the survey, experiments are conducted by the use of vibrations produced by Vibroseis and dynamite sources. Every one of the shot records (20-second record) from the two types of vibration sources contains a clear echo in the vicinity of 16 seconds supposedly from a level deeper than 40 kilometers, not to mention reflections from shallow levels. Although some studies have to be conducted before the reflecting geological boundary (possibly the upper mantle) of the echo near the 16-second point can be identified, yet this is probably the reflection from the deepest level ever obtained in the seismic reflection survey conducted in Japan`s land area. It is proved by this experiment that vibration from a vibrator can reach as far as that from explosion if the vibrator specifications are rightly chosen. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Active fault and other geological studies for seismic assessment: present state and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimi, Toshihiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Evaluation system of earthquakes from an active fault is, in Japan, based on the characteristic earthquake model of a wide sense that postulates essentially the same (nearly the maximum) magnitude and recurrence interval during the recent geological times. Earthquake magnitude M is estimated by empirical relations among M, surface rupture length L, and surface fault displacement D per event of the earthquake faults on land in Japan. Recurrence interval R of faulting/earthquake is calculated from D and the long-term slip rate S of a fault as R=D/S. Grouping or segmentation of complicatedly distributed faults is an important, but difficult problem in order to distinguish a seismogenic fault unit corresponding to an individual characteristic earthquake. If the time t of the latest event is obtained, the `cautiousness` of a fault can be judged from R-t or t/R. According to this idea, several faults whose t/R exceed 0.5 have been designated as the `precaution faults` having higher probability of earthquake occurrence than the others. A part of above evaluation has been introduced at first into the seismic-safety examination system of NPPs in 1978. According to the progress of research on active faults, the weight of interest in respect to the seismic hazard assessment shifted gradually from the historic data to the fault data. Most of recent seismic hazard maps have been prepared in consideration with active faults on land in Japan. Since the occurrence of the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, social attention has been concentrated upon the seismic hazard due to active faults, because this event was generated from a well-known active fault zone that had been warned as a `precaution fault`. In this paper, a few recent topics on other geological and geotechnical researches aiming at improving the seismic safety of NPPs in Japan were also introduced. (J.P.N.)

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Column-Base Connections under Monotonic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh


    Full Text Available Some considerable damage to steel structures during the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake occurred. Among them, many exposed-type column bases failed in several consistent patterns, such as brittle base plate fracture, excessive bolt elongation, unexpected early bolt failure, and inferior construction work, etc. The lessons from these phenomena led to the need for improved understanding of column base behavior. Joint behavior must be modeled when analyzing semi-rigid frames, which is associated with a mathematical model of the moment–rotation curve. The most accurate model uses continuous nonlinear functions. This article presents three areas of steel joint research: (1 analysis methods of semi-rigid joints; (2 prediction methods for the mechanical behavior of joints; (3 mathematical representations of the moment–rotation curve. In the current study, a new exponential model to depict the moment–rotation relationship of column base connection is proposed. The proposed nonlinear model represents an approach to the prediction of M–θ curves, taking into account the possible failure modes and the deformation characteristics of the connection elements. The new model has three physical parameters, along with two curve-fitted factors. These physical parameters are generated from dimensional details of the connection, as well as the material properties. The M–θ curves obtained by the model are compared with published connection tests and 3D FEM research. The proposed mathematical model adequately comes close to characterizing M–θ behavior through the full range of loading/rotations. As a result, modeling of column base connections using the proposed mathematical model can give crucial beforehand information, and overcome the disadvantages of time consuming workmanship and cost of experimental studies.

  3. Fully kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection in partially ionised gases (United States)

    Innocenti, M. E.; Jiang, W.; Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.


