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Sample records for mixed solvent water-di-ethanolamine-methanol

  1. Thermodynamic modelling of the absorption of acid gas in mixed solvent (water-di-ethanolamine-methanol); Modelisation thermodynamique de l'absorption des gaz acides dans un solvant mixte (eau-diethanolamine-methanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habchi tounsi, K.N.

    2003-10-01

    This work is related to the development of new processes about gas sweetening with mixed solvent coupling a chemical one (aqueous solution of di-ethanolamine) and a physical one (Methanol). These systems are electrolyte solutions constituted by ions and molecular species related each others by chemical reactions. This work is also relevant to the problematic of solvent mixtures (water-methanol). In a first stage we focus our interest over the measurement of original data covering a large experimental interval: five compositions in condition of pressures and temperatures up to 30 and 120 deg C respectively. In a second stage the simultaneous representation of chemical and phase equilibrium was successfully realised. The non stoichiometric method is used for the determination of chemical equilibrium. The heterogeneous method (Peng Robinson + NRTL electrolyte) is used for the representation of vapour liquid equilibrium. (author)

  2. Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling of Mixed Solvent Solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of activity coefficients is employed for estimating dilute solubilities of 11 solid pharmaceutical solutes in nearly 70 mixed aqueous and nonaqueous solvent systems. The solvent mixtures range from...... nearly ideal to strongly nonideal. The database covers a temperature range from 293 to 323 K. Comparisons with available data and other existing solubility methods show that the method successfully describes a variety of observed mixed solvent solubility behaviors using solute−solvent parameters from...

  3. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  4. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all

  5. Method for Predicting Solubilities of Solids in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O'Connell, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting solubilities of solid solutes in mixed solvents, based on excess Henry's law constants. The basis is statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of solute/solvent infinite dilution activity coefficients. Suitable approximatio...

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of mixed solvent electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, P.T.; O'Connell, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    In the original proposal to study mixed solvent electrolyte solutions, four major goals were formulated: fundamental modeling of mixed solvent electrolytes using numerically solved integral equation approximation theories; evaluation of intermolecular pair potential models by computer simulation of selected systems for comparison with experiment and the numerical integral equation studies; development of fundamentally based correlations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed solvent electrolyte solutions using analytically solvable statistical mechanical models; and extension of experimental database on mixed solvent electrolytes by performing vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements on selected systems. This paper discusses the progress on these goals

  7. Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lar solvents as an effective single component dipo- lar liquid that is characterized ... and time (t) dependent solvation energy of mobile dipo- lar solute with density ..... Even though this way for modification of C is purely ad- hoc, the observation ...

  8. MICROEMULSION OF MIXED CHLORINATED SOLVENTS USING FOOD GRADE (EDIBLE) SURFACTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground water contamination frequently consists of mixed chlorinated solvents [e.g., tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and trans-1,2- dichloroethylene (DCE)]. In this research, mixtures of the food grade (edible) surfactants bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinat...

  9. Controlling Actinide Hydration in Mixed Solvent Systems: Towards Tunable Solvent Systems to Close the Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Sue B.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project has been to define the extent of hydration the f-elements and other cations in mixed solvent electrolyte systems. Methanol-water and other mixed solvent systems have been studied, where the solvent dielectric constant was varied systematically. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies provide details concerning the energetics of complexation and other reactions of these cations. This information has also been used to advance new understanding of the behavior of these cations in a variety of systems, ranging from environmental studies, chromatographic approaches, and ionization processes for mass spectrometry.

  10. Controlling Actinide Hydration in Mixed Solvent Systems: Towards Tunable Solvent Systems to Close the Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Sue B. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-10-31

    The goal of this project has been to define the extent of hydration the f-elements and other cations in mixed solvent electrolyte systems. Methanol-water and other mixed solvent systems have been studied, where the solvent dielectric constant was varied systematically. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies provide details concerning the energetics of complexation and other reactions of these cations. This information has also been used to advance new understanding of the behavior of these cations in a variety of systems, ranging from environmental studies, chromatographic approaches, and ionization processes for mass spectrometry.

  11. Solubility of daidzin in different organic solvents and (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Jie-Ping; Yang, Dan; Xu, Xiao-Kang; Guo, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubilities of daidzin were measured in various solvents. • The solubility data were correlated by three models. • The thermodynamic properties of the dissolution process were also determined. - Abstract: The solubility of daidzin in different organic solvents and (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method from T = (283.2 to 323.2) K at atmosphere pressure. The results show that at higher temperature more daidzin dissolves, and moreover, the solubility increases with the ethyl alcohol mole fraction increase in the (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents. The experimental solubility values were correlated by a simplified thermodynamic equation, λh equation and modified Apelblat equation. Based on the solubility of daidzin, the enthalpy and entropy of solution were also evaluated by van’t Hoff equation. The results illustrated that the dissolution process of daidzin is endothermic and entropy driven

  12. Isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvents are analyzed in terms of the general features of ion-exchange equilibria and of isotope effects in chemical equilibria. The special role of solvent fractionation effects in ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents is pointed out. The various situations arising in isotope fractionation in ion exchange in mixed solvents due to solvent fractionation effects are theoretically discussed. The experimental data on lithium isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents are shown to conform to the above situations. The limitations of ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents for isotope fractionation are pointed out. 3 tables

  13. Equilibrium disorders in workers exposed to mixed solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgianni, Concetto; Tanzariello, Mariagiuseppina; De Pasquale, Domenico; Brecciaroli, Renato; Spatari, Giovanna

    2018-02-06

    Organic solvents cause diseases of the vestibular system. However, little is known regarding the correlation between vestibular damage and exposure to organic solvents below threshold limit values. The best measure by which to evaluate vestibular disorders is static and dynamic posturography. The aim of this study was to evaluate equilibrium disorders via static and dynamic posturography in workers without clear symptoms and exposed to low doses of mixed solvents. 200 subjects were selected. Using an Otometrics device (Madsen, Denmark), all subjects endured static and dynamic posturography testing with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Results were compared with a control group of unexposed individuals. Based on the obtained data, the following results can be drawn: (a) subjects exposed to mixtures of solvents show highly significant differences regarding all static and dynamic posturography parameters in comparison to the control group; (b) posturography testing has proven to be a valid means by which to detect subliminal equilibrium disorders in subjects exposed to solvents. We can confirm that refinery workers exposed to mixtures of solvents can present subliminal equilibrium disorders. Early diagnosis of the latter is made possible by static and dynamic posturography.

  14. Prediction of Corrosion of Alloys in Mixed-Solvent Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderko, Andrzej [OLI Systems Inc. Morris Plains (United States); Wang, Peiming [OLI Systems Inc. Morris Plains (United States); Young, Robert D. [OLI Systems Inc. Morris Plains (United States); Riemer, Douglas P. [OLI Systems Inc. Morris Plains (United States); McKenzie, Patrice [OLI Systems Inc. Morris Plains (United States); Lencka, Malgorzata M. [OLI Systems Inc. Morris Plains (United States); Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelini, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-06-05

    Corrosion is much less predictable in organic or mixed-solvent environments than in aqueous process environments. As a result, US chemical companies face greater uncertainty when selecting process equipment materials to manufacture chemical products using organic or mixed solvents than when the process environments are only aqueous. Chemical companies handle this uncertainty by overdesigning the equipment (wasting money and energy), rather than by accepting increased risks of corrosion failure (personnel hazards and environmental releases). Therefore, it is important to develop simulation tools that would help the chemical process industries to understand and predict corrosion and to develop mitigation measures. To create such tools, we have developed models that predict (1) the chemical composition, speciation, phase equilibria, component activities and transport properties of the bulk (aqueous, nonaqueous or mixed) phase that is in contact with the metal; (2) the phase equilibria and component activities of the alloy phase(s) that may be subject to corrosion and (3) the interfacial phenomena that are responsible for corrosion at the metal/solution or passive film/solution interface. During the course of this project, we have completed the following: (1) Development of thermodynamic modules for calculating the activities of alloy components; (2) Development of software that generates stability diagrams for alloys in aqueous systems; these diagrams make it possible to predict the tendency of metals to corrode; (3) Development and extensive verification of a model for calculating speciation, phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of mixed-solvent electrolyte systems; (4) Integration of the software for generating stability diagrams with the mixed-solvent electrolyte model, which makes it possible to generate stability diagrams for nonaqueous or mixed-solvent systems; (5) Development of a model for predicting diffusion coefficients in mixed-solvent electrolyte

  15. Presidential Rapid Commercialization Initiative for mixed waste solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has made some major steps in mixed waste treatment which have taken it closer to meeting final remediation goals. However, one major hurdle remains for the FEMP mixed waste treatment program, and that hurdle is tri-mixed waste. Tri-mixed is a term coined to describe low-level waste containing RCRA hazardous constituents along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The prescribed method for disposal of PCBs is incineration. In mixed waste treatment plans developed by the FEMP with public input, the FEMP committed to pursue non-thermal treatment methods and avoid the use of incineration. Through the SITE Program, the FEMP identified a non-thermal treatment technology which uses solvents to extract PCBs. The technology belongs to a small company called Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. A question arose as to how can this new and innovative technology be implemented by a small company at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The answer came in the form of the Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI) and the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). RCI is a program sponsored by the Department of commerce (DOC), DOE, Department of Defense (DOD), US EPA and various state agencies to aid companies to market new and innovative technologies

  16. An electrolyte CPA equation of state for mixed solvent electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Thomsen, Kaj; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite great efforts over the past decades, thermodynamic modeling of electrolytes in mixed solvents is still a challenge today. The existing modeling frameworks based on activity coefficient models are data-driven and require expert knowledge to be parameterized. It has been suggested...... using a self-consistent model for the static permittivity. A simple scheme for parameterization of salts with a limited number of parameters is proposed and model parameters for a range of salts are determined from experimental data of activity and osmotic coefficients as well as freezing point...

  17. Mixed organic solvents induce renal injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisong Qin

    Full Text Available To investigate the injury effects of organic solvents on kidney, an animal model of Sprague-Dawley (SD rats treated with mixed organic solvents via inhalation was generated and characterized. The mixed organic solvents consisted of gasoline, dimethylbenzene and formaldehyde (GDF in the ratio of 2:2:1, and were used at 12,000 PPM to treat the rats twice a day, each for 3 hours. Proteinuria appeared in the rats after exposure for 5-6 weeks. The incidences of proteinuria in male and female rats after exposure for 12 weeks were 43.8% (7/16 and 25% (4/16, respectively. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D-Glucosaminidase (NAG activity was increased significantly after exposure for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed remarkable injuries in the proximal renal tubules, including tubular epithelial cell detachment, cloud swelling and vacuole formation in the proximal tubular cells, as well as proliferation of parietal epithelium and tubular reflux in glomeruli. Ultrastructural examination found that brush border and cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cell were dropped, that tubular epithelial cells were partially disintegrated, and that the mitochondria of tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and lost. In addition to tubular lesions, glomerular damages were also observed, including segmental foot process fusion and loss of foot process covering on glomerular basement membrane (GBM. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the expression of nephrin and podocin were both decreased after exposure of GDF. In contrast, increased expression of desmin, a marker of podocyte injury, was found in some areas of a glomerulus. TUNEL staining showed that GDF induced apoptosis in tubular cells and glomerular cells. These studies demonstrate that GDF can induce both severe proximal tubular damage and podocyte injury in rats, and the tubular lesions appear earlier than that of glomeruli.

  18. Mixed organic solvents induce renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Weisong; Xu, Zhongxiu; Lu, Yizhou; Zeng, Caihong; Zheng, Chunxia; Wang, Shengyu; Liu, Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the injury effects of organic solvents on kidney, an animal model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats treated with mixed organic solvents via inhalation was generated and characterized. The mixed organic solvents consisted of gasoline, dimethylbenzene and formaldehyde (GDF) in the ratio of 2:2:1, and were used at 12,000 PPM to treat the rats twice a day, each for 3 hours. Proteinuria appeared in the rats after exposure for 5-6 weeks. The incidences of proteinuria in male and female rats after exposure for 12 weeks were 43.8% (7/16) and 25% (4/16), respectively. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D)-Glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was increased significantly after exposure for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed remarkable injuries in the proximal renal tubules, including tubular epithelial cell detachment, cloud swelling and vacuole formation in the proximal tubular cells, as well as proliferation of parietal epithelium and tubular reflux in glomeruli. Ultrastructural examination found that brush border and cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cell were dropped, that tubular epithelial cells were partially disintegrated, and that the mitochondria of tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and lost. In addition to tubular lesions, glomerular damages were also observed, including segmental foot process fusion and loss of foot process covering on glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the expression of nephrin and podocin were both decreased after exposure of GDF. In contrast, increased expression of desmin, a marker of podocyte injury, was found in some areas of a glomerulus. TUNEL staining showed that GDF induced apoptosis in tubular cells and glomerular cells. These studies demonstrate that GDF can induce both severe proximal tubular damage and podocyte injury in rats, and the tubular lesions appear earlier than that of glomeruli.

  19. Measurement and prediction of dabigatran etexilate mesylate Form II solubility in mono-solvents and mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Yan; Wang, Jingkang; Wang, Ting; Ouyang, Jinbo; Huang, Xin; Hao, Hongxun; Bao, Ying; Fang, Wen; Yin, Qiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of DEM Form II in mono-solvents and binary solvent mixtures was measured. • Regressed UNIFAC model was used to predict the solubility in solvent mixtures. • The experimental solubility data were correlated by different models. - Abstract: UV spectrometer method was used to measure the solubility data of dabigatran etexilate mesylate (DEM) Form II in five mono-solvents (methanol, ethanol, ethane-1,2-diol, DMF, DMAC) and binary solvent mixtures of methanol and ethanol in the temperature range from 287.37 K to 323.39 K. The experimental solubility data in mono-solvents were correlated with modified Apelblat equation, van’t Hoff equation and λh equation. GSM model and Modified Jouyban-Acree model were employed to correlate the solubility data in mixed solvent systems. And Regressed UNIFAC model was used to predict the solubility of DEM Form II in the binary solvent mixtures. Results showed that the predicted data were consistent with the experimental data.

