Mixed time slicing in path integral simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steele, Ryan P.; Zwickl, Jill; Shushkov, Philip; Tully, John C.
2011-01-01
A simple and efficient scheme is presented for using different time slices for different degrees of freedom in path integral calculations. This method bridges the gap between full quantization and the standard mixed quantum-classical (MQC) scheme and, therefore, still provides quantum mechanical effects in the less-quantized variables. Underlying the algorithm is the notion that time slices (beads) may be 'collapsed' in a manner that preserves quantization in the less quantum mechanical degrees of freedom. The method is shown to be analogous to multiple-time step integration techniques in classical molecular dynamics. The algorithm and its associated error are demonstrated on model systems containing coupled high- and low-frequency modes; results indicate that convergence of quantum mechanical observables can be achieved with disparate bead numbers in the different modes. Cost estimates indicate that this procedure, much like the MQC method, is most efficient for only a relatively few quantum mechanical degrees of freedom, such as proton transfer. In this regime, however, the cost of a fully quantum mechanical simulation is determined by the quantization of the least quantum mechanical degrees of freedom.
Prospects for direct measurement of time-integrated Bs mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siccama, I.
1994-01-01
This note investigates the prospects of measuring time-integrated B s mixing. Three inclusive decay modes of the B s meson are discussed. For each reconstruction mode, the expected number of events and the different background channels are discussed. Estimates are given for the uncertainty on the mixing parameter χ s . (orig.)
On the mixed discretization of the time domain magnetic field integral equation
Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bogaert, Ignace; Cools, Kristof; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Bagci, Hakan
2012-01-01
Time domain magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) is discretized using divergence-conforming Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) and curl-conforming Buffa-Christiansen (BC) functions as spatial basis and testing functions, respectively. The resulting mixed
On the mixed discretization of the time domain magnetic field integral equation
Ulku, Huseyin Arda
2012-09-01
Time domain magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) is discretized using divergence-conforming Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) and curl-conforming Buffa-Christiansen (BC) functions as spatial basis and testing functions, respectively. The resulting mixed discretization scheme, unlike the classical scheme which uses RWG functions as both basis and testing functions, is proper: Testing functions belong to dual space of the basis functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the marching on-in-time (MOT) solution of the mixed discretized MFIE yields more accurate results than that of classically discretized MFIE. © 2012 IEEE.
Mixed-integrator-based bi-quad cell for designing a continuous time filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yong; Zhou Yumei
2010-01-01
A new mixed-integrator-based bi-quad cell is proposed. An alternative synthesis mechanism of complex poles is proposed compared with source-follower-based bi-quad cells which is designed applying the positive feedback technique. Using the negative feedback technique to combine different integrators, the proposed bi-quad cell synthesizes complex poles for designing a continuous time filter. It exhibits various advantages including compact topology, high gain, no parasitic pole, no CMFB circuit, and high capability. The fourth-order Butterworth lowpass filter using the proposed cells has been fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The active area occupied by the filter with test buffer is only 200 x 170 μm 2 . The proposed filter consumes a low power of 201 μW and achieves a 68.5 dB dynamic range. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Beghein, Yves
2013-03-01
The time domain combined field integral equation (TD-CFIE), which is constructed from a weighted sum of the time domain electric and magnetic field integral equations (TD-EFIE and TD-MFIE) for analyzing transient scattering from closed perfect electrically conducting bodies, is free from spurious resonances. The standard marching-on-in-time technique for discretizing the TD-CFIE uses Galerkin and collocation schemes in space and time, respectively. Unfortunately, the standard scheme is theoretically not well understood: stability and convergence have been proven for only one class of space-time Galerkin discretizations. Moreover, existing discretization schemes are nonconforming, i.e., the TD-MFIE contribution is tested with divergence conforming functions instead of curl conforming functions. We therefore introduce a novel space-time mixed Galerkin discretization for the TD-CFIE. A family of temporal basis and testing functions with arbitrary order is introduced. It is explained how the corresponding interactions can be computed efficiently by existing collocation-in-time codes. The spatial mixed discretization is made fully conforming and consistent by leveraging both Rao-Wilton-Glisson and Buffa-Christiansen basis functions and by applying the appropriate bi-orthogonalization procedures. The combination of both techniques is essential when high accuracy over a broad frequency band is required. © 2012 IEEE.
Highly Integrated Mixed-Mode Electronics for the readout of Time Projection Chambers
França Santos, Hugo Miguel; Musa, Luciano
Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) are one of the most prevalent particle trackers for high-energy physics experiments. Future planed TPCs for the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) entail very high spatial resolution in large gas volumes, but impose low material budget for the end caps of the TPC cylinder. This constraint is not accomplished with the state-of-the-art front-end electronics because of its unsuited relatively large mass and of its associated water cooling system. To reach the required material budget, highly compact and power efficient dedicated TPC front-end electronics should be developed. This project aims at re-designing the different electronic elements with significant improvements in terms of performance, power efficiency and versatility, and developing an integrated circuit that merges all components of the front-end electronics. This chip ambitions a large volume production at low unitary cost and its employment in multiple detectors. The design of ...
Office Hours as You Like Them: Integrating Real-Time Chats into the Course Media Mix.
McKeage, Kim
2001-01-01
Reports on one professor's use of integrated synchronous electronic office hours (i.e., a "chat room") with asynchronous course conferencing (i.e., email) in a class on introductory marketing. Describes its uses, limitations, benefits, potential problems, and results from a student survey. (EV)
Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-02-01
The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID's success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories' Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque's and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ''dry'' soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater
Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O'Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.
1994-01-01
The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR)
Abbring, J.H.
2009-01-01
We study mixed hitting-time models, which specify durations as the first time a Levy process (a continuous-time process with stationary and independent increments) crosses a heterogeneous threshold. Such models of substantial interest because they can be reduced from optimal-stopping models with
Beghein, Yves; Cools, Kristof; Bagci, Hakan; De Zutter, Danië l
2013-01-01
electrically conducting bodies, is free from spurious resonances. The standard marching-on-in-time technique for discretizing the TD-CFIE uses Galerkin and collocation schemes in space and time, respectively. Unfortunately, the standard scheme is theoretically
Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O`Brien, M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rudin, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ferguson, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McFee, J. [I.T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1994-11-30
The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).
Markov chains and mixing times
Levin, David A
2017-01-01
Markov Chains and Mixing Times is a magical book, managing to be both friendly and deep. It gently introduces probabilistic techniques so that an outsider can follow. At the same time, it is the first book covering the geometric theory of Markov chains and has much that will be new to experts. It is certainly THE book that I will use to teach from. I recommend it to all comers, an amazing achievement. -Persi Diaconis, Mary V. Sunseri Professor of Statistics and Mathematics, Stanford University Mixing times are an active research topic within many fields from statistical physics to the theory of algorithms, as well as having intrinsic interest within mathematical probability and exploiting discrete analogs of important geometry concepts. The first edition became an instant classic, being accessible to advanced undergraduates and yet bringing readers close to current research frontiers. This second edition adds chapters on monotone chains, the exclusion process and hitting time parameters. Having both exercises...
The mixed waste landfill integrated demonstration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burford, T.D.; Williams, C.V.
1994-01-01
The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ''in-situ'' characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in arid environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies and systems. The comparison will include the cost, efficiency, risk, and feasibility of using these innovative technologies at other sites
Integration i ’mixed methods’ forskning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Morten
2013-01-01
Udviklingen af mixed methods forskning som en selvstændig forskningstradition er primært sket gennem udviklingen af mixed methods design. Denne artikel argumenterer for, at design-tilgangen bør suppleres med et mere overordnet fokus på hvordan de adskilte dele af mixed methods projekter integreres...... til et hele. Med udgangspunkt i en analyse af integrationsbegrebet i mixed methods litteraturen foreslås en klassifikation af seks integrationsformer: teori-, design-, metode-, data-, analyse- og fortolkningsintegration. Hver af disse beskriver en måde at skabe meningsfulde, håndgribelige relationer...... mellem undersøgelsens dele. Med udgangspunkt i denne klassifikation undersøges anvendeligheden af integrationsbegrebet gennem en analyse af tre meget forskellige traditioner for mixed methods forskning: metodetriangulering, pragmatistisk designoptimering og teori/metode-integration. På baggrund af denne...
An Integrating Framework for Mixed Systems
Coutrix, Céline; Nigay, Laurence
Technological advances in hardware manufacturing led to an extended range of possibilities for designing physical-digital objects involved in a mixed system. Mixed systems can take various forms and include augmented reality, augmented virtuality, and tangible systems. In this very dynamic context, it is difficult to compare existing mixed systems and to systematically explore the design space. Addressing this design problem, this chapter presents a unified point of view on mixed systems by focusing on mixed objects involved in interaction, i.e., hybrid physical-digital objects straddling physical and digital worlds. Our integrating framework is made of two complementary facets of a mixed object: we define intrinsic as well as extrinsic characteristics of an object by considering its role in the interaction. Such characteristics of an object are useful for comparing existing mixed systems at a fine-grain level. The taxonomic power of these characteristics is discussed in the context of existing mixed systems from the literature. Their generative power is illustrated by considering a system, Roam, which we designed and developed.
Markov chains and mixing times
Levin, David A; Wilmer, Elizabeth L
2009-01-01
This book is an introduction to the modern approach to the theory of Markov chains. The main goal of this approach is to determine the rate of convergence of a Markov chain to the stationary distribution as a function of the size and geometry of the state space. The authors develop the key tools for estimating convergence times, including coupling, strong stationary times, and spectral methods. Whenever possible, probabilistic methods are emphasized. The book includes many examples and provides brief introductions to some central models of statistical mechanics. Also provided are accounts of r
Mixed Waste Integrated Program emerging technology development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry, J.B.; Hart, P.W.
1994-01-01
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. Over the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1.2 m 3 of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) wastes. In order to successfully manage and treat these mixed wastes, DOE must adapt and develop characterization, treatment, and disposal technologies which will meet performance criteria, regulatory approvals, and public acceptance. Although technology to treat MLLW is not currently available without modification, DOE is committed to developing such treatment technologies and demonstrating them at the field scale by FY 1997. The Office of Research and Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) within the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), OfFice of Technology Development, is responsible for the development and demonstration of such technologies for MLLW and MTRU wastes. MWIP advocates and sponsors expedited technology development and demonstrations for the treatment of MLLW
Mixed Waste Integrated Program emerging technology development
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berry, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hart, P.W. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
1994-06-01
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. Over the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1.2 m{sup 3} of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) wastes. In order to successfully manage and treat these mixed wastes, DOE must adapt and develop characterization, treatment, and disposal technologies which will meet performance criteria, regulatory approvals, and public acceptance. Although technology to treat MLLW is not currently available without modification, DOE is committed to developing such treatment technologies and demonstrating them at the field scale by FY 1997. The Office of Research and Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) within the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), OfFice of Technology Development, is responsible for the development and demonstration of such technologies for MLLW and MTRU wastes. MWIP advocates and sponsors expedited technology development and demonstrations for the treatment of MLLW.
MIxed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP): Technology summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-02-01
The mission of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop and demonstrate innovative and emerging technologies for the treatment and management of DOE's mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) for use by its customers, the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30) and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The primary goal of MWIP is to develop and demonstrate the treatment and disposal of actual mixed waste (MMLW and MTRU). The vitrification process and the plasma hearth process are scheduled for demonstration on actual radioactive waste in FY95 and FY96, respectively. This will be accomplished by sequential studies of lab-scale non-radioactive testing followed by bench-scale radioactive testing, followed by field-scale radioactive testing. Both processes create a highly durable final waste form that passes leachability requirements while destroying organics. Material handling technology, and off-gas requirements and capabilities for the plasma hearth process and the vitrification process will be established in parallel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Val, Maria Rosa Rovira; Lehmann, Martin; Zinenko, Anna
From late last century there has been a great development of international standards and tools on environment, sustainability and corporate responsibility issues. This has been along with the globalization of economy and politics, as well as a shift in the social responsibilities of the private vis...... procedures, such as cases of for example ISO integrated management systems, mutual equivalences recognition of Global Compact-GRI-ISO26000, or the case of IIRC initiative to develop integrated reporting on an organization’s Financial, Environmental, Social and Governance performance. This paper focuses......-a-vis the public sectors. Internationally, organisations have implemented a collection of these standards to be in line with such development and to obtain or keep their licence to operate globally. After two decades of development and maturation, the scenario is now different: (i) the economic context has changed...
Numerical treatments for solving nonlinear mixed integral equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.A. Abdou
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We consider a mixed type of nonlinear integral equation (MNLIE of the second kind in the space C[0,T]×L2(Ω,T<1. The Volterra integral terms (VITs are considered in time with continuous kernels, while the Fredholm integral term (FIT is considered in position with singular general kernel. Using the quadratic method and separation of variables method, we obtain a nonlinear system of Fredholm integral equations (NLSFIEs with singular kernel. A Toeplitz matrix method, in each case, is then used to obtain a nonlinear algebraic system. Numerical results are calculated when the kernels take a logarithmic form or Carleman function. Moreover, the error estimates, in each case, are then computed.
SNS Diagnostics Timing Integration
Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Pogge, James; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan
2005-01-01
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Windows XP Embedded for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. Coordinating timing among the various diagnostics instruments with the generation of the beam pulse is a challenging task that we have chosen to divide into three phases. First, timing was derived from VME based systems. In the second phase, described in this paper, timing pulses are generated by an in house designed PCI timing card installed in ten diagnostics PCs. Using fan-out modules, enough triggers were generated for all instruments. This paper describes how the Timing NAD (Network Attached Device) was rapidly developed using our NAD template, LabVIEW's PCI driver wizard, and LabVIEW Channel Access library. The NAD...
A continuous-time/discrete-time mixed audio-band sigma delta ADC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yan; Hua Siliang; Wang Donghui; Hou Chaohuan
2011-01-01
This paper introduces a mixed continuous-time/discrete-time, single-loop, fourth-order, 4-bit audio-band sigma delta ADC that combines the benefits of continuous-time and discrete-time circuits, while mitigating the challenges associated with continuous-time design. Measurement results show that the peak SNR of this ADC reaches 100 dB and the total power consumption is less than 30 mW. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices
Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W
2013-01-01
Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participato...
Mixed Discretization of the Time Domain MFIE at Low Frequencies
Ulku, Huseyin Arda
2017-01-10
Solution of the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE), which is obtained by the classical marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme, becomes inaccurate when the time step is large, i.e., under low-frequency excitation. It is shown here that the inaccuracy stems from the classical MOT scheme’s failure to predict the correct scaling of the current’s Helmholtz components for large time steps. A recently proposed mixed discretization strategy is used to alleviate the inaccuracy problem by restoring the correct scaling of the current’s Helmholtz components under low-frequency excitation.
Automated Design Tools for Integrated Mixed-Signal Microsystems (NeoCAD)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Petre, P; Visher, J; Shringarpure, R; Valley, F; Swaminathan, M
2005-01-01
Automated design tools and integrated design flow methodologies were developed that demonstrated more than an order- of-magnitude reduction in cycle time and cost for mixed signal (digital/analoglRF...
Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.
1993-03-01
The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP
M. Denche; A. L. Marhoune
2003-01-01
In this paper, we study a mixed problem with integral boundary conditions for a high order partial differential equation of mixed type. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution. The proof is based on energy inequality, and on the density of the range of the operator generated by the considered problem.
Time integration of tensor trains
Lubich, Christian; Oseledets, Ivan; Vandereycken, Bart
2014-01-01
A robust and efficient time integrator for dynamical tensor approximation in the tensor train or matrix product state format is presented. The method is based on splitting the projector onto the tangent space of the tensor manifold. The algorithm can be used for updating time-dependent tensors in the given data-sparse tensor train / matrix product state format and for computing an approximate solution to high-dimensional tensor differential equations within this data-sparse format. The formul...
Symplectic integrators with adaptive time steps
Richardson, A. S.; Finn, J. M.
2012-01-01
In recent decades, there have been many attempts to construct symplectic integrators with variable time steps, with rather disappointing results. In this paper, we identify the causes for this lack of performance, and find that they fall into two categories. In the first, the time step is considered a function of time alone, Δ = Δ(t). In this case, backward error analysis shows that while the algorithms remain symplectic, parametric instabilities may arise because of resonance between oscillations of Δ(t) and the orbital motion. In the second category the time step is a function of phase space variables Δ = Δ(q, p). In this case, the system of equations to be solved is analyzed by introducing a new time variable τ with dt = Δ(q, p) dτ. The transformed equations are no longer in Hamiltonian form, and thus do not benefit from integration methods which would be symplectic for Hamiltonian systems. We analyze two methods for integrating the transformed equations which do, however, preserve the structure of the original equations. The first is an extended phase space method, which has been successfully used in previous studies of adaptive time step symplectic integrators. The second, novel, method is based on a non-canonical mixed-variable generating function. Numerical trials for both of these methods show good results, without parametric instabilities or spurious growth or damping. It is then shown how to adapt the time step to an error estimate found by backward error analysis, in order to optimize the time-stepping scheme. Numerical results are obtained using this formulation and compared with other time-stepping schemes for the extended phase space symplectic method.
Long Pulse Integrator of Variable Integral Time Constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yong; Ji Zhenshan; Du Xiaoying; Wu Yichun; Li Shi; Luo Jiarong
2010-01-01
A kind of new long pulse integrator was designed based on the method of variable integral time constant and deducting integral drift by drift slope. The integral time constant can be changed by choosing different integral resistors, in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and avoid output saturation; the slope of integral drift of a certain period of time can be calculated by digital signal processing, which can be used to deduct the drift of original integral signal in real time to reduce the integral drift. The tests show that this kind of long pulse integrator is good at reducing integral drift, which also can eliminate the effects of changing integral time constant. According to experiments, the integral time constant can be changed by remote control and manual adjustment of integral drift is avoided, which can improve the experiment efficiency greatly and can be used for electromagnetic measurement in Tokamak experiment. (authors)
Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.
Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W
2013-12-01
Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices
Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W
2013-01-01
Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. PMID:24279835
Effect of prolonged mixing time on concrete properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohd Noorul Ikhsan Mohamed; Sidek, H.A.A.; Wahab, Z.A.
2009-01-01
The correlation between workability, compressive strength and mixing time of fresh concrete has been studied. The concrete samples used in the study are normal concrete of grade 30. The mix design of the concrete samples was estimated using software called Calcrete. Three concrete cubes of 150 mm size were cast immediately after mixing. The same grade of concrete was prepared with the mixing time of 30 minutes to 5 hours. All of the concrete samples were cured for 28 days under room temperature before they were compressed using a compression machine. Result shows that the compressive strength of concrete decreases when mixing time is increased. (author)
A mixed integer linear program for an integrated fishery | Hasan ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... and labour allocation of quota based integrated fisheries. We demonstrate the workability of our model with a numerical example and sensitivity analysis based on data obtained from one of the major fisheries in New Zealand. Keywords: mixed integer linear program, fishing, trawler scheduling, processing, quotas ORiON: ...
Steffensen's Integral Inequality on Time Scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ozkan Umut Mutlu
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We establish generalizations of Steffensen's integral inequality on time scales via the diamond- dynamic integral, which is defined as a linear combination of the delta and nabla integrals.
Mixed Waste Treatment Project: Computer simulations of integrated flowsheets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietsche, L.J.
1993-12-01
The disposal of mixed waste, that is waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components, is a challenging waste management problem of particular concern to DOE sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for the destruction of hazardous wastes need to be re-evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and in some cases new technologies need to be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) was set up by DOE's Waste Operations Program (EM30) to provide guidance on mixed waste treatment options. One of MWTP's charters is to develop flowsheets for prototype integrated mixed waste treatment facilities which can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modelling. The objective of the flowsheet simulations is to provide mass and energy balances, product compositions, and equipment sizing (leading to cost) information. The modelled flowsheets need to be easily modified to examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams effect the overall integrated process. One such commercially available simulation program is ASPEN PLUS. This report contains details of the Aspen Plus program
Integrated aeroelastic vibrator for fluid mixing in open microwells
Xia, H. M.; Jin, X.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Wu, J. W.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Z. P.
2018-01-01
Fluid mixing in micro-wells/chambers is required in a variety of biological and biochemical processes. However, mixing fluids of small volumes is usually difficult due to increased viscous effects. In this study, we propose a new method for mixing enhancement in microliter-scale open wells. A thin elastic diaphragm is used to seal the bottom of the mixing microwell, underneath which an air chamber connects an aeroelastic vibrator. Driven by an air flow, the vibrator produces self-excited vibrations and causes pressure oscillations in the air chamber. Then the elastic diaphragm is actuated to mix the fluids in the microwell. Two designs that respectively have one single well and 2 × 2 wells were prototyped. Testing results show that for liquids with a volume ranging from 10-60 µl and viscosity ranging from 1-5 cP, complete mixing can be obtained within 5-20 s. Furthermore, the device is operable with an air micropump, and hence facilitating the miniaturization and integration of lab-on-a-chip and microbioreactor systems.
Making the Move: A Mixed Research Integrative Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah Gilbert
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this mixed research integrative review is to determine factors that influence relocation transitions for older adults who are considering a move from independent living to supervised housing, such as assisted living, using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a conceptual guide. PubMED, CINAHL, and PsychInfo databases were queried using key words: relocation, transition, older adults, and, elderly and time limited from 1992 to 2014. Sixteen articles were retained for review. The majority of articles, qualitative in design, reveal that older adults who comprehend the need to move and participate in the decision-making process of a relocation adjust to new living environments with fewer negative outcomes than older adults who experience a forced relocation. The few quantitative articles examined the elements of impending relocation using a variety of instruments but support the necessity for older adults to recognize the possibility of a future move and contribute to the relocation process. Additionally, the influence of family, friends, and health care providers provides the older adult with support and guidance throughout the process.
Mixed signal custom integrated circuit development for physics instrumentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Britton, C.L. Jr.; Bryan, W.L.; Emery, M.S.
1998-01-01
The Monolithic Systems Development Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been greatly involved in custom mixed-mode integrated circuit development for the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory and position-sensitive germanium spectrometer front-ends for the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). This paper will outline the work done for both PHENIX and the Naval Research Laboratory in the area of full-custom, mixed-signal CMOS integrated electronics. This paper presents the architectures chosen for the various PHENIX detectors which include position-sensitive silicon, capacitive pixel, and phototube detectors, and performance results for the subsystems as well as a system description of the NRL germanium strip system and its performance. The performance of the custom preamplifiers, discriminators, analog memories, analog-digital converters, and control circuitry for all systems will be presented
Mixed signal custom integrated circuit development for physics instrumentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Britton, C.L. Jr.; Bryan, W.L.; Emery, M.S. [and others
1998-10-01
The Monolithic Systems Development Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been greatly involved in custom mixed-mode integrated circuit development for the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory and position-sensitive germanium spectrometer front-ends for the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). This paper will outline the work done for both PHENIX and the Naval Research Laboratory in the area of full-custom, mixed-signal CMOS integrated electronics. This paper presents the architectures chosen for the various PHENIX detectors which include position-sensitive silicon, capacitive pixel, and phototube detectors, and performance results for the subsystems as well as a system description of the NRL germanium strip system and its performance. The performance of the custom preamplifiers, discriminators, analog memories, analog-digital converters, and control circuitry for all systems will be presented.
Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance
M.M. Hasan; S. Sultana; C.K. Foo
2017-01-01
The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI) operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time...
Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance
Hasan M. M.; Sultana S.; Foo C.K.
2017-01-01
The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUI)operating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time e...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marinescu, Sorin Ovidiu; Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Acretoaie, Vlad
In this paper we are interested in the timing analysis of mixed-criticality embedded real-time applications mapped on distributed heterogeneous architectures. Mixedcriticality tasks can be integrated onto the same architecture only if there is enough spatial and temporal separation among them. We...... in partitions using fixedpriority preemptive scheduling. We have extended the stateof- the-art algorithms for schedulability analysis to take into account the partitions. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several synthetic and real-life benchmarks....... consider that the separation is provided by partitioning, such that applications run in separate partitions, and each partition is allocated several time slots on a processor. Each partition can have its own scheduling policy. We are interested to determine the worst-case response times of tasks scheduled...
Mixed Discretization of the Time Domain MFIE at Low Frequencies
Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bogaert, Ignace; Cools, Kristof; Andriulli, Francesco Paolo; Bagci, Hakan
2017-01-01
stems from the classical MOT scheme’s failure to predict the correct scaling of the current’s Helmholtz components for large time steps. A recently proposed mixed discretization strategy is used to alleviate the inaccuracy problem by restoring
Mixed Waste Integrated Program Quality Assurance requirements plan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-01-01
Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, Waste Management Division. The strategic objectives of MWIP are defined in the Mixed Waste Integrated Program Strategic Plan, and expanded upon in the MWIP Program Management Plan. This MWIP Quality Assurance Requirement Plan (QARP) applies to mixed waste treatment technologies involving both hazardous and radioactive constituents. As a DOE organization, MWIP is required to develop, implement, and maintain a written Quality Assurance Program in accordance with DOE Order 4700.1 Project Management System, DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management, ASME NQA-1 Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities and ANSI/ASQC E4-19xx Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data Collection and Environmental Technology Programs. The purpose of the MWIP QA program is to establish controls which address the requirements in 5700.6C, with the intent to minimize risks and potential environmental impacts; and to maximize environmental protection, health, safety, reliability, and performance in all program activities. QA program controls are established to assure that each participating organization conducts its activities in a manner consistent with risks posed by those activities
Mixed Waste Integrated Program Quality Assurance requirements plan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1994-04-15
Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, Waste Management Division. The strategic objectives of MWIP are defined in the Mixed Waste Integrated Program Strategic Plan, and expanded upon in the MWIP Program Management Plan. This MWIP Quality Assurance Requirement Plan (QARP) applies to mixed waste treatment technologies involving both hazardous and radioactive constituents. As a DOE organization, MWIP is required to develop, implement, and maintain a written Quality Assurance Program in accordance with DOE Order 4700.1 Project Management System, DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management, ASME NQA-1 Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities and ANSI/ASQC E4-19xx Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data Collection and Environmental Technology Programs. The purpose of the MWIP QA program is to establish controls which address the requirements in 5700.6C, with the intent to minimize risks and potential environmental impacts; and to maximize environmental protection, health, safety, reliability, and performance in all program activities. QA program controls are established to assure that each participating organization conducts its activities in a manner consistent with risks posed by those activities.
An overview of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.; Betsill, J.D.
1994-01-01
The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ''in-situ'' characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in and environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies. Key goals of the MWLID are routine use of these technologies by Environmental Restoration Groups throughout the DOE complex and commercialization of these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID is demonstrating technologies at hazardous waste landfills located at Sandia National Laboratories and on Kirtland Air Force Base. These landfills have been selected because they are representative of many sites throughout the Southwest and in other and climates
Time-symmetric integration in astrophysics
Hernandez, David M.; Bertschinger, Edmund
2018-04-01
Calculating the long-term solution of ordinary differential equations, such as those of the N-body problem, is central to understanding a wide range of dynamics in astrophysics, from galaxy formation to planetary chaos. Because generally no analytic solution exists to these equations, researchers rely on numerical methods that are prone to various errors. In an effort to mitigate these errors, powerful symplectic integrators have been employed. But symplectic integrators can be severely limited because they are not compatible with adaptive stepping and thus they have difficulty in accommodating changing time and length scales. A promising alternative is time-reversible integration, which can handle adaptive time-stepping, but the errors due to time-reversible integration in astrophysics are less understood. The goal of this work is to study analytically and numerically the errors caused by time-reversible integration, with and without adaptive stepping. We derive the modified differential equations of these integrators to perform the error analysis. As an example, we consider the trapezoidal rule, a reversible non-symplectic integrator, and show that it gives secular energy error increase for a pendulum problem and for a Hénon-Heiles orbit. We conclude that using reversible integration does not guarantee good energy conservation and that, when possible, use of symplectic integrators is favoured. We also show that time-symmetry and time-reversibility are properties that are distinct for an integrator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cascaval Dan
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The mixing time for bioreactors depends mainly on the rheoiogicai properties of the broths, the biomass concentration and morphology, mixing system characteristics and fermentation conditions. For quantifying the influence of these factors on the mixing efficiency for stirred bioreactors, aerated broths of bacteria (P. shermanii, yeasts (S. cerevisiae and fungi (P. chrysogenum, free mycelia and mycelial aggregates of different concentrations have been investigated using a laboratory bioreactor with a double turbine impeller. The experimental data indicated that the influence of the rotation speed, aeration rate and stirrer positions on the mixing intensity strongly differ from one system to another and must be correlated with the microorganism characteristics, namely: the biomass concentration and morphology. Moreover, compared with non-aerated broths, variations of the mixing time with the considered parameters are very different, due to the complex flow mechanism of gas-liquid dispersions. By means of the experimental data and using a multiregression analysis method some mathematical correlations for the mixing time of the general form: tm = a1*Cx2+a2*Cx+a3*IgVa+a4-N2+a5-N+a6/a7*L2+a8*L+a9 were established. The proposed equations offer good agreement with the experiments, the average deviation being ±6.7% - ±9.4 and are adequate for the flow regime Re < 25,000.
Mixing times in quantum walks on two-dimensional grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marquezino, F. L.; Portugal, R.; Abal, G.
2010-01-01
Mixing properties of discrete-time quantum walks on two-dimensional grids with toruslike boundary conditions are analyzed, focusing on their connection to the complexity of the corresponding abstract search algorithm. In particular, an exact expression for the stationary distribution of the coherent walk over odd-sided lattices is obtained after solving the eigenproblem for the evolution operator for this particular graph. The limiting distribution and mixing time of a quantum walk with a coin operator modified as in the abstract search algorithm are obtained numerically. On the basis of these results, the relation between the mixing time of the modified walk and the running time of the corresponding abstract search algorithm is discussed.
Mixed Waste Integrated Program -- Problem-oriented technology development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hart, P.W.; Wolf, S.W.; Berry, J.B.
1994-01-01
The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed waste treatment technologies that meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations will be used to determine whether processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. Technology development is ongoing in technical areas required to process mixed waste: materials handling, chemical/physical treatment, waste destruction, off-gas treatment, final forms, and process monitoring/control. MWIP is currently developing a suite of technologies to process heterogeneous waste. One robust process is the fixed-hearth plasma-arc process that is being developed to treat a wide variety of contaminated materials with minimal characterization. Additional processes encompass steam reforming, including treatment of waste under the debris rule. Advanced off-gas systems are also being developed. Vitrification technologies are being demonstrated for the treatment of homogeneous wastes such as incinerator ash and sludge. An alternative to conventional evaporation for liquid removal--freeze crystallization--is being investigated. Since mercury is present in numerous waste streams, mercury removal technologies are being developed
Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hasan M. M.
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUIoperating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based real-time kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium IIIbased system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical real-time system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.
Sandia National Laboratories Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyler, L.D.; Phelan, J.M.; Prindle, N.K.; Purvis, S.T.; Stormont, J.C.
1992-01-01
The Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. The mission of the MWLID is to assess, implement and transfer technologies and systems that lead to quicker, safer, and more efficient remediation of buried chemical and mixed-waste sites. The MWLID focus is on two landfills at SNL in Albuquerque, New Mexico: The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed-Waste Landfill (MWL). These landfills received chemical, radioactive and mixed wastes from various SNL nuclear research programs. A characterization system has been designed for the definition of the extent and concentration of contamination. This system includes historical records, directional drilling, and emplacement membrane, sensors, geophysics, sampling strategy, and on site sample analysis. In the remediation task, in-situ remediation systems are being designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and heavy metals from soils. The VOC remediation includes vacuum extraction with electrical and radio-frequency heating. For heavy metal contamination, electrokinetic processes are being considered. The MWLID utilizes a phased, parallel approach. Initial testing is performed at an uncontaminated site adjacent to the CWL. Once characterization is underway at the CWL, lessons learned can be directly transferred to the more challenging problem of radioactive waste in the MWL. The MWL characterization can proceed in parallel with the remediation work at CWL. The technologies and systems demonstrated in the MWLID are to be evaluated based on their performance and cost in the real remediation environment of the landfills
On the mixing time of geographical threshold graphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
In this paper, we study the mixing time of random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). We specifically study the mixing times of random walks on 2-dimensional GTGs near the connectivity threshold. We provide a set of criteria on the distribution of vertex weights that guarantees that the mixing time is {Theta}(n log n).
Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.M. Hasan
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based realtime kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium III based system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical realtime system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.
Jang, Eunice E.; McDougall, Douglas E.; Pollon, Dawn; Herbert, Monique; Russell, Pia
2008-01-01
There are both conceptual and practical challenges in dealing with data from mixed methods research studies. There is a need for discussion about various integrative strategies for mixed methods data analyses. This article illustrates integrative analytic strategies for a mixed methods study focusing on improving urban schools facing challenging…
Numerical time integration for air pollution models
J.G. Verwer (Jan); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem); J.G. Blom (Joke)
1998-01-01
textabstractDue to the large number of chemical species and the three space dimensions, off-the-shelf stiff ODE integrators are not feasible for the numerical time integration of stiff systems of advection-diffusion-reaction equations [ fracpar{c{t + nabla cdot left( vu{u c right) = nabla cdot left(
Properties Important To Mixing For WTP Large Scale Integrated Testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koopman, D.; Martino, C.; Poirier, M.
2012-01-01
Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc. to address uncertainties in the full scale mixing performance of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. External review boards have raised questions regarding the overall representativeness of simulants used in previous mixing tests. Accordingly, WTP requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in LSIT. Among the first tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that matter to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) mixing of WTP tanks. This report satisfies Commitment 5.2.3.1 of the Department of Energy Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2010-2: physical properties important to mixing and scaling. In support of waste simulant development, the following two objectives are the focus of this report: (1) Assess physical and chemical properties important to the testing and development of mixing scaling relationships; (2) Identify the governing properties and associated ranges for LSIT to achieve the Newtonian and non-Newtonian test objectives. This includes the properties to support testing of sampling and heel management systems. The test objectives for LSIT relate to transfer and pump out of solid particles, prototypic integrated operations, sparger operation, PJM controllability, vessel level/density measurement accuracy, sampling, heel management, PJM restart, design and safety margin, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Verification and Validation (V and V) and comparison, performance testing and scaling, and high temperature operation. The slurry properties that are most important to Performance Testing and Scaling depend on the test objective and rheological classification of the slurry (i
PROPERTIES IMPORTANT TO MIXING FOR WTP LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED TESTING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koopman, D.; Martino, C.; Poirier, M.
2012-04-26
Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc. to address uncertainties in the full scale mixing performance of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. External review boards have raised questions regarding the overall representativeness of simulants used in previous mixing tests. Accordingly, WTP requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in LSIT. Among the first tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that matter to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) mixing of WTP tanks. This report satisfies Commitment 5.2.3.1 of the Department of Energy Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2010-2: physical properties important to mixing and scaling. In support of waste simulant development, the following two objectives are the focus of this report: (1) Assess physical and chemical properties important to the testing and development of mixing scaling relationships; (2) Identify the governing properties and associated ranges for LSIT to achieve the Newtonian and non-Newtonian test objectives. This includes the properties to support testing of sampling and heel management systems. The test objectives for LSIT relate to transfer and pump out of solid particles, prototypic integrated operations, sparger operation, PJM controllability, vessel level/density measurement accuracy, sampling, heel management, PJM restart, design and safety margin, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Verification and Validation (V and V) and comparison, performance testing and scaling, and high temperature operation. The slurry properties that are most important to Performance Testing and Scaling depend on the test objective and rheological classification of the slurry (i
Multiple Estimation Architecture in Discrete-Time Adaptive Mixing Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simone Baldi
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Adaptive mixing control (AMC is a recently developed control scheme for uncertain plants, where the control action coming from a bank of precomputed controller is mixed based on the parameter estimates generated by an on-line parameter estimator. Even if the stability of the control scheme, also in the presence of modeling errors and disturbances, has been shown analytically, its transient performance might be sensitive to the initial conditions of the parameter estimator. In particular, for some initial conditions, transient oscillations may not be acceptable in practical applications. In order to account for such a possible phenomenon and to improve the learning capability of the adaptive scheme, in this paper a new mixing architecture is developed, involving the use of parallel parameter estimators, or multi-estimators, each one working on a small subset of the uncertainty set. A supervisory logic, using performance signals based on the past and present estimation error, selects the parameter estimate to determine the mixing of the controllers. The stability and robustness properties of the resulting approach, referred to as multi-estimator adaptive mixing control (Multi-AMC, are analytically established. Besides, extensive simulations demonstrate that the scheme improves the transient performance of the original AMC with a single estimator. The control scheme and the analysis are carried out in a discrete-time framework, for easier implementation of the method in digital control.
The problem with time in mixed continuous/discrete time modelling
Rovers, K.C.; Kuper, Jan; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria
The design of cyber-physical systems requires the use of mixed continuous time and discrete time models. Current modelling tools have problems with time transformations (such as a time delay) or multi-rate systems. We will present a novel approach that implements signals as functions of time,
Mixed waste focus area integrated master schedule (current as of May 6, 1996)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with the participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating the Department of Energy's (DOE's) mixed wastes. In support of this mission, the MWTA produced the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report, Phase I Volume 1, January 16, 1996, which identified a prioritized list of 30 national mixed waste technology deficiencies. The MWFA is targeting funding toward technology development projects that address the current list of deficiencies. A clear connection between the technology development projects and the EM-30 and EM-40 treatment systems that they support is essential for optimizing the MWFA efforts. The purpose of the Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) is to establish and document these connections and to ensure that all technology development activities performed by the MWFA are developed for timely use in those treatment systems. The IMS is a list of treatment systems from the Site Treatment Plans (STPs)/Consent Orders that have been assigned technology development needs with associated time-driven schedules, Technology deficiencies and associated technology development (TD) needs have been identified for each treatment system based on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste targeted for the treatment system. The schedule, the technology development activities, and the treatment system have been verified through the operations contact from the EM-30 organization at the site
Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan
2016-01-01
With the emerging of small-scale integrated energy systems (IESs), there are significant potentials to increase the functionality of a typical demand-side management (DSM) strategy and typical implementation of building-level distributed energy resources (DERs). By integrating DSM and DERs...... into a cohesive, networked package that fully utilizes smart energy-efficient end-use devices, advanced building control/automation systems, and integrated communications architectures, it is possible to efficiently manage energy and comfort at the end-use location. In this paper, an ontology-driven multi......-agent control system with intelligent optimizers is proposed for optimal real-time dispatch of an integrated building and microgrid system considering coordinated demand response (DR) and DERs management. The optimal dispatch problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programing problem (MINLP...
Rayleigh-Taylor mixing with time-dependent acceleration
Abarzhi, Snezhana
2016-10-01
We extend the momentum model to describe Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing driven by a time-dependent acceleration. The acceleration is a power-law function of time, similarly to astrophysical and plasma fusion applications. In RT flow the dynamics of a fluid parcel is driven by a balance per unit mass of the rates of momentum gain and loss. We find analytical solutions in the cases of balanced and imbalanced gains and losses, and identify their dependence on the acceleration exponent. The existence is shown of two typical regimes of self-similar RT mixing-acceleration-driven Rayleigh-Taylor-type and dissipation-driven Richtymer-Meshkov-type with the latter being in general non-universal. Possible scenarios are proposed for transitions from the balanced dynamics to the imbalanced self-similar dynamics. Scaling and correlations properties of RT mixing are studied on the basis of dimensional analysis. Departures are outlined of RT dynamics with time-dependent acceleration from canonical cases of homogeneous turbulence as well as blast waves with first and second kind self-similarity. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.
Snowmelt Timing as a Determinant of Lake Inflow Mixing
Roberts, D. C.; Forrest, A. L.; Sahoo, G. B.; Hook, S. J.; Schladow, S. G.
2018-02-01
Snowmelt is a significant source of carbon, nutrient, and sediment loads to many mountain lakes. The mixing conditions of snowmelt inflows, which are heavily dependent on the interplay between snowmelt and lake thermal regime, dictate the fate of these loads within lakes and their ultimate impact on lake ecosystems. We use five decades of data from Lake Tahoe, a 600 year residence-time lake where snowmelt has little influence on lake temperature, to characterize the snowmelt mixing response to a range of climate conditions. Using stream discharge and lake profile data (1968-2017), we find that the proportion of annual snowmelt entering the lake prior to the onset of stratification increases as annual snowpack decreases, ranging from about 50% in heavy-snow years to close to 90% in warm, dry years. Accordingly, in 8 recent years (2010-2017) where hourly inflow buoyancy and discharge could be quantified, we find that decreased snowpack similarly increases the proportion of annual snowmelt entering the lake at weak to positive buoyancy. These responses are due to the stronger effect of winter precipitation conditions on streamflow timing and temperature than on lake stratification, and point toward increased nearshore and near-surface mixing of inflows in low-snowpack years. The response of inflow mixing conditions to snowpack is apparent when isolating temperature effects on snowpack. Snowpack levels are decreasing due to warming temperatures during winter precipitation. Thus, our findings suggest that climate change may lead to increased deposition of inflow loads in the ecologically dynamic littoral zone of high-residence time, snowmelt-fed lakes.
Optimization of Time-Partitions for Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Distributed Embedded Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul
2011-01-01
In this paper we are interested in mixed-criticality embedded real-time applications mapped on distributed heterogeneous architectures. The architecture provides both spatial and temporal partitioning, thus enforcing enough separation for the critical applications. With temporal partitioning, each...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul
2011-01-01
In this paper we are interested to implement mixed-criticality hard real-time applications on a given heterogeneous distributed architecture. Applications have different criticality levels, captured by their Safety-Integrity Level (SIL), and are scheduled using static-cyclic scheduling. Mixed......-criticality tasks can be integrated onto the same architecture only if there is enough spatial and temporal separation among them. We consider that the separation is provided by partitioning, such that applications run in separate partitions, and each partition is allocated several time slots on a processor. Tasks...... slots on each processor and (iv) the schedule tables, such that all the applications are schedulable and the development costs are minimized. We have proposed a Tabu Search-based approach to solve this optimization problem. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several synthetic and real...
AGILE integration into APC for high mix logic fab
Gatefait, M.; Lam, A.; Le Gratiet, B.; Mikolajczak, M.; Morin, V.; Chojnowski, N.; Kocsis, Z.; Smith, I.; Decaunes, J.; Ostrovsky, A.; Monget, C.
2015-09-01
mix logic Fab) in term of product and technology portfolio AGILE corrects for up to 120nm of product topography error on process layer with less than 50nm depth of focus Based on tool functionalities delivered by ASML and on high volume manufacturing requirement, AGILE integration is a real challenge. Regarding ST requirements "Automatic AGILE" functionality developed by ASML was not a turnkey solution and a dedicated functionality was needed. A "ST homemade AGILE integration" has been fully developed and implemented within ASML and ST constraints. This paper describes this integration in our Advanced Process Control platform (APC).
GENERIC Integrators: Structure Preserving Time Integration for Thermodynamic Systems
Öttinger, Hans Christian
2018-04-01
Thermodynamically admissible evolution equations for non-equilibrium systems are known to possess a distinct mathematical structure. Within the GENERIC (general equation for the non-equilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling) framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, which is based on continuous time evolution, we investigate the possibility of preserving all the structural elements in time-discretized equations. Our approach, which follows Moser's [1] construction of symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems, is illustrated for the damped harmonic oscillator. Alternative approaches are sketched.
Integrable Time-Dependent Quantum Hamiltonians
Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Yuzbashyan, Emil A.; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Patra, Aniket; Sun, Chen
2018-05-01
We formulate a set of conditions under which the nonstationary Schrödinger equation with a time-dependent Hamiltonian is exactly solvable analytically. The main requirement is the existence of a non-Abelian gauge field with zero curvature in the space of system parameters. Known solvable multistate Landau-Zener models satisfy these conditions. Our method provides a strategy to incorporate time dependence into various quantum integrable models while maintaining their integrability. We also validate some prior conjectures, including the solution of the driven generalized Tavis-Cummings model.
INTEGRAL EDUCATION, TIME AND SPACE: PROBLEMATIZING CONCEPTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Elisa Spaolonzi Queiroz Assis
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Integral Education, despite being the subject of public policy agenda for some decades, still carries disparities related to its concept. In this sense, this article aims to problematize not only the concepts of integral education but also the categories time and space contained in the magazines Em Aberto. They were organized and published by the National Institute of Educational Studies Anísio Teixeira (INEP, numbers 80 (2009 and 88 (2012, respectively entitled "Educação Integral e tempo integral" and " Políticas de educação integral em jornada ampliada". The methodology is based on Bardin’s content analysis, respecting the steps of pre-analysis (research corpus formed by the texts in the journals; material exploration (reading the texts encoding data choosing the registration units for categorization; and processing and interpretation of results, based on Saviani’s Historical-Critical Pedagogy. The work reveals convergent and divergent conceptual multiplicity, provoking a discussion about a critical conception of integral education. Keywords: Integral Education. Historical-Critical Pedagogy. Content Analysis.