    Magnetic reconnection has been explored for decades as a way to convert magnetic energy into kinetic energy and heat and to accelerate particles in environments as different as the solar surface, planetary magnetospheres, the solar wind, accretion disks, laboratory plasmas. When studying reconnection via simulations, it is usually assumed that the plasma is fully ionised, as it is indeed the case in many of the above-mentioned cases. There are, however, exceptions, the most notable being the lower solar atmosphere. Small ionisation fractions are registered also in the warm neutral interstellar medium, in dense interstellar clouds, in protostellar and protoplanetary accreditation disks, in tokamak edge plasmas and in ad-hoc laboratory experiments [1]. We study here how magnetic reconnection is modified by the presence of a neutral background, i.e. when the majority of the gas is not ionised. The ionised plasma is simulated with the fully kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code iPic3D [2]. Collisions with the neutral background are introduced via a Monte Carlo plug-in. The standard Monte Carlo procedure [3] is employed to account for elastic, excitation and ionization electron-neutral collisions, as well as for elastic scattering and charge exchange ion-neutral collisions. Collisions with the background introduce resistivity in an otherwise collisionless plasma and modifications of the particle distribution functions: particles (and ions at a faster rate) tend to thermalise to the background. To pinpoint the consequences of this, we compare reconnection simulations with and without background. References [1] E E Lawrence et al. Physical review letters, 110(1):015001, 2013. [2] S Markidis et al. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 80(7):1509-1519, 2010. [3] K Nanbu. IEEE Transactions on plasma science, 28(3):971-990, 2000.

  4. The January 17, 1994 Northridge Earthquake: Effects on selected industrial facilities and lifelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eli, M.W.; Sommer, S.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Roche, T.R.; Merz, K.L.


    Revision 0 of this report is being published in February 1995 to closely mark the one-year anniversary of the Northridge Earthquake. A September 1994 Draft version of the report was reviewed by DOE and NRC, and many of the review comments are incorporated into Revision 0. While this revision of the report is not entirely complete, it is being made available for comment, review, and evaluation. Since the report was written by several authors, sections of the report have slightly different styles. Several sections of Revision 0 are not complete, but are planned to be completed in Revision 1. The primary unfinished section is Section 3.3 on Electric Power Transmission. Other sections of Revision 0, such as Section 4.5.2 on the Energy Technology Engineering Center and 3.2 on Electric Power Generation, will be enhanced with further detailed information as it becomes available. In addition, further data, including processed response spectra for investigated facilities and cataloging of relay performance, will be added to Revision 1 depending upon investigation support. While Revision 0 of this report is being published by LLNL, Revision 1 is planned to be published by EPRI. The anticipated release date for Revision 1 is December 1995. Unfortunately, the one-year anniversary of the Northridge Earthquake was also marked by the devastating Hyogo-Ken Nanbu (or Hanshin-Awaji) Earthquake in Kobe, Japan. As compared to the Northridge Earthquake, there were many more deaths, collapsed structures, destroyed lifelines, and fires following the Kobe Earthquake. Lessons from the Kobe Earthquake will both reemphasize topics discussed in this report and provide further issues to be addressed when designing and retrofitting structures, systems, and components for seismic strong motion.

  5. Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy of He-HCN and He-DCN: Energy Levels Near the Dissociation Limit. (United States)

    Harada, Kensuke; Tanaka, Keiichi


    The He-HCN complex is a weakly bound complex with binding energy of about 9 cm^{-1}. We have measured the the j=1 ← 0 internal rotation fundamental band of the He-HCN complex by millimeter-wave absorption spectroscopy and reported the potential energy surface (PES) to reproduce the observed transition frequencies. In the present study, we have extended the measurement to the j=2 ← 1 internal rotation hot bands of the He-HCN and He-DCN complexes. In the analysis, the upper state of several observed transitions are found to be located above the "dissociation limit" (D_0). The rovibtrational levels with e label dissociate to the HCN molecule with j=0 and the He atom (D_0), while those with f label, due to the parity conservation, to the HCN molecule with j=1 and the He atom which is higher in energy by about 2.96 cm^{-1} (2B_{HCN}) than D_0. The f levels are bound up to D_0 + 2B_{HCN}. The revised PES of He-HCN has a global minimum in the linear He-HCN configuration with a depth of 29.9 cm^{-1} and has a saddle point at the anti-linear He-NCH configuration with a depth of 20.9 cm^{-1}. The ν_s intermolecular stretching first excited state and the j=2 internal rotation second excited state are determined to be located 9.1405 and 9.0530 cm^{-1} above the ground state and very close to the calculated dissociation limit (D_0) of 9.32 cm^{-1}. Life times of several quasi-bound levels (both of e and f labels) and line widths of the related transitions are predicted for He-HCN and He-DCN from the revised PESs. K. Harada, K. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, S. Nanbu, and M. Aoyagi, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 7041 (2002).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhasanah Nurhasanah


