WorldWideScience

Sample records for mixing-controlled di diesel

  1. Experimental studies on a DI diesel engine fueled with bioethanol-diesel emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulari Hansdah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the possibility of utilizing bioethanol obtained from Madhuca Indica flower as an alternative fuel in a direct injection (DI diesel engine. Three different percentages of bioethanol (5%, 10%, and 15% on volume basis were emulsified with diesel proportionality with the help of a surfactant. The emulsions were designated as BMDE5, BMDE10, and BMDE15 where the numeric value refers to the percentage of bioethanol. The emulsions were tested as fuels in a single cylinder, four stroke, and air cooled DI diesel engine developing a power of 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm. Results indicated that the bioethanol–diesel emulsions exhibited a longer ignition delay by about 2.2 °CA than that of diesel operation at full load. Overall, the nitric oxide (NO and smoke emissions were found to be lesser by about 4% and 20%, respectively, with the bioethanol–diesel emulsions compared to that of diesel operation at full load. The BMDE5 emulsion gave a better performance and lower emissions compared to that of BMDE10 and BMDE15. It is suggested that the bioethanol produced from Madhuca Indica flower can be used as a potential alternative fuel replacing 5% of petroleum diesel.

  2. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  3. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes Tarabet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v% at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  4. Research on Spray, Combustion and Emission Characteristics for DI Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To improve the combustion chamber shape that can decrease the directed injection (DI) diesel emission, the theories of DI diesel spray, combustion and pollutant formation model are analysed and implemented based on the CFD code FIRE. Results show that the chamber with contracting orifice can get stronger squish swirl intensity. The results of the verification studies show a good accordance with the measurements and reveal that the individual processes of spray evolution, combustion and pollutant formation are well captured in FIRE. Finally, based on the analyzing and comparing of the calculation results of different chambers, a combustion chamber of contracting orifice geometry with lower emission is proposed.

  5. Experimental study of DI diesel engine performance using biodiesel blends with kerosene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, A.K.; Ameer Uddin, S.M.; Alam, M.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2013-07-01

    The experimental investigation offers a comprehensive study of DI diesel engine performance using bio-diesel from mustard oil blends with kerosene. The vegetable oil without trans-esterification reaction have been blended with kerosene oil by volume in some percentage like 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% which have been named as M20 (20% mustard, 80% kerosene), M30 (30% mustard, 70% kerosene), M40 (40% mustard, 60% kerosene) and M50 (50% mustard, 50% kerosene). The properties of the bio-fuel blended with kerosene have been tested in the laboratories with maintaining different ASTM standards. Then a four stroke, single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine has been mounted on the dynamometer bed for testing the performance of the engine using the bio-diesel blends. Several engine parameters like bsfc, bhp, break mean effective pressure, exhaust gas temperature, lube oil temperature, sound level etc. have been determined. A comparison has been made for engine performance of different bio-diesel blends with kerosene with the engine performance of diesel fuel.

  6. Combustion characteristics of a turbocharged DI compression ignition engine fueled with petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakci, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2) and biodiesel from soybean oil were compared. The tests were performed at steady state conditions in a four-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine at full load at 1400-rpm engine speed. The experimental results compared with No. 2 diesel fuel showed that biodiesel provided significant reductions in PM, CO, and unburned HC, the NO(x) increased by 11.2%. Biodiesel had a 13.8% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption due to its lower heating value. However, using No. 1 diesel fuel gave better emission results, NO(x) and brake-specific fuel consumption reduced by 16.1% and 1.2%, respectively. The values of the principal combustion characteristics of the biodiesel were obtained between two petroleum diesel fuels. The results indicated that biodiesel may be blended with No. 1 diesel fuel to be used without any modification on the engine.

  7. Effectiveness of oxygen enriched hydrogen-HHO gas addition on DI diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Premkartikkumar S.R; Annamalai K; Pradeepkumar A.R

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, more researches focus on protecting the environment. Present investigation concern with the effectiveness of Oxygen Enriched hydrogen- HHO gas addition on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine...

  8. Instantaneous heat flux flowing into piston top-land surface of D.I. diesel engine; DI diesel kikan no piston top land bu eno shunji netsuryusoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguma, M. [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Inui, M.; Enomoto, Y.; Hagihara, Y. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Koyama, T. [Mitsubishi Motors Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The thermal loads of the piston top-land surface in D.I. diesel engine during actual operation is not cleared. The authors fixed thin film thermocouples in the top-land center of a standard piston, and measured the instantaneous heat fluxes in that place. As a result, the authors made clear the thermal loads of the piston top-land surface in a cycle, and confirmed presence of the flame inflow to the piston top-land center. In addition, the authors made clear the thermal loads of the piston top-land surface in EGR operation. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Experimental investigation on a DI diesel engine fuelled with Madhuca Indica ester and diesel blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, N. [ERC Engines, Hall 11A, Tata Motors, Pimpri, Pune 411019, Maharashtra (India); Nagarajan, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Chennai (India); Puhan, Sukumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Veltech Engineering College, Avadi, Chennai (India)

    2010-06-15

    Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester, which is renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be derived from any vegetable oil by transesterification. One of the popularly used biodiesel in India is Mahua oil (Madhuca Indica). In the present investigation Mahua oil was transesterified using methanol in the presence of alkali catalyst and was used to study the performance and emission characteristics. The biodiesel was tested on a single cylinder, four stroke compression ignition engine. Engine performance tests showed that power loss was around 13% combined with 20% increase in fuel consumption with Mahua oil methyl ester at full load. Emissions such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon were lesser for Mahua ester compared to diesel by 26% and 20% respectively. Oxides of nitrogen were lesser by 4% for the ester compared to diesel. (author)

  10. A concise wall temperature model for DI Diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torregrosa, A.; Olmeda, P.; Degraeuwe, B. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Reyes, M. [Centro de Mecanica de Fluidos y Aplicaciones, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)

    2006-08-15

    A concise resistor model for wall temperature prediction in diesel engines with piston cooling is presented here. The model uses the instantaneous in-cylinder pressure and some usually measured operational parameters to predict the temperature of the structural elements of the engine. The resistor model was adjusted by means of temperature measurements in the cylinder head, the liner and the piston. For each model parameter, an expression as a function of the engine geometry, operational parameters and material properties was derived to make the model applicable to other similar engines. The model predicts well the cylinder head, liner and piston temperature and is sensitive to variations of operational parameters such as the start of injection, coolant and oil temperature and engine speed and load. (author)

  11. Effects of Injector Conditions on the Flame Lift-Off Length of DI Diesel Sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Siebers; B. S. Higgins

    2000-07-01

    The effects of injection pressure and orifice diameter on the lift-off length of a direct-injection (DI) diesel spray (defined as the farthest upstream location of high temperature combustion) were investigated using a natural light emission imaging technique. The lift-off length experiments were conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel under quiescent, heavy-duty DI diesel engine conditions using a Phillips research grade No.2 diesel fuel. The results show that natural light emission at 310 nm provides an excellent marker of the lift-off length. At this location, natural light emission at 310 nm is dominated by OH chemiluminescence generated by high-temperature combustion chemistry. Lift-off lengths determined from images of natural light emission at 310 nm show that as either injection pressure (i.e., injection velocity) or orifice diameter increase, the lift-off length increases. The observed lift-off length increase was linearly dependent on injection velocity, the same dependency as previously noted for gas jets. The lift-off length increase with increasing orifice diameter, however, is different than the independence of lift-off length on orifice diameter noted for gas jets An important overall observation was made by considering the lift-off length data in conjunction with data from recent investigations of liquid-phase fuel penetration and spray development. The combined data suggests that a systematic evolution of the relationship and interaction between various processes in a DI diesel spray has been occurring over time, as injection pressures have been increased and orifice diameters reduced as part of efforts to meet emissions regulations. The trends observed may eventually help explain effects of parameters such as injection pressure and orifice diameter on emissions.

  12. Improvement of D.I. diesel engine combustion using numerical simulation; Chokufun diesel kikan no nensho kaizen shuho. Suchi kaiseki ni yoru torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, T.; Adachi, T.; Isyii, Y. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    For the purpose of improving DI diesel engine combustion, it is important to predict air flow of intake and exhaust manifold, intake port flow, combustion chamber swirl and fuel spray combustion. This paper describes the application of numerical simulation to the engines, the analysis of phenomena and a problem of simulation model modification. (author)

  13. Multidimensional modeling of Dimethyl Ether(DME) spray combustion in DI diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Hua; LIU Yong-chang; WEI Ming-rui; ZHANG Yu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    In the present study a modified CFD code KIVA3V was used to simulate the spray combustion in a small DI diesel engine fueled with DME. The improved spray models consider more spray phenomena such as cavitation flow in nozzle hole, jet atomization, droplet second breakup and spray wall interaction. Otherwise, a reduced DME reaction mechanism is implemented in the combustion model, and a new turbulent combustion model-Partial Stirred Reactor (PaSR) model is selected to simulate the spray combustion process, the effects of turbulent mixing on the reaction rate are considered. The results of engine modeling based on those models agreed well with the experimental measurements. Study of temperature fields variation and particle traces in the combustion chamber revealed that the engine combustion system originally used for diesel fuel must be optimized for DME.

  14. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL-DIESEL EMULSIONS ON THE PERFORMANCE, COMBUSTION AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DI DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Parthasarathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to analyze the different ratio of emulsified fuels on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of four stroke single cylinder kirloskar TV-I direct injection compression ignition engine and compared with diesel fuel under different engine loads with constant engine speed of 1500 rpm. Four kinds of test fuels were prepared namely 80% diesel, 10% ethanol and 10% surfactant (Identified as D80E10; 70% diesel, 20% ethanol and 10% surfactant (denoted as D70 E20; 60% diesel 30% ethanol and 10% surfactant (denoted as D60 E30; 50% diesel, 40% ethanol and 10% surfactant (denoted as D50 E40 by volume respectively. In this test, Benzal konium chloride is added as an emulsifier to the diesel-ethanol blend to prevent layer formation and to make it a homogeneous blend. At maximum brake power, the comparison of best emulsified fuel ratio with diesel fuel results showed improvement in brake thermal efficiency with decrease in specific fuel consumption and smoke. The NOX, HC, CO2, cylinder pressure and heat release rate for D50 E40 emulsions are higher when compared to diesel fuel.

  15. Validation of some engine combustion and emission parameters of a bioethanol fuelled DI diesel engine using theoretical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan Sivalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Earlier reports indicate that ethanol/bioethanol can replace conventional diesel fuel by 15%, when it is emulsified with diesel and used as an alternative fuel in a compression ignition (CI engine. In this study, initially BMDE15, a bioethanol emulsion containing 15% bioethanol, 84% diesel and 1% surfactant was characterised for its fuel properties and compared with those of diesel fuel properties. The numerical value indicates the percentage of bioethanol in the BMDE15 emulsion. For the investigation, bioethanol was obtained from the Mahua Indica flower which was collected from the Madhuca Indica tree, and it was produced from fermentation process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further, the BMDE15 emulsion was tested in a single cylinder, four stroke, air cooled, DI diesel engine developing a power of 4.4 kW at a rated speed of 1500 rpm. Two important combustion parameters: cylinder pressure and ignition delay, and two important emission parameters: nitric oxide (NO and smoke emissions were determined and compared with those of diesel operation at all loads. The experimental results were validated using mathematical modelling, and the analysis of the results is presented in this paper.

  16. Bio diesel blends stability. Analytical aspects and test methods; Stabilita' delle miscele gasolio-biodiesel. Aspetti analitici e metodi di prova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinelli, G. [Stazione Sperimentale per i Combustibili, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    Bio diesel blends are receiving increasing attention as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuel for Diesel engines. This interest is based on several valuable properties of bio diesel, which, besides the production from renewable sources and its sufficient compatibility with Diesel engines, could reduce exhaust emissions. From technical point of view the main disadvantage of bio diesel is fuel un stability. As a matter of fact, bio diesel is more subject to oxidative degradation than petroleum diesel oil and this can alter the stability of bio diesel blends. In this connection the greatest controversy stability regards test methods for bio diesel blends. This review presents a synthesis of the studies performed in recent years on bio diesel blends stability. Besides considering the analytical aspects involving both products, the most important test methods for stability of bio diesel blends are discussed. [Italian] Le miscele gasolio-biodiesel stanno riscuotendo una crescente attenzione come alternative ai tradizionali comustibili diesel. Questo interesse e' dovuto ad alcune pregevoli proprieta' del biodiesel, il quale, oltre a essere prodotto da fonti rinnovabili, presenta una soddisfacente compatibilita' con i motori Diesel e potrebbe contribuire a ridurre le emissioni inquinanti. Da un punto di vista tecnico il suo grande svantaggio e' la instabilita'. Il biodiesel, infatti, e' piu' soggetto alla degradazione ossidativa rispetto al gasolio e questo puo' alterare la stabilita' delle miscele tra i due prodotti. A tal proposito l'aspetto piu' controverso riguarda i metodi di prova per la valutazione della stabilita' delle miscele gasolio-biodiesel. In questa rassegna viene presentata una sintesi degli studi condotti negli ultimi anni sulla stabilita' delle miscele gasolio-biodiesel. Oltre a considerare gli aspetti analitici riguardanti i due prodotti, vengono discussi i principali metodi di

  17. Cylinder Imbalance Detection of Six Cylinder DI Diesel Engine Using Pressure Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H.Gawande

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper a simplified methodology is presented to detect cylinder imbalance in operating sixcylinder DI diesel engine. The detailed torsional vibration analysis helps to find vibratory frequencies, mode shapes, and vibratory stresses to provide constraints on critical speed in operating engine. The crank shaft is considered to be a rigid body so that the variation of the angular speed could be directly correlated to the cylinder pressure. Actuallythe variation of crank shaft speed has a complex function being influence by torsional stiffness of crank shaft, the mass moment of inertia of reciprocating and rotating masses and the average speed and load on the engine. The information carried by the harmonic order permits to established correlation between measurement and average gaspressure of the engine and to detect torque imbalance and identify faulty cylinder. In this work the detail pressure variation study is carried out on operating six cylinder engine of type SL90 Engine-SL8800TA model manufactured by Kirloskar Oil Engine Pune.

  18. Use of calophyllum inophyllum biofuel blended with diesel in DI diesel engine modified with nozzle holes and its size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairamuthu, G.; Sundarapandian, S.; Thangagiri, B.

    2016-05-01

    Improved thermal efficiency, reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from biodiesel fueled diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these, fast and perfect air-biodiesel mixing are the most important requirements. The mixing quality of biodiesel spray with air can be improved by better design of the injection system. The diesel engine tests were conducted on a 4-stroke tangentially vertical single cylinder (TV1) kirloskar 1500 rpm water cooled direct injection diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. In this work, by varying different nozzles having spray holes of 3 (base, Ø = 0.280 mm), 4 (modified, Ø = 0.220 mm) and 5 (modified, Ø = 0.240 mm) holes, with standard static injection timing of 23° bTDC and nozzle opening pressure (NOP) of 250 bar maintained as constant throughout the experiment under steady state at full load condition of the engine. The effect of varying different nozzle configuration (number of holes), on the combustion, performance and exhaust emissions, using a blend of calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester by volume in diesel were evaluated. The test results showed that improvement in terms of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption for 4 holes and 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar. Substantial improvements in the reduction of emissions levels were also observed for 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar.

  19. Experimental investigation and performance evaluation of DI diesel engine fueled by waste oil-diesel mixture in emulsion with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of the natural reserves of petroleum products has put a tremendous onus on the automotive industry. Increasing pollution levels and the depletion of the petroleum reserves have lead to the search for alternate fuel sources for internal combustion engines. Usage of vegetable oils poses some challenges like poor spray penetration, valve sticking and clogging of injector nozzles. Most of these problems may be solved by partial substitution of diesel with vegetable oil. In this work, the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fueled by waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion with different water contents are evaluated. The use of waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion lowers the peak temperature, which reduces the formation of NOx. Moreover the phenomenon of micro explosion that results during the combustion of an emulsified fuel finely atomizes the fuel droplets and thus enhances combustion. Experiments show that CO concentration is reduced as the water content is increased and it is seen that 20% water content gives optimum results. Also, there is a significant reduction in NOx emissions.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Performance and emission characteristics of Various Nano Particles with Bio-Diesel blend on Di Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, N.; Goldwin Xavier, X.; Rajasekar, R.; Ganesh Bairavan, P.; Dhanseelan, S.

    2017-05-01

    Present study provides the effect of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Cerium Oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles additives on the Performance and emission uniqueness of Jatropha. Jatropha blended fuel is prepared by the emulsification technique with assist of mechanical agitator. Nano particles (Zinc Oxide (ZnO)) and Cerium Oxide (CeO2)) mixed with Jatropha blended fuel in mass fraction (100 ppm) with assist of an ultrasonicator. Experiments were conducted in single cylinder constant speed direct injection diesel engine for various test fuels. Performance results revealed that Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide (B20CE) is 3% and 11% higher than Jatropha blended zinc oxide (B20ZO) and Jatropha blended fuel (B20) and 4% lower than diesel fuel (D100) at full load conditions. Emission result shows that HC and CO emissions of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide (B20CE) are (6%, 22%, 11% and 6%, 15%, 12%) less compared with Jatropha blended Zinc Oxide (B20ZO), diesel (D100) and Jatropha blended fuel (B20) at full load conditions. NOx emissions of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide is 1 % higher than diesel fuel (D100) and 2% and 5% lower than Jatropha blended Zinc Oxide, and jatropha blended fuel.

  1. Combustion Analysis and Knock Detection in Single Cylinder DI-Diesel Engine Using Vibration Signature Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Y.V.V.SatyanarayanaMurthy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to detect the “knock” in Diesel engines which deteriorate the engine performance adversely. The methodology introduced in the present work suggests a newly developed approach towards analyzing the vibration analysis of diesel engines. The method is based on fundamental relationship between the engine vibration pattern and the relative characteristics of the combustion process in each or different cylinders. Knock in diesel engine is detected by measuring the vibra...

  2. Study on effects of high pressure injection for DI diesel combustion. Koatsu funsha ni yoru chokufun diesel no nensho kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, T.; Sami, H. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)); Nakakita, K.; Osawa, K. (Toyota Centeral Research and Development Lab., Aichi (Japan))

    1990-08-01

    A study was conducted on properties of exhaust gas of diesel engine by using high pressure injection type diesel engine equipped with pressure-reservoir for changing injection pressure, together with improvement of combustion conditions by high pressure injection of fuel. Equipments for the experiments were explained by figures. As for experiment, effects of injection pressure and its timing on emission quantities of NO {sub x} and paticulate were measured. Based upon the obtained results, those were understood that NO {sub x} and particulate were to be reduced by adjusting injection pressure and injection timing, and that, by reducing initial injection pressure, trade-off effect between NO {sub x} and particulate were improved. Observation of combustion conditions by inside-visible engine, those were recognized that low injection pressure caused poor atomization and, by that, delay of vaporization, that propagation of flame rapid to whole combustion room in case of pressure-reservoir type, and that lower injection rate at initial stage suppressed combustion rate and reduced NO {sub x} generation. 4 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Investigation on utilization of biogas and Karanja oil biodiesel in dual fuel mode in a single cylinder DI diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhabani Prasanna Pattanaik, Chandrakanta Nayak, Basanta Kumar Nanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, experiments were performed on a single cylinder DI diesel engine by using bio-gas as a primary fuel and Karanja oil biodiesel and diesel oil as secondary fuels in dual fuel operation. The experiments were performed to measure performance parameters i.e. (brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide unburned hydro carbon and smoke etc. at different load conditions. For the dual-fuel system, the intake system of the test engine was modified to convert into biogas and biodiesel of a dual-fueled combustion engine. Biogas was injected during the intake process by gas injectors. The study showed that, the engine performance parameters like BP, BTE and EGT gradually increase with increase in engine load for all test conditions using both pilot fuels diesel and KOBD. However, the BSFC of the engine showed decreasing slope with increase in engine load for all test conditions. Above 40% engine load the BSFC values for all test fuels are very close to each other. The engine emission analysis showed that the CO2, CO and NOx emissions increase with increase in engine load for both single and dual fuel mode operation using both pilot fuels. The NOx concentration of exhaust gases in dual fuel mode is superior than that of single mode.

  4. Investigation on utilization of biogas and Karanja oil biodiesel in dual fuel mode in a single cylinder DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna Pattanaik, Bhabani; Nayak, Chandrakanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Gandhi Institute for Technological Advancement, Madanpur, Bhubaneswar - 752054, Odisha (India); Kumar Nanda, Basanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Maharaja Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, experiments were performed on a single cylinder DI diesel engine by using bio-gas as a primary fuel and Karanja oil biodiesel and diesel oil as secondary fuels in dual fuel operation. The experiments were performed to measure performance parameters i.e. (brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature) and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide unburned hydro carbon and smoke etc. at different load conditions. For the dual-fuel system, the intake system of the test engine was modified to convert into biogas and biodiesel of a dual-fueled combustion engine. Biogas was injected during the intake process by gas injectors. The study showed that, the engine performance parameters like BP, BTE and EGT gradually increase with increase in engine load for all test conditions using both pilot fuels diesel and KOBD. However, the BSFC of the engine showed decreasing slope with increase in engine load for all test conditions. Above 40% engine load the BSFC values for all test fuels are very close to each other. The engine emission analysis showed that the CO2, CO and NOx emissions increase with increase in engine load for both single and dual fuel mode operation using both pilot fuels. The NOx concentration of exhaust gases in dual fuel mode is superior than that of single mode.

  5. Study on effects of high pressure injection for DI diesel combustion. Koatsu funsha ni yoru chokufun diesel no nensho kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, T.; Sami, H.; Nakakita, K.; Osawa, K. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi, (Japan) Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc., Aichi, (Japan))

    1990-04-25

    Accumulator type high pressure fuel injection equipment (HPIE), able to freely set the fuel injection pressure, was applied to a 94mm bore small type high speed direct injection Diesel engine (with turbo-charger), of which exhaust gas characteristics were investigated. Also by using a 102mm bore visualized single-cylinder engine, was observed combustion improvement effect by the HPIE. As a result, partial load exhaust gas characteristics were investigated at the rotation, 60% of the maximum number of rotations. That accumulator type HPIE changed in initial injection ratio due to the injection pressure. NO {sub x} emission depending upon both the injection pressure and timing, increase in NO {sub x} emission due to increase by 20MPa in injection pressure could be balanced with a CA delay by about 2 degrees in injection timing angle. Particulate is different by load in exhaust characteristics. In combustion observation, soot decreased in produced quantity with diminution in luminous portion of flame. 3 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Effects of Diary Scum Oil Methyl Ester on a DI Diesel Engine Performance and Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Varghese Babu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is recognized as a clean alternative fuel or as a fuel additive to reduce pollutant emission from CI engine and minimum cost so there is need for producing biodiesel other than from seed oil. In this study the diary waste scum were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel. Scum oil methyl ester (SOME is produced in laboratory by tranestrification process. The properties of SOME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Experiments has been carried out to estimate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder; four stroke diesel engine fuelled with scum biodiesel and its blends with standard diesel. Tests has been conducted using the fuel blends of 10%, 20%, 30% and 100% biodiesel with standard diesel, with an engine speed of 1500 rpm, fixed compression ratio 17.5 and at different loading conditions. The performance parameters elucidated includes brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, and exhaust gas temperature.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF COMBUSTION, PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DI DIESEL ENGINE UNDER HCCI MODE WITH POROUS MEDIUM COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C KANNAN

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, homogeneous combustion has been a proven technology to attain high efficient and low emission engines. Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engines are able to have efficiencies as high as Compression Ignition, Direct Injection (CIDI engines, while producing ultra-low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx and particulate matter (PM.HCCI combustion is achieved by controlling the temperature, pressure and composition of the fuel-air mixture so that it spontaneously gets ignited in the combustion chamber. Numeroustechniques such as Variable Exhaust Gas Recirculation (VEGR, ariable Compression Ratio (VCR and Variable Valve Timing (VVT have been proposed to control the homogeneous combustion inside the engine cylinder. Even though these techniques are attractive and having good time response, they are too expensive to afford. This paper investigates the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a Direct Injection (DI diesel engine under HCCI mode which is established through an effective and affordable technique called Porous Medium Combustion (PMC.

  8. Effectiveness of oxygen enriched hydrogen-HHO gas addition on DI diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premkartikkumar S.R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more researches focus on protecting the environment. Present investigation concern with the effectiveness of Oxygen Enriched hydrogen- HHO gas addition on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine. Here the Oxygen Enriched hydrogen-HHO gas was produced by the process of water electrolysis. When potential difference is applied across the anode and cathode electrodes of the electrolyzer, water is transmuted into Oxygen Enriched hydrogen-HHO gas. The produced gas was aspirated into the cylinder along with intake air at the flow rates of 1 lpm and 3.3 lpm. The results show that when Oxygen Enriched hydrogen-HHO gas was inducted, the brake thermal efficiency of the engine increased by 11.06%, Carbon monoxide decreased by 15.38%, Unburned hydrocarbon decreased by 18.18%, Carbon dioxide increased by 6.06%, however, the NOX emission increased by 11.19%.

  9. Influence of Antioxidant Addition in Jatropha Biodiesel on the Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiasamy, Prabu; Ramachandran Bhagavathiammal, Anand

    2017-04-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted on a single-cylinder DI diesel engine, to evaluate the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel with the addition of antioxidants namely, Succinimide (C4H5NO2), N,N-Dimethyl p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (C8H14Cl2N2) and N-Phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (C6H5NHC6H4NH2) at 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm. The performance, combustion and emission characteristic tests are conducted at a constant speed of 1500 rpm, injection pressure of 215 bar, injection timing of 26° before top dead centre for the nine test fuels and the experimental results are compared with neat diesel and neat biodiesel as base fuels. The experimental results show that the addition of antioxidant in biodiesel suppresses the NO emission by quenching the OH radicals that are produced by the reaction of hydrocarbon radicals with molecular nitrogen. The maximum percentage reduction of NO emission by 5, 6 and 7% are observed for N-Phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, N,N-Dimethyl p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride and Succinimide blended test fuels at 2000 ppm antioxidant addition with biodiesel.

  10. OH radical imaging in a DI diesel engine and the structure of the early diffusion flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dec, J.E.; Coy, E.B.

    1996-03-01

    Laser-sheet imaging studies have considerably advanced our understanding of diesel combustion; however, the location and nature of the flame zones within the combusting fuel jet have been largely unstudied. To address this issue, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the OH radical has been applied to the reacting fuel jet of a direct-injection diesel engine of the ``heavy-duty`` size class, modified for optical access. An Nd:YAG-based laser system was used to pump the overlapping Q{sub 1}9 and Q{sub 2}8 lines of the (1,0) band of the A{yields}X transition at 284.01 nm, while the fluorescent emission from both the (0,O) and (1, I) bands (308 to 320 nm) was imaged with an intensified video camera. This scheme allowed rejection of elastically scattered laser light, PAH fluorescence, and laser-induced incandescence. OH PLIF is shown to be an excellent diagnostic for diesel diffusion flames. The signal is strong, and it is confined to a narrow region about the flame front because the threebody recombination reactions that reduce high flame-front OH concentrations to equilibrium levels occur rapidly at diesel pressures. No signal was evident in the fuel-rich premixed flame regions where calculations and burner experiments indicate that OH concentrations will be below detectable limits. Temporal sequences of OH PLIF images are presented showing the onset and development of the early diffusion flame up to the time that soot obscures the images. These images show that the diffusion flame develops around the periphery of the-downstream portion of the reacting fuel jet about half way through the premixed burn spike. Although affected by turbulence, the diffusion flame remains at the jet periphery for the rest of the imaged sequence.

  11. A Fundamental Consideration on NOx Adsorber Technology for DI Diesel Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Howard L.; Huang, Shyan C.; Yu, Robert C. (Cummins, Inc.); Wan, C. Z. (Engelhard Corp.); Howden, Ken (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2002-10-01

    Diesel engines are far more efficient than gasoline engines of comparable size, and emit less greenhouse gases that have been implicated in global warming. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15 ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same low emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulation. Achieving such low emissions cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOx and particulate matter (PM) aftertreatment control devices. There is a widespread consensus that NOx adsorbers and particulate filter are required in order for diesel engines to meet the 2007 emissions regulations for NOx and PM. In this paper, the key exhaust characteristics from an advanced diesel engine are reviewed. Development of the NOx adsorber technology is discussed. Spectroscopic techniques are applied to understand the underlying chemical reactions over the catalyst surface during NOx trapping and regeneration periods. In-situ surface probes are useful in providing not only thermodynamic and kinetics information required for model development but also a fundamental understanding of storage capacity and degradation mechanisms. The distribution of various nitration/sulfation species is related to surface basicity. Surface displacement reactions of carbonates also play roles in affecting the trapping capability of NOx adsorbers. When ultralow-S fuel is used as a reductant during the regeneration, sulfur induced performance degradation is still observed in an aged catalyst. Other possible sources related to catalyst deactivation include incomplete reduction of surface nitration, coke formation derived from incomplete hydrocarbon burning, and lubricant formulations. Sulfur management and the

  12. Performance and Emissions of a DI Diesel Engine Operating on Diesel/Methanol Blends%柴油机燃用柴油/甲醇混合燃料时的性能与排放研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佐华; 卢红兵; 蒋德明; 曾科; 刘兵; 张俊强; 王锡斌

    2004-01-01

    A stabilized diesel/methanol blend was realized and the study on the performance and emissions of the diesel/methanol blend was conducted in a DI engine.The study showed that the thermal efficiency of engine increases and the diesel equivalent brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) decreased with the increase in methanol mass fraction for diesel/methanol blends due to an increased fraction of premixed combustion phase,an oxygen enrichment and an improvement in diffusive combustion phase.Further advancement of fuel delivery advance angle would achieve a better engine thermal efficiency when operating on the diesel/methanol blends.Remarkable reduction in the exhaust CO and smoke could be achieved when operating on the diesel/methanol blend.Exhaust HC gave less variation with the addition of methanol in diesel fuel.NOx increased with the increase of methanol mass addition and methanol addition in diesel fuel was found to have a strong influence on NOx concentration at the high engine load rather than at the low engine load,and a flat NOx/Smoke trade-off curve is observed in the combustion of diesel/methanol blends.%通过添加助溶剂形成一种稳定的柴油/甲醇混合燃料,并开展了柴油机燃用此混合燃料的性能与排放研究.研究结果表明:发动机热效率和柴油等热值燃油消耗率随混合燃料中甲醇含量的增加而改善,这是由于预混燃烧量的增加,燃料富氧以及扩散燃烧的改善所致.适当增加供油提前角可使柴油/甲醇混合燃料发动机热效率提高.燃用柴油/甲醇混合燃料可显著降低发动机CO和烟度,而对碳氢排放影响不大;在相同平均有效压力的条件下,NOx随甲醇含量的增加而增加,添加甲醇对NOx的影响在大负荷下更为明显. 柴油/甲醇混合燃料燃烧时存在一个较为平坦的NOx/烟度关系曲线.

  13. An experimental study on the effects of high-pressure and multiple injection strategies on DI diesel engine emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2013-03-25

    An experimental study on effects of high-pressure injections in conjunction with split fuel injections were conducted on an AVL single cylinder DI diesel engine. Various injection schemes were studied through the use of an electronically controlled, common rail injection system capable of injection pressures up to 200 MPa and a maximum of six injections per combustion event. Up to 100 MPa of the fuel injection pressure, the higher injection pressures create faster combustion rates that result in the higher in-cylinder gas temperatures as compared to conventional low-pressure fuel injection systems. When applying high-pressure injections, particulate emission reductions of up to 50% were observed with no change in hydrocarbon emissions, reductions of CO emissions and only slightly higher NOx emissions. Over 100 MPa, on the other hand, the higher injection pressures still reduced up to almost zero-level of particulate emission, at the same time that the NO emission is reduced greatly. Under these high-pressure injection conditions, strong correlations between soot and CO emissions were observed, which compete for the oxidizing OH species. Multiple or split high-pressure injections also investigated as a means to decrease particulate emissions. As a result, a four-split injection strategy resulted in a 55% reduction in particulates and with little or no penalty on NOx emissions. The high pressure split injection strategy with EGR was more effective in reducing particulate and CO emissions simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 TSAE.

  14. Mechanism and optimization of fuel injection parameters on combustion noise of DI diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆辉; 郝志勇; 郑旭; 杨文英; 毛杰

    2016-01-01

    Combustion noise takes large proportion in diesel engine noise and the studies of its influence factors play an important role in noise reduction. Engine noise and cylinder pressure measurement experiments were carried out. And the improved attenuation curves were obtained, by which the engine noise was predicted. The effect of fuel injection parameters in combustion noise was investigated during the combustion process. At last, the method combining single variable optimization and multivariate combination was introduced to online optimize the combustion noise. The results show that injection parameters can affect the cylinder pressure rise rate and heat release rate, and consequently affect the cylinder pressure load and pressure oscillation to influence the combustion noise. Among these parameters, main injection advance angle has the greatest influence on the combustion noise, while the pilot injection interval time takes the second place, and the pilot injection quantity is of minimal impact. After the optimal design of the combustion noise, the average sound pressure level of the engine is distinctly reduced by 1.0 dB(A) generally. Meanwhile, the power, emission and economy performances are ensured.

  15. Experimental Investigation on Space-dispersed Double-wall Jet Combustion System for DI Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏江; 高希彦

    2012-01-01

    A space-dispersed double-wall jet combustion system was developed by adopting the wall-guiding spray method and the stratification theory.The experimental test was carried out to optimize the structural parameters of the diesel-engine combustion system,including chamber structure,swirl ratio of cylinder head,included angle of jet orifice,number and diameter of jet orifice,fuel injection pressure and timing.The effect of double-wall jet combustion system on combustion and engine performance was tested to obtain the best performance indexes,and the double-wall jet combustion system was compared to the prototype.The results show that NOx is reduced from 712 PPm to 487 PPm at 2 100 r/min,and from 593 PPm to 369 PPm at 3 000 r/min,which are reduced by 31.6% and 37.7%,respectively.The smoke intensity was reduced form 3.67 BSU to 2.1 BSU,and the oil consumption was reduced from 240.5 g/(kW·h) to 225.4 g/(kW·h),which was decreased by 6.3% at low speed.The pressure in the cylinder was obviously reduced from 115 bar to 108 bar,which was reduced by 6%.

  16. Experimental and artificial neural network based prediction of performance and emission characteristics of DI diesel engine using Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester at different nozzle opening pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairamuthu, G.; Thangagiri, B.; Sundarapandian, S.

    2017-07-01

    The present work investigates the effect of varying Nozzle Opening Pressures (NOP) from 220 bar to 250 bar on performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of Calophyllum inophyllum Methyl Ester (CIME) in a constant speed, Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach. An ANN model has been developed to predict a correlation between specific fuel consumption (SFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), Unburnt hydrocarbon (UBHC), CO, CO2, NOx and smoke density using load, blend (B0 and B100) and NOP as input data. A standard Back-Propagation Algorithm (BPA) for the engine is used in this model. A Multi Layer Perceptron network (MLP) is used for nonlinear mapping between the input and the output parameters. An ANN model can predict the performance of diesel engine and the exhaust emissions with correlation coefficient (R2) in the range of 0.98-1. Mean Relative Errors (MRE) values are in the range of 0.46-5.8%, while the Mean Square Errors (MSE) are found to be very low. It is evident that the ANN models are reliable tools for the prediction of DI diesel engine performance and emissions. The test results show that the optimum NOP is 250 bar with B100.

  17. THE EFFECT OF KARANJA OIL METHYL ESTER ON KIRLOSKAR HA394DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanappa K Godiganur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are being investigated as potential substitutes for current high pollutant fuels obtained from the conventional sources. The primary problem associated with using straight vegetable oil as fuel in a compression ignition engine is caused by viscosity. The process of transesterifiction of vegetable oil with methyl alcohol provides a significant reduction in viscosity, thereby enhancing the physical properties of vegetable oil. The Kirloskar HA394 compression ignition, multi cylinder diesel engine does not require any modification to replace diesel by karanja methyl ester. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential of karanja oil methyl ester and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power of the mixture is closed to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that the blend of karanja ester and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and in terms of emission parameters; it is an environmental friendly fuel

  18. Theoretical modeling of combustion characteristics and performance parameters of biodiesel in DI diesel engine with variable compression ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Al-Dawody, S. K. Bhatti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of costly and depleting fossil fuels are prompting researchers to use edible as well as non-edible vegetable oils as a promising alternative to petro-diesel fuels. A comprehensive computer code using ”Quick basic” language was developed for the diesel engine cycle to study the combustion and performance characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine with variable compression ratio. The engine operates on diesel fuel and 20% (mass basis of biodiesel (derived from soybean oil blended with diesel. Combustion characteristics such as cylinder pressure, heat release fraction, heat transfer and performance characteristics such as brake power; and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC were analyzed. On the basis of the first law of thermodynamics the properties at each degree crank angle was calculated. Wiebe function is used to calculate the instantaneous heat release rate. The computed results are validated through the results obtained in the simulation Diesel-rk software.

  19. Theoretical modeling of combustion characteristics and performance parameters of biodiesel in DI diesel engine with variable compression ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Dawody, Mohamed F.; Bhatti, S.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Andhra University (India)

    2013-07-01

    Increasing of costly and depleting fossil fuels are prompting researchers to use edible as well as non-edible vegetable oils as a promising alternative to petro-diesel fuels. A comprehensive computer code using ''Quick basic'' language was developed for the diesel engine cycle to study the combustion and performance characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine with variable compression ratio. The engine operates on diesel fuel and 20% (mass basis) of biodiesel (derived from soybean oil) blended with diesel. Combustion characteristics such as cylinder pressure, heat release fraction, heat transfer and performance characteristics such as brake power; and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were analyzed. On the basis of the first law of thermodynamics the properties at each degree crank angle was calculated. Wiebe function is used to calculate the instantaneous heat release rate. The computed results are validated through the results obtained in the simulation Diesel-rk software.

  20. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S.; Tatani, T.; Yoshida, H.; Takizawa, H.; Miyoshi, K.; Ikebe, H. [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Comparing in Cylinder Pressure Modelling of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled on Alternative Fuel Using Two Tabulated Chemistry Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngayihi Abbe, Claude Valery; Nzengwa, Robert; Danwe, Raidandi

    2014-01-01

    The present work presents the comparative simulation of a diesel engine fuelled on diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel. Two models, based on tabulated chemistry, were implemented for the simulation purpose and results were compared with experimental data obtained from a single cylinder diesel engine. The first model is a single zone model based on the Krieger and Bormann combustion model while the second model is a two-zone model based on Olikara and Bormann combustion model. It was shown that both models can predict well the engine's in-cylinder pressure as well as its overall performances. The second model showed a better accuracy than the first, while the first model was easier to implement and faster to compute. It was found that the first method was better suited for real time engine control and monitoring while the second one was better suited for engine design and emission prediction.

  2. Influence of Compression Ratio on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Annona Methyl Ester Operated DI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Ramalingam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the optimum performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder variable compression ratio (VCR engine with different blends of Annona methyl ester (AME as fuel. The performance parameters such as specific fuel consumption (SFC, brake thermal efficiency (BTE, and emission levels of HC, CO, Smoke, and NOx were compared with the diesel fuel. It is found that, at compression ratio of 17: 1 for A20 blended fuel (20% AME + 80% Diesel shows better performance and lower emission level which is very close to neat diesel fuel. The engine was operated with different values of compression ratio (15, 16, and 17 to find out best possible combination for operating engine with blends of AME. It is also found that the increase of compression ratio increases the BTE and reduces SFC and has lower emission without any engine in design modifications.

  3. Using Carbon-14 Isotope Tracing to Investigate Molecular Structure Effects of the Oxygenate Dibutyl Maleate on Soot Emissions from a DI Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A; Mueller, C J; Upatnieks, A; Martin, G C; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2004-01-07

    The effect of oxygenate molecular structure on soot emissions from a DI diesel engine was examined using carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) isotope tracing. Carbon atoms in three distinct chemical structures within the diesel oxygenate dibutyl maleate (DBM) were labeled with {sup 14}C. The {sup 14}C from the labeled DBM was then detected in engine-out particulate matter (PM), in-cylinder deposits, and CO{sub 2} emissions using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The results indicate that molecular structure plays an important role in determining whether a specific carbon atom either does or does not form soot. Chemical-kinetic modeling results indicate that structures that produce CO{sub 2} directly from the fuel are less effective at reducing soot than structures that produce CO before producing CO{sub 2}. Because they can follow individual carbon atoms through a real combustion process, {sup 14}C isotope tracing studies help strengthen the connection between actual engine emissions and chemical-kinetic models of combustion and soot formation/oxidation processes.

  4. Efficiency evaluation of the DISC (direct-injection stratified charge), DHC (dilute homogeneous charge), and DI Diesel engines (direct-injection diesel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.

    1983-09-01

    The thermodynamic laws governing the Otto and diesel cycle engines and the possible approaches that might be taken to increase the delivered efficiency of the reciprocating piston engine are discussed. The generic aspects of current research are discussed and typical links between research and the technical barriers to the engines' development are shown. The advanced engines are discussed individually. After a brief description of each engine and its advantages, the major technical barriers to their development are discussed. Also included for each engine is a discussion of examples of the linkages between these barriers and current combustion and thermodynamic research. For each engine a list of questions is presented that have yet to be resolved and could not be resolved within the scope of this study. These questions partially indicate the limit to the state of knowledge regarding efficiency characteristics of the advanced engine concepts. The major technical barriers to each of the engines and their ranges of efficiency improvement are summarized.

  5. High-speed four-color infrared digital imaging for studying in-cylinder processes in a DI diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, K. T.

    1995-07-01

    The study was to investigate in-cylinder events of a direct injection-type diesel engine by using a new high-speed infrared (IR) digital imaging systems for obtaining information that was difficult to achieve by the conventional devices. For this, a new high-speed dual-spectra infrared digital imaging system was developed to simultaneously capture two geometrically identical (in respective spectral) sets of IR images having discrete digital information in a (64x64) matrix at rates as high as over 1,800 frames/sec each with exposure period as short as 20 micron sec. At the same time, a new advanced four-color W imaging system was constructed. The first two sets of spectral data were the radiation from water vapor emission bands to compute the distributions of temperature and specie in the gaseous mixture and the remaining two sets of data were to find the instantaneous temperature distribution over the cylinder surface. More than eight reviewed publications have been produced to report many new findings including: Distributions of Water Vapor and Temperature in a Flame; End Gas Images Prior to Onset of Knock; Effect of MTBE on Diesel Combustion; Impact of Oxygen Enrichment on In-cylinder Reactions; Spectral IR Images of Spray Plume; Residual Gas Distribution; Preflame Reactions in Diesel Combustion; Preflame Reactions in the End Gas of an SI Engine; Postflame Oxidation; and Liquid Fuel Layers during Combustion in an SI Engine. In addition, some computational analysis of diesel combustion was performed using KIVA-II program in order to compare results from the prediction and the measurements made using the new IR imaging diagnostic tool.

  6. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION STUDIES ON DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH PONGAMIA METHYL ESTER INJECTION AND METHANOL CARBURETION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIBABU, N.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The target of the present study is to clarify ignition characteristics, combustion process and knock limit of methanol premixture in a dual fuel diesel engine, and also to improve the trade-off between NOx and smoke markedly without deteriorating the high engine performance. Experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine operating in duel fuel mode using Pongamia methyl ester injection and methanol carburetion. Methanol is introduced into the engine at different throttle openings along with intake air stream by a carburetor which is arranged at bifurcated air inlet. Pongamia methyl ester fuel was supplied to the engine by conventional fuel injection. The experimental results show that exhaust gas temperatures are moderate and there is better reduction of NOx, HC, CO and CO2 at methanol mass flow rate of 16.2 mg/s. Smoke level was observed to be low and comparable. Improved thermal efficiency of the engine was observed.

  7. An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions of a Single Cylinder D.I Diesel Engine with Manifold Hydrogen Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroun A.K. Shahad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a clean fuel for internal combustion engines as it produces only water vapor and nitrogen oxides when it burns. In this research, hydrogen is used as a blending fuel with diesel to reduce pollutants emission and to improve performance. It is inducted in the inlet manifold, (continuous manifold induction, which is of a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, variable compression ratio water cold diesel engine, type (Kirloskar. This technique of hydrogen blending is selected because of its simplicity and low cost. Hydrogen blending is built on the basis of energy replacement. A special electronic unit is designed and fabricated to control hydrogen blending ratio. The maximum achieved ratio is 30% of input energy and beyond that the engine operation becomes unsatisfactory. Tests are done with 17.5 compression ratio and 1500 rpm. The brake specific fuel consumption is reduced by 29% and the engine thermal efficiency increased by 16% at these operating conditions. The pollutant emissions of carbon oxides, UHC, and smoke opacity are dramatically decreased by 19.5%, 13%,and 45% respectively while NOx emission increased by 10%.

  8. CFD Simulation of In-Cylinder Flow on Different Piston Bowl Geometries in a DI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Gugulothu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The combustion process in the diesel engine should be controlled to avoid both excessive maximum cylinder pressure and an excessive rate of pressure rise, in terms of crank angle. At the same time, the process should be so rapid that substantially all the fuel is burned early in the expansion stroke. In this direction, piston configuration plays a crucial role. Four configurations i.e., flat, inclined, central bowl, and inclined offset bowl piston have been studied. This study is concerned with the CFD analysis has been carried out on two valve four stroke diesel engine to analyze the in-cylinder air motion during suction stroke, pressure and temperature variation inside the cylinder during the compression stroke for various configurations. The engine specifications are considered from the literature. For numerical analysis, Ansys15 CFD software has been used, for meshing polyhedral trimmed cells were adopted. In-cylinder flows were analyzed by solving mass, momentum and energy equation. From this study, it is concluded that analysis has been carried out for each crank angle degree during suction and compression stroke for all the piston configurations, tumble ratio varies mainly with crank angle position. At the end of the compression stroke fuel is injected and the performance of different piston bowls are analyzed.

  9. Minimization of the noise emitted by a stationary, multifuel DI diesel aggregate. Final report; Minimierung der Aussengeraeusche eines stationaeren, vielstoffaehigen, direkteinspritzenden Dieselaggregats. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haentsche, J.; Zimdahl, G.

    1999-03-01

    Engine noise is caused by the combustion process, flow processes and by the mechanical noise of engine components. This project investigated the dynamic response of the engine structure as an important source of noise transmission to the outer surface and ambient air. The engine investigated was a multifuel 'eco' DI diesel engine of AMS Schoenebeck, with 4 cylinders, air-cooled supercharger and a power at full load of 160 kW at 2000 rpm. [German] Die Einhaltung der von Gesetzgeber zugelassenen Hoechstwerte der Schalleinwirkung auf den Menschen macht in immer staerkerem Masse die ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Maschinen (Motoren) notwendig. Das Motorengeraeusch wird durch die Verbrennung, durch Stroemungsvorgaenge sowie die mechanischen Geraeuschanteile von Motorkomponenten bestimmt. Gegenstand des Projektes ist die Untersuchung des dynamischen Verhaltens der Motorstruktur als massgeblicher Faktor der Schallweiterleitung vom Ort der Entstehung an die schallabstrahlende aeussere Oberflaeche und deren Luftschallabstrahlung. Untersuchungsobjekt war ein Oeko-Vielstoff-Dieselmotor der AMS Schoenebeck, Motordaten: 4-Zylinder-Reihenmotor, Abgasturboaufladung mit Ladeluftkuehlung, Vollast: 160 kW bei 2000 1/min, Direkteinspritzer. (orig.)