  20. 1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

  1. Psychomotor Effects of Mixed Organic Solvents on Rubber Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Aminian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to organic solvents is common among workers. Objective: To assess neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to organic solvents among rubber workers in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted on 223 employees of a rubber industry. The participants completed a data collection sheet on their occupational and medical history, and demographic characteristics including age, work experience, education level; they performed 6 psychiatric tests on the neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB that measure simple reaction time, short-term memory (digit span, Benton, eye-hand coordination (Purdue pegboard, pursuit aiming, and perceptual speed (digit symbol. Results: Workers exposed and not exposed to organic solvents had similar age and education distribution. The mean work experience of the exposed and non-exposed workers was 5.9 and 4.4 years, respectively. The exposed workers had a lower performance compared to non-exposed workers in all psychomotor tests. After controlling for the confounders by logistic regression analysis, it was found that exposure to organic solvents had a significant effect on the results of digit symbols, digit span, Benton, aiming, and simple reaction time tests. No significant effect was observed in pegboard test. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to organic solvent can induce subtle neurobehavioral changes among workers exposed to organic solvents; therefore, periodical evaluation of the central nervous system by objective psychomotor tests is recommended among those who are chronically exposed to organic solvents.

  2. Effects of solvation on partition and dimerization of benzoic acid in mixed solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Yajima, K; Wada, H; Nakagawa, G

    1995-06-01

    The partition of benzoic acid between 0.1M perchloric acid solution and two kinds of mixed solvents has been carried out at 25 degrees C. The partition and dimerization constants of benzoic acid have been determined in the 1-octanol-benzene and 2-octanone-benzene systems. In both the mixed solvent systems, with increasing content of 1-octanol and 2-octanone in each mixed solvent, the partition constant of benzoic acid has been found to increase, and the dimerization constant of benzoic acid in each organic phase to decrease. These phenomena are attributable to solvation of monomeric benzoic acid by 1-octanol and 2-octanone molecules in each mixed solvent.

  3. Ion association thermodynamics of alkali metal tetraphenylborates in the mixed solvent propylenecarbonate-1,2-dimethoxyethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkov, Yu.Ya.; Gorbachev, V.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    Polythermal dependences of constants of ion association of (Li + -Cs + )BPh 4 salts in mixed solvent differ significantly in permittivity. Thermodynamic characteristics of this process are calculated and their relation with solvation processes is analyzed. (author)

  4. Synthesis of MgO Nanoparticles by Solvent Mixed Spray Pyrolysis Technique for Optical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nemade, K. R.; Waghuley, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Solvent mixed spray pyrolysis technique has attracted a global interest in the synthesis of nanomaterials since reactions can be run in liquid state without further heating. Magnesium oxide (MgO) is a category of the practical semiconductor metal oxides, which is extensively used as catalyst and optical material. In the present study, MgO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a solvent mixed spray pyrolysis. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of MgO phase with a...

  5. Effect of water-methanol mixed solvents on the ultrasonic relaxation of cadmium acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sree Rama Murthy, J.; Ramachandra Rao, B.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of ultrasonic absorption have been made by pulse technique in 1 M solutions of cadmium acetate with water-methanol mixed solvents. Results are analysed by assuming a single relaxation mechanism. The characteristic frequency of relaxation is found to decrease with increasing composition of methanol in the solvent. It is proposed that the mechanism of relaxation may be perturbation of chemical equilibrium between complex CdAc + ions and Cd ++ , Ac - species by soundwaves. (author)

  6. Studies on simulated nuclear waste of mixed solvent type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.

    1989-09-01

    Caesium 137, strontium 90 and ruthenium 106 are among the longest lived fission products present in reprocessing wastes and are therefore considered to be a long term hazard to the environment. A method for removal of 137-Cs, 90-Sr and 106-Ru from the nuclear waste is by ion-exchange and sorption. Radiochemical methods were employed to investigate the uptake of 137-Cs, 90-Sr and 106-Ru by synthetic type A, X, Y, zeolites and by mordenite and clinoptilolite. The solvents employed were tributylphosphate (TBP) and kerosene (OK). The dependence of the exchange process on time was studied at room temperature. The exchange equilibrium was strongly dependent on time during the first hour but then attained equilibrium. It was also noted that the distribution coefficient (Kd) values for 137-Cs were higher than those for 90-Sr which were higher than those for 106-Ru. Thus the order of extraction was: 137-Cs > 90-Sr > 106-Ru. Ethanol was also used as the solvent to see the effect on the Kds by varying the amount of water present, i.e. from 0% water to 10% water. It was observed that the Kd increased with an increase in water content. The effect of pH and different ratios of TBP:OK were also studied. There was no relationship between the Kds and the different ratios. Some work was also done on the adsorption of 137-Cs on cements and cement phases. The sorption of 137-Cs on to all types of cements was low. (author)

  7. Excited state charge transfer reaction in (mixed solvent + electrolyte ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vent characteristics summarized in table 1 indicate that these mixed ... polarity scale,35,36 on the other hand, seems to sug- ... electrolyte than the specified ones become insoluble in ... kinetics of P4C eventhough alternative models40,41 are ...... Maurer G 1983 Fluid Phase Equilib. ... Yoon B J and Ohr Y G 2000 J. Chem.

  8. Investigations on the role of mixed-solvent for improved efficiency in perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranbir; Suranagi, Sanjaykumar R.; Kumar, Manish; Shukla, Vivek Kumar

    2017-12-01

    The morphology of the spin-coated photoactive layer is one of the major factors affecting the performance of perovskite solar cells. In this work, we have employed a mixed-solvent strategy to obtain a high quality MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3) perovskite film, without pinholes and reduced grain boundaries. Perovskite films formed with single and mixed-solvents are systematically characterized for their optical, structural, and morphological properties using UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tools. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices fabricated using the mixed-solvent showed better performance than the devices made using the single solvent. The best-optimized mixed-solvent perovskite film exhibited a PCE of 15.2% with uniform film coverage on the substrate, better charge generation, and a high hole mobility of 1.16 × 10-4cm2/V s. The disparities in photovoltaic properties have been analyzed with the intensity dependent current density-voltage (J-V), transient photovoltage (TPV), and relationship between photocurrent (Jph) and effective voltage (Veff).

  9. Effect of Contemporary Exposure to Mixed Organic Solvents and Occupational Noise on Hearing Thresholds of Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attarchi Mir Saeid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mixed organic solvent exposure, as well as noise, has a wide spread in different industries. In recent years it has been propounded that simultaneous exposure to mixed organic solvents and occupational noise can establish a hearing loss that is more severe than hearing loss due to exposure to each of them separately.Materials & Methods: A descriptive- analytic study was conducted during 2008 in an automobile industry on 441 employees in three different groups. First group were assembly workers that only exposed to noise. The second group included employees in new painting saloon that exposed not only to noise but also to permissible levels of mixed organic solvents and the third group were employees in old painting saloon that exposed to noise and mixed organic solvents in more than threshold limit value (TLV level. The prevalence of hearing loss was compared between three groups on the basis of model 1 (mean hearing threshold in frequencies 0.5, 1 and 2 KHz more than 25dB and model 2 (mean hearing threshold in frequencies 3, 4, 6 and 8 KHz more than 25dB. Results: According to model 2, in workers exposed to noise in addition to mixed organic solvents, the rate of hearing loss, was significantly higher than workers exposed to noise alone (P<0.05, even after adjusting for confounding variables using logistic regression analysis (OR= 4.12 , P<0.001.Conclusion: In workers with simultaneous exposure to mixed organic solvents and noise, special attention must be paid to accurate accomplishment of hearing conservation programs including doing audiometric exams in shorter periods and take advantage of hearing protection devices with higher noise reduction rate (NRR.

  10. Reverse Schreinemakers Method for Experimental Analysis of Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2009-01-01

    the reverse Schreinemakers (RS) method. The method is based on simple mass balance principles similar to the wet residues method. It allows for accurate determination of the mixed-solvent phase composition even though part of the solvent may precipitate as complexes between solvent and salt. Discrepancies......A method based on Schreinemakers's tie-line theory of 1893 is derived for determining the composition and phase amounts in solubility experiments for multi-solvent electrolyte systems. The method uses the lever rule in reverse compared to Schreinemakers's wet residue method, and is therefore called...... from determining the composition of salt mixtures by pH titration are discussed, and the derived method significantly improves the obtained result from titration. Furthermore, the method reduces the required experimental work needed for analysis of phase composition. The method is applicable to multi...

  11. Tunable and rapid self-assembly of block copolymers using mixed solvent vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woon Ik; Tong, Sheng; Liu, Yuzi; Jung, Il Woong; Roelofs, Andreas; Hong, Seungbum

    2014-12-21

    Pattern generation of well-controlled block copolymers (BCPs) with a high Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) is important for applications in sub-20 nm nanolithography. We used mixed solvents of dimethylformamide (DMF) and toluene to control the morphology as well as the time to achieve the targeted morphology via self-assembly of BCPs. By precisely controlling the volume ratio of DMF and toluene, well-ordered line, honeycomb, circular hole, and lamellar nanostructures were obtained from a cylinder-forming poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) BCP with high χ. Furthermore, a well-aligned 12 nm line pattern was successfully achieved in the guiding template within one minute using the mixed solvents. This practical method may also be applicable to self-assembly of other BCPs, providing more opportunities for the next-generation sub-10 nm lithography applications.

  12. Thermodynamics of ionic migration of simple and complex rare earth salts in mixed alcohol solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodyskij, A.V.; Fialkov, Yu.Ya.; Chernyj, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of the composition of double mixed solvents (water-methanol and methanol-propanol) on thermodynamic characteristics of electrolytic dissociation process-enthalpy and entropy, dissociation constants of chlorides and diphenanthroline chlorides of lanthanum, neodymium, europium and dysprosium, is analyzed. It is shown that when passing from water to methanol, that is, with decrease of dielectric permeability, the endothermicity of electrolytic dissociation process increases

  13. Thermodynamics of ionic migration of simple and complex rare earth salts in mixed alcohol solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodyskij, A.V.; Fialkov, Yu.Ya.; Chernyj, D.B. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii; Kievskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1982-04-01

    The influence of the composition of double mixed solvents (water-methanol and methanol-propanol) on thermodynamic characteristics of electrolytic dissociation process-enthalpy and entropy, dissociation constants of chlorides and diphenanthroline chlorides of lanthanum, neodymium, europium and dysprosium, is analyzed. It is shown that when passing from water to methanol, that is, with decrease of dielectric permeability, the endothermicity of electrolytic dissociation process increases.

  14. Radiation induced polymerization of MMA in imidazolium ionic liquids and their mixed solutions with organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Mingying [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Guozhong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: wuguozhong@sinap.ac.cn; Sha Maolin; Liu Yusheng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Considerably higher molecular weight (M{sub w}) and multi-modal molecular weight distribution (MWD) of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were observed in neat ionic liquids ([bmim][PF{sub 6}] and [bmim][BF{sub 4}]), as well as their mixed solutions with organic solvents, probably due to the high viscosity and inhomogeneity of ionic liquids. FTIR spectra for PMMA showed that a slight amount of ionic liquid remained in the resulting polymer, and DSC measurement indicated the increase of glass transition point of PMMA with increasing of ionic liquid fraction in mixed solutions.

  15. Bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell fabricated by the electrospray deposition method using mixed organic solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Takagi, Kenji; Asano, Takashi [Department of Functional Materials Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wakou-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Honda, Zentaro; Kamata, Norihiko; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime [Department of Functional Materials Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Ju, Jungmyoung; Yamagata, Yutaka; Tajima, Yusuke [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wakou-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    A high-efficiency bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) was achieved by the electrospray deposition method. The surface roughness of the P3HT:PCBM thin film can be reduced using the mixed solvent consisting of o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB) and acetone. The effect of acetone concentration is related to its dielectric constant. Under an optimized concentration of acetone in o-DCB (20 vol%), the P3HT/PCBM active layer with a smooth surface can be formed, and the power conversion efficiency of the OPV was 1.9%. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Solvent extraction of hafnium(IV) by dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid from mixed aqueous-organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hala, J.; Piperkovova, H.