    Full Text Available Research in the use of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus to reduce odors in liquid organic fertilizer has been conducted in Bogor for 6 months. This study begin with a liquid organic fertilizer produced from 1 kg of shrimp waste, 1 kg of maize, 1 kg of bean sprouts, 10 liters of coconut water, 500 ml of EM4 and 500 g of sugar through fermentation process for 6 weeks. Then the result of liquid organic fertilizer was added by an ingredient lemongrass as deodorizing with doses of 0, 10%, 20% and 30% (w/v. After that it is fermented for 2 weeks. The next stage was the application of liquid organic fertilizer as a foliar fertilizer at chillies (Capsicum annum planting using a completely randomized design (CRD 1 factors type of using liquid organic fertilizer (control, liquid organic fertilizer without lemongrass, liquid organic fertilizer + 10% lemongrass, liquid organic fertilizer + 20% lemongrass and liquid organic fertilizer + 30% lemongrass respectively at doses of 0, 6, 12 and 18 ppm. The parameters measured were odor (NH3 and H2S, levels of macro nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S and micro nutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe after fermenting process, and the production of crops (fruit number and fruit weight after planting. Research results show that the higher dose of lemongrass added cause levels of odor (NH3 and H2S in the liquid organic fertilizer decreased and content of macro nutrients, micro nutrients, and phytohormones increased. The planting results indicate liquid organic fertilizer which added 20% lemongrass in a dose of 12 ppm was the optimal dose in increasing crop production. Penelitian penggunaan sereh (Cymbopogon citratus dalam menurunkan bau pada pupuk organik cair telah dilakukan di Bogor selama 6 bulan. Penelitian ini diawali dengan membuat pupuk organik cair yang dihasilkan dari 1 kg limbah udang, 1 kg jagung, 1 kg touge, 10 Liter air kelapa, 500 ml EM4 dan 500 g gula pasir melalui proses fermentasi selama 6 minggu. Kemudian pada

  7. Influence factors for induced airflow of bulk materials in chute transfer station%溜槽转运过程中落料诱导气流的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小川; 王启立; 刘颀; 李强; 罗会清; 胡亚非; 杨豪


    Induced airflow caused by falling bulk materials in chute transportation process was the chief cause of dust fugitive. In order to explore the main influence factors for induced airflow in chute transfer station, the inclination angleγ, diameterD and lengthL of the circular chute, the mass flow rate of materialmp, the induced airflow velocityug and the effective induced air flowQ were studied. The conclusions are as follows: Induced flow is effected by the chute inclination angleγ from two aspects of energy transformation and material arrangement, and with theγ increasing, the induced airflow velocityug increases, but for the chute of different lengths, theug increases as theγ increases with different increasing trend. The exponent ofug-γ curve increases with the increase inL. In chute transfer process, the induced airflow velocity is dropped by reducing the dispersity of material of falling process and reducing the contact area of material with each other. For the 110 mm diameter chute, the power index of fitting curve withug andL is about 0.64. An important factor of the formation of the effective flow or occurring the "back mixing phenomenon" of the induced airflow is the chute diameterD. Choosing the fit chute diameter can strengthen the capacity of dust carrying of the induced airflow. Chute transfer process improves the proportion of core zone material of the flowing material, so that it makes the increase speed ofug slow down with the increase ofmp, and 0.15th power is proportional toug andmp.%溜槽转运过程中产生的诱导气流是散料输送过程扬尘的主要诱因,本文作者通过研究圆形溜槽的倾角 γ和直径D、溜槽长度L、物料的质量流量mp及有效诱导气流量Q等参数对诱导气流速度ug的影响,分析影响溜槽转运诱导气流的主要因素.结果表明:溜槽倾角γ从能量转化和物料排布两方面影响诱导气流,诱导气流速度ug随γ增大而增大,但不同L的溜槽,ug随γ增大而

  8. Seismic ACROSS Transmitter Installed at Morimachi above the Subducting Philippine Sea Plate for the Test Monitoring of the Seismogenic Zone of Tokai Earthquake not yet to Occur (United States)

    Kunitomo, T.; Kumazawa, M.; Masuda, T.; Morita, N.; Torii, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yoshikawa, S.; Katsumata, A.; Yoshida, Y.