A Case Study of a Mixed Methods Study Engaged in Integrated Data Analysis
Schiazza, Daniela Marie
2013-01-01
The nascent field of mixed methods research has yet to develop a cohesive framework of guidelines and procedures for mixed methods data analysis (Greene, 2008). To support the field's development of analytical frameworks, this case study reflects on the development and implementation of a mixed methods study engaged in integrated data analysis.…
Real-time tunability of chip-based light source enabled by microfluidic mixing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Rasmussen, Torben; Balslev, Søren
2006-01-01
We demonstrate real-time tunability of a chip-based liquid light source enabled by microfluidic mixing. The mixer and light source are fabricated in SU-8 which is suitable for integration in SU-8-based laboratory-on-a-chip microsystems. The tunability of the light source is achieved by changing...... the concentration of rhodamine 6G dye inside two integrated vertical resonators, since both the refractive index and the gain profile are influenced by the dye concentration. The effect on the refractive index and the gain profile of rhodamine 6G in ethanol is investigated and the continuous tuning of the laser...
Energy drift in reversible time integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLachlan, R I; Perlmutter, M
2004-01-01
Energy drift is commonly observed in reversible integrations of systems of molecular dynamics. We show that this drift can be modelled as a diffusion and that the typical energy error after time T is O(√T). (letter to the editor)
Interconnect rise time in superconducting integrating circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Preis, D.; Shlager, K.
1988-01-01
The influence of resistive losses on the voltage rise time of an integrated-circuit interconnection is reported. A distribution-circuit model is used to present the interconnect. Numerous parametric curves are presented based on numerical evaluation of the exact analytical expression for the model's transient response. For the superconducting case in which the series resistance of the interconnect approaches zero, the step-response rise time is longer but signal strength increases significantly
Hippocampal “Time Cells”: Time versus Path Integration
Kraus, Benjamin J.; Robinson, Robert J.; White, John A.; Eichenbaum, Howard; Hasselmo, Michael E.
2014-01-01
SUMMARY Recent studies have reported the existence of hippocampal “time cells,” neurons that fire at particular moments during periods when behavior and location are relatively constant. However, an alternative explanation of apparent time coding is that hippocampal neurons “path integrate” to encode the distance an animal has traveled. Here, we examined hippocampal neuronal firing patterns as rats ran in place on a treadmill, thus “clamping” behavior and location, while we varied the treadmill speed to distinguish time elapsed from distance traveled. Hippocampal neurons were strongly influenced by time and distance, and less so by minor variations in location. Furthermore, the activity of different neurons reflected integration over time and distance to varying extents, with most neurons strongly influenced by both factors and some significantly influenced by only time or distance. Thus, hippocampal neuronal networks captured both the organization of time and distance in a situation where these dimensions dominated an ongoing experience. PMID:23707613
The Crank Nicolson Time Integrator for EMPHASIS.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McGregor, Duncan Alisdair Odum; Love, Edward; Kramer, Richard Michael Jack
2018-03-01
We investigate the use of implicit time integrators for finite element time domain approxi- mations of Maxwell's equations in vacuum. We discretize Maxwell's equations in time using Crank-Nicolson and in 3D space using compatible finite elements. We solve the system by taking a single step of Newton's method and inverting the Eddy-Current Schur complement allowing for the use of standard preconditioning techniques. This approach also generalizes to more complex material models that can include the Unsplit PML. We present verification results and demonstrate performance at CFL numbers up to 1000.
Path integration on space times with symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Low, S.G.
1985-01-01
Path integration on space times with symmetry is investigated using a definition of path integration of Gaussian integrators. Gaussian integrators, systematically developed using the theory of projective distributions, may be defined in terms of a Jacobi operator Green function. This definition of the path integral yields a semiclassical expansion of the propagator which is valid on caustics. The semiclassical approximation to the free particle propagator on symmetric and reductive homogeneous spaces is computed in terms of the complete solution of the Jacobi equation. The results are used to test the validity of using the Schwinger-DeWitt transform to compute an approximation to the coincidence limit of a field theory Green function from a WKB propagator. The method is found not to be valid except for certain special cases. These cases include manifolds constructed from the direct product of flat space and group manifolds, on which the free particle WKB approximation is exact and two sphere. The multiple geodesic contribution to 2 > on Schwarzschild in the neighborhood of rho = 3M is computed using the transform
Montagna, Chiara; Perugini, Diego; De Campos, Christina; Longo, Antonella; Dingwell, Donald Bruce; Papale, Paolo
2015-04-01
Arrival of magma from depth into shallow reservoirs and associated mixing processes have been documented as possible triggers of explosive eruptions. Quantifying the timing from beginning of mixing to eruption is of fundamental importance in volcanology in order to put constraints about the possible onset of a new eruption. Here we integrate numerical simulations and high-temperature experiment performed with natural melts with the aim to attempt identifying the mixing-to-eruption timescales. We performed two-dimensional numerical simulations of the arrival of gas-rich magmas into shallow reservoirs. We solve the fluid dynamics for the two interacting magmas evaluating the space-time evolution of the physical properties of the mixture. Convection and mingling develop quickly into the chamber and feeding conduit/dyke. Over time scales of hours, the magmas in the reservoir appear to have mingled throughout, and convective patterns become harder to identify. High-temperature magma mixing experiments have been performed using a centrifuge and using basaltic and phonolitic melts from Campi Flegrei (Italy) as initial end-members. Concentration Variance Decay (CVD), an inevitable consequence of magma mixing, is exponential with time. The rate of CVD is a powerful new geochronometer for the time from mixing to eruption/quenching. The mingling-to-eruption time of three explosive volcanic eruptions from Campi Flegrei (Italy) yield durations on the order of tens of minutes. These results are in perfect agreement with the numerical simulations that suggest a maximum mixing time of a few hours to obtain a hybrid mixture. We show that integration of numerical simulation and high-temperature experiments can provide unprecedented results about mixing processes in volcanic systems. The combined application of numerical simulations and CVD geochronometer to the eruptive products of active volcanoes could be decisive for the preparation of hazard mitigation during volcanic unrest.
Analogue and Mixed-Signal Integrated Circuits for Space Applications
2014-01-01
The purpose of AMICSA 2014 (organised in collaboration of ESA and CERN) is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of recent advances in analogue and mixed-signal VLSI design techniques and technologies for space applications.
A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses
Castro, Felipe González; Kellison, Joshua G.; Boyd, Stephen J.; Kopak, Albert
2011-01-01
Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors' ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies. PMID:22167325
Bartholomew, Theodore T; Lockard, Allison J
2018-06-13
Mixed methods can foster depth and breadth in psychological research. However, its use remains in development in psychotherapy research. Our purpose was to review the use of mixed methods in psychotherapy research. Thirty-one studies were identified via the PRISMA systematic review method. Using Creswell & Plano Clark's typologies to identify design characteristics, we assessed each study for rigor and how each used mixed methods. Key features of mixed methods designs and these common patterns were identified: (a) integration of clients' perceptions via mixing; (b) understanding group psychotherapy; (c) integrating methods with cases and small samples; (d) analyzing clinical data as qualitative data; and (e) exploring cultural identities in psychotherapy through mixed methods. The review is discussed with respect to the value of integrating multiple data in single studies to enhance psychotherapy research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Erratic time dependence of orbits of topologically mixing maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiong Jincheng.
1988-11-01
In the present paper we show that for a topologically mixing map there are considerably many points in the domain whose orbits display highly erratic time dependence, i.e., if f: X→X is a topologically mixing map where X is a compact metric space then for any increasing sequence {q i } of positive integers and any countable subset S dense in X there exists everywhere an uncountable subset C of X satisfying the conditions of (1) for any s is an element of S. There exists a subsequence {p i } of the sequence {q i } such that lim i→∞ f P 1 (y)=s for every y is an element of C, and (2) for any n>0, any n distinct points y 1 ,y 2 ,...,y n of C and any n points x 1 ,x 2 ,...,x n of X there exists a subsequence {t i } of the sequence {q i } such that lim i→∞ f t i (y j )=x j for every j=1,2,...n. (author). 4 refs
Aspects for Run-time Component Integration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Truyen, Eddy; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Joosen, Wouter
2000-01-01
Component framework technology has become the cornerstone of building a family of systems and applications. A component framework defines a generic architecture into which specialized components can be plugged. As such, the component framework leverages the glue that connects the different inserted...... to dynamically integrate into the architecture of middleware systems new services that support non-functional aspects such as security, transactions, real-time....
Time-Lapse Measurement of Wellbore Integrity
Duguid, A.
2017-12-01
Well integrity is becoming more important as wells are used longer or repurposed. For CO2, shale gas, and other projects it has become apparent that wells represent the most likely unintended migration pathway for fluids out of the reservoir. Comprehensive logging programs have been employed to determine the condition of legacy wells in North America. These studies provide examples of assessment technologies. Logging programs have included pulsed neutron logging, ultrasonic well mapping, and cement bond logging. While these studies provide examples of what can be measured, they have only conducted a single round of logging and cannot show if the well has changed over time. Recent experience with time-lapse logging of three monitoring wells at a US Department of Energy sponsored CO2 project has shown the full value of similar tools. Time-lapse logging has shown that well integrity changes over time can be identified. It has also shown that the inclusion of and location of monitoring technologies in the well and the choice of construction materials must be carefully considered. Two of the wells were approximately eight years old at the time of study; they were constructed with steel and fiberglass casing sections and had lines on the outside of the casing running to the surface. The third well was 68 years old when it was studied and was originally constructed as a production well. Repeat logs were collected six or eight years after initial logging. Time-lapse logging showed the evolution of the wells. The results identified locations where cement degraded over time and locations that showed little change. The ultrasonic well maps show clearly that the lines used to connect the monitoring technology to the surface are visible and have a local effect on cement isolation. Testing and sampling was conducted along with logging. It provided insight into changes identified in the time-lapse log results. Point permeability testing was used to provide an in-situ point
Controlling mixing and segregation in time periodic granular flows
Bhattacharya, Tathagata
Segregation is a major problem for many solids processing industries. Differences in particle size or density can lead to flow-induced segregation. In the present work, we employ the discrete element method (DEM)---one type of particle dynamics (PD) technique---to investigate the mixing and segregation of granular material in some prototypical solid handling devices, such as a rotating drum and chute. In DEM, one calculates the trajectories of individual particles based on Newton's laws of motion by employing suitable contact force models and a collision detection algorithm. Recently, it has been suggested that segregation in particle mixers can be thwarted if the particle flow is inverted at a rate above a critical forcing frequency. Further, it has been hypothesized that, for a rotating drum, the effectiveness of this technique can be linked to the probability distribution of the number of times a particle passes through the flowing layer per rotation of the drum. In the first portion of this work, various configurations of solid mixers are numerically and experimentally studied to investigate the conditions for improved mixing in light of these hypotheses. Besides rotating drums, many studies of granular flow have focused on gravity driven chute flows owing to its practical importance in granular transportation and to the fact that the relative simplicity of this type of flow allows for development and testing of new theories. In this part of the work, we observe the deposition behavior of both mono-sized and polydisperse dry granular materials in an inclined chute flow. The effects of different parameters such as chute angle, particle size, falling height and charge amount on the mass fraction distribution of granular materials after deposition are investigated. The simulation results obtained using DEM are compared with the experimental findings and a high degree of agreement is observed. Tuning of the underlying contact force parameters allows the achievement
Determination of optimum mixing time for raw materials with the tracer method in the glass industry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gallyas, M; Gemesi, J; Kurinka, J
1983-02-01
The authors explain how the optimum mixing time for the raw materials for glass manufacture can be determined with the aid of the radioactive tracer method. Basing themselves on measurements, they indicate the change in the degree of mixing of the individual components (soda (Na-24), sodium sulphate, coke (La-140) and bone meal (P-32) as a function of mixing time. The optimum degree of mixing and mixing time for dry and for wet mixing are determined. Finally, data for determining the permissible storage time of the mixture are given.
Mixed Element Formulation for the Finite Element-Boundary Integral Method
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Meese, J; Kempel, L. C; Schneider, S. W
2006-01-01
A mixed element approach using right hexahedral elements and right prism elements for the finite element-boundary integral method is presented and discussed for the study of planar cavity-backed antennas...
Integral enthalpy of mixing of the liquid ternary Au-Cu-Sn system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knott, S.; Li, Z.; Mikula, A.
2008-01-01
The integral enthalpy of mixing of the ternary Au-Cu-Sn has been determined with a Calvet type calorimeter at 6 different cross sections at 1273 K. The substitutional solution model of Redlich-Kister-Muggianu was used for a least square fit of the experimental data in order to get an analytical expression for the integral enthalpy of mixing. The ternary extrapolation models of Kohler, Muggianu and Toop were used to calculate the integral enthalpy of mixing and to compare measured and extrapolated values. Additional calculations of the integral enthalpy of mixing using the Chou model have been performed. With the calculated data, the iso-enthalpy lines have been determined using the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu model. A comparison of the data has been made
Mixed, Nonsplit, Extended Stability, Stiff Integration of Reaction Diffusion Equations
Alzahrani, Hasnaa H.
2016-01-01
A tailored integration scheme is developed to treat stiff reaction-diffusion prob- lems. The construction adapts a stiff solver, namely VODE, to treat reaction im- plicitly together with explicit treatment of diffusion. The second-order Runge
Environmental Management Integration Project/Mixed Waste Focus Area Partnership
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gombert, D.; Kristofferson, K.; Cole, L.
1999-01-01
On January 16, 1998, the Assistant Secretary for the Environmental Management (EM) Program at the Department of Energy, issued DOE-Idaho the Program Integration and Systems Engineering Guidance for Fiscal Year 1998, herein called Guidance, which directed that program integration tasks be performed for all EM program areas. This guidance directed the EM Integration team, as part of the Task 1, to develop baseline waste and material disposition maps which are owned by the site Project Baseline Summary (PBS) manager. With these baselines in place Task 2 gave direction to link Science and Technology activities to the waste and material stream supported by that technology. This linkage of EM Program needs with the OST activities supports the DOE goal of maximizing cleanup at DOE sites by 2006 and provides a defensible science and technology program. Additionally, this linkage is a valuable tool in the integration of the waste and material disposition efforts for the DOE complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balasubramaniam, P.; Kalpana, M.; Rakkiyappan, R.
2012-01-01
Fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNNs) are special kinds of cellular neural networks (CNNs). Each cell in an FCNN contains fuzzy operating abilities. The entire network is governed by cellular computing laws. The design of FCNNs is based on fuzzy local rules. In this paper, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach for synchronization control of FCNNs with mixed delays is investigated. Mixed delays include discrete time-varying delays and unbounded distributed delays. A dynamic control scheme is proposed to achieve the synchronization between a drive network and a response network. By constructing the Lyapunov—Krasovskii functional which contains a triple-integral term and the free-weighting matrices method an improved delay-dependent stability criterion is derived in terms of LMIs. The controller can be easily obtained by solving the derived LMIs. A numerical example and its simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Mixed, Nonsplit, Extended Stability, Stiff Integration of Reaction Diffusion Equations
Alzahrani, Hasnaa H.
2016-07-26
A tailored integration scheme is developed to treat stiff reaction-diffusion prob- lems. The construction adapts a stiff solver, namely VODE, to treat reaction im- plicitly together with explicit treatment of diffusion. The second-order Runge-Kutta- Chebyshev (RKC) scheme is adjusted to integrate diffusion. Spatial operator is de- scretised by second-order finite differences on a uniform grid. The overall solution is advanced over S fractional stiff integrations, where S corresponds to the number of RKC stages. The behavior of the scheme is analyzed by applying it to three simple problems. The results show that it achieves second-order accuracy, thus, preserving the formal accuracy of the original RKC. The presented development sets the stage for future extensions, particularly, to multidimensional reacting flows with detailed chemistry.
Integrated treatment process of hazardous and mixed wastes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibuya, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fujimura, Y.; Nakashima, T.; Moriya, Y.
1993-01-01
An integrated waste treatment system was studied based on technologies developed for the treatment of liquid radioactive, organic, and aqueous wastes containing hazardous materials and soils contaminated with heavy metals. The system consists of submerged incineration, metal ion fixing and stabilization, and soil washing treatments. Introduction of this system allows for the simultaneous processing of toxic waste and contaminated soils. Hazardous organic wastes can be decomposed into harmless gases, and aqueous wastes can be converted into a dischargeable effluent. The contaminated soil is backfilled after the removal of toxic materials. Experimental data show that the integration system is practical for complicated toxic wastes
Water Storage, Mixing and Transit Times During a Multiyear Drought.
Van der Velde, Y.; Visser, A.; Thaw, M.; Safeeq, M.
2017-12-01
From 2012 to 2016, a five year intensive drought occurred in the Californian Sierra Nevada. We use this drought period as an opportunity to investigate how catchment water storage, mixing and transit times changes from wet to dry conditions using long term datasets of river discharge, evapotranspiration, water quality, and multiple cosmogenic radioactive isotopes. Characteristic features of the test catchment (4.6 km2 , altitude 1660-2117 m) include a thick (>5m) unsaturated zone in deeply weathered granite mountain soils, snow melt and events of high intensity rainfall, dry summers and numerous wetland meadows along the stream. Our data and model analysis suggest that under drought conditions, river flow predominantly consist of deep groundwater tapped by deeply incised sections of the stream, while the wetlands hold on to their water just below the root system of its shallow rooting vegetation. In contrast, during wet periods, most runoff is generated on the flat riparian wetland meadows, while the regional groundwater system slowly refills itself as water makes its way through the thick unsaturated zones. Antecedent wet or dry years play an crucial role as antecedent wet years cause a substantial regional groundwater flow towards the riparian wetlands, filling up the riparian wetlands and yielding a much stronger discharge response of the wetlands to rainfall events than under antecedent dry years This interaction between the regional groundwater system and the local wetland systems weakens as the drought progresses and regional groundwater flow to the wetlands lessens. Although, due to the wet events in 2016-2017, the catchment fills up rapidly to pre-drought conditions, we show that water transit times and therefore likely the water quality will contain drought signs for several years to come. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS- XXXXXX
Criteria for quantitative and qualitative data integration: mixed-methods research methodology.
Lee, Seonah; Smith, Carrol A M
2012-05-01
Many studies have emphasized the need and importance of a mixed-methods approach for evaluation of clinical information systems. However, those studies had no criteria to guide integration of multiple data sets. Integrating different data sets serves to actualize the paradigm that a mixed-methods approach argues; thus, we require criteria that provide the right direction to integrate quantitative and qualitative data. The first author used a set of criteria organized from a literature search for integration of multiple data sets from mixed-methods research. The purpose of this article was to reorganize the identified criteria. Through critical appraisal of the reasons for designing mixed-methods research, three criteria resulted: validation, complementarity, and discrepancy. In applying the criteria to empirical data of a previous mixed methods study, integration of quantitative and qualitative data was achieved in a systematic manner. It helped us obtain a better organized understanding of the results. The criteria of this article offer the potential to produce insightful analyses of mixed-methods evaluations of health information systems.
Covert Channels and Simple Timed Mix-Firewalls
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Newman, Richard
2004-01-01
Traditional methods for evaluating the amount of anonymity afforded by various Mix configurations have depended on either measuring the size of the set of possible senders of a particular message (anonymity set size...
The Role of Identity Integration in Enhancing Creativity among Mixed-Race Individuals
Tendayi Viki, G.; Williams, May Liang J.
2014-01-01
Identity integration among bicultural individuals refers to the perception that their two cultural identities are compatible. Previous research has shown that identity integration is likely to lead to enhanced creativity. However, this research was conducted among first- and second-generation immigrants, but not among mixed-race individuals. The…
Parareal algorithms with local time-integrators for time fractional differential equations
Wu, Shu-Lin; Zhou, Tao
2018-04-01
It is challenge work to design parareal algorithms for time-fractional differential equations due to the historical effect of the fractional operator. A direct extension of the classical parareal method to such equations will lead to unbalance computational time in each process. In this work, we present an efficient parareal iteration scheme to overcome this issue, by adopting two recently developed local time-integrators for time fractional operators. In both approaches, one introduces auxiliary variables to localized the fractional operator. To this end, we propose a new strategy to perform the coarse grid correction so that the auxiliary variables and the solution variable are corrected separately in a mixed pattern. It is shown that the proposed parareal algorithm admits robust rate of convergence. Numerical examples are presented to support our conclusions.
Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W
2015-11-01
Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.
2015-01-01
PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895
Mixing positive and negative valence: Affective-semantic integration of bivalent words.
Kuhlmann, Michael; Hofmann, Markus J; Briesemeister, Benny B; Jacobs, Arthur M
2016-08-05
Single words have affective and aesthetic properties that influence their processing. Here we investigated the processing of a special case of word stimuli that are extremely difficult to evaluate, bivalent noun-noun-compounds (NNCs), i.e. novel words that mix a positive and negative noun, e.g. 'Bombensex' (bomb-sex). In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment we compared their processing with easier-to-evaluate non-bivalent NNCs in a valence decision task (VDT). Bivalent NNCs produced longer reaction times and elicited greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) than non-bivalent words, especially in contrast to words of negative valence. We attribute this effect to a LIFG-grounded process of semantic integration that requires greater effort for processing converse information, supporting the notion of a valence representation based on associations in semantic networks.
Fitzpatrick, Kate R.
2016-01-01
Although the mixing of quantitative and qualitative data is an essential component of mixed methods research, the process of integrating both types of data in meaningful ways can be challenging. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of data labels in mixed methods research as a technique for the integration of qualitative and…
Time for creative integration in medical sociology.
Levine, S
1995-01-01
The burgeoning of medical sociology has sometimes been accompanied by unfortunate parochialism and the presence of opposing intellectual camps that ignore and even impugn each other's work. We have lost opportunities to achieve creative discourse and integration of different perspectives, methods, and findings. At this stage we should consider how we can foster creative integration within our field.
Maximum Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy Versus Minimum Mixing Time in Markov Chains
Mihelich, M.; Dubrulle, B.; Paillard, D.; Kral, Q.; Faranda, D.
2018-01-01
We establish a link between the maximization of Kolmogorov Sinai entropy (KSE) and the minimization of the mixing time for general Markov chains. Since the maximisation of KSE is analytical and easier to compute in general than mixing time, this link provides a new faster method to approximate the minimum mixing time dynamics. It could be interesting in computer sciences and statistical physics, for computations that use random walks on graphs that can be represented as Markov chains.
Covert Channels and Simple Timed Mix-Firewalls
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Newman, Richard
2004-01-01
.... Initial work considered a simple model where an observer (Eve) was restricted to counting the number of messages leaving a Mix configured as a firewall guarding the enclave with one malicious sender (Alice) and some other naive senders (Clueless's). Here, we consider the case where Eve can distinguish between multiple destinations, and the senders can select to which destination their message (if any) is sent each clock tick.
Global integration in times of crisis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Camilla
shock) from other subsidiaries downstream in the value chain. While in a comparative perspective multinational subsidiaries are found to perform relatively better than local firms that are integrated differently (arms' length) in global production networks (e.g. offshoring outsourcing). This paper tries...... to reconcile these findings by testing a number of hypothesis about global integration strategies in the context of the global financial crisis and how it affected exporting among multinational subsidiaries operating out of Turkey. Controlling for the impact that depreciations and exchange rate volatility has...... integration strategies throughout the course of the global financial crisis....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, D.M.; Asaga, K.
1982-09-01
As part of the design of optimally durable, hardened cementitious plugging materials for repository borheole plugging, shaft and tunnel sealing, detailed studies of rheological properties have been made. The effects of mixing procedures upon measured rheological properties of fresh cement mixes with and without superplasticizing admixtures condensates of sulfonated naphthalene- and melamine-formaldehyde have been investigated. Coaxial cylindrical viscometer measurements were made, recording shear stress-shear rate relationships and defining yield stress and plastic viscosity. In the absence of admixture, yield stress and plastic viscosity decreased substantially with increasing intensity of mixing, which caused a breakdown of particulate aggregates. However, with admixture present, the rheological properties of already well-dispersed mixes did not change significantly with increasingly intense mixing. The changes of the viscometric functions with time were investigated, and were related to admixture type and concentration, cement type, and volume concentration of cement. The mechanisms of action of the superplasticizers and their use in generating reliable workable low water/cement ratio mixes are discussed. 36 figures, 3 tables
A Real-Time Semiautonomous Audio Panning System for Music Mixing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Perez_Gonzalez Enrique
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A real-time semiautonomous stereo panning system for music mixing has been implemented. The system uses spectral decomposition, constraint rules, and cross-adaptive algorithms to perform real-time placement of sources in a stereo mix. A subjective evaluation test was devised to evaluate its quality against human panning. It was shown that the automatic panning technique performed better than a nonexpert and showed no significant statistical difference to the performance of a professional mixing engineer.
SOCIAL INTEGRATION: TESTING ANTECEDENTS OF TIME SPENT ONLINE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lily Suriani Mohd Arif
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The literature on the relationship of social integration and time spent onlineprovides conflicting evidence of the relationship of social integration with timespent online. The study identifies and highlightsthe controversy and attempts toclarify the relationship of social integration withtime spent online bydecomposing the construct social integration into its affective and behavioraldimensions . Thestudy tests antecedents and effects of time spent online in arandom sample of senior level undergraduate students at a public university inMalaysia. The findings indicated that while self-report measures of behavioralsocial integration did not predict time spent online, and, the affective socialintegration had an inverse relationship with time spent online.
Single-event effects in analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turflinger, T.L.
1996-01-01
Analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits are also susceptible to single-event effects, but they have rarely been tested. Analog circuit single-particle transients require modified test techniques and data analysis. Existing work is reviewed and future concerns are outlined
Triangulation and Mixed Methods Designs: Data Integration with New Research Technologies
Fielding, Nigel G.
2012-01-01
Data integration is a crucial element in mixed methods analysis and conceptualization. It has three principal purposes: illustration, convergent validation (triangulation), and the development of analytic density or "richness." This article discusses such applications in relation to new technologies for social research, looking at three…
Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research--Challenges and Benefits
Almalki, Sami
2016-01-01
This paper is concerned with investigating the integration of quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods research and whether, in spite of its challenges, it can be of positive benefit to many investigative studies. The paper introduces the topic, defines the terms with which this subject deals and undertakes a literature review to outline…
Mixed Portmanteau Test for Diagnostic Checking of Time Series Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sohail Chand
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Model criticism is an important stage of model building and thus goodness of fit tests provides a set of tools for diagnostic checking of the fitted model. Several tests are suggested in literature for diagnostic checking. These tests use autocorrelation or partial autocorrelation in the residuals to criticize the adequacy of fitted model. The main idea underlying these portmanteau tests is to identify if there is any dependence structure which is yet unexplained by the fitted model. In this paper, we suggest mixed portmanteau tests based on autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions of the residuals. We derived the asymptotic distribution of the mixture test and studied its size and power using Monte Carlo simulations.
2017-01-13
Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle B.S...Mechanical Engineering Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Theses 2 Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and... Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering on January 13, 2017, in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Howlett
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Multifaceted problems such as sustainable development typically involve complex arrangements of institutions and instruments and the subject of how best to design and operate such ‘mixes’, ‘bundles’ or ‘portfolios’ of policy tools is an ongoing issue in this area. One aspect of this question is that some mixes are more difficult to design and operate than others. The paper argues that, ceteris paribus, complex policy-making faces substantial risks of failure when horizontal or vertical dimensions of policy-making are not well integrated. The paper outlines a model of policy mix types which highlights the design problems associated with more complex arrangements and presents two case studies of similarly structured mixes in the areas of marine parks in Australia and coastal zone management in Europe—one a failure and the other a successful case of integration—to illustrate how such mixes can be better designed and managed more effectively.
Integrated watershed analysis: adapting to changing times
Gordon H. Reeves
2013-01-01
Resource managers are increasingly required to conduct integrated analyses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems before undertaking any activities. Th ere are a number of research studies on the impacts of management actions on these ecosystems, as well as a growing body of knowledge about ecological processes that aff ect them, particularly aquatic ecosystems, which...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, Richard.
1980-11-01
This work is divided into two part the first part (note CEA-N-2165) deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. These methods are applied for one-dimensional geometries with highly anisotropic scattering. In order to simplify the set of integral equation provided by the integral transport equation, the integro-differential equation is used to obtain relations that allow to lower the number of integral equation to solve; a general mathematical and numerical study is presented [fr
Low-frequency scaling of the standard and mixed magnetic field and Müller integral equations
Bogaert, Ignace; Cools, Kristof; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Bagci, Hakan
2014-01-01
The standard and mixed discretizations for the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) and the Müller integral equation (MUIE) are investigated in the context of low-frequency (LF) scattering problems involving simply connected scatterers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pau Baya
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.
Minimizing time for test in integrated circuit
Andonova, A. S.; Dimitrov, D. G.; Atanasova, N. G.
2004-01-01
The cost for testing integrated circuits represents a growing percentage of the total cost for their production. The former strictly depends on the length of the test session, and its reduction has been the target of many efforts in the past. This paper proposes a new method for reducing the test length by adopting a new architecture and exploiting an evolutionary optimisation algorithm. A prototype of the proposed approach was tested on 1SCAS standard benchmarks and theexperimental results s...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salimi, S; Radgohar, R, E-mail: shsalimi@uok.ac.i, E-mail: r.radgohar@uok.ac.i [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-01-28
In this paper, we consider decoherence in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles (LRICs), which are the extensions of the cycle graphs. For this purpose, we use Gurvitz's model and assume that every node is monitored by the corresponding point-contact induced by the decoherence process. Then, we focus on large rates of decoherence and calculate the probability distribution analytically and obtain the lower and upper bounds of the mixing time. Our results prove that the mixing time is proportional to the rate of decoherence and the inverse of the square of the distance parameter (m). This shows that the mixing time decreases with increasing range of interaction. Also, what we obtain for m = 0 is in agreement with Fedichkin, Solenov and Tamon's results [48] for cycle, and we see that the mixing time of CTQWs on cycle improves with adding interacting edges.
Reclassification of Mixed Oligoastrocytic Tumors Using a Genetically Integrated Diagnostic Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seong-Ik Kim
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Background Mixed gliomas, such as oligoastrocytomas (OA, anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and glioblastomas (GBMs with an oligodendroglial component (GBMO are defined as tumors composed of a mixture of two distinct neoplastic cell types, astrocytic and oligodendroglial. Recently, mutations ATRX and TP53, and codeletion of 1p/19q are shown to be genetic hallmarks of astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors, respectively. Subsequent molecular analyses of mixed gliomas preferred the reclassification to either oligodendroglioma or astrocytoma. This study was designed to apply genetically integrated diagnostic criteria to mixed gliomas and determine usefulness and prognostic value of new classification in Korean patients. Methods Fifty-eight cases of mixed OAs and GBMOs were retrieved from the pathology archives of Seoul National University Hospital from 2004 to 2015. Reclassification was performed according to genetic and immunohistochemical properties. Clinicopathological characteristics of each subgroup were evaluated. Overall survival was assessed and compared between subgroups. Results We could reclassify all mixed OAs and GBMOs into either astrocytic or oligodendroglial tumors. Notably, 29 GBMOs could be reclassified into 11 cases of GBM, IDH-mutant, 16 cases of GBM, IDH-wildtype, and two cases of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH mutant. Overall survival was significantly different among these new groups (p<.001. Overall survival and progression-free survival were statistically better in gliomas with IDH mutation, ATRX mutation, no microscopic necrosis, and young patient age (cut off, 45 years old. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that a genetically integrated diagnosis of glioma better reflects prognosis than former morphology-based methods.
Mixing time effects on the dispersion performance of adhesive mixtures for inhalation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Floris Grasmeijer
Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of mixing time on the homogeneity and dispersion performance of adhesive mixtures for inhalation. Interactions between these effects and the carrier size fraction, the type of drug and the inhalation flow rate were studied. Furthermore, it was examined whether or not changes in the dispersion performance as a result of prolonged mixing can be explained with a balance of three processes that occur during mixing, knowing drug redistribution over the lactose carrier; (de- agglomeration of the drug (and fine lactose particles; and compression of the drug particles onto the carrier surface. For this purpose, mixtures containing salmeterol xinafoate or fluticasone propionate were mixed for different periods of time with a fine or coarse crystalline lactose carrier in a Turbula mixer. Drug detachment experiments were performed using a classifier based inhaler at different flow rates. Scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction techniques were used to measure drug distribution and agglomeration, whereas changes in the apparent solubility were measured as a means to monitor the degree of mechanical stress imparted on the drug particles. No clear trend between mixing time and content uniformity was observed. Quantitative and qualitative interactions between the effect of mixing time on drug detachment and the type of drug, the carrier size fraction and the flow rate were measured, which could be explained with the three processes mentioned. Generally, prolonged mixing caused drug detachment to decrease, with the strongest decline occurring in the first 120 minutes of mixing. For the most cohesive drug (salmeterol and the coarse carrier, agglomerate formation seemed to dominate the overall effect of mixing time at a low inhalation flow rate, causing drug detachment to increase with prolonged mixing. The optimal mixing time will thus depend on the formulation purpose and the choice for other, interacting variables.
Mixing Time Effects on the Dispersion Performance of Adhesive Mixtures for Inhalation
Grasmeijer, Floris; Hagedoorn, Paul; Frijlink, Henderik W.; de Boer, H. Anne
2013-01-01
This paper deals with the effects of mixing time on the homogeneity and dispersion performance of adhesive mixtures for inhalation. Interactions between these effects and the carrier size fraction, the type of drug and the inhalation flow rate were studied. Furthermore, it was examined whether or not changes in the dispersion performance as a result of prolonged mixing can be explained with a balance of three processes that occur during mixing, knowing drug redistribution over the lactose carrier; (de-) agglomeration of the drug (and fine lactose) particles; and compression of the drug particles onto the carrier surface. For this purpose, mixtures containing salmeterol xinafoate or fluticasone propionate were mixed for different periods of time with a fine or coarse crystalline lactose carrier in a Turbula mixer. Drug detachment experiments were performed using a classifier based inhaler at different flow rates. Scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction techniques were used to measure drug distribution and agglomeration, whereas changes in the apparent solubility were measured as a means to monitor the degree of mechanical stress imparted on the drug particles. No clear trend between mixing time and content uniformity was observed. Quantitative and qualitative interactions between the effect of mixing time on drug detachment and the type of drug, the carrier size fraction and the flow rate were measured, which could be explained with the three processes mentioned. Generally, prolonged mixing caused drug detachment to decrease, with the strongest decline occurring in the first 120 minutes of mixing. For the most cohesive drug (salmeterol) and the coarse carrier, agglomerate formation seemed to dominate the overall effect of mixing time at a low inhalation flow rate, causing drug detachment to increase with prolonged mixing. The optimal mixing time will thus depend on the formulation purpose and the choice for other, interacting variables. PMID:23844256
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohd Rizal Mamat; Azraf Azman; Noraishah Othman
2011-01-01
A prototype mixing vessel has been developed by Industrial Technology Division and installed at a multiphase testing facility in MINT Tech Park. A task to investigate the mixing vessel performance using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been undertaken using the available FLUENT software in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This paper discusses the modeling and simulation done in obtaining the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) for the mixing vessel using FLUENT. (author)
Ecotoxicology and macroecology – Time for integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beketov, Mikhail A.; Liess, Matthias
2012-01-01
Despite considerable progress in ecotoxicology, it has become clear that this discipline cannot answer its central questions, such as, “What are the effects of toxicants on biodiversity?” and “How the ecosystem functions and services are affected by the toxicants?”. We argue that if such questions are to be answered, a paradigm shift is needed. The current bottom-up approach of ecotoxicology that implies the use of small-scale experiments to predict effects on the entire ecosystems and landscapes should be merged with a top-down macroecological approach that is directly focused on ecological effects at large spatial scales and consider ecological systems as integral entities. Analysis of the existing methods in ecotoxicology, ecology, and environmental chemistry shows that such integration is currently possible. Therefore, we conclude that to tackle the current pressing challenges, ecotoxicology has to progress using both the bottom-up and top-down approaches, similar to digging a tunnel from both ends at once. - To tackle the current pressing challenges, ecotoxicology has to progress using both the bottom-up experimental and top-down observational approaches.
estimating formwork striking time for concrete mixes estimating
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
In this study, we estimated the time for strength development in concrete cured up to 56 days. Water. In this .... regression analysis using MS Excel 2016 Software performed on the ..... [1] Abolfazl, K. R, Peroti S. and Rahemi L 'The Effect of.
Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
lar solvents as an effective single component dipo- lar liquid that is characterized ... and time (t) dependent solvation energy of mobile dipo- lar solute with density ..... Even though this way for modification of C is purely ad- hoc, the observation ...
Advanced integrated real-time clinical displays.
Kruger, Grant H; Tremper, Kevin K
2011-09-01
Intelligent medical displays have the potential to improve patient outcomes by integrating multiple physiologic signals, exhibiting high sensitivity and specificity, and reducing information overload for physicians. Research findings have suggested that information overload and distractions caused by patient care activities and alarms generated by multiple monitors in acute care situations, such as the operating room and the intensive care unit, may produce situations that negatively impact the outcomes of patients under anesthesia. This can be attributed to shortcomings of human-in-the-loop monitoring and the poor specificity of existing physiologic alarms. Modern artificial intelligence techniques (ie, intelligent software agents) are demonstrating the potential to meet the challenges of next-generation patient monitoring and alerting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Integrated process analysis of treatment systems for mixed low level waste
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooley, C.R.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.
1997-10-01
Selection of technologies to be developed for treatment of DOE's mixed low level waste (MLLW) requires knowledge and understanding of the expected costs, schedules, risks, performance, and reliability of the total engineered systems that use these technologies. Thus, an integrated process analysis program was undertaken to identify the characteristics and needs of several thermal and nonthermal systems. For purposes of comparison, all systems were conceptually designed for a single facility processing the same amount of waste at the same rate. Thirty treatment systems were evaluated ranging from standard incineration to innovative thermal systems and innovative nonthermal chemical treatment. Treating 236 million pounds of waste in 20 years through a central treatment was found to be the least costly option with total life cycle cost ranging from $2.1 billion for a metal melting system to $3.9 billion for a nonthermal acid digestion system. Little cost difference exists among nonthermal systems or among thermal systems. Significant cost savings could be achieved by working towards maximum on line treatment time per year; vitrifying the final waste residue; decreasing front end characterization segregation and sizing requirements; using contaminated soil as the vitrifying agent; and delisting the final vitrified waste form from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vydyanathan, Naga; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sabin, Gerald M.; Catalyurek, Umit V.; Kurc, Tahsin; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy; Saltz, Joel H.
2009-08-01
Complex parallel applications can often be modeled as directed acyclic graphs of coarse-grained application-tasks with dependences. These applications exhibit both task- and data-parallelism, and combining these two (also called mixedparallelism), has been shown to be an effective model for their execution. In this paper, we present an algorithm to compute the appropriate mix of task- and data-parallelism required to minimize the parallel completion time (makespan) of these applications. In other words, our algorithm determines the set of tasks that should be run concurrently and the number of processors to be allocated to each task. The processor allocation and scheduling decisions are made in an integrated manner and are based on several factors such as the structure of the taskgraph, the runtime estimates and scalability characteristics of the tasks and the inter-task data communication volumes. A locality conscious scheduling strategy is used to improve inter-task data reuse. Evaluation through simulations and actual executions of task graphs derived from real applications as well as synthetic graphs shows that our algorithm consistently generates schedules with lower makespan as compared to CPR and CPA, two previously proposed scheduling algorithms. Our algorithm also produces schedules that have lower makespan than pure taskand data-parallel schedules. For task graphs with known optimal schedules or lower bounds on the makespan, our algorithm generates schedules that are closer to the optima than other scheduling approaches.
Estimating marginal properties of quantitative real-time PCR data using nonlinear mixed models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gerhard, Daniel; Bremer, Melanie; Ritz, Christian
2014-01-01
A unified modeling framework based on a set of nonlinear mixed models is proposed for flexible modeling of gene expression in real-time PCR experiments. Focus is on estimating the marginal or population-based derived parameters: cycle thresholds and ΔΔc(t), but retaining the conditional mixed mod...
AlRamadan, Abdullah S.; Badra, Jihad; Javed, Tamour; Alabbad, Mohammed; Bokhumseen, Nehal; Gaillard, Patrick; Babiker, Hassan; Farooq, Aamir; Sarathy, Mani
2015-01-01
work, the effect of mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates has been investigated in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The ignition delay times of mixed butanols stoichiometric mixtures were measured at 20 and 40bar over a temperature range
Sexton, Scott Michael
Combustion in scramjet engines is faced with the limitation of brief residence time in the combustion chamber, requiring fuel and preheated air streams to mix and ignite in a matter of milliseconds. Accurate predictions of autoignition times are needed to design reliable supersonic combustion chambers. Most efforts in estimating non-premixed autoignition times have been devoted to hydrogen-air mixtures. The present work addresses hydrocarbon-air combustion, which is of interest for future scramjet engines. Computation of ignition in supersonic flows requires adequate characterization of ignition chemistry and description of the flow, both of which are derived in this work. In particular, we have shown that activation energy asymptotics combined with a previously derived reduced chemical kinetic mechanism provides analytic predictions of autoignition times in homogeneous systems. Results are compared with data from shock tube experiments, and previous expressions which employ a fuel depletion criterion. Ignition in scramjet engines has a strong dependence on temperature, which is found by perturbing the chemically frozen mixing layer solution. The frozen solution is obtained here, accounting for effects of viscous dissipation between the fuel and air streams. We investigate variations of thermodynamic and transport properties, and compare these to simplified mixing layers which neglect these variations. Numerically integrating the mixing layer problem reveals a nonmonotonic temperature profile, with a peak occurring inside the shear layer for sufficiently high Mach numbers. These results will be essential in computation of ignition distances in supersonic combustion chambers.
Woźniak, M.; Smołka, M.; Cortes, Adriano Mauricio; Paszyński, M.; Schaefer, R.
2016-01-01
We study the features of a new mixed integration scheme dedicated to solving the non-stationary variational problems. The scheme is composed of the FEM approximation with respect to the space variable coupled with a 3-leveled time integration scheme
An integrated technique for developing real-time systems
Hooman, J.J.M.; Vain, J.
1995-01-01
The integration of conceptual modeling techniques, formal specification, and compositional verification is considered for real time systems within the knowledge engineering context. We define constructive transformations from a conceptual meta model to a real time specification language and give
Rusnak, James E.
1987-01-01
Due to previous systems selections, many hospitals (health care facilities) are faced with the problem of fragmented data bases containing clinical, demographic and financial information. Projects to select and implement a Case Mix Management System (CMMS) provide an opportunity to reduce the number of separate physical files and to migrate towards systems with an integrated data base. The number of CMMS candidate systems is often restricted due to data base and system interface issues. The hospital must insure the CMMS project provides a means to implement an integrated on-line hospital information data base for use by departments in operating under a DRG-based Prospective Payment System. This paper presents guidelines for use in selecting a Case Mix Mangement System to meet the hospital's financial and operations planning, budgeting, marketing, and other management needs, while considering the data base implications of the implementation.
CFD simulation of local and global mixing time in an agitated tank
Li, Liangchao; Xu, Bin
2017-01-01
The Issue of mixing efficiency in agitated tanks has drawn serious concern in many industrial processes. The turbulence model is very critical to predicting mixing process in agitated tanks. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software package Fluent 6.2, the mixing characteristics in a tank agitated by dual six-blade-Rushton-turbines(6-DT) are predicted using the detached eddy simulation(DES) method. A sliding mesh(SM) approach is adopted to solve the rotation of the impeller. The simulated flow patterns and liquid velocities in the agitated tank are verified by experimental data in the literature. The simulation results indicate that the DES method can obtain more flow details than Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS) model. Local and global mixing time in the agitated tank is predicted by solving a tracer concentration scalar transport equation. The simulated results show that feeding points have great influence on mixing process and mixing time. Mixing efficiency is the highest for the feeding point at location of midway of the two impellers. Two methods are used to determine global mixing time and get close result. Dimensionless global mixing time remains unchanged with increasing of impeller speed. Parallel, merging and diverging flow pattern form in the agitated tank, respectively, by changing the impeller spacing and clearance of lower impeller from the bottom of the tank. The global mixing time is the shortest for the merging flow, followed by diverging flow, and the longest for parallel flow. The research presents helpful references for design, optimization and scale-up of agitated tanks with multi-impeller.
Visuo-Haptic Mixed Reality with Unobstructed Tool-Hand Integration.
Cosco, Francesco; Garre, Carlos; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio; Otaduy, Miguel A
2013-01-01
Visuo-haptic mixed reality consists of adding to a real scene the ability to see and touch virtual objects. It requires the use of see-through display technology for visually mixing real and virtual objects, and haptic devices for adding haptic interaction with the virtual objects. Unfortunately, the use of commodity haptic devices poses obstruction and misalignment issues that complicate the correct integration of a virtual tool and the user's real hand in the mixed reality scene. In this work, we propose a novel mixed reality paradigm where it is possible to touch and see virtual objects in combination with a real scene, using commodity haptic devices, and with a visually consistent integration of the user's hand and the virtual tool. We discuss the visual obstruction and misalignment issues introduced by commodity haptic devices, and then propose a solution that relies on four simple technical steps: color-based segmentation of the hand, tracking-based segmentation of the haptic device, background repainting using image-based models, and misalignment-free compositing of the user's hand. We have developed a successful proof-of-concept implementation, where a user can touch virtual objects and interact with them in the context of a real scene, and we have evaluated the impact on user performance of obstruction and misalignment correction.
