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Sample records for mixed waste characterization

  1. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization

  2. Characterization of radioactive mixed wastes: The industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leasure, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Physical and chemical characterization of Radioactive Mixed Wastes (RMW) is necessary for determination of appropriate treatment options and to satisfy environmental regulations. Radioactive mixed waste can be classified as two main categories; contact-handled (low level) RMW and remote-handled RMW. Ibis discussion will focus mainly on characterization of contact handled RMW. The characterization of wastes usually follows one of two pathways: (1) characterization to determine necessary parameters for treatment or (2) characterization to determine if the material is a hazardous waste. Sometimes, however, wastes can be declared as hazardous waste without testing and then treated as hazardous waste. Characterization of radioactive mixed wastes pose some unique issues, however, that will require special solutions. Below, five issues affecting sampling and analysis of RMW will be discussed

  3. Development of Characterization Protocol for Mixed Liquid Radioactive Waste Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasalwa Zakaria; Syed Asraf Wafa; Wo, Y.M.; Sarimah Mahat; Mohamad Annuar Assadat Husain

    2017-01-01

    Mixed organic liquid waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclide posed specific challenges in its management. Often, this waste becomes legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as 'problematic' waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using analytical procedures involving gross alpha beta, and gamma spectrometry. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste. (author)

  4. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Waste Technology Development Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wafa, Syed Asraf [Radioisotop Technology and Innovation, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wo, Yii Mei [Radiochemistry and Environment, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahat, Sarimah [Material Technology Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  5. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning

  6. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  7. Mixed waste characterization and certification at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.A.; Dodge, R.L.; Fitzsimmons, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was recently granted interim status by the state of Nevada to receive mixed waste. The RCRA Part B permit application has been revised and submitted to the state. Preliminary indications are that the permit will be granted. In conjunction with revision of the Part B permit application, pertinent DOE guidelines governing waste acceptance criteria and waste characterization were also revised. The guidelines balance the need for full characterization of hazardous constituents with ALARA precepts. Because it is not always feasible to obtain a full chemical analysis without undue or unnecessary radiological exposure of personnel, process knowledge is considered an acceptable method of waste characterization. A balance of administrative controls and verification procedures, as well as careful documentation and high standards of quality assurance, are essential to the characterization and certification program developed for the NTS

  8. Mixed waste characterization and certification at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.A.; Dodge, R.L.; Fitzsimmons, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Project (RWMP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was recently granted interim status by the state of Nevada to receive mixed waste (MW). The RCRA Part B permit application has been revised and submitted to the state. Preliminary indications are that the permit will be granted. In conjunction with revision of the Part B Permit application, pertinent DOE guidelines governing waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and waste characterization were also revised. The guidelines balance the need for full characterization of hazardous constituents with as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) precepts. Because it is not always feasible to obtain a full chemical analysis without undue or unnecessary radiological exposure of personnel, process knowledge is considered an acceptable method of waste characterization. A balance of administrative controls and verification procedures, as well as careful documentation and high standards of quality assurance, are essential to the characterization and certification program developed for the NTS

  9. Characterization of mixed waste for shipment to TSD Facilities Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, K.; Goyal, K.

    1995-01-01

    In compliance with the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is striving to ship its low-level mixed waste (LLMW) off-site for treatment and disposal. In order to ship LLMW off site to a commercial facility, LANL must request exemption from the DOE Order 5820.2A requirement that LLMW be shipped only to Department of Energy facilities. Because the process of obtaining the required information and approvals for a mixed waste shipment campaign can be very expensive, time consuming, and frustrating, a well-planned program is necessary to ensure that the elements for the exemption request package are completed successfully the first time. LANL has developed such a program, which is cost- effective, quality-driven, and compliance-based. This program encompasses selecting a qualified analytical laboratory, developing a quality project-specific sampling plan, properly sampling liquid and solid wastes, validating analytical data, documenting the waste characterization and decision processes, and maintaining quality records. The products of the program are containers of waste that meet the off-site facility's waste acceptance criteria, a quality exemption request package, documentation supporting waste characterization, and overall quality assurance for the process. The primary goal of the program is to provide an avenue for documenting decisions, procedures, and data pertinent to characterizing waste and preparing it for off-site treatment or disposal

  10. Characterization of radioactive mixed wastes: The scientific perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, W.H.; Stokely, J.R. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the physical and chemical characterization of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW): what should be determined and how; the applications and limitations of current analytical methodologies, promising new technologies, and areas where further methodology research is needed. Constituents to be determined, sample collection, preparation, and analysis are considered. The scope concerns mainly low level and very low level RMW whose activities allow contact handling and analysis by Nuclear Regulatory Commission- or Agreement State-licensed commercial laboratories

  11. Designing chemical soil characterization programs for mixed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, K.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project is a remedial action effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Weldon Spring Site, a former uranium processing facility, is located in east-central Missouri on a portion of a former ordnance works facility which produced trinitrotoluene during World War II. As a result of both uranium and ordnance production, the soils have become both radiologically and chemically contaminated. As a part of site characterization efforts in support of the environmental documentation process, a chemical soil characterization program was developed. This program consisted of biased and unbiased sampling program which maximized areal coverage, provided a statistically sound data base and maintained cost effectiveness. This paper discusses how the general rationale and processes used at the Weldon Spring Site can be applied to other mixed and hazardous waste sites

  12. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions

  13. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  14. US Department of Energy mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area technical baseline development process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.A.; Gombert, D.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) created the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet its commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Mixed wastes include both mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste. The goal of the MWFA is to develop mixed waste treatment systems to the point of implementation by the Environmental Management (EM) customer. To accomplish this goal, the MWFA is utilizing a three step process. First, the treatment system technology deficiencies were identified and categorized. Second, these identified needs were prioritized. This resulted in a list of technical deficiencies that will be used to develop a technical baseline. The third step, the Technical Baseline Development Process, is currently ongoing. When finalized, the technical baseline will integrate the requirements associated with the identified needs into the planned and ongoing environmental research and technology development activities supported by the MWFA. Completion of this three-step process will result in a comprehensive technology development program that addresses customer identified and prioritized needs. The MWFA technical baseline will be a cost-effective, technically-defensible tool for addressing and resolving DOE's mixed waste problems

  15. Advanced robotics handling and controls applied to Mixed Waste characterization, segregation and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasz, E.; Huber, L.; Horvath, J.; Roberson, P.; Wilhelmsen, K.; Ryon, R.

    1994-11-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under the Mixed Waste Operations program of the Department of Energy Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP), a key emphasis is developing a total solution to the problem of characterizing, handling and treating complex and potentially unknown mixed waste objects. LLNL has been successful at looking at the problem from a system perspective and addressing some of the key issues including non-destructive evaluation of the waste stream prior to the materials entering the handling workcell, the level of automated material handling required for effective processing of the waste stream objects (both autonomous and tele-operational), and the required intelligent robotic control to carry out the characterization, segregation, and waste treating processes. These technologies were integrated and demonstrated in a prototypical surface decontamination workcell this past year

  16. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base

  17. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  18. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  19. Characterization of mixed CH-TRU waste at Argonne-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, C.C.; Guay, K.P.; Courtney, J.C.; Higgins, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is participating in the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program by characterizing and repackaging mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. Argonne's initial activities in the Program were described last year at Waste Management '92. Since then, additional waste has been characterized and repackaged, resulting in six bins ready for shipment to WIPP upon the initiation of the bin tests. Lessons learned from these operations are being factored in the design and installation of a new characterization facility, the Enhanced Waste Characterization Facility (EWCF). The objectives of the WIPP Experimental Test Program have also undergone change since last year leading to an accelerated effort to factor sludge sampling capability into the EWCF. Consequently, the initiation of non-sludge operations in the waste characterization chamber has been delayed to Summer 1993 while the sludge sampling modifications are incorporated into the facility. Benefits in operational flexibility, effectiveness, and efficiency and reductions in potential facility and personnel contamination and exposure are expected from the enhanced waste characterization facility within the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at Argonne-West. This paper summarizes results and lessons learned from recent characterization and repackaging efforts and future plans for characterization. It also describes design features and status of the EWCF

  20. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O'Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR)

  1. Characterization of mixed waste for sorting and inspection using non-intrusive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, G.P.; Ryon, R.W.; Bull, N.L.

    1994-12-01

    Characterization of mixed wastes (that is, radioactive and otherwise hazardous) requires that all hazardous, non-conforming, and radioactive materials be identified, localized, and quantified. With such information, decisions can be made regarding whether the item is treatable or has been adequately treated. Much of the required information can be gained without taking representative samples and analyzing them in a chemistry laboratory. Non-intrusive methods can be used to provide this information on-line at the waste treatment facility. Ideally, the characterization would be done robotically, and either automatically or semi-automatically in order to improve efficiency and safety. For the FY94 Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) project, a treatable waste item is defined as a homogeneous metal object that has external radioactive or heavy metal hazardous contamination. Surface treatment of some kind would therefore be the treatment method to be investigated. The authors developed sorting and inspection requirements, and assessed viable non-intrusive techniques to meet these requirements. They selected radiography, computed tomography and X-ray fluorescence. They have characterized selected mock waste items, and determined minimum detectable amounts of materials. They have demonstrated the efficiency possible by integrating radiographic with tomographic data. Here, they developed a technique to only use radiographic data where the material is homogeneous (fast), and then switching to tomography in those areas where heterogeneity is detected (slower). They also developed a tomographic technique to quantify the volume of each component of a mixed material. This is useful for such things as determining ash content. Lastly, they have developed a document in MOSAIC, an Internet multi-media browser. This document is used to demonstrate the ability to share data and information world-wide

  2. Analytical characterization of high-level mixed wastes using multiple sample preparation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.G.; Baldwin, D.L.; Urie, M.W.; McKinley, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington, is actively involved in performing analytical characterization of high-level mixed waste from Hanford's single shell and double shell tank characterization programs. A full suite of analyses is typically performed on homogenized tank core samples. These analytical techniques include inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, total organic carbon methods and radiochemistry methods, as well as many others, all requiring some type of remote sample-preparation treatment to solubilize the tank sludge material for analysis. Most of these analytical methods typically use a single sample-preparation treatment, inherently providing elemental information only. To better understand and interpret tank chemistry and assist in identifying chemical compounds, selected analytical methods are performed using multiple sample-preparation treatments. The sample preparation treatments used at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for this work with high-level mixed waste include caustic fusion, acid digestion, and water leach. The type of information available by comparing results from different sample-prep treatments includes evidence for the presence of refractory compounds, acid-soluble compounds, or water-soluble compounds. Problems unique to the analysis of Hanford tank wastes are discussed. Selected results from the Hanford single shell ferrocyanide tank, 241-C-109, are presented, and the resulting conclusions are discussed

  3. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  4. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau

  5. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  6. Advanced robotics technology applied to mixed waste characterization, sorting and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Hurd, R.; Grasz, E.

    1994-04-01

    There are over one million cubic meters of radioactively contaminated hazardous waste, known as mixed waste, stored at Department of Energy facilities. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing methods to safely and efficiently treat this type of waste. LLNL has automated and demonstrated a means of segregating items in a mixed waste stream. This capability incorporates robotics and automation with advanced multi-sensor information for autonomous and teleoperational handling of mixed waste items with previously unknown characteristics. The first phase of remote waste stream handling was item singulation; the ability to remove individual items of heterogeneous waste directly from a drum, box, bin, or pile. Once objects were singulated, additional multi-sensory information was used for object classification and segregation. In addition, autonomous and teleoperational surface cleaning and decontamination of homogeneous metals has been demonstrated in processing mixed waste streams. The LLNL waste stream demonstration includes advanced technology such as object classification algorithms, identification of various metal types using active and passive gamma scans and RF signatures, and improved teleoperational and autonomous grasping of waste objects. The workcell control program used an off-line programming system as a server to perform both simulation control as well as actual hardware control of the workcell. This paper will discuss the motivation for remote mixed waste stream handling, the overall workcell layout, sensor specifications, workcell supervisory control, 3D vision based automated grasp planning and object classification algorithms

  7. Mixed Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Steenhoven, J.

    1993-08-01

    The DOE has developed a National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan which calls for the construction of 2 to 9 mixed waste treatment centers in the Complex in the near future. LLNL is working to establish an integrated mixed waste technology development and demonstration system facility, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), to support the DOE National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan. The MWMF will develop, demonstrate, test, and evaluate incinerator-alternatives which will comply with regulations governing the treatment and disposal of organic mixed wastes. LLNL will provide the DOE with engineering data for design and operation of new technologies which can be implemented in their mixed waste treatment centers. MWMF will operate under real production plant conditions and process samples of real LLNL mixed waste. In addition to the destruction of organic mixed wastes, the development and demonstration will include waste feed preparation, material transport systems, aqueous treatment, off-gas treatment, and final forms, thus making it an integrated ''cradle to grave'' demonstration. Technologies from offsite as well as LLNL's will be tested and evaluated when they are ready for a pilot scale demonstration, according to the needs of the DOE

  8. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O`Brien, M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rudin, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ferguson, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McFee, J. [I.T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  9. Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidic/Nanoengineered electrochemical Sensors for in Situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This project aimed on the development of compact microchip sensing devices for on-site monitoring of pollutants in contaminated DOE sites. As described in this report, we have made a substantial progress, and introduced effective routes for improving the on-site detection of toxic metals and for interfacing microfluidic (Lab-on-Chip) sensing devices with the real world. This activity has been very productive and has already been described in 12 research papers (published in major international journals). The resulting microchip sensor technology should allow testing for toxic metals and other major pollutants to be performed more rapidly, inexpensively, and reliably in a field setting. These new analytical capabilities resulted from the generous DOE support will facilitate the characterization and remediation of mixed waste contaminated sites.

  10. Characterization of low level mixed waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepworth, E.; Montoya, A.; Holizer, B.

    1995-01-01

    The characterization program was conducted to maintain regulatory compliance and support ongoing waste treatment and disposal activities. The characterization team conducted a characterization review of wastes stored at the Laboratory that contain both a low-level radioactive and a hazardous component. The team addressed only those wastes generated before January 1993. The wastes reviewed, referred to as legacy wastes, had been generated before the implementation of comprehensive waste acceptance documentation procedures. The review was performed to verify existing RCRA code assignments and was required as part of the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA). The review entailed identifying all legacy LLMW items in storage, collecting existing documentation, contacting and interviewing generators, and reviewing code assignments based upon information from knowledge of process (KOP) as allowed by RCRA. The team identified 7,546 legacy waste items in the current inventory, and determined that 4,200 required further RCRA characterization and documentation. KOP characterization was successful for accurately assigning RCRA codes for all but 117 of the 4,200 items within the scope of work. As a result of KOP interviews, 714 waste items were determined to be non-hazardous, while 276 were determined to be non-radioactive. Other wastes were stored as suspect radioactive. Many of the suspect radioactive wastes were certified by the generators as non-radioactive and will eventually be removed

  11. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-2: Mixed GTCC LLW assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.

    1994-09-01

    Mixed greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (mixed GTCC LLW) is waste that combines two characteristics: it is radioactive, and it is hazardous. This report uses information compiled from Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW 1 14, Revision 1), and applies it to the question of how much and what types of mixed GTCC LLW are generated and are likely to require disposal in facilities jointly regulated by the DOE and the NRC. The report describes how to classify a RCRA hazardous waste, and then applies that classification process to the 41 GTCC LLW waste types identified in the DOE/LLW-114 (Revision 1). Of the 41 GTCC LLW categories identified, only six were identified in this study as potentially requiring regulation as hazardous waste under RCRA. These wastes can be combined into the following three groups: fuel-in decontamination resins, organic liquids, and process waste consisting of lead scrap/shielding from a sealed source manufacturer. For the base case, no mixed GTCC LLW is expected from nuclear utilities or sealed source licensees, whereas only 177 ml of mixed GTCC LLW are expected to be produced by other generators through the year 2035. This relatively small volume represents approximately 40% of the base case estimate for GTCC wastes from other generators. For these other generators, volume estimates for mixed GTCC LLW ranged from less than 1 m 3 to 187 m 3 , depending on assumptions and treatments applied to the wastes

  12. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID's success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories' Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque's and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ''dry'' soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater

  13. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization

  14. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory hazardous and radioactive mixed waste identification and characterization report for CY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, D.D.

    1987-05-01

    This report provides updated tabulations of the hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes generated and/or handled during CY 1986 at each INEL facility operated by EG and G, or any other operating contractor at the Site. These wastes are described in tabular form, providing information such as composition, generating process, contact person, EPA hazardous waste designation, quantity shipped off site (if applicable), and quantity in storage. Waste generation projections for the next ten years are also included for all INEL facilities. Finally, since many of EG and G's inactive disposal sites may prove to be significant sources of either hazardous or radioactive mixed wastes as remedial action activities under RCRA or CERCLA progress, information on these sites is provided. 2 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  15. Characterization of mixed CH-TRU waste for the WIPP Experimental Test Program conducted at ANL-W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwight, C.C.; McClellan, G.C.; Guay, K.P. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Courtney, J.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Duff, M.J. [Consolidated Technical Services, Inc., Walkersville, MD (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is participating in the Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program by characterizing and repackaging mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. Characterization activities include gas sampling the waste containers, visually examining the waste contents, categorizing the contents according to their gas generation potentials, and weighing the contents. The waste is repackaged from 0.21m{sup 3} (55 gallon) drums into instrumented steel test bins which can hold up to six drum-equivalents in volume. Eventually the loaded test bins will be shipped to WIPP where they will be evaluated during a five-year test program. Three test bins of inorganic solids (primarily glass) were prepared between March and September 1991 and are ready for shipment to WIPP. The characterization activities confirmed process knowledge of the waste and verified the nondestructive examinations; the gas sample analyses showed the target constituents to be within allowable regulatory limits. A new waste characterization chamber is being developed at ANL-W which will improve worker safety, decrease the potential for contamination spread, and increase the waste characterization throughput. The new facility is expected to begin operations by Fall 1992. A comprehensive summary of the project is contained herein.

  16. Characterization of mixed CH-TRU waste for the WIPP Experimental Test Program conducted at ANL-W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwight, C.C.; McClellan, G.C.; Guay, K.P. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Courtney, J.C. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)); Duff, M.J. (Consolidated Technical Services, Inc., Walkersville, MD (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is participating in the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program by characterizing and repackaging mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. Characterization activities include gas sampling the waste containers, visually examining the waste contents, categorizing the contents according to their gas generation potentials, and weighing the contents. The waste is repackaged from 0.21m{sup 3} (55 gallon) drums into instrumented steel test bins which can hold up to six drum-equivalents in volume. Eventually the loaded test bins will be shipped to WIPP where they will be evaluated during a five-year test program. Three test bins of inorganic solids (primarily glass) were prepared between March and September 1991 and are ready for shipment to WIPP. The characterization activities confirmed process knowledge of the waste and verified the nondestructive examinations; the gas sample analyses showed the target constituents to be within allowable regulatory limits. A new waste characterization chamber is being developed at ANL-W which will improve worker safety, decrease the potential for contamination spread, and increase the waste characterization throughput. The new facility is expected to begin operations by Fall 1992. A comprehensive summary of the project is contained herein.

  17. Characterization of mixed CH-TRU waste for the WIPP Experimental Test Program conducted at ANL-W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, C.C.; McClellan, G.C.; Guay, K.P.; Courtney, J.C.; Duff, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is participating in the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program by characterizing and repackaging mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. Characterization activities include gas sampling the waste containers, visually examining the waste contents, categorizing the contents according to their gas generation potentials, and weighing the contents. The waste is repackaged from 0.21m 3 (55 gallon) drums into instrumented steel test bins which can hold up to six drum-equivalents in volume. Eventually the loaded test bins will be shipped to WIPP where they will be evaluated during a five-year test program. Three test bins of inorganic solids (primarily glass) were prepared between March and September 1991 and are ready for shipment to WIPP. The characterization activities confirmed process knowledge of the waste and verified the nondestructive examinations; the gas sample analyses showed the target constituents to be within allowable regulatory limits. A new waste characterization chamber is being developed at ANL-W which will improve worker safety, decrease the potential for contamination spread, and increase the waste characterization throughput. The new facility is expected to begin operations by Fall 1992. A comprehensive summary of the project is contained herein

  18. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  19. Microsensors for In-situ Chemical, Physical and Radiological Characterization of Mixed Waste (73808)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thundat, Thomas G.

    2004-01-01

    Portable, real-time, in-situ chemical, physical, and radiological sensors for the characterization and monitoring of transuranic waste, mixed waste, ground water, contaminated soil, and process streams are needed within the DOE complex. A continuation of this basic research program is proposed to study the influence of control of the electrochemical potential of a metallic coating on a microcantilever as a means of developing specific and highly sensitive sensors. Basic research will be needed to understand the influence of variation of electrochemical potential on the bending of cantilevers in an electrolyte solution. Changes in the chemical potential of a metal-electrolyte interface, affected by changing the applied potential, leads to a change in the depletion or accumulation of substances at the interface. This change in the surface excess at the interface is reflected in a change in the interfacial tension, which is sensitively detected as cantilever deflection. Deposition of electroactive heavy metals as well as the adsorption of metal oxide species will be detectable as a cantilever bending. We plan to continue field-testing cantilever sensors at DOE sites as appropriate. Practical sensors for Hg and CrO4 -2 have been developed, and the former has been field tested. A sensor for large poorly hydrated anions (ClO4 -, ReO4 -, TcO4 -) based on a quarternary ammonium SAM coating is under development and will be field tested when appropriate. The advantage of cantilever sensors is that once the basic platform is developed, it can be the basis for a plethora of inexpensive, miniature sensors. This program will take advantage of advances in cantilever technology made by other programs as well

  20. Characterization of plastic blends made from mixed plastics waste of different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turku, Irina; Kärki, Timo; Rinne, Kimmo; Puurtinen, Ari

    2017-02-01

    This paper studies the recyclability of construction and household plastic waste collected from local landfills. Samples were processed from mixed plastic waste by injection moulding. In addition, blends of pure plastics, polypropylene and polyethylene were processed as a reference set. Reference samples with known plastic ratio were used as the calibration set for quantitative analysis of plastic fractions in recycled blends. The samples were tested for the tensile properties; scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis of the blend surfaces and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was used for the quantification of plastics contents.

  1. TTP AL921102: An integrated geophysics program for non-intrusive characterization of mixed-waste landfill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasbrouck, J.C.

    1992-11-01

    Chem-Nuclear Geotech, Inc. (Geotech), operating contractor for the US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, is conducting the Integrated Geophysics Program for Non-Intrusive Characterization of Mixed-Waste Landfill Sites (Technical Task Plan [TTP] AL921102). The TTP is part of the Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The objective of this task was to demonstrate that an integrated program of surface geophysics can be used to effectively and nonintrusively characterize n-mixed-waste landfill sites. To accomplish this objective, integrated field demonstrations were conducted over two previously identified areas of interest (designated Areas A and B) within the MWLID test site at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), Technical Area 3, at the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (Figures 1 and 2). Area A was centered roughly around the Chromic Acid and Organics Pits in the southeast-central portion of the landfill and Area B was centered around the ''60's Pits'' area in the northeast-central portion of the landfill. Pit locations were known in Area A and suspected in Area B. This progress report describes the geophysical surveys conducted by Geotech and presents preliminary displays and analyses. Volume 2 of this report contains the raw data for all the surveys conducted by Geotech for this TTP

  2. Assessing mixed waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m 3 of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers

  3. Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for In-situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuehe Lin; Glen E. Fryxell; Wassana Yantasee; Guodong Liu; Zheming Wang

    2006-06-01

    Required characterizations of the DOE's transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes (MW) before disposing and treatment of the wastes are currently costly and have lengthy turnaround. Research toward developing faster and more sensitive characterization and analysis tools to reduce costs and accelerate throughputs is therefore desirable. This project is aimed at the development of electrochemical sensors, specific to toxic transition metals, uranium, and technetium, that can be integrated into the portable sensor systems. This system development will include fabrication and performance evaluation of electrodes as well as understanding of electrochemically active sites on the electrodes specifically designed for toxic metals, uranium and technetium detection. Subsequently, these advanced measurement units will be incorporated into a microfluidic prototype specifically designed and fabricated for field-deployable characterizations of such species.

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of digestates obtained from sludge mixed to increasing amounts of fruit and vegetable wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Cavallo, Ornella; Malerba, Anna Daniela; Di Maria, Francesco; Ricci, Anna; Gigliotti, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) represents an efficient waste-treatment technology during which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in absence of oxygen yielding a biogas containing methane. The aim of this work was to investigate the transformations occurring in the organic matter during the co-digestion of waste mixed sludge (WMS) with an increasing amount of fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) in a pilot scale apparatus reproducing a full-scale digester in an existing wastewater treatment plant. Samples comprised: sludge, FVW, sludge mixed with 10-20-30-40% FVW. Ingestates and digestates were analyzed by means of emission fluorescence spectroscopy and FTIR associated to Fourier self deconvolution (FSD) of spectra. With increasing the amount of FVW from 10% to 20% at which percentage biogas production reached the maximum value, FTIR spectra and FSD traces of digestates exhibited a decrease of intensity of peaks assigned to polysaccharides and aliphatics and an increase of peak assigned to aromatics as a result of the biodegradation of rapidly degradable materials and concentration of aromatic recalcitrant compounds. Digestates with 30 and 40% FVW exhibited a relative increase of intensity of peaks assigned to aliphatics likely as a result of the increasing amount of rapidly degradable materials and the consequent reduction of the hydraulic retention time. This may cause inhibition of methanogenesis and accumulation of volatile fatty acids. The highest emission fluorescence intensity was observed for the digestate with 20% FVW confirming the concentration of aromatic recalcitrant compounds in the substrate obtained at the highest biogas production.

  5. CY2000 Hanford Site Mixed Waste Land Disposal Restrictions Report Vol. 1 Storage Report and Vol 2: Characterization and Treatment Report [SEC 1 thru SEC 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    This volume presents information about the storage and minimization of mixed waste and potential sources for the generation of additional mixed waste. This information is presented in accordance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1996) Milestone M-26-01K. It is Volume 1 of a two-volume report on the status of Hanford Site land-disposal-restricted mixed waste, other mixed waste, and other waste that the parties have agreed to include in this report. This volume also contains the approval page for both volumes and assumptions, accomplishments, and some other information that also pertains to waste characterization and treatment, which are addressed in Volume 2. Appendix A lists the land disposal restriction (LDR) reporting requirements and explains where they are addressed in this report. The reporting period for this document is from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2000

  6. Overview of mixed waste issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.

    1986-01-01

    Based on BNL's study it was concluded that there are LLWs which contain chemically hazardous components. Scintillation liquids may be considered an EPA listed hazardous waste and are, therefore, potential mixed wastes. Since November, 1985 no operating LLW disposal site will accept these wastes for disposal. Unless such wastes contain de minimis quantities of radionuclides, they cannot be disposed of at an EPA an EPA permitted site. Currently generators of LSC wastes can ship de minimis wastes to be burned at commercial facilities. Oil wastes will also eventually be an EPA listed waste and thus will have to be considered a potential radioactive mixed wasted unless NRC establishes de minimis levels of radionuclides below which oils can be managed as hazardous wastes. Regarding wastes containing lead metal there is some question as to the extent of the hazard posed by lead disposed in a LLW burial trench. Chromium-containing wastes would have to be tested to determine whether they are potential mixed wastes. There may be other wastes that are mixed wastes; the responsibility for determining this rests with the waste generator. It is believed that there are management options for handling potential mixed wastes but there is no regulatory guidance. BNL has identified and evaluated a variety of treatment options for the management of potential radioactive mixed wastes. The findings of that study showed that application of a management option with the purpose of addressing EPA concern can, at the same time, address stabilization and volume reduction concerns of NRC

  7. Regulatory aspects of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.R.; Orlando, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Mixed waste is waste that satisfies the definition of low-level radioactive waste in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) and contains hazardous waste that is either: (1) listed as a hazardous waste in 40 CFR 261, Subpart D; or (2) causes the waste to exhibit any of the characteristics identified in 40 CFR 261, Subpart C. Low-level radioactive waste is defined in the LLRWPAA as radioactive material that is not high level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material, as defined in Section 11e(2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and is classified as low-level waste by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses dual regulatory (NRC and Environmental Protection Agency) responsibility, overview of joint NRC/EPA guidance, workshops, national mixed waste survey, and principal mixed waste uncertainties

  8. Robotics for mixed waste operations, demonstration description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is developing technology to aid in the cleanup of DOE sites. Included in the OTD program are the Robotics Technology Development Program and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. These two programs are working together to provide technology for the cleanup of mixed waste, which is waste that has both radioactive and hazardous constituents. There are over 240,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste accumulated at DOE sites and the cleanup is expected to generate about 900,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste over the next five years. This waste must be monitored during storage and then treated and disposed of in a cost effective manner acceptable to regulators and the states involved. The Robotics Technology Development Program is developing robotics technology to make these tasks safer, better, faster and cheaper through the Mixed Waste Operations team. This technology will also apply to treatment of transuranic waste. The demonstration at the Savannah River Site on November 2-4, 1993, showed the progress of this technology by DOE, universities and industry over the previous year. Robotics technology for the handling, characterization and treatment of mixed waste as well robotics technology for monitoring of stored waste was demonstrated. It was shown that robotics technology can make future waste storage and waste treatment facilities better, faster, safer and cheaper

  9. Regulatory controls on the hydrogeological characterization of a mixed waste disposal site, Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebelmann, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    Following the detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in the groundwater beneath the SDA in the summer of 1987, hydrogeological characterization of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The waste site, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), is the subject of a RCRA Corrective Action Program. Regulatory requirements for the Corrective Action Program dictate a phased approach to evaluation of the SDA. In the first phase of the program, the SDA is the subject of a RCRA Facility Investigation (RIF), which will obtain information to fully characterize the physical properties of the site, determine the nature and extent of contamination, and identify pathways for migration of contaminants. If the need for corrective measures is identified during the RIF, a Corrective Measures Study (CMS) will be performed as second phase. Information generated during the RIF will be used to aid in the selection and implementation of appropriate corrective measures to correct the release. Following the CMS, the final phase is the implementation of the selected corrective measures. 4 refs., 1 fig

  10. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal

  11. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country's most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country's largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation's mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE's earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies

  12. Waste Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream’s generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  13. Waste Characterization Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.; Naranjo, Felicia Danielle

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream's generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  14. AECL's mixed waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peori, R.; Hulley, V.