    Here we report the first seismic monitoring system in active and constant operation for the wave propagation characteristics in tectonic region just above the subducting plate driving the coming catastrophic earthquakes. Developmental works of such a system (ACROSS; acronym for Accurately Controlled, Routinely Operated, Signal System) have been started in 1994 at Nagoya University and since 1996 also at TGC (Tono Geoscience Center) of JAEA promoted by Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquakes (1995 Jan.17, Mj=7.3). The ACROSS is a technology system including theory of signal and data processing based on the brand new concept of measurement methodology of Green function between a signal source and observation site. The works done for first generation system are reported at IWAM04 and in JAEA report (Kumazawa et al.,2007). The Meteorological Research Institute of JMA has started a project of test monitoring of Tokai area in 2004 in corporation with Shizuoka University to realize the practical use of the seismic ACROSS for earthquake prediction researches. The first target was set to Tokai Earthquake not yet to take place. The seismic ACROSS transmitter was designed so as to be appropriate for the sensitive monitoring of the deep active fault zone on the basis of the previous technology elements accumulated so far. The ground coupler (antenna) is a large steel-reinforced concrete block (over 20m3) installed in the basement rocks in order to preserve the stability. Eccentric moment of the rotary transmitter is 82 kgm at maximum, 10 times larger than that of the first generation. Carrier frequency of FM signal for practical use can be from 3.5 to 15 Hz, and the signal phase is accurately controlled by a motor with vector inverter synchronized with GPS clock with a precision of 10-4 radian or better. By referring to the existing structure model in this area (Iidaka et al., 2003), the site of the transmitting station was chosen at Morimachi so as to be appropriate for detecting the

  9. Geometry of the Nojima fault at Nojima-Hirabayashi, Japan - I. A simple damage structure inferred from borehole core permeability (United States)

    Lockner, D.A.; Tanaka, H.; Ito, H.; Ikeda, R.; Omura, K.; Naka, H.


    The 1995 Kobe (Hyogo-ken Nanbu) earthquake, M = 7.2, ruptured the Nojima fault in southwest Japan. We have studied core samples taken from two scientific drillholes that crossed the fault zone SW of the epicentral region on Awaji Island. The shallower hole, drilled by the Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ), was started 75 m to the SE of the surface trace of the Nojima fault and crossed the fault at a depth of 624 m. A deeper hole, drilled by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) was started 302 m to the SE of the fault and crossed fault strands below a depth of 1140 m. We have measured strength and matrix permeability of core samples taken from these two drillholes. We find a strong correlation between permeability and proximity to the fault zone shear axes. The half-width of the high permeability zone (approximately 15 to 25 m) is in good agreement with the fault zone width inferred from trapped seismic wave analysis and other evidence. The fault zone core or shear axis contains clays with permeabilities of approximately 0.1 to 1 microdarcy at 50 MPa effective confining pressure (10 to 30 microdarcy at in situ pressures). Within a few meters of the fault zone core, the rock is highly fractured but has sustained little net shear. Matrix permeability of this zone is approximately 30 to 60 microdarcy at 50 MPa effective confining pressure (300 to 1000 microdarcy at in situ pressures). Outside this damage zone, matrix permeability drops below 0.01 microdarcy. The clay-rich core material has the lowest strength with a coefficient of friction of approximately 0.55. Shear strength increases with distance from the shear axis. These permeability and strength observations reveal a simple fault zone structure with a relatively weak fine-grained core surrounded by a damage zone of fractured rock. In this case, the damage zone will act as a high-permeability conduit for vertical and horizontal flow in the plane of the fault. The fine

  10. The quest for better quality-of-life - learning from large-scale shaking table tests (United States)

    Nakashima, M.; Sato, E.; Nagae, T.; Kunio, F.; Takahito, I.


    Earthquake engineering has its origins in the practice of “learning from actual earthquakes and earthquake damages.” That is, we recognize serious problems by witnessing the actual damage to our structures, and then we develop and apply engineering solutions to solve these problems. This tradition in earthquake engineering, i.e., “learning from actual damage,” was an obvious engineering response to earthquakes and arose naturally as a practice in a civil and building engineering discipline that traditionally places more emphasis on experience than do other engineering disciplines. But with the rapid progress of urbanization, as society becomes denser, and as the many components that form our society interact with increasing complexity, the potential damage with which earthquakes threaten the society also increases. In such an era, the approach of ”learning from actual earthquake damages” becomes unacceptably dangerous and expensive. Among the practical alternatives to the old practice is to “learn from quasi-actual earthquake damages.” One tool for experiencing earthquake damages without attendant catastrophe is the large shaking table. E-Defense, the largest one we have, was developed in Japan after the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake. Since its inauguration in 2005, E-Defense has conducted over forty full-scale or large-scale shaking table tests, applied to a variety of structural systems. The tests supply detailed data on actual behavior and collapse of the tested structures, offering the earthquake engineering community opportunities to experience and assess the actual seismic performance of the structures, and to help society prepare for earthquakes. Notably, the data were obtained without having to wait for the aftermaths of actual earthquakes. Earthquake engineering has always been about life safety, but in recent years maintaining the quality of life has also become a critical issue. Quality-of-life concerns include nonstructural