    1979-01-01

    The extraction of hafnium(IV) by heptane and toluene solutions of dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HD) from mixed aqueous-organic solutions has been studied. Alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids, cyclic ethers, dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide were used as the organic component of the mixed phase. Methanol, ethanol, formic acid and dioxane increased the extractability of Hf(IV) whereas other solvents showed only an antagonistic effect. The results were discussed from the point of view of the changes in micellar structure of HD, and compared with the uptake of Hf(IV) by resinous cation exchangers. The solubilization by HD of alcohols, carboxylic acids and dimethylsulfoxide was demonstrated by using the corresponding 14 C and 35 S labelled compounds. (author)

  17. Ultrasmooth Perovskite Film via Mixed Anti-Solvent Strategy with Improved Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Yang, Songwang; Lei, Lei; Cao, Qipeng; Shao, Jun; Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Most antisolvents employed in previous research were miscible with perovskite precursor solution. They always led to fast formation of perovskite even if the intermediate stage existed, which was not beneficial to obtain high quality perovskite films and made the formation process less controllable. In this work, a novel ethyl ether/n-hexane mixed antisolvent (MAS) was used to achieve high nucleation density and slow down the formation process of perovskite, producing films with improved orientation of grains and ultrasmooth surfaces. These high quality films exhibited efficient charge transport at the interface of perovskite/hole transport material and perovskite solar cells based on these films showed greatly improved performance with the best power conversion efficiency of 17.08%. This work also proposed a selection principle of MAS and showed that solvent engineering by designing the mixed antisolvent system can lead to the fabrication of high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of nickel hydroxide nanostructures in mixed solvents of water and alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lixia; Zhu Yingjie; Tong Hua; Liang Zhenhua; Li Liang; Zhang Ling

    2007-01-01

    Nickel hydroxide nanosheets and flowers have been hydrothermally synthesized using Ni(CH 3 COO) 2 .4H 2 O in mixed solvents of ethylene glycol (EG) or ethanol and deionized water at 200 deg. C for different time. The phase and morphology of the obtained products can be controlled by adjusting the experimental parameters, including the hydrothermal time and the volume ratio of water to EG or ethanol. The possible reaction mechanism and growth of the nanosheets and nanoflowers are discussed based on the experimental results. Porous nickel oxide nanosheets are obtained by heating nickel hydroxide nanosheets in air at 400 deg. C. The products were characterized by using various methods including X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The electrochemical property of β-Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets was investigated through the cyclic voltammogram (CV) measurement. - Graphical abstract: Nickel hydroxide nanosheets and flowers have been hydrothermally synthesized using Ni(CH 3 COO) 2 .4H 2 O in mixed solvents of ethylene glycol (EG) or ethanol and deionized water at 200 deg. C for different reaction time. Porous nickel oxide nanosheets are obtained by heating nickel hydroxide nanosheets in air at 400 deg. C

  19. Determination and correlation of solubility and mixing properties of isonicotinamide (form II) in some pure solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bingxue; Wu, Yanyang, E-mail: wyywitty@ecust.edu.cn; Zhu, Jiawen; Chen, Kui; Wu, Bin; Ji, Lijun

    2016-03-20

    Highlights: • Solubility data of isonicotinamide in seven pure solvents were determined. • Five regular thermodynamic models were used to correlate solubility data. • The dissolution properties and mixing properties were predicted. • All solutions studied exhibit high non-ideality by calculating activity coefficients. - Abstract: Solubility data were determined for isonicotinamide in water, ethanol, 2-propanol, n-butanol, 2-butanol, ethyl acetate and butyl acetate from 298.15 to 323.15 K with a static analytic method. The Van’t Hoff equation, modified Apelblat equation, λh (Buchowski) equation and two local composition models (NRTL and UNIQUAC) were used to correlate the solubility data, and modified Apelblat equation shows the best agreement among all the five models. Besides, differential scanning calorimetry were used to determine the crystal forms crystallized in the seven solvents and obtain the melting temperature T{sub m} and fusion enthalpy Δ{sub fus}H{sub m}. Furthermore, the activity coefficients of isonicotinamide and mixing Gibbs free energies, enthalpies, and entropies of the solutions were predicted. All solutions studied exhibit high non-ideality, indicating the important role of homo-molecules interactions for solubility behavior. The dissolution enthalpies and entropies were also estimated in this work.

  20. Preparation and performance study of a novel liquid scintillator with mixed solvent as the matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Zhanlong; Zhu, Jiayi; Luo, Xuan; Xu, Yewei; Zhang, Qianfeng; Zhang, Xing; Bi, Yutie; Zhang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    A novel liquid scintillator with the mixed solvent as the matrix was prepared for obtaining a good comprehensive performance. In this ternary liquid scintillator, the combination of 20% pseudocumene (PC) and 80% linear-alkyl benzene (LAB) by volume was chosen as the mixed solvent, and 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 1,4-bis(2-Methylstyryl) benzene (bis-MSB) were as the primary fluor and wavelength shifter, respectively. The optimum prescription was obtained with regard to the light yield. Some characterizations based on the optimal formulation were conducted. The fluorescence emission spectra and wavelength-dependent optical attenuation length of the sample were measured by the fluorescence spectrophotometer and an UV–Vis spectrometer, respectively. The light yield was characterized by adopting the home-made optical platform device. The decay time was tested by adopting the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) technique featured in high dynamic range of several orders of magnitude in light intensity. The experimental test results showed that the sample had a fairly good comprehensive performance.

  1. Preparation and performance study of a novel liquid scintillator with mixed solvent as the matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zhanlong [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhu, Jiayi [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China); Luo, Xuan, E-mail: luox76@gmail.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu, Yewei [School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhang, Qianfeng [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhang, Xing [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Bi, Yutie, E-mail: biyutie@sina.com [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhang, Lin [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2017-04-01

    A novel liquid scintillator with the mixed solvent as the matrix was prepared for obtaining a good comprehensive performance. In this ternary liquid scintillator, the combination of 20% pseudocumene (PC) and 80% linear-alkyl benzene (LAB) by volume was chosen as the mixed solvent, and 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 1,4-bis(2-Methylstyryl) benzene (bis-MSB) were as the primary fluor and wavelength shifter, respectively. The optimum prescription was obtained with regard to the light yield. Some characterizations based on the optimal formulation were conducted. The fluorescence emission spectra and wavelength-dependent optical attenuation length of the sample were measured by the fluorescence spectrophotometer and an UV–Vis spectrometer, respectively. The light yield was characterized by adopting the home-made optical platform device. The decay time was tested by adopting the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) technique featured in high dynamic range of several orders of magnitude in light intensity. The experimental test results showed that the sample had a fairly good comprehensive performance.

  2. Experimental measurement and modelling of solubility of inosine-5′-monophosphate disodium in pure and mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Fengxia; Zhuang, Wei; Wu, Jinglan; Zhou, Jingwei; Liu, Qiyan; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing; Zhu, Chenjie; Guo, Ting; Ying, Hanjie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solubility of 5′-IMPNa 2 in various solvents was studied for the first time. • The solubility could be ranked as follows: water > methanol > ethanol > acetone. • Modified Apelblat equation gave the best correlating results. • Mixing Gibbs free energies, enthalpies, and entropies were predicted. • Solubility data and equations can optimise the crystallization conditions. - Abstract: The solubility of biological chemicals in solvents provide important fundamental data and is generally considered as an essential factor in the design of crystallization processes. The equilibrium solubility data of inosine-5′-monophosphate disodium (5′-IMPNa 2 ) in water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, as well as in the solvent mixtures (methanol + water, ethanol + water, acetone + water), were measured by an isothermal method at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 313.15) K. The measured data in pure and mixed solvents were then modelled using the modified Apelblat equation, van’t Hoff equation, λh equation, ideal model and the Wilson model. The modified Apelblat equation showed the best modelling results, and it was therefore used to predict the mixing Gibbs free energies, enthalpies, and entropies of 5′-IMPNa 2 in pure and binary solvents. The positive values of the calculated partial molar Gibbs free energies indicated the variations in the solubility trends of 5′-IMPNa 2 . Water and ethanol (in the binary mixture with water) were found to be the most effective solvent and anti-solvent, respectively

  3. Preferential solvation and solvation shell composition of free base and protonated 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin in aqueous organic mixed solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajtabar, Ali; Jaberi, Fatemeh; Gharib, Farrokh

    2011-12-01

    The solvatochromic properties of the free base and the protonated 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS) were studied in pure water, methanol, ethanol (protic solvents), dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO, (non-protic solvent), and their corresponding aqueous-organic binary mixed solvents. The correlation of the empirical solvent polarity scale ( ET) values of TPPS with composition of the solvents was analyzed by the solvent exchange model of Bosch and Roses to clarify the preferential solvation of the probe dyes in the binary mixed solvents. The solvation shell composition and the synergistic effects in preferential solvation of the solute dyes were investigated in terms of both solvent-solvent and solute-solvent interactions and also, the local mole fraction of each solvent composition was calculated in cybotactic region of the probe. The effective mole fraction variation may provide significant physico-chemical insights in the microscopic and molecular level of interactions between TPPS species and the solvent components and therefore, can be used to interpret the solvent effect on kinetics and thermodynamics of TPPS. The obtained results from the preferential solvation and solvent-solvent interactions have been successfully applied to explain the variation of equilibrium behavior of protonation of TPPS occurring in aqueous organic mixed solvents of methanol, ethanol and DMSO.

  4. Electrohydrodynamics in nanochannels coated by mixed polymer brushes: effects of electric field strength and solvent quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qianqian; Tian, Xiu; You, Hao

    2018-04-01

    We examine the electrohydrodynamics in mixed polymer brush-coated nanochannels and the conformational dynamics of grafted polymers using molecular dynamics simulations. Charged (A) and neutral polymers (B) are alternately grafted on the channel surfaces. The effects of the electric field strength and solvent quality are addressed in detail. The dependence of electroosmotic flow characteristics and polymer conformational behavior on the solvent quality is influenced due to the change of the electric field strength. The enhanced electric field induces a collapse of the neutral polymer chains which adopt a highly extended conformation along the flow direction. However, the thickness of the charged polymer layer is affected weakly by the electric field, and even a slight swelling is identified for the A-B attraction case, implying the conformational coupling between two polymer species. Furthermore, the charged polymer chains incline entirely towards the electric field direction oppositely to the flow direction. More importantly, unlike the neutral polymer chains, the shape factor of the charged polymer chains, which is used to describe the overall shape of polymer chains, is reduced significantly with increasing the electric field strength, corresponding to a more coiled structure.

  5. Study of the efectiveness of the mixed solvents for radically removing thiophenes from benzene and toluene by extractive rectification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miroshnicenko, A.A.; Fedosyuk, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the selectivity of solvents under the conditions of liquid-liquid equilibrium in the systems which include thiophene, benzene, toluene, the polar solvent and n-decane. The presence of the latter has maintained the heterogeneity of the mixtures being studied. The systems under consideration were drawn up in volumetric ratios. Equilibrium was studied in thermostat units. The equilibrium phases were analyzed by a special method, while the coefficient of the relative distribution of the components with respect to selectivity was calculated by the known relations. The investigations of the systems with different solvents have shown that there are functionally selective classes of extractants in which selectivity is determined by free unsubstituted functional groups of a solvent. The growth of the selectivity of solvents according to the following classes has been observed: aprotic ones with a keto group < protic ones with a hydroxyl < < unsubstituted amides of acids < sulphones < sulphoxides. To study the liquid-vapor equilibrium, use was made of the most selective extractants (including DMSO, Pyrrolidone-2, carbamide, ethylene carbamide, and NMP) which were revealed earlier in extraction investigations. Since the most selective representative of acid amides, namely, ethylene carbamide and carbamide, are solids, they were studied in mixtures with the less selective liquid solvents of NMP and pyrrolidone-2. NMP-ethylene-carbamide-water and pyrrolidone-2-ethylene carbamida-water are the most selective mixed solvents, and preference is given to the latter one.

  6. Using mixed solvent and changing spin-coating parameters to increase the efficiency and lifetime of organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu Sheng; Chu, Wei-Ping; Tang, Rong-Ming; Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Chang, Ming-Hua; Liu, Mark O; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2008-10-01

    The derivative of C60, i.e., PCBM, and P3HT (3-hexylthiophene) were dissolved in chloroform:dichlorobenzene mixed solvent, then spin-coated as the active layer for organic solar cells (OSC). The experimental parameters were studied carefully to obtain the optimum power conversion efficiency (PCE), including the solvent mixing ratio, spin-coating speed, annealing conditions for the active layer, etc. The OSC devices were packaged with glass and a newly developed UV-glue to improve the lifetime and PCE. Dichlorobenzene solvent has great effect upon the PCE. Changing the spin-coating speed and increasing the number of steps increased the PCE apparently to 1.4%.

  7. Modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride in TBAA/DMSO mixed solvent under catalyst-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homogeneous modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride was performed in tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvent. The molar ratio of succinic anhydride (SA) to free hydroxyl groups in the anhydroglucose units (AGU) and TBAA dosage were investigated as paramete...

  8. Modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride in TBAA/DMSO mixed solvent under catalyst-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping-Ping Xin; Yao-Bing Huang; Chung-Yun Hse; Huai N. Cheng; Chaobo Huang; Hui. Pan

    2017-01-01

    Homogeneous modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride was performed using tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvent. The molar ratio of succinic anhydride (SA) to free hydroxyl groups in the anhydroglucose units (AGU), TBAA dosage, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated. The highest degree of substitution (DS)...

  9. Solvent extraction of indium and gallium complexes with bromopyrogallol red by mixed extractants containing chloroform, a polar organic solvent and monocarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyatnitskij, I.V.; Lysenko, O.V.; Kolomiets, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction of indium and gallium complexes with bromopyragallol red (BPR) has been studied using mixed extractants containing chloroform, capronic acid (HL) and 1-pentanol (S) (extractant 1), and chloroform, HL, S and propionic acid (extractant 2). The latter is more selectie and extracts only the indium complex. Optimal conditions have been found for the extraction of In-BRP complex (pH 6.3-6.5; C BPR 1.5x10 -4 M) its composition has been estimated and discussed

  10. Control of Evaporation Behavior of an Inkjet-Printed Dielectric Layer Using a Mixed-Solvent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hak Soon; Kang, Byung Ju; Oh, Je Hoon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the evaporation behavior and the resulting morphology of inkjet-printed dielectric layers were controlled using a mixed-solvent system to fabricate uniform poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) dielectric layers without any pinholes. The mixed-solvent system consisted of two different organic solvents: 1-hexanol and ethanol. The effects of inkjet-printing variables such as overlap condition, substrate temperature, and different printing sequences (continuous and interlacing printing methods) on the inkjet-printed dielectric layer were also investigated. Increasing volume fraction of ethanol (VFE) is likely to reduce the evaporation rate gradient and the drying time of the inkjet-printed dielectric layer; this diminishes the coffee stain effect and thereby improves the uniformity of the inkjet-printed dielectric layer. However, the coffee stain effect becomes more severe with an increase in the substrate temperature due to the enhanced outward convective flow. The overlap condition has little effect on the evaporation behavior of the printed dielectric layer. In addition, the interlacing printing method results in either a stronger coffee stain effect or wavy structures of the dielectric layers depending on the VFE of the PVP solution. All-inkjet-printed capacitors without electrical short circuiting can be successfully fabricated using the optimized PVP solution (VFE = 0.6); this indicates that the mixed-solvent system is expected to play an important role in the fabrication of high-quality inkjet-printed dielectric layers in various printed electronics applications.