Efficient evaluation of Coulomb integrals in a mixed Gaussian and plane-wave basis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čársky, Petr
2007-01-01
Roč. 107, č. 1 (2007), s. 56-62 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100400501; GA AV ČR 1ET400400413 Grant - others:European Science Foundation (EIPAM)(XE) PESC7-20; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) OISE-0532040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : two- electron integrals * mixed plane-wave and Gaussian basis sets * Coulomb integrals Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; The oretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.368, year: 2007
Rusnak, James E.
1987-01-01
Due to previous systems selections, many hospitals (health care facilities) are faced with the problem of fragmented data bases containing clinical, demographic and financial information. Projects to select and implement a Case Mix Management System (CMMS) provide an opportunity to reduce the number of separate physical files and to migrate towards systems with an integrated data base. The number of CMMS candidate systems is often restricted due to data base and system interface issues. The h...
Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers' Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čársky, Petr
2009-01-01
Roč. 109, č. 620 (2009), s. 1237-1242 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0070; GA ČR GA202/08/0631; GA AV ČR 1ET400400413; GA AV ČR IAA100400501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Derivatives of Coulomb integrals * mixed Gaussian and plane-wave basis sets * electron scattering * computer time saving Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.315, year: 2009
The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Design basis integrated operations plan (Title I design)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-12-01
The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) will be a fully integrated, pilotscale facility for the demonstration of low-level, organic-matrix mixed waste treatment technologies. It will provide the bridge from bench-scale demonstrated technologies to the deployment and operation of full-scale treatment facilities. The MWMF is a key element in reducing the risk in deployment of effective and environmentally acceptable treatment processes for organic mixed-waste streams. The MWMF will provide the engineering test data, formal evaluation, and operating experience that will be required for these demonstration systems to become accepted by EPA and deployable in waste treatment facilities. The deployment will also demonstrate how to approach the permitting process with the regulatory agencies and how to operate and maintain the processes in a safe manner. This document describes, at a high level, how the facility will be designed and operated to achieve this mission. It frequently refers the reader to additional documentation that provides more detail in specific areas. Effective evaluation of a technology consists of a variety of informal and formal demonstrations involving individual technology systems or subsystems, integrated technology system combinations, or complete integrated treatment trains. Informal demonstrations will typically be used to gather general operating information and to establish a basis for development of formal demonstration plans. Formal demonstrations consist of a specific series of tests that are used to rigorously demonstrate the operation or performance of a specific system configuration
Exponential integrators in time-dependent density-functional calculations
Kidd, Daniel; Covington, Cody; Varga, Kálmán
2017-12-01
The integrating factor and exponential time differencing methods are implemented and tested for solving the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. Popular time propagation methods used in physics, as well as other robust numerical approaches, are compared to these exponential integrator methods in order to judge the relative merit of the computational schemes. We determine an improvement in accuracy of multiple orders of magnitude when describing dynamics driven primarily by a nonlinear potential. For cases of dynamics driven by a time-dependent external potential, the accuracy of the exponential integrator methods are less enhanced but still match or outperform the best of the conventional methods tested.
Improving Music Genre Classification by Short-Time Feature Integration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meng, Anders; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan
2005-01-01
Many different short-time features, using time windows in the size of 10-30 ms, have been proposed for music segmentation, retrieval and genre classification. However, often the available time frame of the music to make the actual decision or comparison (the decision time horizon) is in the range...... of seconds instead of milliseconds. The problem of making new features on the larger time scale from the short-time features (feature integration) has only received little attention. This paper investigates different methods for feature integration and late information fusion for music genre classification...
THE INTEGRATION OF PIGMEAT MARKETS IN THE EU. EVIDENCE FROM A REGULAR MIXED VINE COPULA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasilis GRIGORIADIS
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the degree of integration of national pigmeat markets in the EU. This is pursued using monthly wholesale prices from seven major markets and the statistical tool of mixed R-vine copulas. The empirical results suggest that the markets considered do not constitute a great pool in which prices move, boom, and crash together. The markets of Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands exhibit a higher degree of integration relative to the others, whereas the Italian market exhibits a lower degree of integration. Also, there is an indication that, in certain cases, the benefits of free trade may be unequally distributed between the trading partners.
Valentijn, Pim P; Ruwaard, Dirk; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; de Bont, Antoinette; Arends, Rosa Y; Bruijnzeels, Marc A
2015-10-09
Collaborative partnerships are considered an essential strategy for integrating local disjointed health and social services. Currently, little evidence is available on how integrated care arrangements between professionals and organisations are achieved through the evolution of collaboration processes over time. The first aim was to develop a typology of integrated care projects (ICPs) based on the final degree of integration as perceived by multiple stakeholders. The second aim was to study how types of integration differ in changes of collaboration processes over time and final perceived effectiveness. A longitudinal mixed-methods study design based on two data sources (surveys and interviews) was used to identify the perceived degree of integration and patterns in collaboration among 42 ICPs in primary care in The Netherlands. We used cluster analysis to identify distinct subgroups of ICPs based on the final perceived degree of integration from a professional, organisational and system perspective. With the use of ANOVAs, the subgroups were contrasted based on: 1) changes in collaboration processes over time (shared ambition, interests and mutual gains, relationship dynamics, organisational dynamics and process management) and 2) final perceived effectiveness (i.e. rated success) at the professional, organisational and system levels. The ICPs were classified into three subgroups with: 'United Integration Perspectives (UIP)', 'Disunited Integration Perspectives (DIP)' and 'Professional-oriented Integration Perspectives (PIP)'. ICPs within the UIP subgroup made the strongest increase in trust-based (mutual gains and relationship dynamics) as well as control-based (organisational dynamics and process management) collaboration processes and had the highest overall effectiveness rates. On the other hand, ICPs with the DIP subgroup decreased on collaboration processes and had the lowest overall effectiveness rates. ICPs within the PIP subgroup increased in control
Mixed Waste Integrated Program interim evaluation report on thermal treatment technologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gillins, R.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Wollerman, A.L.
1993-02-01
The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated programs established to organize and coordinate throughout the DOE complex the development of technologies for treatment of specific waste categories. The goal of the MWIP is to develop and deploy appropriate technologies for -the treatment of DOE mixed low-level and alpha-contaminated wastes in order to bring all affected DOE installations and projects into compliance with environmental laws. Evaluation of treatment technologies by the MWIP will focus on meeting waste form performance requirements for disposal. Thermal treatment technologies were an early emphasis for the MWIP because thermal treatment is indicated (or mandated) for many of the hazardous constituents in DOE mixed waste and because these technologies have been widely investigated for these applications. An advisory group, the Thermal Treatment Working Group (TTWG), was formed during the program's infancy to assist the MWIP in evaluating and prioritizing thermal treatment technologies suitable for development. The results of the overall evaluation scoring indicate that the four highest-rated technologies were rotary kilns, slagging kilns, electric-arc furnaces, and plasma-arc furnaces. The four highest-rated technologies were all judged to be applicable on five of the six waste streams and are the only technologies in the evaluation with this distinction. Conclusions as to the superiority of one technology over others are not valid based on this preliminary study, although some general conclusions can be drawn
Using a mixed-methods design to examine nurse practitioner integration in British Columbia.
Sangster-Gormley, Esther; Griffith, Janessa; Schreiber, Rita; Borycki, Elizabeth
2015-07-01
To discuss and provide examples of how mixed-methods research was used to evaluate the integration of nurse practitioners (NPs) into a Canadian province. Legislation enabling NPs to practise in British Columbia (BC) was enacted in 2005. This research evaluated the integration of NPs and their effect on the BC healthcare system. Data were collected using surveys, focus groups, participant interviews and case studies over three years. Data sources and methods were triangulated to determine how the findings addressed the research questions. The challenges and benefits of using the multiphase design are highlighted in the paper. The multiphase mixed-methods research design was selected because of its applicability to evaluation research. The design proved to be robust and flexible in answering research questions. As sub-studies within the multiphase design are often published separately, it can be difficult for researchers to find examples. This paper highlights ways that a multiphase mixed-methods design can be conducted for researchers unfamiliar with the process.
Time resolved spectroscopy of GRB 030501 using INTEGRAL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beckmann, V.; Borkowski, J.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.
2003-01-01
The gamma-ray instruments on-board INTEGRAL offer an unique opportunity to perform time resolved analysis on GRBs. The imager IBIS allows accurate positioning of GRBs and broad band spectral analysis, while SPI provides high resolution spectroscopy. GRB 030501 was discovered by the INTEGRAL Burst...... the Ulysses and RHESSI experiments....
Time Varying Market Integration and Expected Rteurns in Emerging Markets
de Jong, F.C.J.M.; de Roon, F.A.
2001-01-01
We use a simple model in which the expected returns in emerging markets depend on their systematic risk as measured by their beta relative to the world portfolio as well as on the level of integration in that market.The level of integration is a time-varying variable that depends on the market value
Space-time transformations in radial path integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steiner, F.
1984-09-01
Nonlinear space-time transformations in the radial path integral are discussed. A transformation formula is derived, which relates the original path integral to the Green's function of a new quantum system with an effective potential containing an observable quantum correction proportional(h/2π) 2 . As an example the formula is applied to spherical Brownian motion. (orig.)
Path integral solution for some time-dependent potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storchak, S.N.
1989-12-01
The quantum-mechanical problem with a time-dependent potential is solved by the path integral method. The solution is obtained by the application of the previously derived general formula for rheonomic homogeneous point transformation and reparametrization in the path integral. (author). 4 refs
Stochastic resonance in a time-delayed asymmetric bistable system with mixed periodic signal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yong-Feng, Guo; Wei, Xu; Liang, Wang
2010-01-01
This paper studies the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in an asymmetric bistable system with time-delayed feedback and mixed periodic signal by using the theory of signal-to-noise ratio in the adiabatic limit. A general approximate Fokker–Planck equation and the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio are derived through the small time delay approximation at both fundamental harmonics and mixed harmonics. The effects of the additive noise intensity Q, multiplicative noise intensity D, static asymmetry r and delay time τ on the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. It is found that the higher mixed harmonics and the static asymmetry r can restrain stochastic resonance, and the delay time τ can enhance stochastic resonance. Moreover, the longer the delay time τ is, the larger the additive noise intensity Q and the multiplicative noise intensity D are, when the stochastic resonance appears. (general)
An extended Halanay inequality of integral type on time scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boqun Ou
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain a Halanay-type inequality of integral type on time scales which improves and extends some earlier results for both the continuous and discrete cases. Several illustrative examples are also given.
Integration of water footprint accounting and costs for optimal pulp supply mix in paper industry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Piantella, Antonio
2014-01-01
studies have focused on these aspects, but there have been no previous reports on the integrated application of raw material water footprint accounting and costs in the definition of the optimal supply mix of chemical pulps from different countries. The current models that have been applied specifically...... that minimizes the water footprint accounting results and costs of chemical pulp, thereby facilitating the assessment of the water footprint by accounting for different chemical pulps purchased from various suppliers, with a focus on the efficiency of the production process. Water footprint accounting...... was adapted to better represent the efficiency of pulp and paper production. A multi-objective model for supply mix optimization was also developed using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Water footprint accounting confirmed the importance of the production efficiency of chemical pulp, which affected...
A CMOS integrated timing discriminator circuit for fast scintillation counters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jochmann, M.W.
1998-01-01
Based on a zero-crossing discriminator using a CR differentiation network for pulse shaping, a new CMOS integrated timing discriminator circuit is proposed for fast (t r ≥ 2 ns) scintillation counters at the cooler synchrotron COSY-Juelich. By eliminating the input signal's amplitude information by means of an analog continuous-time divider, a normalized pulse shape at the zero-crossing point is gained over a wide dynamic input amplitude range. In combination with an arming comparator and a monostable multivibrator this yields in a highly precise timing discriminator circuit, that is expected to be useful in different time measurement applications. First measurement results of a CMOS integrated logarithmic amplifier, which is part of the analog continuous-time divider, agree well with the corresponding simulations. Moreover, SPICE simulations of the integrated discriminator circuit promise a time walk well below 200 ps (FWHM) over a 40 dB input amplitude dynamic range
Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Firestone, Ryan Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2007-05-31
This report describes the development and application of a dispatch optimization algorithm for integrated energy systems (IES) comprised of on-site cogeneration of heat and electricity, energy storage devices, and demand response opportunities. This work is intended to aid commercial and industrial sites in making use of modern computing power and optimization algorithms to make informed, near-optimal decisions under significant uncertainty and complex objective functions. The optimization algorithm uses a finite set of randomly generated future scenarios to approximate the true, stochastic future; constraints are included that prevent solutions to this approximate problem from deviating from solutions to the actual problem. The algorithm is then expressed as a mixed integer linear program, to which a powerful commercial solver is applied. A case study of United States Postal Service Processing and Distribution Centers (P&DC) in four cities and under three different electricity tariff structures is conducted to (1) determine the added value of optimal control to a cogeneration system over current, heuristic control strategies; (2) determine the value of limited electric load curtailment opportunities, with and without cogeneration; and (3) determine the trade-off between least-cost and least-carbon operations of a cogeneration system. Key results for the P&DC sites studied include (1) in locations where the average electricity and natural gas prices suggest a marginally profitable cogeneration system, optimal control can add up to 67% to the value of the cogeneration system; optimal control adds less value in locations where cogeneration is more clearly profitable; (2) optimal control under real-time pricing is (a) more complicated than under typical time-of-use tariffs and (b) at times necessary to make cogeneration economic at all; (3) limited electric load curtailment opportunities can be more valuable as a compliment to the cogeneration system than alone; and
Precise digital integration in wide time range: theory and realization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batrakov, A.M.; Pavlenko, A.V.
2017-01-01
The digital integration method based on using high-speed precision analog-to-digital converters (ADC) has become widely used over the recent years. The paper analyzes the limitations of this method that are caused by the signal properties, ADC sampling rate and noise spectral density of the ADC signal path. This analysis allowed creating digital integrators with accurate synchronization and achieving an integration error of less than 10 −5 in the time range from microseconds to tens of seconds. The structure of the integrator is described and its basic parameters are presented. The possibilities of different ADC chips in terms of their applicability to digital integrators are discussed. A comparison with other integrating devices is presented.
Boeije, Hennie; Slagt, Meike; van Wesel, Floryt
2013-01-01
In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving mixed methods studies in this field. A…
Integrated process analyses studies on mixed low level and transuranic wastes. Summary report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1997-12-01
Options for integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low-level waste (MLLW) are compared such as total life cycle cost (TLCC), cost sensitivities, risk, energy requirements, final waste volume, and aqueous and gaseous effluents. The comparisons were derived by requiring all conceptual systems to treat the same composition of waste with the same operating efficiency. Thus, results can be used as a general guideline for the selection of treatment and disposal concepts. However, specific applications of individual systems will require further analysis. The potential for cost saving options and the research and development opportunities are summarized
Integrated process analyses studies on mixed low level and transuranic wastes. Summary report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-12-01
Options for integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low-level waste (MLLW) are compared such as total life cycle cost (TLCC), cost sensitivities, risk, energy requirements, final waste volume, and aqueous and gaseous effluents. The comparisons were derived by requiring all conceptual systems to treat the same composition of waste with the same operating efficiency. Thus, results can be used as a general guideline for the selection of treatment and disposal concepts. However, specific applications of individual systems will require further analysis. The potential for cost saving options and the research and development opportunities are summarized.
New heuristics for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows
Dullaert, W.; Janssens, Gerrit K.; Sirensen, K.; Vernimmen, Bert
2002-01-01
In the Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (FSMVRPTW) customers need to be serviced in their time windows at minimal costs by a heterogeneous fleet. In this paper new heuristics for the FSMVRPTW are developed. The performance of the heuristics is shown to be significantly
Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol
2011-01-01
A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032
Integration of MDSplus in real-time systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.
2006-01-01
RFX-mod makes extensive usage of real-time systems for feedback control and uses MDSplus to interface them to the main Data Acquisition system. For this purpose, the core of MDSplus has been ported to VxWorks, the operating system used for real-time control in RFX. Using this approach, it is possible to integrate real-time systems, but MDSplus is used only for non-real-time tasks, i.e. those tasks which are executed before and after the pulse and whose performance does not affect the system time constraints. More extensive use of MDSplus in real-time systems is foreseen, and a real-time layer for MDSplus is under development, which will provide access to memory-mapped pulse files, shared by the tasks running on the same CPU. Real-time communication will also be integrated in the MDSplus core to provide support for distributed memory-mapped pulse files
Mixing time study to select suitable stirrer for electrorefiner. Contributed Paper RD-03
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agarwal, Sourabh; Mythili, M; Joseph, Joby; Nandakumar, V.; Muralidharan, B.; Padmakumar, G.; Rajan, K.K.
2014-01-01
Pyro-processing is an alternative to conventional methods of aqueous reprocessing of nuclear fuels. Electrorefining is an important process step in pyro-processing, carried out in a high temperature molten salt bath in an Electrorefiner. The recovery of actinides from the spent fuels has to be high. One of the methods to achieve this is to ensure proper mixing of the molten salt in the electrorefiner. The optimum design of the stirrer should ensure efficient mixing with minimum mixing time. Studies have been carried out in an engineering scale model of the electrorefiner to study the mixing phenomena. This paper brings outs the series of experiments conducted on an ambient temperature electrorefiner to select a suitable stirrer. (author)
Integrals of Motion for Discrete-Time Optimal Control Problems
Torres, Delfim F. M.
2003-01-01
We obtain a discrete time analog of E. Noether's theorem in Optimal Control, asserting that integrals of motion associated to the discrete time Pontryagin Maximum Principle can be computed from the quasi-invariance properties of the discrete time Lagrangian and discrete time control system. As corollaries, results for first-order and higher-order discrete problems of the calculus of variations are obtained.
The Role of Memory and Integration in Early Time Concepts.
Levin, Iris; And Others
1984-01-01
A total of 630 boys and girls from kindergarten to second grade were asked to compare durations that differ in beginning times with those that differ in ending times. Possible sources of children's failure to integrate beginning and end points when comparing durations were discussed. (Author/CI)
Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays
2017-01-01
Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don’t include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs) with both discrete delay and distributed delay (mixed delays). By means of a simple feedback controller and novel finite time synchronization analysis methods, several new criteria are derived to ensure the finite time synchronization of MCGNNs with mixed delays. The obtained criteria are very concise and easy to verify. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results. PMID:28931066
Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays.
Chen, Chuan; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian
2017-01-01
Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don't include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs) with both discrete delay and distributed delay (mixed delays). By means of a simple feedback controller and novel finite time synchronization analysis methods, several new criteria are derived to ensure the finite time synchronization of MCGNNs with mixed delays. The obtained criteria are very concise and easy to verify. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.
Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuan Chen
Full Text Available Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don't include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs with both discrete delay and distributed delay (mixed delays. By means of a simple feedback controller and novel finite time synchronization analysis methods, several new criteria are derived to ensure the finite time synchronization of MCGNNs with mixed delays. The obtained criteria are very concise and easy to verify. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.
AlRamadan, Abdullah S.
2015-10-01
The demand for fuels with high anti-knock quality has historically been rising, and will continue to increase with the development of downsized and turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Butanol isomers, such as 2-butanol and tert-butanol, have high octane ratings (RON of 105 and 107, respectively), and thus mixed butanols (68.8% by volume of 2-butanol and 31.2% by volume of tert-butanol) can be added to the conventional petroleum-derived gasoline fuels to improve octane performance. In the present work, the effect of mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates has been investigated in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The ignition delay times of mixed butanols stoichiometric mixtures were measured at 20 and 40bar over a temperature range of 800-1200K. Next, 10vol% and 20vol% of mixed butanols (MB) were blended with two different toluene/n-heptane/iso-octane (TPRF) fuel blends having octane ratings of RON 90/MON 81.7 and RON 84.6/MON 79.3. These MB/TPRF mixtures were investigated in the shock tube conditions similar to those mentioned above. A chemical kinetic model was developed to simulate the low- and high-temperature oxidation of mixed butanols and MB/TPRF blends. The proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental data with some deviations at low temperatures. The effect of mixed butanols addition to TPRFs is marginal when examining the ignition delay times at high temperatures. However, when extended to lower temperatures (T < 850K), the model shows that the mixed butanols addition to TPRFs causes the ignition delay times to increase and hence behaves like an octane booster at engine-like conditions. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.
US Department of Energy Mixed Waste Integrated Program performance systems analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrada, J.J.; Berry, J.B.
1994-01-01
The primary goal of this project is to support decision making for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/EM-50 Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) and the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. A systems approach to the assessment of enhanced waste form(s) production will be employed including, coordination and configuration management of activities in specific technology development tasks. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and application of a methodology for implementing a performance systems analysis on mixed waste treatment process technologies. The second section describes a conventional approach to process systems analysis followed by a methodology to estimate uncertainties when analyzing innovative technologies. Principles from these methodologies have been used to develop a performance systems analysis for MWIP. The third section describes the systems analysis tools. The fourth section explains how the performance systems analysis will be used to analyze MWIP process alternatives. The fifth and sixth sections summarize this paper and describe future work for this project. Baseline treatment process technologies (i.e., commercially available technologies) and waste management strategies are evaluated systematically using the ASPEN PLUS program applications developed by the DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP). Alternatives to the baseline (i.e., technologies developed by DOE's Office of Technology Development) are analyzed using FLOW, a user-friendly program developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Currently, this program is capable of calculating rough order-of-magnitude mass and energy balances to assess the performance of the alternative technologies as compared to the baseline process. In the future, FLOW will be capable of communicating information to the ASPEN PLUS program
2011-07-01
This report details results from testing that was conducted to determine the bond and time-dependent : characteristics of two lightweight concrete mixes. The lightweight mixes were evaluated to possibly : provide a more cost-effective solution to rep...
Measurements of spin-lattice relaxation time in mixed alkali halide crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tannus, A.
1983-01-01
Using magneto-optic techniques the ground state spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of 'F' centers in mixed Alkali Halide cristals (KCl-KBr), was studied. A computer assisted system to optically measure short relaxation times (approx. = 1mS), was described. The technique is based on the measurement of the Magnetic Circular Dicroism (MCD) presented by F centers. The T1 magnetic field dependency at 2 K (up to 65 KGauss), was obtained as well as the MCD spectra for different relative concentration at the mixed matrices. The theory developed by Panepucci and Mollenauer for F centers spin-lattice relaxation in pure matrices was modified to explain the behaviour of T1 in mixed cristals. The Direct Process results (T approx. = 2.0 K) compared against that theory shows that the main relaxation mecanism, up to 25 KGauss, continues to be phonon modulation of the hiperfine iteraction between F electrons and surrounding nuclei. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suryawan, Herry P.; Gunarso, Boby
2017-01-01
The generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion is defined by taking linear combinations of a finite number of independent fractional Brownian motions with different Hurst parameters. It is a Gaussian process with stationary increments, posseses self-similarity property, and, in general, is neither a Markov process nor a martingale. In this paper we study the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion within white noise analysis framework. As a main result, we prove that for any spatial dimension and for arbitrary Hurst parameter the self-intersection local times of the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motions, after a suitable renormalization, are well-defined as Hida white noise distributions. The chaos expansions of the self-intersection local times in the terms of Wick powers of white noises are also presented. (paper)
Time-of-flight depth image enhancement using variable integration time
Kim, Sun Kwon; Choi, Ouk; Kang, Byongmin; Kim, James Dokyoon; Kim, Chang-Yeong
2013-03-01
Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras are used for a variety of applications because it delivers depth information at a high frame rate. These cameras, however, suffer from challenging problems such as noise and motion artifacts. To increase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the camera should calculate a distance based on a large amount of infra-red light, which needs to be integrated over a long time. On the other hand, the integration time should be short enough to suppress motion artifacts. We propose a ToF depth imaging method to combine advantages of short and long integration times exploiting an imaging fusion scheme proposed for color imaging. To calibrate depth differences due to the change of integration times, a depth transfer function is estimated by analyzing the joint histogram of depths in the two images of different integration times. The depth images are then transformed into wavelet domains and fused into a depth image with suppressed noise and low motion artifacts. To evaluate the proposed method, we captured a moving bar of a metronome with different integration times. The experiment shows the proposed method could effectively remove the motion artifacts while preserving high SNR comparable to the depth images acquired during long integration time.
Global Format for Conservative Time Integration in Nonlinear Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
2014-01-01
The widely used classic collocation-based time integration procedures like Newmark, Generalized-alpha etc. generally work well within a framework of linear problems, but typically may encounter problems, when used in connection with essentially nonlinear structures. These problems are overcome....... In the present paper a conservative time integration algorithm is developed in a format using only the internal forces and the associated tangent stiffness at the specific time integration points. Thus, the procedure is computationally very similar to a collocation method, consisting of a series of nonlinear...... equivalent static load steps, easily implemented in existing computer codes. The paper considers two aspects: representation of nonlinear internal forces in a form that implies energy conservation, and the option of an algorithmic damping with the purpose of extracting energy from undesirable high...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yurong; Wang Zidong; Liu Xiaohui
2008-01-01
In this Letter, we investigate the state estimation problem for a new class of discrete-time neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters as well as mode-dependent mixed time-delays. The parameters of the discrete-time neural networks are subject to the switching from one mode to another at different times according to a Markov chain, and the mixed time-delays consist of both discrete and distributed delays that are dependent on the Markovian jumping mode. New techniques are developed to deal with the mixed time-delays in the discrete-time setting, and a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is put forward to reflect the mode-dependent time-delays. Sufficient conditions are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that guarantee the existence of the state estimators. We show that both the existence conditions and the explicit expression of the desired estimator can be characterized in terms of the solution to an LMI. A numerical example is exploited to show the usefulness of the derived LMI-based conditions
Discrete-Time Mixing Receiver Architecture for RF-Sampling Software-Defined Radio
Ru, Z.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram
2010-01-01
Abstract—A discrete-time (DT) mixing architecture for RF-sampling receivers is presented. This architecture makes RF sampling more suitable for software-defined radio (SDR) as it achieves wideband quadrature demodulation and wideband harmonic rejection. The paper consists of two parts. In the first
Explicit solution of Calderon preconditioned time domain integral equations
Ulku, Huseyin Arda
2013-07-01
An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving Calderon-preconditioned time domain integral equations is proposed. The scheme uses Rao-Wilton-Glisson and Buffa-Christiansen functions to discretize the domain and range of the integral operators and a PE(CE)m type linear multistep to march on in time. Unlike its implicit counterpart, the proposed explicit solver requires the solution of an MOT system with a Gram matrix that is sparse and well-conditioned independent of the time step size. Numerical results demonstrate that the explicit solver maintains its accuracy and stability even when the time step size is chosen as large as that typically used by an implicit solver. © 2013 IEEE.
A model of interval timing by neural integration.
Simen, Patrick; Balci, Fuat; de Souza, Laura; Cohen, Jonathan D; Holmes, Philip
2011-06-22
We show that simple assumptions about neural processing lead to a model of interval timing as a temporal integration process, in which a noisy firing-rate representation of time rises linearly on average toward a response threshold over the course of an interval. Our assumptions include: that neural spike trains are approximately independent Poisson processes, that correlations among them can be largely cancelled by balancing excitation and inhibition, that neural populations can act as integrators, and that the objective of timed behavior is maximal accuracy and minimal variance. The model accounts for a variety of physiological and behavioral findings in rodents, monkeys, and humans, including ramping firing rates between the onset of reward-predicting cues and the receipt of delayed rewards, and universally scale-invariant response time distributions in interval timing tasks. It furthermore makes specific, well-supported predictions about the skewness of these distributions, a feature of timing data that is usually ignored. The model also incorporates a rapid (potentially one-shot) duration-learning procedure. Human behavioral data support the learning rule's predictions regarding learning speed in sequences of timed responses. These results suggest that simple, integration-based models should play as prominent a role in interval timing theory as they do in theories of perceptual decision making, and that a common neural mechanism may underlie both types of behavior.
Data on copula modeling of mixed discrete and continuous neural time series.
Hu, Meng; Li, Mingyao; Li, Wu; Liang, Hualou
2016-06-01
Copula is an important tool for modeling neural dependence. Recent work on copula has been expanded to jointly model mixed time series in neuroscience ("Hu et al., 2016, Joint Analysis of Spikes and Local Field Potentials using Copula" [1]). Here we present further data for joint analysis of spike and local field potential (LFP) with copula modeling. In particular, the details of different model orders and the influence of possible spike contamination in LFP data from the same and different electrode recordings are presented. To further facilitate the use of our copula model for the analysis of mixed data, we provide the Matlab codes, together with example data.
Design of Mixed-Criticality Applications on Distributed Real-Time Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamas-Selicean, Domitian
the concept of virtual links, and temporal separation, enforced through schedule tables for TT messages and bandwidth allocation for RC messages. The objective of this thesis is to develop methods and tools for distributed mixed-criticality real-time systems. At the processor level, we are interested......A mixed-criticality system implements applications of different safety-criticality levels onto the same platform. In such cases, the certification standards require that applications of different criticality levels are protected so they cannot influence each other. Otherwise, all tasks have...
Cheng, Jiubing; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Wu, Zedong; Zou, Peng; Wang, Chenlong
2016-01-01
In elastic imaging, the extrapolated vector fields are decoupled into pure wave modes, such that the imaging condition produces interpretable images. Conventionally, mode decoupling in anisotropic media is costly because the operators involved are dependent on the velocity, and thus they are not stationary. We have developed an efficient pseudospectral approach to directly extrapolate the decoupled elastic waves using low-rank approximate mixed-domain integral operators on the basis of the elastic displacement wave equation. We have applied k-space adjustment to the pseudospectral solution to allow for a relatively large extrapolation time step. The low-rank approximation was, thus, applied to the spectral operators that simultaneously extrapolate and decompose the elastic wavefields. Synthetic examples on transversely isotropic and orthorhombic models showed that our approach has the potential to efficiently and accurately simulate the propagations of the decoupled quasi-P and quasi-S modes as well as the total wavefields for elastic wave modeling, imaging, and inversion.
Cheng, Jiubing
2016-03-15
In elastic imaging, the extrapolated vector fields are decoupled into pure wave modes, such that the imaging condition produces interpretable images. Conventionally, mode decoupling in anisotropic media is costly because the operators involved are dependent on the velocity, and thus they are not stationary. We have developed an efficient pseudospectral approach to directly extrapolate the decoupled elastic waves using low-rank approximate mixed-domain integral operators on the basis of the elastic displacement wave equation. We have applied k-space adjustment to the pseudospectral solution to allow for a relatively large extrapolation time step. The low-rank approximation was, thus, applied to the spectral operators that simultaneously extrapolate and decompose the elastic wavefields. Synthetic examples on transversely isotropic and orthorhombic models showed that our approach has the potential to efficiently and accurately simulate the propagations of the decoupled quasi-P and quasi-S modes as well as the total wavefields for elastic wave modeling, imaging, and inversion.
Evaluation of scalar mixing and time scale models in PDF simulations of a turbulent premixed flame
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoellinger, Michael; Heinz, Stefan [Department of Mathematics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)
2010-09-15
Numerical simulation results obtained with a transported scalar probability density function (PDF) method are presented for a piloted turbulent premixed flame. The accuracy of the PDF method depends on the scalar mixing model and the scalar time scale model. Three widely used scalar mixing models are evaluated: the interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model, the modified Curl's coalescence/dispersion (CD) model and the Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) model. The three scalar mixing models are combined with a simple model for the scalar time scale which assumes a constant C{sub {phi}}=12 value. A comparison of the simulation results with available measurements shows that only the EMST model calculates accurately the mean and variance of the reaction progress variable. An evaluation of the structure of the PDF's of the reaction progress variable predicted by the three scalar mixing models confirms this conclusion: the IEM and CD models predict an unrealistic shape of the PDF. Simulations using various C{sub {phi}} values ranging from 2 to 50 combined with the three scalar mixing models have been performed. The observed deficiencies of the IEM and CD models persisted for all C{sub {phi}} values considered. The value C{sub {phi}}=12 combined with the EMST model was found to be an optimal choice. To avoid the ad hoc choice for C{sub {phi}}, more sophisticated models for the scalar time scale have been used in simulations using the EMST model. A new model for the scalar time scale which is based on a linear blending between a model for flamelet combustion and a model for distributed combustion is developed. The new model has proven to be very promising as a scalar time scale model which can be applied from flamelet to distributed combustion. (author)
Effects of integration time on in-water radiometric profiles.
D'Alimonte, Davide; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Kajiyama, Tamito
2018-03-05
This work investigates the effects of integration time on in-water downward irradiance E d , upward irradiance E u and upwelling radiance L u profile data acquired with free-fall hyperspectral systems. Analyzed quantities are the subsurface value and the diffuse attenuation coefficient derived by applying linear and non-linear regression schemes. Case studies include oligotrophic waters (Case-1), as well as waters dominated by Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and Non-Algal Particles (NAP). Assuming a 24-bit digitization, measurements resulting from the accumulation of photons over integration times varying between 8 and 2048ms are evaluated at depths corresponding to: 1) the beginning of each integration interval (Fst); 2) the end of each integration interval (Lst); 3) the averages of Fst and Lst values (Avg); and finally 4) the values weighted accounting for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of water (Wgt). Statistical figures show that the effects of integration time can bias results well above 5% as a function of the depth definition. Results indicate the validity of the Wgt depth definition and the fair applicability of the Avg one. Instead, both the Fst and Lst depths should not be adopted since they may introduce pronounced biases in E u and L u regression products for highly absorbing waters. Finally, the study reconfirms the relevance of combining multiple radiometric casts into a single profile to increase precision of regression products.
A New time Integration Scheme for Cahn-hilliard Equations
Schaefer, R.
2015-06-01
In this paper we present a new integration scheme that can be applied to solving difficult non-stationary non-linear problems. It is obtained by a successive linearization of the Crank- Nicolson scheme, that is unconditionally stable, but requires solving non-linear equation at each time step. We applied our linearized scheme for the time integration of the challenging Cahn-Hilliard equation, modeling the phase separation in fluids. At each time step the resulting variational equation is solved using higher-order isogeometric finite element method, with B- spline basis functions. The method was implemented in the PETIGA framework interfaced via the PETSc toolkit. The GMRES iterative solver was utilized for the solution of a resulting linear system at every time step. We also apply a simple adaptivity rule, which increases the time step size when the number of GMRES iterations is lower than 30. We compared our method with a non-linear, two stage predictor-multicorrector scheme, utilizing a sophisticated step length adaptivity. We controlled the stability of our simulations by monitoring the Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional. The proposed integration scheme outperforms the two-stage competitor in terms of the execution time, at the same time having a similar evolution of the free energy functional.
A New time Integration Scheme for Cahn-hilliard Equations
Schaefer, R.; Smol-ka, M.; Dalcin, L; Paszyn'ski, M.
2015-01-01
In this paper we present a new integration scheme that can be applied to solving difficult non-stationary non-linear problems. It is obtained by a successive linearization of the Crank- Nicolson scheme, that is unconditionally stable, but requires solving non-linear equation at each time step. We applied our linearized scheme for the time integration of the challenging Cahn-Hilliard equation, modeling the phase separation in fluids. At each time step the resulting variational equation is solved using higher-order isogeometric finite element method, with B- spline basis functions. The method was implemented in the PETIGA framework interfaced via the PETSc toolkit. The GMRES iterative solver was utilized for the solution of a resulting linear system at every time step. We also apply a simple adaptivity rule, which increases the time step size when the number of GMRES iterations is lower than 30. We compared our method with a non-linear, two stage predictor-multicorrector scheme, utilizing a sophisticated step length adaptivity. We controlled the stability of our simulations by monitoring the Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional. The proposed integration scheme outperforms the two-stage competitor in terms of the execution time, at the same time having a similar evolution of the free energy functional.
A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations
Pray, Andrew J.; Beghein, Yves; Nair, Naveen V.; Cools, Kristof; Bagci, Hakan; Shanker, Balasubramaniam
2014-01-01
Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method's efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.
Orientation, Evaluation, and Integration of Part-Time Nursing Faculty.
Carlson, Joanne S
2015-07-10
This study helps to quantify and describe orientation, evaluation, and integration practices pertaining to part-time clinical nursing faculty teaching in prelicensure nursing education programs. A researcher designed Web-based survey was used to collect information from a convenience sample of part-time clinical nursing faculty teaching in prelicensure nursing programs. Survey questions focused on the amount and type of orientation, evaluation, and integration practices. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze results. Respondents reported on average four hours of orientation, with close to half reporting no more than two hours. Evaluative feedback was received much more often from students than from full-time faculty. Most respondents reported receiving some degree of mentoring and that it was easy to get help from full-time faculty. Respondents reported being most informed about student evaluation procedures, grading, and the steps to take when students are not meeting course objectives, and less informed about changes to ongoing curriculum and policy.
Numerical counting ratemeter with variable time constant and integrated circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaiser, J.; Fuan, J.
1967-01-01
We present here the prototype of a numerical counting ratemeter which is a special version of variable time-constant frequency meter (1). The originality of this work lies in the fact that the change in the time constant is carried out automatically. Since the criterion for this change is the accuracy in the annunciated result, the integration time is varied as a function of the frequency. For the prototype described in this report, the time constant varies from 1 sec to 1 millisec. for frequencies in the range 10 Hz to 10 MHz. This prototype is built entirely of MECL-type integrated circuits from Motorola and is thus contained in two relatively small boxes. (authors) [fr
Investing in biogas: Timing, technological choice and the value of flexibility from input mix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Corato, Luca; Moretto, Michele
2011-01-01
In a stochastic dynamic frame, we study the technology choice problem of a continuous co-digestion biogas plant where input factors are substitutes but need to be mixed together to provide output. Given any initial rule for the composition of the feedstock, we consider the possibility of revising it if economic circumstances make it profitable. Flexibility in the mix is an advantage under randomly fluctuating input costs and comes at a higher investment cost. We show that the degree of flexibility in the productive technology installed depends on the value of the option to profitably re-arrange the input mix. Such option adds value to the project in that it provides a device for hedging against fluctuations in the input relative convenience. Accounting for such value we discuss the trade-off between investment timing and profit smoothing flexibility. - Research highlights: ► We study the technology choice problem of a continuous co-digestion biogas plant where input factors are substitutes but need to be mixed together to provide output. ► We show that the degree of flexibility in the productive technology installed depends on the value of the option to profitably re-arrange the input mix. ► Such option adds value to the project in that it provides a device for hedging against fluctuations in the input relative convenience.
Reduction of EMC Emissions in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits with Embedded LIN Driver
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Hartl
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper describes several methods for reduction of electromagnetic emissions (EME of mixed signal integrated circuits (IC. The focus is on the impact that a LIN bus communication block has on a complex IC which contains analog blocks, noisy digital block, micro-core (µC and several types of memories. It is used in an automotive environment, where EMC emission reduction is one of the key success factors. Several proposed methods for EME reduction are described and implemented on three test chips. These methods include current consumption reduction, internal on-chip decoupling, ground separation and different linear voltage regulator topologies. Measurement results of several fabricated test chips are shown and discussed.
General new time formalism in the path integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pak, N.K.; Sokmen, I.
1983-08-01
We describe a general method of applying point canonical transformations to the path integral followed by the corresponding new time transformations aimed at reducing an arbitrary one-dimensional problem into an exactly solvable form. Our result is independent of operator ordering ambiguities by construction. (author)
A Fully Integrated Discrete-Time Superheterodyne Receiver
Tohidian, M.; Madadi, I.; Staszewski, R.B.
2017-01-01
The zero/low intermediate frequency (IF) receiver (RX) architecture has enabled full CMOS integration. As the technology scales and wireless standards become ever more challenging, the issues related to time-varying dc offsets, the second-order nonlinearity, and flicker noise become more critical.
On the solution of high order stable time integration methods
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe; Blaheta, Radim; Sysala, Stanislav; Ahmad, B.
2013-01-01
Roč. 108, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-22 ISSN 1687-2770 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : evolution equations * preconditioners for quadratic matrix polynomials * a stiffly stable time integration method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2013 http://www.boundaryvalueproblems.com/content/2013/1/108
Integrated optical delay lines for time-division multiplexers
Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Kleijn, E.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present a study of integrated optical delay lines (DLs) for application in optical time-division multiplexers. The investigated DLs are formed by spirally folded waveguides. The components were designed in a generic approach and fabricated in multi-project wafer runs on an
The best-mix of power demand and supply. Energy system integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogimoto, Kazuhiko
2012-01-01
In September 2012 after nationwide discussions, Energy and Environmental Council decided 'Innovative Strategy for Energy and the Environment': (1) Realization of a society not dependent on nuclear power, (2) Realization of green energy revolution, (3) For ensuring stable supply of energy, (4) Bold implementation of reform of electricity power systems and (5) Steady implementation of global warming countermeasures. Energy problem should be considered as supply and demand of whole energy. However, long-term energy problem such as in 2050 should assume global limits of fossil fuel supply and carbon dioxide emission and then in order to realize sustainable demand and supply of energy, maximum deployment of renewable energy power in primary energy and most practicable electrification of final demand for energy conservation should be implemented. Best mix of power and energy demand and supply would be significant to some extent. This article outlined analysis of power demand and supply in a long term, future power technologies and demand side management, and problems of power system operation and their solution, and then described energy system integration to realize power and energy/society best mix. (T. Tanaka)
van den Broek, PLC; van Egmond, J; van Rijn, CM; Takens, F; Coenen, AML; Booij, LHDJ
2005-01-01
Background: This study assessed the feasibility of online calculation of the correlation integral (C(r)) aiming to apply C(r)derived statistics. For real-time application it is important to reduce calculation time. It is shown how our method works for EEG time series. Methods: To achieve online
Broek, P.L.C. van den; Egmond, J. van; Rijn, C.M. van; Takens, F.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Booij, L.H.D.J.
2005-01-01
This study assessed the feasibility of online calculation of the correlation integral (C(r)) aiming to apply C(r)-derived statistics. For real-time application it is important to reduce calculation time. It is shown how our method works for EEG time series. Methods: To achieve online calculation of
Attempted integration of multiple species of turaco into a mixed-species aviary.
Valuska, Annie J; Leighty, Katherine A; Ferrie, Gina M; Nichols, Valerie D; Tybor, Cheryl L; Plassé, Chelle; Bettinger, Tamara L
2013-03-01
Mixed-species exhibits offer a variety of benefits but can be challenging to maintain due to difficulty in managing interspecific interactions. This is particularly true when little has been documented on the behavior of the species being mixed. This was the case when we attempted to house three species of turaco (family: Musophagidae) together with other species in a walk-through aviary. To learn more about the behavior of great blue turacos, violaceous turacos, and white-bellied gray go-away birds, we supplemented opportunistic keeper observations with systematic data collection on their behavior, location, distance from other birds, and visibility to visitors. Keepers reported high levels of aggression among turacos, usually initiated by a go-away bird or a violaceous turaco. Most aggression occurred during feedings or when pairs were defending nest sites. Attempts to reduce aggression by temporarily removing birds to holding areas and reintroducing them days later were ineffective. Systematic data collection revealed increased social behavior, including aggression, during breeding season in the violaceous turacos, as well as greater location fidelity. These behavioral cues may be useful in predicting breeding behavior in the future. Ultimately, we were only able to house three species of turaco together for a short time, and prohibitively high levels of conflict occurred when pairs were breeding. We conclude that mixing these three turaco species is challenging and may not be the most appropriate housing situation for them, particularly during breeding season. However, changes in turaco species composition, sex composition, or exhibit design may result in more compatible mixed-turaco species groups. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Time Varying Market Integration and Expected Rteurns in Emerging Markets
Jong, F.C.J.M. de; Roon, F.A. de
2001-01-01
We use a simple model in which the expected returns in emerging markets depend on their systematic risk as measured by their beta relative to the world portfolio as well as on the level of integration in that market.The level of integration is a time-varying variable that depends on the market value of the assets that can be held by domestic investors only versus the market value of the assets that can be traded freely.Our empirical analysis for 30 emerging markets shows that there are strong...
Energy conservation in Newmark based time integration algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
2006-01-01
Energy balance equations are established for the Newmark time integration algorithm, and for the derived algorithms with algorithmic damping introduced via averaging, the so-called a-methods. The energy balance equations form a sequence applicable to: Newmark integration of the undamped equations...... of motion, an extended form including structural damping, and finally the generalized form including structural as well as algorithmic damping. In all three cases the expression for energy, appearing in the balance equation, is the mechanical energy plus some additional terms generated by the discretization...
Multisensory integration: the case of a time window of gesture-speech integration.