  10. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND MODELING OF A FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DI DIESEL ENGINE UNDER VARIOUS INJECTION TIMINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. GAVASKAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted on a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine to determine the performance, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics under different injection timings. The different injection angles chosen were 16°, 18° and 21° and the fuel chosen was standard diesel. The experimental results showed that brake thermal efficiency for the advanced as well as the retarded injection timing was lesser than that for the normal injection timing (18° BTDC. In terms of BSFC, retarded andadvanced injection timings compared to the original injection timing gave negative results for all engine loads. When compared to the results of original injection timing (18° BTDC, NOx and CO2 emissions decreased, and unburned HC and CO emissions increased for the retarded injection timings (16° BTDC at the all test conditions. On the other hand, with the advanced injection timings (21° BTDC, HC and CO emissions decreased, and NOx and CO2 emissions increased. A prediction of the combustion process was generated under the operating conditions in CFD. The CFD modeling results are generated to predict the combustion characteristic of maximum cylinder pressure. These results are then compared with the experimental results and validated. The CFD results show that there is a good correlation with the experimental results.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS AND MODELLING OF A FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DI DIESEL ENGINE UNDER VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P.BALAJI VIGNESH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study targets at finding the effects of Engine Design parameter (Compression ratio on the Performance with regard to Brake Specific Fuel Consumption and brake thermal efficiency, Combustion parameter viz. Cylinder pressure, Hear Release rate (HRR, Rate of Pressure Rise (RPR and emission of CO, CO2, HC , NOx with diesel as a fuel. The Study was carried out at different compression ratios (14-17 to find the optimum value at which lesser emissions and better performance and combustion characteristics are obtained. It was found that as the compression ratio is increased the Brake thermal efficiency and brake power increases and brake specific fuel consumption is slightly reduced. The combustion parameters CP, HRR, RPR all increase with increase with increase in compression ratio. The Emission of CO2 and NOx increases steeply at high compression ratio. A combustion Model of the engine is created in StarCD software and the experimental and the theoretical Cylinder pressure values are validated.

  12. Evaluation of a Semiempirical, Zero-Dimensional, Multizone Model to Predict Nitric Oxide Emissions in DI Diesel Engines’ Combustion Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Savva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a semiempirical, zero-dimensional multizone model, developed by the authors, is implemented on two automotive diesel engines, a heavy-duty truck engine and a light-duty passenger car engine with pilot fuel injection, for various operating conditions including variation of power/speed, EGR rate, fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and boost pressure, to verify its capability for Nitric Oxide (NO emission prediction. The model utilizes cylinder’s basic geometry and engine operating data and measured cylinder pressure to estimate the apparent combustion rate which is then discretized into burning zones according to the calculation step used. The requisite unburnt charge for the combustion in the zones is calculated using the zone equivalence ratio provided from a new empirical formula involving parameters derived from the processing of the measured cylinder pressure and typical engine operating parameters. For the calculation of NO formation, the extended Zeldovich mechanism is used. From this approach, the model is able to provide the evolution of NO formation inside each burned zone and, cumulatively, the cylinder’s NO formation history. As proven from the investigation conducted herein, the proposed model adequately predicts NO emissions and NO trends when the engine settings vary, with low computational cost. These encourage its use for engine control optimization regarding NOx abatement and real-time/model-based NOx control applications.

  13. Effect of thermal barrier coating with various blends of pumpkin seed oil methyl ester in DI diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthickeyan, V.; Balamurugan, P.

    2017-05-01

    The rise in oil prices, dependency on fossil fuels, degradation of non-renewable energy resources and global warming strives to find a low-carbon content alternative fuel to the conventional fuel. In the present work, Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ) was used as a thermal barrier coating in piston head, cylinder head and intake and exhaust valves using plasma spray technique, which provided a rise in combustion chamber temperature. With the present study, the effects of thermal barrier coating on the blends of Pumpkin Seed Oil Methyl Ester (PSOME) were observed in both the coated and uncoated engine. Performance and emission characteristics of the PSOME in coated and uncoated engines were observed and compared. Increased thermal efficiency and reduced fuel consumption were observed for B25 and diesel in coated and uncoated engine. On comparing with the other biodiesel samples, B25 exhibited lower HC, NOx and smoke emissions in thermally coated engine than uncoated engine. After 100 h of operation, no anamolies were found in the thermally coated components except minor cracks were identified in the edges of the piston head.

  14. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  15. Study on Combustion Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Operating on Diesel/Methanol Blends%柴油机燃用柴油/甲醇混合燃料时的燃烧特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佐华; 卢红兵; 蒋德明; 曾科; 刘兵; 张俊强; 王锡斌

    2003-01-01

    A stabilized diesel/methanol blend was realized and the combustion characteristics and heat release analysis of the diesel/methanol blend was carried out in a DI diesel engine. The study showed that the increase of methanol mass fraction of diesel/methanol blends will result in the increase of heat release rate in premixed burning phase and shorten the combustion duration of diffusive burning phase. Ignition delay increases with the increase of methanol mass fraction and the behavior is more obviously at low engine load and high engine speed. Rapid burn duration varies less with methanol mass fraction and the total combustion duration decreases with the increase of methanol mass fraction. At a low engine speed, the centre of heat release curve tends to be close to the top-dead-centre with the increase of methanol mass fraction at all engine loads and fuel delivery advance angles, and the maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum rate of heat release increase with the increase of methanol mass fraction. At a high engine speed, the centre of heat release curve closes to the top-dead-centre with the increase of methanol mass fraction at high engine load and will depart from the top-dead-centre at low engine load, and the maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum rate of heat release gives an increasing trend with the increase of the methanol mass fraction and a slight decreasing trend with further increasing of methanol mass fraction. Maximum cylinder gas pressure increases with the increase of methanol mass fraction when oxygen mass fraction is less than 6%, and then it remains a constant value or drops slightly with a further increase of oxygen mass fraction. Maximum mean gas temperature remains almost unchangeable versus methanol mass fraction.%通过添加助溶剂形成一种稳定的柴油/甲醇混合燃料,并开展了柴油机燃用此混合燃料的燃烧特性研究.研究结果表明:随着混合燃料中甲醇含量的增加,预混燃烧阶段的

  16. Improvement of engine emissions with conventional diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Akhter, Md Shamim; Zaglul Shahadat, Mhia Md

    2006-02-01

    In this report combustion and exhaust emissions with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends have been investigated. In the investigation, firstly biodiesel from non-edible neem oil has been made by esterification. Biodiesel fuel (BDF) is chemically known as mono-alkyl fatty acid ester. It is renewable in nature and is derived from plant oils including vegetable oils. BDF is non-toxic, biodegradable, recycled resource and essentially free from sulfur and carcinogenic benzene. In the second phase of this investigation, experiment has been conducted with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends in a four stroke naturally aspirated (NA) direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Compared with conventional diesel fuel, diesel-biodiesel blends showed lower carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission. However, compared with the diesel fuel, NOx emission with diesel-biodiesel blends was slightly reduced when EGR was applied.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL TIME SECONDARY CO-INJECTION OF WATER – DIETHYL ETHER SOLUTION IN DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM KERNEL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. V. SATYANARAYANAMURTHY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation tests were conducted on single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with neat diesel and biodiesel palm kernel methyl ester as a base line fuel with secondary injection of Water-DEE solution through the inlet manifold. A real time control systems consists of electronic unit pump that delivers 5% to 25% vol. Water-DEE solution through injector tip mounted nearer to the inlet manifold under a pressure of 3 kgf/cm2. NOx emissions reduced to a level of 500 ppm with simultaneous reduction of soot especially for PKME. However for 15% vol. of Water-DEE injection the HC emissions are closely tallying with that of neat diesel. A global overview of the results has shown that the 15% Water-DEE solution is the optimal blend based on performance and emission characteristics.

  18. Three-dimensional analysis of internal flow characteristics in the injection nozzle tip of direct-injection diesel engines; Sanjigen suchi kaiseki ni yoru DI diesel kikan no nenryo funsha nozzle nai ryudo tokusei no kaimei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, H.; Matsui, Y.; Kimura, S. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To reduce the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of direct-injection diesel engines, it is essential to optimize the fuel injection equipment closely related to combustion and emission characteristics. In this study, three-dimensional computation has been applied to investigate the effects of the injection nozzle specifications (e.g., sac volume, round shape at the inlet of the nozzle hole) and needle tip deviation on internal flow characteristics. The computational results revealed that the effects of the nozzle specifications and needle tip deviation with a smaller needle lift on internal flow characteristics and a general approach to optimize the injection nozzle specifications were obtained. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. An investigation of late-combustion soot burnout in a DI diesel engine using simultaneous planar imaging of soot and OH radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John E. Dec; Peter L. Kelly-Zion

    1999-10-01

    Diesel engine design continues to be driven by the need to improve performance while at the same time achieving further reductions in emissions. The development of new designs to accomplish these goals requires an understanding of how the emissions are produced in the engine. Laser-imaging diagnostics are uniquely capable of providing this information, and the understanding of diesel combustion and emissions formation has been advanced considerably in recent years by their application. However, previous studies have generally focused on the early and middle stages of diesel combustion. These previous laser-imaging studies do provide important insight into the soot formation and oxidation processes during the main combustion event. They indicate that prior to the end of injection, soot formation is initiated by fuel-rich premixed combustion (equivalence ratio > 4) near the upstream limit of the luminous portion of the reacting fuel jet. The soot is then oxidized at the diffusion flame around the periphery of the luminous plume. Under typical diesel engine conditions, the diffusion flame does not burn the remaining fuel and soot as rapidly as it is supplied, resulting in an expanding region of rich combustion products and soot. This is evident in natural emission images by the increasing size of the luminous soot cloud prior to the end of injection. Hence, the amount of soot in the combustion chamber typically increases until shortly after the end of fuel injection, at which time the main soot formation period ends and the burnout phase begins. Sampling valve and two-color pyrometry data indicate that the vast majority (more than 90%) of the soot formed is oxidized before combustion ends; however, it is generally thought that a small fraction of this soot from the main combustion zones is not consumed and is the source of tail pipe soot emissions.

  20. [Preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and exhausts emission characteristics in diesel engine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runduo; He, Hong; Zhang, Changbin; Shi, Xiaoyan

    2003-07-01

    The technology that diesel oil is partly substituted by ethanol can reduce diesel engine exhausts emission, especially fuel soot. This research is concentrated on preparation of ethanol-diesel blend fuel and exhausts emission characteristics using diesel engine bench. Absolute ethanol can dissolve into diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio. However, a trace of water (0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. Organic additive synthesized during this research can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The effects of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends on exhausts emission, were compared with that of diesel fuel in direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The optimum ethanol percentage for ethanol-diesel fuel blends was 20%. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with 2% additive of the total volume, bench diesel engine showed a large amount decrease of exhaust gas, e.g. 55% of Bosch smoke number, 70% of HC emission, and 45% of CO emission at 13 kW and 1540 r/min. Without the addition of additive, the blend of ethanol produced new organic compounds such as ethanol and acetaldehyde in tail gas. However, the addition of additive obviously reduced the emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  1. Pooled effect of injection pressure and turbulence inducer piston on performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine powered with biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani, J; Parthasarathy, M; Dhinesh, B; Annamalai, K

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the effect of injection pressure on combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine powered with turbulence inducer piston was studied. Engine tests were executed using conventional diesel and 20% blend of adelfa biodiesel [A20]. The results acquired from renewable fuel A20 in the conventional engine showed reduction in brake thermal efficiency being the result of poor air fuel mixing characteristics and the higher viscosity of the tested fuel. This prompted further research aiming at the improvement of turbulence for better air fuel mixing by a novel turbulence inducer piston [TIP]. The investigation was carried out to study the combined effect of injection pressure and turbulence inducer piston. Considerable improvement in the emission characteristics like hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, smoke was acheived as a result of optimised injection pressure. Nevertheless, the nitrogen oxide emissions were slightly higher than those of the conventional unmodified engine. The engine with turbulence inducer piston shows the scope for reducing the major pollution and thus ensures environmental safety.

  2. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine with COME-Triacetin additive blends as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkateswara Rao, B. V. Appa Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Triacetin [C9H14O6] additive is used an anti-knocking agent along with the bio-diesel in DI- diesel engine. In the usage of diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel knocking can be detected to some extent. The T- additive usage in the engine suppressed knocking, improved the performance and reduced tail pipe emissions. Comparative study is conducted using petro-diesel, bio-diesel, and with various additive blends of bio-diesel on DI- diesel engine. Coconut oil methyl ester (COME is used with additive Triacetin (T at various percentages by volume for all loads (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load. The performance of engine is compared with neat diesel in respect of engine efficiency, exhaust emissions and combustion knock. Of the five Triacetin- biodiesel blends tried, 10% Triacetin combination with biodiesel proved encouraging in all respects of performance of the engine.

  3. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine with COME-Triacetin additive blends as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswara Rao, P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, K I T S, Warangal- 506015, A. P. (India); Appa Rao, B.V. [Dept. of Marine Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, A. P. (India)

    2012-07-01

    The Triacetin [C9H14O6] additive is used an anti-knocking agent along with the bio-diesel in DI- diesel engine. In the usage of diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel knocking can be detected to some extent. The T- additive usage in the engine suppressed knocking, improved the performance and reduced tail pipe emissions. Comparative study is conducted using petro-diesel, bio-diesel, and with various additive blends of bio-diesel on DI- diesel engine. Coconut oil methyl ester (COME) is used with additive Triacetin (T) at various percentages by volume for all loads (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load). The performance of engine is compared with neat diesel in respect of engine efficiency, exhaust emissions and combustion knock. Of the five Triacetin- biodiesel blends tried, 10% Triacetin combination with biodiesel proved encouraging in all respects of performance of the engine.

  4. 3d Simulation of Di Diesel Combustion and Pollutant Formation Using a Two-Component Reference Fuel Simulation 3D de la combustion et de la formation des polluants dans un moteur Diesel à injection directe en utilisant un carburant de référence à deux composants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barths H.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By separating the fluid dynamic calculation from that of the chemistry, the unsteady flamelet model allows the use of comprehensive chemical mechanisms, which include several hundred reactions. This is necessary to describe the different processes that occur in a DI Diesel engine such as autoignition, the burnout in the partially premixed phase, the transition to diffusive burning, and formation of pollutants like NOx and soot. The highly nonlinear reaction rates need not to be simplified, and the complete structure of the combustion process is preserved. Using the Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF model, the one-dimensional unsteady set of partial differential equations is solved online with the 3D CFD code. The flamelet solution is coupled to the flow and mixture field by several time dependent parameters (enthalpy, pressure, scalar dissipation rate. In return, the flamelet code yields the species concentrations, which are then used by the 3D CFD code to compute the temperature field and the density. The density is needed in the 3D CFD code for the solution of the turbulent flow and mixture field. Pollutant formation in a Volkswagen DI 1900 Diesel engine is investigated experimentally. The engine is fueled with Diesel and two reference fuels. One reference fuel is pure n-decane. The second is a two-component fuel consisting of 70% (liquid volume n-decane and of 30% (liquid volume alpha-methylnaphthalene (Idea-fuel. The experimental results show good agreement for the whole combustion cycle (ignition delay, maximum pressures, torque and pollutant formation between the two-component reference fuel and Diesel. The simulations are performed for both reference fuels and are compared to the experimental data. Nine different flamelet calculations are performed for each simulation to account for the variability of the scalar dissipation rate, and its effect on ignition is discussed. Pollutant formation (NOx and soot is predicted for both

  5. Effect of upgraded diesel fuels and oxidation catalysts on emission properties, especially PAH and genotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Keld; Gabrielsson, Pär; Stavnsbjerg, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Test samples of two different “advanced” diesel fuels were prepared from the raw diesel of North Sea Light Gas Oil. A commercial “Ultralight” diesel fuel was used as a reference. The three fuels were tested on two engines with and without an oxidation catalyst: 1) a VOLVO 10.0 1 DI was mounted in...

  6. Analysis of Oxygenated Component (butyl Ether) and Egr Effect on a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Potential possibility of the butyl ether (BE, oxygenates of di-ether group) was analyzed as an additives for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine fuel. Engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed by applying the commercial diesel fuel and oxygenates additives blended diesel fuels. Smoke emission decreased approximately 26% by applying the blended fuel (diesel fuel 80 vol-% + BE 20vol-%) at the engine speed of 25,000 rpm and with full engine load compared to the diesel fuel. There was none significant difference between the blended fuel and the diesel fuel on the power, torque, and brake specific energy consumption rate of the diesel engine. But, NOx emission from the blended fuel was higher than the commercial diesel fuel. As a counter plan, the EGR method was employed to reduce the NOx. Simultaneous reduction of the smoke and the NOx emission from the diesel engine was achieved by applying the BE blended fuel and the cooled EGR method.

  7. Diesel engine technology `98. Status and trends; Dieselmotorentechnik 98. Aktueller Stand und Entwicklungstendenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essers, U. [ed.] [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    This book reviews important aspects of modern diesel engines. Renowned university scientists and competent experts from the car and components industry present trends in diesel engineering. The current state of the art is outlined, and the potential and solutions for future requirements are outlined. Contents: Direct injection in diesel engines - radial piston injection pumps for modern diesel engines in passenger cars - common rail injection - electronic control of diesel engines - supercharging of diesel engines - direct-injection diesel engines with supercharger - aldehyde emissions of diesel engines - exhaust regulations for industrial vehicles - combustion diagnosis in diesel engines - soot formation - direct-injection diesel engines and spark ignition engines - trends in passenger car development. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Band beleuchtet wichtige Aspekte der modernen Dieselmotoren. Namhafte Wissenschaftler von verschiedenen Hochschulen und kompetente Fachexperten aus der Fahrzeug- und Zubehoerindustrie berichten ueber Entwicklungstendenzen auf dem Gebiet der Dieselmotorentechnik. Der aktuelle Stand der Entwicklung wird aufgezeigt. Potential und Loesungsansaetze fuer kuenftige Anforderungen werden diskutiert. Inhalt: Direkteinspritzung bei Dieselmotoren - Radialkolben-Verteilereinspritzpumpen fuer moderne Pkw-DI-Dieselmotoren - Common Rail-Einspritzung - Elektronische Dieselregelung - Aufladung von Dieselmotoren - Pkw-DI-Dieselmotor mit VTG-Lader - Aldehydemission von Dieselmotoren - Abgasgesetzgebung fuer Nfz-Dieselmotoren - Verbrennungsdiagnostik im Dieselmotor - Russbildung - DI-Dieselmotor und DI-Ottomotor - Wohin geht die PkW-Motorentwicklung? (orig.)

  8. Preparation and emission characteristics of ethanol-diesel fuel blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Run-duo; HE Hong; SHI Xiao-yan; ZHANG Chang-bin; HE Bang-quan; WANG Jian-xin

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and their emission characteristics were investigated. Results showed the absolute ethanol can dissolve in diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio and a small quantity of water(0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. An organic additive was synthesized and it can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The emission characteristics of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends, with or without additives, were compared with those of diesel fuel in a direct injection(DI) diesel engine. The experimental results indicated that the blend of ethanol with diesel fuel significantly reduced the concentrations of smoke, hydrocarbon(HC), and carbon monoxide(CO) in exhaust gas. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with the additive of 2% of the total volume, the optimum mixing ratio was achieved, at which the bench diesel engine testing showed a significant decrease in exhaust gas. Bosch smoke number was reduced by 55%, HC emission by 70%, and CO emission by 45%, at 13 kW/1540 r/min. However, ethanol-diesel fuel blends produced a few ppm acetaldehydes and more ethanol in exhaust gas.

  9. Effects of fuel properties and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions; Keiyu seijo oyobi sanka shokubai no diesel haishutsu gas eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S.; Morihisa, H.; Tamanouchi, M.; Araki, H.; Yamada, S. [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Effects of fuel properties (T90 and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAH) and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions were studied using three DI diesel engines and two diesel passenger cars. (IDI engine) PM emissions were found to increase as T90 and PAH increased and could be decreased considerably for each fuel if an oxidation catalyst was installed. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  11. DI Diesel Performance and Emissions Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    homogeneous charge compression ignition or HCCI . The use of HCCI as a distinct, controlled engine operating mode was suggested over twenty years...ago by Onishi et al. (1979) and Noguchi et al. (1979) for use in two-stroke gasoline engines . Initial studies using HCCI in four-stroke engines were...depending on the operating conditions. Engines operated in HCCI mode have the potential to provide better fuel economy and emissions than

  12. Performance Test of Engine Fuelled With Diesel and Ethanol Blends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K.L.Murthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (ICengines. As an alternative, biodegradable and renewable fuel, ethanol is receiving increasing attention. An experimental investigation on the application of the blends of ethanol with diesel to a diesel engine was carried out. First the solubility of ethanol and diesel was conducted with and without the additive of normal butanol (n-butanol. The purpose of this project is to find the optimum percentage of ethanol that gives simultaneously better performance and lower emissions. The experiments were conducted on a water-cooled single-cylinder Direct Injection (DI diesel engine using 0% (neat diesel fuel, 10% (E10-D, 15%(E15–D, 20% (E20–D, and 25%(E25–D ethanol–diesel blended fuels. Experimental tests were carried out to study the performance of the engine fuelled with the blends compared with those fuelled by diesel. The test results show that it is feasible and applicable for the blends with n-butanol to replace pure diesel as the fuel for diesel engine.

  13. Diesel emissions in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, H.; Kreiner, I.; Norek, C.; Preining, O.; Georgi, B.

    The aerosol in a non-industrial town normally is dominated by emissions from vehicles. Whereas gasoline-powered cars normally only emit a small amount of particulates, the emission by diesel-powered cars is considerable. The aerosol particles produced by diesel engines consist of graphitic carbon (GC) with attached hydrocarbons (HCs) including also polyaromatic HCs. Therefore the diesel particles can be carcinogenic. Besides diesel vehicles, all other combustion processes are also a source for GC; thus source apportionment of diesel emissions to the GC in the town is difficult. A direct apportionment of diesel emissions has been made possible by marking all the diesel fuel used by the vehicles in Vienna by a normally not occurring and easily detectable substance. All emitted diesel particles thus were marked with the tracer and by analyzing the atmospheric samples for the marking substance we found that the mass concentrations of diesel particles in the atmosphere varied between 5 and 23 μg m -3. Busy streets and calm residential areas show less difference in mass concentration than expected. The deposition of diesel particles on the ground has been determined by collecting samples from the road surface. The concentration of the marking substance was below the detection limit before the marking period and a year after the period. During the period when marked diesel fuel was used, the concentrations of the diesel particles settling to the ground was 0.012-0.07 g g -1 of collected dust. A positive correlation between the diesel vehicle density and the sampled mass of diesel vehicles exists. In Vienna we have a background diesel particle concentration of 11 μg m -3. This value increases by 5.5 μg m -3 per 500 diesel vehicles h -1 passing near the sampling location. The mass fraction of diesel particles of the total aerosol mass varied between 12.2 and 33%; the higher values were found in more remote areas, since diesel particles apparently diffuse easily

  14. Multiple Estimation Architecture in Discrete-Time Adaptive Mixing Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Baldi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive mixing control (AMC is a recently developed control scheme for uncertain plants, where the control action coming from a bank of precomputed controller is mixed based on the parameter estimates generated by an on-line parameter estimator. Even if the stability of the control scheme, also in the presence of modeling errors and disturbances, has been shown analytically, its transient performance might be sensitive to the initial conditions of the parameter estimator. In particular, for some initial conditions, transient oscillations may not be acceptable in practical applications. In order to account for such a possible phenomenon and to improve the learning capability of the adaptive scheme, in this paper a new mixing architecture is developed, involving the use of parallel parameter estimators, or multi-estimators, each one working on a small subset of the uncertainty set. A supervisory logic, using performance signals based on the past and present estimation error, selects the parameter estimate to determine the mixing of the controllers. The stability and robustness properties of the resulting approach, referred to as multi-estimator adaptive mixing control (Multi-AMC, are analytically established. Besides, extensive simulations demonstrate that the scheme improves the transient performance of the original AMC with a single estimator. The control scheme and the analysis are carried out in a discrete-time framework, for easier implementation of the method in digital control.

  15. A Mixing Based Model for DME Combustion in Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek, Bjarne H.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    A series of studies has been conducted investigating the behavior of di-methyl ether (DME) fuel jets injected into quiescent combus-tion chambers. These studies have shown that it is possible to make a good estimate of the penetration of the jet based on existing correlations for diesel fuel...

  16. A mixing based model for DME combustion in diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek, Bjarne Hjort; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2001-01-01

    A series of studies has been conducted investigating the behavior of di-methyl ether (DME) fuel jets injected into quiescent combustion chambers. These studies have shown that it is possible to make a good estimate of the penetration of the jet based on existing correlations for diesel fuel...

  17. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  18. Natural gas in a D. I. diesel engine. A comparison of two different ways. [Direct injection diesel enginer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun-ming, Qu; Sorenson, S.C.; Kofoed, E.

    1987-01-01

    A D.I. diesel engine was modified for natural gas operation with pilot injection and with spark ignition so that a comparative analysis of these two different ways of using natural gas could be made. The results of the experiments indicate that for a diesel engine, it is possible that the operating characteristics of a straight natural gas engine are comparable with those of a diesel/gas engine at the same compression ratio and speed. For a dual fuel engine with pilot injection the best diesel/gas ratio by energy content is approximately 20/80 at full load operation. For straight natural gas engine with spark ignition, quality governed natural gas operation has good efficiency but poor NOx emissions. This problem could be improved through throttle controlled operation. These two different ways of using natural gas are best suited to stationary engines.

  19. Performance Characteristics and Analysis of 4-Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Blend With 50% of Honne Oil at Various Fuel Injection Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhaskar Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In future demand for fossil fuels and environmental effects, a number of renewable sources of energy have been studied in worldwide. An attempt is made to apt of vegetable oil for diesel engine operation, without any change in its old construction. One of the important factors which influence the performance and emission characteristics of D.I diesel engine is fuel injection pressure. In this project honne oil has to be investigated in a constant speed, on D.I diesel engine with different fuel injection pressures. The scope of the project is to investigate the effect of injection pressures on a blend of 50% honne oil with 50% diesel and compare with pure diesel on performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. Two tested fuels were used during experiments like 100 % diesel and a blend of 50% honne oil mixing in the diesel. The performance tests were conducted at constant speed with variable loads. From experiment results it was found that with honne oil- diesel blend the performance of the engine is better compared with diesel. The break thermal efficiency and mechanical efficiencies were found to be maximum at 200 bar injection pressure with both honne oil- diesel blend, compared with 180 bar and 220 bar. The brake specific fuel consumption was to be minimum at 220bar compared with 180 bar and 200 bar. Hydro carbon emissions of honne oil-diesel operation were less than the diesel fuel mode at all fuel injection pressures.

  20. Hybrid multiscale simulation of a mixing-controlled reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Agarwal, Khushbu; Chase, Jared M.; Yang, Xiaofan; Palmer, Bruce J.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Redden, George D.

    2015-09-01

    Continuum-scale models have been used to study subsurface flow, transport, and reactions for many years but lack the capability to resolve fine-grained processes. Recently, pore-scale models, which operate at scales of individual soil grains, have been developed to more accurately model and study pore-scale phenomena, such as mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions, microbially-mediated surface reactions, and other complex processes. However, these highly-resolved models are prohibitively expensive for modeling domains of sizes relevant to practical problems. To broaden the utility of pore-scale models for larger domains, we developed a hybrid multiscale model that initially simulates the full domain at the continuum scale and applies a pore-scale model only to areas of high reactivity. Since the location and number of pore-scale model regions in the model varies as the reactions proceed, an adaptive script defines the number and location of pore regions within each continuum iteration and initializes pore-scale simulations from macroscale information. Another script communicates information from the pore-scale simulation results back to the continuum scale. These components provide loose coupling between the pore- and continuum-scale codes into a single hybrid multiscale model implemented within the SWIFT workflow environment. In this paper, we consider an irreversible homogenous bimolecular reaction (two solutes reacting to form a third solute) in a 2D test problem. This paper is focused on the approach used for multiscale coupling between pore- and continuum-scale models, application to a realistic test problem, and implications of the results for predictive simulation of mixing-controlled reactions in porous media. Our results and analysis demonstrate that loose coupling provides a feasible, efficient and scalable approach for multiscale subsurface simulations.

  1. Development of a quasidimensional multizone model for optimisation of the emission characteristics and fuel consumption of DI diesel engines. Final report; Entwicklung eines quasidimensionalen Mehrzonen-Modells zur Optimierung des Emissionsverhaltens und des Kraftstoffverbrauchs direkteinspritzender Dieselmotoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiesch, G.; Merker, G.P.

    2000-09-01

    The focus in modern diesel engines is on low fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Computer modelling serves to reduce costly and time-consuming experiments. Models should have a valid physical basis and use only a few empirical equations in order to make it more generally valid than existing models. [German] Bei der Entwicklung moderner Dieselmotoren liegen Schwerpunkte gleichzeitig auf der Reduzierung des Kraftstoffverbrauches und auf der Reduzierung der Schadstoffemissionen. Rechenmodelle, die beide Groessen zuverlaessig berechnen koennen, tragen dazu bei, die Anzahl von zeit- und kostenintensiven experimentellen Untersuchungen zu reduzieren, und fuehren so zu einer schnelleren Entwicklung von schadstoffarmen und verbrauchsguenstigen Motoren. Das zu entwickelnde Modell soll auf einer abgesicherten physikalischen Basis stehen und mit moeglichst wenigen empirischen Gleichungen auskommen, so dass eine wesentlich verbesserte Allgemeingueltigkeit gegenueber existierenden Modellen erreicht wird. (orig.)

  2. Optimal design and plantwide control of novel processes for di-n-pentyl ether production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildea, Costin Sorin; Gyorgy, Romuald; Sánchez-Ramírez, Eduardo; Quiroz-Ramírez, Juan José; Segovia-Hernandez, Juan Gabriel; Kiss, Anton A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Di-n-pentyl ether (DNPE) is a good candidate for diesel fuel formulations due to its blending cetane number, good cold flow properties and effectiveness in reducing diesel exhaust emissions, particulates and smokes. However, novel processes are required in order to drive the production

  3. Diseño de un sistema de diagnóstico para la instalación motriz diésel de los carros de transporte en explotación; Design of Diagnosis System for the Installation Motive Diesel of the Cars of Transport in Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis García Abreu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolla la metodología propuesta para el diagnóstico integral en el diseño de un sistema de diagnósticopara las instalaciones motrices diésel de los vehículos en explotación con la finalidad de conocer el estado ocondición de las mismas. De especial interés resulta la obtención del período de muestreo a partir de elementosde riesgo. Es de destacar que este artículo viene precedido por otro sobre la caracterización del sistema actualde diagnóstico establecido para ellas.  In the following work the authors develop the methodology proposed by the Integral diagnosis in the design of adiagnosis system for the installation motive diesel of the vehicles in exploitation with the purpose of knowing thestate or condition of the same ones. Of special interest it is the obtaining their period of sampling starting fromelements of risk. It is of to highlight that this article comes preceded by another envelope the characterization ofthe current system of diagnosis settled down in them.

  4. Termofluidodinamica di un Getto di Litio

    OpenAIRE

    Nitti, Francesco Saverio

    2010-01-01

    Calcolo della superficie curvilinea di scorrimento di un getto di litio in maniera che la pressione lungo il getto vari in maniera lineare. Formulazione di un codice di calcolo per la determinazione delle diverse possibili superfici. Studio termofluidodinamico del getto con codici CFD. Accoppiamento tra codici di sistema e codici CFD. Valutazioni delle condizioni di Incipient Boiling per il litio.

  5. Diesel fuel stability; Estabilidade de oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marcelo V.; Pinto, Ricardo R.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zotin, Fatima M.Z. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The demand for the reduction of the pollutants emissions by diesel engines has led to the adoption of more advanced injection systems and concern about fuel stability. The degradation of the diesel fuel can happen during storage and distribution, according to the acid-catalysed condensation of aromatic compounds such phenalenones and indolic nitrogenated heterocyclic compounds. These precursors appear in several streams used in diesel fuel formulation. In this study the sediment formation in model and real, aromatic and paraffinic fuels, containing such precursors naturally or by addition was analysed. The fuels were submitted to accelerated (16 hours at 90 deg C) and long term (13 weeks at 43 deg C) storage stability tests. The model fuels responded positively to the storage stability tests with formation of sediments, concluding that these methods can be considered adequate to verify the occurrence of the studied degradation process. The real fuels response was even more due to their chemical complexity, composition and impurities. The formation of sediments showed to be affected by the hydrocarbon distribution of the fuels. (author)

  6. Combustion Characteristics and Heat Release Analysis of a DI Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Diesel-Dimethyl Carbonate Blends%直喷压燃式发动机燃用柴油/碳酸二甲酯的燃烧特性和放热过程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佐华; 蒋德明; 曾科; 刘兵; 杨中乐

    2003-01-01

    Investigation on combustion characteristics and heat release analysis of a DI compression ignition engine fueled with diesel-dimethyl carbonate (DMC)blends were carried out on a compression ignition engine.The study shows that the premixed combustion is prolonged and the duration of the diffusive combustion is shortened with the increase of DMC addition.For a specific brake mean effective pressure(BMEP),the maximum cylinder gas pressure,the maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum rate of heat release increase with the increase of DMC addition at the middle and high loads while they remains less variation with DMC addition at the small load.The ignition delay increases while the rapid combustion duration and the total combustion duration show less variation with DMC addition.Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increases while diesel equivalent BSFC decreases and thermal efficiency increase with the increase of DMC addition.CO and smoke decrease with increase of DMC addition,and NOx does not increase with the increase of DMC.%在一台直喷式发动机上开展了燃用柴油/碳酸二甲酯混合燃料的燃烧特性与放热过程研究.结果表明,随碳酸二甲酯含量的增加,预混燃烧推迟,扩散燃烧期缩短.在中高负荷区,相同平均有效压力下,缸内最高压力、最高压力升高率和最大放热率随碳酸二甲酯含量的增加而增加,而在低负荷区基本上不随碳酸二甲酯含量的增加而改变.着火滞燃期随碳酸二甲酯含量的增加而增加,而快速燃烧期和燃烧持续期不随碳酸二甲酯含量的变化而改变.随碳酸二甲酯含量的增加,燃油消耗率增加,等热值燃油消耗率降低.CO和烟度随碳酸二甲酯含量的增加而降低,NOx随碳酸二甲酯含量的变化,但变化不大.

  7. Mastering the diesel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antila, E.; Kaario, O.; Lahtinen, T. (and others)

    2004-07-01

    This is the final report of the research project 'Mastering the Diesel Process'. The project has been a joint research effort of the Helsinki University of Technology, the Tampere University of Technology, the Technical Research Centre of Finland, and the Aabo Akademi University. Moreover, the contribution of the Michigan Technological University has been important. The project 'Mastering the Diesel Process' has been a computational research project on the physical phenomena of diesel combustion. The theoretical basis of the project lies on computational fluid dynamics. Various submodels for computational fluid dynamics have been developed or tested within engine simulation. Various model combinations in three diesel engines of different sizes have been studied. The most important submodels comprise fuel spray drop breakup, fuel evaporation, gas-fuel interaction in the spray, mixing model of combustion, heat transfer, emission mechanisms. The boundary conditions and flow field modelling have been studied, as well. The main simulation tool have been Star-CD. KIVA code have been used in the model development, as well. By the help of simulation, we are able to investigate the effect of various design parameters or operational parameters on diesel combustion and emission formation. (orig.)

  8. New injector for controllable transient spray characteristics in DI diesel engine. 2nd report. ; Controllability of injection rate and penetration characteristics of new pilot injector. Diesel funmu no katoteki seigyo wo mokuteki to shita inzekuta ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. ; Nozuru kaiben'atsu kahengata pilot inzekuta ni yoru funsharitsu seigyo to penetoreshon tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizu, F. (Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-04-25

    The author of this report has studied a spray control system which can make the transient control of spray in the direct injection diesel engine, and has designed and test-manufactured a variable nozzle injection valve opening pressure pilot injector. In this report, in order to obtain the basic data necessary for designing the above new type pilot injector, the effect of the operating condition of the pump on the control of injection rate has been evaluated using a conventional asymmetrical nozzle. Also in the operational condition at which the pilot injection has been obtained, the effect of the seat diameter and lift of the Dodge plunger on the injection rate and the penetration characteristics of the pilot injector has been elucidated. Part of the obtained knowledge is as follows; the injection quantity and separation can be maintained at almost constant values against the variation of the injection quantity, but against the rotating speed of the pump, they depend on the selection of the seat diameter of the Dodge plunger. By changing the above seat diameter and lifting amount, the above injection quantity and separation can be controlled. 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Laser diagnosis and plasma technology: Fundamentals for reduction of emissions and fuel consumption in DI internal combustion engines. Sub-project: Purification of diesel exhaust in pulsed plasma. Final report; Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Teilvorhaben: Reinigung von Dieselabgasen in gepulsten Plasmen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Birckigt, R.

    2000-12-01

    Selective catalytic reduction using ammonia based reducing agents is known to reduce the NOx-emissions from Diesel cars. However, it does not work efficiently under cold starting and urban driving conditions, because efficient reduction requires catalyst temperatures above 170 C. Without additional measures, pulsed plasma treatment does not cause reduction but mainly oxidation of nitric oxides preferably emitted as NO. By the combination of pulsed DBD-plasma treatment with selective catalytic reduction efficient NOx-reduction was obtained at catalyst temperatures below 170 C. It could be shown, that this low temperature reduction is a synergistic effect caused by plasma induced oxidation of some fraction of the NO. Based on this knowledge of the reaction mechanism plasma- and SCR-reactors were built, which were tested on a test bench equipped with a modern cars Diesel engine. Under cold starting and urban driving conditions by application of average plasma powers below 300 W the NOx-emissions were reduced for about 60%, the maximum degree of NOx-reduction was 85%. The plasma induced removal of hydrocarbons and particles, as well as the formation of by-products and the influence of hydrocarbons on the plasma induced selective catalytic reduction processes were investigated. No disadvantageous by-products could be found. (orig.) [German] Die selektive katalytische Reduktion mit Ammoniak als Reduktionsmittel ist ein bekanntes Verfahren zur Reduktion der Stickoxidemissionen von Diesel-Pkw, arbeitet aber erst ab Katalysatortemperaturen oberhalb 170 C und ist damit unter Kaltstart- und Stadtverkehrsbedingungen wenig wirksam. Gepulste Plasmen bewirken ohne zusaetzliche Massnahmen keine ausreichende chemische Reduktion sondern ueberwiegend Oxidation der als NO emittierten Stickoxide. Durch Kombination von DBE-Plasmen mit der selektiven katalytischen Reduktion hingegen konnte auch bei Katalysatortemperaturen unter 170 C wirkungsvolle NOx-Reduktion erzielt werden. Es konnte

  10. Attempts to minimize nitrogen oxide emission from diesel engine by using antioxidant-treated diesel-biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedul, Hasan Khondakar; Kalam, Md Abdul; Masjuki, Haji Hassan; Teoh, Yew Heng; How, Heoy Geok; Monirul, Islam Mohammad; Imdadul, Hassan Kazi

    2017-02-23

    The study represents a comprehensive analysis of engine exhaust emission variation from a compression ignition (CI) diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel blends. Biodiesel used in this investigation was produced through transesterification procedure from Moringa oleifera oil. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, naturally aspirated diesel engine was used for this purpose. The pollutants from the exhaust of the engine that are monitored in this study are nitrogen oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and smoke opacity. Engine combustion and performance parameters are also measured together with exhaust emission data. Some researchers have reported that the reason for higher NO emission of biodiesel is higher prompt NO formation. The use of antioxidant-treated biodiesel in a diesel engine is a promising approach because antioxidants reduce the formation of free radicals, which are responsible for the formation of prompt NO during combustion. Two different antioxidant additives namely 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol) (MBEBP) were individually dissolved at a concentration of 1% by volume in MB30 (30% moringa biodiesel with 70% diesel) fuel blend to investigate and compare NO as well as other emissions. The result shows that both antioxidants reduced NO emission significantly; however, HC, CO, and smoke were found slightly higher compared to pure biodiesel blends, but not more than the baseline fuel diesel. The result also shows that both antioxidants were quite effective in reducing peak heat release rate (HRR) and brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) as well as improving brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and oxidation stability. Based on this study, antioxidant-treated M. oleifera biodiesel blend (MB30) can be used as a very promising alternative source of fuel in diesel engine without any modifications.

  11. Diesel sisustab / Jenni Juurinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurinen, Jenni

    2007-01-01

    Renzo Rosso poolt 1978. a. Itaalias asutatud rõivafirma Diesel sisustas 2007. a. kevadel Stay Inn-projekti raames katusekorteri Helsingi kesklinnas. Diesili kujundaja Vesa Kemppainen. Sisustuses on kasutatud peamiselt soome mööblit ja seintel eksponeeritud soome noorte kunstnike taieseid. Autoreid: Harri Koskinen (voodi), Thomas Pedersen (Stingrey kiiktool), Jenni Hiltunen (maalid)

  12. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  13. Diesel sisustab / Jenni Juurinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurinen, Jenni

    2007-01-01

    Renzo Rosso poolt 1978. a. Itaalias asutatud rõivafirma Diesel sisustas 2007. a. kevadel Stay Inn-projekti raames katusekorteri Helsingi kesklinnas. Diesili kujundaja Vesa Kemppainen. Sisustuses on kasutatud peamiselt soome mööblit ja seintel eksponeeritud soome noorte kunstnike taieseid. Autoreid: Harri Koskinen (voodi), Thomas Pedersen (Stingrey kiiktool), Jenni Hiltunen (maalid)

  14. Investigation of palm methyl-ester bio-diesel with additive on performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine under 8-mode testing cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Senthilkumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is receiving increasing attention each passing day because of its same diesel-like fuel properties and compatibility with petroleum-based diesel fueled engines. Therefore, in this paper the prospects and opportunities of using various blends of methyl esters of palm oil as fuel in an engine with and without the effect of multi-functional fuel additive (MFA, Multi DM 32 are studied to arrive at an optimum blend of bio-diesel best suited for low emissions and minimal power drop. Experimental tests were conducted on a four stroke, three cylinder and naturally aspirated D.I. Diesel engine with diesel and various blend percentages of 20%, 40%, 45%, and 50% under the 8 mode testing cycle. The effect of fuel additive was tested out on the optimum blend ratio of the bio-diesel so as to achieve further reduced emissions. Comparison of results shows that, 73% reduction in hydrocarbon emission, 46% reduction in carbon monoxide emission, and around 1% reduction in carbon dioxide emission characteristics. So it is observed that the blend ratio of 40% bio-diesel with MFA fuel additive creates reduced emission and minimal power drop due to effective combustion even when the calorific value is comparatively lower due to its higher cetane number.

  15. Experimental validation of extended NO and soot model for advanced HD diesel engine combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.L.J.; Baert, R.S.G.; Somers, L.M.T.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2009-01-01

    A computationally efficient engine model is developed based on an extended NO emission model and state-of-the-art soot model. The model predicts exhaust NO and soot emission for both conventional and advanced, high-EGR (up to 50%), heavy-duty DI diesel combustion. Modeling activities have aimed at l

  16. Cyclic oxygenates: a new class of second-generation biofuels for diesel engines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, M.; Frijters, P.; Luijten, C.; Somers, B.; Baert, R.S.G.; Donkerbroek, A.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Dam, N.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion behavior of various oxygenated fuels has been studied in a DAF heavy-duty (HD) directinjection (DI) diesel engine. From these fuels, it is well-known that they lead to lower particle (PM) emissions; however, for a given fuel oxygen mass fraction, there are significant differences in PM

  17. Cyclic oxygenates: a new class of second-generation biofuels for diesel engines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, M.; Frijters, P.; Luijten, C.; Somers, B.; Baert, R.S.G.; Donkerbroek, A.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Dam, N.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion behavior of various oxygenated fuels has been studied in a DAF heavy-duty (HD) directinjection (DI) diesel engine. From these fuels, it is well-known that they lead to lower particle (PM) emissions; however, for a given fuel oxygen mass fraction, there are significant differences in PM re

  18. Self-ignition of diesel spray combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuchakallaya, Isares; Watkins, A. P.

    2009-10-01

    This work presents the development and implementation of auto-ignition modelling for DI diesel engines by using the probability density function-eddy break-up (PDF-EBU) model. The key concept of this approach is to combine the chemical reaction rate dealing with low-temperature mode, and the turbulence reaction rate governing the high-temperature part by a reaction progress variable coupling function which represents the level of reaction. The average reaction rate here is evaluated by a PDF averaging approach. In order to assess the potential of this developed model, the well-known Shell ignition model is chosen to compare in auto-ignition analysis. In comparison, the PDF-EBU ignition model yields the ignition delay time in good agreement with the Shell ignition model prediction. However, the ignition kernel location predicted by the Shell model is slightly nearer injector than that by the PDF-EBU model leading to shorter lift-off length. As a result, the PDF-EBU ignition model developed here are fairly satisfactory in predicting the auto-ignition of diesel engines with the Shell ignition model.

  19. High pressure air spray assistant power supply control strategies and their effects on diesel engine under transient operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yongqiang; LIU Zhongchang; WANG Zhongshu; ZHU Ruoqun

    2007-01-01

    In order to reduce smoke from direct-injection (DI) turbo-charged and after-cooled (TCA) diesel engines under transient operations,the real-time controlling and measuring system of a high pressure air spray assistant power supply (HPAS) was developed.Effects of HPAS on a DI TCA diesel engine under constant engine speed and increased torque (CSIT) transient operations were studied by using different control strategies.Pre-spray (PS) strategy,which means supplying highly pressurized air into the exhaust manifold two seconds before the accelerating-graph begins to rise and stopping spraying air when the acceleratinggraph stops rising.Two other strategies-full-time-spray(FTS) and middle-time-spray (MTS)-were used to fully exploit HPAS potential.With the FTS and MTS strategies,the HPAS system can remarkably decrease smoke from DI TCA diesel engines under transient operations.

  20. STRATEGY DETERMINATION FOR DIESEL INJECTION USING AVL ESE DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrublevskiy, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the design of research AVL FIRE ESE DIESEL environment they proposed to reduce noise and NOx emissions in the exhaust gases of the automobile diesel engine using two-stage injection. The parameters of the fuel for idling are determined.