    2006-01-01

    Every nuclear facility has it, they wish that they didn't but they have generated and do possess m ixed waste , and until now there has been no permanent disposition option; it has been for the most been simply maintained in interim storage. The nuclear industry has been responsibly developing permanent solutions for solid radioactive waste for over fifty years and for non-radioactive, chemically hazardous waste, for the last twenty years. Mixed waste (radioactive and chemically hazardous waste) however, because of its special, duo-hazard nature, has been a continuing challenge. The Hazardous Waste and Segregation Program (HW and SP) at AECL's CRL has, over the past ten years, been developing solutions to deal with their own in-house mixed waste and, as a result, have developed solutions that they would like to share with other generators within the nuclear industry. The main aim of this paper is to document and describe the early development of the solutions for both aqueous and organic liquid wastes and to advertise to other generators of this waste type how these solutions can be implemented to solve their mixed waste problems. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and in particular, CRL has been satisfactorily disposing of mixed waste for the last seven years. CRL has developed a program that not only disposes of mixed waste, but offers a full service mixed waste management program to customers within Canada (that could eventually include U.S. sites as well) that has developed the experience and expertise to evaluate and optimize current practices, dispose of legacy inventories, and set up an efficient segregation system to reduce and effectively manage, both the volumes and expense of, the ongoing generation of mixed waste for all generators of mixed waste. (author)

  15. Remote characterization of mixed waste by infrared spectroscopy: Fiscal year 1995 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Reich, F.R.; Dodd, D.A.; Lopez, T.; Watts, J.K.; Cash, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes development work completed in FY 1995 on near-infrared (NIR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of determining the moisture content and solid species present in Hanford Site high-level waste. In prior fiscal years, the main emphasis was on identification of cyanide species that might be present in the ferrocyanide waste tanks, but the present thrust has been more focused on determining the moisture content of the waste. If sufficient moisture is present in the waste, propagating reactions in reactive waste are precluded, regardless of its fuel content. A prototype hot cell NIR moisture probe is now ready for hot cell deployment to sense moisture contents and homogeneity in tank waste samples

  16. The mixed waste landfill integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burford, T.D.; Williams, C.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ''in-situ'' characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in arid environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies and systems. The comparison will include the cost, efficiency, risk, and feasibility of using these innovative technologies at other sites

  17. Managing a mixed waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    IT Corporation operates an analytical laboratory in St. Louis capable of analyzing environmental samples that are contaminated with both chemical and radioactive materials. Wastes generated during these analyses are hazardous in nature; some are listed wastes others exhibit characteristic hazards. When the original samples contain significant quantities of radioactive material, the waste must be treated as a mixed waste. A plan was written to document the waste management program describing the management of hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes. This presentation summarizes the methods employed by the St. Louis facility to reduce personnel exposures to the hazardous materials, minimize the volume of mixed waste and treat the materials prior to disposal. The procedures that are used and the effectiveness of each procedure will also be discussed. Some of the lessons that have been learned while dealing with mixed wastes will be presented as well as the solutions that were applied. This program has been effective in reducing the volume of mixed waste that is generated. The management program also serves as a method to manage the costs of the waste disposal program by effectively segregating the different wastes that are generated

  18. Characterization and remediation of a mixed waste-contaminated site at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.W.; Thacker, M.S.; DeWitt, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    In the area of environmental restoration, one of the most challenging problems is the task of remediating mixed waste-contaminated sites. This paper discusses a successful Interim Corrective Measure (ICM) performed at a mixed waste-contaminated site on Kirtland Air Force Base (AFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The site, known as RW-68, Cratering Area and Radium Dump/Slag Piles, was used during the late 1940s and early 1950s for the destruction and incineration of captured World War II aircraft. It contained 19 slag piles totaling approximately 150 tons of slag, ash, refractory brick, and metal debris. The piles were contaminated with radium-226 and RCRA-characteristic levels of heavy metals. Therefore, the piles were considered mixed waste. To eliminate the threat to human health and the environment, an ICM of removal, segregation, stabilization, and disposal was conducted from October through December 1996. Approximately 120 cubic yards (cu yds) of mixed waste, 188 cu yds of low-level radioactive-contaminated soil, 1 cu yd of low-level radioactive-contaminated debris, 5 cu yds of RCRA-characteristic hazardous waste, and 45 tons of nonhazardous debris were stabilized and disposed of during the ICM. To render the RCRA metals and radionuclides insoluble, stabilization was performed on the mixed and RCRA-characteristic waste streams. All stabilized material was subjected to TCLP analysis to verify it no longer exhibited RCRA-characteristic properties. Radiological and geophysical surveys were conducted concurrently with site remediation activities. These surveys provided real-time documentation of site conditions during each phase of the ICM and confirmed successful cleanup of the site. The three radioactive waste streams, stabilized mixed waste, low-level radioactive-contaminated soil, and low-level radioactive-contaminated debris, were disposed of at the Envirocare low-level radioactive disposal facility

  19. Mixed Waste Focus Area - Waste form initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI

  20. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ''wise'' configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE's mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities

  1. Mixed Wastes Vitrification by Transferred Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia-Fabela, J.; Pacheco-Pacheco, M.; Pacheco-Sotelo, J.; Torres-Reyes, C.; Valdivia-Barrientos, R.; Benitez-Read, J.; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Ramos-Flores, F.; Boshle, S.; Zissis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal plasma technology provides a stable and long term treatment of mixed wastes through vitrification processes. In this work, a transferred plasma system was realized to vitrify mixed wastes, taking advantage of its high power density, enthalpy and chemical reactivity as well as its rapid quenching and high operation temperatures. To characterize the plasma discharge, a temperature diagnostic is realized by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES). To typify the morphological structure of the wastes samples, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were applied before and after the plasma treatment

  2. Sampling and characterization of mixed wastes at the U.S. Department of Energy Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, C.E.; Stakebake, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that is part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This plant was originally designed and built as a manufacturing facility for the production of nuclear weapons components. Currently, efforts are focused on the treatment and disposal of residues and wastes that were products of these production activities. Federal regulations prohibit the land disposal of untreated radioactive hazardous waste in the same manner as non-radioactive or non-hazardous wastes. A strategy has been developed for achieving compliance with Federal regulations through a process of characterization and treatment. This paper describes the strategy and the methodology used for characterizing radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Characterization of four waste forms (fluid-bed incinerator ash, uranium oxide, solidified sludge, and combustibles) is discussed and the results available are presented

  3. Managing mixed wastes: technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, J.E.; Eyman, L.D.; Burton, D.W.; McBrayer, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The US Department of Energy manages wastes that are both chemically hazardous and radioactive. These mixed wastes are often unique and many have national security implications. Management practices have evolved over the more than forty years that the Department and its predecessor agencies have been managing these wastes, both in response to better understanding of the hazards involved and in response to external, regulatory influences. The Department has recently standarized its waste management practices and has initited an R and D program to address priority issues identified by its operating contractor organizations. The R and D program is guided by waste management strategy that emphasizes reduction of human exposure to hazardous wastes in the environment, reduction of the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, treatment of wastes that are generated to reduce volumes and toxicities, and identification of alternatives to land disposal of wastes that remain hazardous following maximum practicable treatment

  4. Mixed waste, preparing for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has recently approved an extension to the enforcement policy for the storage of restricted mixed waste. Under this policy, EPA assigns a reduced enforcement priority to violations of the 40CFR268.50 prohibition on storage of restricted waste. Eligibility for the lower enforcement priority afforded by the policy is subject to specified conditions. The recent extension is for a two year period, and agency personnel have advised that it may be difficult to extend the enforcement policy again. This paper reviews anticipated changes in mixed waste treatment and disposal capabilities. Types of mixed waste that may be generated, or in storage, at commercial nuclear power plants are identified. This information is evaluated to determine if the two year extension in the storage enforcement policy will be adequate for the nuclear power industry to treat or dispose of the mixed waste inventories that are identified, and if not, where potential problem areas may reside. Recommendations are then made on mixed waste management strategies

  5. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified

  6. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

  7. Requirements for permitting a mixed waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichon, M.; Feldman, J.; Serne, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The consideration, design, selection and operation of any incinerator depends primarily on characteristic quality (ultimate and proximate analyses) and quantity to the waste to be incinerated. In the case of burning any combination of mixed hazardous, biomedical and radioactive low level waste, specific federal and generic state environmental regulatory requirements are outlined. Combustion chamber temperature and waste residence time requirements will provide the rest of the envelope for consideration. Performance requirements must be balanced between the effects of time and temperature on destruction of the organic waste and the vaporization and possible emission of the inorganic waste components (e.g., toxic metals, radioactive inorganics) as operating conditions and emission levels will be set in state and federal regulatory permits. To this end the complete characterization of the subject waste stream must be determined if an accurate assessment of incineration effectiveness and impact are to be performed

  8. Determining how much mixed waste will require disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    Estimating needed mixed-waste disposal capacity to 1995 and beyond is an essential element in the safe management of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. Information on the types and quantities of mixed waste generated is needed by industry to allow development of treatment facilities and by states and others responsible for disposal and storage of this type of low-level radioactive waste. The design of a mixed waste disposal facility hinges on a detailed assessment of the types and quantities of mixed waste that will ultimately require land disposal. Although traditional liquid scintillation counting fluids using toluene and xylene are clearly recognized as mixed waste, characterization of other types of mixed waste has, however, been difficult. Liquid scintillation counting fluids comprise most of the mixed waste generated and this type of mixed waste is generally incinerated under the supplemental fuel provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Because there are no Currently operating mixed waste land disposal facilities, it is impossible to make projections of waste requiring land disposal based on a continuation of current waste disposal practices. Evidence indicates the volume of mixed waste requiring land disposal is not large, since generators are apparently storing these wastes. Surveys conducted to date confirm that relatively small volumes of commercially generated mixed waste volume have relied heavily oil generators' knowledge of their wastes. Evidence exists that many generators are confused by the differences between the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) on the issue of when a material becomes a waste. In spite of uncertainties, estimates of waste volumes requiring disposal can be made. This paper proposes an eight-step process for such estimates

  9. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  10. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste stream analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.; Faison, G.P.; Johnson, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 requires that the US Department of Energy (DOE) provide technical assistance to host States, compact regions, and unaffiliated States to fulfill their responsibilities under the Act. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) operated for DOE by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. provides technical assistance in the development of new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. The NLLWMP has been requested by the Appalachian Compact to help the biomedical community become better acquainted with its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community, and to provide applicable treatment technologies to those particular mixed waste streams. Mixed waste is waste that satisfies the definition of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) and contains hazardous waste that either (a) is listed as a hazardous waste in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, or (b) causes the LLW to exhibit any of the hazardous waste characteristics identified in 40 CFR 261. The purpose of this report is to clearly define and characterize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community so that an identification can be made of the waste streams that can and cannot be minimized and treated by current options. An understanding of the processes and complexities of generation of mixed waste in the biomedical community may encourage more treatment and storage options to become available

  11. Mixed Waste Integrated Program emerging technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. Over the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1.2 m 3 of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) wastes. In order to successfully manage and treat these mixed wastes, DOE must adapt and develop characterization, treatment, and disposal technologies which will meet performance criteria, regulatory approvals, and public acceptance. Although technology to treat MLLW is not currently available without modification, DOE is committed to developing such treatment technologies and demonstrating them at the field scale by FY 1997. The Office of Research and Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) within the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), OfFice of Technology Development, is responsible for the development and demonstration of such technologies for MLLW and MTRU wastes. MWIP advocates and sponsors expedited technology development and demonstrations for the treatment of MLLW

  12. Mixed Waste Integrated Program emerging technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hart, P.W. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. Over the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1.2 m{sup 3} of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) wastes. In order to successfully manage and treat these mixed wastes, DOE must adapt and develop characterization, treatment, and disposal technologies which will meet performance criteria, regulatory approvals, and public acceptance. Although technology to treat MLLW is not currently available without modification, DOE is committed to developing such treatment technologies and demonstrating them at the field scale by FY 1997. The Office of Research and Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) within the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), OfFice of Technology Development, is responsible for the development and demonstration of such technologies for MLLW and MTRU wastes. MWIP advocates and sponsors expedited technology development and demonstrations for the treatment of MLLW.

  13. Ethanol from mixed waste paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstetter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    The technology, markets, and economics for converting mixed waste paper to ethanol in Washington were assessed. The status of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis projects were reviewed. The market for ethanol blended fuels in Washington shows room for expansion. The economics for a hypothetical plant using enzymatic hydrolysis were shown to be profitable

  14. Verifying generator waste certification: NTS waste characterization QA requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.; Brich, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management activities managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) include the disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) and mixed waste (MW), waste which is both radioactive and hazardous. A majority of the packaged LLW is received from offsite DOE generators. Interim status for receipt of MW at the NTS Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) was received from the state of Nevada in 1987. The RWMS Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is expected to be operational in 1988 for approved DOE MW generators. The Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification Requirements (NVO-185, Revision 5) delineates waste acceptance criteria for waste disposal at the NTS. Regulation of the hazardous component of mixed waste requires the implementation of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Waste generators must implement a waste certification program to provide assurance that the disposal site waste acceptance criteria are met. The DOE/Nevada Operations Office (NV) developed guidance for generator waste certification program plans. Periodic technical audits are conducted by DOE/NV to assess performance of the waste certification programs. The audit scope is patterned from the waste certification program plan guidance as it integrates and provides a common format for the applicable criteria. The criteria focus on items and activities critical to processing, characterizing, packaging, certifying, and shipping waste

  15. Vitrification development for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, R.; Whittington, K.; Peters, R.

    1995-02-01

    Vitrification is a promising approach to waste-form immobilization. It destroys hazardous organic compounds and produces a durable and highly stable glass. Vitrification tests were performed on three surrogate wastes during fiscal year 1994; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste from Hanford, bottom ash from the Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator, and saltcrete from Rocky Flats. Preliminary glass development involved melting trials followed by visual homogeneity examination, short-duration leach tests on glass specimens, and long-term leach tests on selected glasses. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements were taken for the most durable glass formulations. Results for the saltcrete are presented in this paper and demonstrate the applicability of vitrification technology to this mixed waste

  16. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented

  17. Is radioactive mixed waste packaging and transportation really a problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, D.L.; Calihan, T.W. III.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, there has been significant concern expressed in the nuclear community over the packaging and transportation of radioactive mixed waste under US Department of Transportation regulation. This concern has grown more intense over the last 5 to 10 years. Generators and regulators have realized that much of the waste shipped as ''low-level radioactive waste'' was in fact ''radioactive mixed waste'' and that these wastes pose unique transportation and disposal problems. Radioactive mixed wastes must, therefore, be correctly identified and classed for shipment. If must also be packaged, marked, labeled, and otherwise prepared to ensure safe transportation and meet applicable storage and disposal requirements, when established. This paper discusses regulations applicable to the packaging and transportation of radioactive mixed waste and identifies effective methods that waste shippers can adopt to meet the current transportation requirements. This paper will include a characterization and description of the waste, authorized packaging, and hazard communication requirements during transportation. Case studies will be sued to assist generators in understanding mixed waste shipment requirements and clarify the requirements necessary to establish a waste shipment program. Although management and disposal of radioactive mixed waste is clearly a critical issue, packaging and transportation of these waste materials is well defined in existing US Department of Transportation hazardous material regulations

  18. Remote waste handling and feed preparation for Mixed Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, S.A.; Merrill, R.D.; Densley, P.J.

    1995-05-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will serve as a national testbed to demonstrate mature mixed waste handling and treatment technologies in a complete front-end to back-end --facility (1). Remote operations, modular processing units and telerobotics for initial waste characterization, sorting and feed preparation have been demonstrated at the bench scale and have been selected for demonstration in MWMF. The goal of the Feed Preparation design team was to design and deploy a robust system that meets the initial waste preparation flexibility and productivity needs while providing a smooth upgrade path to incorporate technology advances as they occur. The selection of telerobotics for remote handling in MWMF was made based on a number of factors -- personnel protection, waste generation, maturity, cost, flexibility and extendibility. Modular processing units were selected to enable processing flexibility and facilitate reconfiguration as new treatment processes or waste streams are brought on line for demonstration. Modularity will be achieved through standard interfaces for mechanical attachment as well as process utilities, feeds and effluents. This will facilitate reconfiguration of contaminated systems without drilling, cutting or welding of contaminated materials and with a minimum of operator contact. Modular interfaces also provide a standard connection and disconnection method that can be engineered to allow convenient remote operation

  19. The Mixed Waste Focus Area: Status and accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area began operations in February of 1995. Its mission is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate, and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation, and disposal. The MWFA's mission arises from the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. Each DOE site facility that generates or stores mixed waste prepared a plan, the Site Treatment Plan, for developing treatment capacities and treating that waste. Agreements for each site were concluded with state regulators, resulting in Consent Orders providing enforceable milestones for achieving treatment of the waste. The paper discusses the implementation of the program, its status, accomplishments and goals for FY1996, and plans for 1997

  20. Addressing mixed waste in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Sohn, C.L.; Reid, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal is the minimization of all waste generated in actinide processing facilities. Current emphasis is directed toward reducing and managing mixed waste in plutonium processing facilities. More specifically, the focus is on prioritizing plutonium processing technologies for development that will address major problems in mixed waste management. A five step methodological approach to identify, analyze, solve, and initiate corrective action for mixed waste problems in plutonium processing facilities has been developed

  1. Assessment of LANL solid low-level mixed waste documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans, and procedures. Additionally, a comparison is made which identifies areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Recordkeeping Requirements. This report compares the current status of preparation and implementation, by the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section, of these documents to the requirements of DOE 5820.2A,. 40 CFR 260 to 270, and to recommended practice. Chapters 2 through 9 of the report presents the results of the comparison in tabular form for each of the documents being assessed, followed by narrative discussion of all areas which are perceived to be unsatisfactory or out of compliance with respect to the availability and content of the documents. The final subpart of each of the following chapters provides recommendations where documentation practices may be improved to achieve compliance or to follow the recommended practice

  2. Tracking mixed waste from environmental restoration through waste management for the Federal Facility Compliance Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbell, D.; Tolbert-Smith, M.; MacDonell, M.; Peterson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act required the US Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an inventory report that presents comprehensive information on mixed wastes. Additional documents, such as site treatment plans, were also required of facilities with mixed waste. For a number of reasons, not all DOE mixed waste sites are able to provide detailed characterization and planning data at this time. Thus, an effort is currently under way to develop a reporting format that will permit mixed waste information across the DOE complex to be tracked as it becomes available

  3. WRAP Module 1 waste characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the characterization methodology for waste generated, processed, or otherwise the responsibility of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility. The scope of this document includes all solid low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), mixed waste (MW), and dangerous waste. This document is not meant to be all-inclusive of the waste processed or generated within WRAP Module 1, but to present a methodology for characterization. As other streams are identified, the method of characterization will be consistent with the other streams identified in this plan. The WRAP Module 1 facility is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The facility's function is two-fold. The first is to verify/characterize, treat and repackage contact handled (CH) waste currently in retrievable storage in the LLW Burial Grounds, Hanford Central Waste Complex, and the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF). The second is to verify newly generated CH TRU waste and LLW, including MW. The WRAP Module 1 facility provides NDE and NDA of the waste for both drums and boxes. The NDE is used to identify the physical contents of the waste containers to support waste characterization and processing, verification, or certification. The NDA results determine the radioactive content and distribution of the waste

  4. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste

  5. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation

  6. Requirements for shipment of DOE radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.; No, Hyo; Herman, J.

    1993-01-01

    There are several sources of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) at Argonne National Laboratory which, in the past, were collected at waste tanks and/or sludge tanks. They were eventually pumped out by special pumps and processed in an evaporator located in the waste operations area in Building No. 306. Some of this radioactive mixed waste represents pure elementary mercury. These cleaning tanks must be manually cleaned up because the RMW material was too dense to pump with the equipment in use. The four tanks being discussed in this report are located in Building No. 306. They are the Acid Waste Tank, IMOX/FLOC Tanks, Evaporation Feed Tanks, and Waste Storage Tanks. All of these tanks are characterized and handled separately. This paper discusses the process and the requirements for characterization and the associated paperwork for Argonne Waste to be shipped to Westinghouse Hanford Company for storage

  7. Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I 2 leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste

  8. Commercial mixed waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    At the South Clive, Utah, site, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., (Envirocare), currently operates a commercial low-activity, low-level radioactive waste facility, a mixed waste RCRA Part B storage and disposal facility, and an 11e.(2) disposal facility. Envirocare is also in the process of constructing a Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. As the nation's first and only commercial treatment and disposal facility for such waste, the information presented in this segment will provide insight into their current and prospective operations

  9. Treatment methods for radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes: technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Kempf, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment options for the management of three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes (LLW) have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which LLW generators were surveyed for information on potential chemical hazards in their wastes. The general treatment options available for mixed wastes are destruction, immobilization, and reclamation. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, wet-air oxidation, distillation, liquid-liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, decontamination, and solidification or containment of residues, have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, wet-air oxidation, acid digestion, and containment have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has included an assessment of testing appropriate to determine the effect of the option on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present

  10. Treatment methods for radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes: technical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Kempf, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment options for the management of three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes (LLW) have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which LLW generators were surveyed for information on potential chemical hazards in their wastes. The general treatment options available for mixed wastes are destruction, immobilization, and reclamation. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, wet-air oxidation, distillation, liquid-liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, decontamination, and solidification or containment of residues, have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, wet-air oxidation, acid digestion, and containment have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has included an assessment of testing appropriate to determine the effect of the option on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present.

  11. Nondestructive and quantitative characterization of TRU and LLW mixed-waste using active and passive gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D.C.; Martz, H.E.

    1991-11-12

    The technology being proposed by LLNL is an Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A P CT) Drum Scanner for contact-handled (CH) wastes. It combines the advantages offered by two well-developed nondestructive assay technologies: gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography (CT). Coupled together, these two technologies offer to nondestructively and quantitatively characterize mixed- wastes forms. Gamma-ray spectroscopy uses one or more external radiation detectors to passively and nondestructively measure the energy spectrum emitted from a closed container. From the resulting spectrum one can identify most radioactivities detected, be they transuranic isotopes, mixed-fission products, activation products or environmental radioactivities. Spectral libraries exist at LLNL for all four. Active (A) or transmission CT is a well-developed, nondestructive medical and industrial technique that uses an external-radiation beam to map regions of varying attenuation within a container. Passive (P) or emission CT is a technique mainly developed for medical application, e.g., single-photon emission CT. Nondestructive industrial uses of PCT are under development and just coming into use. This report discuses work on the A P CT Drum Scanner at LLNL.

  12. Nondestructive and quantitative characterization of TRU and LLW mixed-waste using active and passive gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.C.; Martz, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    The technology being proposed by LLNL is an Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A ampersand P CT) Drum Scanner for contact-handled (CH) wastes. It combines the advantages offered by two well-developed nondestructive assay technologies: gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography (CT). Coupled together, these two technologies offer to nondestructively and quantitatively characterize mixed- wastes forms. Gamma-ray spectroscopy uses one or more external radiation detectors to passively and nondestructively measure the energy spectrum emitted from a closed container. From the resulting spectrum one can identify most radioactivities detected, be they transuranic isotopes, mixed-fission products, activation products or environmental radioactivities. Spectral libraries exist at LLNL for all four. Active (A) or transmission CT is a well-developed, nondestructive medical and industrial technique that uses an external-radiation beam to map regions of varying attenuation within a container. Passive (P) or emission CT is a technique mainly developed for medical application, e.g., single-photon emission CT. Nondestructive industrial uses of PCT are under development and just coming into use. This report discuses work on the A ampersand P CT Drum Scanner at LLNL

  13. Savannah River Plant Separations Department mixed waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbicki, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Plant (SRP) generates radioactive and mixed waste as a result of the manufacture of nuclear material for the national defense program. The radioactive portion of the mixed waste and all nonhazardous radioactive wastes would continue to be regulated by DOE under the Atomic Energy Act. The Separations Department is the largest generator of solid radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant. Over the last three years, the Separations Department has developed and implemented a program to characterize candidate mixed-waste streams. The program consisted of facility personnel interviews, a waste-generation characterization program and waste testing to determine whether a particular waste form was hazardous. The Separations Department changed waste-handling practices and procedures to meet the requirements of the generator standards. For each Separation Department Facility, staging areas were established, inventory and reporting requirements were developed, operating procedures were revised to ensure proper waste handling, and personnel were provided hazardous waste training. To emphasize the importance of the new requirements, a newsletter was developed and issued to all Separations supervisory personnel

  14. The mixed waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    During FY96, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Project has the following major objectives: (1) Complete Project Preliminary Design Review (PDR). (2) Complete final design (Title II) of MWMF major systems. (3) Coordinate all final interfaces with the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) for facility utilities and facility integration. (4) Begin long-lead procurements. (5) Issue Project Baseline Revision 2-Preliminary Design (PB2), modifying previous baselines per DOE-requested budget profiles and cost reduction. Delete Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) as a treatment process for initial demonstration. (6) Complete submittal of, and ongoing support for, applications for air permit. (7) Begin detailed planning for start-up, activation, and operational interfaces with the Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Division (HWM). In achieving these objectives during FY96, the Project will incorporate and implement recent DOE directives to maximize the cost savings associated with the DWTF/MWMF integration (initiated in PB1.2); to reduce FY96 new Budget Authority to ∼$10M (reduced from FY97 Validation of $15.3M); and to keep Project fiscal year funding requirements largely uniform at ∼$10M/yr. A revised Project Baseline (i.e., PB2), to be issued during the second quarter of FY96, will address the implementation and impact of this guidance from an overall Project viewpoint. For FY96, the impact of this guidance is that completion of final design has been delayed relative to previous baselines (resulting from the delay in the completion of preliminary design); ramp-up in staffing has been essentially eliminated; and procurements have been balanced through the Project to help balance budget needs to funding availability

  15. Transportable Vitrification System Demonstration on Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Whitehouse, J.C.; Wilson, C.N.; Van Ryn, F.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results from the first demonstration of the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) on actual mixed waste. The TVS is a fully integrated, transportable system for the treatment of mixed and low-level radioactive wastes. The demonstration was conducted at Oak Ridge's East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly known as the K-25 site. The purpose of the demonstration was to show that mixed wastes could be vitrified safely on a 'field' scale using joule-heated melter technology and obtain information on system performance, waste form durability, air emissions, and costs

  16. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP

  17. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nuttall, E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    1996-04-10

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits.

  18. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H.; Nuttall, E.

    1996-01-01

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits

  19. Waste Characterization: Approaches and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Ecke, H.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of solid waste is usually a difficult task because of the heterogeneity of the waste and its spatial as well as temporal variations. This makes waste characterization costly if good and reliable data with reasonable uncertainty is to be obtained. Therefore, a waste characterization...... is often narrowly defined to meet specific needs for information. This may however limit the general usefulness of the information gained, for example, if the specific purpose limited the characterization to a subset of variables. In general, data available in the solid waste area are limited and often...... related to individual treatment processes and waste products are dealt with in the following chapters: Characteristic data on residential waste (Chapter 2.2), commercial and institutional waste (Chapter 2.3), industrial waste (Chapter 2.4) and construction and demolition waste (Chapter 2...

  20. Waste characterization practices: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Recent reviews of the records on disposal waste at several DOE sites have indicated that records still contain little information practical to waste management. Much of the disposed waste is identified by vague terms, i.e., general plant waste. Attached to this paper is a new waste characterization code devised by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to aid in waste volume reduction and stabilization. It is recommended that every facility involved in waste generation and disposal needs to be detailing its wastes to support upgrading of waste management practices. 1 table

  1. DOE regulatory reform initiative vitrified mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.J.; Holtzscheiter, E.W.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with responsibly managing the largest volume of mixed waste in the United States. This responsibility includes managing waste in compliance with all applicable Federal and State laws and regulations, and in a cost-effective, environmentally responsible manner. Managing certain treated mixed wastes in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage and disposal units (specifically those mixed wastes that pose low risks from the hazardous component) is unlikely to provide additional protection to human health and the environment beyond that afforded by managing these wastes in storage and disposal units subject to requirements for radiological control. In October, 1995, the DOE submitted a regulatory reform proposal to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relating to vitrified mixed waste forms. The technical proposal supports a regulatory strategy that would allow vitrified mixed waste forms treated through a permit or other environmental compliance mechanism to be granted an exemption from RCRA hazardous waste regulation, after treatment, based upon the inherent destruction and immobilization capabilities of vitrification technology. The vitrified waste form will meet, or exceed the performance criteria of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass that has been accepted as an international standard for immobilizing radioactive waste components and the LDR treatment standards for inorganics and metals for controlling hazardous constituents. The proposal further provides that vitrified mixed waste would be responsibly managed under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) while reducing overall costs. Full regulatory authority by the EPA or a State would be maintained until an acceptable vitrified mixed waste form, protective of human health and the environment, is produced

  2. TRU waste characterization chamber gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) is participating in the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Transuranic Waste Program in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Laboratory's support currently consists of intrusive characterization of a selected population of drums containing transuranic waste. This characterization is performed in a complex of alpha containment gloveboxes termed the Waste Characterization Gloveboxes. Made up of the Waste Characterization Chamber, Sample Preparation Glovebox, and the Equipment Repair Glovebox, they were designed as a small production characterization facility for support of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This paper presents salient features of these gloveboxes

  3. Incineration systems for low level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of technologies has emerged for incineration of combustible radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. Evaluation and selection of an incineration system for a particular application from such a large field of options are often confusing. This paper presents several current incineration technologies applicable to Low Level Waste (LLW), hazardous waste, and mixed waste combustion treatment. The major technologies reviewed include controlled-air, rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and liquid injection. Coupled with any incineration technique is the need to select a compatible offgas effluent cleaning system. This paper also reviews the various methods of treating offgas emissions for acid vapor, particulates, organics, and radioactivity. Such effluent control systems include the two general types - wet and dry scrubbing with a closer look at quenching, inertial systems, fabric filtration, gas absorption, adsorption, and various other filtration techniques. Selection criteria for overall waste incineration systems are discussed as they relate to waste characterization

  4. Using a Consensus Conference to Characterize Regulatory Concerns Regarding Bioremediation of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals in Mixed Waste at DOE Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denise Lach; Stephanie Sanford

    2006-01-01

    A consensus workshop was developed and convened with ten state regulators to characterize concerns regarding emerging bioremediation technology to be used to clean-up radionuclides and heavy metals in mixed wastes at US DOE sites. Two questions were explored: integrated questions: (1) What impact does participation in a consensus workshop have on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of state regulators regarding bioremediation technology? (2) How effective is a consensus workshop as a strategy for eliciting and articulating regulators concerns regarding the use of bioremediation to clean up radionuclides and heavy metals in mixed wastes at U.S. Department of Energy Sites around the county? State regulators met together for five days over two months to learn about bioremediation technology and develop a consensus report of their recommendations regarding state regulatory concerns. In summary we found that panel members: quickly grasped the science related to bioremediation and were able to effectively interact with scientists working on complicated issues related to the development and implementation of the technology; are generally accepting of in situ bioremediation, but concerned about costs, implementation (e.g., institutional controls), and long-term effectiveness of the technology; are concerned equally about technological and implementation issues; and believed that the consensus workshop approach to learning about bioremediation was appropriate and useful. Finally, regulators wanted decision makers at US DOE to know they are willing to work with DOE regarding innovative approaches to clean-up at their sites, and consider a strong relationship between states and the DOE as critical to any effective clean-up. They do not want perceive themselves to be and do not want others to perceive them as barriers to successful clean-up at their sites

  5. Electrochemical treatment of mixed and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.; Nuttall, E.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and The University of New Mexico are jointly developing an electrochemical process for treating hazardous and radioactive wastes. The wastes treatable by the process include toxic metal solutions, cyanide solutions, and various organic wastes that may contain chlorinated organic compounds. The main component of the process is a stack of electrolytic cells with peripheral equipment such as a rectifier, feed system, tanks with feed and treated solutions, and a gas-venting system. During the treatment, toxic metals are deposited on the cathode, cyanides are oxidized on the anode, and organic compounds are anodically oxidized by direct or mediated electrooxidation, depending on their type. Bench scale experimental studies have confirmed the feasibility of applying electrochemical systems to processing of a great variety of hazardous and mixed wastes. The operating parameters have been defined for different waste compositions using surrogate wastes. Mixed wastes are currently treated at bench scale as part of the treatability study

  6. Hanford's Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, is located in the Hanford Site Low-Level Burial Grounds and is designated as Trench 31 in the 218-W-5 Burial Ground. Trench 31 is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act compliant landfill and will receive wastes generated from both remediation and waste management activities. On December 30, 1994, Westinghouse Hanford Company declared readiness to operate Trench 31, which is the Hanford Site's (and the Department of Energy complex's) first facility for disposal of low-level radioactive mixed wastes

  7. Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

    2000-01-01

    A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment

  8. Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended

  9. Mixed waste management at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, special projects have been initiated for the management of RMW. This paper addresses the management of solid RMW. The management of bulk liquid RMW will not be described. 7 refs., 4 figs

  10. Vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site. The first hazardous/mixed wastes glassified at SRS have been (1) incinerator and (2) nickel plating line (F006) wastes. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and incinerator bottom kiln ash have been achieved in Soda (Na 2 O) - Lime (CaO) - Silica (SiO 2 ) glass (SLS) at waste loadings of up to 50 wt%. Solidification of nickel-plating line waste sludges containing depleted uranium have also been achieved in both SLS and borosilicate glasses at waste loadings of 75 wt%. This corresponds to volume reductions of 97% and 81%, respectively. Further studies will examine glassification of: ion exchange zeolites, inorganic filter media, asbestos, glass fiber filters, contaminated soil, cementitious, or other materials in need of remediation

  11. R ampersand D activities at DOE applicable to mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, M.D.; Devgun, J.S.; Brown, J.J.; Beskid, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Within the new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing and evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Because of US governmental activities dating back to the Manhattan project, mixed radioactive and hazardous waste is an area of particular concern to DOE. The OTD is responsible for a number of R ampersand D activities aimed at improving capabilities to characterize, control, and properly dispose of mixed waste. These activities and their progress to date will be reviewed. In addition, needs for additional R ampersand D on managing mixed waste will be presented. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included.

  13. Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included

  14. Upfront Delisting of F006 Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulos, D.G.; Pickett, J.B.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE at the Savannah River Site will petition the US EPA to upfront delist treatment residues generated from the vitrification of approximately 650,000 gallons of a regulated mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. The upfront petition, based on bench-scale treatability studies and pilot-scale system data, will exclude the vitrified wasteform from hazardous waste management regulations. The EPA encourages the use of the upfront delisting method as it allows applicants prior knowledge of waste specific treatment standards, which when met will render the waste non-hazardous, before generating the final wasteform. To meet the EPA performance based treatment standards, the waste must be stabilized to control the leaching of hazardous and radioactive constituents from the final wasteform. SRS has contracted a vendor to stabilize the mixed waste in a temporary Vitrification Treatment Facility (VTF). The EPA has declared vitrification as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for high level radioactive wastes and the DOE Office of Technology Development has taken the position that mixed waste needs to be stabilized to the highest degree possible to ensure that the resulting wasteform meets both current and future regulatory specifications. Treatability studies conducted on a VTF pilot-scale system unit indicates that the mixed waste can be converted into a highly durable glass form, which exceeds the projected EPA performance based criteria. Upfront petitions can be processed by the EPA concurrently during facility construction or permitting activities; therefore, the SRS VTF will be capable of producing wastes which are considered non-hazardous sooner than otherwise expected. At the same time, EPA imposed conditional testing requirements to verify that the delisting levels are achieved by the fully operational VTF, ensures that only non-hazardous wastes are removed from hazardous waste management regulations. Vitrification of the (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Transportable vitrification system demonstration on mixed waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Whitehouse, J.C.; Wilson, C.N.; Van Ryn, F.R.

    1998-01-01

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large scale, fully integrated, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and many other waste streams. It was demonstrated on surrogate waste at Clemson University and at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) prior to treating actual mixed waste. Treatment of a combination of dried B and C Pond sludge and CNF sludge was successfully demonstrated at ORR in 1997. The demonstration produced 7,616 kg of glass from 7,328 kg of mixed wastes with a 60% reduction in volume. Glass formulations for the wastes treated were developed using a combination of laboratory crucible studies with the actual wastes and small melter studies at Clemson with both surrogate and actual wastes. Initial characterization of the B and C Pond sludge had not shown the presence of carbon or fluoride, which required a modified glass formulation be developed to maintain proper glass redox and viscosity. The CNF sludge challenges the glass formulations due to high levels of phosphate and iron. The demonstration was delayed several times by permitting problems, a glass leak, and electrical problems. The demonstration showed that the two wastes could be successfully vitrified, although the design glass production rate was not achieved. The glass produced met the Universal Treatment Standards and the emissions from the TVS were well within the allowable permit limits

  16. Transportable vitrification system demonstration on mixed waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Whitehouse, J.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilson, C.N. [Lockheed Martin Hanford Corp., Richland, WA (United States); Van Ryn, F.R. [Bechtel Jacobs Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-04-22

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large scale, fully integrated, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and many other waste streams. It was demonstrated on surrogate waste at Clemson University and at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) prior to treating actual mixed waste. Treatment of a combination of dried B and C Pond sludge and CNF sludge was successfully demonstrated at ORR in 1997. The demonstration produced 7,616 kg of glass from 7,328 kg of mixed wastes with a 60% reduction in volume. Glass formulations for the wastes treated were developed using a combination of laboratory crucible studies with the actual wastes and small melter studies at Clemson with both surrogate and actual wastes. Initial characterization of the B and C Pond sludge had not shown the presence of carbon or fluoride, which required a modified glass formulation be developed to maintain proper glass redox and viscosity. The CNF sludge challenges the glass formulations due to high levels of phosphate and iron. The demonstration was delayed several times by permitting problems, a glass leak, and electrical problems. The demonstration showed that the two wastes could be successfully vitrified, although the design glass production rate was not achieved. The glass produced met the Universal Treatment Standards and the emissions from the TVS were well within the allowable permit limits.