Obermeier, Christian; Gunter, Thomas C
2015-02-01
This experiment investigates the integration of gesture and speech from a multisensory perspective. In a disambiguation paradigm, participants were presented with short videos of an actress uttering sentences like "She was impressed by the BALL, because the GAME/DANCE...." The ambiguous noun (BALL) was accompanied by an iconic gesture fragment containing information to disambiguate the noun toward its dominant or subordinate meaning. We used four different temporal alignments between noun and gesture fragment: the identification point (IP) of the noun was either prior to (+120 msec), synchronous with (0 msec), or lagging behind the end of the gesture fragment (-200 and -600 msec). ERPs triggered to the IP of the noun showed significant differences for the integration of dominant and subordinate gesture fragments in the -200, 0, and +120 msec conditions. The outcome of this integration was revealed at the target words. These data suggest a time window for direct semantic gesture-speech integration ranging from at least -200 up to +120 msec. Although the -600 msec condition did not show any signs of direct integration at the homonym, significant disambiguation was found at the target word. An explorative analysis suggested that gesture information was directly integrated at the verb, indicating that there are multiple positions in a sentence where direct gesture-speech integration takes place. Ultimately, this would implicate that in natural communication, where a gesture lasts for some time, several aspects of that gesture will have their specific and possibly distinct impact on different positions in an utterance.
Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, P.C.
1997-01-01
Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment
Hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to-time interval conversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basiladze, S.G.; Dotsenko, Yu.Yu.; Man' yakov, P.K.; Fedorchenko, S.N. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))
The hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to time interval conversion with nanosecond input fast response is described. The circuit can be used in energy measuring channels, time-to-digital converters and in the modified variant in amplitude-to-digital converters. The converter described consists of a buffer amplifier, a linear transmission circuit, a direct current source and a unit of time interval separation. The buffer amplifier represents a current follower providing low input and high output resistances by the current feedback. It is concluded that the described converter excelled the QT100B circuit analogous to it in a number of parameters especially, in thermostability.
Integral-Value Models for Outcomes over Continuous Time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harvey, Charles M.; Østerdal, Lars Peter
Models of preferences between outcomes over continuous time are important for individual, corporate, and social decision making, e.g., medical treatment, infrastructure development, and environmental regulation. This paper presents a foundation for such models. It shows that conditions on prefere...... on preferences between real- or vector-valued outcomes over continuous time are satisfied if and only if the preferences are represented by a value function having an integral form......Models of preferences between outcomes over continuous time are important for individual, corporate, and social decision making, e.g., medical treatment, infrastructure development, and environmental regulation. This paper presents a foundation for such models. It shows that conditions...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marleen de Mul
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Information Technology (IT has the potential to significantly support skill-mix change and, thereby, to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of integrated care. Theory and methods: IT and skill-mix change share an important precondition: the standardisation of work processes. Standardisation plays a crucial role in IT-supported skill-mix change. It is not a matter of more or less standardisation than in the ‘old’ situation, but about creating an optimal fit. We used qualitative data from our evaluation of two integrated-care projects in Dutch eyecare to identify domains where this fit is important. Results: While standardisation was needed to delegate screening tasks from physicians to non-physicians, and to assure the quality of the integrated-care process as a whole, tensions arose in three domains: the performance of clinical tasks, the documentation, and the communication between professionals. Unfunctional standardisation led to dissatisfaction and distrust between the professionals involved in screening. Discussion and conclusion: Although the integration seems promising, much work is needed to ensure a synergistic relationship between skill-mix change and IT. Developing IT-supported skill-mix change by means of standardisation is a matter of tailoring standardisation to fit the situation at hand, while dealing with the local constraints of available technology and organisational context.
Memory controllers for mixed-time-criticality systems architectures, methodologies and trade-offs
Goossens, Sven; Akesson, Benny; Goossens, Kees
2016-01-01
This book discusses the design and performance analysis of SDRAM controllers that cater to both real-time and best-effort applications, i.e. mixed-time-criticality memory controllers. The authors describe the state of the art, and then focus on an architecture template for reconfigurable memory controllers that addresses effectively the quickly evolving set of SDRAM standards, in terms of worst-case timing and power analysis, as well as implementation. A prototype implementation of the controller in SystemC and synthesizable VHDL for an FPGA development board are used as a proof of concept of the architecture template.
A Digitally Programmable Differential Integrator with Enlarged Time Constant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. K. Debroy
1994-12-01
Full Text Available A new Operational Amplifier (OA-RC integrator network is described. The novelties of the design are used of single grounded capacitor, ideal integration function realization with dual-input capability and design flexibility for extremely large time constant involving an enlargement factor (K using product of resistor ratios. The aspect of the digital control of K through a programmable resistor array (PRA controlled by a microprocessor has also been implemented. The effect of the OA-poles has been analyzed which indicates degradation of the integrator-Q at higher frequencies. An appropriate Q-compensation design scheme exhibiting 1 : |A|2 order of Q-improvement has been proposed with supporting experimental observations.
Integration and timing of basic and clinical sciences education.
Bandiera, Glen; Boucher, Andree; Neville, Alan; Kuper, Ayelet; Hodges, Brian
2013-05-01
Medical education has traditionally been compartmentalized into basic and clinical sciences, with the latter being viewed as the skillful application of the former. Over time, the relevance of basic sciences has become defined by their role in supporting clinical problem solving rather than being, of themselves, a defining knowledge base of physicians. As part of the national Future of Medical Education in Canada (FMEC MD) project, a comprehensive empirical environmental scan identified the timing and integration of basic sciences as a key pressing issue for medical education. Using the literature review, key informant interviews, stakeholder meetings, and subsequent consultation forums from the FMEC project, this paper details the empirical basis for focusing on the role of basic science, the evidentiary foundations for current practices, and the implications for medical education. Despite a dearth of definitive relevant studies, opinions about how best to integrate the sciences remain strong. Resource allocation, political power, educational philosophy, and the shift from a knowledge-based to a problem-solving profession all influence the debate. There was little disagreement that both sciences are important, that many traditional models emphasized deep understanding of limited basic science disciplines at the expense of other relevant content such as social sciences, or that teaching the sciences contemporaneously rather than sequentially has theoretical and practical merit. Innovations in integrated curriculum design have occurred internationally. Less clear are the appropriate balance of the sciences, the best integration model, and solutions to the political and practical challenges of integrated curricula. New curricula tend to emphasize integration, development of more diverse physician competencies, and preparation of physicians to adapt to evolving technology and patients' expectations. Refocusing the basic/clinical dichotomy to a foundational
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKenney, D.E.
1998-01-01
In July 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a contractor-led effort to develop a suite of technically defensible, integrated alternatives which would allow the Environmental Management program to accomplish its mission objectives in an accelerated fashion and at a reduced cost. These alternatives, or opportunities, could then be evaluated by DOE and stakeholders for possible implementation, given precursor requirements (regulatory changes, etc.) could be met and benefits to the Complex realized. This contractor effort initially focused on six waste types, one of which was Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW). Many opportunities were identified by the contractor team for integrating MLLW activities across the DOE Complex. These opportunities were further narrowed to six that had the most promise for implementation and savings to the DOE Complex. The opportunities include six items: (1) the consolidation of individual site analytical services procurement efforts, (2) the consolidation of individual site MLLW treatment services procurement efforts, (3) establishment of ''de minimus'' radioactivity levels, (4) standardization of characterization requirements, (5) increased utilization of existing DOE treatment facilities, and (6) using a combination of DOE and commercial MLLW disposal capacity. The results of the integration effort showed that by managing MLLW activities across the DOE Complex as a cohesive unit rather than as independent site efforts, the DOE could improve the rate of progress toward meeting its objectives and reduce its overall MLLW program costs. Savings potential for MLLW, if the identified opportunities could be implemented, could total $224 million or more. Implementation of the opportunities also could result in the acceleration of the MLLW ''work off schedule'' across the DOE Complex by five years
Exponential stability of uncertain stochastic neural networks with mixed time-delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zidong; Lauria, Stanislao; Fang Jian'an; Liu Xiaohui
2007-01-01
This paper is concerned with the global exponential stability analysis problem for a class of stochastic neural networks with mixed time-delays and parameter uncertainties. The mixed delays comprise discrete and distributed time-delays, the parameter uncertainties are norm-bounded, and the neural networks are subjected to stochastic disturbances described in terms of a Brownian motion. The purpose of the stability analysis problem is to derive easy-to-test criteria under which the delayed stochastic neural network is globally, robustly, exponentially stable in the mean square for all admissible parameter uncertainties. By resorting to the Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory and the stochastic analysis tools, sufficient stability conditions are established by using an efficient linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. The proposed criteria can be checked readily by using recently developed numerical packages, where no tuning of parameters is required. An example is provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed criteria
Collection and evaluation of salt mixing data with the real time data acquisition system. [LMFBR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glazer, S.; Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.E.
1977-09-01
A minicomputer based real time data acquisition system was designed and built to facilitate data collection during salt mixing tests in mock ups of LMFBR rod bundles. The system represents an expansion of data collection capabilities over previous equipment. It performs steady state and transient monitoring and recording of up to 512 individual electrical resistance probes. Extensive real time software was written to govern all phases of the data collection procedure, including probe definition, probe calibration, salt mixing test data acquisition and storage, and data editing. Offline software was also written to permit data examination and reduction to dimensionless salt concentration maps. Finally, the computer program SUPERENERGY was modified to permit rapid extraction of parameters from dimensionless salt concentration maps. The document describes the computer system, and includes circuit diagrams of all custom built components. It also includes descriptions and listings of all software written, as well as extensive user instructions.
Mechanical & morphological properties of attapulgite/NR composites: Effect of mixing time variation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nor, Nor Aina Mohd, E-mail: ayena90@yahoo.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)
2015-07-22
The development of composite material based on attapulgite clay (ATP) as a filler and natural rubber (NR) matrices were prepared by combination of melt mixing and latex compounding methods. Sonication technique was chosen in this work to disperse the attapulgite suspension. 6 phr of attapulgite loading was fabricated using different time of mixing ranging from 30 minutes until 2 hours and sonication time was kept constant at 15 minutes. Then, co-coagulating HA latex with attapulgite clay suspension through latex compounding method produced the masterbatch. The masterbatch was compounded with natural rubber by melt mixing method. The mechanical and morphological characteristics were investigated in this work. From mechanical testing, M1 showed the highest value of tensile and tear strength. By comparing with M30 and M2, M1 shows high 300% tensile modulus and lower crosslink density. However, when the time of mixing was prolonged to 2 hours, the results for tensile strength, elongation at break and tear strength were decreased. This is due to flocculation of attapulgite particles. Sonication techniques also proved that the tensile strength and elongation at break of these three samples were higher compared to gum NR (NR) and attapulgite compounded with NR using a conventional method (in-situ 6). From field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) results, it revealed that M1 had good dispersion in the NR system. It is proved that the higher tensile strength was due to good dispersion of attapulgite clay in the NR matrix. It was also supported from crosslink density, which is lower than NR and in-situ 6 results. It showed that the penetration of toluene solvent into rubber compound was restricted. The optimum time, M1 give the best results, which can be compared to control the sample.
Mixed-state bipolar I and II depression: time to remission and clinical characteristics.
Shim, In Hee; Woo, Young Sup; Jun, Tae-Youn; Bahk, Won-Myong
2014-01-01
We compared the time to achieve remission and the clinical characteristics of patients with bipolar depressive mixed state and those with bipolar depressive non-mixed state. The subjects (N=131) were inpatients diagnosed between 2006 and 2012 with bipolar I or II disorder, depression and were classified into the following three groups: "pure depressive state" (PD, n=70), "sub-threshold mixed state" (SMX, n=38), and "depressive mixed state" (DMX, n=23). Diagnosis of a DMX was in accordance with Benazzi's definition: three or more manic symptoms in a depressive episode. The subjects' charts were retrospectively reviewed to ascertain the time to achieve remission from the index episode and to identify other factors, such as demographic and clinical characteristics, specific manic symptoms, and pharmacological treatment, that may have contributed to remission. The time to achieve remission was significantly longer in the DMX (p=0.022) and SMX (p=0.035) groups than in the PD group. Adjustment for covariates using a Cox proportional hazards model did not change these results. Clinically, subjects with a DMX were more likely to have manic symptoms in the index episode, especially inflated self-esteem and psychomotor agitation than those in the PD. We investigated only inpatients and therefore could not comment on outpatients. These findings showed that sub-syndromal manic symptoms in bipolar depression had different clinical characteristics and a more severe illness course, including a longer time to achieve remission, than did a pure depressive state. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mechanical & morphological properties of attapulgite/NR composites: Effect of mixing time variation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nor, Nor Aina Mohd; Othman, Nadras; Ismail, Hanafi
2015-01-01
The development of composite material based on attapulgite clay (ATP) as a filler and natural rubber (NR) matrices were prepared by combination of melt mixing and latex compounding methods. Sonication technique was chosen in this work to disperse the attapulgite suspension. 6 phr of attapulgite loading was fabricated using different time of mixing ranging from 30 minutes until 2 hours and sonication time was kept constant at 15 minutes. Then, co-coagulating HA latex with attapulgite clay suspension through latex compounding method produced the masterbatch. The masterbatch was compounded with natural rubber by melt mixing method. The mechanical and morphological characteristics were investigated in this work. From mechanical testing, M1 showed the highest value of tensile and tear strength. By comparing with M30 and M2, M1 shows high 300% tensile modulus and lower crosslink density. However, when the time of mixing was prolonged to 2 hours, the results for tensile strength, elongation at break and tear strength were decreased. This is due to flocculation of attapulgite particles. Sonication techniques also proved that the tensile strength and elongation at break of these three samples were higher compared to gum NR (NR) and attapulgite compounded with NR using a conventional method (in-situ 6). From field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) results, it revealed that M1 had good dispersion in the NR system. It is proved that the higher tensile strength was due to good dispersion of attapulgite clay in the NR matrix. It was also supported from crosslink density, which is lower than NR and in-situ 6 results. It showed that the penetration of toluene solvent into rubber compound was restricted. The optimum time, M1 give the best results, which can be compared to control the sample
Real-time 3D human capture system for mixed-reality art and entertainment.
Nguyen, Ta Huynh Duy; Qui, Tran Cong Thien; Xu, Ke; Cheok, Adrian David; Teo, Sze Lee; Zhou, ZhiYing; Mallawaarachchi, Asitha; Lee, Shang Ping; Liu, Wei; Teo, Hui Siang; Thang, Le Nam; Li, Yu; Kato, Hirokazu
2005-01-01
A real-time system for capturing humans in 3D and placing them into a mixed reality environment is presented in this paper. The subject is captured by nine cameras surrounding her. Looking through a head-mounted-display with a camera in front pointing at a marker, the user can see the 3D image of this subject overlaid onto a mixed reality scene. The 3D images of the subject viewed from this viewpoint are constructed using a robust and fast shape-from-silhouette algorithm. The paper also presents several techniques to produce good quality and speed up the whole system. The frame rate of our system is around 25 fps using only standard Intel processor-based personal computers. Besides a remote live 3D conferencing and collaborating system, we also describe an application of the system in art and entertainment, named Magic Land, which is a mixed reality environment where captured avatars of human and 3D computer generated virtual animations can form an interactive story and play with each other. This system demonstrates many technologies in human computer interaction: mixed reality, tangible interaction, and 3D communication. The result of the user study not only emphasizes the benefits, but also addresses some issues of these technologies.
HMC algorithm with multiple time scale integration and mass preconditioning
Urbach, C.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wenger, U.
2006-01-01
We present a variant of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning (Hasenbusch acceleration) and multiple time scale integration. We have tested this variant for standard Wilson fermions at β=5.6 and at pion masses ranging from 380 to 680 MeV. We show that in this situation its performance is comparable to the recently proposed HMC variant with domain decomposition as preconditioner. We give an update of the "Berlin Wall" figure, comparing the performance of our variant of the HMC algorithm to other published performance data. Advantages of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning and multiple time scale integration are that it is straightforward to implement and can be used in combination with a wide variety of lattice Dirac operators.
Real-time hybrid simulation using the convolution integral method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Sung Jig; Christenson, Richard E; Wojtkiewicz, Steven F; Johnson, Erik A
2011-01-01
This paper proposes a real-time hybrid simulation method that will allow complex systems to be tested within the hybrid test framework by employing the convolution integral (CI) method. The proposed CI method is potentially transformative for real-time hybrid simulation. The CI method can allow real-time hybrid simulation to be conducted regardless of the size and complexity of the numerical model and for numerical stability to be ensured in the presence of high frequency responses in the simulation. This paper presents the general theory behind the proposed CI method and provides experimental verification of the proposed method by comparing the CI method to the current integration time-stepping (ITS) method. Real-time hybrid simulation is conducted in the Advanced Hazard Mitigation Laboratory at the University of Connecticut. A seismically excited two-story shear frame building with a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper is selected as the test structure to experimentally validate the proposed method. The building structure is numerically modeled and simulated, while the MR damper is physically tested. Real-time hybrid simulation using the proposed CI method is shown to provide accurate results
System Integration for Real-Time Mobile Manipulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Oftadeh
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Mobile manipulators are one of the most complicated types of mechatronics systems. The performance of these robots in performing complex manipulation tasks is highly correlated with the synchronization and integration of their low-level components. This paper discusses in detail the mechatronics design of a four wheel steered mobile manipulator. It presents the manipulator's mechanical structure and electrical interfaces, designs low-level software architecture based on embedded PC-based controls, and proposes a systematic solution based on code generation products of MATLAB and Simulink. The remote development environment described here is used to develop real-time controller software and modules for the mobile manipulator under a POSIX-compliant, real-time Linux operating system. Our approach enables developers to reliably design controller modules that meet the hard real-time constraints of the entire low-level system architecture. Moreover, it provides a systematic framework for the development and integration of hardware devices with various communication mediums and protocols, which facilitates the development and integration process of the software controller.
Adaptive time-stepping Monte Carlo integration of Coulomb collisions
Särkimäki, K.; Hirvijoki, E.; Terävä, J.
2018-01-01
We report an accessible and robust tool for evaluating the effects of Coulomb collisions on a test particle in a plasma that obeys Maxwell-Jüttner statistics. The implementation is based on the Beliaev-Budker collision integral which allows both the test particle and the background plasma to be relativistic. The integration method supports adaptive time stepping, which is shown to greatly improve the computational efficiency. The Monte Carlo method is implemented for both the three-dimensional particle momentum space and the five-dimensional guiding center phase space. Detailed description is provided for both the physics and implementation of the operator. The focus is in adaptive integration of stochastic differential equations, which is an overlooked aspect among existing Monte Carlo implementations of Coulomb collision operators. We verify that our operator converges to known analytical results and demonstrate that careless implementation of the adaptive time step can lead to severely erroneous results. The operator is provided as a self-contained Fortran 95 module and can be included into existing orbit-following tools that trace either the full Larmor motion or the guiding center dynamics. The adaptive time-stepping algorithm is expected to be useful in situations where the collision frequencies vary greatly over the course of a simulation. Examples include the slowing-down of fusion products or other fast ions, and the Dreicer generation of runaway electrons as well as the generation of fast ions or electrons with ion or electron cyclotron resonance heating.
Evaluation of the filtered leapfrog-trapezoidal time integration method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roache, P.J.; Dietrich, D.E.
1988-01-01
An analysis and evaluation are presented for a new method of time integration for fluid dynamic proposed by Dietrich. The method, called the filtered leapfrog-trapezoidal (FLT) scheme, is analyzed for the one-dimensional constant-coefficient advection equation and is shown to have some advantages for quasi-steady flows. A modification (FLTW) using a weighted combination of FLT and leapfrog is developed which retains the advantages for steady flows, increases accuracy for time-dependent flows, and involves little coding effort. Merits and applicability are discussed
Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz
2003-04-16
The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.
Time scales of magma transport and mixing at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i
Rae, Auriol S.P.; Edmonds, Marie; Maclennan, John; Morgan, Daniel; Houghton, Bruce; Hartley, Margaret E.; Sides, Isobel
2016-01-01
Modeling of volcanic processes is limited by a lack of knowledge of the time scales of storage, mixing, and final ascent of magmas into the shallowest portions of volcanic plumbing systems immediately prior to eruption. It is impossible to measure these time scales directly; however, micro-analytical techniques provide indirect estimates based on the extent of diffusion of species through melts and crystals. We use diffusion in olivine phenocrysts from the A.D. 1959 Kīlauea Iki (Hawai‘i, USA)...
Rapid-mixing studies on the time-scale of radiation damage in cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, G.E.; Michael, B.D.; Asquith, J.C.; Shenoy, M.A.; Watts, M.E.; Whillans, D.W.
1975-01-01
Rapid mixing studies were performed to determine the time scale of radiation damage in cells. There is evidence that the sensitizing effects of oxygen and other chemical dose-modifying agents on the response of cells to ionizing radiation involve fast free-radical processes. Fast response technique studies in bacterial systems have shown that extremely fast processes occur when the bacteria are exposed to oxygen or other dose-modifying agents during irradiation. The time scales observed were consistent with the involvement of fast free-radical reactions in the expression of these effects
On Tuning PI Controllers for Integrating Plus Time Delay Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Di Ruscio
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Some analytical results concerning PI controller tuning based on integrator plus time delay models are worked out and presented. A method for obtaining PI controller parameters, Kp=alpha/(k*tau, and, Ti=beta*tau, which ensures a given prescribed maximum time delay error, dtau_max, to time delay, tau, ratio parameter delta=dau_max/tau, is presented. The corner stone in this method, is a method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. Analytical relations between the PI controller parameters, Ti, and, Kp, and the time delay error parameter, delta, is presented, and we propose the setting, beta=c/a*(delta+1, and, alpha=a/(delta+1, which gives, Ti=c/a*(delta+1*tau, and Kp=a/((delta+1*k*tau, where the parameter, a, is constant in the method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. It also turns out that the integral time, Ti, is linear in, delta, and the proportional gain, Kp, inversely proportional to, delta+1. For the original Ziegler Nichols (ZN method this parameter is approximately, c=2.38, and the presented method may e.g., be used to obtain new modified ZN parameters with increased robustness margins, also documented in the paper.
Plaque reduction over time of an integrated oral hygiene system.
Nunn, Martha E; Ruhlman, C Douglas; Mallatt, Philip R; Rodriguez, Sally M; Ortblad, Katherine M
2004-10-01
This article compares the efficacy of a prototype integrated system (the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest) in the reduction of supragingival plaque to that of a manual toothbrush and conventional toothpaste. The integrated system was compared to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in a randomized, single-blinded, parallel, 4-week, controlled clinical trial with 100 subjects randomized to each treatment group. There was a low dropout rate, with 89 subjects in the manual toothbrush group (11% loss to follow-up) and 93 subjects in the integrated system group (7% loss to follow-up) completing the study. The Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein Plaque Index was used to assess full-mouth plaque scores for each subject. Prebrushing plaque scores were obtained at baseline and at 4 weeks after 14 to 20 hours of plaque accumulation. A survey also was conducted at the conclusion of the study to determine the attitude toward the two oral hygiene systems. The integrated system was found to significantly reduce overall and interproximal prebrushing plaque scores over 4 weeks, both by 8.6%, demonstrating statistically significant superiority in overall plaque reduction (P = .002) and interproximal plaque reduction (P < .001) compared to the manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste, which showed no significant reduction in either overall plaque or interproximal plaque. This study demonstrates that the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest is superior to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in reducing overall plaque and interproximal plaque over time.
Rigorous time slicing approach to Feynman path integrals
Fujiwara, Daisuke
2017-01-01
This book proves that Feynman's original definition of the path integral actually converges to the fundamental solution of the Schrödinger equation at least in the short term if the potential is differentiable sufficiently many times and its derivatives of order equal to or higher than two are bounded. The semi-classical asymptotic formula up to the second term of the fundamental solution is also proved by a method different from that of Birkhoff. A bound of the remainder term is also proved. The Feynman path integral is a method of quantization using the Lagrangian function, whereas Schrödinger's quantization uses the Hamiltonian function. These two methods are believed to be equivalent. But equivalence is not fully proved mathematically, because, compared with Schrödinger's method, there is still much to be done concerning rigorous mathematical treatment of Feynman's method. Feynman himself defined a path integral as the limit of a sequence of integrals over finite-dimensional spaces which is obtained by...
Medical Student Research: An Integrated Mixed-Methods Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Amgad
Full Text Available Despite the rapidly declining number of physician-investigators, there is no consistent structure within medical education so far for involving medical students in research.To conduct an integrated mixed-methods systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies about medical students' participation in research, and to evaluate the evidence in order to guide policy decision-making regarding this issue.We followed the PRISMA statement guidelines during the preparation of this review and meta-analysis. We searched various databases as well as the bibliographies of the included studies between March 2012 and September 2013. We identified all relevant quantitative and qualitative studies assessing the effect of medical student participation in research, without restrictions regarding study design or publication date. Prespecified outcome-specific quality criteria were used to judge the admission of each quantitative outcome into the meta-analysis. Initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in the retrieval of 256 articles for full-text assessment. Eventually, 79 articles were included in our study, including eight qualitative studies. An integrated approach was used to combine quantitative and qualitative studies into a single synthesis. Once all included studies were identified, a data-driven thematic analysis was performed.Medical student participation in research is associated with improved short- and long- term scientific productivity, more informed career choices and improved knowledge about-, interest in- and attitudes towards research. Financial worries, gender, having a higher degree (MSc or PhD before matriculation and perceived competitiveness of the residency of choice are among the factors that affect the engagement of medical students in research and/or their scientific productivity. Intercalated BSc degrees, mandatory graduation theses and curricular research components may help in standardizing research education during
Gulmans, J.; Gulmans, J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; van Harten, Willem H.
2009-01-01
Objective. In this study, we evaluated patient care communication in the integrated care setting of children with cerebral palsy in three Dutch regions in order to identify relevant communication gaps experienced by both parents and involved professionals. - Design. A three-step mixed method
Boeije, H.R.; Slagt, M.I.; van Wesel, F.
2013-01-01
In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving
van Velzen, Joke H.
2018-01-01
There were two purposes for this mixed methods study: to investigate (a) the realistic meaning of awareness and understanding as the underlying constructs of general knowledge of the learning process and (b) a procedure for data consolidation. The participants were 11th-grade high school and first-year university students. Integrated data…
Boeije, H.; Slagt, M.; Wesel, F. van
2013-01-01
In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or “yield”). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving
Integrated intensities in inverse time-of-flight technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorner, Bruno
2006-01-01
In traditional data analysis a model function, convoluted with the resolution, is fitted to the measured data. In case that integrated intensities of signals are of main interest, one can use an approach which does not require a model function for the signal nor detailed knowledge of the resolution. For inverse TOF technique, this approach consists of two steps: (i) Normalisation of the measured spectrum with the help of a monitor, with 1/k sensitivity, which is positioned in front of the sample. This means at the same time a conversion of the data from time of flight to energy transfer. (ii) A Jacobian [I. Waller, P.O. Froeman, Ark. Phys. 4 (1952) 183] transforms data collected at constant scattering angle into data as if measured at constant momentum transfer Q. This Jacobian works correctly for signals which have a constant width at different Q along the trajectory of constant scattering angle. The approach has been tested on spectra of Compton scattering with neutrons, having epithermal energies, obtained on the inverse TOF spectrometer VESUVIO/ISIS. In this case the width of the signal is increasing proportional to Q and in consequence the application of the Jacobian leads to integrated intensities slightly too high. The resulting integrated intensities agree very well with results derived in the traditional way. Thus this completely different approach confirms the observation that signals from recoil by H-atoms at large momentum transfers are weaker than expected
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-08-01
The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-08-01
The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed
Classification of polynomial integrable systems of mixed scalar and vector evolution equations: I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuchida, Takayuki; Wolf, Thomas
2005-01-01
We perform a classification of integrable systems of mixed scalar and vector evolution equations with respect to higher symmetries. We consider polynomial systems that are homogeneous under a suitable weighting of variables. This paper deals with the KdV weighting, the Burgers (or potential KdV or modified KdV) weighting, the Ibragimov-Shabat weighting and two unfamiliar weightings. The case of other weightings will be studied in a subsequent paper. Making an ansatz for undetermined coefficients and using a computer package for solving bilinear algebraic systems, we give the complete lists of second-order systems with a third-order or a fourth-order symmetry and third-order systems with a fifth-order symmetry. For all but a few systems in the lists, we show that the system (or, at least a subsystem of it) admits either a Lax representation or a linearizing transformation. A thorough comparison with recent work of Foursov and Olver is made
Integrative health care - Toward a common understanding: A mixed method study.
Leach, Matthew J; Wiese, Marlene; Thakkar, Manisha; Agnew, Tamara
2018-02-01
To generate a multidisciplinary stakeholder-informed definition of integrative health care (IHC). A mixed-method study design was used, employing the use of focus groups/semi-structured interviews (phase-1) and document analysis (phases 2 and 3). Phase-1 recruited a purposive sample of Australian health consumers/health providers. Phase-2 interrogated websites of international IHC organisations for definitions of IHC. Phase-3 systematically searched bibliographic databases for articles defining IHC. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Data were drawn from 54 health consumers/providers (phase-1), 23 IHC organisation webpages (phase-2) and 23 eligible articles (phase-3). Seven themes emerged from the data. Consensus was reached on a single, 65-word definition of IHC. An unambiguous definition of IHC is critical to establishing a clearer identity for IHC, as well as providing greater clarity for consumers, health providers and policy makers. In recognising the need for a clearer description, we propose a scientifically-grounded, multi-disciplinary stakeholder-informed definition of IHC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Classification of polynomial integrable systems of mixed scalar and vector evolution equations: I
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsuchida, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda 669-1337 (Japan); Wolf, Thomas [Department of Mathematics, Brock University, St Catharines, ON L2S 3A1 (Canada)
2005-09-02
We perform a classification of integrable systems of mixed scalar and vector evolution equations with respect to higher symmetries. We consider polynomial systems that are homogeneous under a suitable weighting of variables. This paper deals with the KdV weighting, the Burgers (or potential KdV or modified KdV) weighting, the Ibragimov-Shabat weighting and two unfamiliar weightings. The case of other weightings will be studied in a subsequent paper. Making an ansatz for undetermined coefficients and using a computer package for solving bilinear algebraic systems, we give the complete lists of second-order systems with a third-order or a fourth-order symmetry and third-order systems with a fifth-order symmetry. For all but a few systems in the lists, we show that the system (or, at least a subsystem of it) admits either a Lax representation or a linearizing transformation. A thorough comparison with recent work of Foursov and Olver is made.
Hybrid state-space time integration of rotating beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Martin Bjerre
2012-01-01
An efficient time integration algorithm for the dynamic equations of flexible beams in a rotating frame of reference is presented. The equations of motion are formulated in a hybrid state-space format in terms of local displacements and local components of the absolute velocity. With inspiration...... of the system rotation enter via global operations with the angular velocity vector. The algorithm is based on an integrated form of the equations of motion with energy and momentum conserving properties, if a kinematically consistent non-linear formulation is used. A consistent monotonic scheme for algorithmic...... energy dissipation in terms of local displacements and velocities, typical of structural vibrations, is developed and implemented in the form of forward weighting of appropriate mean value terms in the algorithm. The algorithm is implemented for a beam theory with consistent quadratic non...
Integrating speech in time depends on temporal expectancies and attention.
Scharinger, Mathias; Steinberg, Johanna; Tavano, Alessandro
2017-08-01
Sensory information that unfolds in time, such as in speech perception, relies on efficient chunking mechanisms in order to yield optimally-sized units for further processing. Whether or not two successive acoustic events receive a one-unit or a two-unit interpretation seems to depend on the fit between their temporal extent and a stipulated temporal window of integration. However, there is ongoing debate on how flexible this temporal window of integration should be, especially for the processing of speech sounds. Furthermore, there is no direct evidence of whether attention may modulate the temporal constraints on the integration window. For this reason, we here examine how different word durations, which lead to different temporal separations of sound onsets, interact with attention. In an Electroencephalography (EEG) study, participants actively and passively listened to words where word-final consonants were occasionally omitted. Words had either a natural duration or were artificially prolonged in order to increase the separation of speech sound onsets. Omission responses to incomplete speech input, originating in left temporal cortex, decreased when the critical speech sound was separated from previous sounds by more than 250 msec, i.e., when the separation was larger than the stipulated temporal window of integration (125-150 msec). Attention, on the other hand, only increased omission responses for stimuli with natural durations. We complemented the event-related potential (ERP) analyses by a frequency-domain analysis on the stimulus presentation rate. Notably, the power of stimulation frequency showed the same duration and attention effects than the omission responses. We interpret these findings on the background of existing research on temporal integration windows and further suggest that our findings may be accounted for within the framework of predictive coding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mix and Inject: Reaction Initiation by Diffusion for Time-Resolved Macromolecular Crystallography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marius Schmidt
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography unifies structure determination with chemical kinetics, since the structures of transient states and chemical and kinetic mechanisms can be determined simultaneously from the same data. To start a reaction in an enzyme, typically, an initially inactive substrate present in the crystal is activated. This has particular disadvantages that are circumvented when active substrate is directly provided by diffusion. However, then it is prohibitive to use macroscopic crystals because diffusion times become too long. With small micro- and nanocrystals diffusion times are adequately short for most enzymes and the reaction can be swiftly initiated. We demonstrate here that a time-resolved crystallographic experiment becomes feasible by mixing substrate with enzyme nanocrystals which are subsequently injected into the X-ray beam of a pulsed X-ray source.
Integrated model for pricing, delivery time setting, and scheduling in make-to-order environments
Garmdare, Hamid Sattari; Lotfi, M. M.; Honarvar, Mahboobeh
2018-03-01
Usually, in make-to-order environments which work only in response to the customer's orders, manufacturers for maximizing the profits should offer the best price and delivery time for an order considering the existing capacity and the customer's sensitivity to both the factors. In this paper, an integrated approach for pricing, delivery time setting and scheduling of new arrival orders are proposed based on the existing capacity and accepted orders in system. In the problem, the acquired market demands dependent on the price and delivery time of both the manufacturer and its competitors. A mixed-integer non-linear programming model is presented for the problem. After converting to a pure non-linear model, it is validated through a case study. The efficiency of proposed model is confirmed by comparing it to both the literature and the current practice. Finally, sensitivity analysis for the key parameters is carried out.
Damos, Petros
2015-08-01
In this study, we use entropy related mixing rate modules to measure the effects of temperature on insect population stability and demographic breakdown. The uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn, and how it is moved after a finite act of time steps, is modeled using a stochastic transformation of the Leslie matrix. Age classes are represented as a cycle graph and its transitions towards the stable age distribution are brought forth as an exact Markov chain. The dynamics of divergence, from a non equilibrium state towards equilibrium, are evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Moreover, Kullback-Leibler distance is applied as information-theoretic measure to estimate exact mixing times of age transitions probabilities towards equilibrium. Using empirically data, we show that on the initial conditions and simulated projection's trough time, that population entropy can effectively be applied to detect demographic variability towards equilibrium under different temperature conditions. Changes in entropy are correlated with the fluctuations of the insect population decay rates (i.e. demographic stability towards equilibrium). Moreover, shorter mixing times are directly linked to lower entropy rates and vice versa. This may be linked to the properties of the insect model system, which in contrast to warm blooded animals has the ability to greatly change its metabolic and demographic rates. Moreover, population entropy and the related distance measures that are applied, provide a means to measure these rates. The current results and model projections provide clear biological evidence why dynamic population entropy may be useful to measure population stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Zhijian; Xu, Bin; Zhejiang Collaboration
2011-03-01
In social science, laboratory experiment with human subjects' interaction is a standard test-bed for studying social processes in micro level. Usually, as in physics, the processes near equilibrium are suggested as stochastic processes with time-reversal symmetry (TRS). To the best of our knowledge, near equilibrium, the breaking time symmetry, as well as the existence of robust time anti-symmetry processes, has not been reported clearly in experimental economics till now. By employing Markov transition method to analysis the data from human subject 2x2 Games with wide parameters and mixed Nash equilibrium, we study the time symmetry of the social interaction process near Nash equilibrium. We find that, the time symmetry is broken, and there exists a robust time anti-symmetry processes. We also report the weight of the time anti-symmetry processes in the total processes of each the games. Evidences in laboratory marketing experiments, at the same time, are provided as one-dimension cases. In these cases, time anti-symmetry cycles can also be captured. The proposition of time anti-symmetry processes is small, but the cycles are distinguishable.
Integral Time and the Varieties of Post-Mortem Survival
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sean M. Kelly
2008-06-01
Full Text Available While the question of survival of bodily death is usually approached by focusing on the mind/body relation (and often with the idea of the soul as a special kind of substance, this paper explores the issue in the context of our understanding of time. The argument of the paper is woven around the central intuition of time as an “ever-living present.” The development of this intuition allows for a more integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time, the soul, and the question of survival. Following the introductory matter, the first section proposes a re-interpretation of Nietzsche’s doctrine of eternal recurrence in terms of moments and lives as “eternally occurring.” The next section is a treatment of Julian Barbour’s neo-Machian model of instants of time as configurations in the n-dimensional phase-space he calls “Platonia.” While rejecting his claim to have done away with time, I do find his model suggestive of the idea of moments and lives as eternally occurring. The following section begins with Fechner’s visionary ideas of the nature of the soul and its survival of bodily death, with particular attention to the notion of holonic inclusion and the central analogy of the transition from perception to memory. I turn next to Whitehead’s equally holonic notions of prehension and the concrescence of actual occasions. From his epochal theory of time and certain ambiguities in his reflections on the “divine antinomies,” we are brought to the threshold of a potentially more integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time and survival, which is treated in the last section. This section draws from my earlier work on Hegel, Jung, and Edgar Morin, as well as from key insights of Jean Gebser, for an interpretation of Sri Aurobindo’s inspired but cryptic description of the “Supramental Time Vision.” This interpretation leads to an alternative understanding of reincarnation—and to the possibility of its reconciliation
Integral Time and the Varieties of Post-Mortem Survival
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sean M. Kelly
2008-06-01
Full Text Available While the question of survival of bodily death is usually approached byfocusing on the mind/body relation (and often with the idea of the soul as a special kindof substance, this paper explores the issue in the context of our understanding of time.The argument of the paper is woven around the central intuition of time as an “everlivingpresent.” The development of this intuition allows for a more integral or “complexholistic”theory of time, the soul, and the question of survival. Following the introductorymatter, the first section proposes a re-interpretation of Nietzsche’s doctrine of eternalrecurrence in terms of moments and lives as “eternally occurring.” The next section is atreatment of Julian Barbour’s neo-Machian model of instants of time as configurations inthe n-dimensional phase-space he calls “Platonia.” While rejecting his claim to have doneaway with time, I do find his model suggestive of the idea of moments and lives aseternally occurring. The following section begins with Fechner’s visionary ideas of thenature of the soul and its survival of bodily death, with particular attention to the notionof holonic inclusion and the central analogy of the transition from perception to memory.I turn next to Whitehead’s equally holonic notions of prehension and the concrescence ofactual occasions. From his epochal theory of time and certain ambiguities in hisreflections on the “divine antinomies,” we are brought to the threshold of a potentiallymore integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time and survival, which is treated in thelast section. This section draws from my earlier work on Hegel, Jung, and Edgar Morin,as well as from key insights of Jean Gebser, for an interpretation of Sri Aurobindo’sinspired but cryptic description of the “Supramental Time Vision.” This interpretationleads to an alternative understanding of reincarnation—and to the possibility of itsreconciliation with the once-only view
Wongkornchaowalit, Norachai; Lertchirakarn, Veera
2011-03-01
Important limitations of mineral trioxide aggregate for use in clinical procedures are extended setting time and difficult handling characteristics. The removal of gypsum at the end stage of the Portland cement manufacturing process and polycarboxylate superplasticizer admixture may solve these limitations. Different concentrations of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (0%, 1.2%, 1.8%, and 2.4% by volume) and liquid-to-powder ratios (0.27, 0.30, and 0.33 by weight) were mixed with white Portland cement without gypsum (AWPC-experimental material). Type 1 ordinary white Portland cement mixed with distilled water at the same ratios as the experimental material was used as controls. All samples were tested for setting time and flowability according to the International Organization for Standardization 6876:2001 guideline. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance. Then, one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparison tests were used to analyze the significance among groups. The data are presented in mean ± standard deviation values. In all experimental groups, the setting times were in the range of 4.2 ± 0.4 to 11.3 ± 0.2 minutes, which were significantly (p setting time and increased flowability of cement, which would be beneficial for clinical use. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A Mixed Model for Real-Time, Interactive Simulation of a Cable Passing Through Several Pulleys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Fernandez, Ignacio; Pla-Castells, Marta; Martinez-Dura, Rafael J.
2007-01-01
A model of a cable and pulleys is presented that can be used in Real Time Computer Graphics applications. The model is formulated by the coupling of a damped spring and a variable coefficient wave equation, and can be integrated in more complex mechanical models of lift systems, such as cranes, elevators, etc. with a high degree of interactivity
A Mixed Model for Real-Time, Interactive Simulation of a Cable Passing Through Several Pulleys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia-Fernandez, Ignacio; Pla-Castells, Marta; Martinez-Dura, Rafael J [Instituto de Robotica. Universidad de Valencia (Spain)
2007-09-06
A model of a cable and pulleys is presented that can be used in Real Time Computer Graphics applications. The model is formulated by the coupling of a damped spring and a variable coefficient wave equation, and can be integrated in more complex mechanical models of lift systems, such as cranes, elevators, etc. with a high degree of interactivity.
Joo, Taiha; Albrecht, A. C.
1993-06-01
Time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing (TRDFWM) for an electronically resonant system in a phase-matching configuration that measures population decay is reported. Because the spectral width of input light exceeds the vibrational Bohr frequency of a strong Raman active mode, the vibrational coherence produces strong oscillations in the TRDFWM signal together with the usual population decay from the excited electronic state. The data are analyzed in terms of a four-level system: ground and excited electronic states each split by a vibrational quantum of a Raman active mode. Absolute frequencies and their dephasing times of the vibrational modes at ≈590 cm -1 are obtained for the excited as well as the ground electronic state. The vibrational dephasing rate in the excited electronic state is about an order of magnitude faster than that in the ground state, the origin of which is speculated upon.
ePRISM: A case study in multiple proxy and mixed temporal resolution integration
Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.
2010-01-01
As part of the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project, we present the ePRISM experiment designed I) to provide climate modelers with a reconstruction of an early Pliocene warm period that was warmer than the PRISM interval (similar to 3.3 to 3.0 Ma), yet still similar in many ways to modern conditions and 2) to provide an example of how best to integrate multiple-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) data from time series with varying degrees of temporal resolution and age control as we begin to build the next generation of PRISM, the PRISM4 reconstruction, spanning a constricted time interval. While it is possible to tie individual SST estimates to a single light (warm) oxygen isotope event, we find that the warm peak average of SST estimates over a narrowed time interval is preferential for paleoclimate reconstruction as it allows for the inclusion of more records of multiple paleotemperature proxies.
FLRW cosmology in Weyl-integrable space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gannouji, Radouane [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1–3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Nandan, Hemwati [Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidayalaya, Haridwar 249404 (India); Dadhich, Naresh, E-mail: gannouji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: hntheory@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: nkd@iucaa.ernet.in [IUCAA, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)
2011-11-01
We investigate the Weyl space-time extension of general relativity (GR) for studying the FLRW cosmology through focusing and defocusing of the geodesic congruences. We have derived the equations of evolution for expansion, shear and rotation in the Weyl space-time. In particular, we consider the Starobinsky modification, f(R) = R+βR{sup 2}−2Λ, of gravity in the Einstein-Palatini formalism, which turns out to reduce to the Weyl integrable space-time (WIST) with the Weyl vector being a gradient. The modified Raychaudhuri equation takes the form of the Hill-type equation which is then analysed to study the formation of the caustics. In this model, it is possible to have a Big Bang singularity free cyclic Universe but unfortunately the periodicity turns out to be extremely short.
Integrated project scheduling and staff assignment with controllable processing times.
Fernandez-Viagas, Victor; Framinan, Jose M
2014-01-01
This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.
Integrated Project Scheduling and Staff Assignment with Controllable Processing Times
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victor Fernandez-Viagas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.
Sivak, David A; Chodera, John D; Crooks, Gavin E
2014-06-19
When simulating molecular systems using deterministic equations of motion (e.g., Newtonian dynamics), such equations are generally numerically integrated according to a well-developed set of algorithms that share commonly agreed-upon desirable properties. However, for stochastic equations of motion (e.g., Langevin dynamics), there is still broad disagreement over which integration algorithms are most appropriate. While multiple desiderata have been proposed throughout the literature, consensus on which criteria are important is absent, and no published integration scheme satisfies all desiderata simultaneously. Additional nontrivial complications stem from simulating systems driven out of equilibrium using existing stochastic integration schemes in conjunction with recently developed nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Here, we examine a family of discrete time integration schemes for Langevin dynamics, assessing how each member satisfies a variety of desiderata that have been enumerated in prior efforts to construct suitable Langevin integrators. We show that the incorporation of a novel time step rescaling in the deterministic updates of position and velocity can correct a number of dynamical defects in these integrators. Finally, we identify a particular splitting (related to the velocity Verlet discretization) that has essentially universally appropriate properties for the simulation of Langevin dynamics for molecular systems in equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and path sampling contexts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaweria Aftab
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Students in today’s mixed ability classrooms come from diverse backgrounds with needs. In such a scenario, differentiated instructions are of prime importance for teachers to deal with in mixed ability classrooms. The teaching experiences and academic life mould perceptions of teachers which effects their teaching style; therefore, it is important to know teachers’ beliefs and perceptions regarding teaching in a mixed ability classroom at middle school level so as to guide educators and heads inside and outside the institution. For this study, quantitative research method was used to explore and understand the beliefs and perceptions of the teachers of middle schools regarding implementing differentiated instructions. The sample size included 120 teachers who were sent a survey questionnaire through online Google form and was constructed by customizing the questionnaire from Ballone and Czerniak (2001. The analysis of quantitative inquiry revealed that there is a positive association between teachers’ beliefs about their intentions and stakeholders’ expectations to implement differentiated instruction. It was highlighted that all stakeholders wanted teachers to implement differentiated strategies; however, the teachers were found to be short of planning and instructional time for differentiation.