  1. Biodegradation of gas-to-liquids synthetic diesel, biodiesel and their blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal M.C. Albertus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Volhoubare en hernubare alternatiewe vir petroleumbrandstowwe word ondersoek vanweë die toenemende aanvraag na brandstof in die vervoerbedryf. Sintetiese brandstowwe soos diesel word van natuurlike gas en steenkool geproduseer, via die Fischer-Tropschsinteseproses. Biodiesel kan ’n aantreklike alternatief vir petroleumgebaseerde diesel wees omdat die fisiese eienskappe daarvan soortgelyk is aan dié van petrodiesel en dit vervoer en gestoor kan word deur van bestaande infrastruktuur gebruik te maak. Die biodegradeerbaarheid van sintetiese diesel en biodieselmengsels is ondersoek deur van respirometrie gebruik te maak. Die doel was om vas te stel of biodiesel die biodegradeerbaarheid van die mengsels kan bevorder in vergelyking met sintetiese petrodiesel. Bykomend is ’n model ontwikkel om die biodegradeerbaarheid van die diesel en diesel-/biodieselmengsels te voorspel deur benutting van die molekulȇre samestelling van die brandstowwe en die BIOWIN V.4.10, EPISuite-voorspellingsagteware. Die byvoeging van biodiesel tot sintetiese diesel het die biodegradeerbaarheid van die mengsels bevorder. Die byvoeging van minder as 1% biodiesel het die biodegraderingsklassifikasie vanaf inherent biodegradeerbaar tot geredelik biodegradeerbaar verbeter. Die byvoeging van biodiesel tot petroleumgebaseerde diesel kan gebruik word om die ontwikkeling van hernubare alternatiewe aan te moedig, aangesien die mengsels beter biodegradeer as petroleumdiesel. Die voordele van biodiesel om die remediëring van koolwaterstofkontaminasie te bevorder, is ook bevestig.

  2. Laser diagnosis and plasma technology: fundamentals for reduction of emissions and fuel consumption in DI internal combustion engines. Spray/wall-interaction under diesel engine conditions. Final report; Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Spray/Wand-Wechselwirkung bei der motorischen Einspritzung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, U.; Meingast, U.

    2001-02-01

    Spray/wall-interaction under diesel engine conditions is not yet investigated extensively in detail with high spatial resolution and high time resolution as those experiments require extremely accurate techniques. Numerical modelling to predict fluiddynamic and heat transfer processes are validated mostly under non engine conditions. The processes during spray/wall interaction under internal combustion engine conditions were investigated experimentally in an injection chamber using enhanced laser optical methods. To enable validation and development of numerical spray/wall models the data was collected under well known and reproducible conditions. Microscopic visualisation tools, Phase-Doppler Anemometry (PDA) to measure droplet diameter and velocity as well as fluorescence based film measurement technique and high speed surface thermocouples to determine the wall heat flux were used. The numerical predictions of the spray wall interaction using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) including two spray/wall models from the literature show qualitatively good agreement with the experiments. However, quantitatively some insufficiencies are observed because the models base on experiments under atmospheric conditions disregarding the influences of high pressure and high temperature. Here more detailed investigation is necessary in the future. The present results build up a comprehensive basis to validate future models and their interaction. Progress was done in using measurement techniques to investigate complex mechanisms under challenging conditions. (orig.) [German] Die Spray/Wand Wechselwirkung unter dieselmotorischen Bedingungen ist bisher nicht mit hoher Zeit- und Ortsaufloesung umfassend charakterisiert worden, weil deren Untersuchung hohe Anforderungen an die Messtechniken stellt. Numerische Modelle zur Vorhersage der Stroemungs- und Waermetransportvorgaenge sind nur teilweise unter reale Bedingungen verifiziert worden. Die Vorgaenge beim Auftreffen eines

  3. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-09-27

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs.

  4. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  5. Lezioni di fisica teorica

    CERN Document Server

    Caldirola, Piero

    Richiami di meccanica analitica ; richiami di termodinamica ; richiami di elettromagnetismo ; appunti sulla teoria della relatività ; la non validità delle teorie classiche nel mondo microscopico ; la meccanica atomica di Bohr e Sommerfeld ; I fondamenti della meccanica quantistica ; applicazioni nell'equazione di Schroedinger ; meccanica quantistica dei sistemi l'atomo di idrogeno ; particella in un campo elettrico e magnetico ; il calcolo delle perturbazioni nella teoria quantistica ; teoria dell'emissione e dell'assorbimento della luce ; sistemi di particelle identiche ; il legame chimico omopolare nella molecola di idrogeno ; la teoria di Dirac.

  6. Questioni di fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, G; Polvani, G; Wick, G

    1947-01-01

    Gli articoli contenuti in questo primo volume di Questioni di fisica, come in quelli che prossimamente seguirano, non richiedono una prefazione, ma una avvertenza. Essa si riferisce al carattere di questa raccolta che non ha, nè aspira ad avere, quei requisiti di omogeneità e di completezza che si pretendono in un trattato....

  7. Storie di genere, storie di partito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bellè

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lo studio delle narrazioni di genere all'interno di questo tipo di organizzazione desta inoltre un particolare interesse anche in ragione della sottorappresentazione delle donne nella sfera della politica. Si tratta di un deficit democratico che coinvolge i sistemi politici moderni nel loro complesso, ma che interessa l'Italia con una particolare gravità ed evidenza. La questione della sottorappresentazione politica delle donne è stata sinora affrontata prevalentemente in termini tecnico-legali (politiche di pari opportunità ed azione positiva, o di teoria politica (la dicotomia pubblico-maschile e privato-femminile come fondamento del contratto sessuale della politica. Mancano invece contributi che guardino ai partiti come organizzazioni largamente responsabili dei processi di selezione e promozione delle carriere politiche, dunque come luoghi di quotidiana produzione di pratiche e culture di genere, più o meno egualitarie o, viceversa, discriminatorie. Sulla base di tale vuoto di ricerca e riflessione, il presente articolo si propone di mettere in luce le pratiche e le culture di genere che emergono dai racconti di uomini e donne all'interno di due organizzazioni partitiche, una di destra e una di sinistra, situate nel contesto territoriale della provincia di Trento. La ricerca è stata condotta attraverso lo strumento dell'intervista semi-strutturata, coinvolgendo quattro donne e quattro uomini, divisi per coppie di età (un uomo ed una donna giovani ed un uomo ed una donna da lungo presenti nel partito, accostabili per quanto concerne ruolo e posizione nelle organizzazioni partitiche considerate. L'attenzione analitica si è concentrata sulla costruzione del genere di uomini e donne intervistati/e, intesa sia come dimensione ed esperienza individuale (le storie di genere dei/lle singoli/e, sia come dimensione organizzativa più ampia (le storie di genere delle organizzazioni, narrate dalle diverse voci. Un'ulteriore dimensione analitica

  8. Environmental Pollution Assessment of Different Diesel Injector Location Of Direct-Injection Diesel Engines: Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyad S.M. Abu-Nameh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An Analytical investigation on the effect of injector location of a four-stroke DI diesel engine on its pollutants’ emissions was carried out under different injector locations ranging from central to peripheral at different engine speeds ranging from 1000 rpm to 3000 rpm. The simulation results clearly indicated the advantages and disadvantages of the central location over the peripheral one. It revealed that near central location gave less carbon dioxide, smoke level and particulate matter on one hand, and higher levels of NOx, cylinder temperature and pressure (hence increased the mechanical and thermal stresses on the other hand. Further, near central location resulted in more rapid rate of burning and less duration of combustion and rapid rate of NOx formation per crank angle.

  9. Two-zone modeling of diesel / biodiesel blended fuel operated ceramic coated direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rajendra Prasath, P. Tamil Porai, Mohd. F. Shabir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive computer code using ”C” language was developed for compression ignition (C.I engine cycle and modified in to low heat rejection (LHR engine through wall heat transfer model. Combustion characteristics such as cylinder pressure, heat release, heat transfer and performance characteristics such as work done, specific fuel consumption (SFC and brake thermal efficiency (BTE were analysed. On the basis of first law of thermodynamics the properties at each degree crank angle was calculated. Preparation and reaction rate model was used to calculate the instantaneous heat release rate. The effect of coating on engine heat transfer was analysed using a gas-wall heat transfer calculations and total heat transfer was based on ANNAND’s combined heat transfer model. The predicted results are validated through the experiments on the test engine under identical operating conditions on a turbocharged D.I diesel engine. In this analysis 20% of biodiesel (derived from Jatropha seed oil blended with diesel was used in both conventional and LHR engine. The simulated combustion and performance characteristics are found satisfactory with the experimental results.

  10. Diesel Engine Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Kim

    Recent years have seen an increase in the wear rate of engine bearings, subsequently followed by bearing failure, for the large two-stroke diesel engines used for ship propulsion. Here, the engine bearings include main, big end and crosshead bearings, with the bearing type used being the journal...... bearing, belonging to the class of ‘hydrodynamic bearings’. This implies that the load carrying capacity is generated by a relative movement of the involved components, i.e. avelocity-driven operation. For the engine application, the velocity stems from the engine RPM. However, to comply with the latest...... emission requirements as well as attempting to minimise fuel expenses, the engine speed has been lowered together with an increase in the engine mean pressure which in terms lead to larger bearing loads. With worsened operating conditions from two sides, the encountered problems are understandable...

  11. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  12. 30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel particulate records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter Recordkeeping...

  13. Proposta di utilizzo di metodologie termografiche per il controllo di qualità di componenti meccanici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto D’Andrea

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In base all’esperienza maturata in anni di sperimentazione sull’analisi delle caratteristiche meccaniche dei materiali mediante indagine termografica, nel presente lavoro è proposta una procedura per il controllo di qualità di componenti meccanici in linea di produzione, che è già stata argomento di brevetto. Lo sviluppo di questo lavoro si colloca nell’ambito del progetto FIRB Smart Reflex “Sistemi di produzione intelligenti, flessibili e riconfigurabili”. L’attività svolta dal DIIM riguarda il controllo avanzato dell’affidabilità di componenti meccanici per l’industria automobilistica. Viene proposta, quindi, la realizzazione di una cella di controllo in linea di produzione capace di valutare la presenza di eventuali componenti difettosi attraverso l’analisi termica degli stessi, sollecitati secondo un modello predefinito. L’attività, svolta in questa prima fase in laboratorio, è facilmente trasferibile in linea di produzione, considerando la possibilità di realizzare celle di prova in ambiente controllato, con condizioni praticamente identiche a quelle di laboratorio, eliminando gli effetti di disturbo che possono influenzare la risposta dell’indagine termografica in ambiente non strutturato.

  14. Comparative Cardiopulmonary Toxicity of exhausts from Soy-Based Biofuels and Diesel in Healthy and Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased use of renewable energy sources raise concerns about health effects of new emissions. We analyzed relative cardiopulmonary health effects of exhausts from (1) 100% soy biofuel (B100), (2) 20% soy biofuel + 80% low sulfur petroleum diesel (B20), and (3) 100% petroleum di...

  15. Industrial fermentation of renewable diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Patrick J; Gardner, Timothy S

    2011-06-01

    In commodity chemicals, cost drives everything. A working class family of four drives up to the gas pumps and faces a choice of a renewable diesel or petroleum diesel. Renewable diesel costs $0.50 more per gallon. Which fuel do they pick? Petroleum diesel will be the winner every time, unless the renewable fuel can achieve cost and performance parity with petrol. Nascent producers of advanced biofuels, including Amyris, LS9, Neste and Solazyme, aim to deliver renewable diesel fuels that not only meet the cost challenge, but also exceed the storage, transport, engine performance and emissions properties of petroleum diesel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fondamenti di fisica dei plasmi

    CERN Document Server

    Golant, V E; Sacharov, I E

    1983-01-01

    Introduzione ; collisioni del plasma ; equazioni cinetiche per particelle cariche ; plasmi in equilibrio termodinamico ; funzione di distribuzione di particelle cariche in un campo elettrico ; equazioni dei momenti della funzione di distribuzione ; processi di trasporto nel plasma in assenza di campi magnetici ; moto di particelle cariche nel plasma in presenza di campi magnetici ; processi di trasporto in campo magnetico ; confinamento del plasma mediante campi magnetici.

  17. Elaborazione di un documento di programmazione aziendale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giannotta

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivo: elaborazione documento programmazione aziendale. Introduzione: nella programmazione sanitaria si possono distinguere tre livelli: pianificazione strategica, pianificazione gestionale, pianificazione operativa. Uno degli strumenti della pianificazione gestionale è il Piano Attuativo Locale (PAL, l’atto di programmazione dell’azienda sanitaria basato sugli indirizzi del Piano Sanitario Regionale (PSR e sulle esigenze della popolazione. Tuttavia, pur in assenza di PSR e PAL, l’Azienda non è esentata dal predisporre un atto di programmazione generale. In tal senso si è mossa la ASL di Latina elaborando un Documento di programmazione annuale, nel quale in attesa del PSR (emanato nel 2002 è stato dato rilievo ai principali atti di politica sanitaria emanati dalla Regione.

    Materiali e metodi: il processo si è sviluppato attraverso diverse fasi. I fase - quadro di riferimento: descrizione, per l’intera ASL ed, in modo analitico, per ogni presidio e distretto di: - strutture presenti - domanda di assistenza sanitaria ospedaliera, ambulatoriale e di riabilitazione fruita all’interno dell’Azienda e in mobilità dai residenti, - offerta di assistenza sanitaria ospedaliera, ambulatoriale e di riabilitazione, - dati e indicatori di attività, risorse, costi, ricavi, confronti con dati regionali. II fase - analisi complessiva dei dati: esame delle criticità emerse dall’analisi della domanda e dell’offerta. III fase programma annuale: individuazione degli obiettivi da raggiungere, delle azioni necessarie, delle strutture coinvolte. È stata delineata la riorganizzazione della rete ospedaliera e territoriale i cui elementi fondamentali consistono in: potenziamento degli ospedali sede di DEA, diversificazione delle attività di ospedali vicini, riconversione di strutture ospedaliere, ampliamento delle offerte territoriali, integrazione ospedale

  18. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.522 May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel...

  19. Evaluation of the impacts of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on NO(x) emissions for CARB diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbabaei, Maryam; Johnson, Kent C; Okamoto, Robert A; Mitchell, Alexander; Pullman, Marcie; Durbin, Thomas D

    2012-08-21

    The impact of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions from heavy-duty engines was investigated using a California Air Resources Board (CARB) certified diesel fuel. Two heavy-duty engines, a 2006 engine with no exhaust aftertreatment, and a 2007 engine with a diesel particle filter (DPF), were tested on an engine dynamometer over four different test cycles. Emissions from soy- and animal-based biodiesels, a hydrotreated renewable diesel, and a gas to liquid (GTL) fuel were evaluated at blend levels from 5 to 100%. NO(x) emissions consistently increased with increasing biodiesel blend level, while increasing renewable diesel and GTL blends showed NO(x) emissions reductions with blend level. NO(x) increases ranged from 1.5% to 6.9% for B20, 6.4% to 18.2% for B50, and 14.1% to 47.1% for B100. The soy-biodiesel showed higher NO(x) emissions increases compared to the animal-biodiesel. NO(x) emissions neutrality with the CARB diesel was achieved by blending GTL or renewable diesel fuels with various levels of biodiesel or by using di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP). It appears that the impact of biodiesel on NO(x) emissions might be a more important consideration when blended with CARB diesel or similar fuels, and that some form of NO(x) mitigation might be needed for biodiesel blends with such fuels.

  20. Influenza della velocità di deformazionenel carico di rottura di moschettoni in lega di alluminio e di acciaio

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatori, Francesco; Menichetti,Marco; Sergio, Celesti; Poderini, Luca; Bocchio, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Si analizzano i dati sulla deformabilità, sul lavoro alla rottura e sulla resistenza ottenuti con prove di caduta a velocità di deformazione variabile (Torre CRASC) su moschettoni in lega di alluminio e in acciaio, evidenziando come all’aumentare della velocità di deformazione le caratteristiche di resistenza diminuiscano marcatamente. Queste variazioni vengono messe in relazione ai diversi intervalli dei valori della velocità di deformazione propri della progressione ...

  1. Adiabatic turbocompound diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamo, R.; Bryzik, W.

    1984-02-01

    The research and development of an adiabatic turbocompound engine have shown that the concept is feasible. The ability to meet the performance and sociability goals of the future power plants has been demonstrated. Low brake specific fuel consumption, low smoke and particulates, better NO /SUB x/ -BSFC trade-off, excellent multifuel capability, white smoke suppression, and potentially lower maintenance and greater reliability and durability are some of the attributes. The absence of the water cooling system adds to its attractiveness because of lower installed weight, cost, and reduction in parasitic losses. The operating environment of an adiabatic engine is shown as the basis for analysis and designing of adiabatic components. The types of material which can satisfy the needs of an adiabatic engine are presented. These materials include high temperature metals, high performance ceramics, and glass ceramics. The use of a turbocompound system to utilize the increased exhaust energy of an adiabatic engine is covered. A minimum fuel consumption of 0.285 lb/bhp-hr was achieved at 200 psi BMEP. Although the technical feasibility and viability of an adiabatic engine was demonstrated, the adiabatic diesel engine has problems which must be solved before it becomes a commercially viable product. These problem areas where more work is required are discussed.

  2. OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE IN DIESEL BUS MECHANICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Diesel exposure has been associated with adverse health effects, including susceptibility to asthma, allergy and cancer. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated increased cancer incidence among workers exposed to diesel. This is likely due to oxid...

  3. The Adlard Coles book of diesel engines

    CERN Document Server

    Bartlett, Tim

    2013-01-01

    In clear, jargon-free English The Adlard Coles Book of Diesel Engines explains how a diesel engine works,and how to look after it, and takes into account developments inengine technology. Includes helpful tables and troubleshooting checklists.

  4. INFLUENCE OF SWIRL ON SPRAY CHARACTERISTICS AND COMBUSTION, A NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF A CATERPILLER DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SREENIVASULU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find the appropriate swirl ratio at which a DI diesel engine should be operated. In the process of identifying an appropriate swirl, the combustion behaviour was analysed by considering Pressure variations and Heat Release Rate variations against crank angle. The spray characteristics were also analysed by considering Penetration lengths, Sauter mean diameters, Spray cone angles against crank angle. Final conclusions were derived by considering NOx emission levels. A turbo charged DI diesel engine geometry was considered for the analysis. Proper care was taken inidentifying the range of Swirl Ratios. A 3-dimensional CFD code (RECARDO VECTIS, which is capable of solving 3-dimensional unsteady, turbulent flows, sprays and combustion of IC engines was used. In the first step CFD code was validated by comparing the obtained results with the experimental results. In the next step an attempt was made to study the influence of swirl on the spray characteristics and combustion.

  5. Fuel preheater for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossett, J.J.; Crossett, M.C.

    1987-10-13

    A unit for preheating fuel for diesel engines is described having an engine coolant system and a lubrication system utilizing a flowable lubricant. The unit comprises a housing providing a fluid-tight enclosure, a heat exchange coil positioned in and spaced above the bottom of the enclosure and having loops providing a continuous path for the flow of the fuel to be heated. The heat exchange coil has at least one foot of length for each 25 cubic inches of volume of the enclosure and a diesel fuel outlet in the housing connected to one end of the heat exchange coil, a diesel fuel outlet in the housing and connected to the other end of the heat exchange coil, an inlet in the housing for connection of the interior of the enclosure surrounding the coil to a source of a hot heat exchange medium in a diesel engine so as to provide a source of heat for heating the heat exchange coil. An outlet near the top of the housing provides for return of the heat exchange medium to a diesel engine, and spray tube means extend horizontally from the inlet for the heat exchange medium and along the bottom of the housing beneath substantially the entire length of the heat exchange coil. The means have upwardly directed openings to provide for discharge of the heat exchange medium toward the coil and agitation of the heat exchange medium in the enclosure around and over the heat exchange coil.

  6. Triangolo di pensieri

    CERN Document Server

    Connes, Alain; Schützenberger, Marcel Paul

    2001-01-01

    Le grandi scoperte scientifiche del XX secolo, come la relatività generale, la meccanica quantistica o il teorema di Godel, modificano profondamente la nostra percezione della realtà. Questo libro intende offrire a un pubblico largo, ma colto, la possibilità di superare il divario crescente fra le sottigliezze di queste modificazioni, apprezzate dai soli specialisti, e l'immagine spesso deformata che ne danno i media o le opere di divulgazione. Il libro cerca di dare delle risposte attraverso uno scambio di idee fra tre studiosi, ciascuno dei quali rappresenta un vertice del 'triangolo di pensieri'.

  7. Lezioni di Cosmologia Teorica

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Il libro è basato sulle lezioni attualmente tenute dall'autore presso l’Università di Bari, ed è progettato in modo da rappresentare un testo di riferimento il più possibile moderno, completo e autosufficiente per i corsi semestrale di Cosmologia, Astrofisica o Fisica Astroparticellare che compaiono nel piano di studi della Laurea Magistrale in Fisica e in Astronomia. Contiene gli elementi di base della cosmologia relativistica, del modello cosmologico standard e del suo completamento inflazionario. E' organizzato per servire da traccia ad un corso di cosmologia di stampo teorico, ma cerca di non perdere mai di vista il confronto con i principali risultati osservativi: molta attenzione viene infatti dedicata alla fenomenologia dei fondi cosmici, e in particolare alla  radiazione gravitazionale fossile perché la sua rivelazione, diretta o indiretta, potrebbe dare indicazioni  cruciali sulla scelta del corretto modello per l'Universo primordiale. Non mancano infine alcuni accenni ad argomenti di inter...

  8. Failure analysis in seamless pipes of St52 steel used in Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto Jesuino Belloto

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: O tubo de aço carbono com alto teor de manganês St52 (Norma DIN 1.0580) sem costura, com 8 mm de diâmetro externo e 3 mm de diâmetro interno, atualmente utilizado no sistema de combustível de motores eletrônicos a diesel com pressões de trabalho de até 1300 bar, apresentou problemas nos testes de durabilidade. O rompimento do tubo foi consequência das trincas internas originadas no processo de laminação, denominadas descontinuidades. O tubo de fabricação nacional, atualmente utilizado...

  9. Treatment of fue diesel with a permeable reactive barrier technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTIAGO ALONSO CARDONA GALLO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación estudió el tratamiento de diesel combustibles de producción mexicana contenidos en agua con un sistema de barrera reactiva permeables a escala de laboratorio (siete columnas. Se uso un suelo agrícola como medio reactivo. Se aplico peroxido de hidrógeno al 50% industrial como fuente de oxigeno y nitrógeno en urea al 46% como nutriente. Se caracterizo el medio reactivo con los principales parámetros de interés (humedad, materia orgánica, pH, nitrógeno total, fósforo disponible, clasificación del suelo, conductividad eléctrica, sólidos suspendidos volátiles, densidad real y aparente, porosidad, textura, color, salinidad, conductividad hidráulica, capacidad de campo y densidad de bacterias. Se determinaron las cinéticas de degradación y la capacidad de adsorción del diesel en el medio reactivo. Las barreras reactivas permeables se diseñaron con los resultados cinéticos obtenidos en los reactores por lotes. Las columnas tenían dimensiones de 30 cm de longitud y 10 cm de diámetro. Las cinéticas de determinaron durante 18 días y las columnas se corrieron durante 70 días presentando remociones arriba del 80%. Se usaron concentraciones iniciales de diesel de 15,000 mg/L. Para la modelación de la adsorción se aplicaron las ecuaciones de Freundlich y Langmuir, donde esta ultima presentó un mejor ajuste a los datos a los datos experimentales y una mayor capacidad de adsorción. Para el suministro de los nutrientes y oxigeno se aplico el modelo propuesto por McCarty y la ecuación media para diesel propuesta por Jackson. Se determinó una velocidad de degradación de 0.0908 d-1, un coeficiente de distribución del diesel en el medio reactivo de 0.8 ml/g, una capacidad de adsorción de diesel en el medio reactivo de 13.50 mg/L y un factor de retardo de 3.69

  10. Assessment of Governor Control Parameter Settings of a Submarine Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    University of Technology 15. Ogata , K. (1997) Modern control engineering. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice-Hall 16. DiStephano, J., Stubberud, A. and...UNCLASSIFIED Assessment of Governor Control Parameter Settings of a Submarine Diesel Engine Peter Hield and Michael Newman...generators to provide power for propulsion and the hotel load. The governor, often a proportional-integral controller , attempts to maintain a constant

  11. Characterization of diesel spray images using the logarithmic image processing framework:

    OpenAIRE

    Cecile Petit; Michel Jourlin; Wolfgang Reckers

    2007-01-01

    The increasing levels of emission standards in Diesel Engines require a detailed understanding, combustion and after treatment. This paper focuses on the spray development as one key parameter in the mixture preparation. The presentation of a methodology to differentiate the internal symmetry of spray images taken under different environmental conditions is presented. In a first step, a preprocessing is performed, then an image re-centering is made using the logarithmic average, afterwards di...

  12. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  13. Tesi di dottorato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Segnalazione di tesi di dottorato. Andrea Brugnoli Una storia locale: l’organizzazione del territorio veronese nel medioevo: trasformazioni della realtà e schemi notarili (IX-metà XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Scienze Storiche e Antropologiche (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Verona, 2010   Luca Filangieri Famiglie e gruppi dirigenti a Genova (secoli XII-metà XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2010   Jakub Kujawi ski Wernakularna kolekcja historiograficzna z rękopisu francuskiego nr 688 z Biblioteki Narodowej w Paryżu. Studium źródłoznawcze (La raccolta dei volgarizzamenti delle opere storiografiche nel manoscritto francese 688 della Biblioteca Nazionale di Parigi, Tesi di dottorato, Università “Adam Mickiewicz”, Facoltà di Storia, Pozna, a.a. 2009/2010   Marta Longhi I signori “de Radicata”. Strategie di affermazione familiare e patrimoniale nel Piemonte dei secoli XII-XIV, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, Società, Religioni dal Tardo Antico alla fine del Medioevo (XX ciclo, Università di Torino, 2008

  14. Resettable regime of diesel lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nechaev E. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method of engine oil saturation by microelements has been presented in the paper; it has been tested on vessels of the fishing fleet and in conditions of prolonged operation in the coastal diesel-engine power plants. The paper considers the results of performance tests of the most common diesel power plants of 6ЧН 25/34 type with the tribochemical reductant oil (TRO apparatus providing tribochemical lubrication. During comparative trials of two diesels the samples of lubricating oil m-10B2 and m-10 have been periodically collected and subjected to spectral analysis. In the samples the number of the following key microelements has been determined: iron (Fe, aluminum (Al, zinc (Zn, sodium (Na, barium (Ba, calcium (Ca, tin (Sn, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, sulfur (S, chlorine (Cl, silicon (Si. During the operation the processes of microelements' extraction and destruction in diesel motor oils evaluated by the relevant coefficients have been clearly manifested. Analyzing the obtained experimental data it should be noted that in both experiments the total balance of the controlled 15 trace elements has been balanced and approached within 1640.5–1650.3 g/t. And the greater measure refers to conventional oil. Stabilization and improvement of physical and chemical properties of motor oil in operation of a diesel engine is possible from the authors' viewpoint only in the tribochemical lubrication mode using the TRO apparatus and created hydrodynamic module – dispersant. The past performance tests suggest the possibility of use as a lubricant the conventional (pure oil under actual operating conditions. When in the tribochemical mode of diesel engine lubrication it has been established that in conventional (pure oil the oily medium has been formed with a spectrum of microelements equivalent to engine oil filler.

  15. Reeds diesel engine troubleshooting handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pickthall, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Most diesel engines will develop a problem at some point in their lives, but armed with the right knowledge a skipper needn't worry. The Reeds Diesel Engine Troubleshooting Handbook is a compact, pocket-sized guide to finding solutions to all of the most common engine problems, and many of the less common ones too. The perfect format for quick reference on board, this book will help skippers fix troublesome engines themselves, avoiding costly engineer fees if the problem is simple to sort out, or enabling an emergency patch-up for a more serious problem until they can get back to port. Each to

  16. Experimental investigation on CRDI engine using butanol-biodiesel-diesel blends as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar Shetty, A. S.; Dineshkumar, L.; Koundinya, Sandeep; Mane, Swetha K.

    2017-07-01

    In this research work an experimental investigation of butanol-biodisel-diesel blends on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine is carried out. The blends are prepared at different proportions and fuel properties such as calorific value, viscosity, flash point and fire point, cloud point, pour point of butanol (B), biodiesel (B), diesel (D), biodiesel-diesel (BD) blends and butanol-biodiesel-diesel (BBD) blends are determined. The engine test is conducted at different speed and load. From the results obtained for fuel properties we can observe that the flash, fire and pour point, viscosity and density are decreasing by increasing the percentage of butanol in BBD blends. It is also observed that the performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust gas temperature increases with increase in the proportion of butanol in BBD blend. However, the brake specific fuel consumption (BFSC) decreases with increase in the proportion of butanol in BBD blend. The increase of butanol in BBD blends also influence to increase on emission characteristic such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx).

  17. Fault Detection of Inline Reciprocating Diesel Engine: A Mass and Gas-Torque Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early fault detection and diagnosis for medium-speed diesel engines are important to ensure reliable operation throughout the course of their service. This work presents an investigation of the diesel engine combustion-related fault detection capability of crankshaft torsional vibrations. Proposed methodology state the way of early fault detection in the operating six-cylinder diesel engine. The model of six cylinders DI Diesel engine is developed appropriately. As per the earlier work by the same author the torsional vibration amplitudes are used to superimpose the mass and gas torque. Further mass and gas torque analysis is used to detect fault in the operating engine. The DFT of the measured crankshaft’s speed, under steady-state operating conditions at constant load shows significant variation of the amplitude of the lowest major harmonic order. This is valid both for uniform operating and faulty conditions and the lowest harmonic orders may be used to correlate its amplitude to the gas pressure torque and mass torque for a given engine. The amplitudes of the lowest harmonic orders (0.5, 1, and 1.5 of the gas pressure torque and mass torque are used to map the fault. A method capable to detect faulty cylinder of operating Kirloskar diesel engine of SL90 Engine-SL8800TA type is developed, based on the phases of the lowest three harmonic orders.

  18. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  19. Laboratorio di Cartografia Archeologica di Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Redazione

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Il Laboratorio di Cartografia Archeologica nasce per Roma e nei suoi meandri, per così dire, si nasconde. Situato al 28 di via del Monte Testaccio, in quella che la notte diventa la protagonista della vita notturna della Capitale, il Laboratorio passerebbe inosservato se non fosse per la porticina chereca impressa la sua targa. Oltrepassata la soglia, però, quelloche si incontra è un gigantesco mondo di materiale cartografico e di informazioni dedicate alla vasto patrimonio archeologico (ma non solo che caratterizza Roma.

  20. New methodology for in-cylinder pressure analysis in direct injection diesel engines—application to combustion noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Tormos, B.; Marant, V.

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a new methodology for the analysis of in-cylinder pressure in direct injection (DI) diesel engines. Indeed, for some applications, the traditional study of total pressure is shown to be insufficient and the proposed technique is intended to be an alternative and more efficient tool, since it may provide a better understanding of the physical mechanisms. The main idea is to decompose the in-cylinder pressure evolution according to three phenomena taking place during diesel engine operation: pseudo-motored, combustion and resonance excitation. In order to validate this new method, it is applied to combustion noise analysis. Actually, the combustion process in DI diesel engines may be considered as an important source of noise, and the traditional approach is mainly based on the interpretation of objective overall spectral levels of both in-cylinder pressure and radiated noise, obtained from Fourier analysis. However, this approach has been shown unable to describe all the relevant aspects of the problem, whereas the results obtained from the proposed decomposition technique exhibit a fair qualitative correlation between in-cylinder pressure and combustion noise issues. Further development of this approach could provide a useful tool for the development of optimal injection strategies fulfilling not only performance considerations but also sound quality requirements for combustion noise in DI diesel engines.

  1. Problems diagnosis in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leugner, L.

    1986-10-01

    Diagnosis of engine problems in diesel engines used in Western Canadian coal mines is discussed. Areas to which attention must be paid include the air cleaners, turbocharger, engine compression and the fuel system. Exhaust smoke should be analysed to help diagnose combustion related problems.

  2. Coal-fired diesel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  3. Study on a small diesel engine with direct injection impinging distribution spray combustion system. Optimum of injection system and combustion chamber; Shototsu kakusan hoshiki kogata diesel kikan ni kansuru kenkyu. Funshakei to nenshoshitsu no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K.; Kato, S.; Saito, T. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Tanabe, H. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This study is concerned with a small bore (93mm) diesel engine using impinged fuel spray, named OSKA system. The higher rate of injection show lower smoke emission with higher NOx Emission. The exhaust emission and performance were investigated under different compression ratio with higher rate of injection. The experimental results show that this OSKA system is capable for reducing the smoke emission without the deterioration of NOx emission and fuel consumption compared with the conventional DI diesel engine. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. a Method to Correct Yield Surface Drift in Soil Plasticity Under Mixed Control and Explicit Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Hans; Axelsson, Kennet; Klisinski, Marek

    1997-03-01

    When applying an explicit integration algorithm in e.g. soil plasticity, the predicted stress point at the end of an elastoplastic increment of loading might not be situated on the updated current yield surface. This so-called yield surface drift could generally be held under control by using small integration steps. Another possibility, when circumstances might demand larger steps, is to adopt a drift correction method. In this paper, a drift correction method for mixed control in soil plasticity, under drained as well as undrained conditions, is proposed. By simulating triaxial tests in a Constitutive Driver, the capability and efficiency of this correction method, under different choices of implementation, have been analysed. It was concluded that the proposed drift correction method, for quite marginal additional computational cost, was able to correct successfully for yield surface drift giving results in close agreement to those obtained with a very large number of integration steps.

  5. Numerical Simulation of High-Power Synthetic Jet Actuator Flowfield and its Influence on Mixing Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Detailed two-dimensional unsteady numerical simulation is carried out to investigate a high-power synthetic jet actuator flow field and its design characteristic. Simultaneously, mixing control mechanism of coaxial jets with actuators is also studied. Firstly, excitation frequency (rotating speed), piston displacement and its exit slot width have effect on the controlling ability and controlling efficiency of actuator. With the invariable model and concerned parameters, the actuator becomes more desirable as the rotating speed increases. Average velocity and maximal velocity at the actuator exit section increase as the piston displacement enlarges or the exit slot width decreases. But the actuator does not always exhibit good performance with the narrower exit. Secondly, the synthetic jets also have the "push" effect on the coaxial jets, which results in the fluctuation of vorticity and temperature distribution of mixing fiowfield. Finally, the employment of synthetic jet actuator can achieve mixing enhancement significantly.

  6. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapong Namliwan; Tanakorn Wongwuttanasatian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consum...

  7. Elementi di teoria delle funzioni e di analisi funzionale

    CERN Document Server

    Kolmogorov, Andrej N

    1980-01-01

    Elementi di teoria degli insiemi ; spazi metrici e topologici ; spazi lineari topologici e normati ; funzionali e operatori lineari ; misura, funzioni misurabili, integrale ; integrale indefinito di Lesbegue, teoria della derivazione ; spazi di funzioni sommabili ; serie trigonometriche, trasformata di Fourier ; equazioni integrali lineari ; elementi di calcolo differenziale negli spazi lineari ; algebre di Banach.

  8. La realizzazione di RDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Delsey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available L'autore ripercorre lo sviluppo di RDA dal principio, nel 2005, fino alla sua prima pubblicazione, nel 2010. L'impegno di sviluppo è inserito nel contesto di un ambiente digitale in evoluzione che trasforma sia la produzione sia la diffusione delle risorse informative e delle risorse utilizzate per creare, immagazzinare e accedere ai dati che descrivono tali risorse. L'autore esamina l'interazione tra l'impegno strategico ad allineare RDA con i nuovi modelli concettuali, le strutture di database emergenti e lo sviluppo dei metadati nelle comunità alleate, da una parte, e la compatibilità con l'eredità di AACR2 e dei database esistenti dall'altra. Gli aspetti esaminati comprendono la strutturazione di RDA come linguaggio di descrizione delle risorse, l'organizzazione del nuovo standard come uno strumento di lavoro e il raffinamento delle linee guida e delle istruzioni per la registrazione dei dati secondo RDA.

  9. La puzza di zolfo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Foramitti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Il dialogo fra osservazione del sintomo, inteso come penetrazione ed emersione dell’attività inconscia nel dispiegarsi delle quotidiane funzioni della sfera conscia -sia esso lapsus, atto mancato, sogno, gioco, motto di spirito- e costruzione di un modello di funzionamento psichico, teso a individuare le direttrici che reggono la relazione con il sé e l’altro da sé, disvela precocemente, nell’evoluzione delle teorie psicoanalitiche, l’illusorietà della sovranità di un ego cosciente. Così come l’anidride solforosa si leva dal cono vulcanico a terrorizzare i nostri antichi progenitori con il suo messaggio di inferno sotterraneo, di fuoco e pericolo, segnale di forze insopprimibili e ingovernabili associate in epoche più recenti ai segni della presenza satanica, la psicoanalisi reca con sé, in questo metamessaggio eversivo, la sua peculiare puzza di zolfo.

  10. Frammenti di un rito mutilato. Analisi di "Pagine di gloria" di Valentino Zeichen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Jacopo Majerna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Il presente articolo intende analizzare una delle raccolte centrali della produzione di Valentino Zeichen, Pagine di gloria (1983, nel tentativo di offrire spunti critici per un suo inquadramento nella scena poetica più recente. Si concentra, dapprima, sulla fisionomia eteroclita dell’io poetante, che, in controtendenza rispetto alle esperienze poetiche coeve, riveste un ruolo d’indiscussa centralità, cui corrisponde, nella prassi versificatoria, un impianto saldamente monologico. Si procede, quindi, alla ricerca delle costanti figurative che paiono fondare la poesia di Zeichen e che permettono l’accesso al cuore del suo immaginario. In tal senso ci si soffermerà su alcuni aspetti linguistici salienti di Pagine di gloria, con particolare attenzione all’impiego dei tecnoletti in sede di metafora, per passare, poi, alle ricorrenze più propriamente figurative, come l’iconografia classicheggiante o metafisica e le immagini di derivazione economica.

  11. Testimonianze di vittime degli anni di piombo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchini, Leonardo

    dei testimoni secondo la fortunata formula di Marianne Hirsch), mettono l’accento sul valore di attiva e impegnata cittadinanza che assumono le testimonianze delle vittime in Italia, un paese in cui il passato rappresenta spesso una ferita ancora aperta per la società, caratterizzato com’è da troppi...

  12. Testimonianze di vittime degli anni di piombo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchini, Leonardo

    Testimonianze di vittime degli anni di piombo In un articolo pubblicato nel 2008 sulla webzine Nazione indiana Christian Raimo criticava quello che poi Giovanni De Luna qualche anno dopo nel suo libro La Repubblica del dolore (2011) ha chiamato “paradigma vittimario”; cioè la presenza predominante...

  13. Taratura di un 'apparecchiatura per misura di piccole percentuali di uranio in soluzione acida di acqua distillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d. Diana

    1965-06-01

    Full Text Available Si descrive una tecnica elio permette di misurare ilnumero di atomi di Uranio di una soluzione, con un errore non superioreal 10%.Il sistema consiste in un tubo di Geiger (Philips 18503 sistemato inun contenitore di vetro nel quale viene diluita una certa quantità di peso dinitrato di Uranile, misurato con una precisione migliore dell'1%. Al variaredella diluizione si registra il numero di particelle che il Geiger conta, e quindisi riporta in grafico. Da questi per diverse quantità di sale sciolto si determinala retta di taratura.

  14. Nella stanza di Asperger...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gilardini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gli studi sulla struttura del cervello di persone con Asperger avrebbero mostrato una diversa conformazione del lobo parietale (deputato all’elaborazione di soluzioni ai problemi, del lobo temporale mediale (sede della memoria a lungo termine e del cervelletto (coordinatore del movimento corporeo. Queste differenze possono spiegare le capacità a volte geniali di questi bambini e di questi adulti, oltre alla caratteristica ritualità nei gesti che li accompagna nel quotidiano.

  15. Manuale di farmacoeconomia

    OpenAIRE

    Papadia, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    La Farmacoeconomia è la disciplina che descrive e analizza costi e conseguenze di una terapia farmacologica: questo manuale, frutto di una pluriennale esperienza didattica, ha lo scopo di introdurre ai concetti fondamentali della materia. La prima parte è dedicata a note generali sulla scienza economica e sull’economia sanitaria, introdotte da esempi elementari di valutazione economica tratti dalla vita quotidiana. Nella seconda parte, riguardante la Farmacoeconomia e i vari ti...

  16. Nella stanza di Asperger...

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Gilardini

    2011-01-01

    Gli studi sulla struttura del cervello di persone con Asperger avrebbero mostrato una diversa conformazione del lobo parietale (deputato all’elaborazione di soluzioni ai problemi), del lobo temporale mediale (sede della memoria a lungo termine) e del cervelletto (coordinatore del movimento corporeo). Queste differenze possono spiegare le capacità a volte geniali di questi bambini e di questi adulti, oltre alla caratteristica ritualità nei gesti che li accompagna nel quotidiano.

  17. Effects of diesel and bio-diesel oils temperature on spray and performance of a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkachai Sutheerasak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research paper is the spray and engine performance investigation from preheated diesel and biodiesel oils at fuel temperature from 60 to 90 o C by comparing with non-preheated oil. In the experiment, there are fuel injection modeling and diesel engine testing, which is direct injection, 4 stroke and 4 cylinders. Results of fuel spray show that preheated diesel oil increase 4.7degree of spray angle and decrease 4.30 % of fuel injection pressure, as preheated bio-diesel oil increase 7.6degree of spray angle and decrease 13.90 % of fuel injection pressure to compare with non-preheated oil. As engine preformance testing results, preheated diesel oil increase 26.20% of thermal efficiency and decrease 4.30 % of BSFC, as preheated bio-diesel oil increase 30% of thermal efficiency and decrease 29.90 % of BSFC to compare with non-preheated oil.

  18. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, heating oil, ECA marine fuel, and other... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel,...

  19. Il Carmide di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’ipertesto dedicata al Carmide di Platone, composto per l’uso degli studenti dell’ateneo pisano, è a disposizione di tutti qui. Il Carmide è – canonicamente – un dialogo aporetico. Ma almeno dei suoi paradossi – quello di una superscienza che pretende...

  20. Problemi di Fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, Michelangelo

    2008-01-01

    L’introduzione delle lauree triennali ha in molti casi costretto i docenti a ridurre drasticamente il numero di ore di insegnamento e quindi l’estensione dei programmi dei corsi di Fisica. In questo volumetto l'autore si è proposto di esporre sinteticamente ma con il massimo rigore possibile il corso di Fisica Generale I evitando le dimostrazioni delle leggi fisiche, ma dando la priorità alle applicazioni di tali leggi e allo svolgimento di esercizi che in genere viene trascurato in molti corsi. Ha cercato pertanto di presentare i fenomeni fisici sottolineando, dove possibile, la loro presenza nella vita quotidiana e le loro più semplici e immediate applicazioni, consentendo in tal modo agli studenti di vedere la Fisica non più come una interminabile serie di formule ma come un nuovo modo di interpretare e di capire i fenomeni naturali inanimati (del resto non dobbiamo dimenticare che il termine greco da cui deriva il suo nome è fisis, fisis, ovvero natura). Il contenuto è completo, comprendendo anc...

  1. Il Cratilo di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La guida ipertestuale alla lettura del Cratilo di Platone composta per gli studenti della facoltà di Scienze politiche dell’università di Pisa è ora visibile a tutti qui. L’ipertesto ha tratto vantaggio dall’Introduzione alla linguistica generale del professor Manuel Barbera dell’università...

  2. Analisi di un campione significativo di Learning Objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guerra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro analizza sul piano pedagogico e didattico il concetto di Learning Object (LO a partire dalla rilevazione diretta dei modelli formativi sottostanti, in forma esplicita o implicita, un campione significativo di Learning Objects identificato all’interno di rilevanti esperienze di e-learning universitarie e non universitarie prodotte in diverse nazioni, allo scopo di giungere alla messa a punto di una modellistica problematica di tipo didattico dei Learning Objects, funzionale alla costruzione di algoritmi differenziati di progettazione, realizzazione, erogazione e valutazione di LO, anche nella prospettiva dei Learning Artifacts.

  3. Effects of diesel and bio-diesel oils temperature on spray and performance of a diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ekkachai Sutheerasak

    2014-01-01

    Research paper is the spray and engine performance investigation from preheated diesel and biodiesel oils at fuel temperature from 60 to 90 o C by comparing with non-preheated oil. In the experiment, there are fuel injection modeling and diesel engine testing, which is direct injection, 4 stroke and 4 cylinders. Results of fuel spray show that preheated diesel oil increase 4.7degree of spray angle and decrease 4.30 % of fuel injection pressure, as preheated bio-diesel oil increase 7.6degree o...

  4. Study on Carbonyl Emissions of Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruina Li; Zhong Wang; Guangju Xu

    2017-01-01

      Biodiesel is a kind of high-quality alternative fuel of diesel engine. In this study, biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend were used in a single cylinder diesel engine to study the carbonyl emissions...

  5. Equazione di Dirac

    CERN Document Server

    Monti, Dalida

    1996-01-01

    Relativamente poco noto al gran pubblico, il premio Nobel Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac appartiene a quel gruppo di uomini di ingegno che nei primi decenni del secolo contribuirono a dare alla nostra concezione del mondo fisico la sua impronta attuale. Assolutamente cruciali, per una valutazione dell'opera di Dirac, sono gli anni compresi tra il 1925 e il 1931: un periodo in cui il fisico fornisce la prima spiegazione chiara e coerente delle proprietà di spin dell'elettrone (equazione di Dirac) e perviene, in forza della pura deduzione matematica, alla scoperta dell'esistenza dell'elettrone positivo o positrone.

  6. Il Codice di autodisciplina

    OpenAIRE

    Cuccu, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Il nuovo Codice di Autodisciplina delle Società Quotate. – 2. Un breve sguardo di insieme. – 2.1. Composizione del consiglio di amministrazione. – 2.2. Ruolo e funzionamento del consiglio di amministrazione. – 2.3. L’organizzazione e i compiti dei comitati interni al consiglio. – 2.4. Sistema di controllo interno. – 3. Le raccomandazioni del Codice. – 3.1. Una nuova impostazione chiarificatrice. – 3.2. L’impulso dato dal d. lgs. 39/2010. – 4. I punti deboli del Codice. – 4.1. La ...

  7. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of...

  8. Circulating factors induce coronary endothelial cell activation following exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust and nitrogen dioxide in humans: Evidence from a novel translational in vitro model**

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen di...

  9. Che genere di diritto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia La Rocca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Il recente decreto legge sul femminicidio nasce in un clima, soprattutto mediatico, nel quale la violenza sulle donne viene letta come “emergenza”. Questa chiave di lettura del fenomeno presenta alcuni rischi: in primo luogo, quello di riproporre un modello di intervento pubblico centrato soprattutto sull’approccio repressivo. Il decreto assegna, infatti, una valenza residuale ad una strategia di sostegno delle azioni di prevenzione e di assistenza delle vittime di violenza, al momento rinviate ad un “Piano d'azione straordinario” per il quale non viene previsto alcun finanziamento. E’ tempo di uscire dalla logica emergenziale: la questione della violenza di genere non è solo problema di ordine pubblico. E’ un fenomeno che colpisce al cuore la riscrittura delle regole sulla convivenza tra i generi avviata nel secolo scorso. Ciò che serve è un nuovo momento di elaborazione delle teorie e delle prassi delle donne sul ruolo del sistema giuridico e sulle forme più adeguate per garantire la libertà femminile.