  11. High-Speed Observations of Dynamic Fracture Propagation in Solids and Their Implications in Earthquake Rupture Dynamics (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji


    This contribution outlines our experimental observations of seismicity-related fast fracture (rupture) propagation in solids utilising high-speed analog and digital photography (maximum frame rate 1,000,000 frames per second) over the last two decades. Dynamic fracture may be triggered or initiated in the monolithic or layered seismic models by detonation of micro explosives, a projectile launched by a gun, laser pulses and electric discharge impulses, etc. First, we have investigated strike-slip rupture along planes of weakness in transparent photoelastic (birefringent) materials at a laboratory scale and shown (at that time) extraordinarily fast rupture propagation in a bi-material system and its possible effect on the generation of large strong motion in the limited narrow areas in the Kobe region on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake (Uenishi Ph.D. thesis 1997, Uenishi et al. BSSA 1999). In this series of experiments, we have also modelled shallow dip-slip earthquakes and indicated a possible origin of the asymmetric ground motion in the hanging and foot-walls. In the photoelastic photographs, we have found the unique dynamic wave interaction and generation of specific shear and interface waves numerically predicted by Uenishi and Madariaga (Eos 2005), and considered as a case study the seismic motion associated with the 2014 Nagano-ken Hokubu (Kamishiro Fault), Japan, dip-slip earthquake (Uenishi EFA 2015). Second, we have experimentally shown that even in a monolithic material, rupture speed may exceed the local shear wave speed if we employ hyperelasically behaving materials like natural rubber (balloons) (Uenishi Eos 2006, Uenishi ICF 2009, Uenishi Trans. JSME A 2012) but fracture in typical monolithic thin fluid films (e.g. soap bubbles, which may be treated as a solid material) propagates at an ordinary subsonic (sub-Rayleigh) speed (Uenishi et al. SSJ 2006). More recent investigation handling three-dimensional rupture propagation

  12. Analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual and subcallosal cingulate cortices using voxel-based morphometry on MRI is useful to select prescriptions for patients with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niida A


    Full Text Available Akira Niida,1 Richi Niida,2 Hiroshi Matsuda,3 Makoto Motomura,4 Akihiko Uechi5 1Department of Radiology, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, Japan; 3Integrative Brain Imaging Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira City, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Human Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami County, Okinawa, Japan; 5Cognitive Neuroscience Research Project, Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan Objective: We objectively evaluated the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC and the subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex (scACC, using new voxel-based morphometry (VBM software employing Statistical Parametric Mapping software v8 and diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra. We prepared a database covering young-mature adulthood and investigated the clinical usefulness of the evaluation. Subjects and methods: One hundred seven patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, 74 patients with bipolar disorder (BD, and 240 healthy control subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using new VBM software and databases covering young-mature adults and the elderly, target volumes of interest were set in the sgACC and scACC, four indicators (severity, extent, ratio, and whole-brain extent were determined, and the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC was evaluated on the basis of the indicators. In addition, the relationships between the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC and performance of diagnosing MDD and BD and therapeutic drugs were investigated. Results: It was clarified that the disease is likely to be MDD when atrophy is detected in the sgACC, and likely to be BD when no atrophy is detected in the sgACC but is detected in the scACC. Regarding the relationship with therapeutic drugs, it was clarified that, when

  13. Diagnosis of depression by MRI scans with the use of VSRAD – a promising auxiliary means of diagnosis: a report of 10 years research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niida R