A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations
Pray, Andrew J.
2014-12-01
Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method\\'s efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.
Sugiyama, Ikumi; Takahashi, Namiki; Sadzuka, Yasuyuki
2016-01-01
In dermatologic therapy, several external preparations formulated as ointments or creams are prescribed. And they are often admixture to improve patient compliance. In this study, we prepared admixtures of moisturizer with steroids and examined their usability and the amount of principal agent in formulations, particularly focusing on the moisturizer content. Four heparinoid semisolid formulations were selected: Hirudoid ® soft ointment 0.3% (Formulation A) and 3 generic agents [(Besoften ® oil-based cream 0.3% (Formulation B), Kuradoido ® ointment 0.3% (Formulation C), and Hepadaerm ointment 0.3% (Formulation D)], and Antebate ® ointment 0.05% (Formulation E) were used as steroids. Formulation A and B are water-in-oil emulsions, and Formulation C and D are oil-in-water emulsions. Admixtures looked like to be mixed uniformly by visual observation. In the examination of heparinoid amount, admixture A+E and B+E were mixed uniformly. On the other hand, admixture C+E was remarkable un-uniformly. It was speculated that the emulsification of formulation C was broken. The phenomenon was supported by the result of malleability. After 8 weeks storage, the heparinoid ratio in each formulation could be expressed as follows: Admixture B≥Admixture A>Admixture C=Admixture D. A suitable storage temperature was 4°C. The results of physicochemical data analysis reveal the formulations composed of water-in-oil cream, i.e., Formulation A and Formulation B, to be the optimal choices for mixing with steroid ointments. Mixing time and storage conditions may be optimized to solve pharmaceutical problems. Moreover, understanding the emulsion type and character of semisolid formulations can expand the range of formulation options.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Becker
2003-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid method combining the FDTD/FIT with a Time Domain Boundary-Integral Marching-on-in-Time Algorithm (TD-BIM is presented. Inhomogeneous regions are modelled with the FIT-method, an alternative formulation of the FDTD. Homogeneous regions (which is in the presented numerical example the open space are modelled using a TD-BIM with equivalent electric and magnetic currents flowing on the boundary between the inhomogeneous and the homogeneous regions. The regions are coupled by the tangential magnetic fields just outside the inhomogeneous regions. These fields are calculated by making use of a Mixed Potential Integral Formulation for the magnetic field. The latter consists of equivalent electric and magnetic currents on the boundary plane between the homogeneous and the inhomogeneous region. The magnetic currents result directly from the electric fields of the Yee lattice. Electric currents in the same plane are calculated by making use of the TD-BIM and using the electric field of the Yee lattice as boundary condition. The presented hybrid method only needs the interpolations inherent in FIT and no additional interpolation. A numerical result is compared to a calculation that models both regions with FDTD.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Marchal-Crespo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Research on motor learning suggests that training with haptic guidance enhances learning of the timing components of motor tasks, whereas error amplification is better for learning the spatial components. We present a novel mixed guidance controller that combines haptic guidance and error amplification to simultaneously promote learning of the timing and spatial components of complex motor tasks. The controller is realized using a force field around the desired position. This force field has a stable manifold tangential to the trajectory that guides subjects in velocity-related aspects. The force field has an unstable manifold perpendicular to the trajectory, which amplifies the perpendicular (spatial error. We also designed a controller that applies randomly varying, unpredictable disturbing forces to enhance the subjects’ active participation by pushing them away from their “comfort zone.” We conducted an experiment with thirty-two healthy subjects to evaluate the impact of four different training strategies on motor skill learning and self-reported motivation: (i No haptics, (ii mixed guidance, (iii perpendicular error amplification and tangential haptic guidance provided in sequential order, and (iv randomly varying disturbing forces. Subjects trained two motor tasks using ARMin IV, a robotic exoskeleton for upper limb rehabilitation: follow circles with an ellipsoidal speed profile, and move along a 3D line following a complex speed profile. Mixed guidance showed no detectable learning advantages over the other groups. Results suggest that the effectiveness of the training strategies depends on the subjects’ initial skill level. Mixed guidance seemed to benefit subjects who performed the circle task with smaller errors during baseline (i.e., initially more skilled subjects, while training with no haptics was more beneficial for subjects who created larger errors (i.e., less skilled subjects. Therefore, perhaps the high functional
Noether symmetries and integrability in time-dependent Hamiltonian mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jovanović Božidar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We consider Noether symmetries within Hamiltonian setting as transformations that preserve Poincaré-Cartan form, i.e., as symmetries of characteristic line bundles of nondegenerate 1-forms. In the case when the Poincaré-Cartan form is contact, the explicit expression for the symmetries in the inverse Noether theorem is given. As examples, we consider natural mechanical systems, in particular the Kepler problem. Finally, we prove a variant of the theorem on complete (non-commutative integrability in terms of Noether symmetries of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayhoub, A.B.; Etman, S.M.
1997-01-01
One dimensional model for the dispersion of a passive atmospheric contaminant (neglecting chemical reactions) in the atmospheric boundary layer is introduced. The differential equation representing the dispersion of pollutants is solved on the basis of gradient-transfer theory (K- theory). The present approach deals with a more appropriate and realistic profile for the diffusion coefficient K, which is expressed in terms of the friction velocity U, the vertical coordinate z and the depth of the mixing layer h, which is taken time dependent. After some mathematical simplification, the equation analytic obtained solution can be easily applied to case study concerning atmospheric dispersion of pollutants
Generalized Projective Synchronization between Two Different Neural Networks with Mixed Time Delays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuefei Wu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The generalized projective synchronization (GPS between two different neural networks with nonlinear coupling and mixed time delays is considered. Several kinds of nonlinear feedback controllers are designed to achieve GPS between two different such neural networks. Some results for GPS of these neural networks are proved theoretically by using the Lyapunov stability theory and the LaSalle invariance principle. Moreover, by comparison, we determine an optimal nonlinear controller from several ones and provide an adaptive update law for it. Computer simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.
Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wienold, M., E-mail: martin.wienold@dlr.de; Rothbart, N.; Hübers, H.-W. [Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hagelschuer, T. [Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schrottke, L.; Biermann, K.; Grahn, H. T. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Leibniz-Institut im Forschungsverbund Berlin e. V., Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)
2016-07-04
We report on a fast self-mixing approach for real-time, coherent terahertz imaging based on a quantum-cascade laser and a scanning mirror. Due to a fast deflection of the terahertz beam, images with frame rates up to several Hz are obtained, eventually limited by the mechanical inertia of the employed scanning mirror. A phase modulation technique allows for the separation of the amplitude and phase information without the necessity of parameter fitting routines. We further demonstrate the potential for transmission imaging.
Time Series Model of Wind Speed for Multi Wind Turbines based on Mixed Copula
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nie Dan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Because wind power is intermittent, random and so on, large scale grid will directly affect the safe and stable operation of power grid. In order to make a quantitative study on the characteristics of the wind speed of wind turbine, the wind speed time series model of the multi wind turbine generator is constructed by using the mixed Copula-ARMA function in this paper, and a numerical example is also given. The research results show that the model can effectively predict the wind speed, ensure the efficient operation of the wind turbine, and provide theoretical basis for the stability of wind power grid connected operation.
Entropy-based critical reaction time for mixing-controlled reactive transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chiogna, Gabriele; Rolle, Massimo
2017-01-01
Entropy-based metrics, such as the dilution index, have been proposed to quantify dilution and reactive mixing in solute transport problems. In this work, we derive the transient advection dispersion equation for the entropy density of a reactive plume. We restrict our analysis to the case where...... the concentration distribution of the transported species is Gaussian and we observe that, even in case of an instantaneous complete bimolecular reaction, dilution caused by dispersive processes dominates the entropy balance at early times and results in the net increase of the entropy density of a reactive species...
Time delay control of power converters: Mixed frame and stationary-frame variants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, P.C.; Tang, Y.
2008-01-01
In this paper, a mixed-frame and a stationary-frame time delay current controller are proposed for high precision reference tracking and disturbance rejection of power converters. In particular, the controllers use a proportional-resonant regulator in the stationary frame for regulating...... the positive and negative-sequence fundamental currents, which are known to directly influence the flow of active and reactive power in most energy conversion systems. Moreover, for the tracking or compensation of harmonics, the controllers include a time delay control path in either the synchronous...... or stationary frame, whose inherent feedback and feedforward structure can be proven to resemble a bank of resonant filters in either reference frames. Unlike other existing controllers, the proposed time delay controllers function by introducing multiple resonant peaks at only those harmonic frequencies...
The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan
2016-01-01
Due to new regulations and further technological progress in the field of electric vehicles, the research community faces the new challenge of incorporating the electric energy based restrictions into vehicle routing problems. One of these restrictions is the limited battery capacity which makes...... detours to recharging stations necessary, thus requiring efficient tour planning mechanisms in order to sustain the competitiveness of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. We introduce the Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations (E......-FSMFTW) to model decisions to be made with regards to fleet composition and the actual vehicle routes including the choice of recharging times and locations. The available vehicle types differ in their transport capacity, battery size and acquisition cost. Furthermore, we consider time windows at customer...
Integral ceramic superstructure evaluation using time domain optical coherence tomography
Sinescu, Cosmin; Bradu, Adrian; Topala, Florin I.; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian G.
2014-02-01
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive low coherence interferometry technique that includes several technologies (and the corresponding devices and components), such as illumination and detection, interferometry, scanning, adaptive optics, microscopy and endoscopy. From its large area of applications, we consider in this paper a critical aspect in dentistry - to be investigated with a Time Domain (TD) OCT system. The clinical situation of an edentulous mandible is considered; it can be solved by inserting 2 to 6 implants. On these implants a mesostructure will be manufactured and on it a superstructure is needed. This superstructure can be integral ceramic; in this case materials defects could be trapped inside the ceramic layers and those defects could lead to fractures of the entire superstructure. In this paper we demonstrate that a TD-OCT imaging system has the potential to properly evaluate the presence of the defects inside the ceramic layers and those defects can be fixed before inserting the prosthesis inside the oral cavity. Three integral ceramic superstructures were developed by using a CAD/CAM technology. After the milling, the ceramic layers were applied on the core. All the three samples were evaluated by a TD-OCT system working at 1300 nm. For two of the superstructures evaluated, no defects were found in the most stressed areas. The third superstructure presented four ceramic defects in the mentioned areas. Because of those defects the superstructure may fracture. The integral ceramic prosthesis was send back to the dental laboratory to fix the problems related to the material defects found. Thus, TD-OCT proved to be a valuable method for diagnosing the ceramic defects inside the integral ceramic superstructures in order to prevent fractures at this level.
Electric vehicle integration in a real-time market
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Anders Bro
with an externally simulated model of the power grid, it is be possible, in real-time, to simulate the impact of EV charging and help to identify bottlenecks in the system. In EDISON the vehicles are aggregated using an entity called a Virtual Power Plant (VPP); a central server monitoring and controlling...... the distributed energy resources registered with it, in order to make them appear as a single producer in the eyes of the market. Although the concept of a VPP is used within the EcoGrid EU project, the idea of more individual control is introduced through a new proposed real-time electricity market, where......This project is rooted in the EDISON project, which dealt with Electrical Vehicle (EV) integration into the existing power grid, as well as with the infrastructure needed to facilitate the ever increasing penetration of fluctuating renewable energy resources like e.g. wind turbines. In the EDISON...
An integrated framework for SAGD real-time monitoring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohajer, M.; Perez-Damas, C.; Berbin, A.; Al-kinani, A. [Schlumberger, Calgary, AB (Canada)
2009-07-01
This study examined the technologies and workflows for real-time optimization (RTO) of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. Although SAGD operators have tried to control the reservoir's steam chamber distribution to optimize bitumen recovery and minimize steam oil ratios, a true optimization can only be accomplished by implementing RTO workflows. In order for these workflows to be successful, some elements must be properly designed and introduced into the system. Most notably, well completions must ensure the integrity of downhole sensors; the appropriate measuring instruments must be selected; and surface and downhole measurements must be obtained. Operators have not been early adopters of RTO workflows for SAGD because of the numerous parameters that must be monitored, harsh operating conditions, the lack of integration between the different data acquisition systems, and the complex criteria required to optimize SAGD performance. This paper discussed the first stage in the development of a fully integrated RTO workflow for SAGD. An experimental apparatus with fiber optics distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was connected to a data acquisition system, and intra-minute data was streamed directly into an engineering desktop. The paper showed how subcool calculations can be effectively performed along the length of the horizontal well in real time and the results used to improve SAGD operation. Observations were compared against simulated predictions. In the next stage, a more complex set of criteria will be derived and additional data will be incorporated, such as surface heave, cross-well microseismic, multiphase flowmeter, and observation wells. 9 refs., 9 tabs., 13 figs.
Integrative real-time geographic visualization of energy resources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sorokine, A.; Shankar, M.; Stovall, J.; Bhaduri, B.; King, T.; Fernandez, S.; Datar, N.; Omitaomu, O.
2009-01-01
'Full text:' Several models forecast that climatic changes will increase the frequency of disastrous events like droughts, hurricanes, and snow storms. Responding to these events and also to power outages caused by system errors such as the 2003 North American blackout require an interconnect-wide real-time monitoring system for various energy resources. Such a system should be capable of providing situational awareness to its users in the government and energy utilities by dynamically visualizing the status of the elements of the energy grid infrastructure and supply chain in geographic contexts. We demonstrate an approach that relies on Google Earth and similar standard-based platforms as client-side geographic viewers with a data-dependent server component. The users of the system can view status information in spatial and temporal contexts. These data can be integrated with a wide range of geographic sources including all standard Google Earth layers and a large number of energy and environmental data feeds. In addition, we show a real-time spatio-temporal data sharing capability across the users of the system, novel methods for visualizing dynamic network data, and a fine-grain access to very large multi-resolution geographic datasets for faster delivery of the data. The system can be extended to integrate contingency analysis results and other grid models to assess recovery and repair scenarios in the case of major disruption. (author)
Time-dependent performance of soil mix technology stabilized/solidified contaminated site soils.
Wang, Fei; Wang, Hailing; Al-Tabbaa, Abir
2015-04-09
This paper presents the strength and leaching performance of stabilized/solidified organic and inorganic contaminated site soil as a function of time and the effectiveness of modified clays applied in this project. Field trials of deep soil mixing application of stabilization/solidification (S/S) were performed at a site in Castleford in 2011. A number of binders and addictives were applied in this project including Portland cement (PC), ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS), pulverised fuel ash (PFA), MgO and modified clays. Field trial samples were subjected to unconfined compressive strength (UCS), BS CN 12457 batch leaching test and the extraction of total organics at 28 days and 1.5 years after treatment. The results of UCS test show that the average strength values of mixes increased from 0-3250 kPa at 28 days to 250-4250 kPa at 1.5 years curing time. The BS EN 12457 leachate concentrations of all metals were well below their drinking water standard, except Ni in some mixes exceed its drinking water standard at 0.02 mg/l, suggesting that due to varied nature of binders, not all of them have the same efficiency in treating contaminated soil. The average leachate concentrations of total organics were in the range of 20-160 mg/l at 28 days after treatment and reduced to 18-140 mg/l at 1.5 years. In addition, organo clay (OC)/inorgano-organo clay (IOC) slurries used in this field trial were found to have a negative effect on the strength development, but were very effective in immobilizing heavy metals. The study also illustrates that the surfactants used to modify bentonite in this field trail were not suitable for the major organic pollutants exist in the site soil in this project. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrada, J.J.; Berry, J.B.
1993-11-01
The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) has as one of its tasks the identification of a decision methodology and key decision criteria for the selection methodology. The aim of a multicriteria analysis is to provide an instrument for a systematic evaluation of distinct alternative projects. Determination of this methodology will clarify (1) the factors used to evaluate these alternatives, (2) the evaluator's view of the importance of the factors, and (3) the relative value of each alternative. The selected methodology must consider the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) decision-making criteria for application to the analysis technology subsystems developed by the DOE Office of Technology Development. This report contains a compilation of several decision methodologies developed in various national laboratories, institutions, and universities. The purpose of these methodologies may vary, but the core of the decision attributes are very similar. Six approaches were briefly analyzed; from these six, in addition to recommendations made by the MWIP technical support group leaders and CERCLA, the final decision methodology was extracted. Slight variations are observed in the many methodologies developed by different groups, but most of the analyzed methodologies address similar aspects for the most part. These common aspects were the core of the methodology suggested in this report for use within MWIP for the selection of technologies. The set of criteria compiled and developed for this report have been grouped in five categories: (1) process effectiveness, (2) developmental status, (3) life-cycle cost, (4) implementability, and (5) regulatory compliance
Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.
1997-02-01
The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasbrouck, J.C.
1992-11-01
Chem-Nuclear Geotech, Inc. (Geotech), operating contractor for the US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, is conducting the Integrated Geophysics Program for Non-Intrusive Characterization of Mixed-Waste Landfill Sites (Technical Task Plan [TTP] AL921102). The TTP is part of the Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The objective of this task was to demonstrate that an integrated program of surface geophysics can be used to effectively and nonintrusively characterize n-mixed-waste landfill sites. To accomplish this objective, integrated field demonstrations were conducted over two previously identified areas of interest (designated Areas A and B) within the MWLID test site at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), Technical Area 3, at the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (Figures 1 and 2). Area A was centered roughly around the Chromic Acid and Organics Pits in the southeast-central portion of the landfill and Area B was centered around the ''60's Pits'' area in the northeast-central portion of the landfill. Pit locations were known in Area A and suspected in Area B. This progress report describes the geophysical surveys conducted by Geotech and presents preliminary displays and analyses. Volume 2 of this report contains the raw data for all the surveys conducted by Geotech for this TTP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Li, E-mail: li.he@iseis.org [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, S and C Academy of Energy and Environmental Research, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Huang, G.H.; Lu, Hongwei [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, S and C Academy of Energy and Environmental Research, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)
2011-10-15
Highlights: {yields} We used bilevel analysis to treat two objectives at different levels. {yields} The model can identify allocation schemes for waste flows. {yields} The model can support waste timing, sizing, and siting for facility expansions. {yields} The model can estimate minimized total management cost and GHG emissions. - Abstract: Recent studies indicated that municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major contributor to global warming due to extensive emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). However, most of them focused on investigating impacts of MSW on GHG emission amounts. This study presents two mixed integer bilevel decision-making models for integrated municipal solid waste management and GHG emissions control: MGU-MCL and MCU-MGL. The MGU-MCL model represents a top-down decision process, with the environmental sectors at the national level dominating the upper-level objective and the waste management sectors at the municipal level providing the lower-level objective. The MCU-MGL model implies a bottom-up decision process where municipality plays a leading role. Results from the models indicate that: the top-down decisions would reduce metric tonne carbon emissions (MTCEs) by about 59% yet increase about 8% of the total management cost; the bottom-up decisions would reduce MTCE emissions by about 13% but increase the total management cost very slightly; on-site monitoring and downscaled laboratory experiments are still required for reducing uncertainty in GHG emission rate from the landfill facility.
A mixed-mode traffic assignment model with new time-flow impedance function
Lin, Gui-Hua; Hu, Yu; Zou, Yuan-Yang
2018-01-01
Recently, with the wide adoption of electric vehicles, transportation network has shown different characteristics and been further developed. In this paper, we present a new time-flow impedance function, which may be more realistic than the existing time-flow impedance functions. Based on this new impedance function, we present an optimization model for a mixed-mode traffic network in which battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and gasoline vehicles (GVs) are chosen. We suggest two approaches to handle the model: One is to use the interior point (IP) algorithm and the other is to employ the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm. Three numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency of these approaches. In particular, our numerical results show that more travelers prefer to choosing BEVs when the distance limit of BEVs is long enough and the unit operating cost of GVs is higher than that of BEVs, and the SQP algorithm is faster than the IP algorithm.
Models of mixed irradiation with a 'reciprocal-time' pattern of the repair function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, Shozo; Miura, Yuri; Mizuno, Shoichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Gerontology (Japan); Furusawa, Yoshiya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)
2002-09-01
Suzuki presented models for mixed irradiation with two and multiple types of radiation by extending the Zaider and Rossi model, which is based on the theory of dual radiation action. In these models, the repair function was simply assumed to be semi-logarithmically linear (i.e., monoexponential), or a first-order process, which has been experimentally contradicted. Fowler, however, suggested that the repair of radiation damage might be largely a second-order process rather than a first-order one, and presented data in support of this hypothesis. In addition, a second-order repair function is preferred to an n-exponential repair function for the reason that only one parameter is used in the former instead of 2n-1 parameters for the latter, although both repair functions show a good fit to the experimental data. However, according to a second-order repair function, the repair rate depends on the dose, which is incompatible with the experimental data. We, therefore, revised the models for mixed irradiation by Zaider and Rossi and by Suzuki, by substituting a 'reciprocal-time' pattern of the repair function, which is derived from the assumption that the repair rate is independent of the dose in a second-order repair function, for a first-order one in reduction and interaction factors of the models, although the underlying mechanism for this assumption cannot be well-explained. The reduction factor, which reduces the contribution of the square of a dose to cell killing in the linear-quadratic model and its derivatives, and the interaction factor, which also reduces the contribution of the interaction of two or more doses of different types of radiation, were formulated by using a 'reciprocal-time' patterns of the repair function. Cell survivals calculated from the older and the newly modified models were compared in terms of the dose-rate by assuming various types of single and mixed irradiation. The result implies that the newly modified models for
Measurement of time-integrated $D^0\\to hh$ asymmetries at LHCb
Marino, Pietro
2016-01-01
LHCb collected the world’s largest sample of charm decays during LHC Run I, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3fb$^{−1}$. This has permitted many precision measurements of charm mixing and CP violation parameters. One of the most precise and important observables is the so-called $\\Delta A_{CP}$ parameter, corresponding to the difference between the time-integrated CP asymmetry in singly Cabibbo-suppressed $D^{0} \\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}$ and $D^{0} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi{-}$ decay modes. The flavour of the $D^{0}$ meson is inferred from the charge of the pion in $D^{∗+} \\rightarrow D^{0}\\pi^{+}$ and $D^{∗−} \\rightarrow \\overline{D}^{0}\\pi^{-}$ decays. $\\Delta A_{CP} \\equiv A_{raw}(K^{+}K^{−})−A_{raw}(\\pi^{+}\\pi{−})$ is measured to be $\\Delta A_{CP}=(−0.10±0.08±0.03)$%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The measurement is consistent with the no- CP -violation hypothesis and represents the most precise measurement of time-integrated CP asymmetry ...
Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - Mixing Procedures and Materials Compatibility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olinger, Becky D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kashgarian, Michaele [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2011-01-14
Three mixing procedures have been standardized for the IDCA proficiency test—solid-solid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid. Due to the variety of precursors used in formulating the materials for the test, these three mixing methods have been designed to address all combinations of materials. Hand mixing is recommended for quantities less than 10 grams and Jar Mill mixing is recommended for quantities over 10 grams. Consideration must also be given to the type of container used for the mixing due to the wide range of chemical reactivity of the precursors and mixtures. Eight web site sources from container and chemical manufacturers have been consulted. Compatible materials have been compiled as a resource for selecting containers made of materials stable to the mixtures. In addition, container materials used in practice by the participating laboratories are discussed. Consulting chemical compatibility tables is highly recommended for each operation by each individual engaged in testing the materials in this proficiency test.
An energy-stable time-integrator for phase-field models
Vignal, Philippe
2016-12-27
We introduce a provably energy-stable time-integration method for general classes of phase-field models with polynomial potentials. We demonstrate how Taylor series expansions of the nonlinear terms present in the partial differential equations of these models can lead to expressions that guarantee energy-stability implicitly, which are second-order accurate in time. The spatial discretization relies on a mixed finite element formulation and isogeometric analysis. We also propose an adaptive time-stepping discretization that relies on a first-order backward approximation to give an error-estimator. This error estimator is accurate, robust, and does not require the computation of extra solutions to estimate the error. This methodology can be applied to any second-order accurate time-integration scheme. We present numerical examples in two and three spatial dimensions, which confirm the stability and robustness of the method. The implementation of the numerical schemes is done in PetIGA, a high-performance isogeometric analysis framework.
An energy-stable time-integrator for phase-field models
Vignal, Philippe; Collier, N.; Dalcin, Lisandro; Brown, D.L.; Calo, V.M.
2016-01-01
We introduce a provably energy-stable time-integration method for general classes of phase-field models with polynomial potentials. We demonstrate how Taylor series expansions of the nonlinear terms present in the partial differential equations of these models can lead to expressions that guarantee energy-stability implicitly, which are second-order accurate in time. The spatial discretization relies on a mixed finite element formulation and isogeometric analysis. We also propose an adaptive time-stepping discretization that relies on a first-order backward approximation to give an error-estimator. This error estimator is accurate, robust, and does not require the computation of extra solutions to estimate the error. This methodology can be applied to any second-order accurate time-integration scheme. We present numerical examples in two and three spatial dimensions, which confirm the stability and robustness of the method. The implementation of the numerical schemes is done in PetIGA, a high-performance isogeometric analysis framework.
Integrated care pilot in north west London: a mixed methods evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natasha Curry
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction: This paper provides the results of a year-long evaluation of a large-scale integrated care pilot in North West London. The pilot aimed to integrate care across primary, acute, community, mental health and social care for people with diabetes and those over 75 years through: care planning; multidisciplinary case reviews; information sharing; and project management support. Methods: The evaluation team conducted qualitative studies of change at organisational, clinician, and patient levels (using interviews, focus groups and a survey; and quantitative analysis of change in service use and patient-level clinical outcomes (using patient-level data sets and a matched control study. Results: The pilot had successfully engaged provider organisations, created a shared strategic vision and established governance structures. However, engagement of clinicians was variable and there was no evidence to date of significant reductions in emergency admissions. There was some evidence of changes in care processes. Conclusion: Although the pilot has demonstrated the beginnings of large-scale change, it remains in the early stages and faces significant challenges as it seeks to become sustainable for the longer term. It is critical that NHS managers and clinicians have realistic expectations of what can be achieved in a relatively short period of time.
Integrated care pilot in north west London: a mixed methods evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natasha Curry
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction: This paper provides the results of a year-long evaluation of a large-scale integrated care pilot in North West London. The pilot aimed to integrate care across primary, acute, community, mental health and social care for people with diabetes and those over 75 years through: care planning; multidisciplinary case reviews; information sharing; and project management support. Methods: The evaluation team conducted qualitative studies of change at organisational, clinician, and patient levels (using interviews, focus groups and a survey; and quantitative analysis of change in service use and patient-level clinical outcomes (using patient-level data sets and a matched control study. Results: The pilot had successfully engaged provider organisations, created a shared strategic vision and established governance structures. However, engagement of clinicians was variable and there was no evidence to date of significant reductions in emergency admissions. There was some evidence of changes in care processes. Conclusion: Although the pilot has demonstrated the beginnings of large-scale change, it remains in the early stages and faces significant challenges as it seeks to become sustainable for the longer term. It is critical that NHS managers and clinicians have realistic expectations of what can be achieved in a relatively short period of time.
Fathali, M.; Deshiri, M. Khoshnami
2016-04-01
The shearless mixing layer is generated from the interaction of two homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT) fields with different integral scales ℓ1 and ℓ2 and different turbulent kinetic energies E1 and E2. In this study, the sensitivity of temporal evolutions of two-dimensional, incompressible shearless mixing layers to the parametric variations of ℓ1/ℓ2 and E1/E2 is investigated. The sensitivity methodology is based on the nonintrusive approach; using direct numerical simulation and generalized polynomial chaos expansion. The analysis is carried out at Reℓ 1=90 for the high-energy HIT region and different integral length scale ratios 1 /4 ≤ℓ1/ℓ2≤4 and turbulent kinetic energy ratios 1 ≤E1/E2≤30 . It is found that the most influential parameter on the variability of the mixing layer evolution is the turbulent kinetic energy while variations of the integral length scale show a negligible influence on the flow field variability. A significant level of anisotropy and intermittency is observed in both large and small scales. In particular, it is found that large scales have higher levels of intermittency and sensitivity to the variations of ℓ1/ℓ2 and E1/E2 compared to the small scales. Reconstructed response surfaces of the flow field intermittency and the turbulent penetration depth show monotonic dependence on ℓ1/ℓ2 and E1/E2 . The mixing layer growth rate and the mixing efficiency both show sensitive dependence on the initial condition parameters. However, the probability density function of these quantities shows relatively small solution variations in response to the variations of the initial condition parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pieprzyca J.
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A common method used in identification of hydrodynamics phenomena occurring in Continuous Casting (CC device's tundish is to determine the RTD curves of time. These curves allows to determine the way of the liquid steel flowing and mixing in the tundish. These can be identified either as the result of numerical simulation or by the experiments - as the result of researching the physical models. Special problem is to objectify it while conducting physical research. It is necessary to precisely determine the time constants which characterize researched phenomena basing on the data acquired in the measured change of the concentration of the tracer in model liquid's volume. The mathematical description of determined curves is based on the approximate differential equations formulated in the theory of fluid mechanics. Solving these equations to calculate the time constants requires a special software and it is very time-consuming. To improve the process a method was created to calculate the time constants with use of automation elements. It allows to solve problems using algebraic method, which improves interpretation of the research results of physical modeling.
Effect of a time varying power level in EBR-II on mixed-oxide fuel burnup
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, I.Z.; Jost, J.W.; Baker, R.B.
1979-01-01
A refined prediction of burnup of mixed-oxide fuel in EBR-2 is compared with measured data. The calculation utilizes a time-varying power factor and results in a general improvement to previous calculations
Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics.
Duncan, Philip N; Nguyen, Transon V; Hui, Elliot E
2013-11-05
Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices.
Comparisons: Technical-Tactical and Time-Motion Analysis of Mixed Martial Arts by Outcomes.
Miarka, Bianca; Vecchio, Fabrício B D; Camey, Suzi; Amtmann, John A
2016-07-01
Miarka, B, Vecchio, FBD, Camey, S, and Amtmann, JA. Comparisons: technical-tactical and time-motion analysis of mixed martial arts by outcomes. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1975-1984, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare time-motion and technical-tactical analysis between paired outcomes and rounds of mixed martial arts (MMA) matches. The sample consisted of 645 rounds of MMA competition paired by outcomes (first round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215; second round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215; third round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215). The time-motion variables were categorized into low-intensity or high-intensity, stand-up or groundwork situations. Stand-up techniques were analyzed by observing total strikes to the head and body, and takedowns. The actions on the ground were analyzed by observing submission activity, including successful choking and joint locking actions, and also positional improvements, including advances to the mount, half guard, and side and back positions. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests were conducted with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Results showed that winners had higher values for total strikes and submissions in all rounds, and also positional improvements, over losers. The standing combat with low-intensity comparisons presented differences between the rounds first, with a median of 2:33.5 (P25-P75%: 1:20-3:56) minute, second, with 2:37 (1:24-3:59) minute, and third, with 2:07 (1:06-3:39.2) minute. These data suggest a focus on the intermittent demand presented in combat phases with a special attention to the strike and ground technical-tactical skills; strength and conditioning coaches could emphasize the effort pause ratios for both standing and ground combat that mimic the requirements of MMA, especially during the third round.
Woźniak, M.
2016-06-02
We study the features of a new mixed integration scheme dedicated to solving the non-stationary variational problems. The scheme is composed of the FEM approximation with respect to the space variable coupled with a 3-leveled time integration scheme with a linearized right-hand side operator. It was applied in solving the Cahn-Hilliard parabolic equation with a nonlinear, fourth-order elliptic part. The second order of the approximation along the time variable was proven. Moreover, the good scalability of the software based on this scheme was confirmed during simulations. We verify the proposed time integration scheme by monitoring the Ginzburg-Landau free energy. The numerical simulations are performed by using a parallel multi-frontal direct solver executed over STAMPEDE Linux cluster. Its scalability was compared to the results of the three direct solvers, including MUMPS, SuperLU and PaSTiX.
Test and diagnosis of analogue, mixed-signal and RF integrated circuits the system on chip approach
Sun, Yichuang
2008-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive discussion of automatic testing, diagnosis and tuning of analogue, mixed-signal and RF integrated circuits, and systems in a single source. The book contains eleven chapters written by leading researchers worldwide. As well as fundamental concepts and techniques, the book reports systematically the state of the arts and future research directions of these areas. A complete range of circuit components are covered and test issues are also addressed from the SoC perspective.
Integrating Real-time Earthquakes into Natural Hazard Courses
Furlong, K. P.; Benz, H. M.; Whitlock, J. S.; Bittenbinder, A. N.; Bogaert, B. B.
2001-12-01
Natural hazard courses are playing an increasingly important role in college and university earth science curricula. Students' intrinsic curiosity about the subject and the potential to make the course relevant to the interests of both science and non-science students make natural hazards courses popular additions to a department's offerings. However, one vital aspect of "real-life" natural hazard management that has not translated well into the classroom is the real-time nature of both events and response. The lack of a way to entrain students into the event/response mode has made implementing such real-time activities into classroom activities problematic. Although a variety of web sites provide near real-time postings of natural hazards, students essentially learn of the event after the fact. This is particularly true for earthquakes and other events with few precursors. As a result, the "time factor" and personal responsibility associated with natural hazard response is lost to the students. We have integrated the real-time aspects of earthquake response into two natural hazard courses at Penn State (a 'general education' course for non-science majors, and an upper-level course for science majors) by implementing a modification of the USGS Earthworm system. The Earthworm Database Management System (E-DBMS) catalogs current global seismic activity. It provides earthquake professionals with real-time email/cell phone alerts of global seismic activity and access to the data for review/revision purposes. We have modified this system so that real-time response can be used to address specific scientific, policy, and social questions in our classes. As a prototype of using the E-DBMS in courses, we have established an Earthworm server at Penn State. This server receives national and global seismic network data and, in turn, transmits the tailored alerts to "on-duty" students (e-mail, pager/cell phone notification). These students are responsible to react to the alarm
Wardle, Kent E.
2017-06-06
The present invention provides an annular centrifugal contactor, having a housing adapted to receive a plurality of flowing liquids; a rotor on the interior of the housing; an annular mixing zone, wherein the annular mixing zone has a plurality of fluid retention reservoirs with ingress apertures near the bottom of the annular mixing zone and egress apertures located above the ingress apertures of the annular mixing zone; and an adjustable vane plate stem, wherein the stem can be raised to restrict the flow of a liquid into the rotor or lowered to increase the flow of the liquid into the rotor.
Time-varying mixed logit model for vehicle merging behavior in work zone merging areas.
Weng, Jinxian; Du, Gang; Li, Dan; Yu, Yao
2018-08-01
This study aims to develop a time-varying mixed logit model for the vehicle merging behavior in work zone merging areas during the merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. From the safety perspective, vehicle crash probability and severity between the merging vehicle and its surrounding vehicles are regarded as major factors influencing vehicle merging decisions. Model results show that the model with the use of vehicle crash risk probability and severity could provide higher prediction accuracy than previous models with the use of vehicle speeds and gap sizes. It is found that lead vehicle type, through lead vehicle type, through lag vehicle type, crash probability of the merging vehicle with respect to the through lag vehicle, crash severities of the merging vehicle with respect to the through lead and lag vehicles could exhibit time-varying effects on the merging behavior. One important finding is that the merging vehicle could become more and more aggressive in order to complete the merging maneuver as quickly as possible over the elapsed time, even if it has high vehicle crash risk with respect to the through lead and lag vehicles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Efficient Metaheuristics for the Mixed Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damianos Gavalas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Given a graph whose nodes and edges are associated with a profit, a visiting (or traversing time and an admittance time window, the Mixed Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows (MTOPTW seeks for a specific number of walks spanning a subset of nodes and edges of the graph so as to maximize the overall collected profit. The visit of the included nodes and edges should take place within their respective time window and the overall duration of each walk should be below a certain threshold. In this paper we introduce the MTOPTW, which can be used for modeling a realistic variant of the Tourist Trip Design Problem where the objective is the derivation of near-optimal multiple-day itineraries for tourists visiting a destination which features several points of interest (POIs and scenic routes. Since the MTOPTW is a NP-hard problem, we propose the first metaheuristic approaches to tackle it. The effectiveness of our algorithms is validated through a number of experiments on POI and scenic route sets compiled from the city of Athens (Greece.
A mapping closure for turbulent scalar mixing using a time-evolving reference field
Girimaji, Sharath S.
1992-01-01
A general mapping-closure approach for modeling scalar mixing in homogeneous turbulence is developed. This approach is different from the previous methods in that the reference field also evolves according to the same equations as the physical scalar field. The use of a time-evolving Gaussian reference field results in a model that is similar to the mapping closure model of Pope (1991), which is based on the methodology of Chen et al. (1989). Both models yield identical relationships between the scalar variance and higher-order moments, which are in good agreement with heat conduction simulation data and can be consistent with any type of epsilon(phi) evolution. The present methodology can be extended to any reference field whose behavior is known. The possibility of a beta-pdf reference field is explored. The shortcomings of the mapping closure methods are discussed, and the limit at which the mapping becomes invalid is identified.
Integration time for the perception of depth from motion parallax.
Nawrot, Mark; Stroyan, Keith
2012-04-15
The perception of depth from relative motion is believed to be a slow process that "builds-up" over a period of observation. However, in the case of motion parallax, the potential accuracy of the depth estimate suffers as the observer translates during the viewing period. Our recent quantitative model for the perception of depth from motion parallax proposes that relative object depth (d) can be determined from retinal image motion (dθ/dt), pursuit eye movement (dα/dt), and fixation distance (f) by the formula: d/f≈dθ/dα. Given the model's dynamics, it is important to know the integration time required by the visual system to recover dα and dθ, and then estimate d. Knowing the minimum integration time reveals the incumbent error in this process. A depth-phase discrimination task was used to determine the time necessary to perceive depth-sign from motion parallax. Observers remained stationary and viewed a briefly translating random-dot motion parallax stimulus. Stimulus duration varied between trials. Fixation on the translating stimulus was monitored and enforced with an eye-tracker. The study found that relative depth discrimination can be performed with presentations as brief as 16.6 ms, with only two stimulus frames providing both retinal image motion and the stimulus window motion for pursuit (mean range=16.6-33.2 ms). This was found for conditions in which, prior to stimulus presentation, the eye was engaged in ongoing pursuit or the eye was stationary. A large high-contrast masking stimulus disrupted depth-discrimination for stimulus presentations less than 70-75 ms in both pursuit and stationary conditions. This interval might be linked to ocular-following response eye-movement latencies. We conclude that neural mechanisms serving depth from motion parallax generate a depth estimate much more quickly than previously believed. We propose that additional sluggishness might be due to the visual system's attempt to determine the maximum dθ/dα ratio
Batterton, P. G.; Arpasi, D. J.; Baumbick, R. J.
1974-01-01
A digitally implemented integrated inlet-engine control system was designed and tested on a mixed-compression, axisymmetric, Mach 2.5, supersonic inlet with 45 percent internal supersonic area contraction and a TF30-P-3 augmented turbofan engine. The control matched engine airflow to available inlet airflow. By monitoring inlet terminal shock position and over-board bypass door command, the control adjusted engine speed so that in steady state, the shock would be at the desired location and the overboard bypass doors would be closed. During engine-induced transients, such as augmentor light-off and cutoff, the inlet operating point was momentarily changed to a more supercritical point to minimize unstarts. The digital control also provided automatic inlet restart. A variable inlet throat bleed control, based on throat Mach number, provided additional inlet stability margin.
Time-Motion and Biological Responses in Simulated Mixed Martial Arts Sparring Matches.
Coswig, Victor S; Ramos, Solange de P; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B
2016-08-01
Coswig, VS, Ramos, SdP, and Del Vecchio, FB. Time-motion and biological responses in simulated mixed martial arts sparring matches. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2156-2163, 2016-Simulated matches are a relevant component of training for mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes. This study aimed to characterize time-motion responses and investigate physiological stress and neuromuscular changes related to MMA sparring matches. Thirteen athletes with an average age of 25 ± 5 years, body mass of 81.3 ± 9.5 kg, height of 176.2 ± 5.5 cm, and time of practice in MMA of 39 ± 25 months participated in the study. The fighters executed three 5-minute rounds with 1-minute intervals. Blood and salivary samples were collected and physical tests and psychometric questionnaires administered at 3 time points: before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 48 hours after the combat (48 h). Statistical analysis applied analysis of variance for repeated measurements. In biochemical analysis, significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) were identified between PRE and POST (glucose: 80.3 ± 12.7 to 156.5 ± 19.1 mg·ml; lactate: 4 ± 1.7 to 15.6 ± 4.8 mmol·dl), POST and 48 hours (glucose: 156.5 ± 19.1 to 87.6 ± 15.5 mg·ml; lactate: 15.6 ± 4.8 to 2.9 ± 3.5 mmol·dl; urea: 44.1 ± 8.9 to 36.3 ± 7.8 mg·ml), and PRE and 48 hours (creatine kinase [CK]: 255.8 ± 137.4 to 395.9 ± 188.7 U/L). In addition, time-motion analyses showed a total high:low intensity of 1:2 and an effort:pause ratio of 1:3. In conclusion, simulated MMA sparring matches feature moderate to high intensity and a low degree of musculoskeletal damage, which can be seen by absence of physical performance and decrease in CK. Results of the study indicate that sparring training could be introduced into competitive microcycles to improve technical and tactical aspects of MMA matches, due to the high motor specificity and low muscle damage.
Methodology of mixed load customized bus lines and adjustment based on time windows
Song, Rui
2018-01-01
Custom bus routes need to be optimized to meet the needs of a customized bus for personalized trips of different passengers. This paper introduced a customized bus routing problem in which trips for each depot are given, and each bus stop has a fixed time window within which trips should be completed. Treating a trip as a virtual stop was the first consideration in solving the school bus routing problem (SBRP). Then, the mixed load custom bus routing model was established with a time window that satisfies its requirement and the result were solved by Cplex software. Finally, a simple network diagram with three depots, four pickup stops, and five delivery stops was structured to verify the correctness of the model, and based on the actual example, the result is that all the buses ran 124.42 kilometers, the sum of kilometers was 10.35 kilometers less than before. The paths and departure times of the different busses that were provided by the model were evaluated to meet the needs of the given conditions, thus providing valuable information for actual work. PMID:29320505
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinfeng Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss and analyze an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element (H1-GMFE method to look for the numerical solution of time fractional telegraph equation. We introduce an auxiliary variable to reduce the original equation into lower-order coupled equations and then formulate an H1-GMFE scheme with two important variables. We discretize the Caputo time fractional derivatives using the finite difference methods and approximate the spatial direction by applying the H1-GMFE method. Based on the discussion on the theoretical error analysis in L2-norm for the scalar unknown and its gradient in one dimensional case, we obtain the optimal order of convergence in space-time direction. Further, we also derive the optimal error results for the scalar unknown in H1-norm. Moreover, we derive and analyze the stability of H1-GMFE scheme and give the results of a priori error estimates in two- or three-dimensional cases. In order to verify our theoretical analysis, we give some results of numerical calculation by using the Matlab procedure.
Optical imaging through turbid media with a degenerate four wave mixing correlation time gate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sappey, A.D.
1994-01-01
A novel method for detection of ballistic light and rejection of unwanted diffusive light to image structures inside highly scattering media is demonstrated. Degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) of a doubled YAG laser in Rhodamine 6G is used to provide an ultrafast correlation time gate to discriminate against light that has undergone multiple scattering and therefore lost memory of the structures inside the scattering medium. We present preliminary results that determine the nature of the DFWM grating, confirm the coherence time of the laser, prove the phase-conjugate nature of the signal beam, and determine the dependence of the signal (reflectivity) on dye concentration and laser intensity. Finally, we have obtained images of a test cross-hair pattern through highly turbid suspensions of whole milk in water that are opaque to the naked eye. These imaging experiments demonstrate the utility of DFWM for imaging through turbid media. Based on our results, the use of DFWM as an ultrafast time gate for the detection of ballistic light in optical mammography appears to hold great promise for improving the current state of the art
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.