  17. Certification Plan, Radioactive Mixed Waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). RMW is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or transuranic (TRU) waste that is co-contaminated with dangerous waste as defined in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, 173-303-040 (18). This waste is to be transferred to the Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF (Section 4); and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification

  18. Waste characterization: What's on second?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, F.J.; Smith, M.A.

    1989-07-01

    Waste characterization is the process whereby the physical properties and chemical composition of waste are determined. Waste characterization is an important element which is necessary to certify that waste meets the acceptance criteria for storage, treatment, or disposal. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders list and describe the germane waste form, package, and container criteria for the storage of both solid low-level waste package, and container criteria for the storage of both solid low-level waste (SLLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, including chemical composition and compatibility, hazardous material content (e.g., lead), fissile material content, radioisotopic inventory, particulate content, equivalent alpha activity, thermal heat output, and absence of free liquids, explosives, and compressed gases. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responsibility for waste characterization begins with the individual or individuals who generate the waste. The generator must be able to document the type and estimate the quantity of various materials (e.g., waste forms -- physical characteristics, chemical composition, hazardous materials, major radioisotopes) which have been placed into the waste container. Analyses of process flow sheets and a statistically valid sampling program can provide much of the required information as well as a documented level of confidence in the acquired data. A program is being instituted in which major generator facilities perform radionuclide assay of small packets of waste prior to being placed into a waste drum. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  19. Conversion of three mixed-waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmer, D.E.; Porter, D.L.; Conley, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    At the present time, commercial mixed waste (containing both radioactive and hazardous components) is not handled by any disposal site in this country. Thus, a generator of such material is faced with the prospect of separating or altering the nature of the waste components. A chemical or physical separation may be possible. However, if separation fails there remains the opportunity of chemically transforming the hazardous ingredients to non-hazardous substances, allowing disposal at an existing radioactive burial site. Finally, chemical or physical stabilization can be used as a tool to achieve an acceptable waste form lacking the characteristics of mixed waste. A practical application of these principles has been made in the case of certain mixed waste streams at Aerojet Ordnance Tennessee. Three different streams were involved: (1) lead and lead oxide contaminated with uranium, (2) mixed chloride salts including barium chloride, contaminated with uranium, and (3) bricks impregnated with the barium salt mixture. This paper summarizes the approach of this mixed-waste problem, the laboratory solutions found, and the intended field remediations to be followed. Mixture (1), above, was successfully converted to a vitreous insoluble form. Mixture (2) was separated into radioactive and non-radioactive streams, and the hazardous characteristics of the latter altered chemically. Mixture (3) was treated to an extraction process, after which the extractant could be treated by the methods of Mixture (2). Field application of these methods is scheduled in the near future

  20. Status of mixed-waste regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadur, S.

    1988-01-01

    Mixed waste is waste containing radionuclides regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under the Atomic Energy Act, as well as hazardous waste materials regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This has led to a situation of dual regulation in which both NRC and EPA regulate the same waste under requirements that at times appear conflicting. The NRC has been working with the EPA to resolve the issues associated with the dual regulation of mixed waste. Discussions between the two agencies indicate that dual regulation of mixed wastes appears technically achievable, although the procedures may be complex and burdensome to the regulated community. The staffs of both agencies have been coordinating their efforts to minimize the burden of dual regulation on state agencies and the industry. Three major issues were identified as sources of potential regulatory conflict: (a) definition and identification of mixed waste, (b) siting guidelines for disposal facilities, and (c) design concepts for disposal units

  1. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Finney, R. [Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  2. Co-disposal of mixed waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.; Crane, P.J.; England, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Stewart, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    Co-disposal of process waste streams with hazardous and radioactive materials in landfills results in large, use-efficiencies waste minimization and considerable cost savings. Wasterock, produced from nuclear and chemical process waste streams, is segregated, treated, tested to ensure regulatory compliance, and then is placed in mixed waste landfills, burial trenches, or existing environmental restoration sites. Large geotechnical unit operations are used to pretreat, stabilize, transport, and emplace wasterock into landfill or equivalent subsurface structures. Prototype system components currently are being developed for demonstration of co-disposal

  3. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options

  4. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-04-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

  5. Mixed Waste Integrated Program -- Problem-oriented technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, P.W.; Wolf, S.W.; Berry, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed waste treatment technologies that meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations will be used to determine whether processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. Technology development is ongoing in technical areas required to process mixed waste: materials handling, chemical/physical treatment, waste destruction, off-gas treatment, final forms, and process monitoring/control. MWIP is currently developing a suite of technologies to process heterogeneous waste. One robust process is the fixed-hearth plasma-arc process that is being developed to treat a wide variety of contaminated materials with minimal characterization. Additional processes encompass steam reforming, including treatment of waste under the debris rule. Advanced off-gas systems are also being developed. Vitrification technologies are being demonstrated for the treatment of homogeneous wastes such as incinerator ash and sludge. An alternative to conventional evaporation for liquid removal--freeze crystallization--is being investigated. Since mercury is present in numerous waste streams, mercury removal technologies are being developed

  6. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to section 3021(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). DOE has prepared this report for submission to EPA and the States in which DOE stores, generates, or treats mixed wastes. As required by the FFCA, this report contains: a national inventory of all mixed wastes in the DOE system that are currently stored or will be generated over the next five years, including waste stream name, description, EPA waste codes, basis for characterization (i.e., sampling and analysis or process knowledge), effect of radionuclides on treatment, quantity stored that is subject to the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs) storage prohibition, quantity stored that is not subject to the LDRS, expected generation over the next five years, Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) used for developing the LDR requirements, and waste minimization activities; and a national inventory of mixed waste treatment capacities and technologies, including information such as the descriptions, capacities, and locations of all existing and proposed treatment facilities, explanations for not including certain existing facilities in capacity evaluations, information to support decisions on unavailability of treatment technologies for certain mixed wastes, and the planned technology development activities

  7. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m 3 of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993)

  8. The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF) will provide permanent Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage, treatment, and disposal for hazardous and mixed waste generated at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) that cannot be disposed of in existing or planned SRS facilities. Final design is complete for Phase I of the project, the Disposal Vaults. The Vaults will provide RCRA permitted, above-grade disposal capacity for treated hazardous and mixed waste generated at the SRS. The RCRA Part B Permit application was submitted upon approval of the Permit application, the first Disposal Vault is scheduled to be operational in mid 1994. The technical baseline has been established for Phase II, the Treatment Building, and preliminary design work has been performed. The Treatment Building will provide RCRA permitted treatment processes to handle a variety of hazardous and mixed waste generated at SRS in preparation for disposal. The processes will treat wastes for disposal in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). A RCRA Part B Permit application has not yet been submitted to SCDHEC for this phase of the project. The Treatment Building is currently scheduled to be operational in late 1996

  9. Hazardous and mixed waste transportation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Trennel, A.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas. (J.P.N.)

  10. Hazardous and Mixed Waste Transportation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Trennel, A.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas

  11. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs

  12. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

  13. Mixed waste treatment capabilities at Envirocare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafati, A.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the business achievements and presents a corporate summary for the whole handling company Envirocare located in Clive, Utah. This company operates a permitted low-level radioactive and mixed waste facility which handles waste from the United States Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Defense, and Fortune 500 companies. A description of business services and treatment capabilities is presented

  14. Molten salt destruction process for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Wilder, J.G.; Karlsen, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    We are developing an advanced two-stage process for the treatment of mixed wastes, which contain both hazardous and radioactive components. The wastes, together with an oxidant gas, such as air, are injected into a bed of molten salt comprising a mixture of sodium-, potassium-, and lithium-carbonates, with a melting point of about 580 degree C. The organic constituents of the mixed waste are destroyed through the combined effect of pyrolysis and oxidation. Heteroatoms. such as chlorine, in the mixed waste form stable salts, such as sodium chloride, and are retained in the melt. The radioactive actinides in the mixed waste are also retained in the melt because of the combined action of wetting and partial dissolution. The original process, consists of a one-stage unit, operated at 900--1000 degree C. The advanced two-stage process has two stages, one for pyrolysis and one for oxidation. The pyrolysis stage is designed to operate at 700 degree C. The oxidation stage can be operated at a higher temperature, if necessary

  15. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  16. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  17. MIxed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP): Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop and demonstrate innovative and emerging technologies for the treatment and management of DOE's mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) for use by its customers, the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30) and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The primary goal of MWIP is to develop and demonstrate the treatment and disposal of actual mixed waste (MMLW and MTRU). The vitrification process and the plasma hearth process are scheduled for demonstration on actual radioactive waste in FY95 and FY96, respectively. This will be accomplished by sequential studies of lab-scale non-radioactive testing followed by bench-scale radioactive testing, followed by field-scale radioactive testing. Both processes create a highly durable final waste form that passes leachability requirements while destroying organics. Material handling technology, and off-gas requirements and capabilities for the plasma hearth process and the vitrification process will be established in parallel

  18. Mixed radioactive and chemotoxic wastes (RMW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    During the first decades of development of nuclear energy, organizations involved in the management of nuclear wastes had their attention focused essentially on radioactive components. The impression may have prevailed that, considering the severe restrictions on radioactive materials, the protection measured applied for radioactive components of wastes would be more than adequate to cope with potential hazards from non radioactive components associated with radioactive wastes. More recently it was acknowledged that such interpretation is not necessarily justified in all cases since certain radioactive wastes also contain non-negligible amounts of heavy metals or hazardous organic components which, either, do not decay, or are subject to completely different decay (decomposition) mechanisms. The main purposes of the present study are to analyze whether mixed radioactive wastes are likely to occur in Europe and in what form, whether one needs a basis for integration for evaluating various forms of toxicity and by which practical interventions possible problems can be avoided or at least reduced. (au)

  19. Mixed low-level waste form evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance

  20. Treatment of radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Management options for three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which a large number of generators were surveyed for information on potentially hazardous low-level wastes. The general management targets adopted for mixed wastes are immobilization, destruction, and reclamation. It is possible that these targets may not be practical for some wastes, and for these, goals of stabilization or reduction of hazard are addressed. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, segregation, and substitution have been considered for organic liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, and decontamination and re-use have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, containment, substitution, chemical reduction, and biological removal have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has necessarily included assessment/estimation of the effect of the treatment on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present. 10 refs

  1. Stabilization of mixed waste - Rocky Flats solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, T.A.; Mathew, S.A.; Henderson, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Among the wastes that require disposal as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program are large amounts of contaminated sludge and inorganic wastes. Halliburton NUS Corporation was awarded a contract by EG ampersand G Rocky Flats in March 1991 to stabilize mixed waste sludge contained in five solar evaporator ponds and to reprocess billets of solidified waste called Pondcrete and Saltcrete at DOE's Rocky Flats Plant. The scope of the project consists of waste characterization and treatability studies for process development, followed by design, construction and operation of various process trains to remediate different waste forms ranging from solid Pondcrete/Saltcrete blocks to aqueous brine solutions. One of the significant advances made was the development of a durable and certifiable stabilization formulation capable of treating concentrated nitrate solution wastes. The project uses high-volume grout mixing and pumping technologies with process control techniques that accommodate the heterogeneity of the wastes. To comply with all relevant environmental regulations and to provide a safe working atmosphere for plant personnel, Halliburton NUS designed process trains such that all emissions were eliminated during the remediation process. Personnel protection equipment requirements have been downgraded due to safeguards incorporated in the design. The technical and regulatory issues that were encountered would be typical of stabilization efforts underway at other DOE sites. Thus the lessons learned and concepts developed can be expected to have widespread application

  2. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2012-07-10

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  3. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy's anticipated mixed waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), which represents a national effort to develop and coordinate treatment solutions for mixed waste among all DOE facilities. The hazardous waste component of mixed waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), while the radioactive component is regulated under the Atomic Energy Act, as implemented by the DOE, making mixed waste one of the most complex types of waste for the DOE to manage. The MWFA has the mission to support technologies that meet the needs of the DOE's waste management efforts to characterize, treat, and dispose of mixed waste being generated and stored throughout the DOE complex. The technologies to be supported must meet all regulatory requirements, provide cost and risk improvements over available technologies, and be acceptable to the public. The most notable features of the DOE's mixed-waste streams are the wide diversity of waste matrices, volumes, radioactivity levels, and RCRA-regulated hazardous contaminants. Table 1-1 is constructed from data from the proposed site treatment plans developed by each DOE site and submitted to DOE Headquarters. The table shows the number of mixed-waste streams and their corresponding volumes. This table illustrates that the DOE has a relatively small number of large-volume mixed-waste streams and a large number of small-volume mixed-waste streams. There are 1,033 mixed-waste streams with volumes less than 1 cubic meter; 1,112 mixed-waste streams with volumes between 1 and 1,000 cubic meters; and only 61 mixed-waste streams with volumes exceeding 1,000 cubic meters

  4. Sulfur polymer cement for macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    In FY 1997, the US DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) sponsored a demonstration of the macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris using sulfur polymer cement (SPC). Two mixed wastes were tested--a D006 waste comprised of sheets of cadmium and a D008/D009 waste comprised of lead pipes and joints contaminated with mercury. The demonstration was successful in rendering these wastes compliant with Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), thereby eliminating one Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) waste stream from the national inventory

  5. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  6. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ''lessons learned'' from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors

  7. Sandia National Laboratories Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, L.D.; Phelan, J.M.; Prindle, N.K.; Purvis, S.T.; Stormont, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. The mission of the MWLID is to assess, implement and transfer technologies and systems that lead to quicker, safer, and more efficient remediation of buried chemical and mixed-waste sites. The MWLID focus is on two landfills at SNL in Albuquerque, New Mexico: The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed-Waste Landfill (MWL). These landfills received chemical, radioactive and mixed wastes from various SNL nuclear research programs. A characterization system has been designed for the definition of the extent and concentration of contamination. This system includes historical records, directional drilling, and emplacement membrane, sensors, geophysics, sampling strategy, and on site sample analysis. In the remediation task, in-situ remediation systems are being designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and heavy metals from soils. The VOC remediation includes vacuum extraction with electrical and radio-frequency heating. For heavy metal contamination, electrokinetic processes are being considered. The MWLID utilizes a phased, parallel approach. Initial testing is performed at an uncontaminated site adjacent to the CWL. Once characterization is underway at the CWL, lessons learned can be directly transferred to the more challenging problem of radioactive waste in the MWL. The MWL characterization can proceed in parallel with the remediation work at CWL. The technologies and systems demonstrated in the MWLID are to be evaluated based on their performance and cost in the real remediation environment of the landfills

  8. Mixed waste paper as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersletter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    A successful recycling program requires several components: education and promotion, convenient collection service, and most importantly, a market for collected materials. In Washington state, domestic markets currently have, or are building, the capacity to use most of the glass, newsprint, aluminum, tin cans, and corrugated materials that are collected. Unfortunately, markets for mixed waste paper (MWP), a major component of the state's solid waste stream, have been slow to develop and are unable to absorb the tremendous volumes of material generated. The American Paper Stock Institute classifies MWP as low grade paper such as magazines, books, scrap paper, non-corrugated cardboard (boxboard/chipboard), and construction paper. When viewed as part of a curbside collection program MWP consists primarily of catalogs, binder paper, magazines, brochures, junk mail, cereal boxes, and other household packaging items. A comprehensive analysis of Washington State's solid waste stream showed that during 1988, Washington citizens generated approximately 460,000 tons of mixed waste paper. No small amount, this is equivalent to more than 10% of the total solid waste generated in the state, and is expected to increase. Current projections of MWP generation rates indicated that Washington citizens could discard as much as 960,000 tons of MWP by the year 2010 making it one of the single largest components of the state's solid waste stream. This paper reports on the use of MWP as fuel source

  9. Treatment methods for radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes - technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Kempf, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment options for the management of three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes (LLW) have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which LLW generators were surveyed for information on potential chemical hazards in their wastes. The general treatment options available for mixed wastes are destruction, immobilization, and reclamation. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, wet-air oxidation, distillation, liquid-liquid solvent extraction, and specific chemical destruction techniques have been considered for organic liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, decontamination, and solidification or containment of residues, have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, wet-air oxidation, acid digestion, and containment have been considered. Fore each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has included an assessment of testing appropriate to determine the effect of the option on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present

  10. Bioprocessing scenarios for mixed hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The potential of biological processing of mixed hazardous waste has not been determined. However, the use of selected microorganisms for the degradation and/or detoxification of hazardous organic compounds is gaining wide acceptance as an alternative waste treatment technology. The isolation of a unique strain of Pseudomonas Putida Idaho seems well adapted to withstand the demands of the input stream comprised of liquid scintillation waste. This paper describes the results from the continuous processing of a mixture comprised of p-xylene and surfactant as well as commercial liquid scintillation formulations. The two formulations tested contained xylene and pseudocumene as the solvent base. The process is now at the demonstration phase at one of DOE's facilities which has a substantial amount of stored waste of this type. The system at the DOE facility is comprised of two CSTR units in series

  11. An overview of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.; Betsill, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ''in-situ'' characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in and environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies. Key goals of the MWLID are routine use of these technologies by Environmental Restoration Groups throughout the DOE complex and commercialization of these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID is demonstrating technologies at hazardous waste landfills located at Sandia National Laboratories and on Kirtland Air Force Base. These landfills have been selected because they are representative of many sites throughout the Southwest and in other and climates

  12. Treatment of DOE mixed wastes using commercial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.F.; Ross, M.A.; Dilday, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    In a demonstration program, Department of Energy (DOE) solid mixed wastes generated during uranium processing operations are characterized to define the unit operations required for treatment. The objectives included the implementation of these treatment operations utilizing a commercial Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF). In contracting for commercial hazardous and mixed waste treatment, it is important to characterize the waste beyond the identification of toxicity characteristic (TC) and radiological content. Performing treatability studies and verification of all the unit operations required for treatment is critical. The stream selected for this program was TC hazardous for barium (D005) and contaminated with both depleted and low enriched uranium. The program resulted in the generation of characterization data and treatment strategies. The characterization and treatability studies indicated that although a common unit operation was required to remove the toxic characteristic, multiple pretreatment operations were needed. Many of these operations do not exist at available TSDF's, rendering some portions of the stream untreatable using existing commercial TSDF's. For this project the need for pretreatment operations resulted in only a portion of the waste originally targeted for treatment being accepted for treatment at a commercial TSDF. The majority of the targeted stream could not be successfully treated due to lack of an off-site commercial treatment facility having the available equipment and capacity or with the correct combination of RCRA permits and radioactive material handling licenses. This paper presents a case study documenting the results of the project

  13. Computer modeling of jet mixing in INEL waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of using submerged jet mixing pumps to mobilize and suspend settled sludge materials in INEL High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks. Scenarios include removing the heel (a shallow liquid and sludge layer remaining after tank emptying processes) and mobilizing and suspending solids in full or partially full tanks. The approach used was to (1) briefly review jet mixing theory, (2) review erosion literature in order to identify and estimate important sludge characterization parameters (3) perform computer modeling of submerged liquid mixing jets in INEL tank geometries, (4) develop analytical models from which pump operating conditions and mixing times can be estimated, and (5) analyze model results to determine overall feasibility of using jet mixing pumps and make design recommendations

  14. Mixed waste management in Washington and the Northwest Compact Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The state of Washington's concerns about the management of mixed waste have evolved over the past year. One concern that receives increasing attention is the Northwest Compact Region's need to plan for disposal of its own mixed waste. An informal survey of the region's potential mixed waste generators has indicated that mixed waste volumes are low. However, the opening of a disposal facility may result in increased waste volumes. A preliminary proposal for such a facility has been reviewed by the federal and state agencies that dually regulate mixed waste. Initial conclusions reached by the regulators are presented

  15. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Conroy, M.; Blalock, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals

  16. Vitrification development plan for US Department of Energy mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.; Lucerna, J.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    This document is a general plan for conducting vitrification development for application to mixed wastes owned by the US Department of Energy. The emphasis is a description and discussion of the data needs to proceed through various stages of development. These stages are (1) screening at a waste site to determine which streams should be vitrified, (2) waste characterization and analysis, (3) waste form development and treatability studies, (4) process engineering development, (5) flowsheet and technical specifications for treatment processes, and (6) integrated pilot-scale demonstration. Appendices provide sample test plans for various stages of the vitrification development process. This plan is directed at thermal treatments which produce waste glass. However, the study is still applicable to the broader realm of thermal treatment since it deals with issues such as off-gas characterization and waste characterization that are not necessarily specific to vitrification. The purpose is to provide those exploring or considering vitrification with information concerning the kinds of data that are needed, the way the data are obtained, and the way the data are used. This will provide guidance to those who need to prioritize data needs to fit schedules and budgets. Knowledge of data needs also permits managers and planners to estimate resource requirements for vitrification development

  17. Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described

  18. Recommendations for continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable quantities of incinerable mixed waste are being stored in and generated by the DOE complex. Mixed waste is defined as containing a hazardous component and a radioactive component. At the present time, there is only one incinerator in the complex which has the proper TSCA and RCRA permits to handle mixed waste. This report describes monitoring techniques needed for the incinerator

  19. Hanford Central Waste Complex: Radioactive mixed waste storage facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Site is owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland. The Hanford Site manages and produces dangerous waste and mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components). The dangerous waste is regulated in accordance with the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. The radioactive component of mixed waste is interpreted by the US Department of Energy to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous component of mixed waste is interpreted to be regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Washington Administrative Code 173--303. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland and serves as co-operator of the Hanford Central Waste Complex. The Hanford Central Waste Complex is an existing and planned series of treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that will centralize the management of solid waste operations at a single location on the Hanford facility. The Hanford Central Waste Complex units include the Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility, the unit addressed by this permit application, and the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility is covered in a separate permit application submittal

  20. Strategy for managing mixed waste at a plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fentiman, A.

    1991-01-01

    No waste disposal site is currently accepting mixed waste, but facilities across the country continue to generate it. The waste manager at each site is faced with two problems: how to manage the mixed waste already on-site and how to minimize the amount of new waste generated. A strategy has been developed to address each problem. A key element of the strategy is a building-by-building survey of the site. The survey provides information on how and where mixed waste is generated and stored. This paper describes a method for planning and conducting a site-wide mixed-waste survey. It then outlines approaches to managing existing mixed waste and to minimizing mixed-waste generation using information from the survey

  1. Chemical health risk assessment for hazardous and mixed waste management units at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The waste characterization for each treatment unit or process is based on treatment records from LLNL's computerized Hazardous Waste Management Inventory System (HWMIS). In 1990, these data were compiled into a single database comprising both hazardous waste and mixed waste data. Even though these data originate from the same source used in the previous HRA, the database was modified to set quantities and concentrations to a consistent set of units. This allowed an analysis of waste types by Hazardous Waste Management unit that was more accurate and did not rely upon many of the conservative assumptions used in the Phase II HRA waste characterization. Finally, the current waste characterizations are considered more representative of potential long-term wastes because they were developed by combining all wastes that could be treated in each unit, as opposed to the wastes treated only during 1988 to 1989. This final step more appropriately accounts for the variability in waste types likely to be seen by the Hazardous Waste Management Division. The quantities of each waste listed in the characterization tables represent the sum of all chemical quantities belonging to hazardous and mixed waste types potentially handled by each area

  2. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  3. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner

  4. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility

  5. Waste-Mixes Study for space disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, R.F.; Blair, H.T.; McKee, R.W.; Silviera, D.J.; Swanson, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Wastes Mixes Study is a component of Cy-1981 and 1982 research activities to determine if space disposal could be a feasible complement to geologic disposal for certain high-level (HLW) and transuranic wastes (TRU). The objectives of the study are: to determine if removal of radionuclides from HLW and TRU significantly reduces the long-term radiological risks of geologic disposal; to determine if chemical partitioning of the waste for space disposal is technically feasible; to identify acceptable waste forms for space disposal; and to compare improvements in geologic disposal system performance to impacts of additional treatment, storage, and transportation necessary for space disposal. To compare radiological effects, five system alternatives are defined: Reference case - All HLW and TRU to a repository. Alternative A - Iodine to space, the balance to a repository. Alternative B - Technetium to space, the balance to a repository. Alternative C - 95% of cesium and strontium to a repository; the balance of HLW aged first, then to space; plutonium separated from TRU for recycle; the balance of the TRU to a repository. Alternative D - HLW aged first, then to space, plutonium separated from TRU for recycle; the balance of the TRU to a repository. The conclusions of this study are: the incentive for space disposal is that it offers a perception of reduced risks rather than significant reduction. Suitable waste forms for space disposal are cermet for HLW, metallic technetium, and lead iodide. Space disposal of HLW appears to offer insignificant safety enhancements when compared to geologic disposal; the disposal of iodine and technetium wastes in space does not offer risk advantages. Increases in short-term doses for the alternatives are minimal; however, incremental costs of treating, storing and transporting wastes for space disposal are substantial

  6. Treatment of mixed wastes by thermal plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz A, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    The present study has as purpose to apply the technology of thermal plasma in the destruction of certain type of waste generated in the ININ. As first instance, origin, classification and disposition of the radioactive waste generated in the ININ is identified. Once identified the waste, the waste to treat is determined based on: the easiness of treating him with plasma, classification and importance. Later on, a substance or compound settles down (sample model) that serves as indicative of the waste for its physical-chemical characteristics, this is made because in the Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory is not had the license to work with radioactive material. The sample model and the material to form the vitreous matrix are characterized before and after the treatment in order to evaluating their degradation and vitrification. During the treatment by means of the thermal plasma, the appropriate conditions are determined for the degradation and vitrification of the waste. Also, it is carried out an energy balance in the system to know the capacity to fuse the material depending the transfer of existent heat between the plasma and the material to treat. Obtaining favorable results, it thought about to climb in the project and by this way to help to solve one of the environmental problems in Mexico, as they are it the mixed wastes. (Author)

  7. Mixed waste and waste minimization: The effect of regulations and waste minimization on the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagan, E.B.; Selby, K.B.

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Site is located in the State of Washington and is subject to state and federal environmental regulations that hamper waste minimization efforts. This paper addresses the negative effect of these regulations on waste minimization and mixed waste issues related to the Hanford Site. Also, issues are addressed concerning the regulations becoming more lenient. In addition to field operations, the Hanford Site is home to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory which has many ongoing waste minimization activities of particular interest to laboratories

  8. Mixed Waste Focus Area: Department of Energy complex needs report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new approach in August of 1993 to environmental research and technology development. A key feature of this new approach included establishment of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to identify, develop, and implement needed technologies such that the major environmental management problems related to meeting DOE's commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can be addressed, while cost-effectively expending the funding resources. To define the deficiencies or needs of the EM customers, the MWFA analyzed Proposed Site Treatment Plans (PSTPs), as well as other applicable documents, and conducted site visits throughout the summer of 1995. Representatives from the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) at each site visited were requested to consult with the Focus Area to collaboratively define their technology needs. This report documents the needs, deficiencies, technology gaps, and opportunities for expedited treatment activities that were identified during the site visit process. The defined deficiencies and needs are categorized by waste type, namely Wastewaters, Combustible Organics, Sludges/Soils, Debris/Solids, and Unique Wastes, and will be prioritized based on the relative affect the deficiency has on the DOE Complex

  9. Alternative oxidation technologies for organic mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Fewell, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and steam reforming, a commercial process being supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented

  10. Remediating the INEL's buried mixed waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhns, D.J.; Matthern, G.E.; Reese, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), formerly the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS), encompasses 890 square miles and is located in southeast Idaho. In 1949, the United States Atomic Energy Commission, now the Department of Energy (DOE), established the NRTS as a site for the building and testing of nuclear facilities. Wastes generated during the building and testing of these nuclear facilities were disposed within the boundaries of the site. These mixed wastes, containing radionuclides and hazardous materials, were often stored in underground tanks for future disposal. The INEL has 11 buried mixed waste storage tanks regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) ranging in size from 400 to 50,000 gallons. These tanks are constructed of either stainless or carbon steel and are located at 3 distinct geographic locations across the INEL. These tanks have been grouped based on their similarities in an effort to save money and decrease the time required to complete the necessary remediation. Environmental Restoration and Technology Development personnel are teaming in an effort to address the remediation problem systematically

  11. Characterization optimization for the National TRU waste system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basabilvazo, George T.; Countiss, S.; Moody, D.C.; Jennings, S.G.; Lott, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    On March 26, 1999, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) received its first shipment of transuranic (TRU) waste. On November 26, 1999, the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) to receive mixed TRU waste at WIPP became effective. Having achieved these two milestones, facilitating and supporting the characterization, transportation, and disposal of TRU waste became the major challenges for the National TRU Waste Program. Significant challenges still remain in the scientific, engineering, regulatory, and political areas that need to be addressed. The National TRU Waste System Optimization Project has been established to identify, develop, and implement cost-effective system optimization strategies that address those significant challenges. Fundamental to these challenges is the balancing and prioritization of potential regulatory changes with potential technological solutions. This paper describes some of the efforts to optimize (to make as functional as possible) characterization activities for TRU waste.

  12. Automated system for handling tritiated mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM-developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. Initially, this system will be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous-phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this development program, provides background related to LLNL's robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  13. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

  14. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D.

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ''Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?'' That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation's mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation's mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ''Which mixed waste has no treatment option?'' Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology

  15. Bioprocessing of concentrated mixed hazardous industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Silver, G.; Attalla, A.; Prisc, M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of selected microorganisms for the degradation and/or the detoxification of hazardous organic compounds is gaining wide acceptance as an alternative waste treatment technology. This work describes the unique capabilities of an isolated strain of Pseudomonas for metabolizing methylated aromatic compounds. This strain of Pseudomonas putida Idaho is unique in that it can tolerate and grow under a layer of neat p-xylene. A bioprocess has been developed to degrade LLW and mixed wastes containing methylated aromatic compounds, i.e., pseudocumene, toluene and p-xylene. The process is now in the demonstration phase at a DOE facility and has been running for one year. Feed concentrations of 21200 ppm of the toxic organic substrate have been fed to the bioreactor. This report describes the results obtained thus far

  16. DOE acceptance of commercial mixed waste -- Studies are under way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Technical Support Program; Owens, C.M. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    1993-03-01

    The topic of the Department of Energy acceptance of commercial mixed waste at DOE facilities has been proposed by host States and compact regions that are developing low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. States support the idea of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste because (a) very little commercial mixed waste is generated compared to generation by DOE facilities (Department of Energy--26,300 cubic meters annually vs. commercial--3400 cubic meters annually); (b) estimated costs for commercial disposal are estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubic foot; (c) once treatment capability becomes available, 70% of the current levels of commercial mixed waste will be eliminated, (d) some State laws prohibit the development of mixed waste disposal facilities in their States; (e) DOE is developing a nationwide strategy that will include treatment and disposal capacity for its own mixed waste and the incremental burden on the DOE facilities would be minuscule, and (6) no States are developing mixed waste disposal facilities. DOE senior management has repeatedly expressed willingness to consider investigating the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste. In January 1991, Leo Duffy of the Department of energy met with members of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum, which led to an agreement to explore such an arrangement. He stated that this seems like a cost-effective way to solve commercial mixed waste management problems.

  17. General procedure to characterize hazardous waste contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, A.; Svoboda, K.; Necasova, M.

    2002-04-01

    The report is structured as follows: Overview of current status of characterization of hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides (HWCTR) in the Czech Republic (Legislative aspects; Categorization of HWCwR; Overview of HWCwR emerging from workplaces handling ionizing radiation sources; Mixed waste management in the Czech Republic); General procedure to characterized wastes of the HWCwR type (Information needed from the waste producer; Waste analysis plan - description of waste treatment facilities, verification of wastes, selection of waste parameters followed, selection of sampling method, selection of test methods, selection of frequency of analyses; Radiation protection plan; Non-destructive methods of verification of waste - radiography/tomography, dosimetric inspection, measuring instrumentation, methods usable for the determination of volume and surface activities of materials; Non-destructive invasive methods - internal pressure measurement and gas analysis, endoscopic examination, visual inspection; Destructive methods - sampling, current equipment at Nuclear Research Institute Rez; Identification of hazardous components in waste - chemical screening of mixed wastes; Assessment of immobilization waste matrices; Assessment of packaging; Safety analyses; QA and QC). (P.A.)

  18. Mixed waste removal from a hazardous waste storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geber, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel transfer canal at the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor was found to be leaking 400 gallons of water per day into the surrounding soil. Sampling of the sediment layer on the floor of the canal to determine the environmental impact of the leak identified significant radiological contamination and elevated levels of cadmium and lead which are hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under RCRA regulations and Rules of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, the canal was considered a hazardous waste storage tank. This paper describes elements of the radiological control program established in support of a fast-track RCRA closure plan that involved underwater mapping of the radiation fields, vacuuming, and ultra-filtration techniques that were successfully used to remove the mixed waste sediments and close the canal in a method compliant with state and federal regulations

  19. The 1996 meeting of the national technical workgroup on mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Technical Workgroup on Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment held its annual meeting in Atlanta Georgia on March 12-14, 1996. The National Technical Workgroup (NTW) and this meeting were sponsored under an interagency agreement between EPA and DOE. The 1996 Annual Meeting was hosted by US DOE Oak Ridge Operations in conjunction with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems - Center for Waste Management. A new feature of the annual meeting was the Permit Writer Panel Session which provided an opportunity for the state and federal permit writers to discuss issues and potential solutions to permitting mixed waste treatment systems. In addition, there was substantial discussion on the impacts of the Waste Combustion Performance Standards on mixed waste thermal treatment which are expected to proposed very soon. The 1996 meeting also focussed on two draft technical resource documents produced by NTW on Waste Analysis Plans and Compliance Test Procedures. Issues discussed included public involvement, waste characterization, and emission issues

  20. 1998 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-01H. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility. The US Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors on the Hanford Facility were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid mixed waste. This waste is regulated under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of l976 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers only mixed waste. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into the Tri-Party Agreement to bring the Hanford Facility operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for mixed waste. This report is the eighth update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide the following information: (1) Waste Characterization Information -- Provides information about characterizing each LDR mixed waste stream. The sampling and analysis methods and protocols, past characterization results, and, where available, a schedule for providing the characterization information are discussed. (2) Storage Data -- Identifies and describes the mixed waste on the Hanford Facility. Storage data include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 dangerous waste codes, generator process knowledge needed to identify the waste and to make LDR determinations, quantities

  1. 1998 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1998-04-10

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-01H. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility. The US Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors on the Hanford Facility were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid mixed waste. This waste is regulated under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of l976 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers only mixed waste. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into the Tri-Party Agreement to bring the Hanford Facility operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for mixed waste. This report is the eighth update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide the following information: (1) Waste Characterization Information -- Provides information about characterizing each LDR mixed waste stream. The sampling and analysis methods and protocols, past characterization results, and, where available, a schedule for providing the characterization information are discussed. (2) Storage Data -- Identifies and describes the mixed waste on the Hanford Facility. Storage data include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 dangerous waste codes, generator process knowledge needed to identify the waste and to make LDR determinations, quantities

  2. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies

  3. Summary of BNL studies regarding commercial mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1986-09-01

    Based on BNL's study it was concluded that there are low-level radioactive wastes (LLWs) which contain chemically hazardous components. Scintillation liquids may be considered an EPA listed hazardous waste and are, therefore, potential mixed wastes. Since November 1985, no operating LLW disposal site will accept these wastes for disposal. Unless such wastes contain de minimis quantities of radionuclides, they cannot be disposed of at an EPA permitted site. Currently generators of liquid scintillation wastes can ship de minimis wastes to be burned at commercial facilities. Oil wastes may also eventually be an EPA listed waste and thus will have to be considered a potential radioactive mixed waste unless NRC establishes de minimis levels of radionuclides below which oils can be managed as hazardous wastes. Regarding wastes containing lead metal there is some question as to the extent of the hazard posed by lead disposed in a LLW burial trench. Chromium-containing wastes would have to be tested to determine whether they are potential mixed wastes. There may be other wastes that are mixed wastes; the responsibility for determining this rests with the waste generator. While management options for handling potential mixed wastes are available, there is limited regulatory guidance for generators. BNL has identified and evaluated a variety of treatment options for the management of potential radioactive mixed wastes. The findings of that study showed that application of a management option with the purpose of addressing EPA concerns can, at the same time, address stabilization and volume reduction concerns of NRC. 6 refs., 1 tab

  4. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  5. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.; Mayberry, J.; Frazier, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well

  6. WIPP Waste Characterization: Implementing Regulatory Requirements in the Real World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper Wayman, J.D.; Goldstein, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    It is imperative to ensure compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) with applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. In particular, compliance with the waste characterization requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its implementing regulation found at 40 CFR Parts 262,264 and 265 for hazardous and mixed wastes, as well as those of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, as amended, and their implementing regulations found at 40 CFR Parts 191 and 194 for non-mixed radioactive wastes, are often difficult to ensure at the operational level. For example, where a regulation may limit a waste to a certain concentration, this concentration may be difficult to measure. For example, does the definition of transuranic waste (TRU) as 100 nCi/grain of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste mean that the radioassay of a waste must show a reading of 100 plus the sampling and measurement error for the waste to be a TRU waste? Although the use of acceptable knowledge to characterize waste is authorized by statute, regulation and DOE Orders, its implementation is similarly beset with difficulty. When is a document or documents sufficient to constitute acceptable knowledge? What standard can be used to determine if knowledge is acceptable for waste characterization purposes? The inherent conflict between waste characterization regulatory requirements and their implementation in the real world, and the resolution of this conflict, will be discussed

  7. Task 1.6 - mixed waste. Topical report, April 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    For fifty years, the United States was involved in a nuclear arms race of immense proportions. During the majority of this period, the push was always to design new weapons, produce more weapons, and increase the size of the arsenal, maintaining an advantage over the opposition in order to protect U.S. interests. Now that the {open_quotes}Cold War{close_quotes} is over, we are faced with the imposing tasks of dismantling, cleaning up, and remediating the wide variety of problems created by this arms race. An overview of the current status of the total remediation effort within the DOE is presented in the DOE publication {open_quotes}ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 1995{close_quotes} (EM 1995). Not all radioactive waste is the same though; therefore, a system was devised to categorize the different types of radioactive waste. These categories are as follows: spent fuel; high-level waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; mixed waste; and uranium-mill tailings. Mixed waste is defined to be material contaminated with any of these categories of radioactive material plus an organic or heavy metal component. However, for this discussion, {open_quotes}mixed waste{close_quote} will pertain only to low-level mixed waste which consists of low-level radioactive waste mixed with organic solvents and or heavy metals. The area of {open_quotes}mixed-waste characterization, treatment, and disposal{close_quotes} is listed on page 6 of the EM 1995 publication as one of five focus areas for technological development, and while no more important than the others, it has become an area of critical concern for DOE. Lacking adequate technologies for treatment and disposal, the DOE stockpiled large quantities of mixed waste during the 1970s and 1980s. Legislative changes and the need for regulatory compliance have now made it expedient to develop methods of achieving final disposition for this stockpiled mixed waste.