    Full Text Available Richi Niida1, Akira Niida2, Makoto Motomura3, Akihiko Uechi41Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, Japan; 2Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 3University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami County, Okinawa, Japan; 4Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, JapanObjectives: This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of assessing subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC volume reduction by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as an objective auxiliary means of diagnosis of depression. The study was additionally designed to analyze the association of sACC volume reduction with the effectiveness of treatments for depression and other diseases presenting with similar symptoms, and to examine the possibility of using sACC volume reduction in the distinction between depression and bipolar disorder and determining optimum medication for these conditions.Methods: Three-dimensional T1-weighted sagittal images, taken with Achieva 1.5T NOVA (Philips, were analyzed with VSRAD plus® to evaluate a reduction in sACC volume. The finding from this analysis was compared with the clinical data, including the longitudinal course follow-up data based on the treatment algorithm.Subjects: The study involved 88 patients aged over 54 who received MRI during 2010, ie, 71 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, 11 patients bipolar disorder, and 6 patients in whom the initial diagnosis (MDD was later modified. Thirty-three normal individuals served as controls.Results: sACC volume reduction was noted in 66 of the 71 patients receiving treatment of MDD, with sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 85%, and accuracy of 90%. In the 66 patients diagnosed as having MDD and exhibiting sACC volume reduction, the disease showed remission in response to treatment with antidepressants, but medication needed to be continued after achievement of remission. In cases initially diagnosed as having MDD but not exhibiting sACC volume reduction, the necessity of modifying the

  14. Comparative study of two active faults in different stages of the earthquake cycle in central Japan -The Atera fault (with 1586 Tensho earthquake) and the Nojima fault (with 1995 Kobe earthquake)- (United States)

    Matsuda, T.; Omura, K.; Ikeda, R.


    National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has been conducting _gFault zone drilling_h. Fault zone drilling is especially important in understanding the structure, composition, and physical properties of an active fault. In the Chubu district of central Japan, large active faults such as the Atotsugawa (with 1858 Hietsu earthquake) and the Atera (with 1586 Tensho earthquake) faults exist. After the occurrence of the 1995 Kobe earthquake, it has been widely recognized that direct measurements in fault zones by drilling. This time, we describe about the Atera fault and the Nojima fault. Because, these two faults are similar in geological situation (mostly composed of granitic rocks), so it is easy to do comparative study of drilling investigation. The features of the Atera fault, which have been dislocated by the 1586 Tensho earthquake, are as follows. Total length is about 70 km. That general trend is NW45 degree with a left-lateral strike slip. Slip rate is estimated as 3-5 m / 1000 years. Seismicity is very low at present and lithologies around the fault are basically granitic rocks and rhyolite. Six boreholes have been drilled from the depth of 400 m to 630 m. Four of these boreholes (Hatajiri, Fukuoka, Ueno and Kawaue) are located on a line crossing in a direction perpendicular to the Atera fault. In the Kawaue well, mostly fractured and alternating granitic rock continued from the surface to the bottom at 630 m. X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) is conducted to estimate the amount of major chemical elements using the glass bead method for core samples. The amounts of H20+ are about from 0.5 to 2.5 weight percent. This fractured zone is also characterized by the logging data such as low resistivity, low P-wave velocity, low density and high neutron porosity. The 1995 Kobe (Hyogo-ken Nanbu) earthquake occurred along the NE-SW-trending Rokko-Awaji fault system, and the Nojima fault appeared on the surface on Awaji Island when this

  15. Identification of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, in particular the subcallosal area, as an effective auxiliary means of diagnosis for major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niida A


    Full Text Available Akira Niida,1 Richi Niida,2 Hiroshi Matsuda,3 Takashi Inada,4 Makoto Motomura,5 Akihiko Uechi61Department of Radiology, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, 2Department of Psychiatry, Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka City, Saitama, 4Department of Psychiatry, Kai Clinic, Naha City, Okinawa, 5Department of Human Sciences, University of the Ryukyu, Nakagami County, Okinawa, 6Cognitive Neuroscience Research Project, Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, JapanBackground: Despite being a very common psychiatric disorder, physicians often have difficulty making a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD because, without established diagnostic criteria, they have to depend on interviews with patients and observation to assess psychiatric symptoms. However, previous researchers have reported that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans identify morphological changes in the brains of patients with MDD, which inspired us to hypothesize that assessment of local changes in the brain using voxel-based morphometry would serve as an auxiliary diagnostic method for MDD. Therefore, we focused on the VSRAD® plus (voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer’s disease, a diagnostic support system for use in early Alzheimer’s disease, which allowed us to identify regional atrophy in the brain easily based on images obtained from MRI scans.Methods: The subjects were 75 patients with MDD, 15 with bipolar disorder, and 30 healthy subjects, aged 54–82 years. First, 1.5 T MRI equipment was used to scan three-dimensional T1-weighted images for the individual subjects, and the imaged data were analyzed by VSRAD advance (voxel-based morphometric software developed for diagnosis of early Alzheimer’s disease. The efficacy of the equipment for diagnosis of MDD was evaluated based on the distribution of atrophy in the subgenual anterior

  16. A recovery of scattering environment in the crust after a large earthquake (United States)

    Sugaya, K.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Furumoto, M.; Katao, H.