1998-03-01
In May 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Working Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury contaminated mixed wastes. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated mixed waste. The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury related treatment technologies at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate both the amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded that will address DOE's needs for separation removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the HgWG to date through these various activities
Hilton, David
2011-10-01
In correlated electronic systems, observed electronic and structural behavior results from the complex interplay between multiple, sometimes competing degrees-of- freedom. One such material used to study insulator-to-metal transitions is vanadium dioxide, which undergoes a phase transition from a monoclinic-insulating phase to a rutile-metallic phase when the sample is heated to 340 K. The major open question with this material is the relative influence of this structural phase transition (Peirels transition) and the effects of electronic correlations (Mott transition) on the observed insulator-to-metal transition. Answers to these major questions are complicated by vanadium dioxide's sensitivity to perturbations in the chemical structure in VO2. For example, related VxOy oxides with nearly a 2:1 ratio do not demonstrate the insulator-to- metal transition, while recent work has demonstrated that W:VO2 has demonstrated a tunable transition temperature controllable with tungsten doping. All of these preexisting results suggest that the observed electronic properties are exquisitely sensitive to the sample disorder. Using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, it is now possible to impulsively excite this transition and investigate the photoinduced counterpart to this thermal phase transition in a strongly nonequilibrium regime. I will discuss our recent results studying the terahertz-frequency conductivity dynamics of this photoinduced phase transition in the poorly understood near threshold temperature range. We find a dramatic softening of the transition near the critical temperature, which results primarily from the mixed phase coexistence near the transition temperature. To directly study this mixed phase behavior, we directly study the nucleation and growth rates of the metallic phase in the parent insulator using non-degenerate optical pump-probe spectroscopy. These experiments measure, in the time- domain, the coexistent phase separation in VO2 (spatially
A time dependent mixing model to close PDF equations for transport in heterogeneous aquifers
Schüler, L.; Suciu, N.; Knabner, P.; Attinger, S.
2016-10-01
Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, used in moment methods. The mixing model, describing the transport of the PDF in concentration space, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling.
A Well-mixed, Polymer-based Microbioreactor with Integrated Optical Measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Z.; Szita, Nicolas; Boccazzi, P.
2005-01-01
. Optical transmission measurements are used for cell density. The body of the reactor is poly(methylmethacrylate) with a thin layer of poly (dimethylsiloxane) for aeration, oxygen diffuses through this gas-permeable membrane into the microbioreactor to support metabolism of bacterial cells. Mixing...... in the reactor is characterized by observation of mixing of dyes and computational fluid dynamics simulations. The oxygenation is described in terms of measured KLa values for microbioreactor, 20–75/h corresponding to increasing stirring speed 200–800 rpm. Escherichia coli cell growth in the microbioreactor...
Low-frequency scaling of the standard and mixed magnetic field and Müller integral equations
Bogaert, Ignace
2014-02-01
The standard and mixed discretizations for the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) and the Müller integral equation (MUIE) are investigated in the context of low-frequency (LF) scattering problems involving simply connected scatterers. It is proved that, at low frequencies, the frequency scaling of the nonsolenoidal part of the solution current can be incorrect for the standard discretization. In addition, it is proved that the frequency scaling obtained with the mixed discretization is correct. The reason for this problem in the standard discretization scheme is the absence of exact solenoidal currents in the rotated RWG finite element space. The adoption of the mixed discretization scheme eliminates this problem and leads to a well-conditioned system of linear equations that remains accurate at low frequencies. Numerical results confirm these theoretical predictions and also show that, when the frequency is lowered, a finer and finer mesh is required to keep the accuracy constant with the standard discretization. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paff, S. W; Doody, S.
2003-01-01
This paper discusses the challenges associated with creating a data management system for waste tracking at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (AMWTP) at the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL). The waste tracking system combines data from plant automation systems and decision points. The primary purpose of the system is to provide information to enable the plant operators and engineers to assess the risks associated with each container and determine the best method of treating it. It is also used to track the transuranic (TRU) waste containers as they move throughout the various processes at the plant. And finally, the goal of the system is to support paperless shipments of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the approach, methodologies, the underlying design of the database, and the challenges of creating the Data Management System (DMS) prior to completion of design and construction of a major plant. The system was built utilizing an Oracle database platform, and Oracle Forms 6i in client-server mode. The underlying data architecture is container-centric, with separate tables and objects for each type of analysis used to characterize the waste, including real-time radiography (RTR), non-destructive assay (NDA), head-space gas sampling and analysis (HSGS), visual examination (VE) and coring. The use of separate tables facilitated the construction of automatic interfaces with the analysis instruments that enabled direct data capture. Movements are tracked using a location system describing each waste container's current location and a history table tracking the container's movement history. The movement system is designed to interface both with radio-frequency bar-code devices and the plant's integrated control system (ICS). Collections of containers or information, such as batches, were created across the various types of analyses, which enabled a single, cohesive approach to be developed for verification and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cao Jinde
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, an integral sliding mode control approach is presented to investigate synchronization of nonidentical chaotic neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays as well as leakage delay. By considering a proper sliding surface and constructing Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, as well as employing a combination of the free-weighting matrix method, Newton-Leibniz formulation and inequality technique, a sliding mode controller is designed to achieve the asymptotical synchronization of the addressed nonidentical neural networks. Moreover, a sliding mode control law is also synthesized to guarantee the reachability of the specified sliding surface. The provided conditions are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities, and are dependent on the discrete and distributed time delays as well as leakage delay. A simulation example is given to verify the theoretical results.
PADDY DRYING IN MIXED ADSORPTION DRYER WITH ZEOLITE: DRYING RATE AND TIME ESTIMATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mochammad Djaeni
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Recently, the main problem of the rice stock and distribution in Indonesia is the quality degradation as indicated in unpleasant odor (smelly, stained, yellowness, and high percentage of broken rice. This is due to the low of paddy quality dried by from either direct sunlight or conventional fluidized bed dryer. As a result, the paddy cracks and breaks easily during milling in which causes the storage life being shorter as the enzymatic degradation by germ or fungi occurs. Air dehumidified with zeolite at drying medium temperature is potential to improve the quality of paddy. Zeolite is a material having high affinity to water vapor. In this case, the paddy and zeolite was mixed and fluidized with the air. The air will evaporate water from paddy, and at same time, the zeolite will adsorb water from air. Hence, the humidity of dryer can be kept low in which improves the driving force for drying. This work discusses the effect of presence of zeolite in the dryer, operational drying temperature, air velocity and relative humidity on drying rate of paddy. The results showed that increasing of zeolite as well as operational temperature increased the drying rate. In addition, using the model, the air dehumidification with zeolite and increase of air velocity can speed up drying time significantly at operational temperature below 80oC. This condition is very suitable for paddy drying since the quality degradation can be avoided.
Time-dependent mixed convection heat transfer from a sphere in a micro-gravity environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hommel, M.J.
1987-01-01
A fundamental problem of interest for crystal growth in micro-gravity applications involves the mixed convection heat transfer from a sphere in a uniform flow of fluid at a differing temperature. Under the combined influence of the imposed free stream as well as an induced buoyancy force due to thermal expansion of the fluid, the heat transfer from the sphere will be different from that of either the pure forced convection flow or the pure free convection flow. For the present study, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the laminar flow problem of an impulsively heated, impulsively started sphere in an originally quiescent fluid. Time series expansions are developed for the dependent variables by acknowledging the existence of two district regions: one, an inner region, near the sphere, in which viscous effects are significant; and two, an outer region in which the fluid may be treated as inviscid. The time series expansions are developed in terms of the Reynolds number and Richardson number (Buoyancy Parameter), and the relevant heat transfer and drag coefficients are calculated and plotted
Mixing Time, Inversion and Multiple Emulsion Formation in a Limonene and Water Pickering Emulsion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Sawiak
2018-05-01
Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that particle-stabilized emulsions comprised of limonene, water and fumed silica particles exhibit complex emulsification behavior as a function of composition and the duration of the emulsification step. Most notably the system can invert from being oil-continuous to being water-continuous under prolonged mixing. Here we investigate this phenomenon experimentally for the regime where water is the majority liquid. We prepare samples using a range of different emulsification times and we examine the final properties in bulk and via confocal microscopy. We use the images to quantitatively track the sizes of droplets and clusters of particles. We find that a dense emulsion of water droplets forms initially which is transformed, in time, into a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion with concomitant changes in droplet and cluster sizes. In parallel we carry out rheological studies of water-in-limonene emulsions using different concentrations of fumed silica particles. We unite our observations to propose a mechanism for inversion based on the changes in flow properties and the availability of particles during emulsification.
Guler, Umut; Budak, Yasemin; Ruh, Emrah; Ocal, Yesim; Canay, Senay; Akyon, Yakut
2013-09-01
The aim of this study was 2-fold. The first aim was to evaluate the effects of mixing technique (hand-mixing or auto-mixing) on bacterial attachment to polyether impression materials. The second aim was to determine whether bacterial attachment to these materials was affected by length of exposure to disinfection solutions. Polyether impression material samples (n = 144) were prepared by hand-mixing or auto-mixing. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used in testing. After incubation, the bacterial colonies were counted and then disinfectant solution was applied. The effect of disinfection solution was evaluated just after the polymerization of impression material and 30 min after polymerization. Differences in adherence of bacteria to the samples prepared by hand-mixing and to those prepared by auto-mixing were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. For evaluating the efficiency of the disinfectant, Kruskal-Wallis multiple comparisons test was used. E. coli counts were higher in hand-mixed materials (P 2.394). The methods used for mixing polyether impression material did not affect bacterial attachment to impression surfaces. In contrast, the disinfection procedure greatly affects decontamination of the impression surface.
Deng, Xinmei; Ding, Xuechen; Cheng, Chen; Chou, Hiu Mei
2016-01-01
In some occasions, people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and highly related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual’s affective motivation. However, as a multi-ethnic country, not much is known about the subcultural differences in mixed emotions in China. Thus, we examined the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and affect...
Methods That Matter: Integrating Mixed Methods for More Effective Social Science Research
Hay, M. Cameron, Ed.
2016-01-01
To do research that really makes a difference--the authors of this book argue--social scientists need questions and methods that reflect the complexity of the world. Bringing together a consortium of voices across a variety of fields, "Methods that Matter" offers compelling and successful examples of mixed methods research that do just…
Mixed Waste Focus Area integrated technical baseline report, Phase 1: Volume 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet the Department's commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating DOE's mixed waste. These treatment systems include all necessary steps such as characterization, pretreatment, and disposal. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline is being established that forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The technical baseline is the prioritized list of deficiencies, and the resulting technology development activities needed to overcome these deficiencies. This document presents Phase I of the technical baseline development process, which resulted in the prioritized list of deficiencies that the MWFA will address. A summary of the data and the assumptions upon which this work was based is included, as well as information concerning the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) mixed waste technology development needs. The next phase in the technical baseline development process, Phase II, will result in the identification of technology development activities that will be conducted through the MWFA to resolve the identified deficiencies
Timing sensory integration for robot simulation of autistic behavior
Barakova, E.I.; Chonnaparamutt, W.
2009-01-01
The experiments in this paper show that the impact of temporal aspects of sensory integration on the precision of movement is concordant with behavioral studies of sensory integrative dysfunction and autism. Specifically, the simulation predicts that distant grasping will be performed properly by
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheng Li; Yang Huizhong
2009-01-01
This paper considers the robust stability of a class of uncertain Markovian jumping Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (UMJCGNNs) with mixed time-varying delays. The parameter uncertainties are norm-bounded and the mixed time-varying delays comprise discrete and distributed time delays. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, some robust stability conditions guaranteeing the global robust convergence of the equilibrium point are derived. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.
Recent advances in marching-on-in-time schemes for solving time domain volume integral equations
Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan
2015-01-01
Transient electromagnetic field interactions on inhomogeneous penetrable scatterers can be analyzed by solving time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are constructed by setting the summation of the incident and scattered field intensities to the total field intensity on the volumetric support of the scatterer. The unknown can be the field intensity or flux/current density. Representing the total field intensity in terms of the unknown using the relevant constitutive relation and the scattered field intensity in terms of the spatiotemporal convolution of the unknown with the Green function yield the final form of the TDVIE. The unknown is expanded in terms of local spatial and temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDVIE and testing the resulting equation at discrete times yield a system of equations that is solved by the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme. At each time step, a smaller system of equations, termed MOT system is solved for the coefficients of the expansion. The right-hand side of this system consists of the tested incident field and discretized spatio-temporal convolution of the unknown samples computed at the previous time steps with the Green function.
Recent advances in marching-on-in-time schemes for solving time domain volume integral equations
Sayed, Sadeed Bin
2015-05-16
Transient electromagnetic field interactions on inhomogeneous penetrable scatterers can be analyzed by solving time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are constructed by setting the summation of the incident and scattered field intensities to the total field intensity on the volumetric support of the scatterer. The unknown can be the field intensity or flux/current density. Representing the total field intensity in terms of the unknown using the relevant constitutive relation and the scattered field intensity in terms of the spatiotemporal convolution of the unknown with the Green function yield the final form of the TDVIE. The unknown is expanded in terms of local spatial and temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDVIE and testing the resulting equation at discrete times yield a system of equations that is solved by the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme. At each time step, a smaller system of equations, termed MOT system is solved for the coefficients of the expansion. The right-hand side of this system consists of the tested incident field and discretized spatio-temporal convolution of the unknown samples computed at the previous time steps with the Green function.
Hommes, J.; Van den Bossche, P.; de Grave, W.; Bos, G.; Schuwirth, L.; Scherpbier, A.
2014-01-01
Little is known how time influences collaborative learning groups in medical education. Therefore a thorough exploration of the development of learning processes over time was undertaken in an undergraduate PBL curriculum over 18 months. A mixed-methods triangulation design was used. First, the quantitative study measured how various learning…
Deng, Xinmei; Ding, Xuechen; Cheng, Chen; Chou, Hiu Mei
2016-01-01
Sometimes people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual's regulatory motivation. However, China is a multi-ethnic country and not much is known about subcultural differences in mixed emotions. The aim of this study was to examine the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and regulatory motivation played in regard of the subcultural differences in mixed emotions between Han ( N = 61) and Mongolian Chinese ( N = 46). Results indicated that, compared with Mongolian Chinese, Han Chinese showed stronger associations between implicit contra-hedonic attitudes toward happiness and mixed emotions during pleasant emotional events. Also, Han Chinese who reported contra-hedonic motivation during pleasant emotional events had higher levels of mixed emotions than those who had hedonic motivation. No significant differences were found in terms of mixed emotions between Mongolian Chinese who had contra-hedonic and hedonic motivation. These results suggest that the psychological mechanisms underlying differences in mixed emotions also require a more comprehensive understanding from a subcultural perspective.
Deng, Xinmei; Ding, Xuechen; Cheng, Chen; Chou, Hiu Mei
2016-01-01
Sometimes people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual’s regulatory motivation. However, China is a multi-ethnic country and not much is known about subcultural differences in mixed emotions. The aim of this study was to examine the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and regulatory motivation played in regard of the subcultural differences in mixed emotions between Han (N = 61) and Mongolian Chinese (N = 46). Results indicated that, compared with Mongolian Chinese, Han Chinese showed stronger associations between implicit contra-hedonic attitudes toward happiness and mixed emotions during pleasant emotional events. Also, Han Chinese who reported contra-hedonic motivation during pleasant emotional events had higher levels of mixed emotions than those who had hedonic motivation. No significant differences were found in terms of mixed emotions between Mongolian Chinese who had contra-hedonic and hedonic motivation. These results suggest that the psychological mechanisms underlying differences in mixed emotions also require a more comprehensive understanding from a subcultural perspective. PMID:27833582
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinmei Deng
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In some occasions, people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and highly related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual’s affective motivation. However, as a multi-ethnic country, not much is known about the subcultural differences in mixed emotions in China. Thus, we examined the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and affective motivation may play in regard of the subcultural differences in mixed emotions between Han (N = 61 and Mongolian Chinese (N = 46. Results indicated that, compared with Mongolian Chinese, Han Chinese had a stronger association between implicit contra-hedonic attitudes toward happiness and mixed emotions in a pleasant emotional event. Also, Han Chinese who reported contra-hedonic motivation in a pleasant emotional event had higher level of mixed emotions than who had hedonic motivation. No significant difference was found in the mixed emotions between Mongolian Chinese who had contra-hedonic and hedonic motivation. These results suggested that the psychological mechanisms underlying the differences in mixed emotions require a comprehensive understanding not only in cross-cultural context but also from subcultural perspective.
Innocent, C.; Malcuit, E.; Négrel, P.
2011-12-01
The Eocene Sands Aquifer of the Aquitanian Basin (Southwestern France) has been extensively studied for its hydrology, hydrogeochemistry and also for stable isotopes (André, 2002; André et al., 2005). 14C dates were also obtained in the southern part of the aquifer (André, 2002). Recently, in the framework of the CARISMEAU research project (Négrel et al., 2007), groundwaters have been analyzed for their U activity ratio in order to put some constraints on their residence time in the aquifer. A excellent correlation has been found between 234U/238U ratios (which can be as high as 13.5) and 14C dates, which allowed to propose residence times for the analyzed groundwaters at the scale of the whole aquifer (including the city of Bordeaux and its suburb) (Innocent and Négrel, 2008; submitted). The second step of the CARISMEAU research project (CARISMEAU 2) now focusses on the restricted "Entre-Deux-Mers" area. New groundwaters have been recovered and analyzed for their U isotopic composition. As for previous data, U activity ratios are typically very high, ranging from 2.9 to 8.6. Owing to additional 14C ages from the northern part of the aquifer, it is shown that most of the measured uranium activity ratios correlate with these 14C dates and fall on or close to the straight line defined previously (see above). As a consequence, residence times derived from U isotopic compositions fairly agree with 14C data, with only one exception from a groundwater which plots apart from the correlation line. Pumping tests have been done at a selected site (EMZM 7), involving pumping times of 1 hour, 8 hours and 16 hours. For each pumping time, waters have been recovered at different, increasing pumping rates of 80 m3 per hour, 120 m3 per hour, 160 m3 per hour, and 120 m3 per hour. The chemical composition of these twelve waters has not been found to vary significantly. Uranium activities are constant for ten of the twelve groundwaters (around 6.5, with a U concentration around
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowry, W.E.; Dunn, S.D.; Cremer, S.C.; Williams, C.
1994-01-01
The SEAMIST trademark inverting membrane deployment system has been used successfully at the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) for multipoint vapor sampling/pressure measurement/permeability measurement/sensor integration demonstrations and borehole lining. Several instruments were deployed inside the SEAMIST trademark lined boreholes to detect metals, radionuclides, moisture, and geologic variations. The liner protected the instruments from contamination, maintained support of the uncased borehole wall, and sealed the total borehole from air circulation. The current activities have included the installation of three multipoint vapor sampling systems and sensor integration systems in 100-foot-deep vertical boreholes. A long term pressure monitoring program has recorded barometric pressure effects at depth with relatively high spatial resolution. The SEAMIST trademark system has been integrated with a variety of hydrologic and chemical sensors for in-situ measurements, demonstrating its versatility as an instrument deployment system which allows easy emplacement and removal. Standard SEAMIST trademark vapor sampling systems were also integrated with state-of-the-art VOC analysis technologies (automated GC, UV laser fluorometer). The results and status of these demonstration tests are presented
Asghari, Mohammad H; Park, Yongwoo; Azaña, José
2011-01-17
We propose and experimentally prove a novel design for implementing photonic temporal integrators simultaneously offering a high processing bandwidth and a long operation time window, namely a large time-bandwidth product. The proposed scheme is based on concatenating in series a time-limited ultrafast photonic temporal integrator, e.g. implemented using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), with a discrete-time (bandwidth limited) optical integrator, e.g. implemented using an optical resonant cavity. This design combines the advantages of these two previously demonstrated photonic integrator solutions, providing a processing speed as high as that of the time-limited ultrafast integrator and an operation time window fixed by the discrete-time integrator. Proof-of-concept experiments are reported using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (as the original time-limited integrator) connected in series with a bulk-optics coherent interferometers' system (as a passive 4-points discrete-time photonic temporal integrator). Using this setup, we demonstrate accurate temporal integration of complex-field optical signals with time-features as fast as ~6 ps, only limited by the processing bandwidth of the FBG integrator, over time durations as long as ~200 ps, which represents a 4-fold improvement over the operation time window (~50 ps) of the original FBG integrator.
Integrated assessment of chemical stressors and ecological impact in mixed land use stream systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sonne, Anne Thobo
activities, including contaminated sites. To determine potential impacts, the chemical quality of both organic (i.e. pharmaceuticals, gasoline constituents, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides) and inorganic (i.e. metals, general water chemistry and macroions) compounds was assessed in all three stream...... multiple compounds (i.e. organic and inorganic chemical stressors) and stream compartments to locate key sources and risk drivers. The approaches and findings in this thesis could truly be helpful for management and future remediation of mixed land use stream systems....... of the different stream compartments thus comprises both temporal and spatial variation. Despite the growing understanding of the complexity, approaches for a holistic risk assessment of the potential impacts in the three stream compartments of a mixed land use stream system are still missing. To investigate...
Gulmans, J.; Gulmans, J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; van Harten, Willem H.
2007-01-01
Background. Owing to the involvement of multiple professionals from various institutions, integrated care settings are prone to suboptimal patient care communication. To assure continuity, communication gaps should be identified for targeted improvement initiatives. However, available assessment
Backward-in-time methods to simulate large-scale transport and mixing in the ocean
Prants, S. V.
2015-06-01
In oceanography and meteorology, it is important to know not only where water or air masses are headed for, but also where they came from as well. For example, it is important to find unknown sources of oil spills in the ocean and of dangerous substance plumes in the atmosphere. It is impossible with the help of conventional ocean and atmospheric numerical circulation models to extrapolate backward from the observed plumes to find the source because those models cannot be reversed in time. We review here recently elaborated backward-in-time numerical methods to identify and study mesoscale eddies in the ocean and to compute where those waters came from to a given area. The area under study is populated with a large number of artificial tracers that are advected backward in time in a given velocity field that is supposed to be known analytically or numerically, or from satellite and radar measurements. After integrating advection equations, one gets positions of each tracer on a fixed day in the past and can identify from known destinations a particle positions at earlier times. The results provided show that the method is efficient, for example, in estimating probabilities to find increased concentrations of radionuclides and other pollutants in oceanic mesoscale eddies. The backward-in-time methods are illustrated in this paper with a few examples. Backward-in-time Lagrangian maps are applied to identify eddies in satellite-derived and numerically generated velocity fields and to document the pathways by which they exchange water with their surroundings. Backward-in-time trapping maps are used to identify mesoscale eddies in the altimetric velocity field with a risk to be contaminated by Fukushima-derived radionuclides. The results of simulations are compared with in situ mesurement of caesium concentration in sea water samples collected in a recent research vessel cruise in the area to the east of Japan. Backward-in-time latitudinal maps and the corresponding
Modeling the optimal energy mix in 2030 : Impact of the integration of renewable energy sources
Arthur, Camu
2016-01-01
The European Council has recently set objectives in the matter of energy and climate policies and thus the interest in renewable energies is more than ever at stake. However, the introduction of renewable energies in an energy mix is also accelerated and altered by political targets. The two most widespread renewable technologies, photovoltaic and wind farms, have specific characteristics - decentralized, intermittency, uncertain production forecast up until a few hours ahead - that oblige to...
Kumar, Saroj; Ahirwar, Rajesh; Rehman, Ishita; Nahar, Pradip
2017-07-01
Rapid diagnostic tests can be developed using ELISA for detection of diseases in emergency conditions. Conventional ELISA takes 1-2 days, making it unsuitable for rapid diagnostics. Here, we report the effect of reagents mixing via shaking or vortexing on the assay timing of ELISA. A 48-min protocol of ELISA involving 12-min incubations with reagent mixing at 750 rpm for every step was optimized. Contrary to this, time-optimized control ELISA performed without mixing produced similar results in 8 h, leaving a time gain of 7 h using the developed protocol. Collectively, the findings suggest the development of ELISA-based rapid diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Holmes-Burns, H.; Petersell, J.; Schwendiman, L.
1997-01-01
In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex
Cheng, Jiubing
2014-08-05
In elastic imaging, the extrapolated vector fields are decomposed into pure wave modes, such that the imaging condition produces interpretable images, which characterize reflectivity of different reflection types. Conventionally, wavefield decomposition in anisotropic media is costly as the operators involved is dependent on the velocity, and thus not stationary. In this abstract, we propose an efficient approach to directly extrapolate the decomposed elastic waves using lowrank approximate mixed space/wavenumber domain integral operators for heterogeneous transverse isotropic (TI) media. The low-rank approximation is, thus, applied to the pseudospectral extrapolation and decomposition at the same time. The pseudo-spectral implementation also allows for relatively large time steps in which the low-rank approximation is applied. Synthetic examples show that it can yield dispersionfree extrapolation of the decomposed quasi-P (qP) and quasi- SV (qSV) modes, which can be used for imaging, as well as the total elastic wavefields.
National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements integrated timing system SSDR 1.5.3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiedwald, J.; Van Aersau, P.; Bliss, E.
1996-01-01
This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Integrated Timing System, WBS 1.5.3 which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). The Integrated Timing System provides all temporally-critical hardware triggers to components and equipment in other NIF systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.
2013-01-01
The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O Box 850, Richland WA, 99352 (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [Waste Treatment Plant, 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland WA 99354 (United States)
2013-07-01
The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.
2013-01-01
The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described
Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro
1987-08-24
In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeon, H J; Kim, D I; Kim, M J; Nguyen, X D; Park, D H; Go, J S
2015-01-01
This paper presents a circular microfluidic centrifuge with two inlets and two outlets to separate mixed microparticles with a specially designed sample injection hole. To separate the mixed particles, it uses a rotational flow, generated in a chamber by counter primary flows in the microchannels. The shape and sizes of the circular microfluidic centrifuge have been designed through numerical evaluation to have a large relative centrifugal force. The difference of centrifuge times of the mixed particles of 1 μm and 6 μm was determined to be 8.2 s at an inlet Reynolds number of 500 and a sample Reynolds number of 20. In the experiment, this was measured to be about 10 s. From the separation of the two polymer particles analogous to the representative sizes of platelets and red blood cells, the circular microfluidic centrifuge shows a potential to separate human blood cells size-selectively by using the difference of centrifuge times. (paper)
On the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market
Perols, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Kortmann, S.
2013-01-01
Recent operations management and innovation management research emphasizes the importance of supplier integration. However, the empirical results as to the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market are ambivalent. To understand this important relationship, we incorporate two major
Liu, Meilin; Bagci, Hakan
2011-01-01
A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) with a highly-accurate time integration scheme is presented. The scheme achieves its high accuracy using numerically constructed predictor-corrector integration coefficients. Numerical results
Top-down design and verification methodology for analog mixed-signal integrated circuits
Beviz, P.
2016-01-01
The current report contains the introduction of a novel Top-Down Design and Verification methodology for AMS integrated circuits. With the introduction of new design and verification flow, more reliable and efficient development of AMS ICs is possible. The assignment incorporated the research on the
A mixed spectral-integration model for neutral mean wind flow over hills
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Corbett, Jean-Francois; Ott, Søren; Landberg, Lars
2008-01-01
equations are solved spectrally horizontally and by numerical integration vertically. Non-dimensional solutions are stored in look-up tables for quick re-use. Model results are compared to measurements, as well as other authors' flow models in three test cases. The model is implemented and tested in two...
Implementation of integrated care for type 2 diabetes : A protocol for mixed methods research
Busetto, L.; Luijkx, K.G.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.
2014-01-01
Introduction: While integrated care for diabetes mellitus type 2 has achieved good results in terms of intermediate clinical and process outcomes, the evidence-based knowledge on its implementation is scarce, and insights generalisable to other settings therefore remain limited. Objective: This
Fully Integrated SAW-Less Discrete-Time Superheterodyne Receiver
Madadi, I.
2015-01-01
There are nowadays strong business and technical demands to integrate radio- frequency (RF) receivers (RX) into a complete system-on-chip (SoC) realized in scaled digital processes technology. As a consequence, the RF circuitry has to function well in face of reduced power supply ( V DD ) while the
Time integration in the code Zgoubi and external usage of PTC's structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forest, Etienne; Meot, F.
2006-06-01
The purpose of this note is to describe Zgoubi's integrator and to describe some pitfalls for time based integration when used in accelerators. We show why the convergence rate of an integrator can be affected by an improper treatment at the boundary when time is used as the integration variable. We also point out how the code PTC can be used as a container by other tracking engine. This work is not completed as far as incorporation of Zgoubi is concerned. (authors)
A well-scalable metaheuristic for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows
Bräysy, Olli; Porkka, Pasi P.; Dullaert, Wout; Repoussis, Panagiotis P.; Tarantilis, Christos D.
This paper presents an efficient and well-scalable metaheuristic for fleet size and mix vehicle routing with time windows. The suggested solution method combines the strengths of well-known threshold accepting and guided local search metaheuristics to guide a set of four local search heuristics. The
Bravo-Zanoguera, Miguel E; Laris, Casey A; Nguyen, Lam K; Oliva, Mike; Price, Jeffrey H
2007-01-01
Efficient image cytometry of a conventional microscope slide means rapid acquisition and analysis of 20 gigapixels of image data (at 0.3-microm sampling). The voluminous data motivate increased acquisition speed to enable many biomedical applications. Continuous-motion time-delay-and-integrate (TDI) scanning has the potential to speed image acquisition while retaining sensitivity, but the challenge of implementing high-resolution autofocus operating simultaneously with acquisition has limited its adoption. We develop a dynamic autofocus system for this need using: 1. a "volume camera," consisting of nine fiber optic imaging conduits to charge-coupled device (CCD) sensors, that acquires images in parallel from different focal planes, 2. an array of mixed analog-digital processing circuits that measure the high spatial frequencies of the multiple image streams to create focus indices, and 3. a software system that reads and analyzes the focus data streams and calculates best focus for closed feedback loop control. Our system updates autofocus at 56 Hz (or once every 21 microm of stage travel) to collect sharply focused images sampled at 0.3x0.3 microm(2)/pixel at a stage speed of 2.3 mms. The system, tested by focusing in phase contrast and imaging long fluorescence strips, achieves high-performance closed-loop image-content-based autofocus in continuous scanning for the first time.
On the initial condition problem of the time domain PMCHWT surface integral equation
Uysal, Ismail Enes; Bagci, Hakan; Ergin, A. Arif; Ulku, H. Arda
2017-01-01
Non-physical, linearly increasing and constant current components are induced in marching on-in-time solution of time domain surface integral equations when initial conditions on time derivatives of (unknown) equivalent currents are not enforced
Integration of the effects of air quality measures in the SOLVE mix of measures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hesselmans, T.; Heijnis, F.
2008-01-01
SOLVE is the Dutch abbreviation for fast solutions for air and traffic and is a website by means of which provinces and municipalities in the Netherlands can gain insight into the best measures for traffic to improve the quality of the ambient air. Since halfway June 2008, the effects on air quality of approximately 35 traffic measures were included in the SOLVE mix of measures. The effects of traffic measures on emissions of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide have been calculated. The effects are expressed in a decrease of the contribution of traffic indicated in a scale from A (very large decrease) to E (no decrease). The outcome depends on the location where the measure is implemented. [mk] [nl
Integrative improvement method and mixed-integer programming in system planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadegheih, A.
2002-01-01
In this paper, system planning network is formulated for mixed-integer programming and a Ga. The cost function of this problem consists of the capital investment cost in discrete form, the cost of transmission losses and the power generation costs. The Dc load flow equations for the network are embedded in the constraints of the mathematical model to avoid sub-optimal solutions that can arise if the enforcement of such constraints is done in an indirect way. The solution of the model gives the best line additions. and also provides information regarding the optimal generation at each generation point. This method of solutions is demonstrated on the expansion of a 5 bus -bar system to 6 bus-bars
Multigrid time-accurate integration of Navier-Stokes equations
Arnone, Andrea; Liou, Meng-Sing; Povinelli, Louis A.
1993-01-01
Efficient acceleration techniques typical of explicit steady-state solvers are extended to time-accurate calculations. Stability restrictions are greatly reduced by means of a fully implicit time discretization. A four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme with local time stepping, residual smoothing, and multigridding is used instead of traditional time-expensive factorizations. Some applications to natural and forced unsteady viscous flows show the capability of the procedure.
System Integration for Real-time Mobile Manipulation
Oftadeh, Reza; Aref, Mohammad M.; Ghabcheloo, Reza; Mattila, Jouni
2014-01-01
Mobile manipulators are one of the most complicated types of mechatronics systems. The performance of these robots in performing complex manipulation tasks is highly correlated with the synchronization and integration of their low-level components. This paper discusses in detail the mechatronics design of a four wheel steered mobile manipulator. It presents the manipulator ’s mechanical structure and electrical interfaces, designs low-level software architecture based on embedded PC-based con...
Knowledge Representation and Management, It's Time to Integrate!
Dhombres, F; Charlet, J
2017-08-01
Objectives: To select, present, and summarize the best papers published in 2016 in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). Methods: A comprehensive and standardized review of the medical informatics literature was performed based on a PubMed query. Results: Among the 1,421 retrieved papers, the review process resulted in the selection of four best papers focused on the integration of heterogeneous data via the development and the alignment of terminological resources. In the first article, the authors provide a curated and standardized version of the publicly available US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. Such a resource will improve the quality of the underlying data, and enable standardized analyses using common vocabularies. The second article describes a project developed in order to facilitate heterogeneous data integration in the i2b2 framework. The originality is to allow users integrate the data described in different terminologies and to build a new repository, with a unique model able to support the representation of the various data. The third paper is dedicated to model the association between multiple phenotypic traits described within the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) and the corresponding genotype in the specific context of rare diseases (rare variants). Finally, the fourth paper presents solutions to annotation-ontology mapping in genome-scale data. Of particular interest in this work is the Experimental Factor Ontology (EFO) and its generic association model, the Ontology of Biomedical AssociatioN (OBAN). Conclusion: Ontologies have started to show their efficiency to integrate medical data for various tasks in medical informatics: electronic health records data management, clinical research, and knowledge-based systems development. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.
Chakrabarty, Debdeep; Chakraborty, Anjan; Seth, Debabrata; Hazra, Partha; Sarkar, Nilmoni
2005-09-01
The microenvironment of the bile salt-lecithin mixed aggregates has been investigated using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The steady state spectra show that the polarity of the bile salt is higher compared to lecithin vesicles or the mixed aggregates. We have observed slow solvent relaxation in bile salt micelles and lecithin vesicles. The solvation time is gradually slowed down due to gradual addition of the bile salt in lecithin vesicles. Addition of bile salt leads to the tighter head group packing in lecithin. Thus, mobility of the water molecules becomes slower and consequently the solvation time is also retarded. We have observed bimodal slow rotational relaxation time in all these systems.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the real-time analysis of mixed waste samples containing Sr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barefield, J.E. II; Koskelo, A.C.; Multari, R.A.; Cremers, D.A.; Gamble, T.K.; Han, C.Y.
1995-01-01
In this report, the use of Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze mixed waste samples containing Sr is discussed. The mixed waste samples investigated include vitrified waste glass and contaminated soil. Compared to traditional analysis techniques, the laser-based method is fast (i.e., analysis times on the order of minutes) and essentially waste free since little or no sample preparation is required. Detection limits on the order of pmm Sr were determined. Detection limits obtained using a fiber optic cable to deliver laser pulses to soil samples containing Cr, Zr, Pb, Be, Cu, and Ni will also be discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wijewardana, Y. N. S.; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko
2014-01-01
) mixed sands representing four different particle size fractions ranging from 0.105 to 0.84 mm. Initial soil-water contact angle (αi), and the time dependence of contact angle were measured by the sessile drop method. Results showed that the αi value for fine and middle sand fractions increased rapidly...... in contact angle (α), well captured the time dependence of α....
Liu, Meilin
2011-07-01
A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) with a highly-accurate time integration scheme is presented. The scheme achieves its high accuracy using numerically constructed predictor-corrector integration coefficients. Numerical results show that this new time integration scheme uses considerably larger time steps than the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method when combined with a DG-FEM using higher-order spatial discretization/basis functions for high accuracy. © 2011 IEEE.
Degree of Schedulability of Mixed-Criticality Real-time Systems with Probabilistic Sporadic Tasks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boudjadar, Jalil; David, Alexandre; Kim, Jin Hyun
2014-01-01
We present the concept of degree of schedulability for mixed-criticality scheduling systems. This concept is given in terms of the two factors 1) Percentage of Missed Deadlines (PoMD), and 2) Degradation of the Quality of Service (DoQoS). The novel aspect is that we consider task arrival patterns...
Photonic integrated circuit as a picosecond pulse timing discriminator.
Lowery, Arthur James; Zhuang, Leimeng
2016-04-18
We report the first experimental demonstration of a compact on-chip optical pulse timing discriminator that is able to provide an output voltage proportional to the relative timing of two 60-ps input pulses on separate paths. The output voltage is intrinsically low-pass-filtered, so the discriminator forms an interface between high-speed optics and low-speed electronics. Potential applications include timing synchronization of multiple pulse trains as a precursor for optical time-division multiplexing, and compact rangefinders with millimeter dimensions.
Marketing Mix sebagai Alat Pembeda dalam Persaingan
Pura A, Agus Hasan
2012-01-01
Marketers must not only formulate the broad strategies to achieve its marketing objectives but also plan marketing mix programs. Many good strategies fail when it comes to development of specific marketing - mix tactics. Decision must be made to transform marketing strategy to marketing mix and to provide competitive advantageous in the competitive market place and in the same time to provide what market needs. Key words : Integrated Marketing, Marketing Mix, Differentiation, Customer Valu...
Explicit solution of Calderon preconditioned time domain integral equations
Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric
2013-01-01
operators and a PE(CE)m type linear multistep to march on in time. Unlike its implicit counterpart, the proposed explicit solver requires the solution of an MOT system with a Gram matrix that is sparse and well-conditioned independent of the time step size
Kwong-Wong-type integral equation on time scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baoguo Jia
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Consider the second-order nonlinear dynamic equation $$ [r(tx^Delta(ho(t]^Delta+p(tf(x(t=0, $$ where $p(t$ is the backward jump operator. We obtain a Kwong-Wong-type integral equation, that is: If $x(t$ is a nonoscillatory solution of the above equation on $[T_0,infty$, then the integral equation $$ frac{r^sigma(tx^Delta(t}{f(x^sigma(t} =P^sigma(t+int^infty_{sigma(t}frac{r^sigma(s [int^1_0f'(x_h(sdh][x^Delta(s]^2}{f(x(s f(x^sigma(s}Delta s $$ is satisfied for $tgeq T_0$, where $P^sigma(t=int^infty_{sigma(t}p(sDelta s$, and $x_h(s=x(s+hmu(sx^Delta(s$. As an application, we show that the superlinear dynamic equation $$ [r(tx^{Delta}(ho(t]^Delta+p(tf(x(t=0, $$ is oscillatory, under certain conditions.
Evaluation of time integration methods for transient response analysis of nonlinear structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, K.C.
1975-01-01
Recent developments in the evaluation of direct time integration methods for the transient response analysis of nonlinear structures are presented. These developments, which are based on local stability considerations of an integrator, show that the interaction between temporal step size and nonlinearities of structural systems has a pronounced effect on both accuracy and stability of a given time integration method. The resulting evaluation technique is applied to a model nonlinear problem, in order to: 1) demonstrate that it eliminates the present costly process of evaluating time integrator for nonlinear structural systems via extensive numerical experiments; 2) identify the desirable characteristics of time integration methods for nonlinear structural problems; 3) develop improved stiffly-stable methods for application to nonlinear structures. Extension of the methodology for examination of the interaction between a time integrator and the approximate treatment of nonlinearities (such as due to pseudo-force or incremental solution procedures) is also discussed. (Auth.)
van Dijk, Aalt D J; Molenaar, Jaap
2017-01-01
The appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for the reproductive success of plants. Hence, intricate genetic networks integrate various environmental and endogenous cues such as temperature or hormonal statues. These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds. Our modelling results indicate that flowering time depends in a quite linear way on expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes. This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aalt D.J. van Dijk
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for the reproductive success of plants. Hence, intricate genetic networks integrate various environmental and endogenous cues such as temperature or hormonal statues. These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds. Our modelling results indicate that flowering time depends in a quite linear way on expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes. This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light.
Numerical Time Integration Methods for a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten
2012-01-01
on a discretization of the convolution integral. The calculation of the convolution integral is performed at each time step regardless of the chosen numerical scheme. In the second model the convolution integral is replaced by a system of linear ordinary differential equations. The formulation of the state...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dasgupta, I.
1998-01-01
We discuss new bounce-like (but non-time-reversal-invariant) solutions to Euclidean equations of motion, which we dub boomerons. In the Euclidean path integral approach to quantum theories, boomerons make an imaginary contribution to the vacuum energy. The fake vacuum instability can be removed by cancelling boomeron contributions against contributions from time reversed boomerons (anti-boomerons). The cancellation rests on a sign choice whose significance is not completely understood in the path integral method. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Jin
2018-02-01
Full Text Available To address the issue that the phasor measurement units (PMUs of wide area measurement system (WAMS are not sufficient for static state estimation in most existing power systems, this paper proposes a mixed power system weighted least squares (WLS state estimation method integrating a wide-area measurement system and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA technology. The hybrid calculation model is established by incorporating phasor measurements (including the node voltage phasors and branch current phasors and the results of the traditional state estimator in a post-processing estimator. The performance assessment is discussed through setting up mathematical models of the distribution network. Based on PMU placement optimization and bias analysis, the effectiveness of the proposed method was proved to be accurate and reliable by simulations of different cases. Furthermore, emulating calculation shows this method greatly improves the accuracy and stability of the state estimation solution, compared with the traditional WLS state estimation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mallay, D. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)
2014-10-01
This research high performance home analyzes how a set of advanced technologies can be integrated into a durable and energy-efficient house in the mixed-humid climate while remaining affordable to homeowners. The technical solutions documented in this report are the cornerstone of the builder's entire business model based on delivering high-performance homes on a production basis as a standard product offering to all price segments of the residential market. Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with production builder Nexus EnergyHomes (CZ 4) and they plan to adopt the successful components of the energy solution package for all 55 homes in the community. The research objective was to optimize the builder's energy solution package based on energy performance and construction costs. All of the major construction features, including envelope upgrades, space conditioning system, hot water system, and solar electric system were analyzed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cynthia A. Lietz
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Arizona’s Department of Economic Security (DES engaged in a strengths-based initiative to increase quality and integration of human services. Twenty teams including employees from state agencies, community leaders, and families were brought together to discuss and implement improvements to a variety of social services. A mixed methods study was conducted to explore the complex process of forming diverse teams to strengthen social services. Specifically, the research team conducted focus groups to collect qualitative data from a purposive sample of the teams to explore their experiences in greater depth. Analysis of the data led to the development of an online survey instrument that allowed all collaborative members an opportunity to participate in the study. Findings suggest that while the teams faced many challenges, a commitment to the process brought perseverance, communication, and creativity allowing this collaborative to initiate 105 activities to bring about positive changes in social services within their communities.
Yun, Ruida; Sthalekar, Chirag; Joyner, Valencia M
2011-01-01
This paper presents the design and measurement results of two avalanche photodiode structures (APDs) and a novel frequency-mixing transimpedance amplifier (TIA), which are key building blocks towards a monolithically integrated optical sensor front end for near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy applications. Two different APD structures are fabricated in an unmodified 0.18 \\im CMOS process, one with a shallow trench isolation (STI) guard ring and the other with a P-well guard ring. The APDs are characterized in linear mode. The STI bounded APD demonstrates better performance and exhibits 3.78 A/W responsivity at a wavelength of 690 nm and bias voltage of 10.55 V. The frequency-mixing TIA (FM-TIA) employs a T-feedback network incorporating gate-controlled transistors for resistance modulation, enabling the simultaneous down-conversion and amplification of the high frequency modulated photodiode (PD) current. The TIA achieves 92 dS Ω conversion gain with 0.5 V modulating voltage. The measured IIP(3) is 10.6/M. The amplifier together with the 50 Ω output buffer draws 23 mA from a1.8 V power supply.
Makhijani, Vinod B.; Przekwas, Andrzej J.
2002-10-01
This report presents results of a DARPA/MTO Composite CAD Project aimed to develop a comprehensive microsystem CAD environment, CFD-ACE+ Multiphysics, for bio and microfluidic devices and complete microsystems. The project began in July 1998, and was a three-year team effort between CFD Research Corporation, California Institute of Technology (CalTech), University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and Tanner Research, with Mr. Don Verlee from Abbott Labs participating as a consultant on the project. The overall objective of this project was to develop, validate and demonstrate several applications of a user-configurable VLSI-type mixed-dimensionality software tool for design of biomicrofluidics devices and integrated systems. The developed tool would provide high fidelity 3-D multiphysics modeling capability, l-D fluidic circuits modeling, and SPICE interface for system level simulations, and mixed-dimensionality design. It would combine tools for layouts and process fabrication, geometric modeling, and automated grid generation, and interfaces to EDA tools (e.g. Cadence) and MCAD tools (e.g. ProE).