  8. Mixed waste disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Kendall, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a law suit brought against DOE resulted in the requirement that DOE be subject to regulation by the state and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for all hazardous wastes, including mixed wastes. Therefore, all DOE facilities generating, storing, treating, or disposing of mixed wastes will be regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCTA). In FY 1985, DOE Headquarters requested DOE low-level waste (LLW) sites to apply for a RCRA Part B Permit to operate radioactive mixed waste facilities. An application for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was prepared and submitted to the EPA, Region IX in November 1985 for review and approval. At that time, the state of Nevada had not yet received authorization for hazardous wastes nor had they applied for regulatory authority for mixed wastes. In October 1986, DOE Nevada Operations Office was informed by the Rocky Flats Plant that some past waste shipments to NTS contained trace quantities of hazardous substances. Under Colorado law, these wastes are defined as mixed. A DOE Headquarters task force was convened by the Under Secretary to investigate the situation. The task force concluded that DOE has a high priority need to develop a permitted mixed waste site and that DOE Nevada Operations Office should develop a fast track project to obtain this site and all necessary permits. The status and issues to be resolved on the permit for a mixed waste site are discussed

  9. Prospects for vitrification of mixed wastes at ANL-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazer, J.; No, Hyo.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes a study evaluating the prospects for vitrification of some of the mixed wastes at ANL-E. This project can be justified on the following basis: Some of ANL-E's mixed waste streams will be stabilized such that they can be treated as a low-level radioactive waste. The expected volume reduction that results during vitrification will significantly reduce the overall waste volume requiring disposal. Mixed-waste disposal options currently used by ANL-E may not be permissible in the near future without treatment technologies such as vitrification

  10. Mixed and chelated waste test programs with bitumen solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, S.I.; Morris, M.; Vidal, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of bitumen solidification tests on mixed wastes and chelated wastes. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) performed demonstration tests on radioactive wastes contaminated with chelating agents for Associated Technologies, Inc. (ATI). The chelated wastes were produced and concentrated by Commonwealth Edison Co. as a result of reactor decontamination at Dresden Nuclear Station, Unit 1. Law Engineering in Charlotte, N. C. produced samples and performed tests on simulated heavy metal laden radioactive waste (mixed) to demonstrate the quality of the bituminous product. The simulation is intended to represent waste produced at Oak Ridge National Labs operated by Martin-Marietta

  11. Overcoming mixed waste management obstacles - A company wide approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    The dual regulation of mixed waste by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency has significantly complicated the treatment, storage and disposal of this waste. Because of the limited treatment and disposal options available, facilities generating mixed waste are also being forced to acquire storage permits to meet requirements associated with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Due to the burdens imposed by the regulatory climate, Entergy Operations has undertaken a proactive approach to managing its mixed waste. Their approach is company wide and simplistic in nature. Utilizing the peer groups to develop strategies and a company wide procedure for guidance on mixed waste activities, they have focused on areas where they have the most control and can achieve the greatest benefits from their efforts. A key aspect of the program includes training and employee awareness regarding mixed waste minimization practices. In addition, Entergy Operations is optimizing the implementation of regulatory provisions that facilitate more flexible management practices for mixed waste. This presentation focuses on the team approach to developing mixed waste managements programs and the utilization of innovative thinking and planning to minimize the regulatory burdens. It will also describe management practices and philosophies that have provided more flexibility in implementing a safe and effective company wide mixed waste management program

  12. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated.

  13. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated

  14. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission

  15. Radioactive and mixed waste management plan for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Plan for the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is written to meet the requirements for an annual report of radioactive and mixed waste management activities outlined in DOE Order 5820.2A. Radioactive and mixed waste management activities during FY 1994 listed here include principal regulatory and environmental issues and the degree to which planned activities were accomplished

  16. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Z.

    1993-04-01

    The Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) process was studied for destroying low-level combustible mixed wastes at Rocky Flats Plant. Tests were performed with non-radioactive surrogate materials: Trimsol for contaminated cutting oils, and reagent-grade cellulose for contaminated cellulosic wastes. Extensive testing was carried out on Trimsol in both small laboratory-scale apparatus and on a large-scale system incorporating an industrial-size electrochemical cell. Preliminary tests were also carried out in the small-scale system with cellulose. Operating and system parameters that were studied were: use of a silver-nitric acid versus a cobalt-sulfuric acid system, effect of electrolyte temperature, effect of acid concentration, and effect of current density. Destruction and coulombic efficiencies were calculated using data obtained from continuous carbon dioxide monitors and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis of electrolyte samples. For Trimsol, the best performance was achieved with the silver-nitrate system at high acid concentrations, temperatures, and current densities. Destruction efficiencies of 99% or greater, and coulombic efficiencies up to 70% were obtained. For the cellulose, high destruction efficiencies and reasonable coulombic efficiencies were obtained for both silver-nitrate and cobalt-sulfate systems

  17. Characterization of low and medium active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1993-01-01

    For several years now, research on raw or packaged waste characterization has been carried out in France. Qualitative or quantitative analysis are given of radionuclides present in already packaged waste (including badly packaged waste) or in unpackaged waste; as far as possible, evaluation of the main physico-mechanical and confinement characteristics

  18. Systems engineering identification and control of mixed waste technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop technologies required to meet the Department's commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. Waste treatment includes all necessary steps from generation through disposal. Systems engineering was employed to reduce programmatic risk, that is, risk of failure to meet technical commitments within cost and schedule. Customer needs (technology deficiencies) are identified from Site Treatment Plans, Consent Orders, ten year plans, Site Technical Coordinating Groups, Stakeholders, and Site Visits. The Technical Baseline, a prioritized list of technology deficiencies, forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. Technology Development Requirements Documents are prepared for each technology selected for development. After technologies have been successfully developed and demonstrated, they are documented in a Technology Performance Report. The Technology Performance Reports are available to any of the customers or potential users of the technology, thus closing the loop between problem identification and product development. This systematic approach to technology development and its effectiveness after 3 years is discussed in this paper

  19. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), which represents a national effort to develop and coordinate treatment solutions for mixed waste among all DOE facilities. The hazardous waste component of mixed waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), while the radioactive component is regulated under the Atomic Energy Act, as implemented by the DOE, making mixed waste one of the most complex types of waste for the DOE to manage. The MWFA has the mission to support technologies that meet the needs of the DOE`s waste management efforts to characterize, treat, and dispose of mixed waste being generated and stored throughout the DOE complex. The technologies to be supported must meet all regulatory requirements, provide cost and risk improvements over available technologies, and be acceptable to the public. The most notable features of the DOE`s mixed-waste streams are the wide diversity of waste matrices, volumes, radioactivity levels, and RCRA-regulated hazardous contaminants. Table 1-1 is constructed from data from the proposed site treatment plans developed by each DOE site and submitted to DOE Headquarters. The table shows the number of mixed-waste streams and their corresponding volumes. This table illustrates that the DOE has a relatively small number of large-volume mixed-waste streams and a large number of small-volume mixed-waste streams. There are 1,033 mixed-waste streams with volumes less than 1 cubic meter; 1,112 mixed-waste streams with volumes between 1 and 1,000 cubic meters; and only 61 mixed-waste streams with volumes exceeding 1,000 cubic meters.

  20. Hazardous and mixed waste management at UMTRA sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampill, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    During the early stages of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, there were some serious questions regarding the ownership of and consequently the responsibility for disposal of hazardous wastes at UMTRA sites. In addition to State and Indian Tribe waste disposal regulations, UMTRA must also conform to guidelines established by the NRC, OSHA, EPA, and DOT. Because of the differing regulatory thrusts of these agencies, UMTRA has to be vigilant in order to ensure that the disposal of each parcel of waste material is in compliance with all regulations. Mixed-waste disposal presents a particularly difficult problem. No single agency is willing to lay claim to the regulation of mixed-wastes, and no conventional waste disposal facility is willing to accept it. Consequently, the disposal of each lot of mixed-waste at UMTRA sites must be handled on a case by case basis. A recently published position paper which spells out UMTRA policy on waste materials indicates that wastes found at UMTRA sites are either residual radioactive wastes, or mixed-wastes, or for the disposal of hazardous waste is determined by the time the original material arrived. If it arrived prior to the termination of the AEC uranium supply contract, its disposal is the responsibility of UMTRA. If it arrived after the end of the contract, the responsibility for disposal lies with the former operator

  1. A Martingale Characterization of Mixed Poisson Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    03LA A 11. TITLE (Inciuae Security Clanafication, ",A martingale characterization of mixed Poisson processes " ________________ 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR... POISSON PROCESSES Jostification .......... . ... . . Di.;t ib,,jtion by Availability Codes Dietmar Pfeifer* Technical University Aachen Dist Special and...Mixed Poisson processes play an important role in many branches of applied probability, for instance in insurance mathematics and physics (see Albrecht

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of mixed ascorbic acid - nicotinamide metal complexes. ... The result of the antimicrobial studies showed that the mixed complexes have higher inhibitory activity than the original ligands against the tested bacteria and fungi species. KEY WORDS: Ascorbic acid, ...

  3. Mixed waste study, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This document addresses the generation and storage of mixed waste at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from 1984 to 1990. Additionally, an estimate of remaining storage capacity based on the current inventory of low-level mixed waste and an approximation of current generation rates is provided. Section 2 of this study presents a narrative description of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE) requirements as they apply to mixed waste in storage at LLNL's Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. Based on information collected from the HWM non-TRU radioactive waste database, Section 3 presents a data consolidation -- by year of storage, location, LLNL generator, EPA code, and DHS code -- of the quantities of low-level mixed waste in storage. Related figures provide the distribution of mixed waste according to each of these variables. A historical review follows in Section 4. The trends in type and quantity of mixed waste managed by HWM during the past five years are delineated and graphically illustrated. Section 5 provides an estimate of remaining low-level mixed waste storage capacity at HWM. The estimate of remaining mixed waste storage capacity is based on operational storage capacity of HWM facilities and the volume of all waste currently in storage. An estimate of the time remaining to reach maximum storage capacity is based on waste generation rates inferred from the HWM database and recent HWM documents. 14 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Characterization of wastes and their recycling potentials; A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Key words: Solid waste, waste characterization, recycling potentials, waste scavengers. ABSTRACT: Wastes ... Waste management is the collection, transportation, processing ... wastes generated by household, commercial activities or other ...

  5. Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work

  6. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  7. Evaluation of Secondary Streams in Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, Fred F.; Goldsmith, William A.; Allen, Douglas F.; Mezga, Lance J.

    1995-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have generated waste containing radioactive and hazardous chemical components (mixed wastes) for over 50 years. Facilities and processes generating these wastes as well as the regulations governing their management have changed. Now, DOE has 49 sites where mixed waste streams exist. The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (1) required DOE to prepare and obtain regulatory approval of plans for treating these mixed waste streams. Each of the involved DOE sites submitted its respective plan to regulators in April 1995 (2). Most of the individual plans were approved by the respective regulatory agencies in October 1995. The implementation of these plans has begun accordance with compliance instruments (orders) issued by the cognizant regulatory authority. Most of these orders include milestones that are fixed, firm and enforceable as defined in each compliance order. In many cases, mixed waste treatment that was already being carried out and survived the alternative selection process is being used now to treat selected mixed waste streams. For other waste streams at sites throughout the DOE complex treatment methods and schedules are subject to negotiation as the realties of ever decreasing budgets begin to drive the available options. Secondary wastes generated by individual waste treatment systems are also mixed wastes that require treatment in the appropriate treatment system. These secondary wastes may be solid or liquid waste (or both). For example debris washing will generate wastewater requiring treatment; wastewater treatment, in turn, will generate sludge or other residuals requiring treatment; liquid effluents must meet applicable limits of discharge permits. At large DOE sites, secondary waste streams will be a major influence in optimizing design for primary treatment. Understanding these impacts is important not only foe system design, but also for assurances that radiation releases and

  8. Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given

  9. Hybrid Microwave Treatment of SRS TRU and Mixed Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    A new process, using hybrid microwave energy, has been developed as part of the Strategic Research and Development program and successfully applied to treatment of a wide variety of non-radioactive materials, representative of SRS transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. Over 35 simulated (non-radioactive) TRU and mixed waste materials were processed individually, as well as in mixed batches, using hybrid microwave energy, a new technology now being patented by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC)

  10. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies

  11. Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    As part of its overall program, the MWFA uses a national mixed waste data set to develop approaches for treating mixed waste that cannot be treated using existing capabilities at DOE or commercial facilities. The current data set was originally compiled under the auspices of the 1995 Mixed Waste Inventory Report. The data set has been updated over the past two years based on Site Treatment Plan revisions and clarifications provided by individual sites. The current data set is maintained by the MWFA staff and is known as MWFA97. In 1996, the MWFA developed waste groupings, process flow diagrams, and treatment train diagrams to systematically model the treatment of all mixed waste in the DOE complex. The purpose of the modeling process was to identify treatment gaps and corresponding technology development needs for the DOE complex. Each diagram provides the general steps needed to treat a specific type of waste. The NWFA categorized each MWFA97 waste stream by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. Appendices B through F provide the complete listing of waste streams by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. The MWFA97 waste strewn information provided in the appendices is defined in Table A-1

  12. Wastes characterization using APSTNG technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, E.A.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons from d-t reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra from resulting neutron reactions inside the inspected volume identify fissionable materials and many nuclides. Flight times from detection times of the gamma rays and alpha particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and can yield coarse tomographic images from a single orientation. The high-energy neutrons and gamma rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. The gamma-ray detector and neutron generator can be on the same side of the interrogated objects, so walls and other confined areas can be inspected as well as sealed containers. No collimators or radiation shielding are needed. The neutron generator is simple and small. Commercial electronics are used. A complete system could be transported in a van. Laboratory and limited field tests indicate APSTNG could be useful in analyzing radioactive waste in drums, walls, soils, and processing systems, particularly for unknown or heterogeneous configurations that may attenuate radiation. Toxic chemicals could be identified in mixed waste, and the ability to detect pockets of water may address criticality concerns

  13. Polyethylene liners in radioactive mixed waste packages: An engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, G.A.

    1991-05-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office under contract AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document is 1 in a series of 25 reports or actions identified in a Solid Waste Management Event Fact Sheet and critique report (Appendix E) to address the problem of stored, leaking 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste drums. It specifically addresses the adequacy of polyethylene liners used as internal packaging of radioactive mixed waste. This document is to be used by solid waste generators preparing solid waste for storage at Hanford Site facilities. This document is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved with approval and acceptance of radioactive solid waste

  14. EPA/DOE joint efforts on mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.; Nalesnik, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    Under the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is directed to develop treatment plans for their stockpile of wastes generated at their various sites. As a result, DOE is facing the monumental problem associated with the treatment and ultimate disposal of their mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste. Meanwhile, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final open-quotes Hazardous Waste Combustion Strategyclose quotes in November 1994. Under the Combustion Strategy, EPA permit writers have been given the authority to use the Omnibus Provision of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to impose more stringent emission limits for waste combustors prior to the development of new regulations. EPA and DOE established a multi-year Interagency Agreement (IAG) in 1991. The main objective of the IAG (and of the second IAG that was added in 1993) is to conduct a research program on thermal technologies for treating mixed waste and to establish permit procedures for these technologies particularly under the new requirements of the above-mentioned EPA Combustion Strategy. The objective of this Paper is to summarize the results of the EPA/DOE joint efforts on mixed waste treatment since the establishment of the original Interagency Agreement. Specifically, this Paper will discuss six activities that have been underway; namely: (1) National Technical Workgroup (NTW) on Mixed Waste Treatment, (2) State-of-the-Art Assessment of APC (Air Pollution Control) and Monitoring Technologies for the Rocky Flats Fluidized Bed Unit, (3) Initial Study of Permit open-quotes Roadmapclose quotes Development for Mixed Waste Treatment, (4) Risk Assessment Approach for a Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment Facility, (5) Development and Application of Technology Selection Criteria for Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment, and (6) Performance Testing of Mixed Waste Incineration: In-Situ Chlorine Capture in a Fluidized Bed Unit

  15. Bioprocessing of low-level radioactive and mixed hazard wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Biologically-based treatment technologies are currently being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to aid in volume reduction and/or reclassification of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous wastes prior to processing for disposal. The approaches taken to treat low-level radioactive and mixed wastes will reflect the physical (e.g., liquid, solid, slurry) and chemical (inorganic and/or organic) nature of the waste material being processed. Bioprocessing utilizes the diverse metabolic and biochemical characteristics of microorganisms. The application of bioadsorption and bioflocculation to reduce the volume of low-level radioactive waste are strategies comparable to the use of ion-exchange resins and coagulants that are currently used in waste reduction processes. Mixed hazardous waste would require organic as well as radionuclide treatment processes. Biodegradation of organic wastes or bioemulsification could be used in conjunction with radioisotope bioadsorption methods to treat mixed hazardous radioactive wastes. The degradation of the organic constituents of mixed wastes can be considered an alternative to incineration, while the use of bioemulsification may simply be used as a means to separate inorganic and organics to enable reclassification of wastes. The proposed technology base for the biological treatment of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous waste has been established. Biodegradation of a variety of organic compounds that are typically found in mixed hazardous wastes has been demonstrated, degradative pathways determined and the nutritional requirements of the microorganisms are understood. Accumulation, adsorption and concentration of heavy and transition metal species and transuranics by microorganisms is widely recognized. Work at the INEL focuses on the application of demonstrated microbial transformations to process development

  16. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones

  17. Comparison of scientific and engineering approaches to the treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, K.V.; Bowers, J.S.

    1993-12-01

    This paper discusses two approaches to the treatment of mixed waste. (Mixed waste, defined as radioactive waste that is co-contaminated with hazardous waste as defined in the Resource Conservation and Conservation Act, is presently stored throughout the United States awaiting the establishment of treatment capability.)The first approach employs conventional engineering that focuses on low risk technology which has been proven in other industries in similar applications and is adaptable for waste treatment use. The term ''low risk'' means that implementation success is relatively certain, and the major uncertainty is the degree of success. Technologies under consideration include centrifugation, evaporation, microfiltration and stabilization. Process offgases are treated with traditional scrubbers and carbon absorption units.For the scientific approach, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is in the conceptual design phase of a project to demonstrate incinerator alternatives to destroy organic contaminants in radioactive waste streams without the use of incineration. This Mixed Waste Management Facility will use approximately 15000 square feet of an existing facility to demonstrate an integrated waste management system. Robotic and telerobotic systems will be employed for waste segregation, characterization and feed preparation. Waste feeds will be treated using molten salt oxidation, mediated electrochemical oxidation and wet oxidation. Residues, which can be managed as radioactive-only waste, will be immobilized in an organic matrix prior to shipment to an authorized disposal site

  18. Method development for the determination of volatile organic compounds in mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, W.F.; Rogers, Y.C.; Schappert, M.F.; Boland, K.S.; Spall, W.D.; Wilkerson, C.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    While analytical methods exist for the determination of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed organic and inorganic compounds in hazardous materials, equivalent methods suitable for the characterization of radioactively contaminated samples are not at the same level of maturity. The Mixed Waste Methods Development Lab. has been established at Los Alamos National Lab. to address the need for such procedures. This presentation will focus on the efforts that have been directed toward the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in mixed waste matrices. The capabilities of the Mixed Waste Methods Development Lab. will be outlined. Modifications to the containment boxes and analytical instrumentation required for the analyses will be described, as will experimental procedures and system performance benchmarks. Preliminary results from surrogate and real mixed waste matrices will be presented, and future directions for our method development effort will be discussed

  19. Organic analyses of mixed nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Lucke, R.B.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.; Hendren, D.J.; Myers, R.B.

    1987-04-01

    Analytical methods are being developed for the organic analysis of nuclear wastes. Our laboratory analyzed the organic content of three commercial wastes and an organic-rich, complex concentrate waste. The commercial wastes contained a variety of hydrophobic and hydrophilic organics, at concentrations ranging from nanomolar to micromolar. Alkyl phenols, chelating and complexing agents, as well as their degradation products, and carboxylic acids were detected in the commercial wastes. The complex concentrate waste contained chelating and complexing agents, as well as numerous degradation products, at millimolar concentrations. 75.1% of the complex concentrate waste's total organic carbon content has been identified. The presence of chelator fragments in all of the wastes analyzed, occasionally at elevated concentrations, indicates that organic diagenesis, or degradation, in nuclear wastes is both widespread and quite vigorous. 23 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  1. Mixed waste treatment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, M.M.; Hunt, L.F.; Sanow, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) made the decision in 1984 to prohibit the disposal of mixed waste (MW) (combustible waste-toxic metal waste) in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. As a result of this decision and due to there being no EPA-permitted MW treatment/storage/disposal (T/S/D) facilities, the development of waste treatment methods for MW was initiated and a storage facility was established to store these wastes while awaiting development of treatment systems. This report discusses the treatment systems developed and their status. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Advancing towards commonsense regulation of mixed waste: Regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The author previously presented the basis for regulating mixed waste according to the primary hazard (either chemical or radiological) in order to avoid the inefficient practice of open-quotes dual regulationclose quotes of mixed waste. In addition to covering the technical basis, recommendations were made on how to capitalize upon a window of opportunity for implementation of a open-quotes primary hazards approachclose quotes. Some of those recommendations have been pursued and the resulting advances on the regulatory front are exciting. This paper chronicles those pursuits, presents in capsule form the massive amount of data assembled, and summarizes the changing regulatory framework. The data supports the premise that disposal of stabilized mixed waste in a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility is protective of human health and the environment. Based on that premise, proposed regulatory changes, if finalized, will eliminate much of the open-quotes dual regulationclose quotes of mixed waste

  3. FY94 Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Operations Robotics Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) develops technologies to help solve waste management and environmental problems at DOE sites. The OTD includes the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Together these programs will provide technologies for DOE mixed waste cleanup projects. Mixed waste contains both radioactive and hazardous constituents. DOE sites currently store over 240,000 cubic meters of low level mixed waste and cleanup activities will generate several hundred thousand more cubic meters. Federal and state regulations require that this waste must be processed before final disposal. The OTD RTDP Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) team held several robotic demonstrations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during November of 1993. Over 330 representatives from DOE, Government Contractors, industry, and universities attended. The MWO team includes: Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Engineering Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). SRTC is the lead site for MWO and provides the technical coordinator. The primary demonstration objective was to show that robotic technologies can make DOE waste facilities run better, faster, more cost effective, and safer. To meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste drum processing activities: non-destructive drum examination, drum transportation, drum opening, removing waste from a drum, characterize and sort waste items, scarify metal waste, and inspect stored drums. To further meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste box processing activities: swing free crane control, workcell modeling, and torch standoff control

  4. Treatment of mixed radioactive liquid wastes at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.

    1994-01-01

    Aqueous mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is traditionally generated in small volumes with a wide variety of compositions. A cooperative effort at ANL between Waste Management (WM) and the Chemical Technology Division (CMT) was established, to develop, install, and implement a robust treatment operation to handle the majority of such wastes. For this treatment, toxic metals in mixed-waste solutions are precipitated in a semiautomated system using Ca(OH) 2 and, for some metals, Na 2 S additions. This step is followed by filtration to remove the precipitated solids. A filtration skid was built that contains several filter types which can be used, as appropriate, for a variety of suspended solids. When supernatant liquid is separated from the toxic-metal solids by decantation and filtration, it will be a low-level waste (LLW) rather than a mixed waste. After passing a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test, the solids may also be treated as LLW

  5. Mixed Waste Treatment Project: Computer simulations of integrated flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietsche, L.J.

    1993-12-01

    The disposal of mixed waste, that is waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components, is a challenging waste management problem of particular concern to DOE sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for the destruction of hazardous wastes need to be re-evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and in some cases new technologies need to be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) was set up by DOE's Waste Operations Program (EM30) to provide guidance on mixed waste treatment options. One of MWTP's charters is to develop flowsheets for prototype integrated mixed waste treatment facilities which can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modelling. The objective of the flowsheet simulations is to provide mass and energy balances, product compositions, and equipment sizing (leading to cost) information. The modelled flowsheets need to be easily modified to examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams effect the overall integrated process. One such commercially available simulation program is ASPEN PLUS. This report contains details of the Aspen Plus program

  6. Assessment of LANL transuranic mixed waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; McCance, C.H.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present findings from the evaluation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TRU Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria to determine its compliance with applicable DOE requirements. The driving requirements for s TRU Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria are essentially those contained in the ''TRU Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant'' or WIPP WAC (DOE Report WIPP-DOE-069), 40 CFR 261-270, and DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management), specifically Chapter II which is entitled ''Management of Transuranic Waste''. The primary purpose of the LANL WAC is the establishment of those criteria that must be met by generators of TRU mixed waste before such waste can be accepted by the Waste Management Group. An annotated outline of a genetic TRU mixed waste acceptance criteria document was prepared from those requirements contained in the WIPP WAC, 40 CFR 261-270, and 5820.2A, and is based solely upon those requirements

  7. The WIPP RCRA Part B permit application for TRU mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    In August 1993, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a draft permit for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to begin experiments with transuranic (TRU) mixed waste. Subsequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to cancel the on-site test program, opting instead for laboratory testing. The Secretary of the NMED withdrew the draft permit in 1994, ordering the State's Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Bureau to work with the DOE on submittal of a revised permit application. Revision 5 of the WIPP's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application was submitted to the NMED in May 1995, focusing on disposal of 175,600 m 3 of TRU mixed waste over a 25 year span plus ten years for closure. A key portion of the application, the Waste Analysis Plan, shifted from requirements to characterize a relatively small volume of TRU mixed waste for on-site experiments, to describing a complete program that would apply to all DOE TRU waste generating facilities and meet the appropriate RCRA regulations. Waste characterization will be conducted on a waste stream basis, fitting into three broad categories: (1) homogeneous solids, (2) soil/gravel, and (3) debris wastes. Techniques used include radiography, visually examining waste from opened containers, radioassay, headspace gas sampling, physical sampling and analysis of homogeneous wastes, and review of documented acceptable knowledge. Acceptable knowledge of the original organics and metals used, and the operations that generated these waste streams is sufficient in most cases to determine if the waste has toxicity characteristics, hazardous constituents, polychlorinated biphenyls (PBCs), or RCRA regulated metals

  8. Characterization of civil construction waste and its incorporation to mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, G.A.; Andrade, A.C.D.; Souza, J.M.M.; Evangelista, A.C.J.; Almeida, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    As the preservation of the environment is a big concern nowadays, plenty of studies have arisen in order to decrease the production or reuse the waste from human activities. In this context, the civil construction industry comes up, as it is able to incorporate waste to mortar, being a great alternative for the reuse of solid waste. The scope of this work has been the characterization of Construction and Demolishment Waste (RCD) and its incorporation to the mortar aiming at the development of alternative construction materials in the future for the economical reutilization of waste discharged in embankments and landfills so far preserving the environment so far. The experimental studies taken with sample bodies, such as water absorption, resistance to compression, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electronic microscopy, elicits the viability of the partial substitution of cement by RCD mixed waste, taking its different applications into consideration. (author)

  9. Identification of permit and waste acceptance criteria provisions requiring modification for acceptance of commercial mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    In October 1990, representatives of States and compact regions requested that the US Department of Energy (DOE) explore an agreement with host States and compact regions under which DOE would accept commercial mixed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at DOE's own treatment and disposal facilities. A program for DOE management of commercial mixed waste is made potentially more attractive in light of the low commercial mixed waste volumes, high regulatory burdens, public opposition to new disposal sites, and relatively high cost of constructing commercial disposal facilities. Several studies were identified as essential in determining the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste for disposal. The purpose of this report is to identify any current or proposed waste acceptance criteria (WAC) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) provisions that would have to be modified for commercial mixed waste acceptance at specified DOE facilities. Following the introduction, Section 2 of this report (a) provides a background summary of existing and proposed mixed waste disposal facilities at each DOE site, and (b) summarizes the status of any RCRA Part B permit and WAC provisions relating to the disposal of mixed waste, including provisions relating to acceptance of offsite waste. Section 3 provides overall conclusions regarding the current status and permit modifications that must be implemented in order to grant DOE sites authority under their permits to accept commercial mixed waste for disposal. Section 4 contains a list of references

  10. Preliminary plan for treating mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Conner, C.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A.; Nunez, L.; Sedlet, J.; Wygmans, D.G.

    1993-06-01

    A preliminary waste treatment plan was developed for disposing of radioactive inorganic liquid wastes that contain hazardous metals and/or hazardous acid concentrations at Argonne National Laboratory. This plan, which involves neutralization and sulfide precipitation followed by filtration, reduces the concentration of hazardous metals and the acidity so that the filtrate liquid is simply a low-level radioactive waste that can be fed to a low-level waste evaporator

  11. Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucette, A.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Lucerna, J.J.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant, including nitrate salts, sludges, and secondary wastes such as ash. Treatability studies conducted on actual salt waste demonstrated that the process is capable of producing waste forms that comply with all applicable regulatory criteria, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Tests have also been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of macroencapsulating certain debris wastes in polymers. Several methods and plastics have been tested for macroencapsulation, including post-consumer recycle and regrind polyethylene

  12. Sulfur polymer cement stabilization of elemental mercury mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melamed, D.; Fuhrmann, M.; Kalb, P.; Patel, B.

    1998-04-01

    Elemental mercury, contaminated with radionuclides, is a problem throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report describes the development and testing of a process to immobilize elemental mercury, contaminated with radionuclides, in a form that is non-dispersible, will meet EPA leaching criteria, and has low mercury vapor pressure. In this stabilization and solidification process (patent pending) elemental mercury is mixed with an excess of powdered sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and additives in a vessel and heated to ∼35 C, for several hours, until all of the mercury is converted into mercuric sulfide (HgS). Additional SPC is then added and the mixture raised to 135 C, resulting in a homogeneous molten liquid which is poured into a suitable mold where is cools and solidifies. The final stabilized and solidified waste forms were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, as well as tested for leaching behavior and mercury vapor pressure. During this study the authors have processed the entire inventory of mixed mercury waste stored at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

  13. Recycling of mixed wastes using Quantum-CEP{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameski, B.

    1997-02-01

    The author describes the process that M4 Environmental Management, Inc., is commercializing for the treatment of mixed wastes. He summarizes the types of wastes which the process can be applied to, the products which come out of the process, and examples of various waste streams which have been processed. The process is presently licensed to treat mixed wastes and the company has in place contracts for such services. The process uses a molten metal bath to catalyze reactions which break the incoming products down to an atomic level, and allow different process steams to be tapped at the output end.

  14. Waste Quantity, Mix and Throughput Study Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovadia E, Lev

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the impact that waste stream parameters have on repository design, including surface, subsurface and waste package designs. Two design basis waste streams and corresponding design levels are established for two documented inventories of wastes: (a) Mined Geologic Design System (MGDS) Baseline (Viability Assessment) (VA) and (b) Extended Baseline. The MGDS Baseline VA inventory is currently used as the basis for the VA design of the repository, and is limited by statutes to a total of 70,000 MTU. The Extended Baseline includes the total documented inventories of commercial spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste and US Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel. Impacts of the two design bases on surface, subsurface and waste package designs are projected. The impact of potential disposal of additional commercial and Department of Energy miscellaneous wastes on design is assessed qualitatively

  15. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  16. A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal

  17. Minimization of mixed waste in explosive testing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Sator, F.E.; Simmons, L.F.

    1993-02-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, efforts to manage mixed waste and reduce pollution focused largely on post-process measures. In the late 1980s, the approach to waste management and pollution control changed, focusing on minimization and prevention rather than abatement, treatment, and disposal. The new approach, and the formulated guidance from the US Department of Energy, was to take all necessary measures to minimize waste and prevent the release of pollutants to the environment. Two measures emphasized in particular were source reduction (reducing the volume and toxicity of the waste source) and recycling. In 1988, a waste minimization and pollution prevention program was initiated at Site 300, where the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducts explosives testing. LLNL's Defense Systems/Nuclear Design (DS/ND) Program has adopted a variety of conservation techniques to minimize waste generation and cut disposal costs associated with ongoing operations. The techniques include minimizing the generation of depleted uranium and lead mixed waste through inventory control and material substitution measures and through developing a management system to recycle surplus explosives. The changes implemented have reduced annual mixed waste volumes by more than 95% and reduced overall radioactive waste generation (low-level and mixed) by more than 75%. The measures employed were cost-effective and easily implemented

  18. Mixed Waste Management Facility closure at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, M.F.

    1991-08-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility of the Savannah River Plant received hazardous and solid low level radioactive wastes from 1972 until 1986. Because this facility did not have a permit to receive hazardous wastes, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure was performed between 1987 and 1990. This closure consisted of dynamic compaction of the waste trenches and placement of a 3-foot clay cap, a 2-foot soil cover, and a vegetative layer. Operations of the waste disposal facility, tests performed to complete the closure design, and the construction of the closure cap are discussed herein

  19. 183-H Basin Mixed Waste Analysis and Testing Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this sampling and analysis report is to provide data necessary to support treatment and disposal options for the low-level mixed waste from the 183-H solar evaporation ponds. In 1973, four of the 16 flocculation and sedimentation basins were designated for use as solar evaporation basins to provide waste reduction by natural evaporation of liquid chemical wastes from the 300 Area fuel fabrication facilities. The primary purpose of this effort is to gather chemical and bulk property data for the waste in the drums/boxes of sediment removed from the basin at Central Waste Complex

  20. Vitrification of low-level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.R.; Bates, J.K.; Feng, Xiangdong.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear utilities have large quantities of low-level and mixed wastes that must be treated to meet repository performance requirements, which are likely to become even more stringent. The DOE is developing cost-effective vitrification methods for producing durable waste forms. However, vitrification processes for high-level wastes are not applicable to commercial low-level wastes containing large quantities of metals and small amounts of fluxes. New vitrified waste formulations are needed that are durable when buried in surface repositories

  1. Status of vitrification for DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    Vitrification is being considered by the Department of Energy for solidification of many low-level mixed waste streams. Some of the advantages, requirements, and potential problem areas are described. Recommendations for future efforts are presented

  2. Recycling Mixed Plastics Waste as Reductant in Ironmaking*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Keywords: Reduction, Metallurgical coke, Mixed plastics waste, Extent of reduction. 1 Introduction. Globally .... reactions in a custom-made horizontal resistance .... emissions arising out of the electrical energy that was used to ...