  11. Thermo-mechanical characterization of epoxy nanocomposites with different carbon nanotube distributions obtained by solvent aided and direct mixing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zarrelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two different routes, namely solvent aided dispersion and direct mixing, were employed to disperse Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs into a mono-component epoxy system used as matrix for advanced composites. In the first route, MWCNTs were diluted in three different solvents (acetone, sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethanol and then mixed with the matrix by tip sonication. In the second case, carbonaceous nanoparticles were added directly into the hosting system and dispersion was carried out by using three different techniques (mechanical stirring, magnetic agitation and tip sonication. The effects of the solvents and agitation energy were investigated by optical microscopy at micron level, in order assess the more efficient dispersion procedure for the considered epoxy system. It was demonstrated that parameters associated with direct mixing rather than solvent solubility govern MWCNT dispersion. Optical analysis of the nanocomposite morphology evidenced a very low density of MWCNTs micron sized aggregates in the case of direct mixed tip sonicated samples if compared to those obtained by solution aided dispersion. In addition, nanocomposites obtained by sonication showed the lowest density of MWCNTs micron sized aggregates, also when compared with mechanically and magnetically stirred system. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA and Thermo-Mechanical Analysis (TMA results confirm the final result that among the considered direct mixing techniques, the direct tip sonication represents the most efficient route for MWCNT dispersion. Moreover, the mixing temperature of the hosting matrix system represents a fundamental feature in enhancing the MWCNT de-bundling and dispersion. Small X-ray Scattering analysis revealed that a nanosized structure of nanotubes is formed in the case of the tip sonicated samples that is heuristically correlated with both the maximum enhancement of mechanical modulus and the maximum reduction of thermal expansion coefficients.

  12. Laboratory simulations of the mixed solvent extraction recovery of dominate polymers in electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Bo; Lv, Xu-Dong; Yang, Wan-Dong; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2017-11-01

    The recovery of four dominant plastics from electronic waste (e-waste) using mixed solvent extraction was studied. The target plastics included polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and styrene acrylonitrile (SAN). The extraction procedure for multi-polymers at room temperature yielded PC, PS, ABS, and SAN in acceptable recovery rates (64%, 86%, 127%, and 143%, respectively, where recovery rate is defined as the mass ratio of the recovered plastic to the added standard polymer). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to verify the recovered plastics' purity using a similarity analysis. The similarities ranged from 0.98 to 0.99. Another similar process, which was denoted as an alternative method for plastic recovery, was examined as well. Nonetheless, the FTIR results showed degradation may occur over time. Additionally, the recovery cost estimation model of our method was established. The recovery cost estimation indicated that a certain range of proportion of plastics in e-waste, especially with a higher proportion of PC and PS, can achieve a lower cost than virgin polymer product. It also reduced 99.6%, 30.7% and 75.8% of energy consumptions and CO 2 emissions during the recovery of PC, PS and ABS, and reduced the amount of plastic waste disposal via landfill or incineration and associated environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ionization and thermodynamic constants of 6-methylquinoline by potentiometry in aqueous and mixed organic-water solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, A; Indhar, B.; Khanzada, A.W.K.

    2000-01-01

    The ionization constant pKa and Gibbs's free energy DG of 6-methylquinoline are determined in aqueous solution at different temperatures and in three mixed organic-water solvent systems at 25 deg. C. It is observed that dissociation constant of 6-methylquinoline in aqueous system decreases with the increase of temperature. The curve is a parabolic. It is noted that pKa values of this compound are higher than those of quinoline and 8-methylquinoline. In case of mixed organic-water solvent systems, the influence of these solvents on the ionization equilibria of NH/sub 2/ group has been observed. The pK M/A and pK T/A values versus percent composition decrease gradually with increase in percent of organic solvents The curve of the pK/sub a/ versus percent composition is a distorted parabola. The data have been obtained potentiometrically by titrating 6-methylquinoline solutions with HCl. The values of dissociation constant were obtained from these data by a computer program written in GW-BASIC. From pKa values Gibbs's free energies DG for the respective pKa values have also been calculated. (author)

  14. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  15. Mixed Redox Catalytic Destruction of Chlorinated Solvents in Soils and Groundwater: From the Laboratory to the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Song; Rupp, Erik; Bell, Suzanne; Willinger, Martin; Foley, Theresa; Barbaris, Brian; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Arnold, Robert G.; Betterton, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A new thermocatalytic method to destroy chlorinated solvents has been developed in the laboratory and tested in a pilot field study. The method employs a conventional Pt/Rh catalyst on a ceramic honeycomb. Reactions proceed at moderate temperatures in the simultaneous presence of oxygen and a reductant (mixed redox conditions) to minimize catalyst deactivation. In the laboratory, stable operation with high conversions (above 90% at residence times shorter than 1 s) for perchloroethylene (PCE)...

  16. Examination of the role of CS{sub 2} in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvents to coal extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Hengfu; Wang, Zhicai [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 243002 Maanshan Anhui (China); Gao, Jinsheng [Department of Energy Resources and Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science & amp; Technology, 200237 Shanghai (China)

    2006-02-15

    The roles of CS{sub 2} in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent to coal extraction and solubilization were investigated in this study. There was little effect of removing of CS{sub 2} from the solutions on the solubilities of UF coal extract and pyridine insoluble (PI) of the extract in the NMP/CS{sub 2} mixed solvent, suggesting that NMP has high enough solubilities to the UF coal extract and PI. Six Argonne different rank coals were extracted with the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent and NMP, respectively. It was found that the extraction yield difference between NMP and CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent for UF coal is largely deviated from the curve obtained for the other 5 coals, suggesting that the pre-swelling of CS{sub 2} in the mixed solvent may be one of important roles for high extraction yield of UF coal in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent. FTIR indicated that there was a strong interaction between CS{sub 2} and NMP in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent of 1:1 volume ratio, which made the strong absorbance at 2156 cm{sup -1} in the FTIR spectra, and this interaction may disrupt the dipole based association of NMP thus making the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent lower viscosity, to penetrate more quickly into the network structure of coal, resulting in the larger solvent partner (NMP) to enter and break the stronger coal-coal interactions. (author)

  17. Solubility determination and thermodynamic modelling of allisartan isoproxil in different binary solvent mixtures from T = (278.15 to 313.15) K and mixing properties of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yaoyao; Yang, Peng; Du, Shichao; Li, Kangli; Zhao, Kaifei; Xu, Shijie; Hou, Baohong; Gong, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility of allisartan isoproxil in binary solvent mixtures were determined. • Apelblat, CNIBS/R-K and Jouyban-Acree models were used to correlate the solubility. • Solubility parameter theory was used to explain the co-solvency phenomenon. • Regular mixing rules were used to calculate solubility parameter of binary solvents. • The mixing thermodynamics were calculated and discussed based on NRTL model. - Abstract: In this work, the solubility of allisartan isoproxil in binary solvent mixtures, including (acetone + water), (acetonitrile + water) and (methanol + water), was determined by a gravimetric method with the temperature ranging from (278.15 to 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure (p = 0.1 MPa). The solubility of allisartan isoproxil in three binary solvent mixtures all increased with the rising of temperature at a constant solvent composition. For the binary solvent mixtures of (methanol + water), the solubility increased with the increasing of methanol fraction, while it appeared maximum value at a certain solvent composition in the other two binary solvent mixtures (acetone + water and acetonitrile + water). Based on the theory of solubility parameter, Fedors method and two mixing rules were employed to calculate the solubility parameters, by which the proximity of solubility parameters between allisartan isoproxil and binary solvent mixtures explained the co-solvent phenomenon. Additionally, the modified Apelblat equation, CNIBS/R-K model and Jouyban-Acree model were used to correlate the solubility data in binary solvent mixtures, and it turned out that all the three correlation models could give a satisfactory result. Furthermore, the mixing thermodynamic properties were calculated based on NRTL model, which indicated that the mixing process was spontaneous and exothermic.

  18. Sorption behaviour of uranium and thorium on hydrous tin oxide from aqueous and mixed-solvent HNO3 media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, N.Z.; Salama, H.N.; El-Naggar, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    In aqueous nitric acid, uranyl and thorium ions seem to be sorbed on hydrous tin oxide mainly by a cation exchange mechanism. In 10 - 3 M aqueous solutions, the hydrous oxide prefers thorium to uranium at the relative low pH values, while the reverse is true at the higher pH values. The exchange of uranium is particle diffusion controlled while that of thorium is chemically controlled, and the isotherms point to the presence of different-energy sites in the hydrous oxide. Except for the solutions containing 80% of methanol, ethanol, or acetone, cation exchange is probably still the main mechanism of sorption of uranium. Anionic sorption of thorium seems to occur in all the mixed-solvent solutions and is perhaps the main mechanism in 80% ethanol. The equilibrium distribution coefficient K sub (d) increases almost in all cases with organic solvent content, probably due to dehydration of sorbed ions and to increasing superposition on anionic sorption. Unlike the aqueous medium, large U/Th separation factors are achieved in many of the mixed-solvent solutions and separation schemes are suggested. (Authors)

  19. Thermodynamics of H+/Cs+ exchange on amorphous zirconium phosphate in mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, N.Z.; Mikhail, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    In aqueous, 30% isopropanol and acetone, and up to 90% methanol, the H + /Cs + exchange on zirconium phosphate is entropy directed, while in 60% isopropanol and acetone it is enthalpy directed and a selectivity reversal occurs. ΔF 0 decreases in all cases with increasing addition of the organic solvent. ΔH 0 becomes appreciably negative (ΔH 0 = 0 in aqueous medium) and ΔS 0 decreases appreciably on addition of 30% organic solvent, but they increase with further addition. In presence of methanol, ion-solvent interaction effects are counteracted by effects of solid phase interactions but the former effects predominate and lead to decrease of ΔF 0 . On going from 30 to 90 % methanol, positive enthalpy and entropy changes occur due to solid phase interactions involving probably the dehydration of the ingoing Cs + . In presence of up to 60% acetone, ΔF 0 (or selectively constant) changes mainly due to ion-solvent interactions and can be theoretically calculated from the value in the aqueous medium by use of transfer thermodynamics data. This is probably due to a limited imbibition of acetone. (author)

  20. Impurity distribution behavior in caprolactam extraction with environmentally benign mixed solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van M.L.; Drumm, C.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study a solvent mixture of heptane containing 40 mass % heptanol was selected as an alternative in the industrial extraction of caprolactam to replace benzene, toluene, or chlorinated hydrocarbons. This work reports the equilibrium distribution ratio of caprolactam and four model

  1. Studies on the absorption of uranium and plutonium on macroporous anion-exchange resins from mixed solvent media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetty, K.V.; Mapara, P.M.; Godbole, A.G.; Swarup, Rajendra

    1995-01-01

    The ion-exchange studies on uranium and plutonium using macroporous anion-exchange resins from an aqueous-organic solvent mixed media were carried out to develop a method for their separation. Out of the several water miscible organic solvents tried, methanol and acetone were found to be best suited. Distribution data for U(VI) and Pu(IV) for three macroporous resins Tulsion A-27(MP) (strong base), Amberlyst A-26(MP) (strong base) and Amberlite XE-270(MP) (weak base) as a function of (i) nitric acid concentration (ii) organic solvent concentration were obtained. Based on the data separation factors for Pu/U were calculated. Column experiments using Tulsion A-27(MP) from a synthetic feed (HNO 3 - methanol and HNO 3 - acetone) containing Pu and U in different ratios were carried out. Plutonium was recovered from the bulk of the actual solution generated during the dissolution of plutonium bearing fuels. The method has the advantage of loading plutonium from as low as 1M nitric acid in presence of methanol or acetone and could be used satisfactorily for its recovery from solutions containing plutonium and uranium. (author). 11 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs

  2. Effect of temperature on mixing thermodynamics of a new ionic liquid: {2-Hydroxy ethylammonium formate (2-HEAF) + short hydroxylic solvents}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, M.; Torres, A.; Gonzalez-Olmos, R.; Salvatierra, D.

    2008-01-01

    Density and ultrasonic velocity of the mixtures of the new ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium formate (2-HEAF) and short hydroxylic solvents (water, methanol, and ethanol) have been measured at the range of temperature (288.15 to 323.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The corresponding apparent molar volume and the apparent molar isentropic compressibility values have been evaluated from the experimental data and fitted to a temperature dependent Redlich-Mayer equation. From these correlations, the limiting infinite dilution values of the apparent magnitudes have also been computed. Derived properties such as isobaric expansibility and isothermal coefficient of pressure excess molar enthalpy were computed due to their importance in the study of specific molecular interactions. The new experimental data were used to test the capability of prediction of the modified Heller temperature dependent equation (MHE) and collision factor theory (CFT). The obtained results indicate that ionic liquid interactions in water are weaker than in the studied alcoholic solutions. An intersection point in isotherms of isentropic compressibility was observed for aqueous solutions which may be an indication of the clathrate structural interactions at high solvent composition. The observed inverse dependence on temperature for aqueous or alcoholic mixtures points out the special trend of packing of this ionic liquid into hydroxylic solvents and its strong dependence on steric hindrance of aliphatic residues. As previously observed, the increase in van der Waals forces due to the presence of long alkyl chain (into ionic liquid and alcohols) leads to higher interactions on mixing

  3. Influence of Mixed Solvent on the Electrochemical Property of Hybrid Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byunggwan; Yoon, J R

    2015-11-01

    The hybrid capacitors (2245 size, cylindrical type) were prepared by using activated carbon cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode. In order to improve the cell operation at high temperature range, propylene carbonate (PC) was used in combination with acetonitrile (AN) with volume ratio of 7:3, 5:5, and 3:7, respectively. We investigated the electrochemical behavior of the hybrid capacitors that enabled cell operation with stability at high temperature. The organic electrolyte of hybrid capacitor containing PC and AN with a volume ratio 7:3 intended to exhibit highly reversible cycle performance with good capacity retention at 60 degrees C after 2200 cycles. From this study, it has been found that the very strong influence of the solvent nature on the characteristics of hybrid capacitor, and the difference in performance associated with the two solvents.

  4. Determination of rhenium (7) trace amounts by spectrophotometric titration in medium of mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.V.; Samorukova, O.L.