Integration of mixed conducting membranes in an oxygen–steam biomass gasification process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puig Arnavat, Maria; Soprani, Stefano; Søgaard, Martin
2013-01-01
. The two configurations demonstrating the highest efficiency are then thermally integrated into an oxygen– steam biomass gasification plant. The energy demand for oxygen production and the membrane area required for a 6 MWth biomass plant are calculated for different operating conditions. Increasing......Oxygen–steam biomass gasification produces a high quality syngas with a high H2/CO ratio that is suitable for upgrading to liquid fuels. Such a gas is also well suited for use in conjunction with solid oxide fuel cells giving rise to a system yielding high electrical efficiency based on biomass...... distillation, especially for small to medium scale plants. This paper examines different configurations for oxygen production using MIEC membranes where the oxygen partial pressure difference is achieved by creating a vacuum on the permeate side, compressing the air on the feed side or a combination of the two...
Integrating Security in Real-Time Embedded Systems
2017-04-26
Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arl ington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that... operate without impacting the tinting and safety constraints of the control logic. Besides, the embedded nature of these systems limits the...only during slack times when no other real-time tasks are rwming. We propose to measure the security of the system by means of the achievable periodic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.
2014-10-01
Selection and integration of high performance home features are two sides of the same coin in energy efficient sustainable construction. Many advanced technologies are available for selection, but it is in the integration of these technologies into an affordable set of features that can be used on a production basis by builders, that ensures whole-house performance meets expectations. This research high performance home analyzes how a set of advanced technologies can be integrated into a durable and energy efficient house in the mixed-humid climate while remaining affordable to homeowners. The technical solutions documented in this report are the cornerstone of the builder's entire business model based on delivering high-performance homes on a production basis as a standard product offering to all price segments of the residential market. Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with production builder Nexus EnergyHomes (CZ 4). The builder plans to adopt the successful components of the energy solution package for all 55 homes in the community. The research objective was to optimize the builder's energy solution package based on energy performance and construction costs. All of the major construction features, including envelope upgrades, space conditioning system, hot water system, and solar electric system were analyzed. The information in this report can be used by builders and designers to evaluate options, and the integration of options, for increasing the efficiency of home designs in climate zone 4. The data also provide a point of reference for evaluating estimates of energy savings and costs for specific features.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferraris, John P. [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
2013-09-30
Nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and other related hybrid materials were prepared by modifying published synthesis procedures by introducing bases, changing stoichiometric ratios, or adjusting reaction conditions. These materials were stable at temperatures >300 °C and were compatible with the polymer matrices used to prepare mixed- matrix membranes (MMMs). MMMs tested at 300 °C exhibited a >30 fold increase in permeability, compared to those measured at 35 °C, while maintaining H_{2}/CO_{2} selectivity. Measurements at high pressure (up to 30 atm) and high temperature (up to 300 °C) resulted in an increase in gas flux across the membrane with retention of selectivity. No variations in permeability were observed at high pressures at either 35 or 300 °C. CO_{2}-induced plasticization was not observed for Matrimid®, VTEC, and PBI polymers or their MMMs at 30 atm and 300 °C. Membrane surface modification by cross-linking with ethanol diamine resulted in an increase in H_{2}/CO_{2} selectivity at 35 °C. Spectrometric analysis showed that the cross-linking was effective to temperatures <150 °C. At higher temperatures, the cross-linked membranes exhibit a H_{2}/CO_{2} selectivity similar to the uncross-linked polymer. Performance of the polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fibers prepared at Santa Fe Science and Technology (SFST, Inc.) showed increased flux and selectivity at 300 °C, which is comparable to a flat PBI membrane. A water-gas shift reactor has been built and currently being optimized for testing under DOE conditions.
Multiple time step integrators in ab initio molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.; Markland, Thomas E.
2014-01-01
Multiple time-scale algorithms exploit the natural separation of time-scales in chemical systems to greatly accelerate the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations. Although the utility of these methods in systems where the interactions are described by empirical potentials is now well established, their application to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations has been limited by difficulties associated with splitting the ab initio potential into fast and slowly varying components. Here we present two schemes that enable efficient time-scale separation in ab initio calculations: one based on fragment decomposition and the other on range separation of the Coulomb operator in the electronic Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for both water clusters and a solvated hydroxide ion that multiple time-scale molecular dynamics allows for outer time steps of 2.5 fs, which are as large as those obtained when such schemes are applied to empirical potentials, while still allowing for bonds to be broken and reformed throughout the dynamics. This permits computational speedups of up to 4.4x, compared to standard Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics with a 0.5 fs time step, while maintaining the same energy conservation and accuracy
Adam, Salomé; Dabin, Juliette; Chevallier, Odile; Leroy, Olivier; Baldeyron, Céline; Corpet, Armelle; Lomonte, Patrick; Renaud, Olivier; Almouzni, Geneviève; Polo, Sophie E
2016-10-06
Chromatin integrity is critical for cell function and identity but is challenged by DNA damage. To understand how chromatin architecture and the information that it conveys are preserved or altered following genotoxic stress, we established a system for real-time tracking of parental histones, which characterize the pre-damage chromatin state. Focusing on histone H3 dynamics after local UVC irradiation in human cells, we demonstrate that parental histones rapidly redistribute around damaged regions by a dual mechanism combining chromatin opening and histone mobilization on chromatin. Importantly, parental histones almost entirely recover and mix with new histones in repairing chromatin. Our data further define a close coordination of parental histone dynamics with DNA repair progression through the damage sensor DDB2 (DNA damage-binding protein 2). We speculate that this mechanism may contribute to maintaining a memory of the original chromatin landscape and may help preserve epigenome stability in response to DNA damage. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Two-loop master integrals for the mixed EW-QCD virtual corrections to Drell-Yan scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonciani, Roberto [' ' La Sapienza' ' Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN Sezione Roma (Italy); Di Vita, Stefano [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Mastrolia, Pierpaolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Padova Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Astronomia; INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Schubert, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)
2016-04-15
We present the calculation of the master integrals needed for the two-loop QCD x EW corrections to q+ anti q → l{sup -}+l{sup +} and q+ anti q{sup '} → l{sup -}+ anti ν, for massless external particles. We treat W and Z bosons as degenerate in mass. We identify three types of diagrams, according to the presence of massive internal lines: the no-mass type, the one-mass type, and the two-mass type, where all massive propagators, when occurring, contain the same mass value. We find a basis of 49 master integrals and evaluate them with the method of the differential equations. The Magnus exponential is employed to choose a set of master integrals that obeys a canonical system of differential equations. Boundary conditions are found either by matching the solutions onto simpler integrals in special kinematic configurations, or by requiring the regularity of the solution at pseudo-thresholds. The canonical master integrals are finally given as Taylor series around d=4 space-time dimensions, up to order four, with coefficients given in terms of iterated integrals, respectively up to weight four.
Chao, W. C.
1982-01-01
With appropriate modifications, a recently proposed explicit-multiple-time-step scheme (EMTSS) is incorporated into the UCLA model. In this scheme, the linearized terms in the governing equations that generate the gravity waves are split into different vertical modes. Each mode is integrated with an optimal time step, and at periodic intervals these modes are recombined. The other terms are integrated with a time step dictated by the CFL condition for low-frequency waves. This large time step requires a special modification of the advective terms in the polar region to maintain stability. Test runs for 72 h show that EMTSS is a stable, efficient and accurate scheme.
Time, dynamics and chaos. Integrating Poincare's "non-integrable systems"
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prigogine, I.
1990-01-01
This report discusses the nature of time. The author attempts to resolve the conflict between the concept of time reversibility in classical and quantum mechanics with the macroscopic world's irreversibility of time. (LSP)
Weisner, Thomas S; Fiese, Barbara H
2011-12-01
Mixed methods in family psychology refer to the systematic integration of qualitative and quantitative techniques to represent family processes and settings. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in study design, analytic strategies, and technological support (such as software) that allow for the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods and for making appropriate inferences from mixed methods. This special section of the Journal of Family Psychology illustrates how mixed methods may be used to advance knowledge in family science through identifying important cultural differences in family structure, beliefs, and practices, and revealing patterns of family relationships to generate new measurement paradigms and inform clinical practice. Guidance is offered to advance mixed methods research in family psychology through sound principles of peer review.
Numerical integration of the Teukolsky equation in the time domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pazos-Avalos, Enrique; Lousto, Carlos O.
2005-01-01
We present a fourth-order convergent (2+1)-dimensional, numerical formalism to solve the Teukolsky equation in the time domain. Our approach is first to rewrite the Teukolsky equation as a system of first-order differential equations. In this way we get a system that has the form of an advection equation. This is then used in combination with a series expansion of the solution in powers of time. To obtain a fourth-order scheme we kept terms up to fourth derivative in time and use the advectionlike system of differential equations to substitute the temporal derivatives by spatial derivatives. This scheme is applied to evolve gravitational perturbations in the Schwarzschild and Kerr backgrounds. Our numerical method proved to be stable and fourth-order convergent in r* and θ directions. The correct power-law tail, ∼1/t 2l+3 , for general initial data, and ∼1/t 2l+4 , for time-symmetric data, was found in our runs. We noted that it is crucial to resolve accurately the angular dependence of the mode at late times in order to obtain these values of the exponents in the power-law decay. In other cases, when the decay was too fast and round-off error was reached before a tail was developed, then the quasinormal modes frequencies provided a test to determine the validity of our code
An integration time adaptive control method for atmospheric composition detection of occultation
Ding, Lin; Hou, Shuai; Yu, Fei; Liu, Cheng; Li, Chao; Zhe, Lin
2018-01-01
When sun is used as the light source for atmospheric composition detection, it is necessary to image sun for accurate identification and stable tracking. In the course of 180 second of the occultation, the magnitude of sun light intensity through the atmosphere changes greatly. It is nearly 1100 times illumination change between the maximum atmospheric and the minimum atmospheric. And the process of light change is so severe that 2.9 times per second of light change can be reached. Therefore, it is difficult to control the integration time of sun image camera. In this paper, a novel adaptive integration time control method for occultation is presented. In this method, with the distribution of gray value in the image as the reference variable, and the concepts of speed integral PID control, the integration time adaptive control problem of high frequency imaging. The large dynamic range integration time automatic control in the occultation can be achieved.
Wiswall, John D.
For many aerospace applications, mixing enhancement between co-flowing streams has been identified as a critical and enabling technology. Due to short fuel residence times in scramjet combustors, combustion is limited by the molecular mixing of hydrogen (fuel) and air. Determining the mixedness of fuel and air in these complex supersonic flowfields is critical to the advancement of novel injection schemes currently being developed at UTA in collaboration with NASA Langley and intended to be used on a future two-stage to orbit (~Mach 16) hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for space access. Expanding on previous work, an instrument has been designed, fabricated, and tested in order to measure mean concentrations of injected helium (a passive scalar used instead of hazardous hydrogen) and to quantitatively characterize the nature of the high-frequency concentration fluctuations encountered in the compressible, turbulent, and high-speed (up to Mach 3.5) complex flows associated with the new supersonic injection schemes. This important high-frequency data is not yet attainable when employing other techniques such as Laser Induced Fluorescence, Filtered Rayleigh Scattering or mass spectroscopy in the same complex supersonic flows. The probe operates by exploiting the difference between the thermodynamic properties of two species through independent massflow measurements and calibration. The probe samples isokinetically from the flowfield's area of interest and the helium concentration may be uniquely determined by hot-film anemometry and internally measured stagnation conditions. The final design has a diameter of 0.25" and is only 2.22" long. The overall accuracy of the probe is 3% in molar fraction of helium. The frequency response of mean concentration measurements is estimated at 103 Hz, while high-frequency hot-film measurements were conducted at 60 kHz. Additionally, the work presents an analysis of the probe's internal mixing effects and the effects of the spatial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DeBar Lynn L
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial recent research examines the efficacy of many types of complementary and alternative (CAM therapies. However, outcomes associated with the "real-world" use of CAM has been largely overlooked, despite calls for CAM therapies to be studied in the manner in which they are practiced. Americans seek CAM treatments far more often for chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP than for any other condition. Among CAM treatments for CMP, acupuncture and chiropractic (A/C care are among those with the highest acceptance by physician groups and the best evidence to support their use. Further, recent alarming increases in delivery of opioid treatment and surgical interventions for chronic pain--despite their high costs, potential adverse effects, and modest efficacy--suggests the need to evaluate real world outcomes associated with promising non-pharmacological/non-surgical CAM treatments for CMP, which are often well accepted by patients and increasingly used in the community. Methods/Design This multi-phase, mixed methods study will: (1 conduct a retrospective study using information from electronic medical records (EMRs of a large HMO to identify unique clusters of patients with CMP (e.g., those with differing demographics, histories of pain condition, use of allopathic and CAM health services, and comorbidity profiles that may be associated with different propensities for A/C utilization and/or differential outcomes associated with such care; (2 use qualitative interviews to explore allopathic providers' recommendations for A/C and patients' decisions to pursue and retain CAM care; and (3 prospectively evaluate health services/costs and broader clinical and functional outcomes associated with the receipt of A/C relative to carefully matched comparison participants receiving traditional CMP services. Sensitivity analyses will compare methods relying solely on EMR-derived data versus analyses supplementing EMR data with
DeBar, Lynn L; Elder, Charles; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Aickin, Mikel; Deyo, Rick; Meenan, Richard; Dickerson, John; Webster, Jennifer A; Jo Yarborough, Bobbi
2011-11-25
Substantial recent research examines the efficacy of many types of complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies. However, outcomes associated with the "real-world" use of CAM has been largely overlooked, despite calls for CAM therapies to be studied in the manner in which they are practiced. Americans seek CAM treatments far more often for chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) than for any other condition. Among CAM treatments for CMP, acupuncture and chiropractic (A/C) care are among those with the highest acceptance by physician groups and the best evidence to support their use. Further, recent alarming increases in delivery of opioid treatment and surgical interventions for chronic pain--despite their high costs, potential adverse effects, and modest efficacy--suggests the need to evaluate real world outcomes associated with promising non-pharmacological/non-surgical CAM treatments for CMP, which are often well accepted by patients and increasingly used in the community. This multi-phase, mixed methods study will: (1) conduct a retrospective study using information from electronic medical records (EMRs) of a large HMO to identify unique clusters of patients with CMP (e.g., those with differing demographics, histories of pain condition, use of allopathic and CAM health services, and comorbidity profiles) that may be associated with different propensities for A/C utilization and/or differential outcomes associated with such care; (2) use qualitative interviews to explore allopathic providers' recommendations for A/C and patients' decisions to pursue and retain CAM care; and (3) prospectively evaluate health services/costs and broader clinical and functional outcomes associated with the receipt of A/C relative to carefully matched comparison participants receiving traditional CMP services. Sensitivity analyses will compare methods relying solely on EMR-derived data versus analyses supplementing EMR data with conventionally collected patient and clinician data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarang Deo
Full Text Available Rapid scale up of HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa has refueled the long-standing health policy debate regarding the merits and drawbacks of vertical and integrated system. Recent pilots of integrating outpatient and HIV services have shown an improvement in some patient outcomes but deterioration in waiting times, which can lead to worse health outcomes in the long run.A pilot intervention involving integration of outpatient and HIV services in an urban primary care facility in Lusaka, Zambia was studied. Data on waiting time of patients during two seven-day periods before and six months after the integration were collected using a time and motion study. Statistical tests were conducted to investigate whether the two observation periods differed in operational details such as staffing, patient arrival rates, mix of patients etc. A discrete event simulation model was constructed to facilitate a fair comparison of waiting times before and after integration. The simulation model was also used to develop alternative configurations of integration and to estimate the resulting waiting times.Comparison of raw data showed that waiting times increased by 32% and 36% after integration for OPD and ART patients respectively (p<0.01. Using simulation modeling, we found that a large portion of this increase could be explained by changes in operational conditions before and after integration such as reduced staff availability (p<0.01 and longer breaks between consecutive patients (p<0.05. Controlling for these differences, integration of services, per se, would have resulted in a significant decrease in waiting times for OPD and a moderate decrease for HIV services.Integrating health services has the potential of reducing waiting times due to more efficient use of resources. However, one needs to ensure that other operational factors such as staff availability are not adversely affected due to integration.
Real-Time Integrated Re-scheduling for Tramway Operations
Cheung, Kam-Fung; Kuo, Yong-Hong; Lai, S.W.; Leung, Janny M.Y.
2018-01-01
Our work aims to develop practical solution approaches for real-time dispatch of crews and vehicles for disruption management. The practical motivation for our research arose from the operations of a public tramway system in Hong Kong. The tram system shares the road with other vehicular traffic in
Integrated capacity and inventory management with capacity acquisition lead times
Mincsovics, G.Z.; Tan, T.; Alp, O.
2009-01-01
We model a make-to-stock production system that utilizes permanent and contingent capacity to meet non-stationary stochastic demand, where a constant lead time is associated with the acquisition of contingent capacity. We determine the structure of the optimal solution concerning both the
The Feynman integral for time-dependent anharmonic oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grothaus, M.; Khandekar, D.C.; da Silva, J.L.; Streit, L.
1997-01-01
We review some basic notions and results of white noise analysis that are used in the construction of the Feynman integrand as a generalized white noise functional. We show that the Feynman integrand for the time-dependent harmonic oscillator in an external potential is a Hida distribution. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Representing real time semantics for distributed application integration
Poon, P.M.S.; Dillon, T.S.; Chang, E.; Feng, L.
Traditional real time system design and development are driven by technological requirements. With the ever growing complexity of requirements and the advances in software design, the alignment of focus has gradually been shifted to the perspective of business and industrial needs. This paper
Integration of the time-dependent heat equation in the fuel rod performance program IAMBUS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
West, G.
1982-01-01
An iterative numerical method for integration of the time-dependent heat equation is described. No presuppositions are made for the dependency of the thermal conductivity and heat capacity on space, time and temperature. (orig.) [de
Di Canto, Angelo
2013-01-01
We report a measurement of the time-dependent ratio of $D^0\\to K^+\\pi^-$ to $D^0\\to K^-\\pi^+$ decay rates in $D^{*+}$-tagged events using 1.0\\,fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity recorded by the LHCb experiment. We measure the mixing parameters $x'^2=(-0.9\\pm1.3)\\times10^{-4}$, $y'=(7.2\\pm2.4)\\times10^{-3}$ and the ratio of doubly-Cabibbo-suppressed to Cabibbo-favored decay rates $R_D=(3.52\\pm0.15)\\times10^{-3}$. The result excludes the no-mixing hypothesis with a probability corresponding to 9.1 standard deviations and represents the first observation of charm mixing from a single measurement
An efficient explicit marching on in time solver for magnetic field volume integral equation
Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Ulku, H. Arda; Bagci, Hakan
2015-01-01
An efficient explicit marching on in time (MOT) scheme for solving the magnetic field volume integral equation is proposed. The MOT system is cast in the form of an ordinary differential equation and is integrated in time using a PE(CE)m multistep
Nuss, Michelle A.; Hill, Janette R.; Cervero, Ronald M.; Gaines, Julie K.; Middendorf, Bruce F.
2014-01-01
Purpose Despite widespread use of mobile technology in medical education, medical students’ use of mobile technology for clinical decision support and learning is not well understood. Three key questions were explored in this extensive mixed methods study: 1) how medical students used mobile technology in the care of patients, 2) the mobile applications (apps) used and 3) how expertise and time spent changed overtime. Methods This year-long (July 2012–June 2013) mixed methods study explored the use of the iPad, using four data collection instruments: 1) beginning and end-of-year questionnaires, 2) iPad usage logs, 3) weekly rounding observations, and 4) weekly medical student interviews. Descriptive statistics were generated for the questionnaires and apps reported in the usage logs. The iPad usage logs, observation logs, and weekly interviews were analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. Results Students predominantly used mobile technology to obtain real-time patient data via the electronic health record (EHR), to access medical knowledge resources for learning, and to inform patient care. The top four apps used were Epocrates®, PDF Expert®, VisualDx®, and Micromedex®. The majority of students indicated that their use (71%) and expertise (75%) using mobile technology grew overtime. Conclusions This mixed methods study provides substantial evidence that medical students used mobile technology for clinical decision support and learning. Integrating its use into the medical student's daily workflow was essential for achieving these outcomes. Developing expertise in using mobile technology and various apps was critical for effective and efficient support of real-time clinical decisions. PMID:25317266
Nuss, Michelle A; Hill, Janette R; Cervero, Ronald M; Gaines, Julie K; Middendorf, Bruce F
2014-01-01
Despite widespread use of mobile technology in medical education, medical students' use of mobile technology for clinical decision support and learning is not well understood. Three key questions were explored in this extensive mixed methods study: 1) how medical students used mobile technology in the care of patients, 2) the mobile applications (apps) used and 3) how expertise and time spent changed overtime. This year-long (July 2012-June 2013) mixed methods study explored the use of the iPad, using four data collection instruments: 1) beginning and end-of-year questionnaires, 2) iPad usage logs, 3) weekly rounding observations, and 4) weekly medical student interviews. Descriptive statistics were generated for the questionnaires and apps reported in the usage logs. The iPad usage logs, observation logs, and weekly interviews were analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. Students predominantly used mobile technology to obtain real-time patient data via the electronic health record (EHR), to access medical knowledge resources for learning, and to inform patient care. The top four apps used were Epocrates(®), PDF Expert(®), VisualDx(®), and Micromedex(®). The majority of students indicated that their use (71%) and expertise (75%) using mobile technology grew overtime. This mixed methods study provides substantial evidence that medical students used mobile technology for clinical decision support and learning. Integrating its use into the medical student's daily workflow was essential for achieving these outcomes. Developing expertise in using mobile technology and various apps was critical for effective and efficient support of real-time clinical decisions.
Latessa, Robyn A; Swendiman, Robert A; Parlier, Anna Beth; Galvin, Shelley L; Hirsh, David A
2017-09-01
The authors explored affordances that contribute to participants' successful learning in longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs). This dual-institutional, mixed-methods study included electronic surveys and semistructured interviews of LIC graduates who completed their core clinical (third) year of medical school. These LIC graduates took part in LICs at Harvard Medical School from 2004 to 2013 and the University of North Carolina School of Medicine-Asheville campus from 2009 to 2013. The survey questions asked LIC graduates to rate components of LICs that they perceived as contributing to successful learning. A research assistant interviewed a subset of study participants about their learning experiences. The authors analyzed aggregate data quantitatively and performed a qualitative content analysis on interview data. The graduates reported multiple affordances that they perceive contributed to successful learning in their LIC. The most reported components included continuity and relationships with preceptors, patients, place, and peers, along with integration of and flexibility within the curriculum. As LIC models grow in size and number, and their structures and processes evolve, learners' perceptions of affordances may guide curriculum planning. Further research is needed to investigate to what degree and by what means these affordances support learning in LICs and other models of clinical education.
González-García, E; Gourdine, J L; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Vaarst, M
2012-05-01
Mixed farming systems (MFS) have demonstrated some success by focusing on the use of integrative and holistic mechanisms, and rationally building on and using the natural and local resource base without exhausting it, while enhancing biodiversity, optimizing complementarities between crops and animal systems and finally increasing opportunities in rural livelihoods. Focusing our analysis and discussion on field experiences and empirical knowledge in the Caribbean islands, this paper discusses the opportunities for a change needed in current MFS research-development philosophy. The importance of shifting from fragile/specialized production systems to MFS under current global conditions is argued with an emphasis on the case of Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) and the Caribbean. Particular vulnerable characteristics as well as the potential and constraints of SIDS and their agricultural sectors are described, while revealing the opportunities for the 'richness' of the natural and local resources to support authentic and less dependent production system strategies. Examples are provided of the use of natural grasses, legumes, crop residues and agro-industrial by-products. We analyse the requirement for a change in research strategies and initiatives through the development of a complex but necessary multi-/inter-/trans-disciplinary teamwork spirit. We stress as essential the collaboration and active participation of local and regional actors, stakeholders and end-users in the identification of research priorities, as well as the generation, exchange and dissemination of knowledge and technology innovations, while strengthening the leadership roles in the conduct of integrative and participative research and development projects.
High resolution time integration for SN radiation transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.
2009-01-01
First-order, second-order, and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the discrete ordinates (S N ) equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first-order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second-order schemes in hyperbolic partial differential equations. The high resolution method achieves these properties by nonlinearly adapting the time stencil to use a first-order method in regions where oscillations could be created. We employ a quasi-linear solution scheme to solve the nonlinear equations that arise from the high resolution method. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second-order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first-order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first-order and matches or exceeds the second-order method
An integral time series on simulated labeling using fractal structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djainal, D.D.
1997-01-01
This research deals with the detection of time series of vertical two-phase flow, in attempt to developed an objective indicator of time series flow patterns. One of new method is fractal analysis which can complement conventional methods in the description of highly irregular fluctuations. in the present work, fractal analysis applied to analyze simulated boiling coolant signal. this simulated signals built by sum random elements in small subchannels of the coolant channel. Two modes are defined and both modes are characterized by their void fractions. in the case of unimodal-PDF signals, the difference between these modes is relative small. on other hand, bimodal-PDF signals have relative large range. in this research, fractal dimension can indicate the characters of that signals simulation
The impact of case mix on timely access to appointments in a primary care group practice.
Ozen, Asli; Balasubramanian, Hari
2013-06-01
At the heart of the practice of primary care is the concept of a physician panel. A panel refers to the set of patients for whose long term, holistic care the physician is responsible. A physician's appointment burden is determined by the size and composition of the panel. Size refers to the number of patients in the panel while composition refers to the case-mix, or the type of patients (older versus younger, healthy versus chronic patients), in the panel. In this paper, we quantify the impact of the size and case-mix on the ability of a multi-provider practice to provide adequate access to its empanelled patients. We use overflow frequency, or the probability that the demand exceeds the capacity, as a measure of access. We formulate problem of minimizing the maximum overflow for a multi-physician practice as a non-linear integer programming problem and establish structural insights that enable us to create simple yet near optimal heuristic strategies to change panels. This optimization framework helps a practice: (1) quantify the imbalances across physicians due to the variation in case mix and panel size, and the resulting effect on access; and (2) determine how panels can be altered in the least disruptive way to improve access. We illustrate our methodology using four test practices created using patient level data from the primary care practice at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. An important advantage of our approach is that it can be implemented in an Excel Spreadsheet and used for aggregate level planning and panel management decisions.
Vlčková Kateřina
2014-01-01
The presentation focused on an so called integrated mixed method research design example on a basis of a Czech Science Foundation Project Nr. GAP407/12/0432 "Foreign Language Learning Strategies and Achievement: Analysis of Strategy Clusters and Sequences". All main integrated parts of the mixed methods research design were discussed: the aim, theoretical framework, research question, methods and validity threats. Prezentace se zaměřovala na tzv. integrovaný vícemetodový výzkumný design na...
On the initial condition problem of the time domain PMCHWT surface integral equation
Uysal, Ismail Enes
2017-05-13
Non-physical, linearly increasing and constant current components are induced in marching on-in-time solution of time domain surface integral equations when initial conditions on time derivatives of (unknown) equivalent currents are not enforced properly. This problem can be remedied by solving the time integral of the surface integral for auxiliary currents that are defined to be the time derivatives of the equivalent currents. Then the equivalent currents are obtained by numerically differentiating the auxiliary ones. In this work, this approach is applied to the marching on-in-time solution of the time domain Poggio-Miller-Chan-Harrington-Wu-Tsai surface integral equation enforced on dispersive/plasmonic scatterers. Accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by a numerical example.
Integrated conception of hardware/software mixed systems used in nuclear instrumentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, Ailton F.; Sorel, Yves; Akil, Mohamed
2002-01-01
Hardware/software codesign carries out the design of systems composed by a hardware portion, with specific components, and a software portion, with microprocessor based architecture. This paper describes the Algorithm Architecture Adequation (AAA) design methodology - originally oriented to programmable multicomponent architectures, its extension to reconfigurable circuits and its application to design and development of nuclear instrumentation systems composed by programmable and configurable circuits. AAA methodology uses an unified model to describe algorithm, architecture and implementation, based on graph theory. The great advantage of AAA methodology is the utilization of a same model from the specification to the implementation of hardware/software systems, reducing the complexity and design time. (author)
Haseli, Y.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.
2012-01-01
The main idea of this paper is to establish a simple approach for prediction of the ignition time of a wood particle assuming that the thermo-physical properties remain constant and ignition takes place at a characteristic ignition temperature. Using a time and space integral method, explicit
Integrated systems for real time data acquisition and processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oprea, I.; Oprea, M.
1995-01-01
The continuous measuring of all the nuclear and dosimetric parameters in a nuclear facility is essential for personnel and environment protection. Considering the vast amount of information and data required to keep an updated overview of a situation the need for an efficient acquisition processing and information system is evident. The paper analyses the special requirements as concerning the real time inter-process communication and proposes a modern concept based on the last trends existing in the field of computer technology and operating systems. (author)
High resolution time integration for Sn radiation transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.
2008-01-01
First order, second order and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the S n equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second order schemes in hyperbolic differential equations. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first order and matches or exceeds the second order method. (authors)
Ovseiko, Pavel V; Melham, Karen; Fowler, Jan; Buchan, Alastair M
2015-01-22
Around the world, the last two decades have been characterised by an increase in the numbers of mergers between healthcare providers, including some of the most prestigious university hospitals and academic health centres. However, many mergers fail to bring the anticipated benefits, and successful post-merger integration in university hospitals and academic health centres is even harder to achieve. An increasing body of literature suggests that organisational culture affects the success of post-merger integration and academic-clinical collaboration. This paper reports findings from a mixed-methods single-site study to examine 1) the perceptions of organisational culture in academic and clinical enterprises at one National Health Service (NHS) trust, and 2) the major cultural issues for its post-merger integration with another NHS trust and strategic partnership with a university. From the entire population of 72 clinician-scientists at one of the legacy NHS trusts, 38 (53%) completed a quantitative Competing Values Framework survey and 24 (33%) also provided qualitative responses. The survey was followed up by semi-structured interviews with six clinician-scientists and a group discussion including five senior managers. The cultures of two legacy NHS trusts differed and were primarily distinct from the culture of the academic enterprise. Major cultural issues were related to the relative size, influence, and history of the legacy NHS trusts, and the implications of these for respective identities, clinical services, and finances. Strategic partnership with a university served as an important ameliorating consideration in reaching trust merger. However, some aspects of university entrepreneurial culture are difficult to reconcile with the NHS service delivery model and may create tension. There are challenges in preserving a more desirable culture at one of the legacy NHS trusts, enhancing cultures in both legacy NHS trusts during their post-merger integration, and
Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Nikolsky, Alexander I.; Lazarev, Alexander A.; Lazareva, Maria V.
2008-03-01
In the paper the actuality of neurophysiologically motivated neuron arrays with flexibly programmable functions and operations with possibility to select required accuracy and type of nonlinear transformation and learning are shown. We consider neurons design and simulation results of multichannel spatio-time algebraic accumulation - integration of optical signals. Advantages for nonlinear transformation and summation - integration are shown. The offered circuits are simple and can have intellectual properties such as learning and adaptation. The integrator-neuron is based on CMOS current mirrors and comparators. The performance: consumable power - 100...500 μW, signal period- 0.1...1ms, input optical signals power - 0.2...20 μW time delays - less 1μs, the number of optical signals - 2...10, integration time - 10...100 of signal periods, accuracy or integration error - about 1%. Various modifications of the neuron-integrators with improved performance and for different applications are considered in the paper.
Towards RTOS support for mixed time-triggered and event-triggered task sets
Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Isovic, D.; Sankar Ramachandran, G.
2012-01-01
Many embedded systems have complex timing constraints and, at the same time, have flexibility requirements which prohibit offline planning of the entire system. To support a mixture of time-triggered and event-triggered tasks, some industrial systems deploy a real-time operating system (RTOS) with a
Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring.
Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue
2015-11-05
We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0-60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems.
Jackson, P. Ryan; Reneau, Paul C.
2014-01-01
were collected concurrently with the AUV surveys, the pilot study used a manned boat equipped with an ADCP. Combining the AUV and manned boat datasets resulted in datasets that are essentially continuous from the fluvial through the lacustrine zones of a rivermouth. Whereas the pilot studies were completed during low flows on the tributaries, completion of surveys at higher flows using the same techniques is possible, but the use of the AUV would be limited to areas with relatively low velocities (less than 2 feet per second) such as the harbors and nearshore zones of Lake Michigan. Overall, this pilot study aimed at evaluation of AUV technology for integrated synoptic surveys of rivermouth mixing zones was successful, and the techniques and methods employed in this pilot study should be transferrable to other sites with similar success. The use of the AUV provided significant time savings compared to traditional sampling techniques. For example, the survey of outer Milwaukee Harbor using the AUV required less than 7 hours for approximately 600 profiles compared to the 150 hours it would have taken using traditional methods in a manned boat (a 95 percent reduction in man-hours). The integrated datasets resulting from the AUV and manned survey boat are of high value and present a picture of the mixing and hydrodynamics of these highly dynamic, highly variable rivermouth mixing zones from the relatively well-mixed fluvial environment through the rivermouth to the stratified lacustrine receiving body of Lake Michigan. Such datasets not only allow researchers to understand more about the physical processes occurring in these rivermouths, but they provide high spatial resolution data required for interpretation of relations between disparate point samples and calibration and validation of numerical models.
Multi-channel time-division integrator in HL-2A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Ji
2008-01-01
HL-2A is China's first Tokamak device with divertor configuration (magnetic confinement controlled nuclear fusion device). To find out the details of on-going fusion reaction at different times is of important significance in achieving controlled nuclear fusion. We developed a new type multi-channel time-division integrator for HL-2A. It has functions of automatic cutting off negative pulse of the input signals, optional integrating time division spacing 0.2-1 ms, TTL starting trigger signal, automatic regularly work 20 s, and integrating 10 channel at the same time. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choedkiatsakul, I.; Ngaosuwan, K.; Assabumrungrat, S.; Tabasso, S.; Cravotto, G.
2015-01-01
A new simple flow system which is made up of a multi-rotor high-shear mixer connected to a multimode microwave reactor has been assembled. This simple loop reactor has been successfully used in the NaOH-catalyzed transesterification of refined palm oil in methanol. Thanks to optimal mass/heat transfer, full conversion was achieved within 5 min (biodiesel yield of 99.80%). High-quality biodiesel was obtained that is in accordance with international specifications and analytical ASTM standards. The procedure's high efficiency and low energy consumption should pave the way for process scale up. - Highlights: • The combination of HSM-MW flow system for biodiesel production has been proposed. • Highly efficient mass and heat transfer in transesterification reaction. • The hybrid reactor enables a complete conversion in 5 min reaction time. • The new system halved the energy consumption of conventional processes
THE MARKETING MIX OPTIMIZATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SABOU FELICIA
2014-02-01
Full Text Available ing mix a particularly important issue is to choose the best combination of its variables, this lead to the achievement objectives, in time. Choosing the right marketing mix is possible only by reporting information to some clear benchmarks, these criteria a related to the objective of the company at the time of analyze. The study shows that the companies must give a great importance to optimize the marketing mix, because of how its combines and integrates company policies relating to the product, price, distribution and promotion, depends the success or the failure on its market. The practice has shown that if an element of the marketing mix is wrong implemented, marketing strategies and programs do not achieve their objectives, and the company can not generate the expected profit. To optimize the marketing mix, companies should consider the following issues: the resources (materials, financial and human, which will be properly allocated to all the elements of the marketing mix, the specific marketing tools and the relationship of interdependence of all the methods and tools used to optimize the marketing mix.
Choi, Hyeon-Gyu; Son, Moon; Choi, Heechul
2017-10-01
Thin-film composite mixed matrix membrane (TFC MMM) with functionalized carbon nanotube (fCNT) blended in polyethersulfone (PES) support layer was synthesized via interfacial polymerization and phase inversion. This membrane was firstly tested in lab-scale integrating seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation forward osmosis (FO) process. Water flux of TFC MMM was increased by 72% compared to that of TFC membrane due to enhanced hydrophilicity. Although TFC MMM showed lower water flux than TFC commercial membrane, enhanced reverse salt flux selectivity (RSFS) of TFC MMM was observed compared to TFC membrane (15% higher) and TFC commercial membrane (4% higher), representing membrane permselectivity. Under effluent organic matter (EfOM) fouling test, 16% less normalized flux decline of TFC MMM was observed compared to TFC membrane. There was 8% less decline of TFC MMM compared to TFC commercial membrane due to fCNT effect on repulsive foulant-membrane interaction enhancement, caused by negatively charged membrane surface. After 10 min physical cleaning, TFC MMM displayed higher recovered normalized flux than TFC membrane (6%) and TFC commercial membrane (4%); this was also supported by visualized characterization of fouling layer. This study presents application of TFC MMM to integrated seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation FO process for the first time. It can be concluded that EfOM fouling of TFC MMM was suppressed due to repulsive foulant-membrane interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conservative fourth-order time integration of non-linear dynamic systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
2015-01-01
An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating...... the resulting time integrals of the inertia and stiffness terms via integration by parts. This process introduces the time derivatives of the state space variables, and these are then substituted from the original state-space differential equations. The resulting discrete form of the state-space equations...... is a direct fourth-order accurate representation of the original differential equations. This fourth-order form is energy conserving for systems with force potential in the form of a quartic polynomial in the displacement components. Energy conservation for a force potential of general form is obtained...
Chmiel, Aviva S; Shaha, Maya; Schneider, Daniel K
2017-01-01
The aim of this research is to develop a comprehensive evaluation framework involving all actors in a higher education blended learning (BL) program. BL evaluation usually either focuses on students, faculty, technological or institutional aspects. Currently, no validated comprehensive monitoring tool exists that can support introduction and further implementation of BL in a higher education context. Starting from established evaluation principles and standards, concepts that were to be evaluated were firstly identified and grouped. In a second step, related BL evaluation tools referring to students, faculty and institutional level were selected. This allowed setting up and implementing an evaluation framework to monitor the introduction of BL during two succeeding recurrences of the program. The results of the evaluation allowed documenting strengths and weaknesses of the BL format in a comprehensive way, involving all actors. It has led to improvements at program, faculty and course level. The evaluation process and the reporting of the results proved to be demanding in time and personal resources. The evaluation framework allows measuring the most significant dimensions influencing the success of a BL implementation at program level. However, this comprehensive evaluation is resource intensive. Further steps will be to refine the framework towards a sustainable and transferable BL monitoring tool that finds a balance between comprehensiveness and efficiency. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bajay, S.V.
2006-01-01
During the past decade, the Brazilian electric power sector went through similar institutional changes taken place in both developing and developed countries. The main goals for such changes were to inject competition into the generation and supply links of the sector's production chain and to reduce public debt via privatization of state-owned utilities that dominated the pre-reform sector. This paper discusses why these changes took place in Brazil and explains why the results of the reform model implemented by the previous federal administration were unsatisfactory. The current federal administration has substantially altered the prior model, aiming to remedy insufficient private investment in new power stations that caused a serious power shortage in 2001. The paper addresses the main characteristics of the new model, which implements (a) public biddings of new power plants for all distribution utilities in the country, and (b) forward planning of optimal commissioning times and capacity of new plants. The paper ends with a discussion of the potential benefits and drawbacks of the new scheme and the role of the regulator in the early stage of the ongoing transition in the Brazilian electrical power industry. (author)
Integrated Monitoring of Mola mola Behaviour in Space and Time.
Sousa, Lara L; López-Castejón, Francisco; Gilabert, Javier; Relvas, Paulo; Couto, Ana; Queiroz, Nuno; Caldas, Renato; Dias, Paulo Sousa; Dias, Hugo; Faria, Margarida; Ferreira, Filipe; Ferreira, António Sérgio; Fortuna, João; Gomes, Ricardo Joel; Loureiro, Bruno; Martins, Ricardo; Madureira, Luis; Neiva, Jorge; Oliveira, Marina; Pereira, João; Pinto, José; Py, Frederic; Queirós, Hugo; Silva, Daniel; Sujit, P B; Zolich, Artur; Johansen, Tor Arne; de Sousa, João Borges; Rajan, Kanna
2016-01-01
Over the last decade, ocean sunfish movements have been monitored worldwide using various satellite tracking methods. This study reports the near-real time monitoring of fine-scale (vehicles to measure both the movements and the contextual environment of the fish. A total of four individuals were tracked using custom-made GPS satellite tags providing geolocation estimates of fine-scale resolution. These accurate positions further informed sunfish areas of restricted search (ARS), which were directly correlated to steep thermal frontal zones. Simultaneously, and for two different occasions, an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) video-recorded the path of the tracked fish and detected buoyant particles in the water column. Importantly, the densities of these particles were also directly correlated to steep thermal gradients. Thus, both sunfish foraging behaviour (ARS) and possibly prey densities, were found to be influenced by analogous environmental conditions. In addition, the dynamic structure of the water transited by the tracked individuals was described by a Lagrangian modelling approach. The model informed the distribution of zooplankton in the region, both horizontally and in the water column, and the resultant simulated densities positively correlated with sunfish ARS behaviour estimator (rs = 0.184, pstructure provide a rationale for a predator's fine-scale behaviour observed over a two weeks in May 2014.
Integrated Monitoring of Mola mola Behaviour in Space and Time
Sousa, Lara L.; López-Castejón, Francisco; Gilabert, Javier; Relvas, Paulo; Couto, Ana; Queiroz, Nuno; Caldas, Renato; Dias, Paulo Sousa; Dias, Hugo; Faria, Margarida; Ferreira, Filipe; Ferreira, António Sérgio; Fortuna, João; Gomes, Ricardo Joel; Loureiro, Bruno; Martins, Ricardo; Madureira, Luis; Neiva, Jorge; Oliveira, Marina; Pereira, João; Pinto, José; Py, Frederic; Queirós, Hugo; Silva, Daniel; Sujit, P. B.; Zolich, Artur; Johansen, Tor Arne; de Sousa, João Borges; Rajan, Kanna
2016-01-01
Over the last decade, ocean sunfish movements have been monitored worldwide using various satellite tracking methods. This study reports the near-real time monitoring of fine-scale (behaviour of sunfish. The study was conducted in southern Portugal in May 2014 and involved satellite tags and underwater and surface robotic vehicles to measure both the movements and the contextual environment of the fish. A total of four individuals were tracked using custom-made GPS satellite tags providing geolocation estimates of fine-scale resolution. These accurate positions further informed sunfish areas of restricted search (ARS), which were directly correlated to steep thermal frontal zones. Simultaneously, and for two different occasions, an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) video-recorded the path of the tracked fish and detected buoyant particles in the water column. Importantly, the densities of these particles were also directly correlated to steep thermal gradients. Thus, both sunfish foraging behaviour (ARS) and possibly prey densities, were found to be influenced by analogous environmental conditions. In addition, the dynamic structure of the water transited by the tracked individuals was described by a Lagrangian modelling approach. The model informed the distribution of zooplankton in the region, both horizontally and in the water column, and the resultant simulated densities positively correlated with sunfish ARS behaviour estimator (rs = 0.184, pbehaviour observed over a two weeks in May 2014. PMID:27494028
Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays
Chen, Chuan; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian
2017-01-01
Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don't include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs) with both discrete delay and di...
MIXED REALITY: THE DECONSTRUCTION OF TIME/THE RESTRUCTURE OF THE FUTURE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Alaa Mandour
2007-07-01
Full Text Available The information age has led us to experience our environment in innovative ways, especially after the emergence of virtual spaces. Our senses have been triggered and our perceptions have been significantly altered through our experience of ever developing virtual spaces, comprising of spatial metaphors coded through an abstract flow of electronic signals, or physical spaces, comprising of zones adapted to activities and channels of communication providing links between zones, or a combination of both. Using the two types of spaces, an architect can more easily interact and communicate with fellow architects as well as clients. This paper intends to explicate the concept of shared mixed realities in the field of architecture based on the construction of transparent boundaries between real and virtual spaces. In order to manage their communication, participants can utilize spatial properties (i.e. containments and movement through the use of shared space technologies which aim to create electronic environments.
Limited preemptive scheduling of mixed time-triggered and event-triggered tasks
Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Zhang, X.; Abdullah, S.M.J.; Isovic, D.
2013-01-01
Many embedded systems have complex timing constraints and, at the same time, have flexibility requirements which prohibit offline planning of the entire system. To support a mixture of time-triggered and event-triggered tasks, some industrial systems deploy a table-driven dispatcher for
Real-time disk scheduling in a mixed-media file system
Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.
2000-01-01
This paper presents our real-time disk scheduler called the Delta L scheduler, which optimizes unscheduled best-effort disk requests by giving priority to best-effort disk requests while meeting real-time request deadlines. Our scheduler tries to execute real-time disk requests as much as possible
Real-Time Disk Scheduling in a Mixed-Media File System
Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.