  3. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations (±10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample

  4. Characterization of radioactive waste forms and packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This publication provides a compendium of waste form, container and waste package properties which are potential importance for waste characterization to support approval for treatment/conditioning, storage and disposal methods and for predicting both short and long term waste behaviour in the repository environment. The properties to be characterized are defined in terms of the technical rationale for their control and characterization. Characterization methods for each property are described in general with reference to detailed discussions existing in the literature. Guidance as to the advantages and disadvantages of individual methods from a technical perspective is also provided where appropriate. This report deals with the characterization of all types of radioactive wastes except spent fuel intended for direct disposal. 115 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  5. Disposal of mixed radioactive and chemical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghissi, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment of waste by dilution was practiced as long as nature provided sufficient unpolluted air, water, and land. The necessity for treatment, including containment and disposal of wastes is, however, relatively new. Initially, waste products from manufacturing processes were looked upon as a potential resource. The industries of Western Europe, short of raw materials, tried to recover as many chemical compounds as possible from industrial waste. However, the availability of abundant and cheap petroleum during the fifties changes this practice, at least for a short period

  6. Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste thermal treatment initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.; Riddelle, J.G.

    1993-03-01

    This paper is a progress report of current Westinghouse Hanford Company engineering activities related to the implementation of a program for the thermal treatment of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste. Topics discussed include a site-specific engineering study, the review of private sector capability in thermal treatment, and thermal treatment of some of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste at other US Department of Energy sites

  7. Strategy and methodology for radioactive waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Over the past decade, significant progress has been achieved in the development of waste characterization as well as control procedures and equipment. This has been as a direct response to ever-increasing requirements for quality and reliability of information on waste characteristics. Failure in control procedures at any step can have important, adverse consequences and may result in producing waste packages which are not compliant with the waste acceptance criteria for disposal, thereby adversely impacting the repository. The information and guidance included in this publication corresponds to recent achievements and reflects the optimum approaches, thereby reducing the potential for error and enhancing the quality of the end product. This publication discusses the strategy and methodology to be adopted in conceiving a characterization programme for the various kinds of radioactive waste fluxes or packages. No international publications have dealt with this topic in such depth. The strategy elaborated here takes into account the international State of the art in the different characterization methodologies. The strategy and methodology of the characterization programme will depend on the type of radioactive waste. In addition, the accuracy and quality of the characterization programme very much depends on the requirements to demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria. This publication presents a new subdivision of radioactive waste based on its physicochemical composition and its time dependence: simple/stable, complex/stable, simple/variable and complex/variable. Decommissioning and historical waste deserve special attention in this publication, and they can belong to any of the four categories. Identifying the life cycle of the radioactive waste is a cornerstone in defining the strategy for radioactive waste characterization. The waste acceptance criteria and the performance assessment of the repository are other key factors in the strategy and

  8. Pretest characterization of WIPP experimental waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.; Davis, H.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is an underground repository designed for the storage and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities across the country. The Performance Assessment (PA) studies for WIPP address compliance of the repository with applicable regulations, and include full-scale experiments to be performed at the WIPP site. These experiments are the bin-scale and alcove tests to be conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Prior to conducting these experiments, the waste to be used in these tests needs to be characterized to provide data on the initial conditions for these experiments. This characterization is referred to as the Pretest Characterization of WIPP Experimental Waste, and is also expected to provide input to other programmatic efforts related to waste characterization. The purpose of this paper is to describe the pretest waste characterization activities currently in progress for the WIPP bin-scale waste, and to discuss the program plan and specific analytical protocols being developed for this characterization. The relationship between different programs and documents related to waste characterization efforts is also highlighted in this paper

  9. Mixed waste treatment model: Basis and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, B.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) required treatment system capacities for risk and cost calculation. Los Alamos was tasked with providing these capacities to the PEIS team. This involved understanding the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste, making the necessary changes to correct for problems, categorizing the waste for treatment, and determining the treatment system requirements. The treatment system requirements depended on the incoming waste, which varied for each PEIS case. The treatment system requirements also depended on the type of treatment that was desired. Because different groups contributing to the PEIS needed specific types of results, we provided the treatment system requirements in a variety of forms. In total, some 40 data files were created for the TRU cases, and for the MLLW case, there were 105 separate data files. Each data file represents one treatment case consisting of the selected waste from various sites, a selected treatment system, and the reporting requirements for such a case. The treatment system requirements in their most basic form are the treatment process rates for unit operations in the desired treatment system, based on a 10-year working life and 20-year accumulation of the waste. These results were reported in cubic meters and for the MLLW case, in kilograms as well. The treatment system model consisted of unit operations that are linked together. Each unit operation's function depended on the input waste streams, waste matrix, and contaminants. Each unit operation outputs one or more waste streams whose matrix, contaminants, and volume/mass may have changed as a result of the treatment. These output streams are then routed to the appropriate unit operation for additional treatment until the output waste stream meets the treatment requirements for disposal. The total waste for each unit operation was calculated as well as the waste for each matrix treated by the unit

  10. Presidential Rapid Commercialization Initiative for mixed waste solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has made some major steps in mixed waste treatment which have taken it closer to meeting final remediation goals. However, one major hurdle remains for the FEMP mixed waste treatment program, and that hurdle is tri-mixed waste. Tri-mixed is a term coined to describe low-level waste containing RCRA hazardous constituents along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The prescribed method for disposal of PCBs is incineration. In mixed waste treatment plans developed by the FEMP with public input, the FEMP committed to pursue non-thermal treatment methods and avoid the use of incineration. Through the SITE Program, the FEMP identified a non-thermal treatment technology which uses solvents to extract PCBs. The technology belongs to a small company called Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. A question arose as to how can this new and innovative technology be implemented by a small company at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The answer came in the form of the Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI) and the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). RCI is a program sponsored by the Department of commerce (DOC), DOE, Department of Defense (DOD), US EPA and various state agencies to aid companies to market new and innovative technologies

  11. Decontamination Study for Mixed Waste Storage Tanks RCRA Closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaphart, D.M.; Reed, S.R.; Rankin, W.N.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to close six underground tanks storing mixed waste under RCRA regulations. In support of this closure effort, a study was performed to determine the optimal method of decontaminating these tanks to meet the closure requirements. Items consaidered in the evaluation of the decontamination methods included effectiveness, compatibility with existing waste residues, possible cleaning solution disposal methods, and cost

  12. Permitting and licensing of a commercial mixed waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    Federal and state regulations applicable to the Envirocare commercial mixed waste facility in Utah are discussed, with particular emphasis on Utah State Waste Policy. Waste acceptance standards of the facility are detailed. Design conflicts, due to differences between the U.S. Environmental Protection and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and their subsequent resolution are outlined. Other multi-jurisdictional problems and resolutions are discussed in some detail

  13. Uncertainty quantification applied to the radiological characterization of radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffora, B; Magistris, M; Saporta, G; Chevalier, J-P

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the process adopted at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to quantify uncertainties affecting the characterization of very-low-level radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is a by-product of the operation of high-energy particle accelerators. Radioactive waste must be characterized to ensure its safe disposal in final repositories. Characterizing radioactive waste means establishing the list of radionuclides together with their activities. The estimated activity levels are compared to the limits given by the national authority of the waste disposal. The quantification of the uncertainty affecting the concentration of the radionuclides is therefore essential to estimate the acceptability of the waste in the final repository but also to control the sorting, volume reduction and packaging phases of the characterization process. The characterization method consists of estimating the activity of produced radionuclides either by experimental methods or statistical approaches. The uncertainties are estimated using classical statistical methods and uncertainty propagation. A mixed multivariate random vector is built to generate random input parameters for the activity calculations. The random vector is a robust tool to account for the unknown radiological history of legacy waste. This analytical technique is also particularly useful to generate random chemical compositions of materials when the trace element concentrations are not available or cannot be measured. The methodology was validated using a waste population of legacy copper activated at CERN. The methodology introduced here represents a first approach for the uncertainty quantification (UQ) of the characterization process of waste produced at particle accelerators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mercury separation from mixed wastes. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Klasson, K.T.; Corder, S.L.; Carlson, T.R.; McCandless, K.R.

    1995-11-01

    This is an assessment of new sorbents for removing Hg from wastes at US DOE sites. Four aqueous wastes were used for the laboratory tests: a simulant of a high-salt, acidic waste currently stored at INEL, a simulant of a high-salt, alkaline waste stored at Savannah River (SRS), a dilute LiOH solution stored at Y-12, and a low-salt, neutral groundwater generated at Y-12. Eight adsorbents covering a wide range of cost and capability were tested. Screening tests identified the most promising adsorbents, and column tests were performed using at least two adsorbents for each waste stream. No one adsorbent is effective in all of these waste streams. Based on loading capacity and compatibility, the most effect adsorbents to date are SuperLig 618 for the INEL tank waste simulant, Mersorb and Ionac SR-3 for the SRS tank waste simulant, Durasil 70 and Ionac SR-3 for the LiOH solution, and Ionac SR-3, followed by Ionac SR-4 and Mersorb, for the Y-12 groundwater

  15. Innovative technologies for the treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Anderson, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes incur significant costs for Department of Energy (DOE) installations. These wastes must be managed under strict environmental controls and regulations to prevent the possibility of migration of hazardous materials to the biosphere. Through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program, the DOE is seeking to develop innovative ways of improving current treatment technologies to eliminate the hazardous components of wastes, reduce waste management costs, and minimize the volume requiring disposal as hazardous or mixed waste. Sponsored projects progress from research and development to field demonstration. Among the innovative technologies under development are supercritical water oxidation of hazardous chemicals, microwave-assisted destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons, paramagnetic separation of metals from waste, detoxification and reclamation of waste acid, nitrate destruction through calcination, treatment/disposal of reactive metals, and methodologies for encapsulation. Technologies at a demonstration phase include detoxification of mixed waste sludge, microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil, and the remediation process for a hydrocarbon spill. 14 refs

  16. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new series of Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) mixed ligands-metal complexes derived from salicylic acid (SA) and 1,10-phenanthroline (PHEN) have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic studies. The coordination of the two ligands towards central metal ions has been proposed in the light of ...

  17. Mixed waste certification plan for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Hazardous Waste Handling Facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of mixed waste handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan is composed to meet the requirements found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and follows the suggested outline provided by WHC in the letter of April 26, 1990, to Dr. R.H. Thomas, Occupational Health Division, LBL. Mixed waste is to be transferred to the WHC Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington

  18. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Jackson, J A; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P.

    1998-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy s (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A ampersand XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that

  19. Permitting mixed waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities: A mixed bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranek, N.L.; Coalgate, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (FFCAct) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to make a comprehensive national inventory of its mixed wastes (i.e., wastes that contain both a hazardous component that meets the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) definition of hazardous waste and a radioactive component consisting of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA)), and of its mixed waste treatment technologies and facilities. It also requires each DOE facility that stores or generates mixed waste to develop a treatment plan that includes, in part, a schedule for constructing units to treat those wastes that can be treated using existing technologies. Inherent in constructing treatment units for mixed wastes is, of course, permitting. This paper identifies Federal regulatory program requirements that are likely to apply to new DOE mixed waste treatment units. The paper concentrates on showing how RCRA permitting requirements interrelate with the permitting or licensing requirements of such other laws as the Atomic Energy Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Clean Air Act. Documentation needed to support permit applications under these laws are compared with RCRA permit application documentation. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements are also addressed, and throughout the paper, suggestions are made for managing the permitting process

  20. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, T.; Carpenter, C.; Cummins, L.; Haas, P.; MacInnis, J.; Maxwell, C.

    1993-01-01

    Incineration currently is the best demonstrated available technology for the large inventory of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste. However, molten salt oxidation (MSO) is an alternative thermal treatment technology with the potential to treat a number of these wastes. Of concern for both technologies is the final waste forms, or residuals, that are generated by the treatment process. An evaluation of the two technologies focuses on 10 existing DOE waste streams and current hazardous-waste regulations, specifically for the delisting of ''derived-from'' residuals. Major findings include that final disposal options are more significantly impacted by the type of waste treated and existing regulations than by the type of treatment technology; typical DOE waste streams are not good candidates for delisting; and mass balance calculations indicate that MSO and incineration generate similar quantities (dry) and types of residuals

  1. Chemical treatment of mixed waste at the FEMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honigford, L.; Sattler, J.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams

  2. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  3. Macroencapsulated and elemental lead mixed waste sites report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, A.; Jacobson, R.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compile a list of the Macroencapsulated (MACRO) and Elemental Lead (EL) Mixed Wastes sites that will be treated and require disposal at the Nevada Test Site within the next five to ten years. The five sites selected were: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Rocky Flats Environmental Technology (RF), Golden, Colorado; and Savannah River (SRS), Charleston, South Carolina. A summary of total lead mixed waste forms at the five selected DOE sites is described in Table E-1. This table provides a summary of total waste and grand total of the current inventory and five-year projected generation of lead mixed waste for each site. This report provides conclusions and recommendations for further investigations. The major conclusions are: (1) the quantity of lead mixed current inventory waste is 500.1 m 3 located at the INEL, and (2) the five sites contain several other waste types contaminated with mercury, organics, heavy metal solids, and mixed sludges

  4. Mixed waste: An alternative solution. The utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seizert, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of mixed waste is one of significant interest to the utility industry. The interest is focused on the current regulatory scheme of dual regulation. A fundamental concern of the commercial nuclear utilities resulting from dual regulation is that there are currently no facilities in the US to dispose of mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste. The lack of available sites renders mixed waste an orphan, requiring generators of such material to store the waste on-site. This in turn causes commercial nuclear power plants to be subjected to the full gamut of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation in addition to the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Superimposing dual regulatory schemes will have impacts which extend far beyond the mere management of mixed waste. Certainly the burdens, complexities and costs of complying with the overlapping regulatory schemes will not have a commensurate increase in protection from the real risks being addressed. For these reasons, the commercial nuclear utility industry is working toward an alternative solution which will protect the public health and the environment from all hazards of mixed waste and will minimize the impacts on both the regulators and the regulated community

  5. Risk assessments of innovative technologies for treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Aycock, M.T.; Russell, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop complete and appropriate technologies for the treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste and transuranic wastes in order to ensure that all affected DOE installations and projects can come into compliance with environmental law and meet DOE's 30-yr cleanup and operational goals. The MWIP will achieve its goal by developing technologies that are in compliance with regulatory requirements, are socially and politically viable, and are cost beneficial and effective in disposed waste source term and volume reduction. The project management plan for MWIP requires that technologies be evaluated in accordance with criteria that rank technologies with regard to performance, risk, and cost-effectiveness. This paper addresses the methodology used to rank alternative mixed-water treatment technologies with regard to relative risk

  6. The Advantages of Fixed Facilities in Characterizing TRU Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    In May 1998 the Hanford Site started developing a program for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. After less than two years, Hanford will have a program certified by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). By picking a simple waste stream, taking advantage of lessons learned at the other sites, as well as communicating effectively with the CAO, Hanford was able to achieve certification in record time. This effort was further simplified by having a centralized program centered on the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility that contains most of the equipment required to characterize TRU waste. The use of fixed facilities for the characterization of TRU waste at sites with a long-term clean-up mission can be cost effective for several reasons. These include the ability to control the environment in which sensitive instrumentation is required to operate and ensuring that calibrations and maintenance activities are scheduled and performed as an operating routine. Other factors contributing to cost effectiveness include providing approved procedures and facilities for handling hazardous materials and anticipated contingencies and performing essential evolutions, and regulating and smoothing the work load and environmental conditions to provide maximal efficiency and productivity. Another advantage is the ability to efficiently provide characterization services to other sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex that do not have the same capabilities. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is a state-of-the-art facility designed to consolidate the operations necessary to inspect, process and ship waste to facilitate verification of contents for certification to established waste acceptance criteria. The WRAP facility inspects, characterizes, treats, and certifies transuranic (TRU), low-level and mixed waste at the Hanford Site in Washington state. Fluor Hanford operates the $89

  7. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Mike; Herbert, James E.; Scheele, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m 3 to 4921 m 3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and product lubricated canned

  8. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  9. Advanced mixed waste treatment project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The AMWTP DEIS assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with four alternatives related to the construction and operation of a proposed waste treatment facility at the INEEL. Four alternatives were analyzed: The No Action Alternative, the Proposed Action, the Non-Thermal Treatment Alternative, and the Treatment and Storage Alternative. The proposed AMWTP facility would treat low-level mixed waste, alpha-contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste in preparation for disposal. Transuranic waste would be disposed of at the Waste isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Low-level mixed waste would be disposed of at an approval disposal facility depending on decisions to be based on DOE's Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Evaluation of impacts on land use, socio-economics, cultural resources, aesthetic and scenic resources, geology, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, noise, traffic and transportation, occupational and public health and safety, INEEL services, and environmental justice were included in the assessment. The AMWTP DEIS identifies as the Preferred Alternative the Proposed Action, which is the construction and operation of the AMWTP facility

  10. Polyethylene macroencapsulation - mixed waste focus area. OST reference No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The lead waste inventory throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex has been estimated between 17 million and 24 million kilograms. Decontamination of at least a portion of the lead is viable but at a substantial cost. Because of various problems with decontamination and its limited applicability and the lack of a treatment and disposal method, the current practice is indefinite storage, which is costly and often unacceptable to regulators. Macroencapsulation is an approved immobilization technology used to treat radioactively contaminated lead solids and mixed waste debris. (Mixed waste is waste materials containing both radioactive and hazardous components). DOE has funded development of a polyethylene extrusion macroencapsulation process at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) that produces a durable, leach-resistant waste form. This innovative macroencapsulation technology uses commercially available single-crew extruders to melt, convey, and extrude molten polyethylene into a waste container in which mixed waste lead and debris are suspended or supported. After cooling to room temperature, the polyethylene forms a low-permeability barrier between the waste and the leaching media

  11. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  12. Photochemical oxidation: A solution for the mixed waste dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prellberg, J.W.; Thornton, L.M.; Cheuvront, D.A. [Vulcan Peroxidation Systems, Inc., Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Numerous technologies are available to remove organic contamination from water or wastewater. A variety of techniques also exist that are used to neutralize radioactive waste. However, few technologies can satisfactorily address the treatment of mixed organic/radioactive waste without creating unacceptable secondary waste products or resulting in extremely high treatment costs. An innovative solution to the mixed waste problem is on-site photochemical oxidation. Liquid-phase photochemical oxidation has a long- standing history of successful application to the destruction of organic compounds. By using photochemical oxidation, the organic contaminants are destroyed on-site leaving the water, with radionuclides, that can be reused or disposed of as appropriate. This technology offers advantages that include zero air emissions, no solid or liquid waste formation, and relatively low treatment cost. Discussion of the photochemical process will be described, and several case histories from recent design testing, including cost analyses for the resulting full-scale installations, will be presented as examples.

  13. Computer modeling of forced mixing in waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyler, L.L.; Michener, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, numerical simulation results of fluid dynamic and physical process in radioactive waste storage tanks are presented. Investigations include simulation of jet mixing pump induced flows intended to mix and maintain particulate material uniformly distributed throughout the liquid volume. Physical effects of solids are included in the code. These are particle size through a settling velocity and mixture properties through density and viscosity. Calculations have been accomplished for centrally located, rotationally-oscillating, horizontally-directed jet mixing pump for two cases. One case is with low jet velocity an flow settling velocity. It results in uniform conditions. Results are being used to aid in experiment design and to understand mixing in the waste tanks. These results are to be used in conjunction with scaled experiments to define limits of pump operation to maintain uniformity of the mixture in the storage tanks during waste retrieval operations

  14. Computer modeling of forced mixing in waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyler, L.L.; Michener, T.E.

    1992-04-01

    Numerical simulation results of fluid dynamic and physical processes in radioactive waste storage tanks are presented. Investigations include simulation of jet mixing pump induced flows intended to mix and maintain particulate material uniformly distributed throughout the liquid volume. Physical effects of solids are included in the code. These are particle size through a settling velocity and mixture properties through density and viscosity. Calculations have been accomplished for a centrally located, rotationally-oscillating, horizontally-directed jet mixing pump for two cases. One case is with low jet velocity and high settling velocity. It results in nonuniform distribution. The other case is with high jet velocity and low settling velocity. It results in uniform conditions. Results are being used to aid in experiment design and to understand mixing in the waste tanks. These results are to be used in conjunction with scaled experiments to define limits of pump operation to maintain uniformity of the mixture in the storage tanks during waste retrieval operations

  15. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  16. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility

  17. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site

  18. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-03-25

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility.

  19. Polyethylene encapsulation of mixed wastes: Scale-up feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H.; Colombo, P.

    1991-01-01

    A polyethylene process for the improved encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes have been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Improvements in waste loading and waste form performance have been demonstrated through bench-scale development and testing. Maximum waste loadings of up to 70 dry wt % mixed waste nitrate salt were achieved, compared with 13--20 dry wt % using conventional cement processes. Stability under anticipated storage and disposal conditions and compliance with applicable hazardous waste regulations were demonstrated through a series of lab-scale waste form performance tests. Full-scale demonstration of this process using actual or surrogate waste is currently planned. A scale-up feasibility test was successfully conducted, demonstrating the ability to process nitrate salts at production rates (up to 450 kg/hr) and the close agreement between bench- and full-scale process parameters. Cored samples from the resulting pilot-scale (114 liter) waste form were used to verify homogeneity and to provide additional specimens for confirmatory performance testing

  20. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L.; Ross, W.; Nakaoka, R.; Schumacher, R.; Cunnane, J.; Singh, D.; Darnell, R.; Greenhalgh, W.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available

  1. Early identification and characterization of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevelde, L.; Carchon, R.

    1998-01-01

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques are developed in the framework of activities related to the characterization of radioactive waste. This program aims to measure the inventory of critical key-nuclides in different waste streams and to identify and develop correlations between those isotopes. Main activities and results in 1997 are described

  2. Cover and liner system designs for mixed-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, A.

    1994-01-01

    Land disposal of mixed waste is subject to a variety of regulations and requirements. Landfills will continue to be a part of waste management plans at virtually all facilities. New landfills are planned to serve the ongoing needs of the national laboratories and US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and environmental restoration wastes will ultimately need to be disposed in these landfills. This paper reviews the basic objectives of mixed-waste disposal and summarizes key constraints facing planners and designers of these facilities. Possible objectives of cover systems include infiltration reduction; maximization of evapotranspiration; use of capillary barriers or low-permeability layers (or combinations of all these); lateral drainage transmission; plant, animal, and/or human intrusion control; vapor/gas control; and wind and water erosion control. Liner system objectives will be presented, and will be compared to the US Environmental Protection Agency-US Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidance for mixed-waste landfills. The measures to accomplish each objective will be reviewed. Then, the design of several existing or planned mixed-waste facilities (DOE and commercial) will be reviewed to illustrate the application of the various functional objectives. Key issues will include design life and performance period as compared/contrasted to postclosure care periods, the use (or avoidance) of geosynthetics or clays, intermediate or interim cover systems, and soil erosion protection in contrast to vegetative enhancement. Possible monitoring approaches to cover systems and landfill installations will be summarized as well

  3. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-11-01

    The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F trademark), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste

  4. Selection of analytical methods for mixed waste analysis at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morant, P.M.

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the process that the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) and contractor laboratories use to select appropriate or develop new or modified analytical methods. These methods are needed to provide reliable mixed waste characterization data that meet project-specific quality assurance (QA) requirements while also meeting health and safety standards for handling radioactive materials. This process will provide the technical basis for DOE's analysis of mixed waste and support requests for regulatory approval of these new methods when they are used to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992)

  5. Stabilization of mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, A.M.; Gillins, R.L.; Larsen, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    EG and G Idaho, Inc. has initiated a program to develop safe, efficient, cost-effective treatment methods for the stabilization of some of the hazardous and mixed wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Laboratory-scale testing has shown that extraction procedure toxic wastes can be successfully stabilized by solidification, using various binders to produce nontoxic, stable waste forms for safe, long-term disposal as either landfill waste or low-level radioactive waste, depending upon the radioactivity content. This paper presents the results of drum-scale solidification testing conducted on hazardous, low-level incinerator flyash generated at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The drum-scale test program was conducted to verify that laboratory-scale results could be successfully adapted into a production operation

  6. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt

  7. Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Costs of mixed low-level waste stabilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Cooley, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Selection of final waste forms to be used for disposal of DOE's mixed low-level waste (MLLW) depends on the waste form characteristics and total life cycle cost. In this paper the various cost factors associated with production and disposal of the final waste form are discussed and combined to develop life-cycle costs associated with several waste stabilization options. Cost factors used in this paper are based on a series of treatment system studies in which cost and mass balance analyses were performed for several mixed low-level waste treatment systems and various waste stabilization methods including vitrification, grout, phosphate bonded ceramic and polymer. Major cost elements include waste form production, final waste form volume, unit disposal cost, and system availability. Production of grout costs less than the production of a vitrified waste form if each treatment process has equal operating time (availability) each year; however, because of the lower volume of a high temperature slag, certification and handling costs and disposal costs of the final waste form are less. Both the total treatment cost and life cycle costs are higher for a system producing grout than for a system producing high temperature slag, assuming equal system availability. The treatment costs decrease with increasing availability regardless of the waste form produced. If the availability of a system producing grout is sufficiently greater than a system producing slag, then the cost of treatment for the grout system will be less than the cost for the slag system, and the life cycle cost (including disposal) may be less depending on the unit disposal cost. Treatment and disposal costs will determine the return on investment in improved system availability

  9. Use of selected waste materials in concrete mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batayneh, Malek; Marie, Iqbal; Asi, Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    A modern lifestyle, alongside the advancement of technology has led to an increase in the amount and type of waste being generated, leading to a waste disposal crisis. This study tackles the problem of the waste that is generated from construction fields, such as demolished concrete, glass, and plastic. In order to dispose of or at least reduce the accumulation of certain kinds of waste, it has been suggested to reuse some of these waste materials to substitute a percentage of the primary materials used in the ordinary portland cement concrete (OPC). The waste materials considered to be recycled in this study consist of glass, plastics, and demolished concrete. Such recycling not only helps conserve natural resources, but also helps solve a growing waste disposal crisis. Ground plastics and glass were used to replace up to 20% of fine aggregates in concrete mixes, while crushed concrete was used to replace up to 20% of coarse aggregates. To evaluate these replacements on the properties of the OPC mixes, a number of laboratory tests were carried out. These tests included workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, and indirect tensile strength (splitting). The main findings of this investigation revealed that the three types of waste materials could be reused successfully as partial substitutes for sand or coarse aggregates in concrete mixtures.

  10. Use of selected waste materials in concrete mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batayneh, Malek; Marie, Iqbal; Asi, Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    A modern lifestyle, alongside the advancement of technology has led to an increase in the amount and type of waste being generated, leading to a waste disposal crisis. This study tackles the problem of the waste that is generated from construction fields, such as demolished concrete, glass, and plastic. In order to dispose of or at least reduce the accumulation of certain kinds of waste, it has been suggested to reuse some of these waste materials to substitute a percentage of the primary materials used in the ordinary portland cement concrete (OPC). The waste materials considered to be recycled in this study consist of glass, plastics, and demolished concrete. Such recycling not only helps conserve natural resources, but also helps solve a growing waste disposal crisis. Ground plastics and glass were used to replace up to 20% of fine aggregates in concrete mixes, while crushed concrete was used to replace up to 20% of coarse aggregates. To evaluate these replacements on the properties of the OPC mixes, a number of laboratory tests were carried out. These tests included workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, and indirect tensile strength (splitting). The main findings of this investigation revealed that the three types of waste materials could be reused successfully as partial substitutes for sand or coarse aggregates in concrete mixtures

  11. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Gilliam, T.M.; Harrington, E.S.; Youngblood, E.L.; Baer, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now know as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) prepared two mixed-waste surface impoundments for closure by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage of the stabilized waste was planned until final disposition. The strategy for disposal included delisting the stabilized pond sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 drums of unprocessed sludge are presently being stored. In addition, the abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such conditions do not comply with the requirements set forth by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for the storage of listed waste. Various steps are being taken to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. This paper (1) reviews the current situation, (2) discusses the plan for remediation of regulatory noncompliances, including decanting liquid from stabilized waste and dewatering untreated waste, and (3) provides an assessment of alternative raw-waste treatment processes. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Dilute chemical decontamination resins and the mixed waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denault, R.P.; Hallman, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The decontamination of reactor primary systems, sub-systems and components is an important method used to reduce the occupational radiation exposure of nuclear plant personnel. The waste produced by the application of this technology is mainly solid in the form of ion exchange resins. As a result of a recent agreement between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), all radioactive waste must meet EPA burial criteria. The chemicals used in a decontamination and certain metals dissolved during the process, primarily chromium, could render the waste hazardous as well as radioactive or more commonly called a mixed waste. This paper defines mixed waste as described in the EPA directive 9432.00-2, and examine the criteria by which waste is categorized as hazardous. The decontamination waste resin generated by two processes, the CAN-DEREM and the LOMI process, is described in detail. Waste data obtained from decontaminations performed by LN Technologies Corporation including chemical, metal and radionuclide loadings on resins from both PWR and BWR applications are presented

  13. Conversion of Mixed Plastic Wastes (High Density Polyethylene and Polypropylene) into Liquid Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaw Su Su Hmwe; Tint Tint Kywe; Moe Moe Kyaw

    2010-12-01

    In this study, mixed plastic wastes were converted into liquid fuels. Mixed plastic wastes used were high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). The pyrolysis of mixed plastic waste to liquid fuel was carried out with and without prepared zeolite catalyst.The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). This catalyst was pre-treated for activation. The experiments were carried out at temperature range of 350-410C.Physical properties (density, kinematic, viscosity,refractive index)of prepared liquid fuel samples were measured. From this study, yields of liquid fuel and gas fuel were found to be 41-64% and 15-35% respectively. As for by products, char was obtained as the yield percentages from 9 to 14% and wax (yield% - 1 to 14) was formed during pyrolysis.

  14. Calendar Year 2002 Hanford Site mixed waste land disposal restrictions report (section 1 thru 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MISKHO, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Volume 1 presents information concerning the storage and minimization of mixed waste and the potential sources for the generation of additional mixed waste. This information, presented in accordance with ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 2001) Milestone M-26-01M, is Volume 1 of a two-volume report on the status of Hanford Site land disposal restricted mixed waste, other mixed waste, and other waste that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have agreed to include in this report. This volume contains the approval page for both volumes and includes the storage report. Information pertaining to waste characterization and treatment are addressed in Volume 2. Appendix A lists the land disposal restrictions (LDR) reporting requirements and explains where the requirements are addressed in this report. The reporting period for this document is from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2002. Clearance form only sent to RHA

  15. Electrochemical treatment of mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinski, J.; Zawodzinski, C.; Smith, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    Electrochemical treatment technologies for mixed hazardous waste are currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For a mixed waste containing toxic components such as heavy metals and cyanides in addition to a radioactive component, the toxic components can be removed or destroyed by electrochemical technologies allowing for recovery of the radioactive component prior to disposal of the solution. Mixed wastes with an organic component can be treated by oxidizing the organic compound to carbon dioxide and then recovering the radioactive component. The oxidation can be done directly at the anode or indirectly using an electron transfer mediator. This work describes the destruction of isopropanol, acetone and acetic acid at greater than 90% current efficiency using cobalt +3 or silver +2 as the electron transfer mediator. Also described is the destruction of cellulose based cheesecloth rags with electrochemically generated cobalt +3, at an overall efficiency of approximately 20%

  16. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory's many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory's boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department

  17. Sampling and characterization of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zepeda R, C.; Monroy G, F.; Reyes A, T.; Lizcano, D.; Cruz C, A. C.

    2017-09-01

    To define the management of radioactive liquid wastes stored in 200 L drums, its isotope and physicochemical characterization is essential. An adequate sampling, that is, representative and homogeneous, is fundamental to obtain reliable analytical results, therefore, in this work, the use of a sampling mechanism that allows collecting homogenous aliquots, in a safe way and minimizing the generation of secondary waste is proposed. With this mechanism, 56 drums of radioactive liquid wastes were sampled, which were characterized by gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation, and determined the following physicochemical properties: ph, conductivity, viscosity, density and chemical composition by gas chromatography. 67.86% of the radioactive liquid wastes contains H-3 and of these, 47.36% can be released unconditionally, since it presents activities lower than 100 Bq/g. 94% of the wastes are acidic and 48% have viscosities <50 MPa s. (Author)

  18. Verification and update of BNL mixed waste survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Siskind, B.

    1987-01-01

    This report briefly describes attempts to verify the results of a previous survey on the amount of mixed wastes generated at various facilities during 1985. The original survey indicated some lack of understanding of current EPA regulations. This telephone survey verification indicated a better understanding of these regulations in recent months. Changes in EPA regulations and the addition of new compounds to the list of hazardous wastes are causing problems for organizations trying to comply. 7 refs

  19. Criteria impacting shipments of Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clawson, R.L.; Eide, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, Transportation and Packaging Division, under contract for the Los Alamos Technology Office-Rocky Flats Plant, has developed this synopsis report to be used as a reference in the development of the Rocky Flats Plant Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan and the Rocky Flats Plant Residue Elimination Plan. This report represents the criteria for packaging, shipping, and transporting Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes. It is a compilation of state and federal regulations, US Department of Energy orders, and acceptance criteria specific to US Department of Energy radioactive mixed waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities

  20. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies

  1. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental ampersand Regulatory Planning ampersand Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria

  2. Defining mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the last several months, staffs of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been developing a working definition of Mixed Low-Level Radioactive and Hazardous Waste (Mixed LLW). Such wastes are currently being regulated by NRC under authority of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), as amended, and by EPA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended. Development of the definition is one component of a comprehensive program to resolve differences between the regulatory programs of the two agencies pertaining to the regulation of the management and disposal of Mixed LLW. Although the definition is still undergoing legal and policy reviews in both agencies, this paper presents the current working definition, discusses a methodology that may be used by NRC licensees to identify Mixed LLW, and provides responses to anticipated questions from licensees about the definition. 3 references, 1 figure

  3. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.G.; Nocito, T.

    1995-01-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB's, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives

  4. A literature review of mixed waste components: Sensitivities and effects upon solidification/stabilization in cement-based matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, C.H.; Gilliam, T.M.