    1978-01-01

    The method has been proposed of determining rhenium (7) microamounts by spectrophotometric titration in the medium water-dimethyl-sulphoxide with the reagent nitrochromazo. The method is based on the formation of ionic pairs K + ReO 4 - in water-organic solvents. The results of rhenium determination are satisfactory in a wide concentration range up to 0.3 mkg in 15 ml which makes the method proposed close in sensitivity to photometric methods and much better in reproducibility

  5. Apparent Molal Volumes of Sodium Fluoride in Mixed Aqueous-Ethanol Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gomaa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The densities of different molal concentrations of sodium fluoride at ethanol-water mixtures, as solvent, have been measured over the whole composition range at three different temperatures, 293.15, 303.15 and 313.15oK. From the measured densities, the apparent and limiting molal volumes of the electrolytes have been evaluated. The limiting molal volumes for sodium and fluoride ions were estimated by splitting the ionic contributions as an asymmetric assumption.

  6. TRU decontamination of high-level Purex waste by solvent extraction using a mixed octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide/TBP/NPH (TRUEX) solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Diamond, H.; Kaplan, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Schulz, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process was tested on a simulated high-level dissolved sludge waste (DSW). A batch counter-current extraction mode was used for seven extraction and three scrub stages. One additional extraction stage and two scrub stages and all strip stages were performed by batch extraction. The TRUEX solvent consisted of 0.20 M octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide-1.4 M TBP in Conoco (C 12 -C 14 ). The feed solution was 1.0 M in HNO 3 , 0.3 M in H 2 C 2 O 4 and contained mixed (stable) fission products, U, Np, Pu, and Am, and a number of inert constituents, e.g., Fe and Al. The test showed that the process is capable of reducing the TRU concentration in the DSW by a factor of 4 x 10 4 (to <100 nCi/g of disposed form) and reducing the quantity of TRU waste by two orders of magnitude

  7. Charged Nanowire-Directed Growth of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Nanosheets in a Mixed Solvent for Biomimetic Composite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyi; Liu, Lei; Chen, Si-Ming; Chang, Fu-Jia; Mao, Li-Bo; Gao, Huai-Ling; Ma, Tao; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2018-04-19

    Bio-inspired mineralization is an effective way for fabricating complicated inorganic materials, which inspires us to develop new methods to synthesize materials with fascinating properties. In this article, we report that the charged tellurium nanowires (TeNWs) can be used as bio-macromolecule analogues to direct the formation of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) nanosheets (ACCNs) in a mixed solvent. The effects of surface charges and the concentration of the TeNWs on the formation of ACCNs have been investigated. Particularly, the produced ACCNs can be functionalized by Fe3O4 nanoparticles to produce magnetic ACC/Fe3O4 hybrid nanosheets, which can be used to construct ACC/Fe3O4 composite films through a self-evaporation process. Moreover, sodium alginate-ACC nanocomposite films with remarkable toughness and good transmittance can also be fabricated by using such ACCNs as nanoscale building blocks. This mineralization approach in a mixed solvent using charged tellurium nanowires as bio-macromolecule analogues provides a new way for the synthesis of ACCNs, which can be used as nanoscale building blocks for fabrication of biomimetic composite films.

  8. Ultrasonic and viscometric studies of yttrium soaps in mixed organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Tandon, K.; Rawat, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    The ultrasonic and viscosity measurements of yttrium soaps (caprylate, caprate and laurate) in a mixture of benzene and dimethyl formamide (3:2) have been carried out with a view to determine the critical micellar concentration soap-solvent interaction and other allied parameters. The various acoustic parameters (intermolecular free-length adiabatic compressibility, apparent molar compressibility, specific acoustic impedance, molar sound velocity, solvation number available volume and relative association) have been evaluated by ultrasonic velocity measurements. The results of viscosity measurement have been explained in terms of well known equations. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Ultrasonic measurements and other allied parameters of yttrium soaps in mixed organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Tandon, K.

    1990-01-01

    The ultrasonic measurements of yttrium soaps were made in a mixture of 70 % benzene and 30 % dimethylsulfoxide (ν/ν) to determine the critical micelle concentration, soap-solvent interaction and various acoustic and thermodynamic parameters. The values of the CMC decrease with increasing chainlength of fatty acid constituent of the soap molecule and are in agreement with the values obtained from other micellar properties. The various acoustic parameters (intermolecular freelength, adiabatic compressibility, apparent molar compressibility, specific acoustic impedance, apparent molar volume, molar sound velocity, solvation number, available volume and relative association) for yttrium soaps (myristate, palmitate, stearate and oleate) have been evaluated by ultrasonic velocity measurements. (Authors)

  10. Effects of concentration, temperature and solvent composition on density and apparent molar volume of the binary mixtures of cationic-anionic surfactants in methanol-water mixed solvent media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Ajaya; Chatterjee, Sujeet Kumar; Niraula, Tulasi Prasad

    2013-01-01

    The accurate measurements on density of the binary mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate in pure water and in methanol(1) + water (2) mixed solvent media containing (0.10, 0.20, and 0.30) volume fractions of methanol at 308.15, 318.15, and 323.15 K are reported. The concentrations are varied from (0.03 to 0.12) mol.l(-1) of sodium dodecyl sulphate in presence of ~ 5.0×10(-4) mol.l(-1) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The results showed almost increase in the densities with increasing surfactant mixture concentration, also the densities are found to decrease with increasing temperature over the entire concentration range, investigated in a given mixed solvent medium and these values are found to decrease with increasing methanol content in the solvent composition. The concentration dependence of the apparent molar volumes appear to be negligible over the entire concentration range, investigated in a given mixed solvent medium and the apparent molar volumes increase with increasing temperature and are found to decrease with increasing methanol content in the solvent composition.

  11. Molar enthalpy of mixing and refractive indices of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Chunyan; Guo, Yanhua; Li, Dongxue; Zong, Jianpeng; Ji, Xiaoyan; Liu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Molar enthalpy of mixing and refractive indices for binary mixtures of different deep eutectic solvents with water. • The Redlich–Kister equation and the NRTL model was used to fit the experimental data. • The NRTL model with fitted parameters were used to predict the vapour pressure and compared with experimental data. - Abstract: The molar enthalpies of mixing were measured for binary systems of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents (glycerol, ethylene glycol and malonic acid) with water at 298.15 K and 308.15 K, and atmospheric pressure with an isothermal calorimeter. Refractive indices were also measured at 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The binary mixtures of {chcl/glycerol (1:2) + water, chcl/ethylene glycol (1:2) + water} showed exothermic behaviour over the entire range of composition, while the binary mixture of {chcl/malonic acid (1:1) + water} showed endothermic behaviour at first and then changed to be exothermic with the increasing content of chcl/malonic acid (1:1). Experimental refractive indices were fitted with the Redlich–Kister equation, and experimental molar enthalpies of mixing were correlated with the Redlich–Kister equation and the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model. The NRTL model with the fitted parameters was used to predict the vapour pressures of these three mixtures. For mixtures of {chcl/glycerol (1:2) + water} and {chcl/ethylene glycol (1:2) + water}, the predicted vapour pressures agreed well with the experimental results from the literature. While for mixture of {chcl/malonic acid (1:1) + water}, the predicted vapour pressures showed deviation at the high concentration of chcl/malonic acid (1:1), and this was probably because of the complex molecular interaction between chcl/malonic acid (1:1) and water.

  12. A simple model for solvation in mixed solvents. Applications to the stabilization and destabilization of macromolecular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellman, J A

    1990-08-31

    The properties of a simple model for solvation in mixed solvents are explored in this paper. The model is based on the supposition that solvent replacement is a simple one-for-one substitution reaction at macromolecular sites which are independent of one another. This leads to a new form for the binding polynomial in which all terms are associated with ligand interchange rather than ligand addition. The principal solvent acts as one of the ligands. Thermodynamic analysis then shows that thermodynamic binding (i.e., selective interaction) depends on the properties of K'-1, whereas stoichiometric binding (site occupation) depends on K'. K' is a 'practical' interchange equilibrium constant given by (f3/f1)K, where K is the true equilibrium constant for the interchange of components 3 and 1 on the site and f3 and f4 denote their respective activity coefficients on the mole fraction scale. Values of K' less than unity lead to negative selective interaction. It is selective interaction and not occupation number which determines the thermodynamic effects of solvation. When K' greater than 100 on the mole fraction scale or K' greater than 2 on the molality scale (in water), the differences between stoichiometric binding and selective interaction become less than 1%. The theory of this paper is therefore necessary only for very weak binding constants. When K'-1 is small, large concentrations of the added solvent component are required to produce a thermodynamic effect. Under these circumstances the isotherms for the selective interaction and for the excess (or transfer) free energy are strongly dependent on the behavior of the activity coefficients of both solvent components. Two classes of behavior are described depending on whether the components display positive or negative deviations from Raoult's law. Examples which are discussed are aqueous solutions of urea and guanidinium chloride for positive deviations and of sucrose and glucose for negative deviations

  13. A thermodynamic study of complexation process between N, N'-dipyridoxylidene(1,4-butanediamine) and Cd2+ in some binary mixed solvents using conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimpoor, Sonia; Khoshnood, Razieh Sanavi; Beyramabadi, S. Ali

    2016-12-01

    Complexation of the Cd2+ ion with N, N'-dipyridoxylidene(1,4-butanediamine) Schiff base was studied in pure solvents including acetonitrile (AN), ethanol (EtOH), methanol (MeOH), tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylformamide (DMF), water (H2O), and various binary solvent mixtures of acetonitrile-ethanol (AN-EtOH), acetonitrile-methanol (AN-MeOH), acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran (AN-THF), acetonitrile-dimethylformamide (AN-DMF), and acetonitrile-water (AN-H2O) systems at different temperatures using the conductometric method. The conductance data show that the stoichiometry of complex is 1: 1 [ML] in all solvent systems. A non-linear behavior was observed for changes of log K f of [Cd( N, N'-dipyridoxylidene(1,4-butanediamine)] complex versus the composition of the binary mixed solvents, which was explained in terms of solvent-solvent interactions. The results show that the thermodynamics of complexation reaction is affected by the nature and composition of the mixed solvents.

  14. Effect of the composition of a solution on the enthalpies of solvation of piperidine in methanol-acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide-acetonitrile mixed solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'mina, I. A.; Volkova, M. A.; Sitnikova, K. A.; Sharnin, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Heat effects of dissolution of piperidine (ppd) are measured by calorimetry at 298.15 K over the range of composition of acetonitrile-methanol (AN-MeOH) mixed solvents. Based on the Δsol H ○(ppd)AN-MeOH values obtained using the literature data on Δsol H ○ (ppd) in acetonitrile-dimethylsulfoxide (AN-DMSO) mixed solvents and the vaporization enthalpy of ppd, the enthalpies of solvation of amine in AN-MeOH and AN-DMSO binary mixtures are calculated. A rise in the exothermicity of solvation of piperidine is observed upon the transition from AN to DMSO and MeOH, due mainly to the enhanced solvation of the amino group of ppd as a result of changes in the acid-base properties of the mixed solvent.

  15. Applicability of effective fragment potential version 2 - Molecular dynamics (EFP2-MD) simulations for predicting excess properties of mixed solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Nahoko; Mori, Hirotoshi

    2018-02-01

    Effective fragment potential version 2 - molecular dynamics (EFP2-MD) simulations, where the EFP2 is a polarizable force field based on ab initio electronic structure calculations were applied to water-methanol binary mixture. Comparing EFP2s defined with (aug-)cc-pVXZ (X = D,T) basis sets, it was found that large sets are necessary to generate sufficiently accurate EFP2 for predicting mixture properties. It was shown that EFP2-MD could predict the excess molar volume. Since the computational cost of EFP2-MD are far less than ab initio MD, the results presented herein demonstrate that EFP2-MD is promising for predicting physicochemical properties of novel mixed solvents.

  16. Pulse-radiolytic one-electron reduction of anthraquinone and chloro-anthraquinones in aqueous-isopropanol-acetone mixed solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, M.C.; Pal, H.; Mukherjee, T.

    1996-01-01

    One-electron reduction of 9,10-anthraquinone and some chloro-anthraquinones and the characteristics of the semiquinones thus formed have been investigated in aqueous-isipropanol-acetone mixed solvent using electron pulse radiolysis technique. Spectroscopic characteristics, kinetic parameters of formation and decay, and the acid/base behaviour of the semiquinones have been investigated. The one-electron reduction potential of the quinones have been measured following electron transfer equilibria with a reference redox system (methyl viologen) and the values thus obtained have been compared with those of some other anthrasemiquinone systems. An analysis of the characteristics of the semiquinones shows that α-chloro substituents adjacent to the C=O group act as electron withdrawing groups. (author)

  17. Solvent extraction studies of indium-mixed chelates with β-diketones in benzene media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudersanan, M.; Sundaram, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    Mixed chelate formation of indium with several β-diketones has been studied in benzene media. The extraction of indium by benzoyltrifluoroacetone (BFA) and furoyltrifluoroacetone (FFA) has been carried out as a function of pH and concentration of the ligand to ascertain the nature of the complexes. The extraction of indium by a mixture of β-diketones, viz., BFA-benzoylacetone(BA), BFA-dibenzoylmethene (DBM), FFA-BA, FFA-DBM, FFA-BFA and DBM-BA has also been studied as a function of the solution parameters. The nature of the mixed complexes formed as well as their equilibrium constants, statistical and stabilisation constants have been evaluated. (author)

  18. Effect of water treatment under ultrasonic irradiation on the solubilities of coals in a CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan-Min Liu; Zhi-Min Zong; Ji-Xian Jia; Yao-Guo Huang; Hong Zhang; Bin Huang; Xian-Yong Wei [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Five Chinese coals were subject to water treatment (WT) at 75{sup o}C under ultrasonic irradiation (UI). The resulting water-extractable fraction (WEF) in the aqueous solution was extracted with benzene. The treated and untreated coals were extracted with a CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent (1:1 by vol) under UI at room temperature. The results show that only small amount of WEF is extractable with benzene and that WT increases coal solubility in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent only to small extent. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Study of complexation process between 4'-nitrobenzo-15-crown-5 and yttrium(III) cation in binary mixed non-aqueous solvents using conductometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, N.; Rounaghi, G. H.; Mohajeri, M.