    A large earthquake generates defects such as small faults and cracks and changes scattering environment in and around its rupture zone by the static or the dynamic stress change. The defects are expected to recover with time. A time constant of the healing of the defects is a key parameter for the recurrence of a large earthquake. Coda waves consist mainly of scattered S-waves. The attenuation property of coda waves, coda Q-1 or Qc-1, reflects the scattering environment in the crust and is considered to be a good indicator of the stress condition in the crust (Aki, 1985, Hiramatsu et al., 2000). In the Tamba region, northeast of the rupture zone of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake (MJMA 7.3), Hiramatsu et al. (2000) reported a coseismic increase in Qc-1 at frequencies of 1.5-4 Hz and decrease in b-value due to the static stress change caused by the event. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation in Qc-1 and seismicity from 1997 to 2000 in the Tamba region, following the period of Hiramatsu et al. (2000), to check the recovery of Qc-1 at lower frequencies and the seismicity. We estimate Qc-1 for 10 frequency bands in a range of 1.5-24 Hz based on the single isotropic scattering model (Sato, 1977). We analyze the waveform data of 2812 shallow microearthquakes (M1.5-3) in the region. In order to examine the duration of high Qc-1, we divide the period after the event (1995-2000), including the data reported by Hiramatsu et al. (2000), into two periods of various time windows. The Student's t test confirms that a significant decrease in the mean values of Qc-1 at frequencies of 1.5- 4 Hz at 2-4 years after the event. This indicates that the values of Qc-1 at the lower frequencies return to those before the event for 2-4 years. The mean values of Qc-1 at 3 and 4 Hz, showing the largest significant variation (Hiramatsu et al., 2000), return to those before the event, in particular, for 2 years. There is no tectonic event that causes a stress change at the

  17. Wave propagation, scattering and emission in complex media (United States)

    Jin, Ya-Qiu

    I. Polarimetric scattering and SAR imagery. EM wave propagation and scattering in polarimetric SAR interferometry / S. R. Cloude. Terrain topographic inversion from single-pass polarimetric SAR image data by using polarimetric stokes parameters and morphological algorithm / Y. Q. Jin, L. Luo. Road detection in forested area using polarimetric SAR / G. W. Dong ... [et al.]. Research on some problems about SAR radiometric resolution / G. Dong ... [et al.]. A fast image matching algorithm for remote sensing applications / Z. Q. Hou ... [et al.]. A new algorithm of noised remote sensing image fusion based on steerable filters / X. Kang ... [et al.]. Adaptive noise reduction of InSAR data based on anisotropic diffusion models and their applications to phase unwrapping / C. Wang, X. Gao, H. Zhang -- II. Scattering from randomly rough surfaces. Modeling tools for backscattering from rough surfaces / A. K. Fung, K. S. Chen. Pseudo-nondiffracting beams from rough surface scattering / E. R. Méndez, T. A. Leskova, A. A. Maradudin. Surface roughness clutter effects in GPR modeling and detection / C. Rappaport. Scattering from rough surfaces with small slopes / M. Saillard, G. Soriano. Polarization and spectral characteristics of radar signals reflected by sea-surface / V. A. Butko, V. A. Khlusov, L. I. Sharygina. Simulation of microwave scattering from wind-driven ocean surfaces / M. Y. Xia ... [et al.]. HF surface wave radar tests at the Eastern China Sea / X. B. Wu ... [et al.] -- III. Electromagnetics of complex materials. Wave propagation in plane-parallel metamaterial and constitutive relations / A. Ishimaru ... [et al.]. Two dimensional periodic approach for the study of left-handed metamaterials / T. M. Grzegorczyk ... [et al.]. Numerical analysis of the effective constitutive parameters of a random medium containing small chiral spheres / Y. Nanbu, T. Matsuoka, M. Tateiba. Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media: from the Helmholtz to the Ginzburg -Landau equation / M