    1994-03-01

    The US DOE Oak Ridge Field Office has signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) regarding Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) mixed wastes subject to the land disposal restriction (LDR) provisions of the Resource conservation and Recovery Act. The LDR FFCA establishes an aggressive schedule for conducting treatability studies and developing treatment methods for those ORR mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes listed in Appendix B to the Agreement. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program has been initiated to provide those efforts necessary to identify treatment methods for all of the wastes that meet Appendix B criteria. The program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs in a variety of areas, including that of final waste forms (i.e., stabilization/solidification processes). A literature research has been performed, with the objective of determining waste characterization needs to support cement-based waste-form development. The goal was to determine which waste species are problematic in terms of consistent production of an acceptable cement-based waste form and at what concentrations these species become intolerable. The report discusses the following: hydration mechanisms of Portland cement; mechanisms of retardation and acceleration of cement set-factors affecting the durability of waste forms; regulatory limits as they apply to mixed wastes; review of inorganic species that interfere with the development of cement-based waste forms; review of radioactive species that can be immobilized in cement-based waste forms; and review of organic species that may interfere with various waste-form properties

  5. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments

  6. Evaluating the technical aspects of mixed waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses treatment of mixed wastes which is thought to be more complicated than treatment of either hazardous or radioactive wastes. In fact, the treatment itself is no more complicated: however, the regulations that define acceptability of the final waste disposal system are significantly more entangled, and sometimes in apparent conflict. This session explores the factors that influence the choice of waste treatment technologies, and expands on some of the limitations to their application. The objective of the presentation is to describe the technical factors that influence potential treatment processes and the ramifications associated with particular selections (for example, the generation of secondary waste streams). These collectively provide a framework for making informed treatment process selections

  7. Treatability study of aqueous, land disposal restricted mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, D.R.

    1992-12-01

    Treatment studies have been completed on two aqueous waste streams at the Mixed Waste Storage Facility that are classified as land disposal restricted. Both wastes had mercury and lead as characteristic hazardous constituents. Samples from one of these wastes, composed of mercury and lead sulfide particles along with dissolved mercury and lead, was successfully treated by decanting, filtering, and ion exchanging. The effluent water had an average level of 0.003 and 0.025 mg/L of mercury and lead, respectively. These values are well below the targeted RCRA limits of 0.2 mg/L mercury and 5.0 mg/L lead. An acidic stream, containing the same hazardous metals, was also successfully treated using a treatment process of precipitation, filtering, and then ion exchange. Treatment of another waste was not completely successful, presumably because of the interference of a chelating agent

  8. Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-28

    This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

  9. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs

  10. Mixed wastes treatment in Atucha I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Comandu, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: During decontamination works of the fueling machine of Atucha I nuclear power plant (AINPP), a liquid waste with special characteristics was generated, which needed the development of a treatment method. The waste consisted of an emulsion designed for the cleaning of mechanical components and was formed by an organic solvent dispersed in water with aid of an emulsifier additive. After several cleaning operations, the emulsion contained an important quantity of lubricants and radioactive dirt. The treatment had the objective of recycling a toxic waste such as the organic solvent and reducing the volume of the residual mass. Laboratory tests were made tending to the emulsion separation in their components. Ionic force and ionic mobility were modified for join the emulsion micelles and produce their coalescence. Different salts and working temperatures were tried and it was stated that the combination of 1% of Na 2 SO 4 added and 40 degree C temperature were the optimum taking into account the available equipment in AINPP and cost considerations. The process was carried out in batch mode and 3 residual streams were obtained, an aqueous one which was sent to Residual Water System of AINPP, an organic liquid consisting of decontaminated hydrocarbons, useful for other cleaning tasks and finally a solid one, sited in the in-between interface of the other two liquids, consisting of insoluble soaps used as lubricant thickness, containing the principal proportion of radioactivity. As a result of this process we have achieved a volume reduction higher than 90%, the recycling of the organic solvent and concentration of radioactivity in a solid greasy mass with low water solubility. (author) [es

  11. Testing protocols for evaluating monolithic waste forms containing mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Sams, T.L.; Pitt, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Test protocols have been presented which can be used as a guide in cement-based grout formulation development studies. Based on experience at ORNL, these six tests are generally sufficient to develop a grout product which will meet all applicable DOE, NRC, and EPA performance criteria. As such, these tests can be used to minimize the time required to tailor a grout to be compatible with both the waste stream and the process disposal scenario. 9 refs

  12. Chemodynamics of EDTA in a simulated mixed waste: the Hanford Site's complex concentrate waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    1999-01-01

    Enormous stockpiles of mixed wastes at the USDOE's Hanford Site, the original US plutonium production facility, await permanent disposal. One mixed waste derived from reprocessing spent fuel was found to contain numerous nuclear related organics including chelating agents like EDTA and complexing agents, which have been used as decontamination agents, etc. Their presence in actual mixed wastes indicates that the organic content of nuclear wastes is dynamic and complicate waste management efforts. The subjects of this report is the chemo-degradation of EDTA degradation in a simulant Hanford's complex concentrate waste. The simulant was prepared by adding EDTA to an inorganic matrix, which was formulated based on past analyses of the actual waste. Aliquots of the EDTA simulant were withdrawn at different time points, derivatized via methylation and analyzed by gas chromatography and Gc/MS to monitor the disappearance of EDTA and the appearance of its' degradation products. This report also compares the results of EDTA's chemo-degradation to the g-radiolysis of EDTA in the simulant, the subject of a recently published article. Finally based on the results of these two studies, an assesment of the potential impact of EDTA degradation on the management of mixed wastes is offered. (J.P.N.)

  13. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  14. Glassy slags as novel waste forms for remediating mixed wastes with high metal contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Ebert, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing a glassy slag final waste form for the remediation of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes with high metal contents. This waste form is composed of various crystalline and metal oxide phases embedded in a silicate glass phase. This work indicates that glassy slag shows promise as final waste form because (1) it has similar or better chemical durability than high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses, (2) it can incorporate large amounts of metal wastes, (3) it can incorporate waste streams having low contents of flux components (boron and alkalis), (4) it has less stringent processing requirements (e.g., viscosity and electric conductivity) than glass waste forms, (5) its production can require little or no purchased additives, which can result in greater reduction in waste volume and overall treatment costs. By using glassy slag waste forms, minimum additive waste stabilization approach can be applied to a much wider range of waste streams than those amenable only to glass waste forms

  15. Mixed Waste Focus Area integrated technical baseline report, Phase 1: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet the Department's commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating DOE's mixed waste. These treatment systems include all necessary steps such as characterization, pretreatment, and disposal. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline is being established that forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The technical baseline is the prioritized list of deficiencies, and the resulting technology development activities needed to overcome these deficiencies. This document presents Phase I of the technical baseline development process, which resulted in the prioritized list of deficiencies that the MWFA will address. A summary of the data and the assumptions upon which this work was based is included, as well as information concerning the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) mixed waste technology development needs. The next phase in the technical baseline development process, Phase II, will result in the identification of technology development activities that will be conducted through the MWFA to resolve the identified deficiencies

  16. Cementation and solidification of miscellaneous mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site produces a variety of wastes which are amenable to micro-encapsulation in cement Portland cement is an inexpensive and readily available material for this application. The Waste Projects (WP) group at Rocky Flats evaluated cementation to determine its effectiveness in encapsulating several wastes. These included waste analytical laboratory solutions, incinerator ash, hydroxide precipitation sludge, and an acidic solution from the Delphi process (a chemical oxidation technology being evaluated as an alternative to incineration). WP prepared surrogate wastes and conducted designed experiments to optimize the cement formulation for the waste streams. These experiments used a Taguchi or factorial experimental design, interactions between the variables were also considered in the testing. Surrogate waste samples were spiked with various levels of each of six Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed metals (Cd, Cr, Ba, Pb, Ni, and Ag), cemented using the optimized formulation, and analyzed for leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The metal spike levels chosen were based on characterization data, and also based on an estimate of the highest levels of contaminants suspected in the waste. This paper includes laboratory test results for each waste studied. These include qualitative observations as well as quantitative data from TCLP analyses and environmental cycling studies. The results from these experiments show that cement stabilization of the different wastes can produce final waste forms which meet the current RCRA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements. Formulations that resulted in LDR compliant waste forms are provided. The volume increases associated with cementation are also lower than anticipated. Future work will include verification studies with actual mixed radioactive waste as well as additional formulation development studies on other waste streams

  17. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.

    1997-01-01

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates

  18. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  19. Mixed Waste Integrated Program Quality Assurance requirements plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, Waste Management Division. The strategic objectives of MWIP are defined in the Mixed Waste Integrated Program Strategic Plan, and expanded upon in the MWIP Program Management Plan. This MWIP Quality Assurance Requirement Plan (QARP) applies to mixed waste treatment technologies involving both hazardous and radioactive constituents. As a DOE organization, MWIP is required to develop, implement, and maintain a written Quality Assurance Program in accordance with DOE Order 4700.1 Project Management System, DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management, ASME NQA-1 Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities and ANSI/ASQC E4-19xx Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data Collection and Environmental Technology Programs. The purpose of the MWIP QA program is to establish controls which address the requirements in 5700.6C, with the intent to minimize risks and potential environmental impacts; and to maximize environmental protection, health, safety, reliability, and performance in all program activities. QA program controls are established to assure that each participating organization conducts its activities in a manner consistent with risks posed by those activities

  20. Mixed Waste Integrated Program Quality Assurance requirements plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-15

    Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, Waste Management Division. The strategic objectives of MWIP are defined in the Mixed Waste Integrated Program Strategic Plan, and expanded upon in the MWIP Program Management Plan. This MWIP Quality Assurance Requirement Plan (QARP) applies to mixed waste treatment technologies involving both hazardous and radioactive constituents. As a DOE organization, MWIP is required to develop, implement, and maintain a written Quality Assurance Program in accordance with DOE Order 4700.1 Project Management System, DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management, ASME NQA-1 Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities and ANSI/ASQC E4-19xx Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data Collection and Environmental Technology Programs. The purpose of the MWIP QA program is to establish controls which address the requirements in 5700.6C, with the intent to minimize risks and potential environmental impacts; and to maximize environmental protection, health, safety, reliability, and performance in all program activities. QA program controls are established to assure that each participating organization conducts its activities in a manner consistent with risks posed by those activities.

  1. Mixed waste focus area integrated master schedule (current as of May 6, 1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with the participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating the Department of Energy's (DOE's) mixed wastes. In support of this mission, the MWTA produced the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report, Phase I Volume 1, January 16, 1996, which identified a prioritized list of 30 national mixed waste technology deficiencies. The MWFA is targeting funding toward technology development projects that address the current list of deficiencies. A clear connection between the technology development projects and the EM-30 and EM-40 treatment systems that they support is essential for optimizing the MWFA efforts. The purpose of the Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) is to establish and document these connections and to ensure that all technology development activities performed by the MWFA are developed for timely use in those treatment systems. The IMS is a list of treatment systems from the Site Treatment Plans (STPs)/Consent Orders that have been assigned technology development needs with associated time-driven schedules, Technology deficiencies and associated technology development (TD) needs have been identified for each treatment system based on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste targeted for the treatment system. The schedule, the technology development activities, and the treatment system have been verified through the operations contact from the EM-30 organization at the site

  2. Development of asphaltic mix with waste products use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The trend of high growth of the vehicle fleet in Russia along with the positive impact on the socio-economic development of the country has a number of adverse consequences, one of which is the high accident rate on the roads. The paper considers modern way to provide the safe vehicles flow with the use of colored asphalt, which is a kind of hot asphalt and can have a variety of colors, which consists of coloring pigments. The conventional method of coloring the asphalt mix is produced by adding color rubble or pigmenting additives. The task, which was put forward, was the establishment of such road concrete mix, from which, without the use of primary materials and without increasing the consumption of bitumen, asphalt concrete road surfaces of acceptable strength could be obtained. As a pigment the dust of gas purification system of electrical furnace DSP - 60 of «Kamastal» plant, Perm, was used. The composition of the dust waste from the furnace consists of metal oxides and silicates. Dust-gas-cleaning is a fine powder with a high specific surface (1.2…2.5 thousand cm /g and bulk density of 3.7…4.2 g/cm . The powder color is dark brown. The density of the ready colored asphalt samples is 2.47...2.49 g/cm , and water saturation is 3.50…3.55 %. As a result of the research the diagrams of the dependence of road concrete mix’s water saturation from dust percentage and a diagram of dependence of concrete mixes’ durability from dust percentage at t = 20° and 50° C were built. After analyzing the obtained curves it can be concluded that the increase of the percentage of dust leads to increase of water saturation of road concrete mix and reduced strength. Thus, the developed asphalt concrete mix allows visually separating the lanes on the road, it has the relevant regulatory requirements durability and water resistance. This mixture corresponds to the type B mark III and can be used in regions I, II, and partly III of road-climatic zones

  3. Source term analysis for a RCRA mixed waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, D.L.; Blandford, T.N.; MacKinnon, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A Monte Carlo transport scheme was used to estimate the source strength resulting from potential releases from a mixed waste disposal facility. Infiltration rates were estimated using the HELP code, and transport through the facility was modeled using the DUST code, linked to a Monte Carlo driver

  4. MIXING OF INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS IN WASTE TANKS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents onsite radiological, onsite toxicological, and offsite toxicological consequences, risk binning, and control decision results for the mixing of incompatible materials in waste tanks representative accident. Revision 4 updates the analysis to consider bulk chemical additions to single shell tanks (SSTs)

  5. Characterization of radioactive waste forms. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.; Nilsson, K.

    1989-01-01

    This document is the second yearbook for Task 3 of the European Communities 1985-89 programme of research on radioactive waste management and disposal carried out by public organizations and private firms in the Community through costsharing contracts with the Commission of the European Communities. The report, in two volumes, describes progress made in 1987 within the field of Task 3: Testing and evaluation of conditioned waste and engineered barriers. The first volume of the report covers Item 3.1 Characterization of low and medium-level radioactive waste forms and Item 3.5 Development of test methods for quality assurance. The second volume covers Item 3.2: High-level and alpha waste characterization and Item 3.3: Other engineered barriers. Item 3.4 on the round robin study will be treated in a separate report

  6. Characterization of radioactive waste forms. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Green, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    This document is the second yearbook for Task 3 of the European Communities 1985-89 programme of research on radioactive waste management and disposal carried out by public organizations and private firms in the Community through cost-sharing contracts with the Commission of the European Communities. The report, in two volumes, describes progress made in 1987 within the field of Task 3: Testing and evaluation of conditioned waste and engineered barriers. The first volume of the report covers Item 3.1 Characterization of low and medium level radioactive waste forms and Item 3.5. Development of test methods for quality assurance. The second volume covers Item 3.2: High-level and alpha waste characterization and Item 3.3: Other engineered barriers. Item 3.4 on the round robin study will be treated in a separate report

  7. Characterization of Savannah River Plant waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the glass characterization programs at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is to ensure that glass containing Savannah River Plant high-level waste can be permanently stored in a federal repository, in an environmentally acceptable manner. To accomplish this objective, SRL is carrying out several experimental programs, including: fundamental studies of the reactions between waste glass and water, particularly repository groundwater; experiments in which candidate repository environments are simulated as accurately as possible; burial tests of simulated waste glass in candidate repository geologies; large-scale tests of glass durability; and determination of the effects of process conditions on glass quality. In this paper, the strategy and current status of each of these programs is discussed. The results indicate that waste packages containing SRP waste glass will satisfy emerging regulatory criteria

  8. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  9. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste anagement Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults (HWMWDV). As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB 2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB 1 , (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contained elevated constituent levels. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to previous quarters

  10. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies

  11. Microstructural characterization of nuclear-waste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Clarke, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Characterization of nuclear waste ceramics requires techniques possessing high spatial and x-ray resolution. XRD, SEM, electron microprobe, TEM and analytical EM techniques are applied to ceramic formulations designed to immobilize both commercial and defense-related reactor wastes. These materials are used to address the strengths and limitations of the techniques above. An iterative approach combining all these techniques is suggested. 16 figures, 2 tables

  12. Tank farm waste characterization Technology Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohl, T.M.; Schull, K.E.; Bensky, M.S.; Sasaki, L.M.

    1989-03-01

    This document presents technological and analytical methods development activities required to characterize, process, and dispose of Hanford Site wastes stored in underground waste tanks in accordance with state and federal environmental regulations. The document also lists the need date, current (fiscal year 1989) funding, and estimate of future funding for each task. Also identified are the impact(s) if an activity is not completed. The document integrates these needs to minimize duplication of effort between the various programs involved

  13. Mixed waste focus area Department of Energy technology development needs identification and prioritization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US DOE initiated a new approach in August, 1993 to environmental research and technology development. The key features of this new approach included establishment of five focus areas and three crosscutting technology programs, which overlap the boundaries of the focus areas. The five focus areas include the Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation; Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal; High-Level Waste Tank Remediation, Landfill Stabilization, and Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Areas. The three crosscutting technologies programs include Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology; Efficient Separations and Processing; and Robotics. The DOE created the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet its commitments for treatment of mixed wastes. To accomplish this goal, the technology deficiencies must be identified and categorized, the deficiencies and needs must be prioritized, and a technical baseline must be established that integrates the requirements associated with these needs into the planned and ongoing environmental research and technology development activities supported by the MWFA. These steps are described

  14. 303-K Radioactive Mixed-Waste Storage Facility closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of Richland, Washington, houses reactors chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production o special nuclear materials. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. The 303-K Radioactive Mixed-Waste Storage Facility (303-K Facility) has been used since 1943 to store various radioactive,and dangerous process materials and wastes generated by the fuel manufacturing processes in the 300 Area. The mixed wastes are stored in US Department of Transportation (DOT)-specification containers (DOT 1988). The north end of the building was used for storage of containers of liquid waste and the outside storage areas were used for containers of solid waste. Because only the north end of the building was used, this plan does not include the southern end of the building. This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of materials and wastes managed, and a description of the procedures that will be followed to chose the 303-K Facility as a greater than 90-day storage facility. The strategy for closure of the 303-K Facility is presented in Chapter 6.0

  15. Solidifications/stabilization treatability study of a mixed waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Stine, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region IV regarding mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) subject to the land disposal restriction provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This agreement required treatability studies of solidification/stabilization (S/S) on mixed wastes from the ORR. This paper reports the results of the cementitious S/S studies conducted on a waste water treatment sludge generated from biodenitrification and heavy metals precipitation. For the cementitious waste forms, the additives tested were Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, Class F fly ash, and perlite. The properties measured on the treated waste were density, free-standing liquid, unconfined compressive strength, and TCLP performance. Spiking up to 10,000, 10,000, and 4,400 mg/kg of nickel, lead, and cadmium, respectively, was conducted to test waste composition variability and the stabilization limitations of the binding agents. The results indicated that nickel, lead and cadmium were stabilized fairly well in the high pH hydroxide-carbonate- ''bug bones'' sludge, but also clearly confirmed the established stabilization potential of cementitious S/S for these RCRA metals

  16. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Mixed Waste Incinerator: Emissions test for August 27, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    On August 27, 1990, a special emissions test was performed at the K-1435 Toxic Substance Control Act Mixed Waste Incinerator. A sampling and analysis plan was implemented to characterize the incinerator waste streams during a 6 hour burn of actual mixed waste. The results of this characterization are summarized in the present report. Significant among the findings is the observation that less than 3% of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln was discharged as stack emission. This value is consistent with the estimate of 4% or less derived from long-term mass balance of previous operating experience and with the value assumed in the original Environmental Impact Statement. Approximately 1.4% of the total uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the aqueous scrubber blowdown; about 85% of the total uranium in the aqueous waste was insoluble (i.e., removable by filtration). The majority of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the ash material, apparently associated with phosphorous as a sparingly-soluble species. Many other metals of potential regulatory concern also appeared to concentrate in the ash as sparingly-soluble species, with minimal partition to the aqueous waste. The aqueous waste was discharged to the Central Neutralization Facility where it was effectively treated by coprecipitation with iron. The treated, filtered aqueous effluent met Environmental Protection Agency interim primary drinking water standards for regulated metals. 4 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge mixed waste incinerator: Emissions test for August 27, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1990-12-01

    On August 27, 1990, a special emissions test was performed at the K-1435 Toxic Substance Control Act Mixed Waste Incinerator. A sampling and analysis plan was implemented to characterize the incinerator waste streams during a 6 hour burn of actual mixed waste. The results of this characterization are summarized in the present report. Significant among the findings is the observation that less than 3% of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln was discharged as stack emission. This value is consistent with the estimate of 4% or less derived from long-term mass balance of previous operating experience and with the value assumed in the original Environmental Impact Statement. Approximately 1.4% of the total uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the aqueous scrubber blowdown; about 85% of the total uranium in the aqueous waste was insoluble (i.e., removable by filtration). The majority of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the ash material, apparently associated with phosphorous as a sparingly-soluble species. Many other metals of potential regulatory concern also appeared to concentrate in the ash as sparingly-soluble species, with minimal partition to the aqueous waste. The aqueous waste was discharged to the Central Neutralization Facility where it was effectively treated by coprecipitation with iron. The treated, filtered aqueous effluent met Environmental Protection Agency interim primary drinking water standards for regulated metals

  18. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Brown, C.H.; Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M.; Kan, T.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste

  19. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste

  20. Scope and approach to management of mixed wastes: introduction to the session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausmus, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    Mixed wastes are those that are termed both radioactive and chemically hazardous based on regulatory criteria in the United States. Historically, mixed wastes that could be classified as radioactive wastes were treated, stored, and disposed under statutes governing radioactive wastes. In recent years, it has become apparent that: (a) hazardous wastes are generated in nuclear facilities; (b) many wastes are both radioactive and chemically hazardous; and (c) the management of chemically hazardous wastes and mixed wastes requires reexamination of current waste treatment/disposal methods and development/implementation of modified methods. The purpose of this session is to discuss specific aspects of the mixed waste management problems and to provide a forum for discussion of the technical and institutional barriers to problem solutions. The paper addresses several mixed waste problems and current approaches to their solutions, including: (1) mixed waste management in fuel cycle facilities; (2) mixed waste management in a US Dept. of Energy production facility; and (3) mixed wastes impacts on 10CFR61 compliance. Technical and institutional approaches to mixed waste management are explored in three areas: (1) alternatives for treatment prior to shallow land disposal; (2) potential benefits of recovery of strategic/critical materials from mixed wastes; and (3) shallow land disposal system compatibilities/problems

  1. 1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones

  2. 1993 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.

    1993-04-01

    Since the early 1940s, the contractors at the Hanford Site have been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste (RMW). This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 2 (RCRA) and Atomic Energy Act 3 . This report covers mixed waste only. Hazardous waste that is not contaminated with radionuclides is not addressed in this report. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order 1 (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for RMW. This report is the third update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide, the information that follows: Waste characterization information; storage data; treatment information; waste reduction information; schedule; and progress

  3. 1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1997-04-07

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones.

  4. Experimental Studies on Combustion Characteristics of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Jiang; Zhonggang Pan; Shi Liu; Haigang Wang

    2003-01-01

    In our country, municipal solid wastes (MSW) are always burnt in their original forms and only a few pretreatments are taken. Therefore it is vital to study the combustion characteristics of mixed waste. In this paper,thermogravimetric analysis and a lab scale fluidized bed facility were used as experimental means. The data in two different experimental systems were introduced and compared. It took MSW 3~3.5 rain to burn out in FB, but in thermogravimetric analyzer, the time is 20~25 min. It can be concluded that, in general, the behavior of a mixture of waste in TGA can be expressed by simple combination of individual components of the waste mixtures.Only minor deviations from the rule were observed. Yet, in Fluidized Bed, it was found that, for some mixtures,there was interference among the components during fluidized bed combustion.

  5. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, we have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epi-chloro-hydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F), poly-tetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to ∼3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 deg. C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using VTR measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, screening criteria of ∼1 g/hr/m 2 for VTR and specific gravity change of 10% were used. Those materials that failed to meet these criteria were judged to have failed the screening tests and were excluded from the next phase of this experimental program. We have completed the comprehensive testing phase of liner materials in a simulant Hanford Tank waste consisting of an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. From the data analyses performed, we have identified the chloro-fluorocarbon Kel-F as having the greatest chemical durability after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the aqueous alkaline simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the extremely poor performance of Teflon under these conditions. We have also completed the comprehensive

  6. Mixing Modeling Analysis For SRS Salt Waste Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear waste at Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks consists of three different types of waste forms. They are the lighter salt solutions referred to as supernate, the precipitated salts as salt cake, and heavier fine solids as sludge. The sludge is settled on the tank floor. About half of the residual waste radioactivity is contained in the sludge, which is only about 8 percentage of the total waste volume. Mixing study to be evaluated here for the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) project focuses on supernate preparations in waste tanks prior to transfer to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The methods to mix and blend the contents of the SRS blend tanks were evalutaed to ensure that the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 50H to the SWPF feed tank. The work consists of two principal objectives to investigate two different pumps. One objective is to identify a suitable pumping arrangement that will adequately blend/mix two miscible liquids to obtain a uniform composition in the tank with a minimum level of sludge solid particulate in suspension. The other is to estimate the elevation in the tank at which the transfer pump inlet should be located where the solid concentration of the entrained fluid remains below the acceptance criterion (0.09 wt% or 1200 mg/liter) during transfer operation to the SWPF. Tank 50H is a Waste Tank that will be used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The modeling results will provide quantitative design and operation information during the mixing/blending process and the transfer operation of the blended

  7. Listed waste determination report. Environmental characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    On September 23, 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice clarifying interim status requirements for the management of radioactive mixed waste thereby subjecting the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and other applicable Department of Energy (DOE) sites to regulation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Therefore, the DOE was required to submit a Part A Permit application for each treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) unit within the INEL, defining the waste codes and processes to be regulated under RCRA. The September 1990 revised Part A Permit application, that was approved by the State of Idaho identified 101 potential acute and toxic hazardous waste codes (F-, P-, and U- listed wastes according to 40 CFR 261.31 and 40 CFR 261.33) for some TSD units at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Most of these waste were assumed to have been introduced into the High-level Liquid Waste TSD units via laboratory drains connected to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) evaporator (PEW system). At that time, a detailed and systematic evaluation of hazardous chemical use and disposal practices had not been conducted to determine if F-, P-, or Unlisted waste had been disposed to the PEW system. The purpose of this investigation was to perform a systematic and detailed evaluation of the use and disposal of the 101 F-, P-, and Unlisted chemicals found in the approved September 1990 Part A Permit application. This investigation was aimed at determining which listed wastes, as defined in 40 CFR 261.31 (F-listed) and 261.33 (P & Unlisted) were discharged to the PEW system. Results of this investigation will be used to support revisions to the RCRA Part A Permit application.

  8. Immobilization in ceramic waste forms of the residues from treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.; van Konynenburg, R.A.; Glassley, W.E.; Curtis, P.G.

    1993-11-01

    The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Applied Technology Program at LLNL is developing a Mixed Waste Management Facility to demonstrate treatment technologies that provide an alternative to incineration. As part of that program, we are developing final waste forms using ceramic processing methods for the immobilization of the treatment process residues. The ceramic phase assemblages are based on using Synroc D as a starting point and varying the phase assemblage to accommodate the differences in chemistry between the treatment process residues and the defense waste for which Synroc D was developed. Two basic formulations are used, one for low ash residues resulting from treatment of organic materials contaminated with RCRA metals, and one for high ash residues generated from the treatment of plastics and paper products. Treatment process residues are mixed with ceramic precursor materials, dried, calcined, formed into pellets at room temperature, and sintered at 1150 to 1200 degrees C to produce the final waste form. This paper discusses the chemical composition of the waste streams and waste forms, the phase assemblages that serve as hosts for inorganic waste elements, and the changes in waste form characteristics as a function of variation in process parameters

  9. Quantum-CEP trademark for mixed waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahass, P.; Sekula-Moise, P.A.; Chanenchuk, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    No commercially available technology exists to effectively treat the hundreds of thousands of tons of mixed waste stored and generated in the United States and worldwide. Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) is an innovative flexible recycling technology which has inherent advantages for processing mixed wastes in a wide variety of chemical and physical forms. CEP uses a molten metal bath to completely dissociate feeds and recombine them with selected reactants to form useful products. Dissolved carbon in the metal bath creates a reducing atmosphere, readily converting hydrocarbons to synthesis gas, metals to alloys in their reduced state, and inorganics to an engineered ceramic phase. Process conditions can be manipulated to strongly favor partitioning of select radionuclides to a nonleachable vitreous phase, ready for final form disposal. Molten Metal Technology has adapted its CEP technology for radioactive processing and has delivered Quantum-CEP trademark units to customers for demonstration of mixed waste processing leading to commercial scale installations for reducing both private and government inventories. Agreements have also been reached to build commercial CEP facilities to recycle hazardous and industrial wastes

  10. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Harrington, E.S.; Mattus, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Waste tank characterization sampling limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ''TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories'' (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel

  12. Conversion of mixed waste to radioactive waste: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedle, S.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), Bechtel National performed remedial actions at the National Guard Armory (NGA) in Chicago, Illinois. The scope of FUSRAP includes sites such as the NGA which were used for uranium storage and processing under the jurisdiction of the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission during the development and the nation's atomic energy program. During remedial actions at the NGA, sixteen 55-gallon (208-liter) drums of sludge were removed from catch basins and drain lines in the garage area of the Armory. This sludge was contaminated with uranium-238 at concentrations up to 14,000 picoCuries per gram as a result of the aforementioned uranium processing. The sludge also contained lead and several volatile organic compounds. Several options for disposing of the sludge were explored; treatment and disposal at existing radioactive waste disposal sites, incineration, supercritical water oxidation, and microwave treatment. Each of these options however was eliminated due to cost, technical feasibility, and/or regulatory restrictions. As a result, bench scale tests were conducted on samples of the sludge to identify techniques for separating the chemical and radiological hazards so the sludge could be disposed. Thermal treatment was selected for field implementation when bench scale thermal tests raised the flash point of a sample of sludge to above 800 degree F (426.7 C), well above the RCRA criterion

  13. Mixed low-level waste minimization at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starke, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    During the first six months of University of California 98 Fiscal Year (July--December) Los Alamos National Laboratory has achieved a 57% reduction in mixed low-level waste generation. This has been accomplished through a systems approach that identified and minimized the largest MLLW streams. These included surface-contaminated lead, lead-lined gloveboxes, printed circuit boards, and activated fluorescent lamps. Specific waste minimization projects have been initiated to address these streams. In addition, several chemical processing equipment upgrades are being implemented. Use of contaminated lead is planned for several high energy proton beam stop applications and stainless steel encapsulated lead is being evaluated for other radiological control area applications. INEEL is assisting Los Alamos with a complete systems analysis of analytical chemistry derived mixed wastes at the CMR building and with a minimum life-cycle cost standard glovebox design. Funding for waste minimization upgrades has come from several sources: generator programs, waste management, the generator set-aside program, and Defense Programs funding to INEEL

  14. Applying the de minimis concept to mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.P.; Chan, D.W.; Wofford, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, a concept of de minimis, below regulatory concern, threshold, or negligible levels of radiation dose and risk from low level waste has begun to be accepted by standard setting and regulatory bodies throughout the world, including ICRP, NCRP, IAEA, USNRC, USDOE, USEPA, and UKNRPB. Moreover, the de minimus principle has long been recognized by the courts and has been applied in the area of environmental health and industrial hygiene law. This paper reviews the precidence in these areas and addresses the reasonableness of establishing BRC levels for chemical, as well as radiological constituents of mixed wastes, in order to minimize the quantity of true mixed wastes that must be disposed of under a duel regulatory system. A two-tiered BRC approach is proposed, which would recognize that since waste deregulated for one of the constituents would still be strictly controlled, there could be conditional BRC levels established higher than those that would apply to cases where disposal of deregulated waste is essentially uncontrolled. This paper discusses some of the technical and trans-scientific concerns involved in implementing the BRC approach in the high profile world of environmental regulation

  15. Ranking system for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, K.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Hazard Ranking System (HRS) is a simplified management decision tool that provides a common basis for evaluating a multitude of hazardous waste sites. A deficiency in the HRS for application to Department of Energy mixed radioactive and hazardous waste sites is its inability to explicitly handle radioactive material. A modification to the basic HRS to add the capability to consider radioactivity is described. The HRS considers the exposure routes of direct contact, fire/explosion, atmospheric release, surface-water release, and ground-water release. Each exposure route is further divided into release, route, containment, waste, and target characteristics. To maintain the basic HRS structure, only the waste characteristics section of each exposure route was modified. A ranking system was developed, using radiation dose pathway analysis, to group radionuclides by dose factors. For mixed waste sites, the ranking factor derived for radionuclides is compared with the ranking factor obtained for hazardous chemicals and the most restrictive is used in the overall ranking. The modified HRS has the advantages of being compatible with the original HRS, has reasonable information requirements, and provides scientifically defensible conclusions. 17 references, 2 figures, 6 tables

  16. VAC*TRAX - thermal desorption for mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElwee, M.J.; Palmer, C.R. [RUST-Clemson Technical Center, Anderson, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The patented VAC*TRAX process was designed in response to the need to remove organic constituents from mixed waste, waste that contains both a hazardous (RCRA or TSCA regulated) component and a radioactive component. Separation of the mixed waste into its hazardous and radioactive components allows for ultimate disposal of the material at existing, permitted facilities. The VAC*TRAX technology consists of a jacketed vacuum dryer followed by a condensing train. Solids are placed in the dryer and indirectly heated to temperatures as high as 2600{degrees}C, while a strong vacuum (down to 50 mm Hg absolute pressure) is applied to the system and the dryer is purged with a nitrogen carrier gas. The organic contaminants in the solids are thermally desorbed, swept up in the carrier gas and into the condensing train where they are cooled and recovered. The dryer is fitted with a filtration system that keeps the radioactive constituents from migrating to the condensate. As such, the waste is separated into hazardous liquid and radioactive solid components, allowing for disposal of these streams at a permitted incinerator or a radioactive materials landfill, respectively. The VAC*TRAX system is designed to be highly mobile, while minimizing the operational costs with a simple, robust process. These factors allow for treatment of small waste streams at a reasonable cost.

  17. Mixed low-level waste minimization at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, T.P.

    1998-12-01

    During the first six months of University of California 98 Fiscal Year (July--December) Los Alamos National Laboratory has achieved a 57% reduction in mixed low-level waste generation. This has been accomplished through a systems approach that identified and minimized the largest MLLW streams. These included surface-contaminated lead, lead-lined gloveboxes, printed circuit boards, and activated fluorescent lamps. Specific waste minimization projects have been initiated to address these streams. In addition, several chemical processing equipment upgrades are being implemented. Use of contaminated lead is planned for several high energy proton beam stop applications and stainless steel encapsulated lead is being evaluated for other radiological control area applications. INEEL is assisting Los Alamos with a complete systems analysis of analytical chemistry derived mixed wastes at the CMR building and with a minimum life-cycle cost standard glovebox design. Funding for waste minimization upgrades has come from several sources: generator programs, waste management, the generator set-aside program, and Defense Programs funding to INEEL.