    2012-12-01

    The complexation reaction of macrocyclic ligand (4'-nitrobenzo-15C5) with Y3+ cation was studied in acetonitrile-methanol (AN-MeOH), acetonitrile-ethanol (AN-EtOH), acetonitrile-dimethylformamide (AN-DMF) and ethylacetate-methanol (EtOAc-MeOH) binary mixtures at different temperatures using conductometry method. The conductivity data show that in all solvent systems, the stoichiometry of the complex formed between 4'-nitrobenzo-15C5 and Y3+ cation is 1: 1 (ML). The stability order of (4'-nitrobenzo-15C5). Y3+ complex in pure non-aqueous solvents at 25°C was found to be: EtOAc > EtOH > AN ≈ DMF > MeOH, and in the case of most compositions of the binary mixed solvents at 25°C it was: AN≈MeOH ≈ AN-EtOH > AN-DMF > EtOAc-MeOH. But the results indicate that the sequence of the stability of the complex in the binary mixed solutions changes with temperature. A non-linear behavior was observed for changes of log K f of (4'-nitrobenzo-15C5 · Y3+) complex versus the composition of the binary mixed solvents, which was explained in terms of solvent-solvent interactions and also the hetero-selective solvation of the species involved in the complexation reaction. The values of thermodynamic parameters (Δ H {c/ℴ} and Δ S {c/ℴ}) for formation of the complex were obtained from temperature dependent of the stability constant using the van't Hoff plots. The results represent that in most cases, the complex is both enthalpy and entropy stabilized and the values and also the sign of thermodynamic parameters are influenced by the nature and composition of the mixed solvents.

  20. Synthesis and luminescence properties of YVO4:Eu3+ cobblestone - like microcrystalline phosphors obtained from the mixed solvent - thermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xiuzhen; Lu Guanzhong; Shen Shaodian; Mao Dongsen; Guo Yun; Wang Yanqin

    2011-01-01

    The mixed solvent-thermal method has been developed for the synthesis of YVO 4 :Eu 3+ luminescent materials in the N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)/ de-ionized water (DIW) solution. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscope (TEM), UV/vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The results demonstrate that we have obtained the uniform YVO 4 :Eu 3+ cobblestone - like microcrystalline phosphors in the mixed solution of DMF and DIW, which are different to the as-obtained YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles in pure DIW. And the as - prepared YVO 4 :Eu 3+ microcrystalline particles are composed of numerous nanoparticles. The assembling phenomenon of the nanoparticles is strongly affected by the pH value of the solution and the volume ratio of DMF/DIW. Under UV excitation, the samples can emit the bright red light. While, the photoluminescence (PL) intensities of YVO 4 :Eu 3+ show some difference for samples obtained under the different reaction conditions. This is because that different microstructures of samples result in different combinative abilities between the surface and the adsorbed species so as to produce the different quenching abilities to the emission from Eu 3+ ions.

  1. Luminescence study on solvation of americium(III), curium(III) and several lanthanide(III) ions in nonaqueous and binary mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Nagaishi, R.; Kato, Y.; Yoshida, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The luminescence lifetimes of An(III) and Ln(III) ions [An=Am and Cm; Ln=Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb and Dy] were measured in dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide(DMF), methanol(MeOH), water and their perdeuterated solvents. Nonradiative decay rates of the ions were in the order of H 2 O > MeOH > DMF > DMSO, indicating that O-H vibration is more effective quencher than C-H, C=O, and S=O vibrations in the solvent molecules. Maximal lifetime ratios τ D /τ H were observed for Eu(III) in H 2 O, for Sm(III) in MeOH and DMF, and for Sm(III) and Dy(III) in DMSO. The solvent composition in the first coordination sphere of Cm(III) and Ln(III) in binary mixed solvents was also studied by measuring the luminescence lifetime. Cm(III) and Ln(III) were preferentially solvated by DMSO in DMSO-H 2 O, by DMF in DMF-H 2 O, and by H 2 O in MeOH-H 2 O over the whole range of the solvent composition. The order of the preferential solvation, i.e., DMSO > DMF > H 2 O > MeOH, correlates with the relative basicity of these solvents. The Gibbs free energy of transfer of ions from water to nonaqueous solvents was further estimated from the degree of the preferential solvation. (orig.)

  2. Lithium isotope effects in cation exchange chromatography of lithium lactate in water-dimethyl sulfoxide and water-acetone mixed solvent media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Takao; Kondoh, Akiko; Ohno, Etsuko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    1993-01-01

    Lithium isotope separation by ion exchange displacement chromatography of lithium lactate in water-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water-acetone mixed solvent media at 25 C was explored. In both the water-DMSO and water-acetone system, the single stage isotope separation factor (S) was a convex function of the mixing ratio of the solvents in the external solution phase; S had its maximum value of 1.00254 at water: DMSO=25:75 v/v and 1.00182 at water: acetone=75:25 v/v. Strong correlations of S with solvent partitions between the solution and the exchanger phases were found in both systems, which was qualitatively explainable by considering the lithium isotope distributions between the two phases based on the fundamental lithium isotope effects and the relative affinities of water, DMSO and acetone towards the lithium ion. (orig.)

  3. Effect of Mixing Dyes and Solvent in Electrolyte Toward Characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Natural Dyes as The Sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Nurrisma; Nurul Amalia, Silviyanti S.; Yudoyono, Gatut; Endarko

    2017-07-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) using natural dyes (chlorophyll, curcumin from turmeric extract, and anthocyanin from mangosteen extract) have been successfully fabricated for determining the effect of variation natural dyes, mixing dyes and acetonitrile in electrolyte toward characterization of DSSC. DSSC consists of five parts namely ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) as a substrate; TiO2 as semiconductor materials; natural dyes as an electron donor; electrolyte as electron transfer; and carbon as a catalyst that can convert light energy into electric energy. Two types of gel electrolyte based on PEG that mixed with liquid electrolyte have utilized for analyzing the lifetime of DSSC. Type I used distilled water as a solvent whilst type II used acetonitrile as a solvent with addition of concentration of KI and iodine. The main purpose of study was to investigate influence of solvent in electrolyte, variation of natural dyes and mixing dyes toward an efficiency that resulted by DSSC. The result showed that electrolyte type II is generally better than type I with efficiency 0,0556 and 0,0456 %, respectively. An efficiency values which resulted from a variation of mixed three natural dyes showed the greatest efficiency compared to mixed two natural dyes and one dye, with an efficiency value can be achieved at 0,0194 % for chlorophyll; 0,111 % for turmeric; 0,0105 % for mangosteen; 0,0244% (mangosteen and chlorophyll); 0,0117 % (turmeric and mangosteen); 0,0158 % (turmeric and chlorophyll); and 0.0566 % (mixed three natural dyes).

  4. Modeling of the Mixed Solvent Electrolyte System CO2-Na2CO3-NaHCO3-Monoethylene Glycol-Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2009-01-01

    The extended UNIQUAC electrolyte activity coefficient model has been correlated to 751 experimental solid−liquid equilibrium (SLE), vapor−liquid equilibrium (VLE), and excess enthalpy data for the mixed solvent CO2−NaHCO3−Na2CO3−monoethylene glycol(MEG)−H2O electrolyte system. The model...

  5. Influence of processes of structure formation in mixed solvent and anion nature on cadmium ions discharge kinetics from water-dimethylformamide electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.V.; Bozhenko, L.G.; Kucherenko, S.S.; Fedorova, O.V.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical reaction of cadmium ion discharge in water-dimethylformamide (DMF) solutions is studied. The influence of DMF concentration in the presence of different anions (ClO 4 - , F - , I - ) on both reaction kinetics and mechanism is discussed on the basis of structural transformations in the mixed solvent and near the surface electrode processes

  6. Explosive treatment of Illinois No.6 coal with a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol; Mizu-cyclohexanol kongo yozai ni yoru Illinois tan no bakusai shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Takada, H.; Asami, K.; Yano, M. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Coal was treated at high temperature under high pressure in the binary system mixed solvent of water and organic solvent, and the solvent treated coal was liquefied. When the treated coal was treated again by the explosive method in which high temperature and pressure were released immediately, the oil yield was higher than that by the normal method in which high temperature and pressure were reduced gradually to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this study, an explosive treatment unit with increased scale of sample amount was newly fabricated. Illinois No.6 coal was treated by the explosive method in a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol using this unit. Changes in shape on the surface, specific surface area, and functional groups were analyzed. The explosively treated coal contained more amount of low boiling point components than the normally treated coal. It was suggested that the oil yield of explosively treated coal increased due to the liquefaction of these components during the successive hydrogenation process. For the explosively treated coal, micro pores were fractured by the rapid change in the volume of solvent molecules, and the specific surface area was smaller than that of the normally treated coal. When the treatment temperature was increased from 300{degree}C to 350{degree}C, specific surface areas of both the treated coals increased. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on the extraction of coal in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Gaoqiang Wang [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2006-09-15

    The extraction of four Chinese different rank bituminous coals with the carbon disulfide/N-2-pyrrolidinone (CS2/NMP) mixed solvent (1:1 by volume) was carried out in room temperature. It was found that one of middle bituminous raw coal of the four coals gave more than 74% (daf) extraction yield, suggesting an associative structural model for the coal. The four coals were hydrothermal treated under different conditions, and it was found that the extraction yields of the treated coals obviously increased. This will have great significance for coal liquefaction. FTIR measurements show the removal of minerals after the hydrothermal treatment of coals suggesting the dissociation of the coal aggregation structure due to ionic interactions and/or hydrogen bonds broken because of the removal of oxygen and hydroxyl oxygen proceeded through ionic pathways, resulting in the extraction yields of the treated coals increase. However, breaking of {pi}-cation interactions by hydrothermal treatment may be one of possible mechanisms for the enhancement of extraction yield of higher rank of treated coal. The mechanism of hydrothermal treatment of coal was discussed in the paper. 28 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Mixed Solvent + Electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prof.Biswas

    Bagchi B and Biswas R. 1999 Adv. Chem. Phys.109 207. 2. Kashyap H K and Biswas R. 2008 J. Phys. Chem. B112 12431. 3. Kashyap H K and Biswas R. 2010J. Phys. Chem. B114, 254. 4. Kashyap H K and Biswas R. 2010 J. Phys. Chem. B114, 16811. 5. Kashyap H K and Biswas R. 2010 Ind. J. Chem. 49A, 685. 6.

  9. High-yield exfoliation of tungsten disulphide nanosheets by rational mixing of low-boiling-point solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi-Moghaddam, Ali; Saievar-Iranizad, Esmaiel

    2018-01-01

    Developing high-throughput, reliable, and facile approaches for producing atomically thin sheets of transition metal dichalcogenides is of great importance to pave the way for their use in real applications. Here, we report a highly promising route for exfoliating two-dimensional tungsten disulphide sheets by using binary combination of low-boiling-point solvents. Experimental results show significant dependence of exfoliation yield on the type of solvents as well as relative volume fraction of each solvent. The highest yield was found for appropriate combination of isopropanol/water (20 vol% isopropanol and 80 vol% water) which is approximately 7 times higher than that in pure isopropanol and 4 times higher than that in pure water. The dramatic increase in exfoliation yield can be attributed to perfect match between the surface tension of tungsten disulphide and binary solvent system. Furthermore, solvent molecular size also has a profound impact on the exfoliation efficiency, due to the steric repulsion.

  10. Preferential solvation of ions in mixed solvents. 6: Univalent anions in aqueous organic solvents according to the inverse Kirkwood-Buff integral (IKBI) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Yizhak

    2007-01-01

    The inverse Kirkwood-Buff integral (IKBI) approach is applied to the preferential solvation of F - , Cl - , Br - , I - , and ClO 4 - in aqueous mixtures of the co-solvents (S) methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), t-butanol (t-BuOH), 1,2-ethanediol (EG), glycerol (Gly), acetone (Me 2 CO), acetonitrile (MeCN), formamide (FA), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethyl phosphoric triamide (HMPT), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), as far as the relevant data exist in the literature. Fluoride anions are selectively solvated by the water up to large mole fractions (x S ≥ 0.4) of S = EtOH, t-BuOH, Me 2 CO, MeCN, and DMF, and up to lower contents (x S ∼ 0.1) of MeOH, EG, FA, and DMSO. The other anions are preferentially solvated by water to diminishing extent as their sizes become larger, and the largest ones show some preference for S in water-rich mixtures of MeOH and FA, whereas in aqueous Gly even chloride is preferentially solvated by the Gly. The competition between the co-solvent and the anion for the hydrogen bonds that water molecules donate is the main cause for the observed preferential solvation behaviour

  11. Preferential solvation of ions in mixed solvents. 6: Univalent anions in aqueous organic solvents according to the inverse Kirkwood-Buff integral (IKBI) approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Yizhak [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)], E-mail: ymarcus@vms.huji.ac.il

    2007-10-15

    The inverse Kirkwood-Buff integral (IKBI) approach is applied to the preferential solvation of F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -}, I{sup -}, and ClO{sub 4}{sup -} in aqueous mixtures of the co-solvents (S) methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), t-butanol (t-BuOH), 1,2-ethanediol (EG), glycerol (Gly), acetone (Me{sub 2}CO), acetonitrile (MeCN), formamide (FA), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethyl phosphoric triamide (HMPT), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), as far as the relevant data exist in the literature. Fluoride anions are selectively solvated by the water up to large mole fractions (x{sub S} {>=} 0.4) of S = EtOH, t-BuOH, Me{sub 2}CO, MeCN, and DMF, and up to lower contents (x{sub S} {approx} 0.1) of MeOH, EG, FA, and DMSO. The other anions are preferentially solvated by water to diminishing extent as their sizes become larger, and the largest ones show some preference for S in water-rich mixtures of MeOH and FA, whereas in aqueous Gly even chloride is preferentially solvated by the Gly. The competition between the co-solvent and the anion for the hydrogen bonds that water molecules donate is the main cause for the observed preferential solvation behaviour.