  10. Diethyl Ether as an Ignition Enhancer for Naphtha Creating a Drop in Fuel for Diesel

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2016-12-01

    Direct use of naphtha in compression ignition (CI) engines is not advisable because its lower cetane number negatively impacts the auto ignition process. However, engine or fuel modifications can be made to operate naphtha in CI engines. Enhancing a fuel’s auto ignition characteristics presents an opportunity to use low cetane fuel, naphtha, in CI engines. In this research, Di-ethyl ether (DEE) derived from ethanol is used as an ignition enhancer for light naphtha. With this fuel modification, a “drop-in” fuel that is interchangeable with existing diesel fuel has been created. The ignition characteristics of DEE blended naphtha were studied in an ignition quality tester (IQT); the measured ignition delay time (IDT) for pure naphtha was 6.9 ms. When DEE was added to naphtha, IDT decreased and D30 (30% DEE + 70% naphtha) showed comparable IDT with US NO.2 diesel. The derived cetane number (DCN) of naphtha, D10 (10% DEE + 90% naphtha), D20% DEE + 80% naphtha) and D30 were measured to be 31, 37, 40 and 49, respectively. The addition of 30% DEE in naphtha achieved a DCN equivalent to US NO.2 diesel. Subsequent experiments in a CI engine exhibited longer ignition delay for naphtha compared to diesel. The peak in-cylinder pressure is higher for naphtha than diesel and other tested fuels. When DEE was added to naphtha, the ignition delay shortened and peak in-cylinder pressure is reduced. A 3.7% increase in peak in-cylinder pressure was observed for naphtha compared to US NO.2 diesel, while D30 showed comparable results with diesel. The pressure rise rate dropped with the addition of DEE to naphtha, thereby reducing the ringing intensity. Naphtha exhibited a peak heat release rate of 280 kJ/m3deg, while D30 showed a comparable peak heat release rate to US NO.2 diesel. The amount of energy released during the premixed combustion phase decreased with the increase of DEE in naphtha. Thus, this study demonstrates the suitability of DEE blended naphtha mixtures as a

  11. Biofouling of Several Marine Diesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ultralow sulfur diesel, synthetic diesel, biodiesel, and hydrotreated renewable diesel fuels. Bulk chemical changes and differences in biofouing...of its large carbon footprint. NSWCCD-61-TR-2011/08 2 Biological material can be hydrotreated to produce a mixture of hydrocarbons which, with...additional treatment, is converted into a low-carbon footprint isoparaffinic fuel. Hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel derived from Camelina

  12. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  13. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  14. Underground diesel use - fuel for thought. [USA - Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Knight, D.L.; Roberts, W.K.; Knight, T.J. (Kerr-McGee Coal Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Describes the use of diesel equipment at the Galatia Mine, Saline County, IL (USA). The Galatia Mine is a dual-seam underground mine. Diesel equipment covered includes: personnel vehicles; diesel forklifts; diesel front-end loaders; service vehicles; maintenance; boom trucks; fuel and lube vehicles; mobile ramcar rock duster; rock grader; diesel bolters; and a portable diesel generator. The use of diesel equipment for longwall set up and recovery and diesel equipment maintenance, ventilation and emission control is also discussed. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Densità di energia di deformazione locale e resistenza a fatica di giunti saldati di geometria complessa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lazzarin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Un recente criterio basato sul valore medio della densità di energia di deformazione (SED inun volume di controllo è applicato a diverse serie di dati sperimentali tratti dalla letteratura, relativi a giuntisaldati di geometria complessa realizzati in acciaio. Il volume di controllo è rappresentato da un settore circolare di raggio pari a 0.28 mm, centrato sul piede o sulla radice dei cordoni di saldatura. Entrambe le regioni sono modellate come intagli V non raccordati con differenti angoli di apertura. La densità di energia di deformazione viene valutata direttamente da modelli agli elementi finiti tridimensionali. I dati sperimentali, riconvertiti in termini energetici, si posizionano all’interno di una banda di dispersionerecentemente proposta in letteratura. La banda sintetizzava più di 650 dati sperimentali relativi a giunti saldati con cordone d’angolo, con rotture innescate indifferentemente al piede o alla radice dei cordonidi saldatura.

  16. Esercizi scelti di algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Chirivì, Rocco; Dvornicich, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Questo libro – primo di due volumi -  presenta oltre 250 esercizi scelti di algebra ricavati dai compiti d'esame dei corsi di Aritmetica tenuti dagli autori all'Università di Pisa. Ogni esercizio viene presentato con una o più soluzioni accuratamente redatte con linguaggio e notazioni uniformi. Caratteristica distintiva del libro è che gli esercizi proposti sono tutti diversi uno dall'altro e le soluzioni richiedono sempre una piccola idea originale; ciò rende il libro unico nel genere. Gli argomenti di questo primo volume sono: principio d'induzione, combinatoria, congruenze, gruppi abeliani, anelli commutativi, polinomi, estensioni di campi, campi finiti. Il libro contiene inoltre una dettagliata sezione di richiami teorici e può essere usato come libro di riferimento per lo studio. Una serie di esercizi preliminari introduce le tecniche principali da usare per confrontarsi con i testi d'esame proposti. Il volume è rivolto a tutti gli studenti del primo anno dei corsi di laur ea in Matematica e Inf...

  17. Autobiografia di un fisico

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    1980-01-01

    Questa non è solo un'autobiografia scientifica. Il ritratto che Max Born ci offre di se stesso va oltre il profilo dell'uomo di scienza, che pure è stato tra i maggiori del nostro secolo. Di lui veniamo a sapere tutto ciò che occorre per accostarsi alle teorie che gli valsero il premio Nobel, ma anche i tratti di una normale vita borghese nella quale si intrecciavano le influenze dell'ambiente intellettuale e commerciale. Il tono è quello di una rievocazione piana e distesa che ci accompagna per le varie fasi della carriera dello studente, del docente, dello scienziato, nelle università tedesche e inglesi, negli anni delle persecuzioni naziste, alle quali l'ebreo Max Born ebbe la fortuna di sopravvivere, e nel dopoguerra, quando egli tornò in Germania e seppe dare un contributo di idee e di iniziative ai movimenti pacifisti. E' la lunga e operosa vita di un uomo di genio, del quale si ricorda la profonda umanità, la vastità degli interessi culturali, l'acutezza dei giudizi sulle persone, sulle vicend...

  18. Pengaruh Campuran High Purity Metanol (HPM –Solar Menggunakan Sistem EGR terhadap Performa dan Emisi Jelaga Pada Mesin Diesel Injeksi Langsung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aa Setiawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the effects of HPM and diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of a diesel engine. The considered parameters are torque, brake power, specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency as well as smoke opacity. A four-stroke water cooled direct injection (DI diesel engine with naturally aspirated, Isuzu 4JB1, combined with cooled EGR system was used for conducting test with HPM-diesel blended fuels with ratio 0/100, 5/95, 10/90, and 15/85 on volume basis at the variation of engine loads in the range of 25% to 100% with 25% interval at 2000 rpm. Each load was given EGR rate 0%, and 100%.The results showedthat compared with neat diesel, theengine brake power decreases 4,69% by using fuel blends, where the brake power decreases by increasing the HPM volume fraction.It can be also seen that BTE increase 14,7%, while BSFC decrease 10,29%. On emission, soot emission decreases significantly 59,32%by blending HPM with diesel, where increasing HPM volume fractions in the blends tends to lower the soot emission. Based on this research,HPM15 will give performance near to diesel and highest soot emission decrease,while HPM5 give the best results on BSFC, and BTE.

  19. The organic composition of diesel particulate matter, diesel fuel and engine oil of a non-road diesel generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fuyan; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Liu, Zifei; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2005-10-01

    Diesel-powered equipment is known to emit significant quantities of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere. Numerous organic compounds can be adsorbed onto the surfaces of these inhalable particles, among which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered potential occupational carcinogens. Guidelines have been established by various agencies regarding diesel emissions and various control technologies are under development. The purpose of this study is to identify, quantify and compare the organic compounds in diesel particulate matter (DPM) with the diesel fuel and engine oil used in a non-road diesel generator. Approximately 90 organic compounds were quantified (with molecular weight ranging from 120 to 350), which include alkanes, PAHs, alkylated PAHs, alkylbenzenes and alkanoic acids. The low sulfur diesel fuel contains 61% alkanes and 7.1% of PAHs. The identifiable portion of the engine oil contains mainly the alkanoic and benzoic acids. The composition of DPM suggests that they may be originated from unburned diesel fuel, engine oil evaporation and combustion generated products. Compared with diesel fuel, DPM contains fewer fractions of alkanes and more PAH compounds, with the shift toward higher molecular weight ones. The enrichment of compounds with higher molecular weight in DPM may be combustion related (pyrogenic).

  20. Design e valutazione di una esperienza di mobile learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Arrigo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisi dello sviluppo scientifico e tecnologico nel campo di mobile learning, con particolare riferimento ai problemi di progettazione e valutazione nelle esperienze. Vengono analizzate le caratteristiche di metodologia didattica innovativa insieme a delle proposte per strumenti operativi concreti che consentano di progettare interventi didattici di mobile learning.

  1. Determination of Hydrocarbon Group-Type of Diesel Fuels by Gas Chromatography with Vacuum Ultraviolet Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Brandon M; Walsh, Phillip; Harynuk, James J

    2016-06-07

    A GC-vacuum ultraviolet (UV) method to perform group-type separations of diesel range fuels was developed. The method relies on an ionic liquid column to separate diesel samples into saturates, mono-, di-, and polyaromatics by gas chromatography, with selective detection via vacuum UV absorption spectroscopy. Vacuum UV detection was necessary to solve a coelution between saturates and monoaromatics. The method was used to measure group-type composition of 10 oilsands-derived Synfuel light diesel samples, 3 Syncrude light gas oils, and 1 quality control sample. The gas chromatography (GC)-vacuum UV results for the Synfuel samples were similar (absolute % error of 0.8) to historical results from the supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) analysis. For the light gas oils, discrepancies were noted between SFC results and GC-vacuum UV results; however, these samples are known to be challenging to quantify by SFC-flame ionization detector (FID) due to incomplete resolution between the saturate/monoaromatic and/or monoaromatic/diaromatic group types when applied to samples heavier than diesel (i.e., having a larger fraction of higher molecular weight species). The quality control sample also performed well when comparing both methods (absolute % error of 0.2) and the results agreed within error for saturates, mono- and polyaromatics.

  2. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  3. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapong Namliwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and oxygen (O2 than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen oxides (NOX emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine.

  4. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  5. Noise and vibration reduction of diesel engine vehicle making use of the active control engine mount (ACM) system; Active control engine mount (ACM) wo mochiitaa diesel engine tosaisha no seishukusei kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MShikata, T.; Aihara, T.; Hyodo, Y.; Aoki, K.; Hirade, T.; Kawazoe, H.; Sato, S.; Kimuraa, T.; Yonekura, K. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    The active control engine mount (ACM), adopted on `Presage` matched the newly developed direct-injection diesel engine called `NEO-Di YD25DDTi`, can reduce transmitted force to a body structure to almost zero in a wide variety of driving conditions by making use of an adaptive control method with synchronizes the filtered-X algorithm. The ACM system made great improvements in noise and vibration performance, so that fuel consumption, and quietness thanks to the ACM system. (author)

  6. RICERCHE DI STATISTICA METEOROLOGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EZIO ROSINI

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available statistica
    non ha goduto di buona stampa nel passato anche recente; particolarmente
    poco apprezzata è stata la statistica meteorologica e climatologica.
    Occorre riconoscere che tale atteggiamento era almeno in
    parte frutto di un preconcetto errato sul significato della statistica, ma
    che d'altra parte la natura dei lavori di tal genere che venivano alla
    luce sembrava a volte confermare la giustezza del preconcetto. Il fatto
    è che una parte degli studiosi di meteorologia avvertiva più di altri,
    probabilmente per la propria stessa costituzione mentale, l'astrattezza
    dei metodi fisico-matematici applicati alla grandiosa e al tempo stesso
    minuta complessità dei fenomeni meteorologici, sentendo dunque maggiormente
    la necessità di far costante ricorso alla realtà delle osservazioni
    effettivamente eseguite.

  7. Model-based neural networks to predict emissions in a diesel engine operating with biodiesel blends of castor; Modelo basado en redes neuronales para predecir las emisiones en un motor diésel que opera con mezclas de biodiésel de higuerilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Narváez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some identification methods of nonlinear systems using artificialneural networks are explained. Also, a model based on Neural Networks“Supervised Feed Forward” is presented, developed to identifyand predict the behavior of volumetric emissions from combustion of astationary diésel engine based on two input variables: the engine load and the mixture of castor biodiésel. The neural network training and model validation was performed by using the NNModel.

  8. Introduzione alle teorie di gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Cabibbo, Nicola; Benhar, Omar

    2016-01-01

    "Introduzione alle Teorie di Gauge" completa la serie di tre volumi basati sulle lezioni dei corsi di Meccanica Quantistica Relativistica, Interazioni Elettrodeboli e Teorie di Gauge, impartite dagli autori agli studenti delle Lauree Magistrali in Fisica e Astronomia & Astrofisica dell'Universita "La Sapienza" di Roma, nell'arco di qualche decennio. L'obiettivo principale del volume è di introdurre i concetti di base della rinormalizzazione nella teoria quantistica dei campi e i fondamenti delle moderne teorie di Gauge. Anche se collegato ai volumi precedenti, il libro si presta ad una lettura indipendente, che presume solo conoscenze generali di relativita speciale, della seconda quantizzazione e della fenomenologia delle interazioni elettrodeboli. Lo strumento di base è l'integrale sui cammini di Feynman, introdotto nei capitoli iniziali e sistematicamente impiegato nel seguito. L'esposizione segue un percorso pedagogico, che parte dal caso semplice dell'ampiezza di transizione in meccanica quantistic...

  9. Ricercatori di successo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grazie a Rangle mi è lecito segnalare i risultati di una ricerca ad accesso semiaperto. Secondo Daniele Fanelli, ricercatore dell’Institute for the Study of Science, Technology and Innovation (ISSTI presso l’Università di Edinburgh, un modo per verificare l’obiettività con cui i risultati della ricerca vengono prodotti e proposti è quello di selezionare i lavori in [...

  10. LABLOG. Laboratorio di logica

    OpenAIRE

    Matassi, Elisabetta; Lucilli, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    La scelta di costruire un percorso incentrato sulla logica/logica matematica è stata motivata dalla constatazione di un fatto piuttosto comune nella Scuola Secondaria Superiore italiana: l’insegnamento della logica, e della logica matematica in particolare, quando non viene accuratamente evitato, trasmette spesso un’immagine di grande rigidità. Generalmente, vengono proposti attività e contenuti che veicolano un’immagine quasi “strumentale” del calcolo logico basati su una s...

  11. [Diesel emission control technologies: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Weng, Duan; Zi, Xin-Yun

    2007-06-01

    The authors reviewed the researches on diesel emission control for both new engine technologies and aftertreatment technologies. Emphases were focused on the recent advancements of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) and the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x). In addition, it was explored for the future development in this field.

  12. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  13. Hydrogenation Technology for Producing Clean Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shuiyin; Xiong Zhenlin; Gao Xiaodong; Nie Hong

    2004-01-01

    With the standard of environmental protection becoming increasingly strict, it is required to remove sulfur and aromatics in diesel deeply. RIPP has developed several new hydrogenation catalysts and flexible processes, by means of which clean diesel fuel with low sulfur and low aromatic contents can be produced. From SRGO (Straight Run Gas Oil), which has an aromatic content of less than 30m%, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel or ultra-low sulfur diesel can be obtained by adopting a new process operating on highly active RN-series catalysts. From a feed with higher aromatic content (A=30~80m%),such as FCC-LCO, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel can be obtained by the SSHT, MHUG and DDA processes.

  14. Lubrication and wear in diesel engine injection equipment fuelled by dimethyl ether (DME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2003-01-01

    that jeopardise the high efficiency of the engine and increase the manufacturing costs. DME has a low toxicity and can be made from anything containing carbon including biomass. If DME is produced from cheap natural gas from remote locations, the price of this new fuel could even become lower than that of diesel...... oil. Fueling diesel engines with DME presents two significant problems: The injection equipment can break down due to extensive wear and DME attacks nearly all known elastomers. The latter problem renders dynamic sealing diƣult whereas the first one involves the poor lubrication qualities of DME which...... are the main concerns of the present study. The volatile fuel tribotester (VFTT) was developed, capable of testing material compatibility with DME. This apparatus has the potential of selecting new materials for future DME pumps. Two properties are important for describing these lubrication qualities...

  15. Computer Modeling of a CI Engine for Optimization of Operating Parameters Such as Compression Ratio, Injection Timing and Injection Pressure for Better Performance and Emission Using Diesel-Diesel Biodiesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatraman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present work describes a theoretical investigation concerning the performance of a four strokes compression ignition engine, which is powered by alternative fuels in the form of diesel and diesel biodiesel blends. Approach: The developed simulation model used to estimate the cylinder pressure, heat release rate, brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and engine out emissions. The simulation model includes Honerberg’s equation heat transfer model, Zero dimensional combustion model for the prediction of combustion parameters. Results: Experiments were performed in a single cylinder DI diesel engine fuelled with a blend of pungam methyl ester for the proportion of PME10, PME20 and PME30 by volume with diesel fuel for validation of simulated results. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was observed that there is a good agreement between simulated and experimental results which reveals the fact that the simulation model developed predicts the performance and emission characteristics of any biodiesel and diesel fuel and engine specifications given as input.

  16. Programmazione del Network di 'Virologia Ambientale': Stato di avanzamento

    OpenAIRE

    Carlesi, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    Presentazione 'Power Point' dell'intervento all'incontro di lavoro 'VIRAMB II incontro del Network di Virologia Ambientale', presso l'Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana. Nell'intervento si presenta lo stato di avanzamento dei lavori riguardo la realizzazione dell'infrastruttura telematica del 'Network di Virologia Ambientale' promosso dal 'Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia ed Epidemiologia' dell'Universit? di Pisa.

  17. Le statue di Dedalo: le riviste di filosofia politica italiane di serie A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Roars ha puntualmente segnalato l’ancipite vicenda delle nuove liste di riviste last minute per l’abilitazione scientifica nazionale. E’ cambiato qualcosa fra le riviste di filosofia politica italiane di serie A, di cui avevamo già avuto modo di discutere?

  18. Tapped In: un incubatore di comunità di pratica di insegnanti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Persico

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Descrizione del progetto TAPPED IN, iniziativa del californiano Center for Technology in Learning, dedicato a promuovere l'innovazione tecnologica nell'ambito dell'apprendimento e della formazione degli insegnanti. Lo scopo del progetto e' quello di sviluppare e sperimentare un ambiente virtuale capace di ospitare le attivita' di una o piu' comunita' di pratica di insegnanti.

  19. 30 CFR 72.520 - Diesel equipment inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel equipment inventory. 72.520 Section 72... Mines § 72.520 Diesel equipment inventory. (a) The operator of each mine that utilizes diesel equipment underground, shall prepare and submit in writing to the District Manager, an inventory of diesel...

  20. Series 190 Diesel Engines Used in China's Oil Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qimin

    1996-01-01

    @@ Jinan Diesel Engine Works, located in Jinan,Shandong Province, was established more than 70 years ago. Now it produces series 190 diesel engines and diesel generating sets. Over 95 percent of land drilling power engines used in China are from Jinan Diesel Engine Works.

  1. Reti professionali di insegnanti su Facebook: studio di un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ranieri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro presenta i risultati di due indagini esplorative sull’uso dei SN nell’ambito di alcune comunità professionali di insegnanti. Un primo studio basato sulla somministrazione di un questionario rivolto a dieci fondatori e amministratori di gruppi online ha investigato le motivazioni, le finalità e i livelli di partecipazione. Un secondo studio, che ha riguardato i membri di cinque gruppi in Facebook, ha comportato la somministrazione di un questionario volto a esplorare alcune ipotesi di ricerca relative alla relazione tra tipologie di gruppi e dinamiche socio-relazionali, da un lato, e implicazioni professionali, dall’altro. I risultati mostrano che i manager di gruppi tendono a fondarli non solo per la condivisione di risorse professionali ma anche per ragioni etico- partecipative o sociali. I dati rilevati permettono anche di riscontrare l’esistenza di differenze tra diverse tipologie di gruppi, oltre all’attivazione di processi continui di contaminazione tra reale e virtuale in grado di dar vita a nuove iniziative professionali.

  2. Combustion characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine fueled with Fischer-Tropsch diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yongcheng; ZHOU Longbao; PAN Keyu

    2007-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel is characterized by a high cetane number, a near-zero sulphur content and a very low aromatic level. On the basis of the recorded incylinder pressures and injector needle lifts, the combustion characteristics of an unmodified single-cylinder directinjection diesel engine operating on F-T diesel fuel are analyzed and compared with those of conventional diesel fuel operation. The results show that F-T diesel fuel exhibits a slightly longer injection delay and injection duration, an average of 18.7% shorter ignition delay, and a comparable total combustion duration when compared to those of conventional diesel fuel. Meanwhile, F-T diesel fuel displays an average of 26.8% lower peak value of premixed burning rate and a higher peak value of diffusive burning rate. In addition, the F-T diesel engine has a slightly lower peak combustion pressure, a far lower rate of pressure rise, and a lower mechanical load and combustion noise than the conventional diesel engine. The brake specific fuel consumption is lower and the effective thermal efficiency is higher for F-T diesel fuel operation.

  3. Progetto QUADIS (Qualit di Servizio)

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, T; Vistoli, C

    1999-01-01

    Le applicazioni distribuite di nuova generazione richiedono servizi di rete garantiti. La rete Internet fornisce tuttora un servizio di tipo ³best effort² e perciò non adatto a soddisfare le nuove esigenze che provengono dalle $9 applicazioni. E' necessario studiare nuove architetture che facciano interagire applicazioni e rete in modo più stretto per ottenere più garanzie di affidabilit ed efficienza.Questo documento introduce i concetti base della qualit di $9 servizio sulla rete e i meccanismi in fase di studio o di sperimentazione finora esistenti. Definisce inoltre un programma di lavoro che prevede l'analisi di alcune applicazioni specifiche dell'INFN e la sperimentazione di servizi di $9 rete QoS adatti all'applicazione in esame.Questo documento è allegato al progetto "QUAdiS" di Gruppo V.

  4. The Effect of Bio-Fuel Blends and Fuel Injection Pressure on Diesel Engine Emission for Sustainable Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Muralidharan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diesel engine emits more pollutants to atmosphere causing air pollution. This necessitates the search of a renewable alternate fuel which is environment friendly. The objective of this research was to investigate the environmental aspects of pongamia bio-fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine with the influence of fuel injection pressure. Approach: Bio-fuel was prepared from non-edible Pongamia pinnata oil by transesterification and used as a fuel in C.I engine. The effect of fuel injection pressure on the engine emission characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pongamia pinnata methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel from 0-30% with an increment of 5% at full load. The tests were conducted at five different injection pressures (190, 200, 210, 220 and 230 KN m-2 by means of adjusting injector spring tension. Results: Compared to diesel, blend B5 exhibits lower engine emissions of unburnt hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and carbon di oxide at full load. The High injection pressure of 220 KN m-2 shows lesser emissions of unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide while oxides of nitrogen and carbon dioxide are found to be slightly higher than diesel and blends at full load. Conclusion: From the test results, it was found that a high injection pressure of 220 KN m-2 causes better atomization with improved engine emission characteristics for diesel and blends at full load. Moreover blend B5 showed best results at 220 KN m-2 injection pressure.

  5. Consumo di pesce e salute.

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, V.M.; Parisi, G.; A. Dal Bosco

    2014-01-01

    E’ oggigiorno universalmente riconosciuto che, in virtù del suo elevato valore nutrizionale, il consumo di pesce assume un ruolo fondamentale nella dieta dell’uomo. Il pesce è infatti un alimento facilmente digeribile, apportatore di proteine ad elevato valore biologico, di minerali, vitamine e soprattutto di acidi grassi polinsaturi, specie della serie omega-3. Al consumo di questi ultimi è attribuita una grande importanza nella prevenzione delle malattie cardiovascolari e di altre numerose ...

  6. Elementi di chimica fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peter W

    1994-01-01

    Elementi di chimica physica mira a presentare i concetti e le tecniche basilari della materia. I primi trovano utilizzazione in molte altre branche della chimica - la biochimica, l'ingegneria chimica, e (sempre di più) le scienze biologiche e mediche - mentre la materia in sé mette a disposizione procedimenti idonei ad esprimere idee qualitative in forma quantitativa e verificabile.

  7. Elementi di fisica teorica

    CERN Document Server

    Cini, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Le idee e le tecniche della Fisica Teorica del XX secolo (meccanica analitica, meccanica statistica, relatività e meccanica quantistica non relativistica) non sono più appannaggio esclusivo dei fisici. Ormai, specialmente con la recente introduzione di nuovi corsi di laurea, le conoscenze di base rientrano nel bagaglio culturale comune ai laureati in materie scientifiche e tecnologiche affini alla Fisica e alle sue applicazioni. Un laureato in queste materie non può non conoscere l’equazione E=mc2 e la media di Gibbs; inoltre deve avere i concetti e i metodi fondamentali della meccanica quantistica che ha cambiato la concezione del mondo ed è alla base della rivoluzione tecnologica in corso. Eppure quelle idee rimangono distanti dal comune modo di pensare e richiedono molto studio e un insegnamento ben mirato. La trattazione in questo libro, è meno formale rispetto ai tradizionali corsi di Istituzioni di Fisica Teorica. Lo scopo è comunque quello di raggiungere una reale comprensione dei concetti fisi...

  8. Dommer Di og jomfrujagten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Anmeldelse af den kinesiske eksilforfatter Dai Sijie's roman "Muo og de kinesiske jomfruer" (oversat fra fransk: Le complexe de Di, 2005). Udgivelsesdato: Forår 2006......Anmeldelse af den kinesiske eksilforfatter Dai Sijie's roman "Muo og de kinesiske jomfruer" (oversat fra fransk: Le complexe de Di, 2005). Udgivelsesdato: Forår 2006...

  9. Reti di città, mobilità e ambiente: il Preliminare di PTCP di Avellino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available  L’articolo propone la lettura dei contenuti del Preliminare del PTCP di Avellino, un piano per molti aspetti innovativo, soprattutto per aver coniugato pianificazione di area vasta di tipo tradizionale e logica “strategica”. In particolare, l’articolo descrive idee guida, contenuti e strategie del piano orientate, prevalentemente, a stimolare lo sviluppo sostenibile di un’area in ritardo di sviluppo come la provincia irpina, attraverso la salvaguardia e valorizzazione delle risorse naturali e storico-culturali, la costruzione di reti di medie e piccole città e reti di mobilità alle diverse scale, da quella urbana a quella internazionale, e interventi sul sistema della mobilità. Nel 2004, ormai più di cinque anni fa, è stato adottato, a maggioranza assoluta (solo due gli astenuti, il Preliminare di Piano Territoriale di Coordinamento della Provincia di Avellino, dopo un lavoro di oltre due anni che ha visto impegnati gli uffici provinciali con due dipartimenti universitari. Il lavoro, che va ben oltre il significato e la valenza di un preliminare e che coniuga due pratiche di piano diverse (quella tradizionale e quella strategica ruota attorno a tre idee di fondo, tra loro strettamente interrelate, che costituiscono i criteri guida che finora ha inteso seguire la provincia di Avellino nell’attività di governo delle trasformazioni. Tali idee, quindi, costituiscono le fondamenta su cui è stato costruito il Preliminare e sono la griglia di specificazione delle strategie e degli obiettivi di piano. Esse sono alla base delle scelte elaborate per lo sviluppo compatibile del territorio, e sono riferibili alle azioni operative di trasformazione del territorio che gli Enti locali, cui è demandato tale compito, nel prossimo futuro dovranno affrontare. Le tre idee forza del Preliminare, descritte nel seguito, sono riferibili ai sistemi di risorse principali della provincia di Avellino, oggetto di una indagine analitico

  10. Lezioni di meccanica razionale con elementi di statica grafica

    CERN Document Server

    Sbrana, Francesco

    1950-01-01

    Elementi di calcolo vettoriale ; riduzione di un sistema qualunque di vettori applicati ; trattazione analitica dei sistemi di vettori applicati ; uso dei poligni funicolari per la composizione di più vettori applicati complanari ; vettori variabili ; cinematica del punto ; studio del moto di un punto in un piano in coordinate polari ; cinematica de sistemi rigidi ; moto di un sistema rigido con un punto fisso (moto rigido sferico) ; moto relativo ; sistemi di punti in general, vincoli ; concetti e postulati fondamentali della meccanica ; unità mecchaniche, omogeneità, modelli ; equilibrio di un punto e di un sistema di punti materiali ; statica dei solidi indeformabili (sistemi rigidi) ; sistemi deformabili, travature reticolari ; equilibrio dei poligoni funicolari e delle curve funicolari ; nozioni sull'attrito ; integrazione grafica ; baricentri ; momenti d'inerzia ; calcolo grafico dei momenti statici e dei momenti d'inerzia dei sistemi piani ; dinamica del punto libero ; dinamica del punto vincolato ;...

  11. Elaborazione didattica di Learning Objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guerra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available L’idea di un modello didattico problematico per la realizzazione di Learning Objects riprende i temi del problematicismo pedagogico e si impegna a definire un’ipotesi formativa complessa capace di valorizzare la possibile positiva compresenza integrata di strategie didattiche diverse (finanche antitetiche ma componibili in una logica appunto di matrice problematicista. Il punto di partenza del modello proposto è rappresentato dalla opportunità di definire tre tipologie fondamentali di Learning Objects, rispettivamente centrati sull’oggetto, sul processo e sul soggetto dell’apprendimento.

  12. MECCANISMI DI DECOMPOSIZIONE DI IEDROCARBURI SU CATALIZZATORE INTERMETALLICO E FOTOSTBILITA DEI PRODOTTI DI REAZIONE

    OpenAIRE

    SCOTTI, GIORGIO

    2011-01-01

    STUDIO DI INTERAZIONE TRA FASCI MOLECOLARI SUPERSONICI E SUPERFICIE PER LO STUDIO DELLA DECOMPOSIZIONE DI PROPANO SU CATALIZZATORE DI NDNI5. STUDIO DELLA FOTODISSOCIAZIONE A 248 NM DEL RADICALE ISOPROPILICO MEDIANTE SPETTROSCOPIA TRASLAZIONALE DEI FOTOFRAMMENTI.

  13. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    OpenAIRE

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian; Asokan Guruprasath; Marta Vivar; Skryabin Igor; Karuppian Srithar

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD) and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD) are taken for the experimental analysis. Ex...

  14. Combustion and emissions of the diesel engine using bio-diesel fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The combustion and heat release of engines using diesel fuel and bio-diesel fuel have been investigated.The results illustrate that the combustion happens in advance and the ignition delay period is shortened.The initial heat release peak declines a little,the corresponding crankshaft angle changes in advance,and the combustion duration is prolonged.The economic performance and emission features of diesel engines using diesel fuel and bio-diesel fuel are compared.The results also show that the specific fuel consumption of bio-diesel increases by about 12% .The emissions,such as CO,HC,and particulate matter decrease remarkably whereas NOx increases a little.

  15. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-08-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  16. Effect of Diesel Sulfur on the Regeneration of Catalyst based Diesel Particulate Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruthviraj S Balekai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Diesel particulate filters are used in diesel engines to clean the particulate matter, which is released into the atmosphere. These particulate filters have a mechanism, which is affected by diesel sulfur level. My study refers to the effect with which the sulfur in diesel affects the regeneration rate of the diesel particulate filters. Two filters with different coatings were taken. Diesel Sulfur with different concentrations was tested. It was observed that there was linear relation between sulfur level and balance point temperature. Also, it was observed that this was the cause for not using full-blend biodiesel, as the emission standards could not be met due to high sulfur levels in the biodiesel.

  17. Poly-Acrylic Acid Derivatives as Diesel Flow Improver for Paraffin-Based Daqing Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiyu Jiang; Ming Xu; Xiaoli Xi; Panlun Qi; Hongyan Shang

    2006-01-01

    Since the diesel products from paraffin-based Daqing crude oil showed low sensitivity to certain commercial diesel pour point depressant (PPDs) that resulted from the high content of paraffin, certain poly-acrylic acid derivatives (PADE) with-COOR,-COOH,-CONHR, and -COO-NH3+R groups by molecular design on the mechanics of diesel; PPDs were synthesized and evaluated as cold flow improver for Daqing 0# diesel in this paper. The pure PADE was superior to the commercial PPDs and displayed a substantial ability of wax crystals dispersion. There was a synergistic effect among the PADE and T1804 and secondary amine. The synergism clearly improved the low temperature performance of Daqing diesel products and could reduce the cold filter plugging point of 0# diesel by 6-7 ℃.

  18. Studio del comportamento di agenti di contrasto in campi ultracustici per tecniche di ecografia diagnostica

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Il presente lavoro di ricerca è stato articolato intorno a temi attinenti l’ingegneria biomedica, riguardando, in particolare, lo studio del comportamento di agenti di contrasto in campi ultracustici per tecniche di ecografia diagnostica. Nell’ambito di tale settore scientifico, un ruolo di fondamentale importanza è svolto dalla diagnostica medica per immagini e in particolare dalle tecniche ecografiche. Queste ultime rappresentano un ottimo compromesso tra la pericolosità per l’organismo e l...

  19. Sviluppi di catalizzatori per l'abbattimento di NOx in presenza di ossigeno

    OpenAIRE

    Livi, Massimiliano

    2008-01-01

    Il traffico veicolare è la principale fonte antropogenica di NOx, idrocarburi (HC) e CO e, dato che la sostituzione dei motori a combustione interna con sistemi alternativi appare ancora lontana nel tempo, lo sviluppo di sistemi in grado di limitare al massimo le emissioni di questi mezzi di trasporto riveste un’importanza fondamentale. Sfortunatamente non esiste un rapporto ottimale aria/combustibile che permetta di avere basse emissioni, mentre la massima potenza ottenibile dal motore corri...

  20. Il ricordo di Bernardo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Caporale

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Capita, nella vita, di incontrare il dolore perun amico che ci lascia, per un collaboratoreprezioso che non c’è più, per un professionistadi livello che se ne va e scava un vuoto, un buco,che poi non si colma.Ecco, questo è successo a noi dell’IstitutoZooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e delMolise quando Bernardo Di Emidio, il 23gennaio, è mancato. Abbiamo incontrato undolore grande (e mi perdonerete se parlo delmio, io personalmente in quel dolore sonoinciampato con violenza, perché l’amico DiEmidio aveva condiviso in tutto il tempo in cuiabbiamo lavorato insieme, ogni preoccupazione,tensione, soddisfazione e progettualità.Difficile, per me, è stato ricordarlo proprio ilgiorno dopo la sua morte, in apertura di unconvegno, con la platea piena della gentedell’Istituto e ognuno con gli occhi rossi, losgomento e la solitudine già forte della perditascolpita sul volto. L’abbiamo salutato lì, gli hodetto grazie e ciao da parte di tutti gli altri, manon l’abbiamo mai salutato davvero.Non l’ha ancora fatto nessuno di noi, echissà se lo faremo mai, perché da Bernardonon vogliamo separarci.Sulle pagine di questa rivista, che rendonomerito e onore a tanti ottimi professionisti,proprio su una rivista scientifica, che per ilnostro ambiente è il momento del confronto,spesso «della verità», voglio ricordareBernardo Di Emidio.Voglio ricordarlo all’intera comunitàscientifica per quel grande lavoratore che èstato, per quella piena fiducia che i suoicollaboratori gli davano, per quel bellissimo rapporto che con loro aveva saputo costruire,ricominciando ad ogni nuovo arrivo. Loro, isuoi collaboratori, l’hanno sostenuto fino allafine, hanno continuato a considerarlo il lorocapo, anche durante i momenti più brutti edurante gli ultimi.Non hanno mai fatto a meno del suoparere, della sua approvazione, non si sono allontanati, non si allontano nemmeno oggi, da quel solco di umanità e scientificità che Di Emidio, in anni e

  1. Effect of fuel injection rate and timing on the physical, chemical, and biological character of particulate emissions from a direct injection diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.; Scholl, J.; Hibbler, F.; Bagley, S.; Leddy, D.; Abata, D.; Johnson, J.

    1981-01-01

    Formation of pollutants from diesel combustion and methods for their control have been reviewed. Of these methods, fuel injection rate and timing were selected for a parametric study relative to total particulate, soluble organic fraction (SOF), sulfates, solids and NO and NO/sub 2/ emissions from a heavy-duty, turbocharged, after-cooled, direct-injection (DI) diesel. Chemical analyses of the SOF were performed at selected engine conditions to determine the effects of injection rate and timing on each of the eight chemical subfractions comprising the SOF. Biological character of the SOF was determined using the Ames Salmonella/microsome bioassay. 54 refs.

  2. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  3. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE.

  4. Cacciatori di particelle

    CERN Document Server

    Ne'eman, Yuval

    1988-01-01

    Capostipite dei "cacciatori di particelle" fu J.J. Thomson, il quale nel 1897 scoprì la prima particella subatomica, l'elettrone. Poco dopo, negli anni tra il 1910 e il 1932, veniva rivelata la natura del nucleo atomico, grazie al lavoro di Rutherford. Partendo da queste prime storiche conquiste della fisica, gli autori introducono gradualmente il lettore nel micromondo delle particelle: dall'elettroscopio a foglie d'oro al dualismo onda-particella, all'enigma di una asimmetria destra-sinistra in natura, all'invenzione dei grandi acceleratori. Poi tra la fine degli anni cinquanta e i primi anni sessanta, l'esplosione di nuove specie particellari sembra vanificare ogni speranza di spiegazione. Lo schema di classificazione introdotto nel 1964 da Ne'eman (e, indipendentemente, da Gell-Mann), pone fine a tale confusione, consentendo una sistemazione coerente: quella che porta al concetto di quark e alle ultime conquiste, teoriche e sperimentali. Oggi, che i fisici sono divenuti più "coltivatori" che "cacciatori...

  5. Note di fotonica

    CERN Document Server

    Degiorgio, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    L’invenzione del laser ha generato una vera rivoluzione nella scienza e nella tecnologia e ha dato luogo alla nascita di una nuova disciplina chiamata Fotonica. Le più importanti applicazioni della Fotonica che hanno un impatto cruciale in molti ambiti della nostra vita sono le comunicazioni in fibra ottica su cui si basa il funzionamento di Internet e del traffico telefonico su grandi distanze, i dischi ottici (CD, DVD, Blue-ray), la sensoristica ottica di tipo industriale e ambientale, la lavorazione dei materiali, l’illuminazione con i LED e la chirurgia. Questo volume ha come obiettivo quello di colmare un vuoto nel panorama italiano di testi universitari riguardanti la Fotonica. Lo scopo principale è quello di esporre in modo sintetico ma rigoroso i concetti che stanno alla base del funzionamento del laser e della propagazione della luce nella materia, e di descrivere i principali componenti e dispositivi ottici e optoelettronici, quali le fibre ottiche, gli amplificatori, i modulatori e i rivelato...

  6. Effect of hydrogen–diesel dual-fuel usage on performance, emissions and diesel combustion in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Karagöz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are inevitable parts of our daily life and will be in the future. Expensive after-treatment technologies to fulfil normative legislations about the harmful tail-pipe emissions and fuel price increase in recent years created expectations from researchers for alternative fuel applications on diesel engines. This study investigates hydrogen as additive fuel in diesel engines. Hydrogen was introduced into intake manifold using gas injectors as additive fuel in gaseous form and also diesel fuel was injected into cylinder by diesel injector and used as igniter. Energy content of introduced hydrogen was set to 0%, 25% and 50% of total fuel energy, where the 0% references neat diesel operation without hydrogen injection. Test conditions were set to full load at 750, 900, 1100, 1400, 1750 and finally 2100 r/min engine speed. Variation in engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics with hydrogen addition was investigated. Hydrogen introduction into the engine by 25% and 50% of total charge energy reveals significant decrease in smoke emissions while dramatic increase in nitrogen oxides. With increasing hydrogen content, a slight rise is observed in total unburned hydrocarbons although CO2 and CO gaseous emissions reduced considerably. Maximum in-cylinder gas pressure and rate of heat release peak values raised with hydrogen fraction.

  7. Intervento di replica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Rossini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Già dalla discussione che si sta sviluppando su questa rivista intorno al libro di Antonello credo si veda bene una contrapposizione che mi capita spesso di rilevare nel dibattito nostrano: da un lato la sacrosanta irritazione verso un certo conservatorismo di sinistra e verso la lamentosa condanna “crisologica” della contemporaneità, atteggiamenti tanto diffusi quanto sterili; dall’altro una condivisibile preoccupazione: non diventeremo, per dirla con Milan Kundera, gli «allegri alleati dei nostri stessi becchini»? Nell’affrancarci da posizioni che sembrano obsolete, cosa ci rimane da contrapporre al dominio dell’ideologia mercantile e brutalmente quantitativa del neoliberismo?

  8. Multimodel Control of Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirstoiu, Silviu; Popescu, Dumitru; Dimon, Catalin; Olteanu, Severus

    2017-01-01

    In this article it is proposed and designed a modern control configuration of the type multicontroler-multimodel (MM) that pilots the nonlinear combustion process of the Diesel engine, needed to adjust the pressure in the intake manifold and the airflow circulating through the compressor. The MM simulator developed by the authors allows the implementation of control systems represented by pairs (Mi, Ci) with the Mi candidate closest to the current operating point of the process and the paired controller Ri, for controlling the key parameters of the combustion process. The proposed configuration is built with robust controllers and thus it is able to ensure superior performance, tolerance to nonlinearities and parametric and structural perturbations in the system.

  9. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    necessitates a rethinking of public governance that involve multilevel governance and integrating technology push and pull strategies. The agenda requires a re-conceptualisation of the innovation concept with special emphasis on value chain dynamics. The paper includes an analysis of the Danish innovation......This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...... policy based on Michael Porters cluster theory. The paper however suggest that the narrow focus on productivity and economic growth in Porters theory should be qualified and integrated with a broader scope of societal policy aims including social and environmental issues. This suggestion also...

  10. Commercial Test of Two Diesel Demulsifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaohong

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Lanzhou Petrochemical Company conducted commercial tests for application of two types of diesel demulsifiers, the HPL-2 and GX-02 demulsifiers, in order to solve the emulsion problem arising from caustic washing of straight-run diesel fraction obtained from atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit at the Lanzhou refinery. After addition of each demulsifier into the diesel fraction the oil content in caustic residue was apparently decreased, and discharge of waste caustic was reduced, resulting in the elimination of emulsification and a significant increase of economic benefits. When 70 ppm of the HPL-2 demulsifier was added to diesel fraction, the oil content in waste caustic exiting the second-stage caustic wash settling tank was reduced to 2.45% from 7.90 %, whereas this value was reduced to 2.81% from 5.96% with addition of the GX-02 demulsifier.

  11. Direct measurements of near-highway emissions in a high diesel environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, H. L.; Hellebust, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Ravier, S.; Polo, L.; Jacob, V.; Buisson, C.; Charron, A.; André, M.; Pasquier, A.; Besombes, J. L.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2014-10-01

    Diesel-powered passenger cars currently outnumber gasoline-powered cars in many countries, particularly in Europe. In France, diesel cars represented 61% of Light Duty Vehicles in 2011 and this percentage is still increasing (French Environment and Energy Management Agency, ADEME). As part of the September~2011 joint PM-DRIVE (Particulate Matter- DiRect and Indirect on-road Vehicular Emissions) and MOCOPO (Measuring and mOdeling traffic COngestion and POllution) field campaign, the concentration and high-resolution chemical composition of aerosols and volatile organic carbon (VOC) species were measured adjacent to a major urban highway south of Grenoble, France. Alongside these atmospheric measurements, detailed traffic data were collected from nearby traffic cameras and loop detectors, which allowed the identification of vehicle type and characteristics, traffic concentration, and traffic speed to be quantified and compared to measured aerosol and VOCs. Six aerosol age and source profiles were resolved using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model on real-time high-resolution aerosol mass spectra. These six aerosol source/age categories included a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) commonly associated with primary vehicular emissions, a nitrogen containing aerosol (NOA) with a diurnal pattern similar to that of HOA, oxidized organic aerosol (OOA), and biomass burning aerosol (BBOA). While quantitatively separating the influence of diesel vs. gasoline proved impossible, a low HOA : black carbon ratio, similar to that measured in other high-diesel environments, and high levels of NOx, also indicative of diesel emissions, were observed. A comparison between these high-diesel environment measurements and measurements taken in low-diesel (North American) environments was examined and the potential feedback between vehicular emissions and SOA formation was probed. Although the measurement site was located next to a large source of primary emissions, which are

  12. Direct measurements of near-highway emissions in a high diesel environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. DeWitt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Diesel-powered passenger cars currently outnumber gasoline-powered cars in many countries, particularly in Europe. In France, diesel cars represented 61% of Light Duty Vehicles in 2011 and this percentage is still increasing (French Environment and Energy Management Agency, ADEME. As part of the September~2011 joint PM-DRIVE (Particulate Matter- DiRect and Indirect on-road Vehicular Emissions and MOCOPO (Measuring and mOdeling traffic COngestion and POllution field campaign, the concentration and high-resolution chemical composition of aerosols and volatile organic carbon (VOC species were measured adjacent to a major urban highway south of Grenoble, France. Alongside these atmospheric measurements, detailed traffic data were collected from nearby traffic cameras and loop detectors, which allowed the identification of vehicle type and characteristics, traffic concentration, and traffic speed to be quantified and compared to measured aerosol and VOCs. Six aerosol age and source profiles were resolved using the positive matrix factorization (PMF model on real-time high-resolution aerosol mass spectra. These six aerosol source/age categories included a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA commonly associated with primary vehicular emissions, a nitrogen containing aerosol (NOA with a diurnal pattern similar to that of HOA, oxidized organic aerosol (OOA, and biomass burning aerosol (BBOA. While quantitatively separating the influence of diesel vs. gasoline proved impossible, a low HOA : black carbon ratio, similar to that measured in other high-diesel environments, and high levels of NOx, also indicative of diesel emissions, were observed. A comparison between these high-diesel environment measurements and measurements taken in low-diesel (North American environments was examined and the potential feedback between vehicular emissions and SOA formation was probed. Although the measurement site was located next to a large source of primary emissions

  13. Elementi di trasmissione del calore

    CERN Document Server

    Guglielmini, Giovanni

    1990-01-01

    Introduzione ; concetti fondamentali di conduzione termica ; conduzione termica in regime stazionario ; conduzione termica in regime variabile ; analisi numerica nei problemi do conduzione ; concetti fondamentali di convezione termica ; convezione forzata ; convezione naturale ; scambio termico in ebollizione e condensazione ; concetti fondamentali di radiazione termica ; scambio termico per radiazione ; scambiatori di calore ; problemi termici negli edifici.

  14. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  15. Effects of MTBE blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions; MTBE kongo keiyu ga diesel nensho haiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shundo, S.; Yokota, H.; Kakegawa, T. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of MTBE (Methyl-t-butyl ether) blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions were studied. In conventional diesel combustion, the testing mode was carried out in conformity with the Japanese 13 mode. Furthermore, this fuel was applied to a new combustion system (Homogeneous Charge Intelligent Multiple Injection). MTBE blended diesel fuel is more effective in the case of new combustion system and very low NOx, PM capability is suggested. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Effects of natural gas composition on ignition delay under diesel conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, J. D.; Siebers, D. L.; Dijulio, S. S.; Westbrook, C. K.