  18. An overview of the mixed waste landfill integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prior to May 1992, field demonstrations of characterization technologies were performed at an uncontaminated site near the Chemical Waste Landfill. In mid-1992 through summer 1993, both non-intrusive and intrusive characterization techniques were demonstrated at the Chemical Waste Landfill. Subsurface and dry barrier demonstrations were started in summer 1993 and will continue into 1995. Future plans include demonstrations of innovative drilling, characterization and long-term monitoring, and remediation techniques. Demonstrations were also scheduled in summer 1993 at the Kirtland Air Force HSWA site and will continue in 1994. The first phase of the Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) project occurred in April 1992 when two holes were drilled and vapor extraction wells were installed at the Chemical Waste Landfill. Obtaining the engineering design and environmental permits necessary to implement this field demonstration will take until early 1994. Field demonstration of the vapor extraction system will occur in 1994

  19. VAC*TRAX - Thermal desorption for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElwee, M.J.; Palmer, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The patented VAC*TRAX process was designed in response to the need to remove organic constituents from mixed waste, waste that contains both a hazardous (RCRA or TSCA regulated) component and a radioactive component. Separation of the mixed waste into its hazardous and radioactive components allows for ultimate disposal of the material at existing, permitted facilities. The VAC*TRAX technology consists of a jacketed vacuum dryer followed by a condensing train. Solids are placed in the dryer and indirectly heated to temperatures as high as 260 degrees C, while a strong vacuum (down to 50 mm Hg absolute pressure) is applied to the system and the dryer is purged with a nitrogen carrier gas. The organic contaminants in the solids are thermally desorbed, swept up in the carrier gas and into the condensing train where they are cooled and recovered. The dryer is fitted with a filtration system that keeps the radioactive constituents from migrating to the condensate. As such, the waste is separated into hazardous liquid and radioactive solid components, allowing for disposal of these streams at a permitted incinerator or a radioactive materials landfill, respectively. The VAC*TRAX system is designed to be highly mobile, while minimizing the operational costs with a simple, robust process. These factors allow for treatment of small waste streams at a reasonable cost. This paper describes the VAC*TRAX thermal desorption process, as well as results from the pilot testing program. Also, the design and application of the full-scale treatment system is presented. Materials tested to date include spiked soil and debris, power plant trash and sludge contaminated with solvents, PCB contaminated soil, solvent-contaminated uranium mill-tailings, and solvent and PCB-contaminated sludge and trash. Over 70 test runs have been performed using the pilot VAC*TRAX system, with more than 80% of the tests using mixed waste as the feed material

  20. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, N.T.

    1993-01-01

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible

  1. Mixed Waste Focus Area Mercury Working Group: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1998-03-01

    In May 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Working Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury contaminated mixed wastes. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated mixed waste. The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury related treatment technologies at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate both the amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded that will address DOE's needs for separation removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the HgWG to date through these various activities

  2. Stabilization and disposal of Argonne-West low-level mixed wastes in ceramicrete waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D. B.; Singh, D.; Strain, R. V.; Tlustochowicz, M.; Wagh, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    The technology of room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics or Ceramicretetrademark technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)-East is being used to treat and dispose of low-level mixed wastes through the Department of Energy complex. During the past year, Ceramicretetrademark technology was implemented for field application at ANL-West. Debris wastes were treated and stabilized: (a) Hg-contaminated low-level radioactive crushed light bulbs and (b) low-level radioactive Pb-lined gloves (part of the MWIR number s ign AW-W002 waste stream). In addition to hazardous metals, these wastes are contaminated with low-level fission products. Initially, bench-scale waste forms with simulated and actual waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and an acid phosphate solution, and the wastes. Size reduction of Pb-lined plastic glove waste was accomplished by cryofractionation. The Ceramicretetrademark process produces dense, hard ceramic waste forms. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results showed excellent stabilization of both Hg and Pb in the waste forms. The principal advantage of this technology is that immobilization of contaminants is the result of both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. Based on bench-scale studies, Ceramicretetrademark technology has been implemented in the fabrication of 5-gal waste forms at ANL-West. Approximately 35 kg of real waste has been treated. The TCLP is being conducted on the samples from the 5-gal waste forms. It is expected that because the waste forms pass the limits set by the EPAs Universal Treatment Standard, they will be sent to a radioactive-waste disposal facility

  3. Closure of a mixed waste landfill: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Much experience has been gained during the closure of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and many lessons were learned. This knowledge was applied to other closures at SRS yielding decreased costs, schedule enhancement, and increased overall project efficiency. The next major area of experience to be gained at SRS in the field of waste site closures will be in the upkeep, maintenance, and monitoring of clay caps. Further test programs will be required to address these requirements

  4. Mixed waste treatment with a mediated electrochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.; Gray, L.W.; Chiba, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The process described in this paper is intended to convert mixed waste containing toxic organic compounds (not heavy metals) to ordinary radioactive waste, which is treatable. The process achieves its goal by oxidizing hydrocarbons to CO 2 and H 2 O. Other atoms that may be present in the toxic organic generally are converted to nonhazardous anions such as sulfate and phosphate. This electro chemical conversion is performed at conditions of temperature and pressure that are just moderately above ambient conditions. Gaseous hydroxides and oxyhydroxides that are formed by many radionuclides during incineration cannot form in this process. 1 ref., 3 figs

  5. 1995 Report on Hanford site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-26-01E. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors at the Hanford Site were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers mixed waste only. The Washington State Department of Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDRs) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for radioactive mixed waste. This report is the fifth update of the plan first issued in 1990. Tri-Party Agreement negotiations completed in 1993 and approved in January 1994 changed and added many new milestones. Most of the changes were related to the Tank Waste Remediation System and these changes are incorporated into this report

  6. 1995 Report on Hanford site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-26-01E. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors at the Hanford Site were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers mixed waste only. The Washington State Department of Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDRs) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for radioactive mixed waste. This report is the fifth update of the plan first issued in 1990. Tri-Party Agreement negotiations completed in 1993 and approved in January 1994 changed and added many new milestones. Most of the changes were related to the Tank Waste Remediation System and these changes are incorporated into this report.

  7. Analysis of low-level wastes. Review of hazardous waste regulations and identification of radioactive mixed wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1985-12-01

    Regulations governing the management and disposal of hazardous wastes have been promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. These were reviewed and compared with the available information on the properties and characteristics of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). In addition, a survey was carried out to establish a data base on the nature and composition of LLW in order to determine whether some LLW streams could also be considered hazardous as defined in 40 CFR Part 261. For the survey, an attempt was made to obtain data on the greatest volume of LLW; hence, as many large LLW generators as possible were contacted. The list of 238 generators contacted was based on information obtained from NRC and other sources. The data base was compiled from completed questionnaires which were returned by 97 reactor and non-reactor facilities. The waste volumes reported by these respondents corresponded to approximately 29% of all LLW disposed of in 1984. The analysis of the survey results indicated that three broad categories of LLW may be radioactive mixed wastes. They include: waste containing organic liquids, disposed of by all types of generators; wastes containing lead metal, i.e., discarded shielding or lead containers; wastes containing chromates, i.e., nuclear power plant process wastes where chromates are used as corrosion inhibitors. Certain wastes, specific to particular generators, were identified as potential mixed wastes as well. 8 figs., 48 tabs

  8. Identification and characterization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RANDRIAMORA, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    As the goal of the radioactive waste management is to protect human health and the environment, without imposing excessive constraints to the future generations, this work consists with of the identification of the radioactive waste existing in Madagascar, theirs characterizations for their later conditioning and their final storage. In this work, we used a dosimeter GRAETZ X5 C and a portable spectrometer EXPLORANIUM GR 135. These apparatuses have a great advantage at the user level because of their capacity to measure the equivalent dose rate, to identify, search and locate radiocative elements. The establishment of national center for radioactive waste management for the conditioning and the storage of spent sealed sources is the best solution for radioactive waste management in Madagascar. [fr

  9. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  10. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  11. Development of radiological profiles for U.S. Department of Energy low-level mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.D.; Meshkov, N.K.; Dolak, D.A.; Wang, Y.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Radiological profiles have been developed by Argonne National Laboratory for low-level mixed wastes (LLMWs) that are under the management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). These profiles have been used in the Office of Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS) to support the analysis of environmental and health risks associated with the various waste management strategies. The radiological characterization of DOE LLMWs is generally inadequate and has made it difficult to develop a site- and waste-stream-dependent radiological profile for LLMWs. On the basis of the operational history of the DOE sites, a simple model was developed to generate site-dependent and waste-stream-independent radiological profiles for LLMWs. This paper briefly discusses the assumptions used in this model and the uncertainties in the results

  12. Accelerator Production of Tritium Waste Characterization and Certification Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; England, J.L.; Nowacki, P.L.; Hane, R.; Tempel, K.L.; Pitcher, E.; Cohen, H.S.

    1998-06-01

    This paper summaries the processes and methods APT used for the identification and classification of the waste streams, the characterization and certification of the waste streams, and waste minimization

  13. Cost avoidance realized through transportation and disposal of Fernald mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, A.K.; Dilday, D.R.; Rast, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    Currently, Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing a transformation from shipping radiologically contaminated waste within the DOE structure for disposal to now include Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) shipments to a permitted commercial disposal facility (PCDF) final disposition. Implementing this change can be confusing and is perceived as being more difficult than it actually is. Lack of experience and disposal capacity, sometimes and/or confusing regulatory guidance, and expense of transportation and disposal of MLLW ar contributing factors to many DOE facilities opting to simply store their MLLW. Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company (FERMCO) established itself as a leader i addressing MLLW transportation and disposal by being one of the first DOE facilities to ship mixed waste to a PCDF (Envirocare of Utah) for disposal. FERMCO's proactive approach in establishing a MLLW Disposal Program produces long-term cost savings while generating interim mixed waste storage space to support FERMCO's cleanup mission. FERMCO's goal for all MLLW shipments was to develop a cost efficient system to accurately characterize, sample and analyze the waste, prepare containers and shipping paperwork, and achieve regulatory compliance while satisfying disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This goal required the ability to evolve with the regulations, to address waste streams of varying matrices and contaminants, and to learn from each MLLW shipment campaign. These efforts have produced a successful MLLW Disposal Program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO has a massed lessons learned from development of this fledgling program which may be applied complex-wide to ultimately save facilities time and money traditionally wasted by maintaining the status quo

  14. The Hybrid Treatment Process for treatment of mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Kindle, C.H.

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process

  15. Alternatives to land disposal of solid radioactive mixed wastes on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, P.H.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a detailed description of the generation and management of land disposal restricted mixed waste generated, treated, and stored at the Hanford Site. This report discusses the land disposal restricted waste (mixed waste) managed at the Hanford Site by point of generation and current storage locations. The waste is separated into groups on the future treatment of the waste before disposal. This grouping resulted in the definition of 16 groups or streams of land disposal restricted waste

  16. Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.F.; Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Farmer, J.; Hoenig, C.; Krikorian, O.H.; Upadhye, R.; Gay, R.L.; Stewart, A.; Yosim, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000 degrees C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the acid-gas forming components of the waste into neutral salts and immobilizes potentially fugitive materials by a combination of particle wetting, encapsulation and chemical dissolution and solvation. Because the offgas is collected and assayed before release, and wastes containing toxic and radioactive materials are treated while immobilized in a condensed phase, the process avoids the problems sometimes associated with incineration processes. We are studying a potentially improved modification of this process, which treats oxidizable wastes in two stages: pyrolysis followed by catalyzed molten salt oxidation of the pyrolysis gases at ca. 700 degrees C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasevich, R.S.; Nocito, T.; Vaux, W.G.; Snyder, T.

    1994-01-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the US nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCBs, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay, and fission products of DOE operations. To allow disposal, the asbestos must be converted chemically, followed by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives. An attempt was made to apply techniques that have already proved successful in the mining, oil, and metals processing industries to the development of a multi-stage process to remove and separate hazardous chemical radioactive materials from asbestos. This process uses three methods: ABCOV chemicals which converts the asbestos to a sanitary waste; dielectric heating to volatilize the organic materials; and electrochemical processing for the removal of heavy metals, RCRA wastes and radionuclides. This process will result in the destruction of over 99% of the asbestos; limit radioactive metal contamination to 0.2 Bq alpha per gram and 1 Bq beta and gamma per gram; reduce hazardous organics to levels compatible with current EPA policy for RCRA delisting; and achieve TCLP limits for all solidified waste

  18. Characterization and vitrification of Hanford radioactive high level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.; Larson, D.E.; Morrey, E.V.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) samples from the Hanford waste tanks have been chemically, radiochemically and physically characterized. The wastes were processed according to the Hanford Waste vitrification Plant (HWVP) flowsheet, and characterized after each process step. The waste glasses were sectioned and leach tested. Chemical, radiochemical and physical properties of the waste will be presented and compared to nonradioactive simulant data and the HWVP reference composition and properties

  19. Analysis of waste treatment requirements for DOE mixed wastes: Technical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The risks and costs of managing DOE wastes are a direct function of the total quantities of 3wastes that are handled at each step of the management process. As part of the analysis of the management of DOE low-level mixed wastes (LLMW), a reference scheme has been developed for the treatment of these wastes to meet EPA criteria. The treatment analysis in a limited form was also applied to one option for treatment of transuranic wastes. The treatment requirements in all cases analyzed are based on a reference flowsheet which provides high level treatment trains for all LLMW. This report explains the background and basis for that treatment scheme. Reference waste stream chemical compositions and physical properties including densities were established for each stream in the data base. These compositions are used to define the expected behavior for wastes as they pass through the treatment train. Each EPA RCRA waste code was reviewed, the properties, chemical composition, or characteristics which are of importance to waste behavior in treatment were designated. Properties that dictate treatment requirements were then used to develop the treatment trains and identify the unit operations that would be included in these trains. A table was prepared showing a correlation of the waste physical matrix and the waste treatment requirements as a guide to the treatment analysis. The analysis of waste treatment loads is done by assigning wastes to treatment steps which would achieve RCRA compliant treatment. These correlation's allow one to examine the treatment requirements in a condensed manner and to see that all wastes and contaminant sets are fully considered

  20. The mixed waste management facility: Cost-benefit for the Mixed Waste Management Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinker, S.D.; Streit, R.D.

    1996-04-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility, or MWMF, has been proposed as a national testbed facility for the demonstration and evaluation of technologies that are alternatives to incineration for the treatment of mixed low-level waste. The facility design will enable evaluation of technologies at pilot scale, including all aspects of the processes, from receiving and feed preparation to the preparation of final forms for disposal. The MWMF will reduce the risk of deploying such technologies by addressing the following: (1) Engineering development and scale-up. (2) Process integration and activation of the treatment systems. (3) Permitting and stakeholder issues. In light of the severe financial constraints imposed on the DOE and federal programs, DOE/HQ requested a study to assess the cost benefit for the MWMF given other potential alternatives to meet waste treatment needs. The MVVMF Project was asked to consider alternatives specifically associated with commercialization and privatization of the DOE site waste treatment operations and the acceptability (or lack of acceptability) of incineration as a waste treatment process. The result of this study will be one of the key elements for a DOE decision on proceeding with the MWMF into Final Design (KD-2) vs. proceeding with other options

  1. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE's nuclear waste site characterization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE's relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult

  2. Compatibility of packaging components with simulant mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations in the US have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified by the US Department of Transportation (US DOT, 49 CFR 173) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 10 CFR 71). Based on these national requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program provides a basis to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. In this paper, the authors present the results of the second phase of this testing program. The first phase screened five liner materials and six seal materials towards four simulant mixed wastes. This phase involved the comprehensive testing of five candidate liner materials to an aqueous Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The comprehensive testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials a matrix of four gamma radiation doses (∼ 1, 3, 6, and 40 kGy), three temperatures (18, 50, and 60 C), and four exposure times (7, 14, 28, and 180 days). Following their exposure to these combinations of conditions, the materials were evaluated by measuring five material properties. These properties were specific gravity, dimensional changes, hardness, stress cracking, and mechanical properties

  3. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases

  4. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report's information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  5. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  6. Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report

  7. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-21

    The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  8. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasevich, R.S. [KAI Technologies, Inc., Portsmouth, NH (United States); Vaux, W.G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nocito, T. [Ohio DSI Corp., New York (United States)

    1995-10-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

  9. Characterization of Hanford tank wastes containing ferrocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, J.M.; Matheson, J.D.; McKinley, S.G.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    Currently, 17 storage tanks on the Hanford site that are believed to contain > 1,000 gram moles (465 lbs) of ferrocyanide compounds have been identified. Seven other tanks are classified as ferrocyanide containing waste tanks, but contain less than 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide compounds. These seven tanks are still included as Hanford Watch List Tanks. These tanks have been declared an unreviewed safety question (USQ) because of potential thermal reactivity hazards associated with the ferrocyanide compounds and nitrate and nitrite. Hanford tanks with waste containing > 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide have been sampled. Extensive chemical, radiothermical, and physical characterization have been performed on these waste samples. The reactivity of these wastes were also studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis. Actual tank waste samples were retrieved from tank 241-C-112 using a specially designed and equipped core-sampling truck. Only a small portion of the data obtained from this characterization effort will be reported in this paper. This report will deal primarily with the cyanide and carbon analyses, thermal analyses, and limited physical property measurements

  10. Characterization of radioactive organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, I.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E.; Lopez A, E.; Duarte A, C.

    2014-10-01

    With the purpose of defining the treatment and more appropriate conditioning of radioactive organic liquid wastes, generated in medical establishments and research centers of the country (Mexico) and stored in drums of 208 L is necessary to characterize them. This work presents the physical-chemistry and radiological characterization of these wastes. The samples of 36 drums are presented, whose registrations report the presence of H-3, C-14 and S-35. The following physiochemical parameters of each sample were evaluated: ph, conductivity, density and viscosity; and analyzed by means of gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation, in order to determine those contained radionuclides in the same wastes and their activities. Our results show the presence of H-3 (61%), C-14 (13%) and Na-22 (11%) and in some drums low concentrations of Co-60 (5.5%). In the case of the registered drums with S-35 (8.3%) does not exist presence of radioactive material, so they can be liberated without restriction as conventional chemical wastes. The present activities in these wastes vary among 5.6 and 2312.6 B g/g, their ph between 2 and 13, the conductivities between 0.005 and 15 m S, the densities among 1.05 and 1.14, and the viscosities between 1.1 and 39 MPa. (Author)

  11. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  12. In situ vitrification of mixed wastes: Progress and regulatory status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindle, C.H.; Barich, J.J. III

    1991-08-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) technology targets mixed wastes in in situ near-surface environments. Federal laws governing toxic substances (TSCA), hazardous waste (RCRA), and abandoned sites (Superfund) create the need for remediation technology and define the required performance characteristics. The need for ISV depends, in part, on the extent of regulation and how well ISV's demonstrated performance characteristics match up with regulatory criteria. The regulatory requirements are easier to identify and meet in short-duration site- and situation-specific applications of the technology than they are simpler in long-term, generalized applications. ISV's ability to treat both inorganics and organics in a single process supports applications for mixed, hazardous, and radioactive sites of moderate depth (20 ft). The durability of the ISV waste form is a major advantage of the technology when demonstrating permanence of a waste management strategy. Achieving depth and vapor containment assurance are issues being addressed as the ISV process is refined for new applications having different processing concerns. Refinements include moveable electrodes and sheet steel as the material for the containment structure. 16 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies

  14. Low-level and mixed waste incinerator survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Low-Level and Mixed Waste Survey Task was initiated to investigate and document current and planned incinerator facilities in the Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE-DP) system. A survey was mailed to the DOE field offices requesting information regarding existing or planned incinerator facilities located under their jurisdiction. The information requested included type, capacities, uses, costs, and mechanical description of the incinerators. The results of this survey are documented in this report. Nine sites responded to the survey, with eight sites listing nine incineration units in several stages of operations. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory listed two operational facilities. There are four incinerators that are planned for start-up in 1991. Of the existing incinerators, three are used mostly for low-level wastes, while the planned units will be used for low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. This report documents the current state of the incineration facilities in the DOE-DP system and provides a preliminary strategy for management of low-level wastes and a basis for implementing this strategy. 5 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs

  15. Physical sampling for site and waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnough, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Physical sampling plays a basic role in site and waste characterization program effort. The term ''physical sampling'' used here means collecting tangible, physical samples of soil, water, air, waste streams, or other materials. The industry defines the term ''physical sampling'' broadly to include measurements of physical conditions such as temperature, wind conditions, and pH which are also often taken in a sample collection effort. Most environmental compliance actions are supported by the results of taking, recording, and analyzing physical samples and the measuring of physical conditions taken in association with sample collecting

  16. Automated robotic workcell for waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougan, A.D.; Gustaveson, D.K.; Alvarez, R.A.; Holliday, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated an automated multisensor-based robotic workcell for hazardous waste characterization. The robot within this workcell uses feedback from radiation sensors, a metal detector, object profile scanners, and a 2D vision system to automatically segregate objects based on their measured properties. The multisensor information is used to make segregation decisions of waste items and to facilitate the grasping of objects with a robotic arm. The authors used both sodium iodide and high purity germanium detectors as a two-step process to maximize throughput. For metal identification and discrimination, the authors are investigating the use of neutron interrogation techniques

  17. 1QCY17 Saltstone waste characterization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-25

    In the first quarter of calendar year 2017, a salt solution sample was collected from Tank 50 on January 16, 2017 in order to meet South Carolina (SC) Regulation 61-107.19 Part I C, “Solid Waste Management: Solid Waste Landfills and Structural Fill – General Requirements” and the Saltstone Disposal Facility Class 3 Landfill Permit. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to prepare and ship saltstone samples to a United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified laboratory to perform the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent characterization.

  18. Management of radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Piciulo, P.L.; Bowerman, B.S.; Siskind, B.

    1986-01-01

    Potential mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes have been identified and management options applicable to these wastes have been evaluated. Both the identification and management evaluation have necessarily been based on review of NRC and EPA regulations and recommendations. The underlying intent of both agencies is protection of man and/or environment, but differences may occur in the means by which intent is achieved. Apparent discrepancies, data gaps and unresolved issues that have surfaced during the course of this work are discussed

  19. Case studies of corrosion of mixed waste and transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents three case studies of corrosion of waste drums at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Corrosion was not anticipated by the waste generators, but occurred because of subtle chemical or physical mechanisms. In one case, drums of a cemented transuranic (TRU) sludge experienced general and pitting corrosion. In the second instance, a chemical from a commercial paint stripper migrated from its primary containment drums to chemically attack overpack drums made of mild carbon steel. In the third case, drums of mixed low level waste (MLLW) soil corroded drum packaging even though the waste appeared to be dry when it was placed in the drums. These case studies are jointly discussed as ''lessons learned'' to enhance awareness of subtle mechanisms that can contribute to the corrosion of radioactive waste drums during interim storage

  20. Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOTSON, PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY, ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR, CARL EDWARD

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where

  1. The Hybrid Treatment Process for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Kindle, C.H.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. It also uses techniques from several additional technologies. Mixed wastes are being generated by both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and by commercial sources. The wastes are those that contain both a hazardous waste regulated under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and a radioactive waste with source, special nuclear, or byproduct materials. The dual regulation of the wastes increases the complexity of the treatment, handling, and storage of the waste. The DOE is the largest holder and generator of mixed waste. Its mixed wastes are classified as either high-level, transuranic (TRU), or low-level waste (LLW). High-level mixed wastes will be treated in vitrification plants. Transuranic wastes may be disposed of without treatment by obtaining a no-migration variance from the EPA. Lowlevel wastes, however, will require treatment, but treatment systems with sufficient capacity are not yet available to DOE. Various facilities are being proposed for the treatment of low-level waste. The concept described in this paper represents one option for establishing that treatment capacity

  2. Chemical recycling of mixed waste plastics by selective pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumoto, K.; Meglen, R.; Evans, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The goal of this work is to use selective pyrolysis to produce high-value chemicals from waste plastics mixtures. Selectivity is achieved by exploiting differences in reaction rates, catalysis, and coreactants. Target wastes are molecular mixtures such as; blends or composites, or mixtures from manufactured products such as; carpets and post-consumer mixed-plastic wastes. The experimental approach has been to use small-scale experiments using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), which provides rapid analysis of reaction products and permits rapid screening of process parameters. Rapid screening experiments permit exploration of many potential waste stream applications for the selective pyrolysis process. After initial screening, small-scale, fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors are used to provide products for conventional chemical analysis, to determine material balances, and to test the concept under conditions that will be used at a larger scale. Computer assisted data interpretation and intelligent chemical processing are used to extract process-relevant information from these experiments. An important element of this project employs technoeconomic assessments and market analyses of durables, the availability of other wastes, and end-product uses to identify target applications that have the potential for economic success.

  3. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belue, A; Fischer, R P

    2007-01-01

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES and H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES and H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction

  4. Development of treatment technologies of the processing of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, P.M.; Berry, J.B.; Coyle, G.J. Jr.; Lurk, P.; Wolf, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species is defined as mixed waste. Significant technology development has been conducted for separate treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste, but technology development addressing mixed-waste treatment has been limited. In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to mixed-waste technology development, the Office of Technology Development of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The program is identifying and evaluating treatment technologies to treat present and estimated future mixed wastes at DOE sites. The status of the technical initiatives in chemical/physical treatment, waste destruction/stabilization technology, off-gas treatment, and final waste form production/assessment is described in this paper

  5. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    These Quality Policies (QPs) describe the Quality Management System of the Tank Waste Characterization Project (hereafter referred to as the Characterization Project), Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Quality Policies and quality requirements described herein are binding on all Characterization Project organizations. To achieve quality, the Characterization Project management team shall implement this Characterization Project Quality Management System

  6. Development and demonstration of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.A.; Berry, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Mixed waste is defined as ''waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species.'' The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was established in response to the need for a unified, DOE complexwide solution to issues of mixed waste treatment that meets regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing treatment technologies that reduce risk, minimize life-cycle cost, and improve process performance as compared to existing technologies. Treatment for waste streams for which no current technology exists, and suitable waste forms for disposal, will be provided to improve operations of the DOE Office of Waste Management. MWIP is composed of six technical areas within a mixed-waste treatment system: (1) systems analysis, (2) materials handling, (3) chemical/physical separation, (4) waste destruction and stabilization, (5) off-gas treatment, and (6) final waste form stabilization. The status of the technical initiatives and the current research, development, and demonstration in each of these areas are described in this paper

  7. A PC-based software package for modeling DOE mixed-waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashian, M.S.; Carney, C.; Schum, K.

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters and associated contractors have developed an IBM PC-based software package that estimates costs, schedules, and public and occupational health risks for a range of mixed-waste management options. A key application of the software package is the comparison of various waste-treatment options documented in the draft Site Treatment Plans prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. This automated Systems Analysis Methodology consists of a user interface for configuring complexwide or site-specific waste-management options; calculational algorithms for cost, schedule and risk; and user-selected graphical or tabular output of results. The mixed-waste management activities modeled in the automated Systems Analysis Methodology include waste storage, characterization, handling, transportation, treatment, and disposal. Analyses of treatment options identified in the draft Site Treatment Plans suggest potential cost and schedule savings from consolidation of proposed treatment facilities. This paper presents an overview of the automated Systems Analysis Methodology

  8. A process for treatment of mixed waste containing chemical plating wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anast, K.R.; Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Waste Treatment and Minimization Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed and will be constructing a transportable treatment system to treat low-level radioactive mixed waste generated during plating operations. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is composed of two modules with six submodules, which can be trucked to user sites to treat a wide variety of aqueous waste solutions. The process is designed to remove the hazardous components from the waste stream, generating chemically benign, disposable liquids and solids with low level radioactivity. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is designed as a multifunctional process capable of treating several different types of wastes. At this time, the unit has been the designated treatment process for these wastes: Destruction of free cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes from spent plating solutions; destruction of ammonia in solution from spent plating solutions; reduction of Cr VI to Cr III from spent plating solutions, precipitation, solids separation, and immobilization; heavy metal precipitation from spent plating solutions, solids separation, and immobilization, and acid or base neutralization from unspecified solutions

  9. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  10. Mixed-waste minimization activities in the nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, J.A.; Suffern, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the nuclear weapons complex have successfully executed their mission of providing the country with a strong nuclear deterrent. Now, however, they must attain another mission at the same time: to eliminate or greatly reduce the environmental, safety, and health problems in the complex. Mixed-waste minimization activities have taken place in 11 of the complex production plants and laboratories: the Pinellas plant, the Mount plant, the Kansas City plant, the Y-12 plant, the Rocky Flats plant, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Pantex plant, the Nevada Test Site, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The mixed-waste minimization opportunities that have been implemented to date by the production facilities are different from those that have been implemented by the laboratories. Areas of opportunity at the plants involve the following activities: (1) process design or improvement; (2) substitution of materials; (3) waste segregation; (4) recycling; and (5) administrative controls

  11. Carbon bed mercury emissions control for mixed waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, Nick; Enneking, Joe

    2010-11-01

    Mercury has various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so it is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Compliance with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include (1) the depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests; (2) MERSORB carbon can sorb mercury up to 19 wt % of the carbon mass; and (3) the spent carbon retained almost all (98.3-99.99%) of the mercury during Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Procedure (TCLP) tests, but when even a small fraction of the total mercury dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high mercury concentrations.

  12. Thermoplastic encapsulation of waste surrogates by high-shear mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Patel, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a robust, extrusion-based polyethylene encapsulation process applicable to a wide range of solid and aqueous low-level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. However, due to the broad range of physical and chemical properties of waste materials, pretreatment of these wastes is often required to make them amenable to processing with polyethylene. As part of the scope of work identified in FY95 open-quotes Removal and Encapsulation of Heavy Metals from Ground Water,close quotes EPA SERDP No. 387, that specifies a review of potential thermoplastic processing techniques, and in order to investigate possible pretreatment alternatives, BNL conducted a vendor test of the Draiswerke Gelimat (thermokinetic) mixer on April 25, 1995 at their test facility in Mahwah, NJ. The Gelimat is a batch operated, high-shear, high-intensity fluxing mixer that is often used for mixing various materials and specifically in the plastics industry for compounding additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers

  13. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING and SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  14. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  15. Characterization of Fernald Silo 3 Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.

    2001-04-04

    This report summarizes characterization results for uranium residues from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit (OU-4). These residues are currently stored in a one-million-gallon concrete silo, Silo 3, at the DOE Fernald Site, Ohio. Characterization of the Silo 3 waste is the first part of a three part study requested by Rocky Mountain Remedial Services (RMRS) through a Work for others Agreement, WFO-00-007, between the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and RMRS. Parts 2 and 3 of this effort include bench- and pilot-scale testing.

  16. Separation of mixed waste plastics via magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Xie, Jun; Gu, Fu; Sharmin, Nusrat; Hall, Philip; Fu, Jianzhong

    2018-06-01

    Separation becomes a bottleneck of dealing with the enormous stream of waste plastics, as most of the extant methods can only handle binary mixtures. In this paper, a novel method that based on magnetic levitation was proposed for separating multiple mixed plastics. Six types of plastics, i.e., polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyamide 6 (PA6), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), were used to simulate the mixed waste plastics. The samples were mixed and immersed into paramagnetic medium that placed into a magnetic levitation configuration with two identical NdFeB magnets with like-poles facing each other, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to verify the separation outputs. Unlike any conventional separation methods such as froth flotation and hydrocyclone, this method is not limited by particle sizes, as mixtures of different size fractions reached their respective equilibrium positions in the initial tests. The two-stage separation tests demonstrated that the plastics can be completely separated with purities reached 100%. The method has the potential to be industrialised into an economically-viable and environmentally-friendly mass production procedure, since quantitative correlations are determined, and the paramagnetic medium can be reused indefinitely. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An approach to regulatory compliance with radioactive mixed waste regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, G.G.; Mihalovich, G.S.; Provencher, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    On May 7, 1990, radioactive mixed waste (RMW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) became subject to the State Of New York hazardous waste regulations. The facility was required to be in full compliance by June 6, 1990. Achievement of this goal was difficult because of the short implementation time frame. Compliance with the hazardous waste regulations also presented some potential conflicts between the hazardous waste requirements and other regulatory requirements specifically applicable to nuclear facilities. The potential conflicts involved construction, operation, and control measures. However, the facility had been working extensively with EPA Region 2 and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) on the application of the hazardous waste regulations to the facility. During these preliminary contacts, WVDP identified three issues that related to the potential conflicts: 1. Equivalency of Design and Equipment, 2. Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), and 3. The Principle of As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) Radiation Exposure. The equivalency of nuclear facility design and equipment to the hazardous waste requirements is based in part on the increased construction criteria for nuclear facilities, the use of remote radiological monitoring for leak detection, and testing of system components that are not accessible to personnel due to high levels of radiation. This paper discusses in detail: 1. The implementation and results of the WVDP's interaction with its regulators, 2. How the regulators were helped to understand the different situations and conditions of nuclear and chemical facilities, and 3. How, by working together, the result was not only mutually advantageous to the NWDP and the agencies, but it also assured that the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment were protected

  18. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  19. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  20. Successful characterization of radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.B.; Miles, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Characterization of the low-level radioactive waste generated by forty five independent operating facilities at The Savannah River Site (SRS) experienced a slow start. However, the site effectively accelerated waste characterization based on findings of an independent assessment that recommended several changes to the existing process. The new approach included the development of a generic waste characterization protocol and methodology and the formulation of a technical board to approve waste characterization. As a result, consistent, detailed characterization of waste streams from SRS facilities was achieved in six months

  1. A strategy for analysis of TRU waste characterization needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, C.D.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Arvizu, J.S.; Marcinkiewicz, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Regulatory compliance and effective management of the nation's TRU waste requires knowledge about the constituents present in the waste. With limited resources, the DOE needs a cost-effective characterization program. In addition, the DOE needs a method for predicting the present and future analytical requirements for waste characterization. Thus, a strategy for predicting the present and future waste characterization needs that uses current knowledge of the TRU inventory and prioritization of the data needs is presented

  2. Effects of mixed waste simulants on transportation packaging plastic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to, enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified. The design requirements for both hazardous and radioactive materials packaging specify packaging compatibility, i.e., that the materials of the packaging and any contents be chemically compatible with each other. Furthermore, Type A and Type B packaging design requirements stipulate that there be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction between the materials and contents of the package. Based on these requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program, supported by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Transportation Management Division, EM-261 provides the means to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. In this paper, we describe the general elements of the testing program and the experimental results of the screening tests. The implications of the results of this testing are discussed in the general context of packaging development. Additionally, we present the results of the first phase of this experimental program. This phase involved the screening of five candidate liner and six seal materials against four simulant mixed wastes

  3. Development of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, P.M.; Berry, J.B.; Coyle, G.J.; Lurk, P.W.; Wolf, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species is defined as mixed waste. Significant technology development has been conducted for separate treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste, but technology development addressing mixed-waste treatment has been limited. Management of mixed waste requires treatment which must meet the standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous constituents while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. Technology has not been developed, demonstrated, or tested to produce a low-risk final waste form specifically for mixed waste. Throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex, mixed waste is a problem because definitive treatment standards have not been established and few disposal facilities are available. Treatment capability and capacity are also limited. Site-specific solutions to the management of mixed waste have been initiated; however, site-specific programs result in duplication of technology development between various sites. Significant progress is being made in developing technology for mixed waste under the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The status of the technical initiatives in chemical/physical treatment, destruction/stabilization technology, off-gas treatment, and final waste form production/assessment is described in this paper

  4. TRU Waste Inventory Collection and Work-Off Plans for the Centralization of TRU Waste Characterization/Certification at INL - On Your Mark - Get Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTaggart, J.; Lott, S.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) amended the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Program: Treatment and Storage of Transuranic Waste to centralize transuranic (TRU) waste characterization/certification from fourteen TRU waste sites. This centralization will allow for treatment, characterization and certification of TRU waste from the fourteen sites, thirteen of which are sites with small quantities of TRU waste, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to shipping the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Centralization of this TRU waste will avoid the cost of building treatment, characterization, certification, and shipping capabilities at each of the small quantity sites that currently do not have existing facilities. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) and Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) will provide centralized shipping facilities, to WIPP, for all of the small quantity sites. Hanford, the one large quantity site identified in the ROD, has a large number of waste in containers that are over-packed into larger containers which are inefficient for shipment to and disposal at WIPP. The AMWTP at the INL will reduce the volume of much of the CH waste and make it much more efficient to ship and dispose of at WIPP. In addition, the INTEC has a certified remote handled (RH) TRU waste characterization/certification program at INL to disposition TRU waste from the sites identified in the ROD. (authors)

  5. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  6. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  7. Characterizing cemented TRU waste for RCRA hazardous constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeamans, D.R.; Betts, S.E.; Bodenstein, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has characterized drums of solidified transuranic (TRU) waste from four major waste streams. The data will help the State of New Mexico determine whether or not to issue a no-migration variance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) so that WIPP can receive and dispose of waste. The need to characterize TRU waste stored at LANL is driven by two additional factors: (1) the LANL RCRA Waste Analysis Plan for EPA compliant safe storage of hazardous waste; (2) the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) The LANL characterization program includes headspace gas analysis, radioassay and radiography for all drums and solids sampling on a random selection of drums from each waste stream. Data are presented showing that the only identified non-metal RCRA hazardous component of the waste is methanol

  8. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Riemath, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples

  9. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system

  10. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-12-01

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system.