  12. Improving the Performances of Random Copolymer Based Organic Solar Cells by Adjusting the Film Features of Active Layers Using Mixed Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel random copolymer based on donor–acceptor type polymers containing benzodithiophene and dithienosilole as donors and benzothiazole and diketopyrrolopyrrole as acceptors was designed and synthesized by Stille copolymerization, and their optical, electrochemical, charge transport, and photovoltaic properties were investigated. This copolymer with high molecular weight exhibited broad and strong absorption covering the spectra range from 500 to 800 nm with absorption maxima at around 750 nm, which would be very conducive to obtaining large short-circuits current densities. Unlike the general approach using single solvent to prepare the active layer film, mixed solvents were introduced to change the film feature and improve the morphology of the active layer, which lead to a significant improvement of the power conversion efficiency. These results indicate that constructing random copolymer with multiple donor and acceptor monomers and choosing proper mixed solvents to change the characteristics of the film is a very promising way for manufacturing organic solar cells with large current density and high power conversion efficiency.

  13. Controlled Crystal Grain Growth in Mixed Cation-Halide Perovskite by Evaporated Solvent Vapor Recycling Method for High Efficiency Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Youhei; Kogo, Atsushi; Udagawa, Yosuke; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro; Sanehira, Yoshitaka; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2017-06-07

    We developed a new and simple solvent vapor-assisted thermal annealing (VA) procedure which can reduce grain boundaries in a perovskite film for fabricating highly efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs). By recycling of solvent molecules evaporated from an as-prepared perovskite film as a VA vapor source, named the pot-roast VA (PR-VA) method, finely controlled and reproducible device fabrication was achieved for formamidinium (FA) and methylammonium (MA) mixed cation-halide perovskite (FAPbI 3 ) 0.85 (MAPbBr 3 ) 0.15 . The mixed perovskite was crystallized on a low-temperature prepared brookite TiO 2 mesoporous scaffold. When exposed to very dilute solvent vapor, small grains in the perovskite film gradually unified into large grains, resulting in grain boundaries which were highly reduced and improvement of photovoltaic performance in PSC. PR-VA-treated large grain perovskite absorbers exhibited stable photocurrent-voltage performance with high fill factor and suppressed hysteresis, achieving the best conversion efficiency of 18.5% for a 5 × 5 mm 2 device and 15.2% for a 1.0 × 1.0 cm 2 device.

  14. Thermodynamic method for obtaining the solubilities of complex medium-sized chemicals in pure and mixed solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; O'Connell, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper extends our previous simplified approach to using group contribution methods and limited data to determine differences in solubility of sparingly soluble complex chemicals as the solvent is changed. New applications include estimating temperature dependence and the effect of adding cos....... Though we present no new solution theory, the paper shows an especially efficient use of thermodynamic models for solvent and cosolvent selection for product formulations. Examples and discussion of applications are given. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......This paper extends our previous simplified approach to using group contribution methods and limited data to determine differences in solubility of sparingly soluble complex chemicals as the solvent is changed. New applications include estimating temperature dependence and the effect of adding...

  15. Density and vapour pressure of mixed-solvent desiccant systems (propylene glycol or dipropylene glycol or tripropylene glycol + magnesium chloride + water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang-Yi; Soriano, Allan N.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Li, Meng-Hui

    2014-01-01

    In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapour pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {40 wt% glycol (propylene or dipropylene or tripropylene) + (4 or 9 or 16 wt%) magnesium chloride salt + water} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The density and vapour pressure data obtained are presented as a function of temperature and composition. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the density values. A model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the vapour pressure as a function of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapour pressure calculations

  16. Separation properties of aluminium-plastic laminates in post-consumer Tetra Pak with mixed organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S F; Zhang, L L; Luo, K; Sun, Z X; Mei, X X

    2014-04-01

    The separation properties of the aluminium-plastic laminates in postconsumer Tetra Pak structure were studied in this present work. The organic solvent blend of benzene-ethyl alcohol-water was used as the separation reagent. Then triangle coordinate figure analysis was taken to optimize the volume proportion of various components in the separating agent and separation process. And the separation temperature of aluminium-plastic laminates was determined by the separation time, efficiency, and total mass loss of products. The results show that cost-efficient separations perform best with low usage of solvents at certain temperatures, for certain times, and within a certain range of volume proportions of the three components in the solvent agent. It is also found that similar solubility parameters of solvents and polyethylene adhesives (range 26.06-34.85) are a key factor for the separation of the aluminium-plastic laminates. Such multisolvent processes based on the combined-system concept will be vital to applications in the recycling industry.

  17. Combined nano-biotechnology for in-situ remediation of mixed contamination of groundwater by hexavalent chromium and chlorinated solvents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němeček, J.; Pokorný, P.; Lhotský, O.; Knytl, V.; Najmanová, P.; Steinová, J.; Černík, M.; Filipová, Alena; Filip, J.; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 563, SEP 1 (2016), s. 822-834 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020218 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chlorinated solvents * Hexavalent chromium * NZVI Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  18. Study of the effect of anions and mixed solvents on the kinetics of reduction of Eu(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, V.R.; Sundaram, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of reduction of Eu(III) to Eu(II) in aqueous solutions of perchlorate, chloride, sulphate, acetate and lactate anions and water-methanol and water-acetone mixtures containing potassium chloride as the inert electrolyte is reported and the effect of anions and solvent on the kinetics is studied. (author)

  19. Investigation of anti-solvent induced optical properties change of cesium lead bromide iodide mixed perovskite (CsPbBr3-xIx) quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lin; Patterson, Robert; Wen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhilong; Conibeer, Gavin; Huang, Shujuan

    2017-10-15

    Cesium lead halide (CsPbX 3 , X=Cl, Br, I) perovskites are a new material system that has attracted a lot of research focus. Its tunable band gap and better thermal stability than organic lead halide perovskite give it the potential for applications in optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells. Here we have synthesized CsPbBr 3-x I x perovskite quantum dots (QDs) via a solution process, and then have selected three different anti-solvents to purify the product. A significant effect on optical properties of CsPbBr 3-x I x was found after the centrifugation process. Up to a ∼40nm shift was observed in mixed halide CsPbBr 3-x I x QDs in both absorbance and PL spectra after purification while there was no obvious change in pure CsPbBr 3 when it was subjected to the same purification steps. XPS analysis shows that the Br:I ratio of the CsPbBr 3-x I x QDs had changed as a result of exposure to the anti-solvent, causing the change of the band gap and shift of the spectra. It is also shown that iodine can be removed more easily than bromine during the anti-solvent purification. Ab-initio simulations of small CsPbBr 3-x I x atomic clusters suggest that exposed Cs ions on Cs-terminated facets are the first species to be attacked by hydrophilic molecules, likely dragging halide ions into solution with them to maintain overall charge neutrality in the material. Charge carrier recombination rates were found to be unchanged and all samples maintained a good PL quantum yield which was more than 44%. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Thin-layer chromatography of 49 metal ions on stannic antimonate in aqueous and mixed solvent systems containing dimethylsulfoxide: quantitative separation of uranium from numerous metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.; Varshney, K.G.; Rajput, R.P.S.

    1976-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography of 40 metal ions in 31 aqueous and mixed solvent systems has been performed on stannic antimonate ion-exchange material. Dimethylsulfoxide has been utilized to resolve such binary mixtures as La 3+ and Ce 3+ from Pr 3+ , Nd 3+ , and Sm 3+ ; VO 2+ from Ti 4+ , Nb 5+ , and Ta 5+ ; Ga 3+ from In 3+ , Tl + , and Y 3+ ; Fe 3+ from VO 2+ ; and Mg 2+ from Al 3+ . Quantitative separation of 200 to 800 μg U from its binary mixtures and from the synthetic mixtures containing Mg 2+ , Bi 3+ , Fe 3+ , Th 4+ , Ce 4+ , Cr 3+ , Zr 4+ , Hf 4+ , Ti 4+ Mn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ce 3+ , In 3+ , Y 3+ , Ca 2+ , Co 2+ , Tl + , Nb 5+ , and Ag + has been obtained

  1. Solvent-Free Selective Oxidation of Toluene with O2 Catalyzed by Metal Cation Modified LDHs and Mixed Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of metal cation modified layered-double hydroxides (LDHs and mixed oxides were prepared and used to be the selective oxidation of toluene with O2. The results revealed that the modified LDHs exhibited much higher catalytic performance than their parent LDH and the modified mixed oxides. Moreover, the metal cations were also found to play important roles in the catalytic performance and stabilities of modified catalysts. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the highest toluene conversion reached 8.7% with 97.5% of the selectivity to benzyldehyde; moreover, the catalytic performance remained after nine catalytic runs. In addition, the reaction probably involved a free-radical mechanism.

  2. Effect of methanol ratio in mixed solvents on optical properties and wettability of ZnO films by cathodic electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Miao; Xu, Kai; Jiang, Xishun; Yang, Lei; He, Gang; Song, Xueping; Sun, Zhaoqi; Lv, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Different surface morphologies of ZnO films were prepared by cathodic electrodeposition. • The surface morphologies are controlled through add different ratio methanol to electrolyte. • The morphology changes from nanorods with hexagonal structure to net-like nanostructure. • The wettability of films shows obvious change with increasing methanol ratio. • The maximum light-induced CA change has been observed with the methanol ratio of 0.8. - Abstract: ZnO thin films were prepared in the electrolyte with different methanol ratio by cathodic electrodeposition method. Microstructure, surface morphology, optical properties and wettability of the thin films were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, field-emission scanning electron microscope, ultraviolet–visible spectroscope, fluorescence spectrometer and water contact angle apparatus. Increase of methanol ratio in the solvents may restrain the (0 0 2) plane preferential orientation in some extent. Change of current density curves with the ratio of methanol in the solution play a vital role on electrochemical reaction kinetics, microstructure and/or surface morphology of ZnO thin films. With the methanol ratio increase from 0 to 0.8, the surface morphology changes from nanorods to net-like nanostructure. The adsorbed NO 3 − ions on the polar planes hinder the crystal growth along the c-axis and redirect the growth direction along the nonpolar planes. The maximum and minimum band gaps have been obtained in the ZnO thin films with the methanol ratio of 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. Change of contact angle before UV irradiation may be related to surface morphology and oxygen vacancies. The maximum light-induced water contact angle change has been observed in the sample with the methanol ratio of 0.8. The results may be attributed to the higher surface roughness and net-like morphology

  3. Effect of methanol ratio in mixed solvents on optical properties and wettability of ZnO films by cathodic electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao; Xu, Kai; Jiang, Xishun; Yang, Lei; He, Gang; Song, Xueping [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Sun, Zhaoqi, E-mail: szq@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Lv, Jianguo, E-mail: lvjg1@163.com [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Different surface morphologies of ZnO films were prepared by cathodic electrodeposition. • The surface morphologies are controlled through add different ratio methanol to electrolyte. • The morphology changes from nanorods with hexagonal structure to net-like nanostructure. • The wettability of films shows obvious change with increasing methanol ratio. • The maximum light-induced CA change has been observed with the methanol ratio of 0.8. - Abstract: ZnO thin films were prepared in the electrolyte with different methanol ratio by cathodic electrodeposition method. Microstructure, surface morphology, optical properties and wettability of the thin films were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, field-emission scanning electron microscope, ultraviolet–visible spectroscope, fluorescence spectrometer and water contact angle apparatus. Increase of methanol ratio in the solvents may restrain the (0 0 2) plane preferential orientation in some extent. Change of current density curves with the ratio of methanol in the solution play a vital role on electrochemical reaction kinetics, microstructure and/or surface morphology of ZnO thin films. With the methanol ratio increase from 0 to 0.8, the surface morphology changes from nanorods to net-like nanostructure. The adsorbed NO{sub 3}{sup −} ions on the polar planes hinder the crystal growth along the c-axis and redirect the growth direction along the nonpolar planes. The maximum and minimum band gaps have been obtained in the ZnO thin films with the methanol ratio of 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. Change of contact angle before UV irradiation may be related to surface morphology and oxygen vacancies. The maximum light-induced water contact angle change has been observed in the sample with the methanol ratio of 0.8. The results may be attributed to the higher surface roughness and net-like morphology.

  4. Coaxial Electrospinning with Mixed Solvents: From Flat to Round Eudragit L100 Nanofibers for Better Colon-Targeted Sustained Drug Release Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-Guang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified coaxial electrospinning process was developed for creating drug-loaded composite nanofibers. Using a mixed solvent of ethanol and N,N-dimethylacetamide as a sheath fluid, the electrospinning of a codissolving solution of diclofenac sodium (DS and Eudragit L100 (EL100 could run smoothly and continuously without any clogging. A series of analyses were undertaken to characterize the resultant nanofibers from both the modified coaxial process and a one-fluid electrospinning in terms of their morphology, physical form of the components, and their functional performance. Compared with those from the one-fluid electrospinning, the DS-loaded EL100 fibers from the modified coaxial process were rounder and smoother and possessed higher quality in terms of diameter and distribution with the DS existing in the EL100 matrix in an amorphous state; they also provided a better colon-targeted sustained drug release profile with a longer release time period. The modified coaxial process not only can smooth the electrospinning process to prevent clogging of spinneret, but also is a useful tool to tailor the shape of electrospun nanofibers and thus endow them improved functions.