    1993-12-01

    Effects of variations in natural gas composition on autoignition of natural gas under direct-injection (DI) diesel engine conditions were studied experimentally in a constant-volume combustion vessel and computationally using a chemical kinetic model. Four fuel blends were investigated: pure methane, a capacity weighted mean natural gas, a high ethane content natural gas, and a natural gas with added propane typical of peak shaving conditions. Experimentally measured ignition delays were longest for pure methane and became progressively shorter as ethane and propane concentrations increased. At conditions characteristic of a DI compression ignition natural gas engine at Top Dead Center (CR = 23:1, p = 6.8 MPa, T = 1150K), measured ignition delays for the four fuels varied from 1.8 ms for the peak shaving and high ethane gases to 2.7 ms for pure methane. Numerically predicted variations in ignition delay as a function of natural gas composition agreed with these measurements.

  17. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  18. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  19. Desempenho de motor ciclo Diesel em bancada dinamométrica utilizando misturas diesel/biodiesel Performance of cycle Diesel engine in dynamometer using diesel/biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Castellanelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diante da previsão de escassez do petróleo, o éster etílico (biodiesel tem-se apresentado como excelente opção de combustível alternativo para motores ciclo Diesel. As características do biodiesel são semelhantes às do diesel em termos de viscosidade e poder calorífico, podendo ser utilizado sem adaptações nos motores. Para a realização deste trabalho, utilizou-se de motor ciclo Diesel, de injeção direta, com quatro cilindros, sem adaptações. O motor foi acoplado a um dinamômetro e sistemas de aquisição de dados auxiliares. Avaliaram-se os desempenhos de torque, de potência e de consumo específico de combustível para as seguintes misturas diesel/éster etílico de soja: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 e B100. O melhor desempenho registrado deu-se com a mistura B20.Given the prediction of the scarcity of oil, the ethyl ester (biodiesel has presented as an excellent alternative fuel option for cycle diesel engine. The characteristics of biodiesel are similar of diesel in terms of viscosity and the calorific power, being able to be used without adaptations in the engines. For the accomplishment of this work it was used a cycle diesel engine, of direct injection with four cylinders, without adaptations. The engine was connected to a dynamometer and acquisition systems of auxiliary data. The performances of torque, power and specific fuel consumption for the following mixtures diesel/soy ethyl ester had been evaluated: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 and B100. The best registered performance was given with the B20 mixture.

  20. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70`s by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his `Adiabatic Diesel Engine` in the late 70`s. Kamo`s concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo`s work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as `convection vive.` Woschni`s work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components.

  1. Experimental study on particulate and NOx emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel, RME-diesel blends and PME-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Wugao; Liu, Wei; Huang, Zhen

    2010-02-01

    Ultra low sulfur diesel and two different kinds of biodiesel fuels blended with baseline diesel fuel in 5% and 20% v/v were tested in a Cummins 4BTA direct injection diesel engine, with a turbocharger and an intercooler. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at two steady speeds (1500 rpm and 2500 rpm). The study aims at investigating the engine performance, NO(x) emission, smoke opacity, PM composition, PM size distribution and comparing the impacts of low sulfur content of biodiesel with ULSD on the particulate emission. The results indicate that, compared to base diesel fuel, the increase of biodiesel in blends could cause certain increase in both brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends bring about more NO(x) emissions. With the proportion of biodiesel increase in blends, the smoke opacity decreases, while total particle number concentration increases. Meanwhile the ULSD gives lower NO(x) emissions, smoke opacity and total number concentration than those of baseline diesel fuel. In addition, the percentages of SOF and sulfate in particulates increase with biodiesel in blends, while the dry soot friction decreases obviously. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends increase the total nucleation number concentration, while ULSD reduces the total nucleation number concentration effectively, although they all have lower sulfur content. It means that, for ULSD, the lower sulfur content is the dominant factor for suppressing nucleation particles formation, while for biodiesel blends, lower volatile, lower aromatic content and higher oxygen content of biodiesel are key factors for improving the nucleation particles formation. The results demonstrate that the higher NO(x) emission and total nucleation number concentration are considered as the big obstacles of the application of biodiesel in diesel engine.

  2. Comparative naval architecture analysis of diesel submarines

    OpenAIRE

    Torkelson, Kai Oscar

    2005-01-01

    CIVINS Many comparative naval architecture analyses of surface ships have been performed, but few published comparative analyses of submarines exist. Of the several design concept papers, reports and studies that have been written on submarines, no exclusively diesel submarine comparative naval architecture analyses have been published. One possible reason for few submarine studies may be the lack of complete and accurate information regarding the naval architecture of foreign diesel subma...

  3. Album di famiglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Donati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In un articolo del 1821 dedicato al grande satirico tedesco Jean Paul, Thomas de Quincey – il celebre autore di Confessions of an English opium-eater, libro amatissimo da Baudelaire e Poe – asseriva che «[...] in ogni atto dell'umore umoristico c'è un influsso di natura morale: raggi, diretti e rifratti, generati dalla volontà e dagli affetti, dall'indole e dal temperamento, penetrano in ogni umorismo; e da qui deriva che l'umorismo è di carattere diffusivo, pervadendo un intero corso di pensieri». Un'osservazione che mi pare consentanea al panorama tracciato da Giancarlo Alfano ne L'umorismo letterario. Una lunga storia europea, volume dove...

  4. Manuale di ottica

    CERN Document Server

    Giusfredi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Questo libro costituisce un fondamento solido per la conoscenza dell’Ottica Fisica, presentando vari modi di trattare la propagazione di onde elettromagnetiche e indicando quali siano i metodi utili a specifici casi. Iniziando dall’elettromagnetismo, la riflessione, la rifrazione e la dispersione delle onde, espone argomenti quali l’Ottica Geometrica, l’Interferenza, la Diffrazione, la Coerenza, i fasci Laser, la Polarizzazione, la Cristallografia e l’Anisotropia. Tratta componenti ottici come lenti, specchi, prismi, interferometri classici, Fabry-Perot e cavità risonanti, multistrati dielettrici, filtri interferenziali e spaziali, reticoli di diffrazione, polarizzatori e lamine birifrangenti. Vi sono inoltre argomenti poco reperibili, come il metodo delle matrici 4x4 per lo studio di fronti d’onda generalmente astigmatici, i metodi numerici tramite FFT per il calcolo della diffrazione, e la Bi-anisotropia, che tratta relativisticamente l’attività ottica e gli effetti Faraday e Fresnel-Fizeau....

  5. Stili di pensiero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sternberg

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussioni degli stili dell’autogoverno mentale e le potenzialita' che presentono per comprendere meglio i vari modi di pensare e apprendere e a scoprire le nostre preferenze individuali.

  6. Appunti di meccanica relativistica

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, Carlo

    1972-01-01

    Gli assiomi della fisica classica ; esame di alcuni esperimenti ottici alla luce dei principi della fisica classica ; i fondamenti generali della relatività ; conferme sperimentali della cinematica relativistica ; dinamica del punto materiale.

  7. Il libro di fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Asimov, Isaac

    1986-01-01

    Isaac Asimov, illustre studioso e brillante divulgatore scientifico, ma anche grandissimo scrittore di science fiction, ha costruito questa volta una vera e propria «biografia delle scienze fisiche». Il presente volume, che nel mondo anglosassone è diventato una «bibbia della fisica», ci introduce, in forma semplice ma rigorosa, ai segreti dei quasar e dei buchi neri, dei quark e degli acceleratori di particelle, dell'intelligenza artificiale e delle fonti di energia, sia essa quella «sporca» sia quella «pulita». Un vero, completo manuale, ma anche un «romanzo» affascinante sia per il profano sia per l'uomo di scienza.

  8. Note di fotonica

    CERN Document Server

    Degiorgio, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    L’invenzione del laser ha generato una vera rivoluzione nella scienza e nella tecnologia e ha dato luogo alla nascita di una nuova disciplina chiamata Fotonica. Le applicazioni della Fotonica che hanno un impatto cruciale in molti ambiti della nostra vita sono le comunicazioni in fibra ottica su cui si basa il funzionamento di Internet e del traffico telefonico su grandi distanze, i dischi ottici (CD, DVD, Blu-ray), la sensoristica ottica di tipo industriale e ambientale, la lavorazione dei materiali e la chirurgia con il laser, l’illuminazione con i LED. Questa seconda edizione contiene diversi ampliamenti e modifiche al testo pubblicato nel 2012, che ha colmato un vuoto nel panorama italiano di testi universitari riguardanti la Fotonica. Dopo avere esposto in modo sintetico ma rigoroso i concetti che stanno alla base del funzionamento del laser e della propagazione della luce nella materia, sono descritti i principali componenti e dispositivi ottici e optoelettronici, quali le fibre ottiche, gli amplifi...

  9. Detection of Red Dye in Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Varughese

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing a sensitive and effective instrument for detecting the presence of red dye in diesel fuel is very advantageous for governments in preventing tax loss by controlling illegal use of the diesel fuel. The objective of this work has been to investigate and develop an instrument to detect red dye in diesel, based on the principle of absorption. The peaks of absorption in red and pure diesel fuel were measured with the help of UV-spectrometer (Lambda 6/ PECSS. Optical interference filters of wavelengths 405 nm and 616 nm were used to modify the spectral transmittance of an optical system with appropriate spectral absorption characteristics. Two simultaneous light beams of two different colors were sent into the diesel fuel and the transmitted light from the fuel censored by a silicon photo detector. The signal from the detector was then amplified with the help of three operational amplifiers (OP-177 and sent to an analog device (AD 538 which can perform division operation. The voltage produced when the violet light passes through the medium was divided when the red light passes through the medium in the one quadrant division unit (AD 538. The output voltage from the analog device was measured with the help of a digital multi-meter. The results show that the output voltages decreases with the increase in percentage of red dye in diesel fuel.

  10. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  11. cimitero di Praga' di Umberto Eco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Cossu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Examples of Cultural Anti-Semitism in Umberto Eco’s Novel Il cimitero di PragaThe article draws upon Umberto Eco’s recent novel, Il cimitero di Praga, in the consideration of the relationship between narrative fiction and the collective imagination in regards to the genesis and dispersion of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in the second half of the nineteenth century. A dangerous and mysterious text, The Protocols evoked general clamor and persecutory backlash, as it appeared to document the existence of a Judeo-Masonic conspiracy.In the work, the author also reconstructs sources of the fictional text and traces the historical, political and editorial events surrounding it, plunging into them with a gritty and irreverent realism in a chronicle of the obsession that flowed into the madness of the Shoah.Treating the subject, which is found elsewhere in the scholar’s oeuvre, requires mention of the repertoire of prejudicial accusations against the Jews throughout history, which creates, toward the end of the book, a heated and contentious debate regarding whether such delicate and reckless statements should even be made public at all. This article questions the authorial strategy in Il cimitero di Praga, and considers the novel’s literary agenda, which can be almost interpreted as a call for vigilance against manifestations of anti-Semitism still present in today’s cultural imagination.

  12. Circulating factors induce coronary endothelial ceIl activation foIlowing exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust and nitrogen dioxide in humans :Evidence from a novel translational in vitro model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen di...

  13. Determination and distribution of diesel components in igneous rock surrounding underground diesel storage facilities in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren, A; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K; Abrahamsson, K

    2001-01-15

    In Sweden, a preliminary investigation of the contamination situation of igneous rock surrounding underground storage facilities of diesel showed that the situation was severe. The diesel was believed to have penetrated into the rock as far as 50 m from the walls of the vaults. Consequently, the risk for contamination of groundwater and recipients could not be neglected. To be able to assess the fate of diesel components in rock, both a suitable drilling method and a method for the determination of a wide range of diesel components were needed. The analytical method presented made it possible to quantify a number of hydrocarbons in rock samples collected with triple-tube core drilling. The samples were dissolved in hydrofluoric acid (HF) with hexane in Teflon centrifuge tubes. After digestion of the rock, extraction of the analytes with hexane was performed. Determination of the individual hydrocarbons present was done with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method was used to study the environmental impact of the underground storage of diesel. The drilling method enabled sampling without contamination risks. Our data show that the major transport of diesel components in rock occurs through fracture systems and that diffusion of diesel through the rock is of minor importance. The results have drastically changed the view of the contamination situation of diesel in the vicinity of storage facilities in hard rock in Sweden.

  14. The Effect of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on The Performance of A Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Nur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on a conventional direct injection diesel engine. Performance test was carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a conventional diesel engine that operates on ethanol-diesel blends. The test procedure was performed by coupling the diesel engine on the eddy current dynamometer. Fuel consumption was measured using the AVL Fuel Balance, and a hotwire anemometer was used to measure the air consumption. Some of the emission test devices were mounted on the exhaust pipe. The test of fuel variations started from 100% diesel fuel (D100 to 2.5% (DE2.5, 5% (DE5, 7.5% (DE7.5, and 10% (DE10 ethanol additions. Performance test was conducted at 1500 rpm with load variations from 0 to 60 Nm by increasing the load on each level by 10 Nm. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel (DE5 increased the average pressure of combustion chamber indication to 48% as well as reduced the specific fuel consumption to 9.5%. There were better exhaust emission characteristics at this mixture ratio than diesel engine which used pure diesel fuel (D100, the reduction of CO to 37%, HC to 44% and opacity to 15.9%.

  15. Commonised diesel and gasoline catalyst architecture; Standardisierte Katalysatorarchitektur fuer Diesel- und Ottomotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurell, Mats; Sjoers, Johan; Wernlund, Bjoern [Volvo Car Corporation, Goeteborg (Sweden); Brueck, Rolf [Emitec Gesellschaft fuer Emissionstechnologie mbH, Lohmar (Germany). Forschung, Entwicklung und Applikation

    2013-11-01

    Volvo Cars has developed a standardised catalytic converter architecture for diesel and gasoline engines - the scalable so-called Compact Cat. The system covers both Euro 6 and SULEV applications for gasoline engines as well as Euro 6 applications for diesel engines. The standardised design using shared parts results in a considerable reduction in unit costs and tooling requirements. (orig.)

  16. The potential of di-methyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel for compression-ignition engines: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Arcoumanis, C.; Bae, C.; Crookes, R.; Kinoshita, E

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the properties and application of di-methyl ether (DME) as a candidate fuel for compression-ignition engines. DME is produced by the conversion of various feedstock such as natural gas, coal, oil residues and bio-mass. To determine the technical feasibility of DME, the review compares its key properties with those of diesel fuel that are relevant to this application. DME’s diesel engine-compatible properties are its high cetane number and low auto-ignition temperature. In a...

  17. Marie Darrieussecq, Rapporto di polizia. Le accuse di plagio e altri metodi di controllo della scrittura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Scaffai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A Marie Darrieussecq è successo qualcosa di strano. Non è il fatto di essere nata in Francia, a Bayonne, nel 1969. Né di essere una scrittrice (oltre che una studiosa di letteratura e una psicanalista, che ha pubblicato fiction, racconti autobiografici, saggi letterari. Questo non è così strano. Lo è invece il fatto che metà dei suoi romanzi siano stati considerati, da lettori diversi e soprattutto da altri scrittori, prodotti di «imitazione», «copia», «plagio psichico», o addirittura di «sottrazione di manoscritto»

  18. Stress indotto dalla guida di autoveicoli: studio di parametri psicofisiologici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vivoli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    La guida di un autoveicolo, specie in condizioni di intenso traffico o di cattive condizioni meteoclimatiche, è considerata uno dei principali fattori stressanti della vita odierna. Durante la guida si possono infatti osservare significative risposte simpatoadrenergiche e cardiovascolari con la comparsa anche di episodi coronarici. Tali risposte presentano un’ampia variabilità interindividuale in quanto sono influenzate da vari fattori (stile di vita, personalità etc..

    In questa rassegna, vengono presentati i principali risultati degli studi da noi condotti sulle risposte psicofisiologiche indotte dalla guida di diversi tipi di autoveicoli. In conducenti di autobus urbani è stato registrato un sensibile aumento del tasso urinario di adrenalina durante il turno lavorativo rispetto alla stessa fascia oraria di un giorno di riposo. Tale risposta adrenergica era esaltata dall’abitudine tabagica e dall’assunzione di caffè e bevande alcoliche. In soggetti che alla guida di camion coprono lunghe distanze, i più elevati tassi urinari di catecolamine e i più alti livelli di frequenza cardiaca sono stati registrati quando la guida era particolarmente stressante per la presenza di nebbia o di intenso traffico. In soggetti che partecipano, a livello amatoriale, a manifestazioni agonistiche di velocità su pista, abbiamo osservato che durante la gara, rispetto al periodo pre-gara, l’escrezione urinaria di catecolamine aumenta in misura molto rilevante. Analogamente a quanto osservato in autisti di camion, l’attivazione del sistema adrenergico è risultata direttamente associata ai livelli di ansietà. Dall’elettrocardiogramma dinamico è emerso che durante la gara la frequenza cardiaca raggiunge un valore medio di 163.5±7.4 battiti/min. (range: 146,180 battiti/min..

    Un significativo peggioramento della percezione visiva stereoscopica, con potenziale ricaduta negativa sulla performance dei guidatori, è stato osservato in

  19. diesel-biogás para generación de electricidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Bedoya Caro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la caracterización mecánica y ambiental de un motor de encendido por compresión (MEC para generación de electricidad, operando con diesel y en modo dual diesel-biogás. El motor ha sido acoplado a un generador eléctrico y evaluado a un régimen de 1.800 rpm con varios grados de carga, el biogás se ha simulado con una composición típica de 60% metano (CH4 y 40% de dióxido de carbono (CO2. Se han encontrado disminuciones en la eficiencia efectiva al reducir la cantidad de combustible piloto en modo dual, al igual que aumentos considerables en las emisiones de CH4 y monóxido de carbono (CO, la opacidad del humo no varía significativamente en modo dual, pero muestra una reducción drástica al compararla con las medidas para el motor en modo diesel. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la importancia del uso del biogás como alternativa para mecanismos de desarrollo limpio y como aporte a la disminución de la dependencia energética y económica de los combustibles fósiles

  20. La Madonna delle Grazie di San Pietro di Silki. Problemi di un’iconografia mariana

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Grazia Scano Naitza

    2012-01-01

    Il piccolo simulacro in terracotta policroma della Madonna con il Bambino della chiesa di S. Pietro di Silki a Sassari, venerato come Madonna delle Grazie , pone problemi riguardo sia all’intitolazione, solitamente riferita alla Virgo lactans  e qui ad indicare il suo ruolo di mediatrice di grazie, sia alla datazione. Secondo le fonti agiografiche la statuetta, sepolta da secoli, fu ritrovata scavando su indicazione di Bernardino da Feltre presso una colonna stazionaria crollata nel 1472 su u...

  1. ll paesaggio agrario italiano: nuove forme di analisi. Il caso di studio del Comune di Roma.

    OpenAIRE

    Di Somma, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Il seguente contributo si pone l'obiettivo di fornire strumenti utili a descrivere l'attuale struttura del paesaggio agrario italiano attraverso l'impiego del Corine Land Cover 2006, un programma in grado di offrire una visione organica e completa dell'evoluzione di un territorio. I risultati prodotti hanno permesso di elaborare una sintesi cartografica e statistica per la comprensione dei fenomeni riguardanti la struttura paesaggistica agraria italiana a scala regionale. La produzione di que...

  2. Experimental investigation of a diesel engine with methyl ester of mango seed oil and diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayaraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat mango seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments are conducted using various blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The experimental results of this study showed that the MEMSO biodiesel has similar characteristics to those of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke density are observed to be lower in case of MEMSO biodiesel blends than diesel. The CO emission for B25, B50 and B75 is observed to be lower than diesel at full load, whereas for B100 it is higher at all loads. On the other hand, BSFC and NOx of MEMSO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. It is found that the combustion characteristics of all blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil showed similar trends with those of the baseline diesel. From this study, it is concluded that optimized blend is B25 and could be used as a viable alternative fuel in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any modifications.

  3. Monitoring of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheepers, P.

    1994-12-01

    In Chapter 1 the origin and toxicity of incomplete combustion products of diesel fuel are discussed. Chapter 2 deals with methods that can be used for the identification and quantitation of airborne diesel exhaust-derived contaminants in the working place (environmental monitoring). Chemical substances may be used as indicators for source apportionment or markers for toxicity. A short-term in vitro bioassay may be used for (semi)quantitative determination of the mutagenic potency of diesel exhaust-derived airborne contaminants. Results are presented that support the use of 1-nitropyrene as a marker for the mutagenic activity of diesel exhaust particulate extracts. In Chapter 3 the development of methods for the determination of diesel exhaust-derived metabolites in biological samples is described. The application of new Salmonella typhimurium strains for the detection of urinary metabolites of nitroarenes is investigated. An immunoassay is presented as a method that may be used to track down persons with high occupational exposure to diesel exhaust. The possibilities for measurement of early biological effects are explored in Chapter 4. A method for the determination of hemoglobin adducts was used to investigate the role of the intestinal micro flora in the formation of such adducts derived from diesel exhaust constituents in rats equipped with a human micro flora. The formation of hemoglobin adducts is compared to the formation of DNA adducts in rats treated with two model compounds, in the presence or absence of a micro flora. The applicability of the described methods is discussed in Chapter 5. Prospects and recommendations for future research are given. 23 figs., 41 tabs., 660 refs., 4 appendices

  4. Stationary engine test of diesel cycle using diesel oil and biodiesel (B100); Ensaio de motores estacionarios do ciclo diesel utilizando oleo diesel e biodiesel (B100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEQ/DEM/EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], Email: ednildo@ufba.br; Santos, Danilo Cardoso [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPEQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Daniel Vidigal D.; Peixoto, Leonardo Barbosa; Franca, Tiago [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work objectified to test an engine stationary of the cycle diesel, having as combustible diesel fossil and bio diesel. The characteristic curves of power, torque and emissions versus rotation of the engine was elaborated. The survey of these curves was carried through in the Laboratorio de Energia e Gas da Escola Politecnica da UFBA, which makes use of two stationary dynamometers and the one of chassis and necessary instrumentation for you analyze of the exhaustion gases. The tested engine was of the mark AGRALE, M-85 model stationary type, mono cylinder, with power NF (NBRISO 1585) Cv/kw/rpm 10/7,4/2500. The assays had been carried through in a hydraulically dynamometer mark Schenck, D-210 model. The fuel consumption was measured in a scale marks Filizola model BP-6, and too much ground handling equipment such as: water reservoir, tubings, valves controllers of volumetric outflow, sensors and measurers of rotation, torque, mass, connected to a system of acquisition of data on line. The emissions of the gases (CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx), were measured by the analytical Tempest mark, model 100. The engine operated with oil diesel and bio diesel of oils and residual fats (OGR). In the tests, the use of the fuel derived from oil and the gotten ones from OGR was not detected significant differences how much. In this phase already it can show to the immediate possibility of the substitution of the oil diesel for bio diesel as combustible in the stationary engines of low power (author)

  5. The comparison of engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of sesame oil-diesel fuel mixture with diesel fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Bulut, Huesamettin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osmanbey Campus, Harran University, 63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    The use of vegetable oils as a fuel in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with conventional diesel fuel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. One of these techniques is fuel blending. In this study, a blend of 50% sesame oil and 50% diesel fuel was used as an alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power and torque of the mixture of sesame oil-diesel fuel are close to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that blend of sesame oil and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative fuel successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and also it is an environmental friendly fuel in terms of emission parameters. (author)

  6. Elementi di interfaccia per l’analisi di strutture murarie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Toti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Il presente articolo riguarda la modellazione del comportamento meccanico di elementi in muratura intesi come sistemi eterogenei composti da malta, blocchi ed interfacce di connessione. La strategiacomputazionale che viene adottata consiste nel modellare separatamente i blocchi, i letti di malta ed le interfacce responsabili di fenomeni di decoesione malta-blocco; a tale scopo, si propone uno speciale modello di interfaccia che combina il danneggiamento con l’attrito. Si sviluppa una procedura numerica, basata sull’algoritmo backward di Eulero, per risolvere il problema evolutivo; per il passo temporale si utilizza invece la tecnica predictor-corrector a controllo di spostamenti. Si effettuano alcune applicazioni numeriche con lo scopodi verificare la capacità del modello e dell’algoritmo proposto nel riprodurre la risposta non lineare della muratura dovuta a fenomeni di degrado localizzati. Infine, si conduce lo studio della modellazione di un arco murario, confrontando i risultati numerici con quelli sperimentali; si dimostra la abilità del modello proposto nel simulare il comportamento globale della struttura ad arco in termini di carico ultimo e di meccanismo di collasso.

  7. Performance, emission and economic assessment of clove stem oil-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarawa, Makame [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    In this study the performance, emission and economic evaluation of using the clove stem oil (CSO)-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engine have been carried out. Experiments were performed to evaluate the impact of the CSO-diesel blended fuels on the engine performance and emissions. The societal life cycle cost (LCC) was chosen as an important indicator for comparing alternative fuel operating modes. The LCC using the pure diesel fuel, 25% CSO and 50% CSO-diesel blended fuels in diesel engine are analysed. These costs include the vehicle first cost, fuel cost and exhaust emissions cost. A complete macroeconomic assessment of the effect of introducing the CSO-diesel blended fuels to the diesel engine is not included in the study. Engine tests show that performance parameters of the CSO-diesel blended fuels do not differ greatly from those of the pure diesel fuel. Slight power losses, combined with an increase in fuel consumption, were experienced with the CSO-diesel blended fuels. This is due to the low heating value of the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Emissions of CO and HC are low for the CSO-diesel blended fuels. NO{sub x} emissions were increased remarkably when the engine was fuelled with the 50% CSO-diesel blended fuel operation mode. A remarkable reduction in the exhaust smoke emissions can be achieved when operating on the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Based on the LCC analysis, the CSO-diesel blended fuels would not be competitive with the pure diesel fuel, even though the environmental impact of emission is valued monetarily. This is due to the high price of the CSO. (author)

  8. In ricordo di Vittorio Bianchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Cutolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vittorio Bianchi fu Ernesto e fu Mary Sbertoli naque a Cogoleto (Genova il 17 febbraio 1919. Laureato in Medicina e Chirurgia presso l’Università di Genova nel 1943 con lode fu Allievo interno della Clinica Medica di Genova negli anni 1942 e 1943, Assistente Volontario alla Clinica Medica di Perugia, quindi della Clinica Medica di Genova negli anni seguenti dove fu nominato Assistente di ruolo per concorso nel 1950. Successivamente Assistente di ruolo alla Patologia Medica diretta dal prof. Aminta Fieschi nel periodo 1954- 1969....

  9. 40 CFR 80.550 - What is the definition of a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small refiner under this subpart? (a) A motor...-operational between January 1, 1999, and January 1, 2000, may apply for motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  10. Adams natural gas/diesel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    The results of a ore-year program to demonstrate the viability of fuelling and operating diesel road vehicles on dual fuel natural gas/diesel under commercial operating conditions is presented. During this project a natural gas fuelling station designed to accomodate the specific needs of heavy trucks was constructed, and a Canada Safeway Ltd. tractor was converted to dual fuel natural gas/diesel operation. The truck accumulated more than 64,000 km during the one-year monitoring period, providing useful data in terms of comparative fuel efficiency, natural gas/diesel proportions of fuel use, operating range, and refuelling times, along with assessments of its performance by drivers and fleet management. In the dual fuel mode the truck experienced a 15% loss in thermal efficiency relative to straight diesel fuel during highway operation, and a 20% loss during local operation. Fuel cost savings resulting from the use of natural gas were not large given the increased level of fuel consumption and the purchase of natural gas at higher prices. If the fleet were to have its own natural gas fuelling station fuel cost savings would be substantially increased. Areas in which further development is needed for natural gas to emerge as a significant fuel for heavy trucks are mentioned. 3 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Dual fuel diesel engine operation using LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirica, I.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Cernat, Al; Nutu, N. C.

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine fuelling with LPG represents a good solution to reduce the pollutant emissions and to improve its energetic performances. The high autoignition endurance of LPG requires specialized fuelling methods. From all possible LPG fuelling methods the authors chose the diesel-gas method because of the following reasons: is easy to be implemented even at already in use engines; the engine does not need important modifications; the LPG-air mixture has a high homogeneity with favorable influences over the combustion efficiency and over the level of the pollutant emissions, especially on the nitrogen oxides emissions. This paper presents results of the theoretical and experimental investigations on operation of a LPG fuelled heavy duty diesel engine at two operating regimens, 40% and 55%. For 55% engine load is also presented the exhaust gas recirculation influence on the pollutant emission level. Was determined the influence of the diesel fuel with LPG substitution ratio on the combustion parameters (rate of heat released, combustion duration, maximum pressure, maximum pressure rise rate), on the energetic parameters (indicate mean effective pressure, effective efficiency, energetic specific fuel consumption) and on the pollutant emissions level. Therefore with increasing substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG are obtained the following results: the increase of the engine efficiency, the decrease of the specific energetic consumption, the increase of the maximum pressure and of the maximum pressure rise rate (considered as criteria to establish the optimum substitute ratio), the accentuated reduction of the nitrogen oxides emissions level.

  12. Particulate matters from diesel engine exhaust emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Velimir S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by diesel engine emissions, especially particulate matters and nitric oxides emissions, is one of the biggest problems of current transportation. In the near future the emission of diesel particulate matters will become one of the most important factors that will affect the trend of engine development. Ambient airborne particles have adverse environmental and health effects and therefore their concentration in the air is regulated. Recent medical studies showed that different particle properties are important (for example: number/concentration, active surface, chemical composition/morphology and may take role in the responsibility for their human health impact. Thus, diesel engines are one of the most important sources of particles in the atmosphere, especially in urban areas. Studying health effects and diesel engine particulate properties, it has been concluded that they are a complex mixture of solids and liquids. Biological activity of particulate matter may be related to particle sizes and their number. The paper presents the activities of UN-ECE working group PMP on defining the best procedure and methodology for the measurement of passenger cars diesel engines particle mass and number concentrations. The results of inter-laboratory emissions testing are presented for different engine technologies with special attention on repeatability and reproducibility of measured data. .

  13. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1995-03-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70`s by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also to provide protection. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the thermal barrier coatings will be to reduce thermal fatigue as the engine peak cylinder pressure will nearly be doubled. As the coatings result in higher available energy in the exhaust gas, efficiency gains are achieved through use of this energy by turbochargers, turbocompounding or thermoelectric generators.

  14. Gli atomi di Boltzmann

    CERN Document Server

    Lindley, David

    2002-01-01

    Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906) è il fisico e matematico austriaco che negli ultimi decenni dell'Ottocento e ancora ai primi del Novecento lottò contro l'opinione dominante tra gli scienziati dell'epoca per affermare la teoria atomica della materia. È noto come con Albert Einstein e fino a oggi la fisica si sia sviluppata e abbia celebrato i propri trionfi lungo le linee anticipate da Boltzmann. La controversia con Mach non riguardava soltanto l'esistenza degli atomi, ma l'intero modo di fare fisica che Boltzmann non riteneva di dover limitare allo studio di quantità misurabili, introducendo invece spiegazioni più elaborate basate su ipotesi più ampie.

  15. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srithar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces the crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biodiesel has obtained from vegetable oils that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The researches regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. The present study brings out an experiment of two biodiesels from pongamia pinnata oil and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of dual biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled and high speed diesel engine at various engine loads with constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. The influences of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A was found higher than diesel. The emissions of smoke, hydro carbon and nitrogen oxides of dual biodiesel blends were higher than that of diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends was lower than diesel.

  16. Diesel biodegradation capacities of indigenous bacterial species isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Nandhini; Ramya, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Srilakshman; Vasanthi, Ns; Chandran, Preethy; Khan, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum based products are the major source of energy for industries and daily life. Leaks and accidental spills occur regularly during the exploration, production, refining, transport, and storage of petroleum and petroleum products. In the present study we isolated the bacteria from diesel contaminated soil and screened them for diesel biodegradation capacity. One monoculture isolate identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be Acinetobacter baumannii was further studied for diesel oil biodegradation. The effects of various culture parameters (pH, temperature, NaCl concentrations, initial hydrocarbon concentration, initial inoculum size, role of chemical surfactant, and role of carbon and nitrogen sources) on biodegradation of diesel oil were evaluated. Optimal diesel oil biodegradation by A. baumanii occurred at initial pH 7, 35°C and initial hydrocarbon concentration at 4%. The biodegradation products under optimal cultural conditions were analyzed by GC-MS. The present study suggests that A. baumannii can be used for effective degradation of diesel oil from industrial effluents contaminated with diesel oil.

  17. Effects of Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel on combustion and emissions of direct injection diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcheng HUANG; Shangxue WANG; Longbao ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Effects of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel on the combustion and emission characteristics of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine under different fuel delivery advance angles were investigated. The experi-mental results show that F-T diesel fuel exhibits shorter ignition delay, lower peak values of premixed burning rate, lower combustion pressure and pressure rise rate, and higher peak value of diffusion burning rate than con-ventional diesel fuel when the engine remains unmodified. In addition, the unmodified engine with F-T diesel fuel has lower brake specific fuel consumption and higher effective thermal efficiency, and presents lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions than conventional diesel fuel. When fuel delivery advance angle is retarded by 3 crank angle degrees, the combustion duration is obviously shor-tened; the peak values of premixed burning rate, the com-bustion pressure and pressure rise rate are further reduced; and the peak value of diffusion burning rate is further increased for F-T diesel fuel operation, Moreover, the retardation of fuel delivery advance angle results in a further significant reduction in NOx emissions with no penalty on specific fuel consumption and with much less penalty on HC, CO and smoke emissions.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A DIESEL ENGINE WITH BLENDS OF DIESEL-PLASTIC PYROLYSIS OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Rajesh Guntur,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and depletion of oil reserves are matters of great concern around the globe. Developing countries like India depend heavily on crude oil import of about 125 Mt per annum (7:1diesel/gasoline. Diesel being the main transportation fuel in India, finding a suitable fuel alternative to diesel is an urgent need. In this context, pyrolysis of waste plastic solid is currently receiving renewed interest. Waste plastic pyrolysis oil is suitable for compression ignition engines and more attention is focused in India because of its potential to generate large-scale employment and relatively low environmental degradation. In the present work the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, constant speed, and direct injection diesel engine using waste plastic pyrolysis oil blends as an alternate fuel were evaluated and the results are compared with the standard diesel fuel operation. Results indicated that the brake thermal efficiency was highercompared to diesel at part load condition. Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions were higher and oxygen emission was lower compared to diesel operation.

  19. Diesel combustion and emissions formation using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Understanding how emissions are formed during diesel combustion is central to developing new engines that can comply with increasingly stringent emission standards while maintaining or improving performance levels. Laser-based planar imaging diagnostics are uniquely capable of providing the temporally and spatially resolved information required for this understanding. Using an optically accessible research engine, a variety of two-dimensional (2-D) imaging diagnostics have been applied to investigators of direct-injection (DI) diesel combustion and emissions formation. These optical measurements have included the following laser-sheet imaging data: Mie scattering to determine liquid-phase fuel distributions, Rayleigh scattering for quantitative vapor-phase-fuel/air mixture images, laser induced incandescence (LII) for relative soot concentrations, simultaneous LII and Rayleigh scattering for relative soot particle-size distributions, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to obtain early PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbon) distributions, PLIF images of the OH radical that show the diffusion flame structure, and PLIF images of the NO radical showing the onset of NO{sub x} production. In addition, natural-emission chemiluminescence images were obtained to investigate autoignition. The experimental setup is described, and the image data showing the most relevant results are presented. Then the conceptual model of diesel combustion is summarized in a series of idealized schematics depicting the temporal and spatial evolution of a reacting diesel fuel jet during the time period investigated. Finally, recent PLIF images of the NO distribution are presented and shown to support the timing and location of NO formation hypothesized from the conceptual model.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Bio-Diesel Obtained From Waste Cooking Oil and Its Blends with Diesel on Single Cylinder Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. B. Sharma; Dr. Amit Pal

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment a comprehensive experimental investigation of bio-diesel oil on single cylinder engine running with biodiesel obtained from Waste cooking oil and its blends with diesel was carried...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1905-1 - Diesel fuel piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel fuel piping systems. 75.1905-1 Section... Diesel fuel piping systems. (a) Diesel fuel piping systems from the surface must be designed and operated... spillage of fuel and that activates an alarm system. (b) All piping, valves and fittings must be—...

  2. No Breathing in the Aisles: Diesel Exhaust inside School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M.; Campbell, Todd R.; Feuer, Gail Ruderman; Masters, Julie; Samkian, Artineh; Paul, Kavita Ann

    There is evidence that diesel exhaust causes cancer and premature death, and also exacerbates asthma and other respiratory illness. Noting that the vast majority of the nation's school buses run on diesel fuel, this report details a study examining the level of diesel exhaust to which children are typically exposed as they travel to and from…

  3. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated...

  4. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  5. Potential of Sagittaria trifolia for Phytoremediation of Diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinying; Wang, Jun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Gu, Lingfeng; Hou, Yunyun; He, Chiquan; Chen, Xueping; Liang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential and responses of Sagittaria trifolia to diesel were investigated. In order to elucidate the biochemical and physiological responses of S. trifolia to diesel, the chlorophyll content, root vitality, soluble protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity (peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were determined in the plant tissues after 50 d of diesel treatment. The results showed the presence of S. trifolia significantly improved the removal ratios of diesel, from 21∼36% in the control soils to 54∼85% in the planted soils. The chlorophyll content, root vitality and soluble protein content all increased at low diesel concentration, then decreased at high diesel concentration. The activities of CAT and POD exhibited peak values at 5 g·kg(-1) diesel treatment and declined at higher diesel concentrations. However, the activity of SOD kept stable at lower diesel concentration (1 and 5 g·kg(-1)), and also declined at higher diesel concentration. Collectively, S. trifolia had the ability to tolerate certain amount of diesel, but when the concentration was up to 10 g·kg(-1), the growth of S. trifolia would be restrained. The results also showed that variation of antioxidant enzyme activity was an important response in plants to diesel pollution.

  6. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  7. Desempenho comparativo de um motor de ciclo diesel utilizando diesel e misturas de biodiesel Comparative performance of a cycle diesel engine using diesel and biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Leite Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os atuais elevados preços do barril de petróleo no mercado internacional, a possibilidade de geração de postos de trabalho e renda com a conseqüente fixação do homem no campo, as excelentes e variadas condições climáticas e os tipos de relevo fazem com que o Brasil, com suas extensas áreas agricultáveis, destaque-se no cenário mundial em relação à sua grande potencialidade de geração de combustíveis alternativos. A situação ambiental faz com que o ser humano trabalhe no desenvolvimento de alternativas energéticas, destacando-se aquelas oriundas de fontes renováveis e biodegradáveis de caráter eminentemente sustentável. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desempenho de um motor ciclo diesel, funcionando em momentos distintos com diesel mineral e misturas deste com biodiesel nas proporções equivalentes a B2 (98% de diesel mineral e 2% de biodiesel, B5 (95% de diesel mineral e 5% de biodiesel, B20 (80% de diesel mineral e 20% de biodiesel e B100 (100% de biodiesel. Para a realização dos ensaios, foi utilizado um motor ciclo diesel de um trator VALMET 85 id, de 58,2kW (78 cv, de acordo com metodologia estabelecida pela norma NBR 5484 da ABNT (1985 que se refere ao ensaio dinamométrico de motores de ciclo Otto e Diesel. Concluiu-se que a potência do motor ao se utilizar biodiesel foi inferior àquela quando se utilizou diesel mineral. Observou-se que, em algumas rotações, as misturas B5 e B20 apresentaram potência igual ou até superior, em algumas situações, àquela quando se utilizou diesel mineral. A melhor eficiência térmica do motor foi verificada na rotação de 540 rpm da TDP equivalente a 1720 rpm do motor.It is considered that, in a close future, the petroleum reservations economically viable will tend to the shortage. Besides it, the exacerbated current price levels of the petroleum barrel in the international market, the possibility of employment generation and income with the consequent

  8. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel and High Speed Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gopinathan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Depleting petroleum reserves on the earth and increasing concerns about the environment leads to the question for fuels which are eco-friendly safer for human beings. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of coating on cylinder head of a Diesel engine on the performance and emission characteristics of exhaust gases using Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel (HSD as a fuel. In this study the effect of Tin and Hard Chrome coating on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine was investigated using Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel as a fuel. For this purpose the cylinder head of the test engine were coated with a Tin and Hard Chrome of 100 µ thick by the Electroplating method. For comparing the performance of the engine with coated components with the base engine, readings were taken before and after coating. To make the diesel engine to work with Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel a modification was done. The engine’s performance was studied for both Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel with and without Tin, Hard Chrome coating. Also the emissions values are recorded to study the engine’s behavior on emissions. Satisfactory performance was obtained with Tin and Hard Chrome coating compared with a standard diesel engine. The brake thermal efficiency was increased up to 2.08% for High Speed Diesel with Tin coating and there was a significant reduction in the specific fuel consumption. The CO emission in the engine exhaust decreases with coating. Using Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel fuel for a LHR diesel engine causes an improvement in the performance characteristics and significant reduction in exhaust emissions.

  9. Restoring diesel engine camshafts by laser treatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashkevich, B. M.; Zinov'ev, G. S.; Voronin, I. N.

    1996-12-01

    The reliability of parts of the gas-distributing mechanism and drives of fuel pumps determines to a great degree the operating conditions of cylinder-piston parts and the economic characteristics of diesel engines. Intense wear of the camshaft pair disturbs the distribution phases and the lead angle of fuel supply to the diesel cylinders and increases the rigidity of the operation of the connecting rod-piston group. This causes incomplete combustion of fuel and fuming, a rise in the temperature of exhaust gases, sticking of the rings in the piston grooves and their premature failure, wear cracks, and chips and failure of the parts of the cylinder-piston unit, decreasing the efficiency of the diesel. Laser surface treatment is used to restore cams. It makes it possible to increase substantially the wear resistance of cams and restore their worn surfaces. This paper concerns the characteristics of the cams after such a treatment.

  10. Diesel particulate filter design simulation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Simulation is a powerful tool in the design and analysis of diesel particulate filters. Various models have been developed in the last three decades and great improvements have been made in terms of model comprehensiveness and accuracy. However, simulation of diesel particulate filter is still not a reliable resort to fine-tuning of diesel particulate filter and much effort is still needed. To promote the development of effective simulation models, first, the various models are viewed. Their characteristics and application occasions are discussed. Second, regarding the limitations of these models, some key submodels are introduced, which are pressure drop model in the wall, filtration model, and soot oxidation model. Finally, some conclusions are made and further researches are recommended.

  11. Adaptive vibration isolation system for diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tie-jun; ZHANG Xin-yu; XIAO You-hong; HUANG Jin-e; LIU Zhi-gang

    2004-01-01

    An active two-stage isolation mounting, on which servo-hydraulic system is used as the actuator (secondary vibration source) and a diesel engine is used as primary vibration source, has been built. The upper mass of the mounting is composed of a 495diesel and an electrical eddy current dynamometer. The lower mass is divided into four small masses to which servo-hydraulic actuator and rubber isolators are attached. According to the periodical characteristics of diesel vibration signals, a multi-point adaptive strategy based on adaptive comb filtered algorithm is applied to active multi-direction coupled vibrations control for the engine. The experimental results demonstrate that a good suppression in the effective range of phase compensation in secondary path (within 100Hz) at different operation conditions is achieved, and verify that this strategy is effective. The features of the active system, the development activities carried out on the system and experimental results are discussed in the paper.

  12. Tertiary fatty amides as diesel fuel substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdari, Aikaterini; Lois, Euripides; Stournas, Stamoulis [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Athens (Greece)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents experimental results regarding the impact of adding different tertiary amides of fatty acids to mineral diesel fuel; an assessment of the behaviour of these compounds as possible diesel fuel extenders is also included. Measurements of cetane number, cold flow properties (cloud point, pour point and CFPP), density, kinematic viscosity, flash point and distillation temperatures are reported, while initial experiments concerning the effects on particulate emissions are also described. Most of the examined tertiary fatty amides esters have very good performance and they can be easily prepared from fatty acids (biomass). Such compounds or their blends could be used as mineral diesel fuel or even fatty acid methylesters (FAME, biodiesel) substitutes or extenders. (Author)

  13. Diesel vehicles shortage mobilizes the automotive industry; La penurie de diesel mobilise la filiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, P.Y.; Deheunynck, P.Y.; Demoulin, L.

    2000-12-01

    The infatuation for diesel vehicles in Europe has led to an unexpected growth of this market. The reason is linked with the improvements made in diesel engine technology and with the rise of automotive fuel prices. Car and vehicle equipment manufacturers and sub-contractors have to increase their production and manpower and to adopt new work schedules for a better exploitation of factories capacity. However, the development of the direct injection (common-rail) technology for diesel engines requires complex and precise machining procedures that are hardly compatible with an enhanced mass production. (J.S.)

  14. Modelling of fuel spray and combustion in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, M.T.; Kaario, O.T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel spray and air motion characteristics and combustion in direct injection (DI) diesel engines was studied using computational models of the commercial CFD-code FIRE. Physical subprocesses modelled included Lagrangian spray droplet movement and behaviour (atomisation, evaporation and interaction of spray droplets) and combustion of evaporated liquid spray in the gas phase. Fuel vapour combustion rate was described by the model of Magnussen and Hjertager. The standard k,{epsilon}-model was used for turbulence. In order to be able to predict combustion accurately, the fuel spray penetration should be predicted with reasonable accuracy. In this study, the standard drag coefficient had to be reduced in order to match the computed penetration to the measured one. In addition, the constants in the submodel describing droplet breakup also needed to be adjusted for closer agreement with the measurements. The characteristic time scale of fuel consumption rate k/C{sub R} {epsilon} strongly influenced the heat release and in-cylinder pressure. With a value around 2.0 to 5.0 for C{sub R}, the computed in-cylinder pressure during the compression stroke agreed quite well with the measurements. On the other hand, the in-cylinder pressure was underpredicted during the expansion stroke. This is partly due to the fact that hydrocarbon fuel combustion was modelled as a one-step reaction reading to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and inadequate description of the mixing of reactants and combustion products. (author) 16 refs.

  15. EFFECT OF COMPRESSION RATIO ON ENERGY AND EMISSION OF VCR DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH DUAL BLENDS OF BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. EKNATH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent 10 years biodiesel fuel was studied extensively as an alternative fuel. Most of researchers reported performance and emission of biodiesel and their blends with constant compression ratio. Also all the research was conducted with use of single biodiesel and its blend. Few reports are observed with the use of variable compression ratio and blends of more than one biodiesel. Main aim of the present study is to analyse the effect of compression ratio on the performance and emission of dual blends of biodiesel. In the present study Blends of Jatropha and Karanja with Diesel fuel was tested on single cylinder VCR DI diesel engine for compression ratio 16 and 18. High density of biodiesel fuel causes longer delay period for Jatropha fuel was observed compare with Karanja fuel. However blending of two biodiesel K20J40D results in to low mean gas temperature which is the main reason for low NOx emission.