  11. Microbial degradation of lignocellulosic fractions during drum composting of mixed organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vempalli Sudharsan Varma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to characterize the microbial population involved in lignocellulose degradation during drum composting of mixed organic waste i.e. vegetable waste, cattle manure, saw dust and dry leaves in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Lignocellulose degradation by different microbial populations was correlated by comparing results from four trials, i.e., Trial 1 (5:4, Trial 2 (6:3, Trial 3 (7:2 and Trial 4 (8:1 of varying waste combinations during 20 days of composting period. Due to proper combination of waste materials and agitation in drum composter, a maximum of 66.5 and 61.4 °C was achieved in Trial 1 and 2 by observing a temperature level of 55 °C for 4–6 d. The study revealed that combinations of waste materials had a major effect on the microbial degradation of waste material and quality of final compost due to its physical properties. However, Trial 1 was observed to have longer thermophilic phase leading to higher degradation of lignocellulosic fractions. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and fluorescent spectroscopy confirmed the decrease in aliphatic to aromatic ratio and increase in polyphenolic compounds of the compost. Heterotrophic bacteria were observed predominantly due to the readily available organic matter during the initial period of composting. However, fungi and actinomycetes were active in the degradation of lignocellulosic fractions.

  12. Study of the Technical Feasibility of Increasing the Amount of Recycled Concrete Waste Used in Ready-Mix Concrete Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Garcia, Esteban; Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier; López-Ochoa, Luis M; López-González, Luis M

    2017-07-18

    The construction industry generates a considerable amount of waste. Faced with this undesirable situation, the ready-mix concrete sector, in particular, has invested energy and resources into reusing its own waste in its production process as it works towards the goal of more sustainable construction. This study examines the feasibility of incorporating two types of concrete waste, which currently end up in landfill, into the production process of ready-mix concrete: the waste generated during the initial production stage (ready-mix concrete waste), and waste created when demolition waste is treated to obtain artificial aggregate. The first phase of the study's methodology corroborates the suitability of the recycled aggregate through characterization tests. After this phase, the impact of incorporating different percentages of recycled coarse aggregate is evaluated by examining the performance of the produced concrete. The replacement rate varied between 15% and 50%. The results indicate that recycled aggregates are, indeed, suitable to be incorporated into ready-mix concrete production. The impact on the final product's performance is different for the two cases examined herein. Incorporating aggregates from generic concrete blocks led to a 20% decrease in the produced concrete's strength performance. On the other hand, using recycled aggregates made from the demolition waste led to a smaller decrease in the concrete's performance: about 8%. The results indicate that with adequate management and prior treatment, the waste from these plants can be re-incorporated into their production processes. If concrete waste is re-used, concrete production, in general, becomes more sustainable for two reasons: less waste ends up as landfill and the consumption of natural aggregates is also reduced.

  13. Study of the Technical Feasibility of Increasing the Amount of Recycled Concrete Waste Used in Ready-Mix Concrete Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier; López-González, Luis M.

    2017-01-01

    The construction industry generates a considerable amount of waste. Faced with this undesirable situation, the ready-mix concrete sector, in particular, has invested energy and resources into reusing its own waste in its production process as it works towards the goal of more sustainable construction. This study examines the feasibility of incorporating two types of concrete waste, which currently end up in landfill, into the production process of ready-mix concrete: the waste generated during the initial production stage (ready-mix concrete waste), and waste created when demolition waste is treated to obtain artificial aggregate. The first phase of the study’s methodology corroborates the suitability of the recycled aggregate through characterization tests. After this phase, the impact of incorporating different percentages of recycled coarse aggregate is evaluated by examining the performance of the produced concrete. The replacement rate varied between 15% and 50%. The results indicate that recycled aggregates are, indeed, suitable to be incorporated into ready-mix concrete production. The impact on the final product’s performance is different for the two cases examined herein. Incorporating aggregates from generic concrete blocks led to a 20% decrease in the produced concrete’s strength performance. On the other hand, using recycled aggregates made from the demolition waste led to a smaller decrease in the concrete’s performance: about 8%. The results indicate that with adequate management and prior treatment, the waste from these plants can be re-incorporated into their production processes. If concrete waste is re-used, concrete production, in general, becomes more sustainable for two reasons: less waste ends up as landfill and the consumption of natural aggregates is also reduced. PMID:28773183

  14. Organic analyses of an actual and simulated mixed waste. Hanford's organic complexant waste revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Osborn, B.C.; Polach, K.J.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Reanalysis of the organics in a mixed waste, an organic complexant waste, from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, has yielded an 80.4% accounting of the waste's total organic content. In addition to several complexing and chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, HEDTA and NTA), 38 chelator/complexor fragments have been identified, compared to only 11 in the original analysis, all presumably formed via organic degradation. Moreover, a mis identification, methanetricarboxylic acid, has been re-identified as the chelator fragment N-(methylamine)imino-diacetic acid (MAIDA). A nonradioactive simulant of the actual waste, containing the parent organics (citrate, EDTA, HEDTA and NTA), was formulated and stored in the dark at ambient temperature for 90 days. Twenty chelator and complexor fragments were identified in the simulant, along with several carboxylic acids, confirming that myriad chelator and complexor fragments are formed via degradation of the parent organics. Moreover, their abundance in the simulant (60.9% of the organics identified) argues that the harsh chemistries of mixed wastes like Hanford's organic degradation, even in the absence of radiation. (author). 26 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Biological tracer for waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.

    1995-01-01

    Remediating hazardous waste sites requires detailed site characterization. In groundwater remediation, characterizing the flow paths and velocity is a major objective. Various tracers have been used for measuring groundwater velocity and transport of contaminants, colloidal particles, and bacteria and nutrients. The conventional techniques use dissolved solutes, dyes. and gases to estimate subsurface transport pathways. These tracers can provide information on transport and diffusion into the matrix, but their estimates for groundwater flow through fractured regions are very conservative. Also, they do not have the same transport characteristics as bacteria and suspended colloid tracers, both of which must be characterized for effective in-place remediation. Bioremediation requires understanding bacterial transport and nutrient distribution throughout the acquifer, knowledge of contaminants s mobile colloidal particles is just essential

  16. Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško

    OpenAIRE

    Kortnik, Jože; Leskovar, Jože

    2015-01-01

    Review paper Received: October 25, 2013 Accepted: November 7, 2013 Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Ravnanje z mešanimi komunalnimi odpadki v Zbirnem centru Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Jože Kortnik1'*, Jože Leskovar2 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Mining and Geotechnology, Aškerčeva 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 2Kostak, d. d., Leskovška cesta 2a, 8270 Krško, Slovenia Correspo...

  17. Composition, production rate and characterization of Greek dental solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalidis, Alexandros; Topalidis, Antonios; Voudrias, Evangelos A; Iosifidis, Nikolaos

    2018-05-01

    The overall objective of this work is to determine the composition, characterization and production rate of Greek dental solid waste (DSW). This information is important to design and cost management systems for DSW, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 141 kg of DSW produced by a total of 2542 patients in 20 dental practices from Xanthi, Greece was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of four working weeks. The waste was separated in 19 sub fractions, which were classified in 2 major categories, according to Greek regulations: Domestic-type waste comprising 8% and hazardous waste comprising 92% by weight of total DSW. The latter was further classified in infectious waste, toxic waste and mixed type waste (infectious and toxic together), accounting for 88.5%, 3.5% and 0.03% of total DSW by weight, respectively. The overall unit production rates (mean ± standard error of the mean) were 381 ± 15 g/practice/d and 53.3 ± 1.4 g/patient/d for total DSW, 337 ± 14 g/practice/d and 46.6 ± 1.2 g/patient/d for total infectious DSW, 13.4 ± 0.7 g/practice/d and 2.1 ± 0.1 g/patient/d for total toxic DSW and 30.4 ± 2.5 g/practice/d and 4.6 ± 0.4 g/patient/d for domestic-type waste. Daily DSW production was correlated with daily number of patients and regression correlations were produced. DSW was subject to laboratory characterization in terms of bulk density, calorific value, moisture, ash and volatile solids content. Measured calorific values were compared to predictions from empirical models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbon Bed Mercury Emissions Control For Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, Nick; Enneking, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORB(reg s ign) carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98-99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as 'bed hot spots.' Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed

  19. Environmental assessment for the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility: Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0466) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 for the proposed completion of construction and subsequent operation of a central Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility (RMWMF), in the southeastern portion of Technical Area III at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque (SNLA). The RMWMF is designed to receive, store, characterize, conduct limited bench-scale treatment of, repackage, and certify low-level waste (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) (as necessary) for shipment to an offsite disposal or treatment facility. The RMWMF was partially constructed in 1989. Due to changing regulatory requirements, planned facility upgrades would be undertaken as part of the proposed action. These upgrades would include paving of road surfaces and work areas, installation of pumping equipment and lines for surface impoundment, and design and construction of air locks and truck decontamination and water treatment systems. The proposed action also includes an adjacent corrosive and reactive metals storage area, and associated roads and paving. LLW and MW generated at SNLA would be transported from the technical areas to the RMWMF in containers approved by the Department of Transportation. The RMWMF would not handle nonradioactive hazardous waste. Based on the analysis in the EA, the proposed completion of construction and operation of the RMWMF does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed action is not required

  20. Transportable Vitrification System: Operational experience gained during vitrification of simulated mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, J.C.; Burket, P.R.; Crowley, D.A.; Hansen, E.K.; Jantzen, C.M.; Smith, M.E.; Singer, R.P.; Young, S.R.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Overcamp, T.J.; Pence, I.W. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large-scale, fully-integrated, transportable, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level nuclear and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and similar waste streams. The TVS was built to demonstrate the vitrification of actual mixed waste at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Currently, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is working with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to apply field scale vitrification to actual mixed waste at Oak Ridge Reservation's (ORR) K-25 Site. Prior to the application of the TVS to actual mixed waste it was tested on simulated K-25 B and C Pond waste at Clemson University. This paper describes the results of that testing and preparations for the demonstration on actual mixed waste

  1. Apatite and sodalite based glass-bonded waste forms for immobilization of 129I and mixed halide radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Ashutosh [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); McCloy, John S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-12-30

    The goal of the project was to utilize the knowledge accumulated by the team, in working with minerals for chloride wastes and biological apatites, toward the development of advanced waste forms for immobilizing 129I and mixed-halide wastes. Based on our knowledge, experience, and thorough literature review, we had selected two minerals with different crystal structures and potential for high chemical durability, sodalite and CaP/PbV-apatite, to form the basis of this project. The focus of the proposed effort was towards: (i) low temperature synthesis of proposed minerals (iodine containing sodalite and apatite) leading to the development of monolithic waste forms, (ii) development of a fundamental understanding of the atomic-scale to meso-scale mechanisms of radionuclide incorporation in them, and (iii) understanding of the mechanism of their chemical corrosion, alteration mechanism, and rates. The proposed work was divided into four broad sections. deliverables. 1. Synthesis of materials 2. Materials structural and thermal characterization 3. Design of glass compositions and synthesis glass-bonded minerals, and 4. Chemical durability testing of materials.

  2. Evaluation of Colemanite Waste as Aggregate Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat MOROVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study usability of waste colemanite which is obtained after cutting block colemanite for giving proper shape to blocks as an aggregate in hot mix asphalt. For this aim asphalt concrete samples were prepared with four different aggregate groups and optimum bitumen content was determined. First of all only limestone was used as an aggregate. After that, only colemanite aggregate was used with same aggregate gradation. Then, the next step of the study, Marshall samples were produced by changing coarse and fine aggregate gradation as limestone and colemanite and Marshall test were conducted. When evaluated the results samples which produced with only limestone aggregate gave the maximum Marshall Stability value. When handled other mixture groups (Only colemanite, colemanite as coarse aggregate-limestone as fine aggregate, colemanite as fine aggregate-limestone as coarse aggregate all groups were verified specification limits. As a result, especially in areas where there is widespread colemanite waste, if transportation costs did not exceed the cost of limestone, colemanite stone waste could be used instead of limestone in asphalt concrete mixtures as fine aggregate

  3. The Plasma Hearth Process demonstration project for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geimer, R.; Dwight, C.; McClellan, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Testing to date has yielded encouraging results in displaying potential applications for the PHP technology. Early tests have shown that a wide range of waste materials can be readily processed in the PHP and converted to a vitreous product. Waste materials can be treated in their original container as received at the treatment facility, without pretreatment. The vitreous product, when cooled, exhibits excellent performance in leach resistance, consistently exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements. Performance of the Demonstration System during test operations has been shown to meet emission requirements. An accelerated development phase, being conducted at both bench- and pilot-scale on both nonradioactive and radioactive materials, will confirm the viability of the process. It is anticipated that, as a result of this accelerated technology development and demonstration phase, the PHP will be ready for a final field-level demonstration within three years

  4. TRU waste inventory collection and work-off plans for the centralization of TRU waste characterization at INL - on your mark - get set - 9410

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mctaggert, Jerri Lynne; Lott, Sheila; Gadbury, Casey

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) amended the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Program: Treatment and Storage ofTransuranic Waste to centralize transuranic (TRU) waste characterization/certification from fourteen TRU waste sites. This centralization will allow for treatment, characterization and certification ofTRU waste from the fourteen sites, thirteen of which are sites with small quantities ofTRU waste, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to shipping the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Centralization ofthis TRU waste will avoid the cost ofbuilding treatment, characterization, certification, and shipping capabilities at each ofthe small quantity sites that currently do not have existing facilities. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) and Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) will provide centralized shipping facilities, to WIPP, for all ofthe small quantity sites. Hanford, the one large quantity site identified in the ROD, has a large number ofwaste in containers that are overpacked into larger containers which are inefficient for shipment to and disposal at WIPP. The AMWTP at the INL will reduce the volume ofmuch of the CH waste and make it much more efficient to ship and dispose of at WIPP. In addition, the INTEC has a certified remote handled (RH) TRU waste characterization/certification program at INL to disposition TRU waste from the sites identified in the ROD.

  5. Information requirements for the Department of Energy Defense Programs' hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    This document contains viewgraphs from a presentation made to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Conference in Denver, Colorado. The presentation described information and data base systems that describe hazardous and mixed waste treatment, storage, and disposal

  6. Low-level mixed waste: An RCRA perspective for NRC licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The publication presents an overview of RCRA requirements for commercially-generated low-level mixed waste. It is designed for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees who may not be familiar with EPA regulations that apply to their waste products

  7. Radioisotope Characterization of HB Line Low Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a physical, chemical, hazardous and radiological characterization of Low-Level Waste (LLW) generated in HB-Line as required by the 1S Manual, Savannah River Site Waste Acceptance Criteria Manual

  8. Characterization and concentration of manganese ore waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes; Pereira, Eder Esper; Reis, Erica Linhares; Silva, Glaucia Regina da

    2010-01-01

    In this work is presented the tests results of characterization and concentration by gravity and flotation methods carried out with a manganese sample waste. By optical microscopy, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffractometry were identified the Mn minerals spessartite (20%), tephroite (15%), rhodonite (5%), rhodochrosite and carbonates minerals (29%), opaque minerals and others (16%), micaceus minerals (6%) and quartz (4%). It was obtained Mn metallurgical recovery of 58% with Mn concentrate contents varying from 30 to 32.5%. The concentrates SiO_2 contents of flotation were until 1.5% smaller than those contents of gravity method concentrates. (author)

  9. Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozich, J.L.

    1993-07-01

    This Maintenance Implementation Plan has been developed for maintenance functions associated with the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF). This plan is developed from the guidelines presented by Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program (DOE 1990), Chapter II. The objective of this plan is to provide baseline information for establishing and identifying WHC conformance programs and policies applicable to implementation of DOE order 4330.4A guidelines. In addition, this maintenance plan identifies the actions necessary to develop a cost-effective and efficient maintenance program at WSCF

  10. High Resolution Sensor for Nuclear Waste Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah; William Higgins; Edgar V. Van Loef

    2006-01-01

    Gamma ray spectrometers are an important tool in the characterization of radioactive waste. Important requirements for gamma ray spectrometers used in this application include good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, portability, and low power requirements. None of the available spectrometers satisfy all of these requirements. The goal of the Phase I research was to investigate lanthanum halide and related scintillators for nuclear waste clean-up. LaBr 3 :Ce remains a very promising scintillator with high light yield and fast response. CeBr 3 is attractive because it is very similar to LaBr 3 :Ce in terms of scintillation properties and also has the advantage of much lower self-radioactivity, which may be important in some applications. CeBr 3 also shows slightly higher light yield at higher temperatures than LaBr 3 and may be easier to produce with high uniformity in large volume since it does not require any dopants. Among the mixed lanthanum halides, the light yield of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce is lower and the difference in crystal structure of the binaries (LaBr 3 and LaI 3 ) makes it difficult to grow high quality crystals of the ternary as the iodine concentration is increased. On the other hand, LaBr x I 3-x :Ce provides excellent performance. Its light output is high and it provides fast response. The crystal structures of the two binaries (LaBr 3 and LaCl 3 ) are very similar. Overall, its scintillation properties are very similar to those for LaBr 3 :Ce. While the gamma-ray stopping efficiency of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce is lower than that for LaBr 3 :Ce (primarily because the density of LaCl 3 is lower than that of LaBr 3 ), it may be easier to grow large crystals of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce than LaBr 3 :Ce since in some instances (for example, Cd x Zn 1-x Te), the ternary compounds provide increased flexibility in the crystal lattice. Among the new dopants, Eu 2+ and Pr 3+ , tried in LaBr 3 host crystals, the Eu 2+ doped samples exhibited

  11. Waste analysis plan for 222-S dangerous and mixed waste storage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The 222-S Laboratory Complex, in the southeast corner of the 200 West Area, consists of the 222-S Laboratory, the 222-SA Standards Laboratory, and several ancillary facilities. Currently, 222-S Laboratory activities are in supporting efforts to characterize the waste stored in the 200 Areas single shell and double shell tanks. Besides this work, the laboratory also provides analytical services for waste-management processing plants, Tank Farms, B Plant, 242-A Evaporator Facility, Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, Plutonium Finishing Plant, Uranium-Oxide Plant, Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility, environmental monitoring and surveillance programs, and activities involving essential materials and research and development. One part of the 222-SA Laboratory prepares nonradioactive standards for the 200 Area laboratories. The other section of the laboratory is used for cold (nonradioactive) process development work and standards preparation. The 219-S Waste Handling Facility has three storage tanks in which liquid acid waste from 222-S can be received, stored temporarily, and neutralized. From this facility, neutralized waste, containing radionuclides, is transferred to the Tank Farms. A 700-gallon sodium-hydroxide supply tank is also located in this facility. This plan provides the methods used to meet the acceptance criteria required by the 204-AR Waste Receiving Facility

  12. Zero-Release Mixed Waste Process Facility Design and Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard D. Boardman; John A. Deldebbio; Robert J. Kirkham; Martin K. Clemens; Robert Geosits; Ping Wan

    2004-01-01

    A zero-release off-gas cleaning system for mixed-waste thermal treatment processes has been evaluated through experimental scoping tests and process modeling. The principles can possibly be adapted to a fluidized-bed calcination or stream reforming process, a waste melter, a rotary kiln process, and possibly other waste treatment thermal processes. The basic concept of a zero-release off-gas cleaning system is to recycle the bulk of the off-gas stream to the thermal treatment process. A slip stream is taken off the off-gas recycle to separate and purge benign constituents that may build up in the gas, such as water vapor, argon, nitrogen, and CO2. Contaminants are separated from the slip stream and returned to the thermal unit for eventual destruction or incorporation into the waste immobilization media. In the current study, a standard packed-bed scrubber, followed by gas separation membranes, is proposed for removal of contaminants from the off-gas recycle slipstream. The scrub solution is continuously regenerated by cooling and precipitating sulfate, nitrate, and other salts that reach a solubility limit in the scrub solution. Mercury is also separated by the scrubber. A miscible chemical oxidizing agent was shown to effectively oxidize mercury and also NO, thus increasing their removal efficiency. The current study indicates that the proposed process is a viable option for reducing off-gas emissions. Consideration of the proposed closed-system off-gas cleaning loop is warranted when emissions limits are stringent, or when a reduction in the total gas emissions volume is desired. Although the current closed-loop appears to be technically feasible, economical considerations must be also be evaluated on a case-by-case basis

  13. EPA's approach to regulation of mixed waste and status of future activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackleford, B.

    1988-01-01

    Regulation of radioactive mixed waste is a topic that has received much attention in the past several years. Much of the discussion and confusion stemmed from uncertainty about applicable regulatory authorities. On July 3, 1986, EPA clarified its position that the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) applied to the hazardous component of radioactive mixed waste. The Agency announced this clarification in the Federal Register and informed States that they must seek authority to regulate mixed waste in order to obtain or maintain RCRA authorization to administer and enforce a hazardous waste program in lieu of EPA. Since that time, five States have received authorization to regulate mixed waste: Colorado, South Carolina, Tennessee, Washington, and Georgia. Authorized States issue RCRA permits in lieu of EPA. Currently, 44 States have been authorized for the base RCRA program, Conversely, 12 States and Trust Territories have no RCRA authorization. In these States and territories, EPA administers that RCRA hazardous waste program. A more stringent State requirement occurs when a State allows less time for compliance than would be provided under Federal law, for example. There is a third authorization category with respect to mixed waste that I have yet to address. This category is made up of States which have EPA authorization to regulate hazardous waste but have yet to obtain mixed waste authorization. Most States fall into this category. In these States, of which there are 39, mixed wastes are not hazardous wastes and subject to Subtitle C regulations

  14. Development of Simulants to Support Mixing Tests for High Level Waste and Low Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EIBLING, RUSSELLE.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop two different types of simulants to support vendor agitator design studies and mixing studies. The initial simulant development task was to develop rheologically-bounding physical simulants and the final portion was to develop a nominal chemical simulant which is designed to match, as closely as possible, the actual sludge from a tank. The physical simulants to be developed included a lower and upper rheologically bounded: pretreated low activity waste (LAW) physical simulant; LAW melter feed physical simulant; pretreated high level waste (HLW) physical simulant; HLW melter feed physical simulant. The nominal chemical simulant, hereafter referred to as the HLW Precipitated Hydroxide simulant, is designed to represent the chemical/physical composition of the actual washed and leached sludge sample. The objective was to produce a simulant which matches not only the chemical composition but also the physical properties of the actual waste sample. The HLW Precipitated Hydroxide simulant could then be used for mixing tests to validate mixing, homogeneity and representative sampling and transferring issues. The HLW Precipitated Hydroxide simulant may also be used for integrated nonradioactive testing of the WTP prior to radioactive operation

  15. The Challenges of Creating a Real-Time Data Management System for TRU-Mixed Waste at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paff, S. W; Doody, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges associated with creating a data management system for waste tracking at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (AMWTP) at the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL). The waste tracking system combines data from plant automation systems and decision points. The primary purpose of the system is to provide information to enable the plant operators and engineers to assess the risks associated with each container and determine the best method of treating it. It is also used to track the transuranic (TRU) waste containers as they move throughout the various processes at the plant. And finally, the goal of the system is to support paperless shipments of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the approach, methodologies, the underlying design of the database, and the challenges of creating the Data Management System (DMS) prior to completion of design and construction of a major plant. The system was built utilizing an Oracle database platform, and Oracle Forms 6i in client-server mode. The underlying data architecture is container-centric, with separate tables and objects for each type of analysis used to characterize the waste, including real-time radiography (RTR), non-destructive assay (NDA), head-space gas sampling and analysis (HSGS), visual examination (VE) and coring. The use of separate tables facilitated the construction of automatic interfaces with the analysis instruments that enabled direct data capture. Movements are tracked using a location system describing each waste container's current location and a history table tracking the container's movement history. The movement system is designed to interface both with radio-frequency bar-code devices and the plant's integrated control system (ICS). Collections of containers or information, such as batches, were created across the various types of analyses, which enabled a single, cohesive approach to be developed for verification and

  16. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations

  17. Integrated process analysis of treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.

    1997-10-01

    Selection of technologies to be developed for treatment of DOE's mixed low level waste (MLLW) requires knowledge and understanding of the expected costs, schedules, risks, performance, and reliability of the total engineered systems that use these technologies. Thus, an integrated process analysis program was undertaken to identify the characteristics and needs of several thermal and nonthermal systems. For purposes of comparison, all systems were conceptually designed for a single facility processing the same amount of waste at the same rate. Thirty treatment systems were evaluated ranging from standard incineration to innovative thermal systems and innovative nonthermal chemical treatment. Treating 236 million pounds of waste in 20 years through a central treatment was found to be the least costly option with total life cycle cost ranging from $2.1 billion for a metal melting system to $3.9 billion for a nonthermal acid digestion system. Little cost difference exists among nonthermal systems or among thermal systems. Significant cost savings could be achieved by working towards maximum on line treatment time per year; vitrifying the final waste residue; decreasing front end characterization segregation and sizing requirements; using contaminated soil as the vitrifying agent; and delisting the final vitrified waste form from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements

  18. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  19. DOE's performance evaluation project for mixed low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Gruebel, M.M.; Lee, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A performance evaluation (PE) is an analysis that estimates radionuclide concentration limits for 16 potential Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level waste (ULLW) disposal sites based on the analysis of two environmental exposure pathways (air and water) to an off-site individual and an inadvertent-intruder exposure pathway. Sites are analyzed for their ability to attenuate concentrations of specific radionuclides that could be released from wastes in a hypothetical ULLW disposal facility. Site-specific data and knowledge are used within a generic framework that is consistent across all sites being evaluated. After estimates of waste concentrations for the three pathways are calculated, the minimum of the waste concentration values is selected as the permissible waste concentration for each radionuclide. The PE results will be used as input to the process for DOE's ULLW disposal configuration. Preliminary comparisons of results from the PE and site-specific performance assessments indicate that the simple PE results generally agree with results of the performance assessments, even when site conditions are complex. This agreement with performance-assessment results increases confidence that similar results can be obtained at other sites that have good characterization data. In addition, the simple analyses contained in the PE illustrate a potential method to satisfy the needs of many regulators and the general public for a simple, conservative, defensible, and easily understandable analysis that provides results similar to those of more complex analyses

  20. Conditioning characterization of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    This study has been carried out in the radioactive waste management laboratory Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. The main purpose of this work is method development for treatment and conditioning of low level liquid waste in order to improve radiation protection level in the country. For that purpose a liquid radioactive material containing Cs-137 was treated using the developed method. In the method different type of materials (cement, sands, concrete..etc) were tested for absorption of radiation emitted from the source as well as suitability of the material for storage for long time. It was found that the best material to be used is Smsmia concrete. Where the surface dose reduced from 150 to 3μ/h. Also design of storage container was proposed (with specification: diameter 6.5 cm, height 6 cm, placed in internal cylinder of diameter 10.3 cm, height 12.3 cm) and all are installed on the concrete and cement in the cylinder. Method was used in the process of double-packaging configuration. For more protection it is proposed that a mixed of cement to fill the void in addition to the sand be added to ensure low amount of radiation exposure while transport or storage. (Author)

  1. Low-temperature setting phosphate ceramics for stabilization of DOE problem low level mixed-waste: I. Material and waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.; Knox, L.; Mayberry, J.

    1994-03-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are proposed as candidates for solidification and stabilization of some of the open-quotes problemclose quotes DOE low-level mixed wastes at low-temperatures. Development of these materials is crucial for stabilization of waste streams which have volatile species and any use of high-temperature technology leads to generation of off-gas secondary waste streams. Several phosphates of Mg, Al, and Zr have been investigated as candidate materials. Monoliths of these phosphates were synthesized using chemical routes at room or slightly elevated temperatures. Detailed physical and chemical characterizations have been conducted on some of these phosphates to establish their durability. Magnesium ammonium phosphate has shown to possess excellent mechanical and as well chemical properties. These phosphates were also used to stabilize a surrogate ash waste with a loading ranging from 25-35 wt.%. Characterization of the final waste forms show that waste immobilization is due to both chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation of the surrogate waste which is desirable for waste immobilization

  2. The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrop, G.

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site

  3. The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site

  4. Combustion synthesis and structural characterization of Li–Ti mixed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Combustion synthesis and structural characterization of Li–Ti mixed nanoferrites ... were prepared by combustion method at lower temperatures compared to the ... first time at low temperatures, using PEG which acts as a new fuel and oxidant.

  5. Asphalt mix characterization using dynamic modulus and APA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    final report summarizes two research efforts related to asphalt mix characterization: dynamic modulus and Asphalt Pavement Analyzer testing. One phase of the research consisted of a laboratory-based evaluation of dynamic modulus of Oregon dense-grade...

  6. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nick Soelberg

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost

  7. Mixed wastes management at Fernald: Making it happen quickly, economically and compliantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzeman, J.T.; Rast, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    At the end of calender year 1992, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) had approximately 12,500 drums of mixed low-level waste in storage and the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) had just begun to develop an aggressive project based program to treat and dispose of this mixed waste. By 1996 the FERMCO mixed waste management program had reduced the aforementioned 12,500 drums of waste once in inventory to approximately 5800 drums. Projects are currently in progress to completely eliminate the FEMP inventory of mixed waste. As a result of these initiatives and aggressive project management, the FEMP has become a model for mixed waste handling, treatment and disposal for DOE facilities. Mixed waste management has traditionally been viewed as a singular and complex environmental problem. FERMCO has adopted the viewpoint that treatment and disposal of mixed waste is an engineering project, to be executed in a disciplined fashion with timely and economic results. This approach allows the larger mixed waste management problem to be divided into manageable fractions and managed by project. Each project is managed by problem solving experts, project managers, in lieu of environmental experts. In the project approach, environmental regulations become project requirements for individual resolution, as opposed to what had formerly been viewed as technically unachievable environmental standards

  8. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Mixing quality characterization in separations process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed on distribution of a dilute immiscible organic liquid dispersed in an aqueous phase contained baffled, paddle-agitated vessel, fitted with cooling coils. Acceptable total liquid levels in the vessel and minimum impeller speed were established for plant scale operation. Axial and radial distributions of the dispersed organic phase as functions of total liquid height, impeller speed, and the number of impellers were examined and some recurring trends were identified. Four stages of dispersion of organic phase in predominantly aqueous phase were identified with increasing rotational speed of impeller(s). The stages were: (1) non-dispersion stage in which the organic layer was undisturbed, (2) the organic layer was decreasing with impeller speed until complete but nonuniform dispersion was attained, (3) the non-uniformity of the completely dispersed mixture decreased with increasing rotational speed of impeller(s), and (4) a grossly uniform dispersion in which the local volume fraction of dispersed phase (organic) in mixture was the same throughout the vessel. Scale-up relations were developed for reproducing a defined mixing quality on two geometrically similar scales of operation, for the attainable condition of complete but non-uniform dispersion. The mixing quality was observed to decrease with increasing liquid depth over acceptable range, but variations in the overall concentration of organic liquid appeared to have only slight effect on the mixing quality

  10. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  11. Radioactive classification of mixed waste -- The need for uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    In July of 1994, many generators of radioactive and mixed wastes found themselves without a means of disposing of their wastes. This has led these generators to thoroughly search the regulations for guidelines to determine at what level something becomes radioactive. Unfortunately, each regulatory agency, EPA, OSHA, NRC, DOT and DOE have their own requirements such that there are no uniform guidelines to assist in making this determination. Subcontractors to the DOE find themselves further frustrated with each remediation site determining radiation levels and commercial treatment, storage and disposal facilities doing the same. This paper examines the need for the uniform classification of radioactive material. It will review past attempts of regulatory agencies to set minimum levels and the current regulatory climate. The paper will also discuss the experience of Quanterra Environmental Services in dealing with the changes in disposal options due to the closure of low-level radioactive disposal facilities to outside compact states, and the impact of the different regulatory requirements

  12. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  13. DOE Land Disposal Restrictions Strategy Report for Radioactive Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This report represents an effort by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors to develop a strategy for achieving radioactive mixed waste (RMW) compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). Preliminary information provided by the Operations Offices has been reviewed to formulate an overall strategy that will enable DOE operations to comply with the Land Disposal Restrictions. The effort has concluded that all DOE Operations Offices are impacted by LDR due to the inability to meet existing and future LDR storage prohibition requirements or treatment standards for RMW. A total of 178 RMW streams subject to LDR are identified in this report. Quantities of RMW impacted by LDR have been estimated at approximately 710,785 cubic meters. DOE must place a high priority on resolving LDR compliance issues. Failure to resolve these issues could result in the curtailment of waste generating operations at DOE facilities. Actions will be required from both DOE (Headquarters and Operations Offices) and EPA in order to achieve DOE complex-wide compliance. Specific recommendations are included. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Mixed Waste Focus Area Working Group: An Integrated Approach to Mercury Waste Treatment and Disposal. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Conley, T.B.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1997-01-01

    May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with Mercury- contaminated mixed wastes (MWs). During the initial technical baseline development process of the MWFA, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to (1) amalgamation, (2) stabilization, and (3) separation and removal for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste (MW). The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these needs

  15. Overview of mixed waste issues at the Department of Energy defense installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezga, L.J.; Eisenhower, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the /open quotes/double hazard/close quotes/ associated with these waste materials, the ability to manage these mixed wastes has been somewhat limited. The unavailability of acceptable and proven treatment and/or disposal systems has forced the Department of Energy (DOE) installations to place these materials in storage. The limited capacity of permitted storage areas and the desire to move forward in the overall waste management cycle have placed an increased emphasis on the need to develop treatment/disposal technologies for mixed wastes. Programs have been initiated by contractors who operate the DOE installations to provide the technical basis for selecting technologies to render these wastes nonhazardous through treatment by destroying the hazardous constituent, to separate the hazardous constituents from the radioactive constituents, to treat the wastes and place them in a form that will meet EPA requirements to be classified as nonhazardous, and to provide facilities for the disposal of wastes which cannot be changed into a nonhazardous form. These wastes include a variety of materials such as chlorinated solvents and waste oils contaminated with uranium or fission products, liquid scintillation wastes, and sludges from wastewater treatment plants contaminated with uranium or fission products. By volume, the largest mixed waste streams are the contaminated wastewater treatment sludges. Plans for the management of the major categories of mixed waste are presented below. More detailed