2000-01-01
This paper presents our real-time disk scheduler called the L scheduler, which optimizes unscheduled best-effort disk requests by giving priority to best-effort disk requests while meeting real-time request deadlines. Our scheduler tries to execute real-time disk requests as much as possible in the
Integrated Monitoring of Mola mola Behaviour in Space and Time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lara L Sousa
Full Text Available Over the last decade, ocean sunfish movements have been monitored worldwide using various satellite tracking methods. This study reports the near-real time monitoring of fine-scale (< 10 m behaviour of sunfish. The study was conducted in southern Portugal in May 2014 and involved satellite tags and underwater and surface robotic vehicles to measure both the movements and the contextual environment of the fish. A total of four individuals were tracked using custom-made GPS satellite tags providing geolocation estimates of fine-scale resolution. These accurate positions further informed sunfish areas of restricted search (ARS, which were directly correlated to steep thermal frontal zones. Simultaneously, and for two different occasions, an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV video-recorded the path of the tracked fish and detected buoyant particles in the water column. Importantly, the densities of these particles were also directly correlated to steep thermal gradients. Thus, both sunfish foraging behaviour (ARS and possibly prey densities, were found to be influenced by analogous environmental conditions. In addition, the dynamic structure of the water transited by the tracked individuals was described by a Lagrangian modelling approach. The model informed the distribution of zooplankton in the region, both horizontally and in the water column, and the resultant simulated densities positively correlated with sunfish ARS behaviour estimator (rs = 0.184, p<0.001. The model also revealed that tracked fish opportunistically displace with respect to subsurface current flow. Thus, we show how physical forcing and current structure provide a rationale for a predator's fine-scale behaviour observed over a two weeks in May 2014.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Mei Bai
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We establish some new Hermite-Hadamard type integral inequalities for functions whose second-order mixed derivatives are coordinated (s,m-P-convex. An expression form of Hermite-Hadamard type integral inequalities via the beta function and the hypergeometric function is also presented. Our results provide a significant complement to the work of Wu et al. involving the Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for coordinated (s,m-P-convex functions in an earlier article.
Band, L. E.; Lin, L.; Duncan, J. M.
2017-12-01
A major challenge in understanding and managing freshwater volumes and quality in mixed land use catchments is the detailed heterogeneity of topography, soils, canopy, and inputs of water and biogeochemicals. The short space and time scale dynamics of sources, transport and processing of water, carbon and nitrogen in natural and built environments can have a strong influence on the timing and magnitude of watershed runoff and nutrient production, ecosystem cycling and export. Hydroclimate variability induces a functional interchange of terrestrial and aquatic environments across their transition zone with the temporal and spatial expansion and contraction of soil wetness, standing and flowing water over seasonal, diurnal and storm event time scales. Variation in sources and retention of nutrients at these scales need to be understood and represented to design optimal mitigation strategies. This paper discusses the conceptual framework used to design both simulation and measurement approaches, and explores these dynamics using an integrated terrestrial-aquatic watershed model of coupled water-carbon-nitrogen processes at resolutions necessary to resolve "hot spot/hot moment" phenomena in two well studied catchments in Long Term Ecological Research sites. The potential utility of this approach for design and assessment of urban green infrastructure and stream restoration strategies is illustrated.
Bamia, Christina; White, Ian R; Kenward, Michael G
2013-07-10
Linear mixed models are often used for the analysis of data from clinical trials with repeated quantitative outcomes. This paper considers linear mixed models where a particular form is assumed for the treatment effect, in particular constant over time or proportional to time. For simplicity, we assume no baseline covariates and complete post-baseline measures, and we model arbitrary mean responses for the control group at each time. For the variance-covariance matrix, we consider an unstructured model, a random intercepts model and a random intercepts and slopes model. We show that the treatment effect estimator can be expressed as a weighted average of the observed time-specific treatment effects, with weights depending on the covariance structure and the magnitude of the estimated variance components. For an assumed constant treatment effect, under the random intercepts model, all weights are equal, but in the random intercepts and slopes and the unstructured models, we show that some weights can be negative: thus, the estimated treatment effect can be negative, even if all time-specific treatment effects are positive. Our results suggest that particular models for the treatment effect combined with particular covariance structures may result in estimated treatment effects of unexpected magnitude and/or direction. Methods are illustrated using a Parkinson's disease trial. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yan, S.; Lin, H. C.; Jiang, X. Y.
2012-04-01
In this study the authors employ network flow techniques to construct a systematic model that helps ready mixed concrete carriers effectively plan production and truck dispatching schedules under stochastic travel times. The model is formulated as a mixed integer network flow problem with side constraints. Problem decomposition and relaxation techniques, coupled with the CPLEX mathematical programming solver, are employed to develop an algorithm that is capable of efficiently solving the problems. A simulation-based evaluation method is also proposed to evaluate the model, coupled with a deterministic model, and the method currently used in actual operations. Finally, a case study is performed using real operating data from a Taiwan RMC firm. The test results show that the system operating cost obtained using the stochastic model is a significant improvement over that obtained using the deterministic model or the manual approach. Consequently, the model and the solution algorithm could be useful for actual operations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadys, A.; Sudzius, M.; Jarasiunas, K.; Mao Luhong; Sun Niefeng
2006-01-01
Photoelectric properties of semi-insulating, differently doped, and undoped indium phosphide wafers, grown by the liquid encapsulation Czochralski method, have been investigated by time-resolved picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Deep defect related carrier generation, recombination, and transport properties were investigated experimentally by measuring four-wave mixing kinetics and exposure characteristics. The presence of deep donor states in undoped InP was confirmed by a pronounced effect of a space charge electric field to carrier transport. On the other hand, the recharging dynamics of electrically active residual impurities was observed in undoped and Fe-doped InP through the process of efficient trapping of excess carriers. The bipolar diffusion coefficients and mobilities were determined for the all wafers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jitbunjerdkul, S.
2007-11-01
Full Text Available The properties of dough are responsible to the final quality of crispy snack. The effect of flour, water and mixing time on dough quality were evaluated. The simplex-centroid design for mixture of three flours (A, B and C in a composite flour of 30-70, 25-65 and 5-45%, respectively was used in this study. Contour plot of hedonic scores and the predictive regression models were calculated, using Design-Expert version 7.0.3 (Stat-Ease, Inc. MN, USA. The result revealed that the predictive regression model and goodness-of-fit for the correlation between different composite flours and sensory properties showed adj. R2 0.87-0.96 and lack of fit, p>0.05 in the attribute of color, odor, taste and overall liking. The optimum amount of flour A, B and C that would yield the crispy snack with 9-point hedonic score of the all terms in the range of 6.0-9.0 was 45, 25 and 30% respectively. The optimum mixing conditions of dough using the optimum composite flour were studied. Factorial design of 56, 58, 60 and 62% water and mixing time 5, 10 and 15 min was used. When the physical properties were evaluated, this results showed elasticity, cohesion and adhesion of dough increased with increasing water at mixing time ranging from 5 to 10 min. The crispy snack containing 5% fish-head protein hydrolysate, using the composite flour with flours A, B and C in the ratio of 45 : 25 :30, 62% water and mixing time 10 min obtained bulk density 16.17 g/100 ml, water absorption index 5.15 g/g dried sample, maximum force (hardness 141.74 g and numbers of major peak (crispness 8.2 peaks. The acceptance scores of color, odor, taste, crispness and overall liking of the final product evaluated by 9-point hedonic scales, were 6.84, 6.50 , 6.38, 7.68 and 6.64, respectively.
Velocity time integral for right upper pulmonary vein in VLBW infants with patent ductus arteriosus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gianluca Lista
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of significant patent ductus arteriosus reduces the risk of clinical worsening in very low birth weight infants. Echocardiographic patent ductus arteriosus shunt flow pattern can be used to predict significant patent ductus arteriosus. Pulmonary venous flow, expressed as vein velocity time integral, is correlated to ductus arteriosus closure. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between significant reductions in vein velocity time integral and non-significant patent ductus arteriosus in the first week of life. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted to evaluate very low birth weight infants (<1500 g on respiratory support. Echocardiography was used to evaluate vein velocity time integral on days 1 and 4 of life. The relationship between vein velocity time integral and other parameters was studied. RESULTS: In total, 98 very low birth weight infants on respiratory support were studied. On day 1 of life, vein velocity time integral was similar in patients with open or closed ductus. The mean vein velocity time integral significantly reduced in the first four days of life. On the fourth day of life, there was less of a reduction in patients with patent ductus compared to those with closed patent ductus arteriosus and the difference was significant. CONCLUSIONS: A significant reduction in vein velocity time integral in the first days of life is associated with ductus closure. This parameter correlates well with other echocardiographic parameters and may aid in the diagnosis and management of patent ductus arteriosus.
Prameswari, I. K.; Manuhara, G. J.; Amanto, B. S.; Atmaka, W.
2018-05-01
Tapioca starch application in bread processing change water absorption level by the dough, while sufficient mixing time makes the optimal water absorption. This research aims to determine the effect of variations in water volume and mixing time on physical properties of tapioca starch – wheat composite bread and the best method for the composite bread processing. This research used Complete Randomized Factorial Design (CRFD) with two factors: variations of water volume (111,8 ml, 117,4 ml, 123 ml) and mixing time (16 minutes, 17 minutes 36 seconds, 19 minutes 12 seconds). The result showed that water volume significantly affected on dough volume, bread volume and specific volume, baking expansion, and crust thickness. Mixing time significantly affected on dough volume and specific volume, bread volume and specific volume, baking expansion, bread height, and crust thickness. While the combination of water volume and mixing time significantly affected for all physical properties parameters except crust thickness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prashant Jindal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the global critical economic scenario, inflation plays a vital role in deciding optimal pricing of goods in any business entity. This article presents two single-vendor single-buyer integrated supply chain inventory models with inflation and time value of money. Shortage is allowed during the lead-time and it is partially backlogged. Lead time is controllable and can be reduced using crashing cost. In the first model, we consider the demand of lead time follows a normal distribution, and in the second model, it is considered distribution-free. For both cases, our objective is to minimize the integrated system cost by simultaneously optimizing the order quantity, safety factor, lead time and number of lots. The discounted cash flow and classical optimization technique are used to derive the optimal solution for both cases. Numerical examples including the sensitivity analysis of system parameters is provided to validate the results of the supply chain models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicola Heslehurst
Full Text Available Maternal obesity has multiple associated risks and requires substantial intervention. This research evaluated the implementation of maternal obesity care pathways from multiple stakeholder perspectives.A simultaneous mixed methods model with data integration was used. Three component studies were given equal priority. 1: Semi-structured qualitative interviews explored obese pregnant women's experiences of being on the pathways. 2: A quantitative and qualitative postal survey explored healthcare professionals' experiences of delivering the pathways. 3: A case note audit quantitatively assessed pathway compliance. Data were integrated using following a thread and convergence coding matrix methods to search for agreement and disagreement between studies.Study 1: Four themes were identified: women's overall (positive and negative views of the pathways; knowledge and understanding of the pathways; views on clinical and weight management advice and support; and views on the information leaflet. Key results included positive views of receiving additional clinical care, negative experiences of risk communication, and weight management support was considered a priority. Study 2: Healthcare professionals felt the pathways were worthwhile, facilitated good practice, and increased confidence. Training was consistently identified as being required. Healthcare professionals predominantly focussed on women's response to sensitive obesity communication. Study 3: There was good compliance with antenatal clinical interventions. However, there was poor compliance with public health and postnatal interventions. There were some strong areas of agreement between component studies which can inform future development of the pathways. However, disagreement between studies included a lack of shared priorities between healthcare professionals and women, different perspectives on communication issues, and different perspectives on women's prioritisation of weight
Heslehurst, Nicola; Dinsdale, Sarah; Sedgewick, Gillian; Simpson, Helen; Sen, Seema; Summerbell, Carolyn Dawn; Rankin, Judith
2015-01-01
Objectives Maternal obesity has multiple associated risks and requires substantial intervention. This research evaluated the implementation of maternal obesity care pathways from multiple stakeholder perspectives. Study Design A simultaneous mixed methods model with data integration was used. Three component studies were given equal priority. 1: Semi-structured qualitative interviews explored obese pregnant women’s experiences of being on the pathways. 2: A quantitative and qualitative postal survey explored healthcare professionals’ experiences of delivering the pathways. 3: A case note audit quantitatively assessed pathway compliance. Data were integrated using following a thread and convergence coding matrix methods to search for agreement and disagreement between studies. Results Study 1: Four themes were identified: women’s overall (positive and negative) views of the pathways; knowledge and understanding of the pathways; views on clinical and weight management advice and support; and views on the information leaflet. Key results included positive views of receiving additional clinical care, negative experiences of risk communication, and weight management support was considered a priority. Study 2: Healthcare professionals felt the pathways were worthwhile, facilitated good practice, and increased confidence. Training was consistently identified as being required. Healthcare professionals predominantly focussed on women’s response to sensitive obesity communication. Study 3: There was good compliance with antenatal clinical interventions. However, there was poor compliance with public health and postnatal interventions. There were some strong areas of agreement between component studies which can inform future development of the pathways. However, disagreement between studies included a lack of shared priorities between healthcare professionals and women, different perspectives on communication issues, and different perspectives on women
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nahed S. Hussein
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical boundary integral scheme is proposed for the solution to the system of eld equations of plane. The stresses are prescribed on one-half of the circle, while the displacements are given. The considered problem with mixed boundary conditions in the circle is replaced by two problems with homogeneous boundary conditions, one of each type, having a common solution. The equations are reduced to a system of boundary integral equations, which is then discretized in the usual way, and the problem at this stage is reduced to the solution to a rectangular linear system of algebraic equations. The unknowns in this system of equations are the boundary values of four harmonic functions which define the full elastic solution and the unknown boundary values of stresses or displacements on proper parts of the boundary. On the basis of the obtained results, it is inferred that a stress component has a singularity at each of the two separation points, thought to be of logarithmic type. The results are discussed and boundary plots are given. We have also calculated the unknown functions in the bulk directly from the given boundary conditions using the boundary collocation method. The obtained results in the bulk are discussed and three-dimensional plots are given. A tentative form for the singular solution is proposed and the corresponding singular stresses and displacements are plotted in the bulk. The form of the singular tangential stress is seen to be compatible with the boundary values obtained earlier. The efficiency of the used numerical schemes is discussed.
Zhang, Chuan; Wang, Xingyuan; Luo, Chao; Li, Junqiu; Wang, Chunpeng
2018-03-01
In this paper, we focus on the robust outer synchronization problem between two nonlinear complex networks with parametric disturbances and mixed time-varying delays. Firstly, a general complex network model is proposed. Besides the nonlinear couplings, the network model in this paper can possess parametric disturbances, internal time-varying delay, discrete time-varying delay and distributed time-varying delay. Then, according to the robust control strategy, linear matrix inequality and Lyapunov stability theory, several outer synchronization protocols are strictly derived. Simple linear matrix controllers are designed to driver the response network synchronize to the drive network. Additionally, our results can be applied on the complex networks without parametric disturbances. Finally, by utilizing the delayed Lorenz chaotic system as the dynamics of all nodes, simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.
Franz, Anke; Worrell, Marcia; Vögele, Claus
2013-01-01
In recent years, combining quantitative and qualitative research methods in the same study has become increasingly acceptable in both applied and academic psychological research. However, a difficulty for many mixed methods researchers is how to integrate findings consistently. The value of using a coherent framework throughout the research…
Sun, Yan; Strobel, Johannes; Newby, Timothy J.
2017-01-01
Adopting a two-phase explanatory sequential mixed methods research design, the current study examined the impact of student teaching experiences on pre-service teachers' readiness for technology integration. In phase-1 of quantitative investigation, 2-level growth curve models were fitted using online repeated measures survey data collected from…
Mixing of photons with light pseudoscalars in time-dependent magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arias, Paola; Arza, Ariel; Gamboa, Jorge [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departmento de Fisica, Santiago (Chile)
2016-11-15
The effects of an external time-dependent magnetic field in the conversion probability of photon- to axion-like particles are studied. Our findings show that for a certain time regime, the amplitude of the produced axion-like field can be enlarged with respect to the static case, thus enhancing the probability of conversion. (orig.)
Mixing and flushing time scales in the Azhikode Estuary, southwest coast of India
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Revichandran, C.; Pylee, A.
Flushing time scales of the Azhikode Estuary, Kerala, India showed pronounced dry season and wet season signals as well as large inter-annual variation. Cumulative flushing time of the estuary varies from 4.8 tide cycles in April to 1.22 tide cycles...
Time Management Profiles of Cypriot School Principals: A Mixed-Methods Approach
Kouali, Georgia; Pashiardis, Petros
2015-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a piece of research concerning the time management of Cypriot primary school principals. Time management refers to the interrelation of five independent variables: the various tasks principals perform, their frequency, the degree of accomplishment of those tasks, the use of time…
Reparametrization in the path integral over finite dimensional manifold with a time-dependent metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storchak, S.N.
1988-01-01
The path reparametrization procedure in the path integral is considered using the methods of stochastic processes for diffusion on finite dimensional manifold with a time-dependent metric. the reparametrization Jacobian has been obtained. The formulas of reparametrization for a symbolic presentation of the path integral have been derived
Non-integrability of time-dependent spherically symmetric Yang-Mills equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matinyan, S.G.; Prokhorenko, E.V.; Savvidy, G.K.
1986-01-01
The integrability of time-dependent spherically symmetric Yang-Mills equations is studied using the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam method. The phase space of this system is shown to have no quasi-periodic motion specific for integrable systems. In particular, the well-known Wu-Yang static solution is unstable, so its vicinity in phase is the stochasticity region
Non-integrability of time-dependent spherically symmetric Yang-Mills equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matinyan, S G; Prokhorenko, E B; Savvidy, G K
1988-03-07
The integrability of time-dependent spherically symmetric Yang-Mills equations is studied using the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam method. It is shown that the motion of this system is ergodic, while the system itself is non-integrable, i.e. manifests dynamical chaos.
Bozzolan, M; Simoni, G; Balboni, M; Fiorini, F; Bombardi, S; Bertin, N; Da Roit, M
2014-11-01
This mixed methods study aimed to explore perceptions/attitudes, to evaluate knowledge/ skills, to investigate clinical behaviours of undergraduate physiotherapy students exposed to a composite education curriculum on evidence-based practice (EBP). Students' knowledge and skills were assessed before and after integrated learning activities, using the Adapted Fresno test, whereas their behaviour in EBP was evaluated by examining their internship documentation. Students' perceptions and attitudes were explored through four focus groups. Sixty-two students agreed to participate in the study. The within group mean differences (A-Fresno test) were 34.2 (95% CI 24.4 to 43.9) in the first year and 35.1 (95% CI 23.2 to 47.1) in the second year; no statistically significant change was observed in the third year. Seventy-six percent of the second year and 88% of the third year students reached the pass score. Internship documentation gave evidence of PICOs and database searches (95-100%), critical appraisal of internal validity (25-75%) but not of external validity (5-15%). The correct application of these items ranged from 30 to 100%. Qualitative analysis of the focus groups indicated students valued EBP, but perceived many barriers, with clinicians being both an obstacle and a model. Key elements for changing students' behaviours seem to be internship environment and possibility of continuous practice and feedback.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joern Kiselev
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Patient involvement is a core component of an integrated care approach. While the benefits and prerequisites of patient involvement have been described in general and additionally for some target populations, little is known about the views and experiences of older people regarding this matter. Methods: A study with a mixed-methods design was conducted to gain a better understanding about patient involvement in geriatric care. A questionnaire on shared decision-making was administered within a group of older adults in Germany. Additionally, 7 focus groups with health professionals and geriatric patients in Germany and Estonia were held to deepen the insight of the questionnaire and discussing experiences and barriers of patient involvement. Results: Older people without an actual medical problem expressed a significantly higher desire to participate in shared decisions than those requiring actual medical care. No significant differences could be found for the desire to be informed as part of the care process. No correlation between patients’ desire and experiences on shared decision-making could be observed. In the focus groups, patients demanded a comprehensive and understandable information and education process while the health professionals’ view was very task-specific. This conflict led to a loss of trust by the patients. Conclusions: There is a gap between patients’ and health professionals’ views on patient involvement in older people. The involvement process should therefore be comprehensive and should take into account different levels of health literacy.
Kultavewuti, Pisek
Polarization-entangled photon pair states (PESs) are indispensable in several quantum protocols that should be implemented in an integrated photonic circuit for realizing a practical quantum technology. Preparing such states in integrated waveguides is in fact a challenge due to polarization mode dispersion. Unlike other conventional ways that are plagued with complications in fabrication or in state generation, in this thesis, the scheme based on parallel spontaneous four-wave mixing processes of two polarization waveguide modes is thoroughly studied in theory and experimentation for the polarization entanglement generation. The scheme in fact needs the modal dispersion, contradictory to the general perception, as revealed by a full quantum mechanical framework. The proper modal dispersion balances the effects of temporal walk-off and state factorizability. The study also shows that the popular standard platform such as a silicon-on-insulator wafer is far from suitable to implement the proposed simple generation technique. Proven by the quantum state tomography, the technique produces a highly-entangled state with a maximum concurrence of 0.97 +/- 0:01 from AlGaAs waveguides. In addition, the devices directly generated Bell states with an observed fidelity of 0.92 +/- 0:01 without any post-generation compensating steps. Novel suspended device structures, including their components, are then investigated numerically and experimentally characterized in pursuit of finding the geometry with the optimal dispersion property. The 700 nm x 1100 nm suspended rectangular waveguide is identified as the best geometry with a predicted maximum concurrence of 0.976 and a generation bandwidth of 3.3 THz. The suspended waveguide fabrication procedure adds about 15 dB/cm and 10 dB/cm of propagation loss to the TE and TM mode respectively, on top of the loss in corresponding full-cladding waveguides. Bridges, which structurally support the suspended waveguides, are optimized using
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pittner, Jiri; Lischka, Hans; Barbatti, Mario
2009-01-01
The usage of time-derivative non-adiabatic coupling terms and partially coupled time-dependent equations are investigated to accelerate non-adiabatic dynamics simulations at multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) level. The quality of the results and computational costs are compared against non-adiabatic benchmark dynamics calculations using non-adiabatic coupling vectors. In the comparison between the time-derivative couplings and coupling vectors, deviations in the adiabatic population of individual trajectories were observed in regions of rapid variation of the coupling terms. They, however, affected the average adiabatic population to only about 5%. For small multiconfiguration spaces, dynamics with time-derivative couplings are significantly faster than those with coupling vectors. This relation inverts for larger configuration spaces. The use of the partially coupled equations approach speeds up the simulations significantly while keeping the deviations in the population below few percent. Imidazole and the methaniminium cation are used as test examples
Task Mapping and Partition Allocation for Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul
2012-01-01
In this paper we address the mapping of mixedcriticality hard real-time applications on distributed embedded architectures. We assume that the architecture provides both spatial and temporal partitioning, thus enforcing enough separation between applications. With temporal partitioning, each...
Flexible DWDM Grid Manipulation Using Four Wave Mixing-based Time Lenses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen
2014-01-01
An experimental demonstration of dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) grid manipulation is carried out using two time lenses. A DWDM spectrum is compressed from a 100-GHz to a 28-GHz grid with error-free performance.......An experimental demonstration of dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) grid manipulation is carried out using two time lenses. A DWDM spectrum is compressed from a 100-GHz to a 28-GHz grid with error-free performance....
Li, Xiaobo; Hu, Haofeng; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie
2016-04-04
We consider the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) polarimetry system, which performs two intensity measurements at orthogonal polarization states to estimate DOLP. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the DOLP estimator depends on the distribution of integration time for two intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time in an approximate way by employing Delta method and Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analyses and real-world experiments, it is shown that the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased for any value of DOLP. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improve the measurement accuracy of the polarimetry system.
Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in Stokes polarimetry.
Li, Xiaobo; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie; Hu, Haofeng
2015-10-19
We consider the typical Stokes polarimetry system, which performs four intensity measurements to estimate a Stokes vector. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator depends on the distribution of the integration time at four intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time by employing Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analysis and real-world experiment, it is shown that the total variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be significantly decreased about 40% in the case discussed in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improves the measurement accuracy of the polarimetric system.
Valdé s, Felipe; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric
2013-01-01
Single-source time-domain electric-and magnetic-field integral equations for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects are presented. Their temporal discretization is effected by using shifted piecewise polynomial temporal basis
Time-integrated CP violation measurements in the B mesons system at the LHCb experiment
Cardinale, R
2016-01-01
Time-integrated CP violation measurements in the B meson system provide information for testing the CKM picture of CP violation in the Standard Model. A review of recent results from the LHCb experiment is presented.
The effect of decaying atomic states on integral and time differential Moessbauer spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kankeleit, E.
1975-01-01
Moessbauer spectra for time dependent monopole interaction have been calculated for the case that the nuclear transition feeding the Moessbauer state excites an electric state of the atom. This is assumed to decay in a time comparable with the lifetime of the Moessbauer state. Spectra have been calculated for both time differential and integral experiments. (orig.) [de
Terminal current interpolation for multirate time integration of hierarchical IC models
Verhoeven, A.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Dohmen, J.J.; Tasic, B.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Fitt, A.D.; Norbury, J.; Ockendon, H.; Wilson, E.
2010-01-01
Multirate time-integration methods [3–5] appear to be attractive for initial value problems for DAEs with latency or multirate behaviour. Latency means that parts of the circuit are constant or slowly time-varying during a certain time interval, while multirate behaviour means that some variables
Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric
2013-01-01
An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time-domain magnetic field integral equation (TD-MFIE) is presented. The proposed MOT-TD-MFIE solver uses Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions for spatial discretization and a PE(CE)m-type linear multistep method for time marching. Unlike previous explicit MOT-TD-MFIE solvers, the time step size can be chosen as large as that of the implicit MOT-TD-MFIE solvers without adversely affecting accuracy or stability. An algebraic stability analysis demonstrates the stability of the proposed explicit solver; its accuracy and efficiency are established via numerical examples. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
Ulku, Huseyin Arda
2013-08-01
An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time-domain magnetic field integral equation (TD-MFIE) is presented. The proposed MOT-TD-MFIE solver uses Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions for spatial discretization and a PE(CE)m-type linear multistep method for time marching. Unlike previous explicit MOT-TD-MFIE solvers, the time step size can be chosen as large as that of the implicit MOT-TD-MFIE solvers without adversely affecting accuracy or stability. An algebraic stability analysis demonstrates the stability of the proposed explicit solver; its accuracy and efficiency are established via numerical examples. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
Abe, K; Ko, J Y
2003-01-01
Nanometre vibration measurement of an audio speaker and a highly sensitive sound reproduction experiment have been successfully demonstrated by a self-aligned optical feedback vibrometry technique using the self-mixing modulation effect in a laser-diode-pumped microchip solid-state laser. By applying nanometre vibrations to the speaker, which produced nearly inaudible music below 20 dB (200 mu Pa) sound pressure level, we could reproduce clear sound in real time by the use of a simple frequency modulated wave demodulation circuit with a -120 dB light-intensity feedback ratio.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, Kazutaka; Otsuka, Kenju; Ko, Jing-Yuan
2003-01-01
Nanometre vibration measurement of an audio speaker and a highly sensitive sound reproduction experiment have been successfully demonstrated by a self-aligned optical feedback vibrometry technique using the self-mixing modulation effect in a laser-diode-pumped microchip solid-state laser. By applying nanometre vibrations to the speaker, which produced nearly inaudible music below 20 dB (200 μPa) sound pressure level, we could reproduce clear sound in real time by the use of a simple frequency modulated wave demodulation circuit with a -120 dB light-intensity feedback ratio
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abe, Kazutaka [Department of Human and Information Science, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Otsuka, Kenju [Department of Human and Information Science, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Ko, Jing-Yuan [Department of Physics, Tunghai University, 181 Taichung-kang Road, Section 3, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China)
2003-01-01
Nanometre vibration measurement of an audio speaker and a highly sensitive sound reproduction experiment have been successfully demonstrated by a self-aligned optical feedback vibrometry technique using the self-mixing modulation effect in a laser-diode-pumped microchip solid-state laser. By applying nanometre vibrations to the speaker, which produced nearly inaudible music below 20 dB (200 {mu}Pa) sound pressure level, we could reproduce clear sound in real time by the use of a simple frequency modulated wave demodulation circuit with a -120 dB light-intensity feedback ratio.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yingwei Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The global exponential stability issues are considered for almost periodic solution of the neural networks with mixed time-varying delays and discontinuous neuron activations. Some sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution are achieved in terms of certain linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, by applying differential inclusions theory, matrix inequality analysis technique, and generalized Lyapunov functional approach. In addition, the existence and asymptotically almost periodic behavior of the solution of the neural networks are also investigated under the framework of the solution in the sense of Filippov. Two simulation examples are given to illustrate the validity of the theoretical results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Zhaoyun; Gao Yang; Zhao Xinghai; Zhao Xiang
2011-01-01
Laser's optical output power and frequency are modulated when the optical beam is back-scattered into the active cavity of the laser. By signal processing, the Doppler frequency can be acquired, and the target's velocity can be calculated. Based on these properties, an interferometry velocity sensor can be designed. When target move in time-varying velocity mode, it is difficult to extract the target's velocity. Time-varying velocity measurement by self-mixing laser diode is explored. A mathematics model was proposed for the time-varying velocity (invariable acceleration) measurement by self-mixing laser diode. Based on this model, a Discrete Chirp-Fourier Transform (DCFT) method was applied, DCFT is analogous to DFT. We show that when the signal length N is prime, the magnitudes of all the side lobes are 1, whereas the magnitudes of the main lobe is √N, And the coordinates of the main lobe shows the target's velocity and acceleration information. The simulation results prove the validity of the algorithm even in the situation of low SNR when N is prime.
Martinez, Josue G.; Bohn, Kirsten M.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Morris, Jeffrey S.
2013-01-01
We describe a new approach to analyze chirp syllables of free-tailed bats from two regions of Texas in which they are predominant: Austin and College Station. Our goal is to characterize any systematic regional differences in the mating chirps and assess whether individual bats have signature chirps. The data are analyzed by modeling spectrograms of the chirps as responses in a Bayesian functional mixed model. Given the variable chirp lengths, we compute the spectrograms on a relative time scale interpretable as the relative chirp position, using a variable window overlap based on chirp length. We use 2D wavelet transforms to capture correlation within the spectrogram in our modeling and obtain adaptive regularization of the estimates and inference for the regions-specific spectrograms. Our model includes random effect spectrograms at the bat level to account for correlation among chirps from the same bat, and to assess relative variability in chirp spectrograms within and between bats. The modeling of spectrograms using functional mixed models is a general approach for the analysis of replicated nonstationary time series, such as our acoustical signals, to relate aspects of the signals to various predictors, while accounting for between-signal structure. This can be done on raw spectrograms when all signals are of the same length, and can be done using spectrograms defined on a relative time scale for signals of variable length in settings where the idea of defining correspondence across signals based on relative position is sensible.
Martinez, Josue G.
2013-06-01
We describe a new approach to analyze chirp syllables of free-tailed bats from two regions of Texas in which they are predominant: Austin and College Station. Our goal is to characterize any systematic regional differences in the mating chirps and assess whether individual bats have signature chirps. The data are analyzed by modeling spectrograms of the chirps as responses in a Bayesian functional mixed model. Given the variable chirp lengths, we compute the spectrograms on a relative time scale interpretable as the relative chirp position, using a variable window overlap based on chirp length. We use 2D wavelet transforms to capture correlation within the spectrogram in our modeling and obtain adaptive regularization of the estimates and inference for the regions-specific spectrograms. Our model includes random effect spectrograms at the bat level to account for correlation among chirps from the same bat, and to assess relative variability in chirp spectrograms within and between bats. The modeling of spectrograms using functional mixed models is a general approach for the analysis of replicated nonstationary time series, such as our acoustical signals, to relate aspects of the signals to various predictors, while accounting for between-signal structure. This can be done on raw spectrograms when all signals are of the same length, and can be done using spectrograms defined on a relative time scale for signals of variable length in settings where the idea of defining correspondence across signals based on relative position is sensible.
Design of a semi-custom integrated circuit for the SLAC SLC timing control system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linstadt, E.
1984-10-01
A semi-custom (gate array) integrated circuit has been designed for use in the SLAC Linear Collider timing and control system. The design process and SLAC's experiences during the phases of the design cycle are described. Issues concerning the partitioning of the design into semi-custom and standard components are discussed. Functional descriptions of the semi-custom integrated circuit and the timing module in which it is used are given
SEMIGROUPS N TIMES INTEGRATED AND AN APPLICATION TO A PROBLEM OF CAUCHY TYPE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danessa Chirinos Fernández
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The theory of semigroups n times integrated is a generalization of strongly continuous semigroups, which was developed from 1984, and is widely used for the study of the existence and uniqueness of problems such Cauchy in which the operator domain is not necessarily dense. This paper presents an application of semigroups n times integrated into a problem of viscoelasticity, which is formulated as a Cauchy problem on a Banach space presents .
Cooper, J J; Brayford, M J; Laycock, P A
2014-08-01
A new method is described which can be used to determine the setting times of small amounts of high value bone cements. The test was developed to measure how the setting times of a commercially available synthetic calcium sulfate cement (Stimulan, Biocomposites, UK) in two forms (standard and Rapid Cure) varies with the addition of clinically relevant antibiotics. The importance of being able to accurately quantify these setting times is discussed. The results demonstrate that this new method, which is shown to correlate to the Vicat needle, gives reliable and repeatable data with additional benefits expressed in the article. The majority of antibiotics mixed were found to retard the setting reaction of the calcium sulfate cement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, J J; Brayford, M J; Laycock, P A
2014-01-01
A new method is described which can be used to determine the setting times of small amounts of high value bone cements. The test was developed to measure how the setting times of a commercially available synthetic calcium sulfate cement (Stimulan, Biocomposites, UK) in two forms (standard and Rapid Cure) varies with the addition of clinically relevant antibiotics. The importance of being able to accurately quantify these setting times is discussed. The results demonstrate that this new method, which is shown to correlate to the Vicat needle, gives reliable and repeatable data with additional benefits expressed in the article. The majority of antibiotics mixed were found to retard the setting reaction of the calcium sulfate cement. (paper)
Effect of cycle time on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in aerobic mixed cultures.
Ozdemir, Sebnem; Akman, Dilek; Cirik, Kevser; Cinar, Ozer
2014-03-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cycle time on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production under aerobic dynamic feeding system. The acetate-fed feast and famine sequencing batch reactor was used to enrich PHB accumulating microorganism. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated in four different cycle times (12, 8, 4, and 2 h) fed with a synthetic wastewater. The system performance was determined by monitoring total dissolved organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, and PHB concentration. In this study, under steady-state conditions, the feast period of the SBR was found to allow the PHB storage while a certain part of stored PHB was used for continued growth in famine period. The percentage PHB storages by aerobic microorganism were at 16, 18, 42, and 55% for the 12, 8, 4, and 2-h cycle times, respectively. The PHB storage was increased as the length of the cycle time was decreased, and the ratio of the feast compared to the total cycle length was increased from around 13 to 33% for the 12 and 2-h cycle times, respectively.
Explicit Time Integrators for Nonlinear Dynamics Derived from the Midpoint Rule
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Krysl
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We address the design of time integrators for mechanical systems that are explicit in the forcing evaluations. Our starting point is the midpoint rule, either in the classical form for the vector space setting, or in the Lie form for the rotation group. By introducing discrete, concentrated impulses we can approximate the forcing impressed upon the system over the time step, and thus arrive at first-order integrators. These can then be composed to yield a second order integrator with very desirable properties: symplecticity and momentum conservation.
Real-Time Animation Using a Mix of Physical Simulation and Kinematics
van Welbergen, H.; Zwiers, Jakob; Ruttkay, Z.M.
2009-01-01
Expressive animation (such as gesturing or conducting) is typically generated using procedural animation techniques. These techniques offer precision in both timing and limb placement, but they lack physical realism. On the other hand, physical simulation offers physical realism, but does not
Time resolved flow-field measurements of a turbulent mixing layer over a rectangular cavity
Bian, Shiyao; Driscoll, James F.; Elbing, Brian R.; Ceccio, Steven L.
2011-07-01
High Reynolds number, low Mach number, turbulent shear flow past a rectangular, shallow cavity has been experimentally investigated with the use of dual-camera cinematographic particle image velocimetry (CPIV). The CPIV had a 3 kHz sampling rate, which was sufficient to monitor the time evolution of large-scale vortices as they formed, evolved downstream and impinged on the downstream cavity wall. The time-averaged flow properties (velocity and vorticity fields, streamwise velocity profiles and momentum and vorticity thickness) were in agreement with previous cavity flow studies under similar operating conditions. The time-resolved results show that the separated shear layer quickly rolled-up and formed eddies immediately downstream of the separation point. The vortices convect downstream at approximately half the free-stream speed. Vorticity strength intermittency as the structures approach the downstream edge suggests an increase in the three-dimensionality of the flow. Time-resolved correlations reveal that the in-plane coherence of the vortices decays within 2-3 structure diameters, and quasi-periodic flow features are present with a vortex passage frequency of ~1 kHz. The power spectra of the vertical velocity fluctuations within the shear layer revealed a peak at a non-dimensional frequency corresponding to that predicted using linear, inviscid instability theory.
STiC — a mixed mode silicon photomultiplier readout ASIC for time-of-flight applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harion, T; Briggl, K; Chen, H; Gil, A; Kiworra, V; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Shen, W; Stankova, V; Fischer, P; Ritzert, M
2014-01-01
STiC is an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for the readout of silicon photomultipliers. The chip has been designed to provide a very high timing resolution for time-of-flight applications in medical imaging and particle physics. It is dedicated in particular to the EndoToFPET-US project, which is developing an endoscopic PET detector combined with ultrasound imaging for early pancreas and prostate cancer detection. This PET system aims to provide a spatial resolution of 1 mm and a time-of-flight resolution of 200 ps FWHM. The analog frontend of STiC can use either a differential or single ended connection to the SiPM. The time and energy information of the detector signal is encoded into two time stamps. A special linearized time-over-threshold method is used to obtain a linear relation between the signal charge and the measured signal width, improving the energy resolution. The trigger signals are digitized by an integrated TDC module with a resolution of less than 20 ps. The TDC data is stored in an internal memory and transfered over a 160 MBit/s serial link using 8/10 bit encoding. First coincidence measurements using a 3.1 × 3.1 × 15 mm 3 LYSO crystal and a S10362-33-50 Hamamtsu MPPC show a coincidence time resolution of less than 285 ps. We present details on the chip design as well as first characterization measurements
Chen, Feng; Chen, Suren; Ma, Xiaoxiang
2018-06-01
Driving environment, including road surface conditions and traffic states, often changes over time and influences crash probability considerably. It becomes stretched for traditional crash frequency models developed in large temporal scales to capture the time-varying characteristics of these factors, which may cause substantial loss of critical driving environmental information on crash prediction. Crash prediction models with refined temporal data (hourly records) are developed to characterize the time-varying nature of these contributing factors. Unbalanced panel data mixed logit models are developed to analyze hourly crash likelihood of highway segments. The refined temporal driving environmental data, including road surface and traffic condition, obtained from the Road Weather Information System (RWIS), are incorporated into the models. Model estimation results indicate that the traffic speed, traffic volume, curvature and chemically wet road surface indicator are better modeled as random parameters. The estimation results of the mixed logit models based on unbalanced panel data show that there are a number of factors related to crash likelihood on I-25. Specifically, weekend indicator, November indicator, low speed limit and long remaining service life of rutting indicator are found to increase crash likelihood, while 5-am indicator and number of merging ramps per lane per mile are found to decrease crash likelihood. The study underscores and confirms the unique and significant impacts on crash imposed by the real-time weather, road surface, and traffic conditions. With the unbalanced panel data structure, the rich information from real-time driving environmental big data can be well incorporated. Copyright © 2018 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Time-resolved four-wave mixing in InAs/InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers under electrical injection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2000-01-01
Time-resolved four-wave mixing in an InAs/InGaAs/GaAs electrically pumped quantum-dot amplifier is measured at room temperature for different applied bias currents going from optical absorption to gain of the device. The four-wave mixing signal from 140 fs pulses shows a transition from a delayed...
Design Optimization of Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Embedded Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul
2015-01-01
is allocated several time slots on a processor. Tasks of different SILs can share a partition only if they are all elevated to the highest SIL among them. Such elevation leads to increased development costs, which increase dramatically with each SIL. Tasks of higher SILs can be decomposed into redundant...... structures of lower SIL tasks. We are interested to determine (i) the mapping of tasks to processors, (ii) the assignment of tasks to partitions, (iii) the decomposition of tasks into redundant lower SIL tasks, (iv) the sequence and size of the partition time slots on each processor, and (v) the schedule...... tables, such that all the applications are schedulable and the development costs are minimized. We have proposed a Tabu Search-based approach to solve this optimization problem. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several synthetic and real-life benchmarks....
Meta-Analysis of Effect Sizes Reported at Multiple Time Points Using General Linear Mixed Model
Musekiwa, Alfred; Manda, Samuel O. M.; Mwambi, Henry G.; Chen, Ding-Geng
2016-01-01
Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies combines effect sizes measured at pre-determined time points. The most common approach involves performing separate univariate meta-analyses at individual time points. This simplistic approach ignores dependence between longitudinal effect sizes, which might result in less precise parameter estimates. In this paper, we show how to conduct a meta-analysis of longitudinal effect sizes where we contrast different covariance structures for dependence between effect sizes, both within and between studies. We propose new combinations of covariance structures for the dependence between effect size and utilize a practical example involving meta-analysis of 17 trials comparing postoperative treatments for a type of cancer, where survival is measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post randomization. Although the results from this particular data set show the benefit of accounting for within-study serial correlation between effect sizes, simulations are required to confirm these results. PMID:27798661
Observation of the time dependence of B0d-B0d mixing
Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Denis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Valassi, A.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Sau, Lan, Wu; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.
1993-09-01
The time dependence of B0d-B0d oscillations has been observed using events with a d*, decaying into a D0π+, and a lepton in opposite hemispheres. The time dependence of the oscillations is derived from the displacement of the D0 vertex and the D*-lepton charge correlation. From a fit for the oscillation frequency the mass difference of the B0d states is measured: Δm = [3.44+0.65-0.70(stat.)+0.26-0.20(syst.)] × 10-4 eV/c2. Supported by the US Department of Energy, contract DE-AC02-76ER00881.
CMOS time-to-digital converters for mixed-mode signal processing
Fei Yuan
2014-01-01
This study provides an in-depth review of the principles, architectures and design techniques of CMOS time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The classification of TDCs is introduced. It is followed by the examination of the parameters quantifying the performance of TDCs. Sampling TDCs including direct-counter TDCs, tapped delay-line TDCs, pulse-shrinking delay-line TDCs, cyclic pulse-shrinking TDCs, direct-counter TDCs with interpolation, vernier TDCs, flash TDCs, successive approximation TDCs an...
A Novel Multiple-Time Scale Integrator for the Hybrid Monte Carlo Algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamleh, Waseem
2011-01-01
Hybrid Monte Carlo simulations that implement the fermion action using multiple terms are commonly used. By the nature of their formulation they involve multiple integration time scales in the evolution of the system through simulation time. These different scales are usually dealt with by the Sexton-Weingarten nested leapfrog integrator. In this scheme the choice of time scales is somewhat restricted as each time step must be an exact multiple of the next smallest scale in the sequence. A novel generalisation of the nested leapfrog integrator is introduced which allows for far greater flexibility in the choice of time scales, as each scale now must only be an exact multiple of the smallest step size.
Time series analysis of the developed financial markets' integration using visibility graphs
Zhuang, Enyu; Small, Michael; Feng, Gang
2014-09-01
A time series representing the developed financial markets' segmentation from 1973 to 2012 is studied. The time series reveals an obvious market integration trend. To further uncover the features of this time series, we divide it into seven windows and generate seven visibility graphs. The measuring capabilities of the visibility graphs provide means to quantitatively analyze the original time series. It is found that the important historical incidents that influenced market integration coincide with variations in the measured graphical node degree. Through the measure of neighborhood span, the frequencies of the historical incidents are disclosed. Moreover, it is also found that large "cycles" and significant noise in the time series are linked to large and small communities in the generated visibility graphs. For large cycles, how historical incidents significantly affected market integration is distinguished by density and compactness of the corresponding communities.
de Sa, Eric; Ardern, Chris I
2014-01-01
Objectives. To develop a walkability index specific to mixed rural/suburban areas, and to explore the relationship between walkability scores and leisure time physical activity. Methods. Respondents were geocoded with 500 m and 1,000 m buffer zones around each address. A walkability index was derived from intersections, residential density, and land-use mix according to built environment measures. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to quantify the association between the index and physical activity levels. Analyses used cross-sectional data from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 1158; ≥18 y). Results. Respondents living in highly walkable 500 m buffer zones (upper quartiles of the walkability index) were more likely to walk or cycle for leisure than those living in low-walkable buffer zones (quartile 1). When a 1,000 m buffer zone was applied, respondents in more walkable neighbourhoods were more likely to walk or cycle for both leisure-time and transport-related purposes. Conclusion. Developing a walkability index can assist in exploring the associations between measures of the built environment and physical activity to prioritize neighborhood change.