  16. Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion and Pollutants Formation of New Technology Light Duty Diesel Engines Modélisation multidimensionnelle de la combustion et de la formation des polluants dans les nouveaux moteurs diesel automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belardini P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper some results, obtained by the use of modern numerical CFD tools, are presented. In particular, starting from the experimental characterization of a common rail DI Diesel engine, the empirical constants of the different submodels were tuned to obtain satisfactory results in some key test conditions. The main constraints of numerical models, to obtain a right scaling of pollutants predictions in the different test cases are analyzed. The numerical analysis demonstrates that the numerical CFD tools, at their stage of development, can help the engine designers to define the more promising strategies to obtain tailpipe emission control of common rail Diesel DI engines. Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats obtenus en utilisant des outils de simulation de la mécanique des fluides numérique (CFD. À partir de résultats expérimentaux issus de la caractérisation d'un moteur Diesel common rail, les constantes empiriques de divers modèles ont été ajustées afin d'obtenir des résultats satisfaisants pour des cas tests représentatifs. Les principales contraintes des modèles numériques pour obtenir une bonne précision dans les différents cas d'études sont ici analysées. Cette analyse numérique montre que la CFD permet déjà, au stade de développement atteint, d'aider les ingénieurs à définir les stratégies les plus prometteuses pour maîtriser les émissions à l'échappement des moteurs Diesel à injection common rail.

  17. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXX, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE SUMMARY, II--REIEWING FACTS ABOUT ALTERNATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE FACTORS AND A REVIEW OF DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR OPERATION. THE SEVEN SECTIONS COVER DIESEL ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING AND THE OPERATION, TESTING, AND ADJUSTING OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM…

  18. Sospensione di potestà

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fausta Maternini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La voce è destinata alla pubblicazione, in lingua spagnola, nel Diccionario general de Derecho canónico edito dall’Instituto Martìn de Azpilcueta, Universidad de Navarra. SOMMARIO: 1. Il concetto di potestà nella Chiesa – 2. La sospensione di potestà quale atto amministrativo - 3. … in relazione al munus santificandi - 4. … in relazione alla potestà di magistero - 5 … in relazione alla potestà di governo.

  19. Sospensione di potestà

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fausta Maternini

    2011-01-01

    La voce è destinata alla pubblicazione, in lingua spagnola, nel Diccionario general de Derecho canónico edito dall’Instituto Martìn de Azpilcueta, Universidad de Navarra.SOMMARIO: 1. Il concetto di potestà nella Chiesa – 2. La sospensione di potestà quale atto amministrativo - 3. … in relazione al munus santificandi - 4. … in relazione alla potestà di magistero - 5 … in relazione alla potestà di governo.

  20. Avere di sé...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bevilacqua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non è da tutti mettersi a disposizione degli altri. Lo si può fare in molti modi. Uno di questi è la testimonianza competente. Sergio Bevilacqua, medico chirurgo specializzato in farmacologia clinica, ha deciso di raccontare su BrainFactor la propria esperienza. Di malato. Lo farà, da oggi, con una serie di contributi "in soggettiva": una Fenomenologia reale, con la maiuscola. Grazie sin d'ora per quanto ci vorrà insegnare.

  1. Adsorptive desulfurization of diesel with mesoporous aluminosilicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Huang; LI Wang-Liang; LIU Qing-Fen; GUAN Li-Li; SONG Jia-Qing; XING dian-Min; LIU Hui-Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous aluminosilicates (MAS) bearing microporous zeolite units and mesoporous structures were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Adsorptive desulfurization ability of model oil and hy-drotreated diesel was studied. The effects of template concentration, crystalization time and calcination time were investigated. The desulfurization ability of adsorbents was improved by transitional metal ion-exchanging. The adsorptive desulfurization of diesel was carried out on a fixed-bed system. The results show that the adsorptive capacity is MASMCM-41NaY. The improvement of desulfurization ability of MAS by Cu+ is more significant than that of Ag+.

  2. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  3. Le collezioni di Mammiferi del Museo Civico di Zoologia di Roma: una sintesi storica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Svampa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il Museo Civico di Zoologia di Roma è sorto nel 1932 all?interno del Giardino Zoologico dell?allora Governatorato di Roma, di cui ha condiviso la direzione tecnica ed amministrativa sino al 1998. Il nucleo centrale delle collezioni è costituito dal materiale di proprietà universitaria, di quello che fu il Museo di Zoologia della Regia Università, a sua volta diretto discendente delle collezioni del Museo di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata del Pontificio Archiginnasio Romano. La quasi totalità degli esemplari tassidermizzati risale al periodo in cui l?Istituto di Zoologia fu diretto da Antonio Carruccio (1883-1914. Dal 1932, la collezione teriologica si è andata arricchendo, in particolare di materiale osteologico, soprattutto con acquisizioni provenienti dal Giardino Zoologico e da rare spedizioni scientifiche, come quella organizzata dal CNR nell?Alto Rio Negro del 1962-3, guidata da Ettore Biocca. Anche a causa del fatto che per molti anni il Museo è stato privo di curatori, mancano importanti collezioni teriologiche da studio, fatta eccezione per quella cetologica. In molti casi, singoli esemplari potenzialmente di grande valore scientifico, mancano di dati esatti sulla località di cattura. Nell?ambito di un programma di ricatalogazione della collezione recentemente intrapreso, particolare attenzione è stata posta all?acquisizione di tutti i dati legati alla storia dei singoli esemplari, rintracciabili attraverso i resoconti di viaggio dei singoli esploratori. Nel periodo universitario, infatti, il Museo della nuova capitale d?Italia fu oggetto di grande attenzione da parte di privati ed enti, a partire dai Savoia, che donarono le loro collezioni o il materiale raccolto durante le spedizioni effettuate. Il lavoro di revisione in corso sta mettendo in luce una serie di esemplari meritevoli di ulteriori, dettagliate ricerche. È probabile che molto del materiale del Museo, pervenuto a Roma attraverso donazioni della famiglia reale

  4. Breve Manuale di Geografia Umana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.; Colombino, A.

    2012-01-01

    Il percorso per andare al lavoro, la scelta sul dove trascorrere le prossime vacanze, le nostre opinioni sulla politica estera, le nostre preoccupazioni per la crisi economica, le nostre affermazioni di identità, il nostro desiderio di fuga dal quotidiano, perfino la scelta di acquistare una casa in

  5. Breve Manuale di Geografia Umana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.; Colombino, A.

    2012-01-01

    Il percorso per andare al lavoro, la scelta sul dove trascorrere le prossime vacanze, le nostre opinioni sulla politica estera, le nostre preoccupazioni per la crisi economica, le nostre affermazioni di identità, il nostro desiderio di fuga dal quotidiano, perfino la scelta di acquistare una casa in

  6. I problemi di matematica della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa

    CERN Document Server

    Profeti, Alessandro

    1998-01-01

    Nasce come aggiornamento del volume precedente ("I problemi di Matematica della Scuola Normale", 1984) e raccoglie gli esercizi di matematica assegnati all'esame di ammissione alla Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa dal 1985 al 1997, con la loro risoluzione. Per rendere più efficace lo scopo didattico viene anche presentata una scelta di problemi relativi al periodo precedente (1905-1984). Il libro si rivolge a studenti e docenti della Scuola Secondaria, e si chiude con un Glossario in cui vengono richiamati i termini usati.

  7. Il Simposio di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensate che i testi antichi siano semplicemente vecchi? Che l’amore platonico non vada mai  al sodo? Leggere il Simposio di Platone confrontandosi direttamente col testo, com’è possibile fare grazie al Perseus Project, vi farà cambiare idea.

  8. Determinan Kebahagiaan Di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Puji Rahayu

    2016-08-01

      Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor penentu kebahagiaan di Indonesia. Dengan menggunakan data antar ruang/silang tempat dari Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS wave 4, 2007, studi ini mengambil 17,650 pengamatan yang diestimasi menggunakan model Oprobit. Model Oprobit dipilih karena adanya variabel respon ordinal dan asumsi normal dalam distribusi kesalahan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kebahagiaan di Indonesia secara positif dipengaruhi oleh pendapatan, tingkat pendidikan, status kesehatan yang dirasakan dan modal sosial. Namun demikian, modal sosial yang berkaitan dengan agama dan etnis tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kebahagiaan. Semua prediktor bersifat robust. Karakteristik demografi menginformasikan bahwa orang yang menikah, bukan kepala rumah tangga, tinggal di daerah perkotaan, berada di luar pulau Jawa-Bali dan dari suku Jawa lebih bahagia daripada yang lain. Riset ini juga menemukan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan dalam tingkat kebahagiaan antara pria dan wanita. Kemudian, hubungan antara kebahagiaan dan usia menunjukkan kurva yang berbentuk U. Terakhir, efek marjinal menunjukkan efek yang berbeda untuk setiap tingkat kebahagiaan karena perubahan unit variabel independen.

  9. Diesel and gasoline engines VI. Quality injection, fuel mixture, simulation, application, metrology; Diesel- und Benzindirekteinspritzung VI. Einspritzqualitaet, Gemischbildung, Simulation, Applikation, Messtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschoeke, Helmut (ed.) [Otto-von-Guericke-Univ., Magdeburg (DE). Inst. fuer Mobile Systeme (IMS)

    2011-07-01

    Within the meeting 'Diesel and gasoline direct injection' of the Haus der Technik e.V. (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) at 1st to 2nd December, 2010 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Efficient common rail injection systems and intelligent regulation strategies for the fulfilment of future on-/off-highway emission limits (Christian Schugger); (2) Challenges for injection systems and combustion processes of large diesel engines for keeping the emission limits IMO TIER3 in 2016 (Horst Harndorf); (3) HFO operation with CR injection (Christian Poensgen); (4) Efficiency, potential and limits of shortened spraying distances at the diesel engine: Results from thermodynamic, optical and numerical investigations (Oliver Heinold); (5) Advantages of the formation of the injection process for the fuel consumption and pollutant emission of diesel engines (Maximilian Brauer); (6) Control of combustion rates: A decisive step towards a further optimization of CO{sub 2}, emissions and NVH (Florian Kremer); (7) Ultra high pressure fuel injection for minimized engine-out emissions of HD diesel engines (Olad Erik Herrmann); (8) Analysis of injection sprays by means of large high-speed engines under cold and evaporating conditions (Christian Fink); (9) Development of optimal cam contours (Hendrik Grosse-Loescher); (10) Design criteria for the CO{sub 2} optimization of the new Continental 2-piston-diesel pump platform (Peter Voigt); (11) Innovative measurement for injection systems (Bjoern Janetzky); (12) Process for the measurement of the rate of injection on engine-related conditions (Wolfgang Fimml); (13) Experimental and numerical investigations of hydro erosive grinding for injection components (Uwe Iben); (14) Application programs for the calculation of spray propagation in a moving engine's combustion chamber (Kai Uwe Muench); (15) An integrated approach for the fulfilment of future emission legislations at stationary

  10. Per una definizione di apprendimento cooperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Midoro

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Questa nota propone una riflessione e una proposta di definizione di lavoro cooperativo che possa fornire un quadro di riferimento utile per collocare i diversi contributi di questo numero, senza pretendere in alcun modo di contribuire alla costituzione di una teoria per i ricercatori del settore.

  11. Experimental evaluation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines using blends of crude castor oil and diesel; Avaliacao experimental do desempenho e emissoes de motores diesel usando misturas de oleo de mamona e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Valeria Said de Barros; Pereira, Pedro Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Oceanica

    2004-07-01

    This work refers to the experimental evaluation of diesel generators operating with blend of crude castor oil and diesel. Performance and emissions tests were accomplished in a diesel engine of direct injection. Because of the high viscosity of the blend a device was installed on the engine in order to lower the blend viscosity. A comprehensive analysis of the results obtained in these tests indicates the possibility of use of the blend of castor oil and diesel as fuel for diesel-generators, with modifications introduced in the engines. (author)

  12. I fondamenti di principio di un’economia islamica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Il Corano costituisce la fonte primaria per gli insegnamenti e le credenze dell’Islam. Mentre la comunità può modificare le politiche sociali ed economiche ispirate ai valori islamici al fine disoddisfare le mutevoli esigenze socio-economiche della società, i princìpi di base dell’economia islamica e il sistema sociale, tuttavia, devono essere preservati. Ci si attende che rappresentantiliberamente eletti collaborino con la società per formulare politiche a sostegno della stabilitàeconomica e sociale, della prosperità economica, dell’istruzione pubblica, delle cure sanitarie,dell’equità economica, di una giusta distribuzione del reddito e di una rete di sicurezza sociale.Tutti i musulmani fisicamente e mentalmente abili sono tenuti a lavorare per il propriosostentamento, e coloro che dispongono di un sufficiente livello di ricchezza hanno l’obbligo dipagare tasse che contribuiscano al finanziamento statale di programmi di welfare o di altra utilitàsociale. La nostra illustrazione del sistema economico islamico è sostenuta da numerosi studiosimoderni di Islam e di economia islamica, non concorda tuttavia del tutto con quelle offerte daesponenti e apparati religiosi legati a un’autorità statale.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Diesel Engine with Preheated Bio Diesel with Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Vajja, Sai; Murali, R. B. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper mainly reviews about the usage of preheated bio diesel added with 0.5% Etchant as an alternative fuel and evaluates its performance for various blends with different loads. Bio diesel is added with Etchant for rapid combustion as for the bio diesel, the cetane number is high that results in shorter delay of ignition and the mixture is preheated to raise its temperature to improve the combustion process. Analysis of the parameters required to define the combustion characteristics such as IP, BP, ηbth, ηm, ISFC, BSFC, IMEP, MFC, Exhaust Gas Temperature, Heat Release and heat balance is necessary as these values are significant to assess the performance of engine and its emissions of preheated bio diesel.

  14. Diesel-Minimal Combustion Control of a Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Zurbriggen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the combustion phasing control of natural gas-diesel engines. In this study, the combustion phasing is influenced by manipulating the start and the duration of the diesel injection. Instead of using both degrees of freedom to control the center of combustion only, we propose a method that simultaneously controls the combustion phasing and minimizes the amount of diesel used. Minimizing the amount of diesel while keeping the center of combustion at a constant value is formulated as an optimization problem with an equality constraint. A combination of feedback control and extremum seeking is used to solve this optimization problem online. The necessity to separate the different time scales is discussed and a structure is proposed that facilitates this separation for this specific example. The proposed method is validated by experiments on a test bench.

  15. Performance investigations of a diesel engine using ethyl levulinate-diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-wei Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl levulinate (EL can be produced from bio-based levulinic acid (LA and ethanol. Experimental investigations were conducted to evaluate and compare the performances and exhaust emission levels of ethyl levulinate as an additive to conventional diesel fuel, with EL percentages of 5%, 10%, 15% (with 2% n-butanol, and 20% (with 5% n-butanol, in a horizontal single-cylinder four stroke diesel engine. Brake-specific fuel consumptions of the EL-diesel blends were about 10% higher than for pure diesel because of the lower heating value of EL. NOx and CO2 emissions increased with engine power with greater fuel injections, but varied with changing EL content of the blends. CO emissions were similar for all of the fuel formulations. Smoke emissions decreased with increasing EL content.

  16. Effetto delle condizioni di stress gastrointestinali sulla validità di batteri lattici di interesse salutistico

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Numerose formulazioni probiotiche sono reperibili sul mercato e vendute sotto forma di integratori alimentari in grado di migliorare il benessere fisico del consumatore. In realtà, per molti preparati probiotici esistono specifici health claims, preventivamente approvati dall’EFSA, che vengono utilizzati per indirizzare il consumatore al loro impiego nella prevenzione o la cura di differenti malattie. Dunque, in presenza di un effetto salutistico dichiarato, il formulato probiotico dovrebbe c...

  17. Applicazione delle linee guida nazionali nell'attivitá di notifica di casi di legionellosi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Corsano

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: é noto che effettuare diagnosi di Legionellosi risulta difficile a causa della sovrapposizione della sintomatologia con altre forme di polmonite. Questo spiega, in parte, perché i casi di Legionellosi siano sottostimati. I metodi diagnostici disponibili, sebbene richiedano tempi relativamente lunghi, sono necessari per l’esatta stima di prevalenza della Legionellosi e per gli eventuali interventi preventivi.

    Metodi: nell’Azienda Ospedaliera “G. Panico” di Tricase, seguendo i criteri delle Linee Guida della Legionellosi (G.U. 5 maggio 2000 n. 103 durante la degenza dei pazienti che presentavano segni clinici ed obiettivi di polmonite sono state eseguite indagini radiologiche (Rx Torace, TAC, esami di laboratorio (espettorato, sangue, urina ed avviata terapia antibiotica (macrolidi e cefalosporine di III generazione. L’antigene urinario e le IgG anti-Legionella (metodo IFA, sono stati determinati in collaborazione con il Laboratorio di riferimento Regionale.

    Risultati: nel periodo ottobre 2001 gennaio 2003 sono stati notificati nel nostro ospedale 11 casi di Legionellosi accertati da indagini clinico-strumentali e di laboratorio: tutti i casi avevano titoli anticorpali abbastanza elevati, confermati poi da un secondo controllo a distanza di tempo. Solo due hanno presentato una positività per l’antigene urinario. All’atto della dimissione, per il 63.6% dei casi è stato documentato un miglioramento delle condizioni clinico-laboratoristico-strumentali, nel 18.2% si è avuta una effettiva guarigione. La letalità è stata pari al 18.2%. In tutti casi si è provveduto alla sorveglianza ambientale.

    Considerazioni: i nostri dati evidenziano che i casi di Legionellosi registrati sono stati tutti di tipo comunitario. Una corretta applicazione delle Linee Guida nel sistema di notifica permette l’avvio dell’attività di prevenzione oltre

  18. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  19. Study on Laboratory Method for Refining of SR Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Junling; Zheng Tinglu; Han Zhaping

    2006-01-01

    The method for refining the straight-run diesel fuel was studied in laboratory scale in order to make the acid number of diesel fraction comply with the standard while removing the naphthenic acids contained in diesel without causing environmental pollution. After comparing the effect of refining using three solvents, the isopropyl alcohol-HOA was specified as the best solvent. Meanwhile, the relationship between the acid number of diesel fraction and the amount of solvent used and the relationship between the concentration of solvent and temperature and the stability of diesel in terms of its acid number were also investigated. Experimental results had shown that when the mass fraction of the HOA-IPA solvent was 20% at a dosage of 17 mL of the solvent and a temperature of 30℃, the acid number of the refined diesel fraction was 0.015 mg KOH/g with a good stability of acidity in the diesel traction.

  20. Enhanced microbubbles assisted cleaning of diesel contaminated sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashutosh; Liu, Yu

    2017-07-25

    In this article, we investigated the effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (US), temperature and salinity on cleaning efficacy of fine bubbles with diameter <50μm for diesel contaminated sands. About 47% and 76% diesel removal was achieved from 10% (w/w) diesel contaminated fine and medium sands respectively, after 30min treatment with 40kHz low intensity intermittent pulsed US together with MBs in contrast to 41% and 68% diesel removal while treatment with MBs alone. The effect of high temperature was found to be prominent during the initial stages of cleaning. In addition, MBs generated in 599mM saline water efficiently removed 85% diesel from fine sand within 30min in contrast to only 41% diesel removal with MBs in fresh water. This study provides evidence for developing highly efficient MBs based chemical free technology for diesel contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maniere di deambulazione poetica: i dintorni di tre generazioni di poeti ungheresi

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Itinerario interpretativo della poesia ungherese degli anni Settanta e Ottanta del Novecento. Studio delle condizioni di possibilità della poesia, ovvero della soggettività postmoderna, nelle opere in questione situata concretamente nel contesto della modernità del socialismo sovietico, nell'Ungheria del recente secondo dopoguerra. Si introducono, con valore euristico, le categorie di 'falso movimento' e 'maniere di deambulazione' (poetica).

  2. PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK TENAGA GELOMBANG LAUT MENGGUNAKAN TEKNOLOGI OSCILATING WATER COLUMN DI PERAIRAN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Arta Wijaya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Untuk di Bali saat ini, telah berdiri beberapa jenis pembangkit listrik. Pembangkit-pembangkit itu adalahpembangkit listrik tenaga diesel, pembangkit listrik tenaga uap, dan pembangkit listrik tenaga gas. Dari semua jenispembangkit yang telah ada, keseluruhannya tergantung dari pemakaian bahan bakar yang berasal dari pembakaranfosil yang berumur jutaan tahun yaitu batu bara dan minyak bumi. Keseluruhan pembangkit-pembangkit yang sudahada ini, tentu saja menimbulkan beberapa permasalahan baik itu terhadap lingkungan, kesehatan dan ekonomi.Untuk mengantisipasi hal tersebut maka dilakukan suatu upaya dengan penyediaan energi listrik berbahan bakaralternatif yang sifatnya non konvensional yakni pembangkit listrik tenaga gelombang laut. Pembangkit listrik tenagagelombang laut ini menggunakan teknologi oscilatting water column (PLTGL-OWC. Energi gelombangmerupakan energi yang sifatnya dapat diperbaharui dan ramah lingkungan, serta selalu tersedia sepanjang waktu.Dalam penelitian ini dianalisis mengenai besarnya energi yang dihasilkan gelombang laut dengan penggunaanteknologi oscilatting water column (OWC di perairan Samudra Hindia, tepatnya di laut yang ada di kawasanJimbaran. Adapun tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui besarnya energi yang dihasilkan gelombanglaut dengan penggunaan teknologi oscilatting water column (OWC di laut yang ada di kawasan Jimbaran. Manfaatpenelitian ini dapat digunakan sebagai acuan untuk perencanaan pembangunan suatu pembangkit listrik tenagagelombang laut di laut yang ada di kawasan Jimbaran, sehingga diharapkan nantinya mampu membangkitkan dayalistrik guna melayani konsumen yang ada di pulau Bali. Metode yang digunakan adalah dengan menganalisisbesarnya energi dan daya listrik yang mampu dihasilkan gelombang laut dengan penggunaan PLTGL-OWC di lautyang ada di kawasan Jimbaran.Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa dengan penggunaan pembangkit listrik tenaga gelombang laut denganteknologi oscilatting water

  3. Evaluation of the Use of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Oil for an Emergency Diesel Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Young-Chul; Chung, Woo-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the compatibility and effect on driving an emergency diesel generator using ULSD examining the specific gravity and lubricity of the oil. Because generators at NPPs use ULSD which is not mostly used for medium-large diesel generator engines, this study seeks to provide effective precautions for the driving stability of emergency diesel generators. One of the major fuel oils used in medium-large diesel engines for the normal driving of vessels and the generation of emergency power at power plants is heavy fuel oil. There are no vessels and power generation engines known to use high-quality diesel oil which is widely used in cars. The findings of this study suggest that when driving a diesel generator, there will be increased fuel consumption by 3.6% [m{sup 3}/hr.]. Furthermore, the mechanical fuel limiter on the engine needs an upward adjustment because the system is set for 110% load operations for the former LSD fuel. Both LSD and ULSD retain lubricity with a WSD around 330~350μm. These results clearly show that bad lubricity problems are not expected to occur. We had presumed an increased amount of foreign particulates because of the increased additives for high lubricity and oxidative stability.

  4. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verchot, L. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Head Quarters, United Nations Avenue, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi (Kenya); Franken, Y.J. [FACT Foundation, Horsten 1, 5612 AX Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mathijs, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Agricultural and Food Economics, Willem de Croylaan 42 Box 2424, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Singh, V.P. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2008-12-15

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied. (author)

  5. Evaluation of diesel particulate matter sampling techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling methods used in the South African mining industry. The three-piece cassette respirable, open face and stopper sampling methods were compared with the SKC DPM cassette method to find a...

  6. Real Otto and Diesel Engine Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedd, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the properties of otto/diesel engines during the time they operate with open chambers illustrates applicability of thermodynamics to real systems, demonstrates how delivered power is controlled, and explains the source of air pollution in terms of thermodynamic laws. (Author/JN)

  7. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  8. A cycle simulation model for predicting the performance of a diesel engine fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, T.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India); Baruah, D.C. [Energy Department, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel and its blends are considered suitable and the most promising fuel for diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of diesel. Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the performance characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled by biodiesel and its blends. However, experiments require enormous effort, money and time. Hence, a cycle simulation model incorporating a thermodynamic based single zone combustion model is developed to predict the performance of diesel engine. The effect of engine speed and compression ratio on brake power and brake thermal efficiency is analysed through the model. The fuel considered for the analysis are diesel, 20%, 40%, 60% blending of diesel and biodiesel derived from Karanja oil (Pongamia Glabra). The model predicts similar performance with diesel, 20% and 40% blending. However, with 60% blending, it reveals better performance in terms of brake power and brake thermal efficiency. (author)

  9. Integrazione rigorosa di dati provenienti da fonti di acquisizione differenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bornaz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La geomatica mette oggi a disposizione di esperti di diverse discipline un’ampia gamma di strumenti e tecniche che vengono utilizzate estensivamente come sostegno per l’acquisizione, la contestualizzazione e la georeferenziazione di informazioni molto diversificate come ad esempio dati georadar, geosismici, interferometrici, provenienti da strumenti di misura spesso utilizzati in diversi ambiti e con sistemi di riferimento differenti, talvolta non direttamente compatibili tra loro. Questa problematica, spesso trascurata utilizzando un approccio di tipo classico, è stata affrontata e risolta in modo rigoroso dagli autori permettendo così l’integrazione corretta di dati di differente natura e provenienza.Integration of data acquired from different sourcesGeomatics today offers to experts from different disciplines a wide range of tools and techniques, which are used extensively as technical support for the acquisition, context and geo-refer-encing data coming from different investigations: geo radar, interpherometry, geophysics analysis. Each technology gener-ally provide data with different reference systems, often not di-rectly compatible each other. This problem, often overlooked by using a classical approach, has been resolved in a rigorous way by the authors thus allowing proper integration of data of different nature.

  10. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  11. Giornata di Studi Paleontologici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bassi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This book results fromk one-day meeting "Giornata di Studi Paleontologici Prof.ssa C. Loriga Broglio", held in Ferrara on June 18th, 2004 and dedicated to Prof. Carmen Loriga Broglio who was full Professor of Paleontology and Paleoecology at the University of Ferrara.This special volume includes twelve papers dealing with systematic paleontology of calcified cyanobacteria, invertebrates (sponges and vertebrates (fishes, taphonomy, biostratigraphy, paleoecology and paleobiogeography.

  12. Meccanismi di censura e rapporti di potere nelle autobiografie collaborative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Romeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Il genere delle autobiografie collaborative è stato oggetto di una complessa teorizzazione negli ultimi decenni, soprattutto in ambito statunitense, ed è il genere che più di altri segna l'inizio, nei primi anni Novanta, della letteratura postcoloniale italiana e l’incontro linguistico e culturale tra migranti e culture di “accoglienza.” Il presente saggio intende indagare i rapporti di potere presenti all'interno delle autobiografie collaborative e i meccanismi di censura e autocensura operati nella costruzione del testo. Il saggio mette in discussione la presunta trasparenza del ruolo dell'editor e analizza come il rapporto tra narratore ed editor sia al contempo un rapporto di collaborazione e solidarietà, ma anche di sfruttamento coloniale e resistenza postcoloniale.Partendo da una riflessione sui due termini "autobiografia" e "collaborativa" – apparentemente aproblematici ma in realtà fortemente problematici – questo saggio sviluppa un'analisi delle questioni che questo genere letterario pone dal punto di vista teorico – scissione della posizione autoriale, e quindi dell’autorità del soggetto che scrive, rapporti di potere all’interno della collaborazione, censure operate, questioni etiche e rapporti con la critica, resistenza postcoloniale alle grandi narrazioni e riscrittura della storia.L'impianto teorico del presente saggio è costruito soprattutto a partire da testi statunitensi (dagli studi sul testimonio di John Beverley, a quelli sui rapporti di collaborazione come rapporti di sorellanza femminista di Caren Kaplan, agli studi sulle autobiografie native americane. Per quanto riguarda i testi presi in esame, la presente analisi mette a confronto due coppie di testi. I primi due sono l’autobiografia di Nassera Chohra, Volevo diventare bianca (con Alessandra Atti Di Sarro, 1993 e un’importante autobiografia collaborativa italoamericana, Rosa: Life of an Italian Immigrant (con Marie Hall Ets, 1970. Gli altri due

  13. I "Sistemi di Filosofia Fenomenologica" - traduzione italiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Husserl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vengono qui presentate le bozze di tre piani per una sistematica di filosofia fenomenologica. Il primo è di Husserl, delineato nel 1921 con il titolo “Articolazione di una fenomenologia sistematica”. Il secondo e il terzo sono le traduzioni, rispettivamente di un progetto husserliano databile al 1930 e denominato “Sistema di filosofia fenomenologica” e di una bozza dello stesso rivista successivamente da Eugen Fink.

  14. I "Sistemi di Filosofia Fenomenologica" - traduzione italiana

    OpenAIRE

    Edmund Husserl; Gaetano Iaia

    2015-01-01

    Vengono qui presentate le bozze di tre piani per una sistematica di filosofia fenomenologica. Il primo è di Husserl, delineato nel 1921 con il titolo “Articolazione di una fenomenologia sistematica”. Il secondo e il terzo sono le traduzioni, rispettivamente di un progetto husserliano databile al 1930 e denominato “Sistema di filosofia fenomenologica” e di una bozza dello stesso rivista successivamente da Eugen Fink.

  15. Il problema della costruzione di senso nel Trattato di Sociologia Generale di Vilfredo Pareto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Millefiorini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pareto ci spiega come i residui siano al centro del complesso ordine sociale che viene a costituirsi dalla combinazione tra questi, gli interessi, l’eterogeneità della società e le derivazioni. Ai fini della costruzione di senso, vi è un genere di residui, quello definito «bisogno di sviluppi logici», il quale comprende «la maggior parte dei residui che determinano le derivazioni» . Sono poi queste ultime che, venendo diciamo così a “vivere di vita propria”, perimetrano, definiscono, determinano, conferiscono i significati individuali e collettivi sui quali l’interazione quotidiana tra gli uomini fonda la trama principale delle proprie routines, delle proprie pratiche, delle proprie condotte all’interno di ambiti di convivenza, di istituzioni, di comunità nazionali. Vi è stato chi, come Norberto Bobbio, ha tratto da questo indubbio assetto concettuale nella teoria sociologica paretiana, conseguenze e deduzioni che ci restituiscono il pensiero di Pareto come una versione socio-psicologica della teoria marxista della “falsa coscienza”. In sostanza, scrive Bobbio, «alla concezione storicistica delle ideologie propria di Marx, Pareto contrappone una concezione naturalistica dell’uomo come animale ideologico». Tuttavia bisogna intendersi. È certamente vero che le ideologie del Novecento possono essere spiegate seguendo l’approccio paretiano, ma la sua sociologia non si risolve e non si esaurisce in una semplice teoria delle ideologie. Essa è un qualcosa di ben più ampio e ben più complesso, che abbraccia tutto l’arco storico delle civiltà umane, e che quindi si pone come uno dei tentativi più ambiziosi, sino ad oggi concepiti dalle scienze sociali, di spiegare quel complicatissimo processo sociale che va sotto il nome di “costruzione di senso”.

  16. Karakterisasi Unjuk Kerja Diesel Engine Generator Set Sistem Dual Fuel Solar-Syngas Hasil Gasifikasi Briket Municipal Solid Waste (MSW Secara Langsung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Rizkal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sejalan dengan semakin banyaknya kebutuhan energi untuk dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar maka perlu adanya pengembangan gas biomassa sebagai bahan bakar alternatif pada motor pembakaran dalam maka akan dilakukan penelitian mengenai aplikasi sistem dual fuel gas hasil gasifikasi biomassa municipal solid waste (msw pada sistem downdraft dengan minyak solar pada motor diesel stasioner. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar solar yang tersibtitusi dengan adanya penambahan syngas yang disalurkan secara langsung. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental dengan proses pemasukan aliran syngas yang dihasilkan downdraft municipal solid waste (MSW kedalam saluran udara mesin diesel generator set secara langsung menggunakan sistem mixer. Pengujian dilakukan dengan putaran konstan 2000 rpm dengan pembebanan bervariasi dari 200 watt sampai dengan 2000 watt dengan interval 200 watt. Bahwa produksi syngas dari reaktor gasifikasi ditambahkan sistem bypass untuk mengetahui kesesuaian antara reaktor gasifikasi dan mesin generatorset data ṁ syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel, ṁ syngas yang di bypass untuk mendapatkan kesesuaian antara produksi syngas dan yang di bypass.  Data-data yang diukur dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa besar nilai mass flowrate gas syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel pada AFR reaktor gasifier 1,39 sebesar 0,0003748 kg/s. Mass flowrate gas syngas yang di bypass menunjukkan nilai 0 pada saat sistem dijalankan karena seluruh gas syngas masuk kedalam ruang bakar. AFR rata-rata sebesar 14,54 ,Nilai Spesifik fuel consumption (sfc mengalami peningkatan 68% dari kondisi standar single fuel , Nilai efesiensi thermal mengalami kenaikan sebesar 7% dari kondisi single fuel, Nilai daya rata-rata sebesar 2,28kW, Nilai torsi rata-rata sebesar 10,94 N.m. Solar yang tersibtitusi sebesar 48%. Nilai temperatur (coolant, mesin, oil, dan gas buang pada setiap pembebanan mengalami kenaikan.

  17. Valutazione della capacità di rientro alla base di un elicottero in presenza di danno balistico ad un albero di trasmissione della linea rotore di coda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L Giudici; A Manes; M Giglio

    2010-01-01

      Nella progettazione di un elicottero militare, destinato ad operare a bassa quota e in ambiente ostile, il danneggiamento di componenti critici, conseguente ad impatto balistico, riveste un ruolo...

  18. Valutazione del costo di due tipologie di infezioni ospedaliere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abbona

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    I tentativi di quantificare le risorse assorbite e definire i costi delle infezioni ospedaliere sono abbastanza sporadici e non sempre metodologicamente corretti. Il principale problema operativo consiste nell’identificare strumenti in grado di verificare sia l’eventuale eccesso di degenza attribuibile all’infezione, sia i costi diretti della infezione dovuti alle risorse impegnate per la diagnosi, il trattamento e l’eventuale monitoraggio del suo decorso.

    A tale scopo si è utilizzato uno strumento, il Protocollo di Revisione dell’Utilizzo dell’Ospedale (PRUO, specificamente modificato, per valutare se la presenza in ospedale era causata dalla sola infezione ospedaliera o dalla patologia di base. L’analisi così condotta permette di distinguere risorse e costi direttamente legati al trattamento delle infezioni da quelli legati alla patologia di base.

    Obiettivo: valutare il costo delle infezioni ospedaliere relative alle vie urinarie e alle sepsi, negli ospedali piemontesi.

    Metodi: la ricerca viene condotta nel periodo dicembre 2002 - settembre 2003, ed interessa 28 Ospedali, della Regione Piemonte, già precedentemente coinvolti (anno 2000 in uno studio di prevalenza sulle infezioni ospedaliere i cui pazienti rappresentano la base dati sulla quale sono stati scelti i casi (59 di infezione oggetto di studio. Per effettuare l’analisi si è proceduto alla consultazione della cartella clinica di ciascun paziente utilizzando il PRUO per raccogliere le informazioni relative alla durata della degenza attribuibile alla sola infezione ospedaliera, all’uso di antibiotici specifici, alle analisi di laboratorio e alle eventuali consulenze effettuate e valorizzando le diverse componenti dei costi con i valori economici forniti dall’ASO S. Luigi di Orbassano, articolati per unità operative in cui si è sviluppata l’infezione ospedaliera. Risultati: sono attualmente disponibili i

  19. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions.

  20. Thermodynamic black di-rings

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Previously the five dimensional $S^1$-rotating black rings have been superposed in concentric way by some solitonic methods and regular systems of two $S^1$-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions black di-rings). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution-sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings are shown, in which both iso-thermality and iso-rotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.

  1. Esercizi di metodi matematici della fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Angilella, G G N

    2011-01-01

    Il testo richiama i principali concetti, definizioni e teoremi relativi agli spazi vettoriali, agli sviluppi in serie di Fourier, alle equazioni alle derivate parziali, alle trasformate integrali di Laplace e di Fourier, ad alcune classi di equazioni integrali (con specifico riferimento alla funzione di Green). Si danno altresi' cenni di funzioni di variabile complessa, di teoria dei gruppi, e di spazi funzionali. Di ciascun argomento vengono ampiamente discusse le motivazioni e le applicazioni nel campo della fisica e, talora, di altre discipline scientifiche. Tali argomenti vengono approfonditi da esercizi (perlopiu' svolti, o con soluzione), spesso tratti da effettivi temi d'esame del corso di Metodi matematici per la fisica del corso di laurea in Fisica (Catania).

  2. Analisi basata sugli sforzi locali della resistenza a fatica di giunzioni incollate di materiali compositi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moroni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro prende spunto dai risultati di un’analisi sperimentale del comportamento a fatica di giunzioni incollate di materiali compositi laminati di elevato spessore formati da strati di unidirezionale e di tessuto di fibra di carbonio. I giunti sono stati realizzati in modo tale da saggiare l’influenza della lunghezza di sovrapposizione (da 25,4 mm a 110,8 mm, della forma del giunto (con e senza rastremazione, e della composizione degli aderendi (sostituzione di uno degli aderendi in composito con uno in acciaio. Mediante analisi 2D elastiche con il metodo degli elementi finiti sono state ricavate le distribuzioni degli sforzi all’interno dello strato di adesivo, al fine di individuare un parametro utile alla descrizione del comportamento a fatica in termini di sforzi locali - numero di cicli a rottura. Il ruolo della fase di propagazione viene discusso alla luce di osservazioni dell’avanzamento della frattura, condotta su alcuni dei giunti testati.

  3. Effect of Bio Ethanol and Diesel Blend on Small Diesel Engine Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H Hashemi Fard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Bio-ethanol as an alternative diesel engine fuel is rapidly increasing. Bio-ethanol is mixed with diesel fuel at different ratios and used in CI and SI engines. Since vibrations have direct effects on users and engine components, for this reason analysis of vibration resulting from combustion in CI engines is very important. In this study, evaluation of vibration was performed for both diesel and ethanol blends. Commercial diesel fuel (D100, E2 (2% ethanol and 98% diesel fuel, E5, E10, E15 and E20 were used in a two-wheel MITSUBISHI tractor. The engine was tested in 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2400 rpm for all fuel blends, and also the effect of load was investigated for D100 and E10. Results showed that vibration is significantly affected by fuel blend. It was observed that E10 had the lowest vibration while E20 had the highest value. It was also observed that vibration increased as engine speed increased for all fuel blends. It was found that both axial and lateral vibrations affected significantly by load. The lateral vibrations decreased continuously with load rise , but the axial vibrations increased initially but started to follow a reverse trend.

  4. Improvement of thermal effciency in diesel engine. Diesel engine no koritsu kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H. (Isuzu Ceramics Research Inst. Co. Ltd., Kanagawa, (Japan))

    1993-04-05

    Diesel engines cause worsening air pollution due to much more discharge of nitrogen oxides than gasoline engines, however for reduction of carbon dioxide, Diesel engines consuming less fuel are better than gasoline engines for protection of the global environment. Theoretical thermal efficiency is larger as compression ratio and isochronic burnup are bigger, hence such an engine is needed that is made on the basis of a Diesel engine, whose compression ratio is twice or more larger than that of gasoline engine and which has good thermal efficiency, and reduces its nitrogen oxides by the development of the combustion technique by means of controlling combustion temperature as well as fuel equivalent ratio. With regard to the improvement of thermal efficiency of Diesel engines, it can be attained, utilizing the respective features of the antechamber-type and the direct injection-type Diesels, by burning the homogeneous mixture, whose fuel equivalent ratio is big, in the initial stage and by controlling the main combustion period in the main chamber short. inaddition, a radiation shield-type turbocompound engine has been test fabricated and rough explanations are given on its structure, its combustion and the recovery of its exhaust gas energy. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert V; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

    2008-04-01

    An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 +/- 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m(3) of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 +/- 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 +/- 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m(-3) (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust.

  6. Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C.; Heeb, Norbert V. [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Naegeli, Hanspeter [University of Zurich-Vetsuisse, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zurich (Switzerland); Zenobi, Renato [ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX {sup registered}) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17{beta}-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 {+-} 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m{sup 3} of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 {+-} 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 {+-} 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m{sup -3} (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust. (orig.)

  7. Development of microwave-heated diesel particulate filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yonushonis, T.M.; McDonald, A.C.; Wiczynski, P.D.; Haberkamp, W.C.

    1996-06-01

    Diesel engines are a prime mover of freight in the United States. Because of legislated reductions in diesel engine emissions, considerable research has been focused on the reduction of these emissions while maintaining the durability, reliability, and fuel economy of diesel engines. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that particulate exhaust from diesel powered vehicles represents a potential health hazard. As a result, regulations have been promulgated limiting the allowable amounts of particulate from those vehicles. The 0.1 g/bhp/hr (gram per brake horsepower per hour) particulate standard that applies to heavy-duty diesels became effective in 1994. Engine manufacturers have met those requirements with engine modifications and/or oxidation catalysts. EPA has established more stringent standards for diesel-powered urban buses because of health concerns in densely populated urban areas.

  8. IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehman, Andre L.

    2000-08-20

    As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by

  9. Insulated Piston Heads for Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricoire, A.; Kjellman, B.; Wigren, J.; Vanvolsem, M.; Aixala, L.

    2009-06-01

    Widely studied in the 1980s, the insulation of pistons in engines aimed at reducing the heat losses and thus increasing the indicated efficiency. However, those studies stopped in the beginning of the 1990s because of NO x emission legislation and also because of lower oil prices. Currently, with the improvement of exhaust after treatment systems (diesel particulate filter, selective catalytic reduction, and diesel oxidation catalyst) and engine technologies (exhaust gas recirculation), there are more trade-offs for NO x reduction. In addition, the fast rise of the oil prices tends to lead back to insulation technologies in order to save fuel. A 1 mm thick plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a graded transition between the topcoat and the bondcoat was deposited on top of a serial piston for heavy-duty truck engines. The effects of the insulated pistons on the engine performance are also discussed, and the coating microstructure is analyzed after engine test.

  10. Advanced automotive diesel engine system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

  11. Characterization and analysis of diesel exhaust odor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partridge, P.A.; Shala, F.J.; Cernansky, N.P.; Suffet, I.H.

    1987-04-01

    An analytical method was developed to determine which compound or compounds in the oxygenated fraction of diesel exhaust were changing in intensity and number with respect to the odor correlation between human sensory panels and diesel exhaust samples as developed at Arthur D. Little, Inc. A sample fractionation with silica Sep-Pak cartridges and gas chromatography analysis procedures were developed to analyze exhaust odor samples. By use of a chromatographic computer profiling method, correlations were developed indicating a linear relation between log (odor intensity) and log (concentration) of specific character impact peaks (which may or may not be odorous themselves). Excellent correlations were obtained with the character impact peaks identified as benzaldehyde and a methylbenzaldehyde isomer in this study. Correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.90, respectively, were obtained for the sample set. 17 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Panel discussion: Gas emissions with diesel efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The second of three papers in the panel discussion outlined the characteristics of spark-ignited natural gas (SING) engines. Currently, the SING engine is considered less efficient than a diesel engine because of the reduced compression ratio, the use of air-throttles, retarded ignition for low NOx, and increased heat transfer. To improve upon these characteristics and to make the SING engine equal to, or even surpass the diesel engine in efficiency, more research work needs to be done on advanced controls. These include (knock, misfire, humidity detection), various ignition enhancements (variable energy/gap plug, long-life plug, laser ignition), and possibly camless operation (cylinder deactivation, throttleless operation). The late-cycle High Pressure Gas Injection (LaCHIP) as an alternate means of improving the efficiency of natural gas engines was also described.

  13. Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel-engine evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, J.L.; Werner, J.R.

    1982-12-01

    The turbocompound diesel engine has been under development since 1972. Development reached a mature stage following the evolution of three power turbine and gear train designs. In 1978, the Department of Energy sponsored a program for comprehensive vehicle testing of the turbocompound engine. Upon successful completion of the vehicle test program, an advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated in 1980 to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. This paper presents the individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements.

  14. Investigation of Diesel Engine Performance Based on Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Rosli A. Bakar; Abdul R. Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The single cylinder modeling and simulation for four-stroke direct-injection diesel engine requires the use of advanced analysis and development tools to carry out of performance the diesel engine model. The simulation and computational development of modeling for the research use the commercial of GT-SUITE 6.2 software. In this research, the one dimensional modeling of single cylinder for four-stroke direct-injection diesel engine developed. The analysis of the model is combustion performanc...

  15. Energy Policies Cause Unexpected Diesel Shortage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ An unprecedented diesel shortage is sweeping through Chinese cities, as numerous enterprises have to resort to diesel fuel to generate electricity to continue operation during periods of forced power outages.For example, the diesel shortage has recently paralyzed traffic on a pivotal expressway in Northwest China, with trucks waiting in long lines to fill their fuel tanks.China's Ministry of Commerce has recently required the local bureaus to ensure ample supply of fuel amid rising inflation.

  16. A Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, R.; Venkateswara R. Bella

    2011-01-01

    The diesel engines are energy efficient, but their particulate (soot) emissions are responsible of severe environmental and health problems. This review provides a survey on published information regarding diesel soot emission, its adverse effects on the human health, environment, vegetations, climate, etc. The legislations to limit diesel emissions and ways to minimize soot emission are also summarized. Soot particles are suspected to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory...

  17. High Resolution Numerical Simulations of Primary Atomization in Diesel Sprays with Single Component Reference Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NC. 14. ABSTRACT A high-resolution numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at diesel engine ... diesel fuel injector at diesel engine type conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in diesel fuel...the capability of a recently adopted high fidelity two phase flow solver in the context of diesel engine sprays. Previous works relating to this

  18. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  19. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  20. Comparative Naval Architecture Analysis of Diesel Submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    space required to enclose all of the requirements, this volume must be able to support the weight of the submarine. In other words, Archimedes ’ principle ...accurate information regarding the naval architecture of foreign diesel submarines. However, with some fundamental submarine design principles , drawings of...cycling and hiking, I thank you for pushing me to relieve stress through my favorite sports. Last but not least of all, I want to pay tribute to the

  1. Hydrogen, nitrogen and syngas enriched diesel combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulou, Fanos

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University On-board hydrogen and syngas production is considered as a transition solution from fossil fuel to hydrogen powered vehicles until problems associated with hydrogen infrastructure, distribution and storage are resolved. A hydrogen- or syngas-rich stream, which substitutes part of the main hydrocarbon fuel, can be produced by supplying diesel fuel in a fuel-reforming reactor, integrated within ...

  2. Hygroscopic properties of Diesel engine soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burtscher, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The hygroscopic properties of combustion particles, freshly emitted from a Diesel engine were investigated. It was found that these particles start to grow by water condensation at a relative humidity (RH)>80%. The hygroscopicity of these particles was enhanced when the sulfur content of the fuel was increased or when the particles were artificially aged (i.e. particles were subjected to an ozone or UV pre-treatment). (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  3. Diesel power leads Yemen electrification plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patarino, C.

    1980-10-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic ended a period of political isolation and is now pushing for social and economic development. A seven-year program announced in 1978 aims to establish and extend rural and urban electrification. A key element in this plan is the construction pf a series of diesel power stations to provide base load until larger steam plants are available in the mid-1980s.

  4. Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel engine evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, J.L.; Werner, J.R.

    1982-12-01

    An advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. The individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements are presented.

  5. Diálogos

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Constança Bettencourt

    2016-01-01

    O presente documento escrito tem como objetivo, a reflexão sobre alguns dos temas abordados no meu percurso artístico, durante o Mestrado de Artes Plásticas. O meu trabalho tem-se debruçado sobre as questões da escultura e do desenho, coexistindo estas práticas, num diálogo próprio, tanto em conjunto como separadas. O desenho inscreve-se no espaço virtual da folha como sombra da escultura, e tem tido como referência as filosofias orientais – centra-se no momento, na economia do...

  6. Diane Di Prima

    OpenAIRE

    Livingston, McKenzie

    2016-01-01

    Diane di Prima was one of the few female Beat writers, but she was just as prolific as her male contemporaries. Her writing style reflected the social upheavals of the day - like the other Beats, she dabbled in stream of consciousness and spontaneous prose, but gradually moved to more structured verse, like Haiku, published in 1967. She experimented heavily with form and diction to set herself apart from the male poets - exemplified in her epic poem, Loba. Her early texts focused heavily on p...

  7. Narrazioni di narrazioni: orientamento narrativo e progetto di vita (Federico Batini, Gabriel Del Sarto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ladogana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Il volume, denso di contenuti e ricco di riferimenti teorici, traccia con chiarezza le sue linee di sviluppo ed apre alla riflessione, anche pedagogica, sull’esigenza di recuperare la dimensione narrativa e autobiografica per la realizzazione di una pratica orientativa che guidi e sostenga il soggetto in orientamento verso la riscoperta e ricostruzione del proprio progetto di vita.

  8. Biofiltration of gasoline and diesel aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halecky, Martin; Rousova, Jana; Paca, Jan; Kozliak, Evguenii; Seames, Wayne; Jones, Kim

    2015-02-01

    The ability of a biofilm to switch between the mixtures of mostly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated to assess biofiltration efficiency and potential substrate interactions. A switch from gasoline, which consisted of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, to a mixture of volatile diesel n-alkanes resulted in a significant increase in biofiltration efficiency, despite the lack of readily biodegradable aromatic hydrocarbons in the diesel mixture. This improved biofilter performance was shown to be the result of the presence of larger size (C₉-C(12)) linear alkanes in diesel, which turned out to be more degradable than their shorter-chain (C₆-C₈) homologues in gasoline. The evidence obtained from both biofiltration-based and independent microbiological tests indicated that the rate was limited by biochemical reactions, with the inhibition of shorter chain alkane biodegradation by their larger size homologues as corroborated by a significant substrate specialization along the biofilter bed. These observations were explained by the lack of specific enzymes designed for the oxidation of short-chain alkanes as opposed to their longer carbon chain homologues.

  9. Power Balancing of Inline Multicylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simplified methodology is presented for power balancing by reducing the amplitude of engine speed variation, which result in excessive torsional vibrations of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine. In modern fuel injection systems for reciprocating engines, nonuniform cylinder-wise torque contribution is a common problem due to nonuniform fuel supply due to a defect in fuel injection system, causing increased torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft and stress of mechanical parts. In this paper, a mathematical model for the required fuel adjustment by using amplitude of engine speed variation applied on the flywheel based on engine dynamics is suggested. From the found empirical relations and FFT analysis, the amplitude of engine speed variation (i.e., torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine genset can be reduced up to 55%. This proposed methodology is simulated by developing MATALB code for uniform and nonuniform working of direct injection diesel engine of SL90 type manufactured by Kirloskar Oil Engine Ltd., Pune, India.

  10. PCR+ In Diesel Fuels and Emissions Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.

    2002-04-15

    In past work for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), PCR+ was developed as an alternative methodology for building statistical models. PCR+ is an extension of Principal Components Regression (PCR), in which the eigenvectors resulting from Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used as predictor variables in regression analysis. The work was motivated by the observation that most heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine research was conducted with test fuels that had been ''concocted'' in the laboratory to vary selected fuel properties in isolation from each other. This approach departs markedly from the real world, where the reformulation of diesel fuels for almost any purpose leads to changes in a number of interrelated properties. In this work, we present new information regarding the problems encountered in the conventional approach to model-building and how the PCR+ method can be used to improve research on the relationship between fuel characteristics and engine emissions. We also discuss how PCR+ can be applied to a variety of other research problems related to diesel fuels.

  11. PCR+ In Diesel Fuels and Emissions Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.

    2002-04-15

    In past work for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), PCR+ was developed as an alternative methodology for building statistical models. PCR+ is an extension of Principal Components Regression (PCR), in which the eigenvectors resulting from Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used as predictor variables in regression analysis. The work was motivated by the observation that most heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine research was conducted with test fuels that had been ''concocted'' in the laboratory to vary selected fuel properties in isolation from each other. This approach departs markedly from the real world, where the reformulation of diesel fuels for almost any purpose leads to changes in a number of interrelated properties. In this work, we present new information regarding the problems encountered in the conventional approach to model-building and how the PCR+ method can be used to improve research on the relationship between fuel characteristics and engine emissions. We also discuss how PCR+ can be applied to a variety of other research problems related to diesel fuels.

  12. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Current and future developments in diesel powered hovercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. C.; Stevens, M. J.; Buttigieg, J. A.

    After evaluating the development status of the application of diesel power to air-cushion vehicles (ACVs) and surface-effect ships (SESs), attention is given to the AP1-88 ACV, which is both the first and largest operational diesel-powered amphibious craft of this type. An account is given of the ACV and SES features that are dictated by the need to accommodate diesel power sources; the major advantages and disadvantages of diesel (vs gas turbine) engines are discussed. Although cost reductions are achievable against gas turbine powerplant use, lower payload fractions and slightly lower performance capabilities appear to be inescapable.

  14. Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM, which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.

  15. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  16. Status of Wind-Diesel Applications in Arctic Climates: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Corbus, D.

    2007-12-01

    The rising cost of diesel fuel and the environmental regulation for its transportation, use, and storage, combined with the clear impacts of increased arctic temperatures, is driving remote communities to examine alternative methods of providing power. Over the past few years, wind energy has been increasingly used to reduce diesel fuel consumption, providing economic, environmental, and security benefits to the energy supply of communities from Alaska to Antarctica. This summary paper describes the current state of wind-diesel systems, reviews the operation of wind-diesel plants in cold climates, discusses current research activities pertaining to these systems, and addresses their technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems in Alaska will be reviewed. Specific focus will also be given to the control of power systems with large amounts of wind generation and the complexities of replacing diesel engine waste heat with excess wind energy, a key factor in assessing power plants for retrofit. A brief overview of steps for assessing the viability of retrofitting diesel power systems with wind technologies will also be provided. Because of the large number of isolated diesel minigrids, the market for adding wind to these systems is substantial, specifically in arctic climates and on islands that rely on diesel-only power generation.

  17. Toxicity of effluents emitted by the diesel engines vehicles; Toxicite des effluents emis par les vehicules a moteur diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcon, St.

    1998-04-29

    The exhaust gases of diesel engine vehicles are atmospheric pollutants. They are characterised by a gaseous phase and a particulate phase. The diesel particulates are composed of a nucleus formed with elementary carbon, forming aggregates that absorb the organic by-products at their surface. A first part treats the effluents of diesel engine vehicles: their characteristics, the factors influencing the diesel emissions, the noxiousness of the gaseous phase, the kinetics and the metabolism of the particulate phase and analysis methods. A second part tackles the experimental toxicity of diesel effluents on insisting on the nature of exposures, the mutagenicity, the carcinogenicity, the effects on the reproduction function and immuno-toxicity. A third part is devoted to the toxicity for man with epidemiology data and some studies under controlled exposures. Then, a fourth part, explains the toxicity mechanisms and the action modes of diesel effluents on the carcinogen effects and on respiratory diseases. (N.C.)

  18. Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils Biodegradabilidade de óleos diesel comercial e intemperizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 - dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a capacidade de diferentes microrganismos em degradar óleo diesel comercial em comparação com um óleo diesel intemperizado coletado da água subterrânea em um posto de combust

  19. Performance and Emission Assessment of Multi Cylinder Diesel Engine using Surfactant Enhanced Water in Diesel Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohammed Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A four stroke, four cylinder, In-direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel with 5% water by volume on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 4500 rpm at full load conditions. It was found that, in general, using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance with slight increase in emissions. While the BSFC has a minimum value for 5% water and at all rpm, the torque, the power and the BMEP are found to have maximum values under these conditions when compared conve ntional disel. CO2 was found to increase with engine speed whereas increase in CO and NOX were minimum. In this work water in diesel emulsion was prepared by a mechanical homogenizer and their physical and chemical properties were examined.

  20. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Beginning on June......

  1. 40 CFR 80.617 - How may California diesel fuel be distributed or sold outside of the State of California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Violation... California diesel fuel redesignates it as motor vehicle diesel meeting the 15 ppm sulfur standard; and (vi) The terminal includes the volumes of California diesel fuel redesignated as motor vehicle diesel...

  2. KARAKTERISTIK PENGGUNA ???TATTO??? DI KALANGAN PEREMPUAN (Study Karakteristik Pengguna ???Tatto??? Di Kalangan Perempuan Di Kota Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    SARDJU, MARCHELLINO EKO PRASETYO

    2008-01-01

    Nama penulis, Marchellino Eko Prasetyo Sardju. Jurusan Sosiologi di Fisip Unhas. Skripsi ini di bimbing oleh Rahmat Muhammad dan Andi Sangkuru Tato merupakan salah satu karya seni yang memiliki daya tarik tersendiri bagi para peminatnya khusus pada kaum perempuan di kota Makassar. Tato ini juga telah berkembang dari tahun ke tahun. dimana perkembangannya juga diikuti dengan berkembangnya kemajuan teknologi yang memudahkan seseorang untuk membuat Tato. Fenomena Tato pada perempuan ini tent...

  3. Effect of hydrogen on ethanol-biodiesel blend on performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, M; Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani, J; Dhinesh, B; Annamalai, K

    2016-12-01

    Environment issue is a principle driving force which has led to a considerable effort to develop and introduce alternative fuels for transportation. India has large potential for production of biofuels like biodiesel from vegetable seeds. Use of biodiesel namely, tamanu methyl ester (TME) in unmodified diesel engines leads to low thermal Efficiency and high smoke emission. To encounter this problem hydrogen was inducted by a port fueled injection system. Hydrogen is considered to be low polluting fuel and is the most promising among alternative fuel. Its clean burning characteristic and better performance attract more interest compared to other fuels. It was more active in reducing smoke emission in biodiesel. A main drawback with hydrogen fuel is the increased NOx emission. To reduce NOx emission, TME-ethanol blends were used in various proportions. After a keen study, it was observed that ethanol can be blended with biodiesel up to 30% in unmodified diesel engine. The present work deals with the experimental study of performance and emission characteristic of the DI diesel engine using hydrogen and TME-ethanol blends. Hydrogen and TME-ethanol blend was used to improve the brake thermal efficiency and reduction in CO, NOx and smoke emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Numerical Study of Four Biodiesel Surrogates for Application on Diesel 0D Phenomenological Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Valery Ngayihi Abbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet more stringent norms and standards concerning engine performances and emissions, engine manufacturers need to develop new technologies enhancing the nonpolluting properties of the fuels. In that sense, the testing and development of alternative fuels such as biodiesel are of great importance. Fuel testing is nowadays a matter of experimental and numerical work. Researches on diesel engine’s fuel involve the use of surrogates, for which the combustion mechanisms are well known and relatively similar to the investigated fuel. Biodiesel, due to its complex molecular configuration, is still the subject of numerous investigations in that area. This study presents the comparison of four biodiesel surrogates, methyl-butanoate, ethyl-butyrate, methyl-decanoate, and methyl-9-decenoate, in a 0D phenomenological combustion model. They were investigated for in-cylinder pressure, thermal efficiency, and NOx emissions. Experiments were performed on a six-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine fuelled by methyl ester (MEB and ethyl ester (EEB biodiesel from wasted frying oil. Results showed that, among the four surrogates, methyl butanoate presented better results for all the studied parameters. In-cylinder pressure and thermal efficiency were predicted with good accuracy by the four surrogates. NOx emissions were well predicted for methyl butanoate but for the other three gave approximation errors over 50%.

  5. Caratterizzazione molecolare di ceppi di HAV isolati in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gabrieli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: il virus dell’epatite virale di tipo A (HAV, classificato nella famiglia dei Picornavirus, genere Heparnavirus, presenta un unico sierotipo antigenico, mentre l’analisi molecolare di ceppi isolati in diverse aree geografiche ha evidenziato una certa variabilità genetica che ne ha permesso la classificazione in 7 genotipi (I-VII di cui I, II, III e VII isolati esclusivamente dall’uomo. Al genotipo I appartengono circa l’80% di tutti i ceppi isolati.

    La classificazione genotipica è stata fatta basandosi sulla sequenza di 168 nucleotidi della regione genomica VP1/2(1. Lo scopo del presente studio è stato quello di caratterizzare mediante metodi molecolari i diversi ceppi di HAV circolanti in Albania.

    Metodi: In modo random, sono stati raccolti, dall’Istituto di Sanità Pubblica di Tirana, 202 campioni di sieri prelevati da 12 diverse città dell’Albania. Tutti i campioni sono stati saggiati per la ricerca di anticorpi anti- HAV-HBV-HCV-HEV.

    L’analisi molecolare per HAV è stata effettuata solo sui campioni IgM anti-HAV positivi. L’RNA è stato estratto da 100 ul di siero utilizzando TRIzol LS Reagent (Invitrogen, secondo il protocollo della ditta produttrice; mentre la reazione RT-PCR è stata eseguita secondo metodiche standard.

    Risultati: L’analisi sierologia ha evidenziato una positività
    del 66,2% per IgM anti-HAV, contro il 17,3% per HBV. Un solo campione presentava anticorpi anti-HCV, ma era RT-PCR negativo, mentre nessun siero era positivo per anticorpi anti-HEV. Sei sieri erano HBV ed HAV positivi. L’analisi genomica deI campioni RT-PCR positivi per HAV ha evidenziato un unico genotipo circolante: IA, con pochissime mutazioni nucleotidiche.
    Due mutazioni erano responsabili della sostituzione di due aminoacidi nei codoni 22 e 34.

    Conclusioni: I dati dimostrano la bassa circolazione dell

  6. Experimental combustion analysis of a hsdi diesel engine fuelled with palm oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN AGUDELO; ELKIN GUTIÉRREZ; PEDRO BENJUMEA

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB), No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively). To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant po...

  7. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  8. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  9. Stability and filtering capacity of diesel oil; Estabilidade e filtrabilidade do oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marcelo Vieira; Rocha, Mauro Iurk [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Combustiveis]. E-mails: marvial@petrobras.com.br; miurk@petrobras.com.br; Zotin, Fatima Maria Zanon [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: fzotin@uerj.br; Pinto, Ricardo Rodrigues da Cunha [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Recursos Humanos. Gerencia de Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologias]. E-mail: rcp@petrobras.com.br

    2006-12-15

    The increasing demand for the reduction in the emission of polluting agents by diesel motors has led to the use of more advanced injection systems. These systems are increasingly reducing clearances and portray more restrictive filtering capacity, protecting them from the release of fuel particles. Those particles may originate in the degradation of oil products, formed by the acid-catalyzed condensation between aromatic compounds and heterocyclic nitrogens. These compounds appear in the various chains used in the composition of the fuel. We address here the aspects influencing the stability to oxidation and fuel filterability as well as the methods used to assess the degradation capacity of several diesel oil formulations. (author)

  10. Tomorrows diesel engines: towards a new equilibrium; Moteurs diesel de demain: vers un nouvel equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastenhof, D. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the different ways of reducing the pollutants emissions from diesel engines in order to follow the future French environmental regulations. The combustion in diesel engines is analyzed first: principle and consequences, calculated combustion, pollution units, influences of ambient air conditions on NO{sub x} production, maximum legal pollutant concentration limits (French regulation for fixed installations, NO{sub x}, CO, HC and dust limit values), influence of fuel composition. Then the existing methods for the reduction of pollutants emissions are analyzed and compared with respect to their cost: mechanical adjustment of engines, water injection, exhaust gases recirculation, treatment of fumes. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  11. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    OpenAIRE

    Teerawat Apichato; Gumpon Prateepchaikul1

    2003-01-01

    Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term perfor...

  12. MASALAH KESEHATAN DI INDONESIA BAGIAN TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Meliala, SKM, DSP

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini akan mencoba menelaah ujud dan distribusi masalah kesehatan di beberapa propinsi di Indonesia, khususnya Irja, Maluku, Sulawesi, NTB, NTT dan Timtim. Dalam pembahasan disajikan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi situasi kesehatan di wilayah tersebut.

  13. Experimental investigation on performance characteristics of a diesel engine using diesel-water emulsion with oxygen enriched air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baskar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines occupy a crucial position in automobile industry due to their high thermal efficiency and high power to weight ratio. However, they lag behind in controlling air polluting components coming out of the engine exhaust. Therefore, diesel consumption should be analyzed for future energy consumption and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines, which include biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions. Among them the diesel water emulsion is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency. But the major problem associated with emulsions is the ignition delay, since this is responsible for the power and torque loss. A reduction in NOx emission was observed due to reduction in combustion chamber temperature as the water concentration increases. However the side effect of emulsified diesel is a reduction in power which can be compensated by oxygen enrichment. The present study investigates the effects of oxygen concentration on the performance characteristics of a diesel engine when the intake air is enriched to 27% of oxygen and fueled by 10% of water diesel emulsion. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency was enhanced, combustion characteristics improved and there is also a reduction in HC emissions.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Bio-Diesel Obtained From Waste Cooking Oil and Its Blends with Diesel on Single Cylinder Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Sharma,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment a comprehensive experimental investigation of bio-diesel oil on single cylinder engine running with biodiesel obtained from Waste cooking oil and its blends with diesel was carried out for its performance and emission analysis. The results which obtained are significantly comparable to pure diesel. It shows that biodiesel obtained from cooking oil can be used as alternative fuel with better performance and lower emissions compared with diesel and play a very vital role for the overall economic development of the country.

  15. Il viaggio gastronomico di Paolo Monelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Salarelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Il ghiottone errante di Paolo Monelli, pubblicato nel 1935, rappresenta uno dei primi esempi di narrativa di viaggio in tema di enogastronomia, un genere destinato a grande successo nel secondo dopoguerra. In questo articolo, oltre a ripercorrere la vicenda biografica di Monelli, si sottolineano le relazioni tra Il ghiottone e la cultura gastronomica del regime fascista, e si evidenziano alcuni tratti caratteristici del suo stile di scrittura.

  16. Heeft di wel een betekenis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    SAMENVATTING Alvorens een analyse van het Italiaanse voorzetsel di te maken, stelt de auteur eerst het begrip ‘leeg voorzetsel’ aan de orde, dat in laatste instantie te herleiden is tot de lege karakters van de Chinese grammatica. Voor di wordt voorgesteld, naast enkele rudimenten van andere

  17. Heeft di wel een betekenis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    SAMENVATTING Alvorens een analyse van het Italiaanse voorzetsel di te maken, stelt de auteur eerst het begrip ‘leeg voorzetsel’ aan de orde, dat in laatste instantie te herleiden is tot de lege karakters van de Chinese grammatica. Voor di wordt voorgesteld, naast enkele rudimenten van andere beteke

  18. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  19. Isu Perkawinan Minoritas di Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Triyono

    2016-06-01

    Masyarakat dalam sebuah negara biasanya terbagi dalam dua kelompok besar, kelompok mayoritas dan kelompok minoritas. Kelompok mayoritas biasanya memegang kendali dalam setiap kebijakan yang akan dilaksanakan dalam lingkungan masyarakat tersebut, sementara kelompok minoritas terkadang dapat ikut berperan di dalamnya dan terkadang juga tidak mendapatkan peran apapun dalam melaksanakan sebuah kebijakan di lingkungan tersebut. Negara Thailand merupakan memiliki keunikan tersendiri, karena selain tetap memegang kebijakan dalam melaksanakan perkawinan adat ketimuran yang kental dengan nilai-nilai budaya Thailand, negara gajah putih ini juga memberikan ruang kepada perkawinan kelompok minoritas yang ada di negara itu. Perkawinan minoritas yang terjadi di negara ini antara lain adalah isu perkawinan sejenis yang dilakukan oleh kelompok minoritas LGBT dan isu perkawinan beda agama yang umumnya terjadi antara mereka yang beragama Islam dan Buddha di wilayah Thailand Selatan.

  20. Comparison of the effect of biodiesel-diesel and ethanol-diesel on the gaseous emission of a direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel and ethanol to investigate the gaseous emissions of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque engine speed of 1800 rev min -1. Four biodiesel blended fuels and four ethanol blended fuels with oxygen concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used. With the increase of oxygen content in the blended fuels, the brake thermal efficiency improves slightly. For the diesel-biodiesel fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions decrease while the brake specific NO x and NO 2 emissions increase. The emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene and overall BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) in general decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. For the diesel-ethanol fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions increase significantly at low engine load, NO x emission decreases at low engine load but increases at high engine load. The emissions of benzene and BTX vary with engine load and ethanol content. Similar to the biodiesel-diesel fuels, the formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene and xylene emissions decrease while the acetaldehyde and NO 2 emissions increase. Despite having the same oxygen contents in the blended fuels, there are significant differences in the gaseous emissions between the biodiesel-diesel blends and the ethanol-diesel blends.

  1. Legge professioni: il commento di Ordine Psicologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Grimoldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available E oggi mi invento una professione... Di per sé il decreto 3270 "in materia di professioni non regolamentate in Ordini o collegi" introduce il seme, o se si vuole il germe, di un'iniziativa autonoma in merito alle professioni. E forse, da un certo punto di vista, ci voleva. Serve, nell'intendimento del legislatore, a sanare il caso degli informatici e degli amministratori di condominio, ad oggi privi di regolamentazione, di percorsi formativi e di carte etiche da rispettare. Dunque, bene? Non proprio tutto.

  2. The Modeling and Simulation of 8V240ZJ Turbocharged Diesel Engine%8V240ZJ柴油机的建模仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迎迎; 周斌

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the professional engine analysis software GT - POWER to model a di- rect injection diesel engine model for 8 V240ZJ which is four strokes, supercharged locomotive diesel engine. The working process simulation and computation of 8V240ZJ diesel engine are validated. From the contrast test resuks and computation results, there is good agreement and small error. On this base, the effect on the performance of the diesel engine caused by engine speed was analyzed.%本文应用GT—Power建立了直喷式四冲程涡轮增压柴油机8V240ZJ模型,并进行了工作过程模拟,将模拟结果与实验结果进行比较,吻合良好,误差较小。在此基础上分析了该发动机的速度特性。

  3. I dolori di Claudia Seeliger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Treder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La protagonista di questo romanzo dice “io”, si confida con noi, ci conduce attraverso la sua rocambolesca vicenda tenendoci avvinti e costringendoci ad esserle complici. Più di una volta restiamo col fiato sospeso, ci sentiamo a tratti confusi e smarriti, scuotiamo la testa disapprovando le sue scelte avventate, ma non ce la sentiremmo mai di abbandonarla al suo destino. Troppo forte è la sua personalità, perfino laddove scopre il suo lato fragile, troppo coinvolgente la sua passione, troppo disarmante la sua intelligenza. Non c’è niente da fare: Claudia Seeliger ci tiene in pugno. Claudia Seeliger, o chi per lei, bisognerebbe dire… In questo romanzo poliziesco, psicologico, erotico, politico, interculturale e intertestuale, Uta Treder si rivela narratrice sapiente, colta, ma anche ironica e assai irriverente. Profilo biograficoUta Treder (Amburgo 1943 – Firenze 2013 è stata professore ordinario di Storia della cultura tedesca a Firenze e di Letteratura tedesca a Trieste e a Perugia. Da germanista si è occupata di autori quali Goethe, Schiller, Hölderlin, Novalis, Heine, Droste-Hülshoff, Fontane, Keller, Lasker-Schüler, Kafka, Bachmann, Mayröcker. Il suo principale interesse ha riguardato la letteratura delle donne che sono state "dimenticate" dal Canone. Come autrice di narrativa ha pubblicato la raccolta di racconti Luna Aelion (München 1989 e i romanzi Die Alchemistin (Frankfurt a.M. 1993, Die Bäume von Babelsberg (Pfalzfeld 2005, audiolibro letto da Petra Pawel, 2007; anticipazione italiana in "LEA", 1-2004, Der Schwarze König (Pfalzfeld 2007. È stata socia fondatrice della Società Italiana delle Letterate. I dolori di Claudia Seeliger è la prima traduzione italiana dell'opera narrativa di Uta Treder.

  4. A statistical model for combustion resonance from a DI diesel engine with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodisco, Timothy; Low Choy, Samantha; Masri, Assaad; Brown, Richard J.

    2015-08-01

    Introduced in this paper is a Bayesian model for isolating the resonant frequency from combustion chamber resonance. The model shown in this paper focused on characterising the initial rise in the resonant frequency to investigate the rise of in-cylinder bulk temperature associated with combustion. By resolving the model parameters, it is possible to determine: the start of pre-mixed combustion, the start of diffusion combustion, the initial resonant frequency, the resonant frequency as a function of crank angle, the in-cylinder bulk temperature as a function of crank angle and the trapped mass as a function of crank angle. The Bayesian method allows for individual cycles to be examined without cycle-averaging-allowing inter-cycle variability studies. Results are shown for a turbo-charged, common-rail compression ignition engine run at 2000 rpm and full load.

  5. Desain Rantai Pasok Gas Alam Cair (LNG untuk Kebutuhan Pembangkit Listrik di Indonesia Bagian Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Arya Satya Dharma Putra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara yang memiliki gas alam yang melimpah, namun kurangnya kesadaran masyarakat Indonesia untuk memanfaatkan gas tersebut untuk kebutuhan listrik di Indonesia yang sekarang sedang dalam krisis terutama di Indonesia Timur. Salah satu penyebab krisis tenaga listrik yang terjadi di Indonesia adalah tingginya nilai harga bahan bakar minyak, dimana High Speed Diesel Oil merupakan bahan bakar utama bagi pembangkit listrik di Indonesia. Gas alam cair atau Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG dapat menjadi solusi alternatif bahan bakar bagi pembangkit listrik di Indonesia.Studi kali ini bertujuan untuk pemanfaatan gas alam cair (LNG untuk kebutuhan pembangkit listrik di Indonesia Timur dengan menentukan pola distribusi LNG dengan menggunakan Blok Masela sebagai sumber LNG dan menggunakan kapal untuk mendistribusikannya. Terdapat 39 pembangkit yang tersebar di 4 pulau yaitu Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, dan Papua. Kapal yang digunakan untuk mendistribusikan terdapat 5 kapal dengan ukuran 2500 m3, 7500 m3, 10000 m3, 19500 m3, 23000 m3. Untuk mendapatkan rute distribusi, studi ini menggunakan metode Linear Programing dan dalam Vehicle Routing Problem. Hasil optimasi pada distribusi ini adalah rute dan kapal yang optimal / terbaik dengan biaya ekonomi yang minimal.Dari hasil penelitian ini pembangkit akan dibagi menjadi 5 cluster dimana terdapat 5 rute yang terpilih dengan menggunakan 6 kapal yaitu 5 kapal ukuran 2500 m3 dan 1 kapal dengan ukuran 7500m3. Biaya total yang diperlukan dalam mendistribusikan LNG sebesar US$ 111,863,119.15 untuk Opex dan US$ 283,967,000.00 untuk Capex. Hasil dari kajian ekonomi menunjukan bahwa margin penjualan yang terpilih adalah antara US$ 3.5 sampai US$ 3.9 dengan payback period selama 6.8 – 4.7 tahun tahun dari waktu operasi 20 tahun.

  6. Tecniche di ricerca qualitativa: percorsi di ricerca nelle scienze sociali (Mario Cardano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Di Massa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Le tecniche di ricerca qualitativa offrono allo scienziato sociale un insieme composito di strumenti, capaci di rilevare le più minute sottigliezze della vita quotidiana, colte ora nella trama di un'interazione, ora tra le pieghe di una narrazione. Il volume tratteggia una mappa di questo territorio e si sofferma sulle principali tecniche di ricerca qualitativa: l'osservazione partecipante, l'intervista discorsiva e il focus group. L'autore procede alla loro presentazione in chiave critica, prestando particolare attenzione al tema della plausibilità del sapere che l'impiego di queste tecniche consente di acquisire. Alla compilazione di una serie di 'ricette' su come fare ricerca qualitativa, l'autore preferisce la ricostruzione della rete di decisioni cui è chiamato chi intenda cimentarsi in questa impresa. Limitandosi di indicare - laddove possibile - i pro e i contro di ciascuna scelta.

  7. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruijun; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua; Wang, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Experiments were carried out on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate (DEA). The blended fuels contain 8.1%, 16.4%, 25% and 33.8% by volume fraction of DEA, corresponding to 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by mass of oxygen in the blends. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of the different fuels were investigated at five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev/min. The results indicated an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the engine was fueled with the blended fuels. In comparison with diesel fuel, the blended fuels resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), but a decrease in particulate mass concentrations. The nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission experienced a slight variation among the test fuels. In regard to the unregulated gaseous emissions, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased, while 1,3-butadiene, ethene, ethyne, propylene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decreased. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was found to reduce significantly most of the investigated unregulated pollutants when the exhaust gas temperature was sufficiently high.

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  9. Diesel-hydraulic locomotive becomes a diesel-electric hybrid locomotive; Dieselhydraulische Lokomotive wird dieselelektrische Hybridlokomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behmann, Uwe

    2013-01-15

    The operational partial load times cause a unnecessarily high fuel consumption and additional environmental pollutions in applications of shunting locomotives. High fuel consumption and additional environmental pollutions can be avoided by hybrid locomotives using a small-scale diesel engine with a generator only for the periodic charging of a large traction battery.

  10. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  11. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  12. Filtres à activité catalytique pour moteur Diesel Catalytic Activity Filters for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de l'examen des normes actuelles et envisagées dans le futur pour limiter les émissions de particules Diesel, et en considérant les propriétés physico-chimiques de ces particules, cet article expose les problèmes posés par la filtration des suies Diesel et leur élimination par combustion sur les différents types de filtres actuellement retenus. La régénération des filtres par combustion catalytique du dépôt est plus particulièrement discutée. From an examination of present regulations and ones being considered for the future to limit particle emissions by diesel engines, and considering the physicochemical properties of such particles, this article describes the problems raised by filtering soot from diesel engines and eliminating it by various types of filters now used. Filter regeneration by catalytic combustion of the deposit is considered in particular.

  13. Application of Canola Oil Biodiesel/Diesel Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application effects of canola oil biodiesel/diesel blends in a common rail diesel engine was experimentally investigated. The test fuels were denoted as ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel, BD20 (20% canola oil blended with 80% ULSD by volume, and PCO (pure canola oil, respectively. These three fuels were tested under an engine speed of 1500 rpm with various brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs. The results indicated that PCO can be used well in the diesel engine without engine modification, and that BD20 can be used as a good alternative fuel to reduce the exhaust pollution. In addition, at low engine loads (0.13 MPa and 0.26 MPa, the combustion pressure of PCO is the smallest, compared with BD20 and ULSD, because the lower calorific value of PCO is lower than that of ULSD. However, at high engine loads (0.39 MPa and 0.52 MPa, the rate of heat release (ROHR of BD20 is the highest because the canola oil biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel that promotes combustion, shortening the ignition delay period. For exhaust emissions, by using canola oil biodiesel, the particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were considerably reduced with increased BMEP. The nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased only slightly due to the inherent presence of oxygen in biodiesel.

  14. Differences in rheological profile of regular diesel and bio-diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čupera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel represents a promising alternative to regular fossil diesel. Fuel viscosity markedly influences injection, spraying and combustion, viscosity is thus critical factor to be evaluated and monitored. This work is focused on quantifying the differences in temperature dependent kinematic viscosity regular diesel fuel and B30 biodiesel fuel. The samples were assumed to be Newtonian fluids. Vis­co­si­ty was measured on a digital rotary viscometer in a range of 0 to 80 °C. More significant difference between minimum and maximum values was found in case of diesel fuel in comparison with biodiesel fuel. Temperature dependence of both fuels was modeled using several mathematical models – polynomial, power and Gaussian equation. The Gaussian fit offers the best match between experimental and computed data. Description of viscosity behavior of fuels is critically important, e.g. when considering or calculating running efficiency and performance of combustion engines. The models proposed in this work may be used as a tool for precise prediction of rheological behavior of diesel-type fuels.

  15. 1. Questioni di metodo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Arcari (a cura di

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In questa prima parte della sezione si affrontano questioni metodologiche più generali in merito a concetti come identità, etnicità, collettività, religioni, partendo dal dibattito che si è andato conducendo in seguito agli scambi occorsi tra storici e antropologi almeno dall’ultimo cinquantennio del Novecento in poi, e dalle sue ricadute soprattutto nello studio dell’etnicità e delle identità collettive e (cosiddette religiose in Grecia antica. Un ulteriore aspetto riguarda la prospettiva inaugurata dalla cosiddetta “Scuola di Vienna” in merito alle costruzioni identitarie collettive in chiave etnica, soprattutto in rapporto ai testi biblici e alla loro multifor

  16. Compendio di meccanica razionale

    CERN Document Server

    Levi-Civita, Tullio

    1948-01-01

    Questa seconda edizione, pur conforme nel suo complesso alla precedente, ha subìto un'accurata revisione generale e svariati ritocchi particolari. Ci limitiamo qui a rivelare che nella I Parte abbiamo aggiunto un'analisi della nozione di "tempo", diretta a lumeggiare il momento preciso del distacco fra l'impostazione classica della Meccanica e della Fisica e quelle relativistica; e, per quel che concerne la Statica, vi abbiamo inquadrato, senza ammissioni estranee, la determinazione delle reazioni nel cosidetto "arco a tre cerniere" e ridotto a forma didatticamente più semplie ed espressiva il paragrafo sull'"attrito volvente". Nella II Parte abbiamo ulteriormente semplificato la teoria elementare dei "fenomeni giroscopici", seguendo G. Bisconcini.

  17. Ricordo di Arturo Rigillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nel pieno imperversare della stagione invernale  del 2010 Arturo Rigillo se ne è andato; in silenzio, così come ha vissuto, lasciando ai familiari, agli amici, ai colleghi dell’ateneo napoletano Federico II, alla comunità scientifica nazionale ed internazionale, al centro di ricerca interdipartimentale L.U.P.T. che lo ha avuto per un decennio  direttore e successivamente presidente, al comitato scientifico e redazionale della rivista  “TRIA”, che con generosa dedizione ha contribuito a fondare, un vuoto che la sola memoria della sua «silenziosa operatività» non potrà certo colmare per i tanti che lo hanno conosciuto, frequentato ed apprezzato condividendo con Lui stima, amicizia ed affetto

  18. I confini di Cipro: il muro di Nicosia

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Tagliacollo

    2011-01-01

    Il muro di Nicosia e di tutta l'isola è solo un segno verde tracciato su una mappa, eppure ha una sua fisicità che non si può non percepire, o subire, nel percorrere il territorio. Il muro è un luogo da non attraversare - per tutti i ciprioti - che taglia in due un'unica popolazione, separandola attraverso i temi della cultura, della religione e della lingua. La storia del muro di Cipro, confine tra Nord e Sud, nasce nel 1974: da quel momento in poi saranno evidenziate in modo prevalente le d...

  19. Caratterizzazione strutturale di polimeri derivanti dalla polimerizzazione di monomeri dienici

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Simona

    2006-01-01

    [ITALIANO] / Nella presente tesi di dottorato si sono effettuati studi per la caratterizzazione strutturale e del comportamento polimorfo di polimeri stereoregolari derivanti dalla polimerizzazione del butadiene e dei suoi derivati metilici sostituiti, che hanno caratteristiche tipiche dei materiali termoplastici e/o elastomerici. Studi strutturali sono stati condotti su campioni di 1,2-poli(1,3-butadiene) -[CH2CH(CH=CH2)]n- (PBD12), 3,4-poli(2-metil-1,3-butadiene) -[CH2CH(C(CH3)=CH2)]n- ...

  20. Urinary mutagenic activity in workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Hammond, S.K.; Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Worcester (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured postshift urinary mutagenicity on a population of railroad workers with a range of diesel exhaust exposures. Postshift urinary mutagenicity was determined by a sensitive microsuspension procedure using Salmonella strain TA 98 {plus minus} S9. Number of cigarettes smoked on the study day and urinary cotinine were highly correlated with postshift urinary mutagenicity. Diesel exhaust exposure was measured over the work shift by constant-flow personal sampling pumps. The relative ranking of jobs by this adjusted respirable particle concentration (ARP) was correlated with relative contact the job groups have with operating diesel locomotives. After adjustment for cigarette smoking in multiple regressions, there was no independent association of diesel exhaust exposure, as estimated by ARP, with postshift urinary mutagenicity among smokers or nonsmokers. An important finding is the detection of baseline mutagenicity in most of the nonsmoking workers. Despite the use of individual measurements of diesel exhaust exposure, the absence of a significant association in this study may be due to the low levels of diesel exposure, the lack of a specific marker for diesel exhaust exposure, and/or urinary mutagenicity levels from diesel exposure below the limit of sensitivity for the mutagenicity assay.

  1. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    , NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...

  2. Diesel Pollution Biodegradation: Synergetic Effect of Mycobacterium and Filamentous Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU-QING LI; HONG-FANG LIU; ZHEN-LE TIAN; LI-HUA ZHU; YIN-GHUI WU; HE-QING TANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To biodegrade the diesel pollution in aqueous solution inoculated with Mycobacterium and filamentous fungi.Methods Bacteria sampled from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated sites in Karamay Oilfield were isolated and identified as Mycobacterium hyalinum (MH) and cladosporium. Spectrophotometry and gas chromatography (GC) were used to analyze of the residual concentrations of diesel oil and its biodegradation products. Results From the GC data, the values of apparent biodegradation ratio of the bacterial strain MH to diesel oil were close to those obtained in the control experiments. Moreover, the number of MH did not increase with degradation time. However, by using n-octadecane instead of diesel oil, the real biotic degradation ratio increased to 20.9% over 5 days of degradation. Cladosporium strongly biodegraded diesel oil with a real degradation ratio of up to 34% after 5 days treatment. When the two strains were used simultaneously, a significant synergistic effect between them resulted in almost cornplete degradation of diesel off, achieving a total diesel removal of 99% over 5 days of treatment, in which one part of about 80% and another part of about 19% were attributed to biotic and abiotic processes, respectively. Conclusion The observed synergistic effect was closely related to the aromatics-degrading ability of Cladosporium, which favored the growth of MH and promoted the bioavailability of diesel oil.

  3. Exposure to diesel exhaust linked to lung cancer in miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a study of non-metal miners in the United States, federal government scientists reported that heavy exposure to diesel exhaust increased risk of death from lung cancer. The research, all part of the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study, was designed to evalu

  4. Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: Q&A

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study was designed to evaluate the risk of death associated with diesel exhaust exposure, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer. The researchers observed increased risk for lung cancer death with increasing levels of ex

  5. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and (b...

  6. Laser-based diagnostics on NO in a diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Theodorus Maria

    1999-01-01

    Of all internal combustion engines diesel engines tend to be the most efficient. However, this high efficiency is coupled with specific emissions of nitric oxides (NOx = NO and NO2) and soot. Such emissions are best fought against at their very source: the diesel combustion process itself. The objec

  7. Fractal-like dimension of nanometer Diesel soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillas, G.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegmann, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Measurements with a low-pressure impactor and a differential mobility analyser were conducted for Diesel soot at various engine loads. By means of these measurements a fractal-like dimension of Diesel soot particles, with diameters ranging from 55 up to 260 nm, was established. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  8. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  9. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  10. PhD Dissertations Tesi di dottorato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations.Anna Airò La scrittura delle regole. Politica e istituzioni a Taranto nel Quattrocento, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 Pasquale Arfé La Clavis Physicae II (316-529 di Honorius Augustodunensis. Studio ed edizione critica, Tesi di dottorato in Storia della filosofia medievale, Università degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale", 2005 Alessandro Azzimonti Scrittura agiografica e strutture di potere nell'Italia centro-settentrionale (X-XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Forme del sapere storico dal medioevo alla contemporaneità, Università degli Studi di Trieste, 2004 Domenico Cerami Il "Confine conteso". Uomini, istituzioni, culture a Monteveglio tra VIII-XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2005 Federica Chilà Ostaggi. Uno strumento di pacificazione e governo tra i secoli VIII e XII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, società, religioni dal Tardo Antico alla fine del Medioevo, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2004 Enrico Faini Firenze nei secoli X-XIII: economia e società, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005Alessio FioreStrutture e pratiche del potere signorile in area umbro-marchigiana (secoli XI-XIII, Tesi di dottorato ricerca in Storia, Università degli studi di Pisa, 2004Giampaolo FrancesconiTra Riforma, vescovo e clientes. Camaldoli e le società locali (secoli XI-XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 [09/05] Giuseppe Gardoni "Episcopus et potestas". Vescovi e società a Mantova nella prima metà del Duecento, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia del Cristianesimo e delle Chiese (antichità, medioevo, età moderna, Università degli Studi di Padova, 2005 Nicola Mancassola La gestione delle campagne tra Langobardia e Romània in età carolingia e post

  11. Esercizi di fisica meccanica e termodinamica

    CERN Document Server

    Dalba, G

    2006-01-01

    La risoluzione di esercizi rappresenta uno strumento indispensabile per raggiungere una comprensione sicura e approfondita dei concetti di Fisica appresi dai corsi e dai testi di teoria. Frutto di una lunga esperienza didattica dei due autori nell'insegnamento universitario della meccanica e della termodinamica, questa raccolta contiene 188 esercizi, di cui 91 completamente risolti ed accompagnati da un ampio corredo di figure. Il peimo capitolo presenta un'introduzione ai sistemi di unità di misura, al calcolo dimensionale, all'uso corretto delle cifre significative e degli arrotondamenti, ai grafici. Gli altri capitoli contengono gli esercizi, suddivisi per argomento e preceduti da una serie di paragrafi riassuntivi dei concetti fondamentali. Criterio ispiratore di questo lavoro è l'adozione di una metodologia per la soluzione degli esercizi basata sempre sull'analisi accurata dei dati a disposizione e sul riferimento ai principi e alle leggi della Fisica, mai alla sola intuizione.

  12. Model and experiments of diesel fuel HCCI combustion with external mixture formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canova, M.; Vosz, A.; Dumbauld, D.; Garcin, R.; Midlam-Mohler, S.; Guezennec, Y.; Rizzoni, G. [Ohio State Univ. (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition represents a promising concept for achieving high efficiencies and low emissions at part-load operations. In particular, HCCI combustion can be successfully applied to conventional Direct Injection Diesel engines with very low extra costs and no modification to the DI system by performing the mixture formation in the intake manifold with a novel fuel atomizer. The present paper describes the experimental and modeling activity oriented to the control of HCCI combustion on a conventional CIDI 4-cylinder engine fitted with this external fueling device. Paralleling preliminary results obtained last year on single-cylinder engine in collaboration with FKFS at the University of Stuttgart, Diesel-fuel HCCI combustion was achieved and characterized over a range of engine speeds, loads, EGR dilution and boost pressure. Stable HCCI combustion with negligible NO{sub x} formation (10 ppm) was achieved with no modification of a high compression ratio engine (c{sub r}=18). The in-cylinder pressure traces were analyzed by performing a detailed heat release analysis while accounting for the wall heat transfer, which is substantially higher during the combustion phase than in a conventional CIDI engine. This analysis led to the joint identification of 2 sub-models: a heat transfer model, and a heat release model. It was found that under the wide range of conditions experimentally measured, the heat release can be approximated by the superposition of 3 Wiebe functions. The sub-models developed were then implemented in a combustion model based on a first-law thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder processes, in order to identify the influence of the main control parameters on HCCI auto-ignition and to control the combustion process in a HCCI Diesel engine with external mixture formation. The model predictions were then compared to the results of a parallel experimental activity made on a 4-cylinder CIDI Diesel engine equipped with the fuel

  13. Uso de etanol carburado en motores Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Luis Arnoby

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se ejecutó en el Taller de Maquinaria Agrícola de la Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Seccional Palmira. Un motor diesel de 2 cilindros, 1260 cm3 y relación de comprensión 23:1, fue alimentado mediante un sistema dual formado por el sistema de inyección para ACPM y un sistema de carburación para etanol y mezclas etanol-agua. En primer término se varió el avance de la inyección entre 18 y 26° APMS(Antes de Punto Muerto Superior con el fin de determinar el avance óptimo de inyección en el motor original y el motor alimentado con el sistema dual. Con base en el punto de máxima potencia, se seleccionaron 20 y 22" como avances óptimos. En la segunda prueba, al operar el motor con carga y velocidad variables y alimentarlo con cuatro combustibles (ACPM, etanol y mezclas etanol- agua con 20 y 40 % agua, se incrementaron la velocidad en 10% la potencia máxima en 6.5% ; y el torque máximo en 3.73%, desde el motor original al sistema dual alimentado con la mezcla carburada de 40% agua. La mayor sustitución de combustible se presentó a alta velocidad donde se reemplazó hasta el 32 % de ACPM por etanol. Solo a alta velocidad se justifica la sobrealimentación con etanol carburado. En este rango se presentaron aumentos de potencia, velocidad, par torsor y sustitución de combustible.This work was performed in the Agricultural Mechanics Shop of the Universidad Nacional of Colombia in Palmira. A two-cylinder, 1260 cm3 diesel engine with a compression ratio of 23:1 was fueled by a dual system formed by its injection system for diesel oil and a carburation system for ethanol and ethanol-water blends. In a first test, m e injection advance was varied between 18 and 26 o BTDC (Before Top Dead Center to determine the optimum injection advance in the original engine and the engine fueled with the dual system. According to the maximum power point, 20 and 22° BTDC were selected as the optimum

  14. CO2 emission benefit of diesel (versus gasoline) powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J L; Baker, R E; Boyer, B A; Hammerle, R H; Kenney, T E; Muniz, L; Wallington, T J

    2004-06-15

    Concerns regarding global warming have increased the pressure on automobile manufacturers to decrease emissions of CO2 from vehicles. Diesel vehicles have higher fuel economy and lower CO2 emissions than their gasoline counterparts. Increased penetration of diesel powered vehicles into the market is a possible transition strategy toward a more sustainable transportation system. To facilitate discussions regarding the relative merits of diesel vehicles it is important to have a clear understanding of their CO2 emission benefits. Based on European diesel and gasoline certification data, this report quantifies such CO2 reduction opportunities for cars and light duty trucks in today's vehicles and those in the year 2015. Overall, on a well-to-wheels per vehicle per mile basis, the CO2 reduction opportunity for today's vehicles is approximately 24-33%. We anticipate that the gap between diesel and gasoline well-to-wheel vehicle CO2 emissions will decrease to approximately 14-27% by the year 2015.

  15. Investigation of Diesel Engine Performance Based on Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The single cylinder modeling and simulation for four-stroke direct-injection diesel engine requires the use of advanced analysis and development tools to carry out of performance the diesel engine model. The simulation and computational development of modeling for the research use the commercial of GT-SUITE 6.2 software. In this research, the one dimensional modeling of single cylinder for four-stroke direct-injection diesel engine developed. The analysis of the model is combustion performance process in the engine cylinder. The model simulation covers the full engine cycle consisting of intake, compression, power and exhaust. In this model it can to know the diesel engine performance effect with simulation and modeling in any speeds (rpm parameters. The performance trend of the diesel engine model developed result of this model based on the theoretical and computational model shows in graphics in the paper.

  16. Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

    2008-07-01

    Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

  17. Volatilization behaviors of diesel oil from the soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-ying; ZHENG Xi-lai; LI Bing; MA Yu-xin; CAO Jing-hua

    2004-01-01

    The volatilization of diesel oil, Shengli crude oil and 90# gasoline on glass surface of petri dishes were conducted at the ambient temperature of 25℃. Diesel oil evaporates in a power manner, where the loss of mass is approximately power with time. 90# gasoline evaporates in a logarithmic with time. Where as the volatilization of Shengli crude oil fit either the logarithmic or power equation after different time, and has similar R2. And the effects of soil type and diesel oil and water content on volatilization behavior in unsaturated soil were studied in this paper. Diesel oil and water content in the soils play a large role in volatilization from soils. Appropriate water helps the wicking action but too much water stops it. The wicking action behaves differently in four different types of soils in the same volatilization experiment of 18% diesel oil content and air-dry condition.

  18. The hard choice for alternative biofuels to diesel in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carioca, J O B; Hiluy Filho, J J; Leal, M R L V; Macambira, F S

    2009-01-01

    This paper selects biofuel scenarios to substitute diesel in Brazil based on oil reserves increase, diesel imports, CO(2) emissions, crops agronomic yields, byproducts marketing and social impacts. This hard task still considers that agricultural practices in developing countries have large social impacts. Brazil presents high consumption of diesel oil in transport; low agronomic yield of traditional vegetable oil crops, which demand large cultivation areas contrasting with microalgae and palm oils which present high productivity. Concerning technologies, thermal cracking and transesterification of vegetable oils present a difficult economic situation related to vegetable oils price, food competition and glycerin market; BTL technology, meaning thermal gasification of biomass to liquids, faces problems related to low density of biomaterials and low viscosity of synthetic biodiesel produced. Biorefinery algal integrated systems and co-solvent technology to introduce up to 8% of ethanol into diesel seem to be feasible routes to reduce diesel consumption.

  19. Black carbon emissions from diesel sources in Russia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholod, Nazar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this report analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the report also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC in 2014.

  20. Utilization of diesel fuel, anhydrous ethanol and additives blend of a stationary diesel engine with rotatory pump; Utilizacao de mistura ternaria alcool, diesel e aditivo em motores do ciclo diesel com bomba de injecao rotativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Cruz, Yordanka; Cavado Osorio, Alberto [Centro de Pesquisas de Petroleo (CEINPET), Havana (Cuba); Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Pereira, Pedro P.; Pinto, Nauberto Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Mecanica; Aranda, Donato A. Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In this paper is analyzed the performance and fuel consumption of a stationary Diesel engine, with rotary diesel fuel injection pump, using (diesel fuel + anhydrous ethanol + 0.5% additive) blend. The engine performance parameters and fuel consumption tests were performed at the Termic Machine Laboratory, located in Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and evaluated using a MWM Series 10 model 4.10 TCA. Two test cycles were used for this test program: the tests were carried out starting from the base diesel S-500, used as a reference; the engine operated with (diesel fuel S-500 - 8% anhydrous ethanol - DIOLEFECT additive (0,5% SPAN80 + 0,1% Biomix-D)) blend. The results indicate that: the reduction levels in power and torque of engine are approximately the same which is (2,55{+-}2%), the brake specific fuel consumption increased in 1,8%. (author)

  1. Study on Kinetics for Desulfurization of Model Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Jianhua; Zhou Yuenan; Liu Lin; Wang Yue; Xing Jinjuan; Lü Hong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, by means of the experiments for desulfurization of model diesel through oxi-dative extraction, the changes associated with the rate of desulfurization of diesel and the mechanism for oxidation of sulfides in diesel were explored. Through studying the mechanism for oxidation of sulfides and the principle of solvent extraction, the kinetic equation of desulfurization via oxidative extraction were determined. By means of the evaluation of model parameters and curve fitting, the reaction order between organic sulfide and sulfone, the intrinsic oxidation rate constant of organic sulfide and sulfone, and the equilibrium constant between suifone in model diesel and extractive sol-vent were determined. The experimental values of the desulfurization rate and the theoretical values of the corresponding model equation had closely demonstrated that the desulfurization reaction rate had high accuracy. And the reaction kinetics could provide an important basis for diesel desulfurization process in the future.

  2. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  3. Teoria dei quanti di luce

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    1992-01-01

    In questo scritto un’intuizione storica limpida e penetrante, con la quale il giovane Einstein pose le basi per i successivi studi sulla teoria della relatività, è consegnata al lettore in forma chiara ed essenziale. Nel 1905, appena ventiseienne, Einstein intervenne nel dibattito sulle leggi di distribuzione della radiazione luminosa che all’epoca animava gli ambienti scientifici e che si inseriva nel più ampio processo di revisione delle scienze fisiche e naturali. Il giovane scienziato tentò di dimostrare come «...una radiazione monocromatica di densità ridotta... si comporta, per quanto riguarda la termodinamica, come se fosse composta da quanti di energia indipendenti l’uno dall’altro». In altre parole, nel caso limite di basse temperature e piccole lunghezze d’onda, la teoria ondulatoria della luce, tradizionalmente accettata e riconosciuta dai fisici, sembrava destituita di ogni fondamento, e si faceva strada l’ipotesi che la radiazione viaggiasse “a pacchetti”. Lo sviluppo succe...

  4. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  5. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  6. Mathematical modeling of diesel fuel hydrotreating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataurshikov, A.; Ivanchina, E.; Krivtcova, N.; Krivtsov, E.; Syskina, A.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrotreating of the diesel fraction with the high initial sulfur content of 1,4 mass% is carried out in the flow-through laboratory setup with the industrial GKD-202 catalyst at various process temperature. On the basis of the experimental data the regularities of the hydrogenation reactions are revealed, and the formalized scheme of sulfur-containing components (sulfides, benzothiophenes, and dibenzothiophenes) transformations is made. The mathematical model of hydrotreating process is developed, the constant values for the reaction rate of hydrodesulfurization of the specified components are calculated.

  7. Note on the sanitary impact of diesel particulates; Note sur l'impact sanitaire des particules diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    In the actual situation of scientific works, the epidemiology studies on environment do not allow to say the carcinogen contribution of diesel particulates at the concentration levels measured in the urban air. But according to the experimental data for the rat and the data observed for the personnel exposed to diesel particulates these particulates are classified as probably carcinogen. (N.C.)

  8. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no histori

  9. Diesel hybrid powertrain for passenger and light commercial vehicles; Diesel-Hybrid-Antriebsstrang fuer PKW und leichte Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, David [Ricardo Deutschland GmbH, Schwaebisch Gmuend (Germany). Productgruppe Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Wren, Corin [Ricardo Midlands Technical Centre, Leamington Spa (United Kingdom). Hi-CEPS Project for Hybrid and Electrical Vehicles

    2011-03-15

    As part of the European funded FP6 project Hi-CEPS, Ricardo, Ford and Eldor have collaborated to develop an efficient diesel powertrain concept suitable for a family of vehicles on a C-segment platform, including a light commercial vehicle variant. The powertrain architecture incorporates a downsized diesel engine mated to an electromechanically actuated dual clutch transmission developed by Ricardo. (orig.)

  10. Residential photovoltaic installations in communities which possess Diesel generators; Instalacoes fotovoltaicas domiciliares em comunidades que possuam geradores a Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilles, Andre Mocelin Roberto; Morante, Federico [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos]. E-mail: mocelin@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a discussion on two possible options to provide with power energy one using Diesel generators with mini networks for distribution and other using residential photovoltaic systems. The objective of this article is to discuss some questions referring to the planing required by electrification projects using photovoltaic systems in communities already possessing distribution mini network and Diesel generators.

  11. Per un manuale di storia: diacronie e sincronie cronologiche. Una proposta di lavoro di storia regionale sull’Adriatico orientale

    OpenAIRE

    Spazzali, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    L’autore fa inizialmente notare come le conoscenze delle rispettive storie e culture nazionali che oggi possediamo sia di carattere scolastico e fissa per lo più personaggi o fatti appartenenti alla cultura di tipo nazionale. Si tratta di un processo che comporta esclusione e oblio quindi la “non conoscenza”, da cui la necessità di una nuova percezione di cultura e storia. Di seguito passa alla considerazione delle conseguenze fondamentali di alcuni fatti storici che hanno mostrato come sia u...

  12. La bottega di uno psicoanalista: autobiografia di un mestiere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Menconi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo vuole essere la narrazione del percorso dell'autore, dall'analisi personale alla decisione di diventare analista e alla costruzione della propria "pratica" originale. Verranno messe in luce in particolare le modalità di apprendimento del "mestiere" dell'analista attraverso la frequentazione di un maestro, inteso come colui che, proprio perché non ha nulla da dare, può fornire con la sua testimonianza uno stimolo decisivo per trovare la propria strada a chi si rivolge a lui. Per sfatare alcuni luoghi comuni e per proporre l'idea che il percorso per diventare analista affondi le sue radici nell'antica esperienza dell'"andare a bottega" e in un rapporto assolutamente "carnale" con la lettura e la scrittura della propria esperienza, unita all'incontro con numerosi compagni di viaggio, spesso inattesi.

  13. Il Tanztheater di Pina Bausch

    OpenAIRE

    Randi,Elena

    2015-01-01

    L’articolo si occupa del metodo di costruzione degli spettacoli creati da Pina Bausch a partire circa dal 1978. La prima fase del processo consiste nella creazione di brevi partiture gestuali o verbali ad opera dei danzatori, cui segue una fase di drastica selezione dei moltissimi materiali proposti, selezione che spetta a Pina Bausch. Quindi, si iniziano a pulire quelli prescelti, attività, questa, che viene compiuta, assieme, da lei e da chi ha creato una certa sequenza. In una tappa succes...

  14. I dolori di Claudia Seeliger

    OpenAIRE

    Uta Treder

    2015-01-01

    La protagonista di questo romanzo dice “io”, si confida con noi, ci conduce attraverso la sua rocambolesca vicenda tenendoci avvinti e costringendoci ad esserle complici. Più di una volta restiamo col fiato sospeso, ci sentiamo a tratti confusi e smarriti, scuotiamo la testa disapprovando le sue scelte avventate, ma non ce la sentiremmo mai di abbandonarla al suo destino. Troppo forte è la sua personalità, perfino laddove scopre il suo lato fragile, troppo coinvolgente la sua passione, troppo...

  15. Analisi (classica, Rasch, dei distrattori di una prova di lettura a scelta multipla della certificazione di italiano per stranieri CILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Torresan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nell’articolo che segue svolgiamo un’analisi degli item di una prova di lettura a scelta multipla di livello B1 della certificazione di italiano per stranieri CILS (Centro CILS, 2009, allestita dall’omonimo centro dell’Università per Stranieri di Siena. Operiamo inoltre uno studio della manipolazione del testo autentico avvenuta per mano del certificatore; da tale studio emerge una criticità di rilievo che, a nostro giudizio, pregiudica la coerenza del testo. Nel suo insieme, l’indagine consente al lettore di prendere coscienza delle difficoltà che la progettazione di un’esercitazione ampiamente usata, sia in sede di testing che nella didattica di ogni giorno, qual è il quesito a scelta multipla, comporta

  16. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor...

  17. 40 CFR 80.512 - May an importer treat diesel fuel as blendstock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... fuel under §§ 80.593, 80.601, and 80.604. (4) If previously designated motor vehicle diesel fuel having... redesignate all the diesel fuel as 500 ppm sulfur motor vehicle diesel fuel for purposes of the...

  18. 40 CFR 80.610 - What acts are prohibited under the diesel fuel sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel... supply, store or transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel or heating oil... transport any diesel fuel for use in motor vehicle or nonroad engines that contains greater than...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1904 - Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1904 Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans. (a) Diesel fuel tanks used underground shall...

  20. 30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. (a) A miner's personal exposure to... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter...

  1. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  2. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-07

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  3. KUALITAS BAHAN MAKANAN DAN MAKANAN JAJANAN YANG DIJUAL DI PASAR TRADISIONAL DI BEBERAPA KOTA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraptini Supraptini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasar tradisional merupakan fasilitas umum untuk tempat jual beli bahan makanan/ makanan jajanan yang banyak dikunjungi masyarakat . Di Indonesia terdapat sekitar 13.450 pasar tradisional dengan 12.625 juta pedagang beraktivitas di dalamnya.  Selama ini masih sering terjadi keracunan makanan di masyarakat, oleh karena itu perlu diteliti kualitas makanan/ bahan makanan yang dijajakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur kualitas makanan (bahan makanan dan makanan jajanan yang dijual di pasar tradisional. Populasi adalah pasar tradisional yang sudah pernah dibina oleh Ditjen PP-PL. Sampel diambil secara purposif dari pasar yang telah dibina, kemudian diambil pasar yang mewakili daerah Jawa (Kab.Sragen dan Bali (Kab.Gianyar karena daerah Sumatera yang tadinya akan diwakili pasar Payakumbuh tidak dapat dilakukan akibat gempa yang menghancurkan pasar tersebut. Penelitian diaksanakan buan Februari – Nvember 2010. Metode pemeriksaan cemaran bakteriologi pada sampel makanan dengan Profile Method. Pemeriksaan cemaran kimia pada sampel uji petik makanan dengan Comparation Method, dan amino antipirin method. Dari hasil pemeriksaan beberapa makanan jajanan baik di pasar yang dibina maupun belum dibina mengandung bahan pewarna Rhodamin-B pada kue mangkok merah, cenil warna merah, kue ku merah, geplak merah, roll cake merah-kuning kerupuk warna-warni, kembang goyang orange mengandung Rhodamin-B. Methanyl Yellow ditemukan pada kerupuk warna-warni. Selain itu pengawet bahan makanan formalin ditemukan pada mie kuning di pasar yang dibina. Hasil pemeriksaan bakteriologis E. coli dan Coliform pada semua sampel daging negatif, tetapi ada beberapa sampel total mikroba positif antara 104 sampai dengan 107, yang artinya masih ada pencemaran mikroba lain selain E. coli dan Coliform. Kualitas air bersih yang digunakan di sebagian besar pasar tradisional masih memenuhi persyaratan Permenkes No.41/1999. Kesimpulan : Beberapa bahan makanan dan makanan jajanan yang dijual

  4. Fertilitas Remaja di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugia Bayu Raharja

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fertilitas remaja merupakan isu penting dari segi kesehatan dan sosial karena berhubungan dengan tingkat morbiditas serta mortalitas ibu dan anak. Tujuan penelitian adalah mempelajari faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi fertilitas remaja di Indonesia. Data yang digunakan adalah hasil Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia tahun 2012 dengan unit analisis wanita usia subur yang termasuk dalam kategori usia remaja (15 - 19 tahun. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 6.927 responden. Analisis dilakukan dengan metode deskriptif dan inferensial menggunakan model regresi logistik biner. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa satu dari sepuluh remaja wanita tersebut pernah melahirkan dan atau sedang hamil saat survei dilakukan; sebesar 95,2% dari remaja yang sudah pernah melahirkan, memiliki satu anak sisanya sebesar 4,8% memiliki dua atau tiga anak; sebesar 11,1% dari remaja wanita yang pernah kawin, pertama kali kawin pada usia 10 - 14 tahun. Secara statistik, terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara kejadian fertilitas remaja dengan daerah tempat tinggal, pendidikan, status bekerja, serta tingkat kesejahteraan keluarga. Wanita berisiko tinggi mengalami fertilitas pada usia remaja adalah mereka yang tinggal di perdesaan, berpendidikan rendah, tidak bekerja dan berstatus ekonomi rendah. Rekomendasi berdasarkan hasil penelitian adalah akses ke tingkat pendidikan formal yang lebih tinggi bagi remaja wanita, penyediaan pelatihan usaha ekonomi kreatif terutama pada daerah perdesaan, peningkatan pengetahuan kesehatan reproduksi bagi remaja melalui pendidikan. Adolescent fertility is an important issue in terms of health and social care as it relates to the morbidity and mortality of mothers and children. This study aimed to know the factors that influence adolescent fertility in Indonesia. The data used was the result of Indonesian Demography and Health Survey in 2012 with units of analysis included women of childbearing age in the adolescent age group (15 - 19 years. Total

  5. Manuale di esercizi in fisica delle particelle

    CERN Document Server

    Cartiglia, Nicolo

    2015-01-01

    Questi esercizi nascono come raccolta delle esercitazioni preparate per il corso in Fisica delle particelle" tenuto dalla prof.ssa R. Cester all'università di Torino e quelle per il corso in Particle Physics offerto all'Universita della California (UCSC) dal prof. A. Seiden. Durante gli anni del corso, il numero e gli argomenti trattati nei problemi sono cresciuti fino a far diventare questa collezione uno strumento a se stante, utile per la preparazione sia di esami che di prove di dottorato. Il livello di difficoltà dei problemi varia da elementare a decisamente complessi, per offrire un'ampia possibilita di scelta. Gli argomenti affrontati negli esercizi seguono quelli del corso base in Fisica delle particelle, mentre non si trovano esercizi avanzati di QCD e teoria elettrodebole. Una breve introduzione teorica permette di rivedere i concetti di base, mentre la bibliografia riporta una collezione di testi che servono per gli approfondimenti.

  6. Integrated diesel engine NOx reduction technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, J.; Zhu, J.; Savonen, C.L. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Kharas, K.C.C.; Bailey, O.H.; Miller, M.; Vuichard, J. [Allied Signal Environmental Catalysts, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of catalyst performance is a function of the inlet exhaust gas temperature, gas flow rate, concentration of NO{sub x} and oxygen, and reductant quantity and species. Given this interrelationship, it becomes immediately clear that an integrated development approach is necessary. Such an approach is taken in this project. As such, the system development path is directed by an engine-catalyst engineering team. Of the tools at the engine engineer`s disposal the real-time aspects of computer assisted subsystem modeling is valuable. It will continue to be the case as ever more subtle improvements are needed to meet competitive performance, durability, and emission challenges. A review of recent prototype engines has shown that considerable improvements to base diesel engine technology are being made. For example, HSDI NO{sub x} has been reduced by a factor of two within the past ten years. However, additional substantial NO{sub x}/PM reduction is still required for the future. A viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst would be an attractive solution to this end. The results of recent high and low temperature catalyst developments were presented. High temperature base metal catalysts have been formulated to produce very good conversion efficiency and good thermal stability, albeit at temperatures near the upper range of diesel engine operation. Low temperature noble metal catalysts have been developed to provide performance of promising 4-way control but need increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency.

  7. Modeling pollution formation in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Modeling combustion under conditions that prevail in Diesel engine presents a great challenge. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has invested Laboratory Directed Research and Development Funds to accelerate progress in this area. Research has been concerned with building a chemical mechanism to interface with a high fidelity fluid code to describe aspects of Diesel combustion. The complexity of these models requires implementation on massively parallel machines. The author will describe his efforts concerned with building such a complex mechanism. He begins with C and CO{sub 2} chemistry and adds sequentially higher hydrocarbon chemistry, aromatic production chemistry, soot chemistry, and chemistry describing NO{sub x} production. The metrics against which this chemistry is evaluated are flame velocities, induction times, ignition delay times, flammability limits, flame structure measurements, and light scattering. He assembles a set of elementary reactions, kinetic rate coefficients, and thermochemistry. He modifies existing Sandia codes to be able to investigate the behavior of the mechanism in well-stirred reactors, plug flow reactors, and one-dimensional flames. The modified combustion code with a chemical mechanism at the appropriate level of complexity is then interfaced with the high fidelity fluids code. The fluids code is distinguished by its ability to solve the requisite partial differential equations with adaptively refined grids necessary to describe the strong variation in spatial scales in combustion.

  8. Dimensionless Parameter Scaling of Diesel Engine Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David R.; Filipi, Zoran

    1996-11-01

    Combustion in a modern heavy-duty Diesel engine with direct radial fuel injection typically takes place in a short nearly-cylindrical volume at a rate determined by turbulent mixing. Simple dimensionless-parameter scaling laws for turbulent gas-phase mixing and heat transfer have been shown to be effective for a variety of (oxidizer) flow and (fuel) injection conditions within a cylindrical geometry (Edwards et al., AIChE J., Vol. 31, 516 [1985].) (Breidenthal et al., JFM, Vol. 219, 531 [1990].) (Dowling et al., AIAA J. Thermophys. & HT, Vol. 4, 504 [1990].). These studies were driven by chemical laser applications emphasizing long cylinders and sidewall injection. The current investigation seeks to determine the applicability of dimensionless parameter scaling to the instantaneous in-cylinder fuel burning rate in a multi-cylinder Diesel engine typical of Class VIII trucks. Comparisons are made between scaled and unscaled fuel burning rate, as inferred from time-resolved in-cylinder pressure measurements, across the test engine's normal operating range. This research is supported by the US Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center.

  9. Speed control of automotive diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbib, Rachid; Graton, Guillaume; Dovifaaz, Xavier; Younes, Rafic

    2014-04-01

    This paper deals with Diesel engine control. More precisely, a model-based approach is considered to stabilise engine speed around a defined value. The model taken into account is nonlinear and contains explicitly the expression of fuel conversion efficiency. In general in the literature, this experimentally obtained quantity is modelled with either a polynomial or an exponential form (see for instance Younes, R. (1993). Elaboration d'un modèle de connaissance du moteur diesel avec turbocompresseur à géométrie variable en vue de l'optimisation de ses émissions. Ecole Centrale de Lyon; Omran, R., Younes, R., Champoussin, J., & Outbib, R. (2011). New indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) model for predicting crankshaft movement. Energy Conversion and Management, 52, 3376-3382). This paper focuses on engine speed feedback stabilisation when fuel conversion efficiency is modelled with an exponential form, which is more suitable for automative applications. Simulation results are proposed to highlight the closed-loop control performances.

  10. ATLANTE ON-LINE DI GEOGRAFIA: FACILITAZIONE DI TESTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Baccella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Al centro di questo lavoro vi è la proposta di un intervento di facilitazione su un testo di geografia contenuto nell'Atlante online Unimondo, un sito che si rivolge a studenti delle scuole primarie e secondarie. Obiettivo di questo lavoro è individuare quelle che sono in generale le criticità dei testi disciplinari e gli ostacoli che essi pongono dinnanzi a uno studente straniero (e non solo, proponendo in seguito alcuni interventi didattici mirati ad accompagnare il discente nella comprensione del testo e nello sviluppo della lingua dello studio. Dopo aver presentato brevemente le due opzioni della semplificazione e della facilitazione e aver fatto alcune considerazioni sulla preferibilità dell’una piuttosto che dell’altra, si è preso in esame il testo in questione. Ad una dettagliata analisi linguistica delle principali difficoltà ivi contenute, segue la proposta di un percorso di facilitazione mediante attività tese a permettere allo studente un approccio di successo con il testo autentico. Obiettivo della proposta è presentare un modello applicabile ad altri testi dello stesso tipo, mirato allo sviluppo da parte dello studente di una sempre maggiore consapevolezza circa i propri processi cognitivi e le strategie di lettura che può mettere in atto, puntando verso una sempre maggiore autonomia.   Online Geography Atlas: facilitation of texts This paper focuses on the proposal to facilitate use of a geography text contained in the online Unimondo Atlas. This site caters to primary and secondary school students. This paper aims to identify the critical aspects of disciplinary texts and the obstacles they pose to foreign students (and not only, proposing some educational interventions aimed at accompanying the student in understanding the text and in developing the language of study. After a brief presentation of two ways to simplify and facilitate the materials, and a discussion of how one or the other might be preferable, we

  11. Profil Merokok pada Pelajar di Tiga SMP di Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessy Susanti Sabti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak   Merokok merupakan kontributor utama kematian.  Jumlah perokok semakin meningkat di seluruh dunia dan sebagian besar berada dinegara berkembang, termasuk Indonesia. Sebagai negara dengan perokok terbanyak ketiga di dunia, prevalensi perokok remaja di Indonesia semakin meningkat setiap tahun. Dengan menggunakan kuesionerGlobal Youth Tobacco Survey, kami meneliti profil merokok pada pelajar di tida SMP di kota Padang. Desain peneitian adalah crossectional. Data diperoleh dari kuesioner Global Youth Tobacco Survey, berbahasa Indonesia. Didapatkan sampel 240  murid dari 3 SMP dipilih secara acak di Kota Padang. Hasil : 27,7% murid pernah merokok, dan semuanya adalah laki-laki. 29%  mencoba rokok pada usia kurang dari 10 tahun. 37%  murid masih merokok sampai sekarang, 46% diantaranya sudah ketagihan rokok. Sebanyak 77,1% murid yang pernah merokok mempunyai orang tua perokok. Sebagian besar dari total sampel terpapar asap rokok lingkungan baik di rumah dan di tempat-tempat umum. Kesimpulan: Lebih dari seperempat pelajar di tiga SMP di kota Padang pernah merokok dan semuanya laki laki, dan mencoba merokok padausia kurang dari 10 tahun. Hampir seperlima sudah ketagihan merokok.Kata kunci: Pelajar, Merokok, Global Youth Tobacco SurveyAbstract Smoking is the mayor contibutor of death, and the number of smoker is growing overworld. More of them live in the developing country, including Indonesia. As the third of most smoker number, the teenager smoker prevalence in Indonesia is increase over year. By using Indonesian language adapted of Global Youth Tobacco Survey quessionaires, we researched smoking teenager behaviour and realted factors at Junior High School of Padang. Design of study is crossectional, datas collected from 240 students of three randomized selected Junior High School, by  Global Youth Tobacco Survey quessionaires that has adapted to Indonesian language. Results : 27,7% of students reported that they ever smoked cigarettes

  12. Un improbabile precursore di Gutenberg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sartori

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The reconsideration of the small silver foil epigraph of the so called “Tesoro di Marengo” clarly demonstrates that the inscription has been made not “per mezzo di punzoni e stampi”, as proposed by the first publisher and never more discussed, but using a deep-drawing technique applied to the upper side, which the succeeding phases of deepening, rethink, corrections to many imperfections can be followed of.

  13. Breve guida didattica e metodologica all'elaborazione di una tesina e alla lettura di un testo di studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cipriani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non ci occuperemo di didattica di una determinata disciplina in senso stretto ma di metodologia di studio, di lettura critica di un testo sociologico in vista della formazione dello studente e del suo obiettivo globale finale: la redazione di una tesina, primo passo verso la tesi. Inoltre siamo convinti che non ci può essere una buona formazione dell’insegnante senza una buona formazione a monte, quella dello studente ch’egli è stato, e che si conclude con la discussione della tesi, intesa come la conclusione di un lungo processo  cognitivo, di un tirocinio sistematico e accurato che inizia sui libri di studio.       Qui non diamo la bibliografia sul modo di redigere una tesi, per la vastità bibliografica sull'argomento (che generalmente lo studente ricava da Internet, a partire dal libro magistrale di Umberto Eco (Come si fa una tesi di laurea, “Tascabili” Bompiani, Milano, 1977 poiché non è nostra intenzione vagliare quanto scritto in materia, ma fornire per mancanza di tempo e di spazio un'introduzione al problema, un minimo contributo di poche pagine nel campo empirico, piuttosto che nel campo teorico, in quanto già ampiamente sfruttato dalla retorica classica dell'argomentazione, su cui da Aristotele in poi molto è stato detto e scritto.    Come abbozzare innanzi tutto alcuni punti di un lavoro che, per quanto non ancora del tutto definito, si va delineando nella nostra mente come alcune linee di base, programmatiche e concrete, mirate a definire i momenti di un’ulteriore riflessione dello studente? Poco importa per ora la successione degli argomenti ma è necessario fornire i punti salienti di questo nostro intervento mediante un breve sommario non ancora articolato, proprio come faremmo per elaborare una tesina.     Ricerca bibliografica: soggetto, autori e sigle; progettazione di un piano di lavoro: indice, capitoli e sottocapitoli. – Scheda di lettura, scheda critica di un libro per la recensione; tipi e

  14. SVILUPPO DI SOLUZIONI SOFTWARE PER LA SISMOLOGIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lanucara, Piero; Ruggiero, Vittorio; Zampini, Stefano; Ferraro, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Sviluppare soluzioni software per la sismologia è diventato, ormai, indispensabile per comprendere i complessi fenomeni che regolano il funzionamento del sistema Terra, come ad esempio: lo studio degli effetti di Sito che consentono di caratterizzare con estrema precisione l’impatto in superficie di un terremoto potenzialmente distruttivo; la derivazione di modelli per lo studio della deformazione cosismica prodotta da grandi terremoti; le simulazioni dirette per il calcolo dei campi di defor...

  15. LE SESSE DEL LAGO DI VICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    g. pannocchia

    1951-06-01

    Full Text Available Nel presente lavoro si determinano con i metodi di Defant e diHidaka i periodi delle sesse nni-bi e tri-nodale del lago di Vico, lerelative distanze dei nodi e le curve rappresentanti l'andamento delleampiezze di oscillazione con i metodi detti. Con il metodo indicatoda Neumann si determina di nuovo il periodo della sessa uni-nodale.

  16. EGNOS: è ora di usarlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bernardini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Dall’inizio di quest’anno EGNOS, European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service, iniziativa dell’Unione Europea e dell’Agenzia Spaziale Europea, è operativo e nel corso dell’anno raggiungerà i livelli di servizio richiesti dapprima per le applicazioni commerciali e, all’inizio del 2007, quelli per le applicazioni Safety Of Life. Sarà dunque il conseguimento finale di EGNOS V2.1 al quale farà seguito un programma di evoluzione articolato in tre altre fasi che si estenderanno almeno fino alla fine del 2011 con ampliamenti della copertura, della fornitura di servizi anche nella nuovabanda L5, fino all’integrazione con Galileo. In questo articolo,che gode della collaborazione della Next SpA, realizzatriceanche dell’applicazione descritta nella rubrica Reports di questo stesso numero, vogliamo evidenziare alcuni aspetti del sistema che non ci sembra ancora ben apprezzato a livello utente e due prospettive note come SISNET ed ESA ALIVE.

  17. Megacity pollution by modern Diesel cars: New insights into the nature and formation of volatile nano-particles with high lung intrusion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, F.; Reichl, U.; Muschik, Ch.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Pirjola, L.; Rönkkö, T.; Keskinen, J.; Rothe, D.; Lähde, T.

    2009-04-01

    Aerosol particles generated by Diesel vehicles represent mayor health affecting air pollutants in cities and near motor ways. To mitigate the Diesel particle pollution problem, Diesel vehicles become increasingly fitted or retro-fitted with modern exhaust after treatment systems (ATS), which remove most engine-generated primary particles, particularly soot. Unfortunately however, ATS have undesired side effects including also the formation of low vapour pressure gases, which may undergo nucleation and condensation leading to volatile nucleation particles (NUP). NUP are substantially smaller (diameters: 5-15 nm) than soot particles (diameters: 40-100 nm), and therefore may be termed real nano-particles. NUP can intrude with maximum efficiency the lowest, least protected, and most vulnerable compartment of the human lung. However, the chemical nature and mechanism of formation of NUP are only poorly explored. Using a novel mass spectrometric method, we have made the first on line and off line measurements of low vapour pressure NUP precursor gases in the exhaust of a modern heavy duty Diesel vehicle engine, operated with and without ATS and combusting low and ultra-low sulphur fuels including also bio fuel. In addition, we have made accompanying NUP measurements and NUP model simulations. The on line measurements involved a CIMS (Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry) method originally developed by MPIK. They took place directly in the Diesel exhaust and had a large sensitivity and a fast time response (1 s). The off line measurements involved adsorption of exhaust gases on stainless steel, followed by thermo desorption and detection of desorbed exhaust molecules by CIMS. We find that modern Diesel ATS strongly increase the formation of hydroxyl radicals, which induce conversion of fuel sulphur to the important NUP precursor gaseous sulphuric acid. We also find that appreciable amounts of di-carboxylic acids survive the passage of the ATS or are even formed by the

  18. Effect ofHydrogen Use on Diesel Engine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraat, A.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Nutu, C.; Mirica, I.; Fuiorescu, D.

    2016-11-01

    Necessity of pollutant emissions decreasing, a great interest aspect discussed at 2015 Paris Climate Conference, highlights the necessity of alternative fuels use at diesel engines. Hydrogen is considered a future fuel for the automotive industry due to its properties which define it as the cleanest fuel and due to the production unlimited sources. The use of hydrogen as fuel for diesel engines has a higher degree of complexity because of some hydrogen particularities which lead to specific issues of the hydrogen use at diesel engine: tendency of uncontrolled ignition with inlet backfire, in-cylinder combustion with higher heat release rates and with high NOx level, storage difficulties. Because hydrogen storing on vehicle board implies important difficulties in terms of safety and automotive range, the partial substitution of diesel fuel by hydrogen injected into the inlet manifold represents the most efficient method. The paper presents the results of the experimental researches carried on a truck diesel engine fuelled with diesel fuel and hydrogen, in-cylinder phenomena's study showing the influence of some parameters on combustion, engine performance and pollutant emissions. The paper novelty is defined by the hydrogen fuelling method applied to diesel engine and the efficient control of the engine running.

  19. Water-in-diesel emulsions and related systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lif, Anna; Holmberg, Krister

    2006-11-16

    Water-in-diesel emulsions are fuels for regular diesel engines. The advantages of an emulsion fuel are reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, which are both health hazardous, and reduction in fuel consumption due to better burning efficiency. An important aspect is that diesel emulsions can be used without engine modifications. This review presents the influence of water on the emissions and on the combustion efficiency. Whereas there is a decrease in emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, there is an increase in the emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide with increasing water content of the emulsion. The combustion efficiency is improved when water is emulsified with diesel. This is a consequence of the microexplosions, which facilitate atomization of the fuel. The review also covers related fuels, such as diesel-in-water-in-diesel emulsions, i.e., double emulsions, water-in-diesel microemulsions, and water-in-vegetable oil emulsions, i.e., biodiesel emulsions. A brief overview of other types of alternative fuels is also included.

  20. Minimum Favorable Conditions for Hydrogen-Diesel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jacob Dylan

    A test apparatus was designed and fabricated that allowed very small amounts of diesel fuel to be injected into a hydrogen-air mixture. This apparatus was designed to be able to operate near the limits of diesel fuel injectors. The purpose of this apparatus is to find out if the injectors in diesel engines are capable of igniting a hydrogen-air mixture when operated at their limits and to explore past their limits for further advancement in the field of dual-fuel hydrogen-diesel combustion. The minimum flow rate of diesel fuel the apparatus could produce was 120.46 (cm3)/min and the fastest response time that could be achieved was 1 ms. Both of these parameters at least met the limits of the current diesel injection setups. The smallest mass of diesel fuel that could be injected was 15.7 mg. This mass produced combustion in the hydrogen-air mixture for all hydrogen concentrations and temperatures tested.

  1. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  2. West Virginia Diesel Study, CRADA MC96-034, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gautam

    1998-08-05

    The global objective of the recently completed Phase 1 of the West Virginia Diesel Study, at West Virginia University, was to evaluate mass emission rates of exhaust emissions from diesel powered equipment specified by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission. The experimental data generated in this study has been utilized by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission to promulgate initial rules, requirements and standards governing the operation of diesel equipment in underground coal mines.

  3. Price discrimination and tax incidence: Evidence from gasoline and diesel cars

    OpenAIRE

    Verboven, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The existing tax policies towards gasoline and diesel cars in European countries provide a unique opportunity to analyze quality-based price discrimination and implied tax incidence. We develop an econometric framework for the demand and pricing of gasoline and diesel cars. Consumers choose a gasoline or a diesel car based on their annual mileage. Manufacturers set gasoline and diesel car prices. Our empirical results show that the relative pricing of gasoline and diesel cars is consistent wi...

  4. Plant tolerance to diesel minimizes its impact on soil microbial characteristics during rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrutia, O., E-mail: oihana.barrutia@ehu.es [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Garbisu, C.; Epelde, L. [NEIKER-Tecnalia, Soil Microbial Ecology Group, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Sampedro, M.C.; Goicolea, M.A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country/EHU, E-01006 Vitoria (Spain); Becerril, J.M. [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-09-01

    Soil contamination due to petroleum-derived products is an important environmental problem. We assessed the impacts of diesel oil on plants (Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne) and soil microbial community characteristics within the context of the rhizoremediation of contaminated soils. For this purpose, a diesel fuel spill on a grassland soil was simulated under pot conditions at a dose of 12,000 mg diesel kg{sup -1} DW soil. Thirty days after diesel addition, T. repens (white clover) and L. perenne (perennial ryegrass) were sown in the pots and grown under greenhouse conditions (temperature 25/18 {sup o}C day/night, relative humidity 60/80% day/night and a photosynthetic photon flux density of 400 {mu}mol photon m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) for 5 months. A parallel set of unplanted pots was also included. Concentrations of n-alkanes in soil were determined as an indicator of diesel degradation. Seedling germination, plant growth, maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F{sub v}/F{sub m}), pigment composition and lipophylic antioxidant content were determined to assess the impacts of diesel on the studied plants. Soil microbial community characteristics, such as enzyme and community-level physiological profiles, were also determined and used to calculate the soil quality index (SQI). The presence of plants had a stimulatory effect on soil microbial activity. L. perenne was far more tolerant to diesel contamination than T. repens. Diesel contamination affected soil microbial characteristics, although its impact was less pronounced in the rhizosphere of L. perenne. Rhizoremediation with T. repens and L. perenne resulted in a similar reduction of total n-alkanes concentration. However, values of the soil microbial parameters and the SQI showed that the more tolerant species (L. perenne) was able to better maintain its rhizosphere characteristics when growing in diesel-contaminated soil, suggesting a better soil health. We concluded that plant tolerance is of

  5. Activated carbon use in treating diesel engine exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Babyak, R.A. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Several active carbon materials were observed to be particularly effective in processes for the removal of nitrogen oxides from exhaust gases. This paper describes the application of active carbon materials to two diesel engine exhaust gases at McClellan AFB in California. More specifically, one application involved a large diesel engine that supplies emergency power at the Base, and the second involved a mobile diesel-fueled generator that provides auxiliary power to aircraft. The designs of systems to control emissions for each application are discussed, and the results of tests on laboratory-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale systems are presented.

  6. Design and Research of the EQ6105DTAA Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The EQ6105DTAA diesel engine which first pattern en gi ne is EQD6105T is developed through the original EQ6102 diesel engine and other advanced engine structures. This paper analyses performance parameters, general layout and parts design process of the diesel engine. The development cycle is s horten by CAD/CAE/CAM technology. Through experiment, the general performance of the engine is in keeping ahead in our country. With boosting mid-cooling technology and related designing correction in EQ6105 DTAA...

  7. Lubricity Additives and Wear with DME in Diesel Injection Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kasper; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years it has been demonstrated that Dimethyl Ether (DME) possess many characteristics that could make it a successful alternative to diesel in the next century. High wear of the fuel injection system has been reported. This is caused by lack of natural protective constituents of Dimethyl...... wear of standard diesel jerk pump plungers elements were made with weight measurements, diameter measurements, 2-D and 3-D surface roughness measurements, and photography by a Michelson interferometer. Several lubricity additives were tested, but none reduced wear levels to those for diesel fuel...

  8. Wind diesel systems - design assessment and future potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infield, D.G.; Scotney, A.; Lundsager, P.

    1992-01-01

    system models for assessing both dynamic characteristics and overall performance and economics. An introduction is provided to the Wind Diesel Engineering Design Toolkit currently under development (for implementation on PC) by a consortium of leading wind diesel experts, representing six European......Diesels are the obvious form. of back-up electricity generation in small to medium sized wind systems. High wind penetrations pose significant technical problems for the system designer, ranging from component sizing to control specification and dynamic stability. A key role is seen for proven...

  9. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.

  10. Test and Analysis for Spraying Ammonia in Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华祥; 刘敬平; 贺力克; 陈方; 申奇志; 骆锐; 周正

    2011-01-01

    A certain amount of ammonia reducer were directly injected into the 4102BZLQ Diesel engine' s combustion chamber when the combustion temperature decreases to 1 573 - 1 073 K, NOx generated could be reduced to 1.11 g/( kW· h). Based on PRF combustion mechanism, NO was tested by using the heavy-duty diesel engine test cycle of ESC thirteen conditions , the ammonia spray angle and amount were tested and optimized in different conditions. The test results show that the thermal efficiency of Diesel engine does not decrease while NO exhaust decreases.

  11. Optimizing Hybrid Wind/Diesel Generator System Using BAT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Sharma,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid system comprising of Wind/Diesel generation system for a practical standalone application considers Wind turbine generators and diesel generator as primary power sources for generating electricity. Battery banks are considered as a backup power source. The total value of cost is reduced by meeting energy demand required by the customers. Bat optimization technique is implemented to optimize wind and battery modules. Wind and battery banks are considered as primary sources and diesel generator as a secondary power source for the system

  12. Il restauro di Casa d’Annunzio nei disegni di Antonino Liberi (1921-1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Tunzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Il desiderio del poeta Gabriele d’Annunzio di rinnovare la sua casa natale in Pescara con un intervento di ‘re - styling’, fu affrontato nel 1921 dal cognato l’ingegnere Antonino Liberi, progettista di numerose opere. Perl’antica casa, bisognosa di interventi di manutenzione straordinaria alquanto urgenti, l’ingegnere propose una serie di modifiche interne utili a migliorare la vivibilità degli ambienti, ma anche due soluzioni di facciata che ne avrebbero modificato radicalmente l’aspetto. Il presente saggio intende affrontare, più che gli interventi programmati sulla casa, il modo di comunicare il progetto di restauro dell’ingegnere Liberi, considerando la grafica, le scale delle rappresentazioni, il metodo progettuale. Di supporto sono i documenti depositati presso l’Archivio del Vittoriale degli Italiani e l’Archivio di Stato di Pescara

  13. AUTOBIOGRAFISMO E DIALOGO FILOSOFICO: IL CASO STORIOGRAFICO DE LA FESTA DI NATALE DI FRIEDRICH SCHLEIERMACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca D'Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Weihnachtsfeier. Ein Gespräch di Friedrich Schleiermacher è uno degli esempi più interessanti di come, nel romanticismo, forma letteraria, contesto vitale e autobiografico, tesi filosofiche costituissero un complesso unitario e spesso di difficile interpretazione. Nel caso del dialogo schleiermacheriano sul Natale è possibile distinguere due livelli di lettura storiografica: uno, rivolto soprattutto al contesto, consente di identificare i riferimenti biografici e l'ambiente reale a cui allude l'autore; un secondo, strettamente legato al primo, ma non necessariamente riducibile ad esso, ha invece un valore, per così dire, "autointerpretativo". Alla luce di questo secondo livello di lettura, questa breve opera di Schleiermacher mostra di essere ben più di uno scritto occasionale per il Natale del 1806. Esso nasconde e rivela al contempo, nelle trame di un gioco di rimandi e allusioni biografiche, la volontà...

  14. I ministri di culto delle confessioni religiose di minoranza: problematiche attuali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Carnì

    2015-06-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. I ministri di culto nell’ordinamento giuridico italiano - 2. I ministri di culto delle confessioni religiose dotate di intesa - 2.1. (segue L’individuazione dei ministri di culto - 2.2. (segue L’assistenza spirituale nelle strutture segreganti - 2.3.(segue Il matrimonio celebrato dai ministri di culto - 2.4 (segue Problematiche attinenti ai ministri di culto buddhisti – 3. I ministri di culto delle confessioni prive di intesa - 3.1. (segue In attesa della legge di approvazione: i ministri di culto della Congregazione cristiana dei Testimoni di Geova - 3.2. (segue Islam e ministri di culto - 4. Osservazioni conclusive.

  15. Pluralità di etnie, di religioni, di Stati in Medio-oriente; il terrorismo islamico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Parlato

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available SOMMARIO: 1. Le ripartizioni islamiche – 2. La realtà cristiana mediorientale - 3. Gli Yazidi - 4. Chiese etniche e realtà statuali in Medio-oriente – 5. Il sistema degli statuti personali - 6. Valutazione negativa da parte dell'Islam della laicità dello Stato - 7. Irrealizzabilità di uno stato laico in Medio-oriente - 8. Atti terroristici e fondamentalismo islamico. È guerra di religione?

  16. Diesel particle filter and fuel effects on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A; Dane, A John; Williams, Aaron; Ireland, John; Luecke, Jon; McCormick, Robert L; Voorhees, Kent J

    2010-11-01

    The impacts of biodiesel and a continuously regenerated (catalyzed) diesel particle filter (DPF) on the emissions of volatile unburned hydrocarbons, carbonyls, and particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH, were investigated. Experiments were conducted on a 5.9 L Cummins ISB, heavy-duty diesel engine using certification ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD, S ≤ 15 ppm), soy biodiesel (B100), and a 20% blend thereof (B20). Against the ULSD baseline, B20 and B100 reduced engine-out emissions of measured unburned volatile hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and nitro-PAH by significant percentages (40% or more for B20 and higher percentage for B100). However, emissions of benzene were unaffected by the presence of biodiesel and emissions of naphthalene actually increased for B100. This suggests that the unsaturated FAME in soy-biodiesel can react to form aromatic rings in the diesel combustion environment. Methyl acrylate and methyl 3-butanoate were observed as significant species in the exhaust for B20 and B100 and may serve as markers of the presence of biodiesel in the fuel. The DPF was highly effective at converting gaseous hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and total nitro-PAH. However, conversion of 1-nitropyrene by the DPF was less than 50% for all fuels. Blending of biodiesel caused a slight reduction in engine-out emissions of acrolein, but otherwise had little effect on carbonyl emissions. The DPF was highly effective for conversion of carbonyls, with the exception of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde emissions were increased by the DPF for ULSD and B20.

  17. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELED USING JATROPHA BIO DIESEL BLENDED FUELED

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesels have recently been recognized as a potential substitute to Diesel oil. It is produced from oils or fats using a process called transesterification, in which oils are reacted with alcohols in order to form the esters, which are called biodiesels. Feedstock for biodiesel include animal fats, vegetable oils Jatropha, Mahua, Sunflower, Palm, Pongamia Pinnata (Karanja), Cotton seed, Neem, Rubber seed, Corn, Sesame, Cotton seed. Biodiesel is a liquid closely similar in properties to foss...

  18. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Apichato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term performance testing was conducted for each fuel on the dynamometer engine test bed. Specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and black smoke density were determined and measured. Long-term performance testing (or endurance test was also done by running the engines coupled with a generator in order to supply load (electricity to a lightbulb board. For each 500 hours of engine run time, the engines were dissembled for engine wear inspection. It was found that the fuel pump and fuel valve weight losses from both engines showed insignificant differences either at the first 500 hours of running time or at the second 500 hours of running time but the inlet valve from the engine fueled by diesel oil had a higher weight loss than the engine fueled by refined palm oil at the first 500 hours and at the second 500 hours of running time. The compression rings from the engine fueled by refined palm oil showed a significant weight loss compared to the engine fueled by diesel oil both after 500 hours and after 1000 hours of running time.

  19. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Lei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30 under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa. The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  20. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa. PMID:21234367