  5. Microscopic solvation of a lithium atom in water-ammonia mixed clusters: solvent coordination and electron localization in presence of a counterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihar, Subha; Chandra, Amalendu

    2008-07-14

    The microsolvation structures and energetics of water-ammonia mixed clusters containing a lithium atom, i.e., Li(H(2)O)(n)(NH(3)), n = 1-5, are investigated by means of ab initio theoretical calculations. Several structural aspects such as the solvent coordination to the metal ion and binding motifs of the free valence electron of the metal are investigated. We also study the energetics aspects such as the dependence of vertical ionization energies on the cluster size, and all these structural and energetics aspects are compared to the corresponding results of previously studied anionic water-ammonia clusters without a metal ion. It is found that the Li-O and Li-N interactions play a very important role in stabilizing the lithium-water-ammonia clusters, and the presence of these metal ion-solvent interactions also affect the characteristics of electron solvation in these clusters. This is seen from the spatial distribution of the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) which holds the ejected valence electron of the Li atom. For very small clusters, SOMO electron density is found to exist mainly at the vicinity of the Li atom, whereas for larger clusters, it is distributed outside the first solvation shell. The free dangling hydrogens of water and ammonia molecules are involved in capturing the SOMO electron density. In some of the conformers, OH{e}HO and OH{e}HN types of interactions are found to be present. The presence of the metal ion at the center of the cluster ensures that the ejected electron is solvated at a surface state only, whereas both surface and interiorlike states were found for the free electron in the corresponding anionic clusters without a metal ion. The vertical ionization energies of the present clusters are found to be higher than the vertical detachment energies of the corresponding anionic clusters which signify a relatively stronger binding of the free electron in the presence of the positive metal counterion. The shifts in different

  6. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Study of complex formation process between 4′-nitrobenzo-18-crown-6 and yttrium(III cation in some binary mixed non-aqueous solvents using the conductometry method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Vafi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexation reaction between Y3+ cation and macrocyclic ligand, 4′-nitrobenzo-18-crown-6 (4′NB18C6, was studied in acetonitrile–methanol (AN–MeOH, acetonitrile–1,2-dichloroethane (AN–DCE, acetonitrile–dimethylformamide (AN–DMF and acetonitrile–ethylacetate (AN–EtOAc binary mixed solvent solutions at different temperatures using the conductometric method. The conductance data show that in most cases, the stoichiometry of the complex formed between 4′NB18C6 and Y3+ cation is 1:1 [M:L], but in the case of AN-DCE binary solution (mol% DCE = 50 at 15, 25 and 35 °C, a 2:1 [M2:L] and also a 2:2 [M2:L2] complexes are formed in solution. The results show that the stoichiometry of the complex formed between 4′NB18C6 and Y3+ cation changes with the composition of the mixed solvents and even with temperature. The stability constant of the 1:1 complex was determined using a computer program, GENPLOT. The stability order of (4′NB18C6.Y3+ complex in pure studied solvents at 25 °C was found to be: EtOAc > AN > MeOH > DMF and in the case of the mixed solvent solutions with 25 mol percent of AN at 25 °C was: AN-DCE > AN-EtOAc > AN-MeOH ∼ AN-DMF. The values of stability constant (logKf of (4′NB18C6.Y3+ complex which were obtained from conductometric data, show that the stability of the complex is not only affected by the nature and composition of the solvent system, but it is also influenced by the temperature. In all cases, a non-linear behavior is observed for changes of logKf of the (4′NB18C6.Y3+ complex versus the composition of the binary mixed solvents. The values of standard thermodynamic quantities (ΔH°c and ΔS°c for the complexation process which were obtained from temperature dependence of the stability constant of (4′NB18C6.Y3+ complex, show that depending on the solvent system, in most cases, the complex is enthalpy and also entropy stabilized, but in some cases, it is stabilized or

  8. A molecular dynamics study of intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in solution based upon a mixed quantum-classical approximation. II. Proton transfer reaction in non-polar solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, H.; Yamada, A.; Okazaki, S.

    2015-05-01

    The intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in neon solvent has been investigated by mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics (QCMD) calculations and fully classical molecular dynamics (FCMD) calculations. Comparing these calculated results with those for malonaldehyde in water reported in Part I [A. Yamada, H. Kojima, and S. Okazaki, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 084509 (2014)], the solvent dependence of the reaction rate, the reaction mechanism involved, and the quantum effect therein have been investigated. With FCMD, the reaction rate in weakly interacting neon is lower than that in strongly interacting water. However, with QCMD, the order of the reaction rates is reversed. To investigate the mechanisms in detail, the reactions were categorized into three mechanisms: tunneling, thermal activation, and barrier vanishing. Then, the quantum and solvent effects were analyzed from the viewpoint of the reaction mechanism focusing on the shape of potential energy curve and its fluctuations. The higher reaction rate that was found for neon in QCMD compared with that found for water solvent arises from the tunneling reactions because of the nearly symmetric double-well shape of the potential curve in neon. The thermal activation and barrier vanishing reactions were also accelerated by the zero-point energy. The number of reactions based on these two mechanisms in water was greater than that in neon in both QCMD and FCMD because these reactions are dominated by the strength of solute-solvent interactions.

  9. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  10. Preferential solvation of single ions in mixed solvents: Part 1. New experimental approach and solvation of monovalent ions in methanol-water and acetonitrile-water mixture. Part 2. Theoretical computation and comparison with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rege, Aarti C.; Venkataramani, B.; Gupta, A.R.

    1999-06-01

    Preferential solvation of single ion solutions has been studied with Li + , Na + , K + and Ag +- forms of Dowex 50W resins of different cross-linkings in methanol-water and acetonitrile (AN)- water mixtures. The solvent uptake by this alkali metal ionic forms of Dowex 50W resins was studied in an isopiestic set-up using 2,4,6 and 8 m LiCl solutions in 11.0, 20.8, 44.3 and 70.2 % (w/w) methanol-water mixtures and that of Na +- and Ag +- forms using 14.6 to 94.3 % (w/w) AN - water mixtures. The solvent sorbed in the resin phase was extracted by Rayleigh-type distillation and analysed gas chromatographically. The data were analysed by the N s (mole fraction of the organic solvent in the resin phase) vs n t au (total solvent content in the resin phase) plots and separation factor, alpha(ratio of mole fraction of the solvents in the resin and solution phases) or N s vs m (molality in the resin phase) plots. The limiting values of these plots gave the composition of the solvent in the primary solvation shell around the single ion. The compositions of the primary solvation shell around Li + , Na + , and K + in methanol-water mixtures and Na + and Ag + in acetonitrile (AN) - water mixtures have been computed using Franks equation and the approach of Marcus and compared with the experimental results obtained with the above mentioned ionic forms of Dowex 50W resins in different mixed solvents. The experimental results for Li + showed good agreement with the values computed using Franks equation for all methanol-water composition. However, in the case of Na + and K + in methanol-water mixtures and Na + in AN-water mixtures, there was agreement only at lower organic solvent content and the Franks equation predicted higher values for the organic solvent in the primary solvation shell around the cation at higher organic solvent content as compared to experimental results

  11. Deasphalting solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, J. A; Caceres, J; Vela, G; Bueno, H

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how the deasphalted oil (DMO) or demetalized oil (DMO) quality (CCR, Ni, V end asphaltenes contents) changes with: DAO or DMO yield, solvent/feed ratio, type of vacuum reside (from paraffinic to blends with vis breaking bottoms), extraction temperature and extraction solvent (propane, propylene, n-butane and I butane)

  12. Solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general ''Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated

  13. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  14. Synthesis of sol–gel silica particles in reverse micelles with mixed-solvent polar cores: tailoring nanoreactor structure and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bürglová, Kristýna; Hlaváč, Jan [Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic); Bartlett, John R., E-mail: jbartlett@usc.edu.au [University of the Sunshine Coast, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we describe a new approach for producing metal oxide nano- and microparticles via sol–gel processing in confined media (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate reverse micelles), in which the chemical and physical properties of the polar aqueous core of the reverse micelles are modulated by the inclusion of a second polar co-solvent. The co-solvents were selected for their capacity to solubilise compounds with low water solubility and included dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, ethylene glycol, n-propanol, dimethylacetamide and N-methylpyrrolidone. A broad range of processing conditions across the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate/cyclohexane/water phase diagram were identified that are suitable for preparing particles with dimensions <50 to >500 nm. In contrast, only a relatively narrow range of processing conditions were suitable for preparing such particles in the absence of the co-solvents, highlighting the role of the co-solvent in modulating the properties of the polar core of the reverse micelles. A mechanism is proposed that links the interactions between the various reactive sites on the polar head group of the surfactant and the co-solvent to the nucleation and growth of the particles.

  15. /sup 133/Cs NMR study of Cs/sup +/ ion complexes with dibenzo-21-crown-7 and dibenzo-24-crown-8 in some mixed solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rounaghi, G.; Popov, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    Complexation of the cesium ion with macrocyclic ligands, dibenzo-21-crown-7 and dibenzo-24-crown-8, was studied in binary solvent mixtures of dimethylsulfoxide with acetone, acetonitrile, propylene carbonate, pyridine and hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) as well as in pyridine-methanol mixtures. In the first four binary mixtures the complexation constants increased with decreasing amounts of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), the trend is reversed in the DMSO-HMPA system. In all of the above cases, the variation of the stability constant with composition was monotonic and showed good correlation with the inherent solvating ability of the neat solvents which form the mixture. In the pyridine-methanol system, however, for both complexes, the log Ksub(f) vs composition plots show several changes in direction. This behavior is probably due to a change in the structure of this binary solvent as the composition of the medium is varied.

  16. 133Cs NMR study of Cs+ ion complexes with dibenzo-21-crown-7 and dibenzo-24-crown-8 in some mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rounaghi, G.; Popov, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    Complexation of the cesium ion with macrocyclic ligands, dibenzo-21-crown-7 and dibenzo-24-crown-8, was studied in binary solvent mixtures of dimethylsulfoxide with acetone, acetonitrile, propylene carbonate, pyridine and hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) as well as in pyridine-methanol mixtures. In the first four binary mixtures the complexation constants increased with decreasing amounts of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), the trend is reversed in the DMSO-HMPA system. In all of the above cases, the variation of the stability constant with composition was monotonic and showed good correlation with the inherent solvating ability of the neat solvents which form the mixture. In the pyridine-methanol system, however, for both complexes, the log Ksub(f) vs composition plots show several changes in direction. This behavior is probably due to a change in the structure of this binary solvent as the composition of the medium is varied. (author)

  17. Solubility measurement and correlation of 4-nitrophthalimide in (methanol, ethanol, or acetone) + N,N-dimethylformamide mixed solvents at temperatures from 273.15 K to 323.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rongrong; Han, Shuo; Du, Cunbin; Cong, Yang; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Hongkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of 4-nitrophthalimide in binary mixed solvents were determined. • Solubility data were correlated and calculated by four models. • The standard dissolution enthalpy for the dissolution processes were calculated. - Abstract: The solubility of 4-nitrophthalimide in binary (methanol + N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), ethanol + DMF) and (acetone + DMF) solvent mixtures were investigated by the isothermal dissolution equilibrium method under atmosphere pressure. These studies were carried out at different mass fractions of methanol, ethanol or acetone ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 at temperature T = (273.15–323.15) K. For the nine groups of each solvent mixture studied, the solubility of 4-nitrophthalimide in mixed solutions increased with increasing temperature and mass fraction of methanol, ethanol or acetone for the three systems including (methanol + DMF), (ethanol + DMF) and (acetone + DMF). At the same temperature and mass fraction of methanol, ethanol or acetone, the mole fraction solubility of 4-nitrophthalimide in (acetone + DMF) was greater than that in the other two binary solvents. In addition, the experimental mole fraction solubility was correlated by four models (Jouyban–Acree model, van’t Hoff–Jouyban–Acree model, modified Apelblat–Jouyban–Acree model and Sun model). The Jouyban–Acree model gave best representation for the experimental solubility values. Furthermore, the standard molar enthalpies of 4-nitrophthalimide during the dissolving process (Δ sol H o ) were also obtained in this work, and the results show that the dissolution process is endothermic. The experimental solubility and the models used in this work will be helpful in separating 4-nitrophthalimide from its isomeric mixtures.

  18. Solvent substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evanoff, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and industrial hygiene regulations promulgated since 1980, most notably the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, have brought about an increased emphasis on user exposure, hazardous waste generation, and air emissions. As a result, industry is performing a fundamental reassessment of cleaning solvents, processes, and procedures. The more progressive organizations have made their goal the elimination of solvents that may pose significant potential human health and environmental hazards. This chapter discusses solvent cleaning in metal-finishing, metal-manufacturing, and industrial maintenance applications; precision cleaning; and electronics manufacturing. Nonmetallic cleaning, adhesives, coatings, inks, and aerosols also will be addressed, but in a more cursory manner

  19. Dependence of the enthalpies of formation of glycylglycinate complexes of nickel(II) on the composition of a mixed water-dimethylsulfoxide solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, V. V.; Kovaleva, Yu. A.; Isaeva, V. A.; Usacheva, T. R.; Sharnin, V. A.

    2014-06-01

    The heat effects of the complexation reactions of nickel(II) with a glycylglycinate ion in a water-dimethylsulfoxide solvent in a range of compositions of 0.00-0.60 molar parts of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) (an ionic strength of 0.1 was maintained using sodium perchlorate) were determined by means of calorimetry at 298.15 K. It is established that the exothermicity of complexation reactions rises by the first two steps and falls upon the addition of a third glycylglycinate anion with an increase in the concentration of DMSO. It is shown that the formation of mono- and bis-glycylglycinate complexes of nickel(II) in a water-DMSO solvent is determined mostly by the enthalpic contribution. It is concluded that the formation of tris-ligand complexes is more associated with the entropic contribution.

  20. Iodine removing method in organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Sakurai, Manabu

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively remove iodine in an organic solvent to thereby remove iodine in the solvent that can be re-used or put to purning treatment. Method: Organic solvent formed from wastes of nuclear facilities is mixed with basic lead acetate, or silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with such a compound to adsorb iodine in the organic solvent to the basic lead acetate. Then, iodine in the organic solvent is removed by separating to eliminate the basic lead acetate adsorbing iodine from the organic solvent or by passing the organic solvent through a tower or column charged or pre-coated with silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with lead acetate. By using basic lead acetate as the adsorbents, iodine can effective by adsorbed and eliminated. Thus, the possibility of circumstantial release of iodine can be reduced upon reusing or burning treatment of the organic solvent. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Sorption behaviour of uranium and thorium on hydrons tin oxide from aqueous and mixed-solvent H2SO4 media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, N.Z.; Salema, H.N.; El-Naggar, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    At pH values > about 2 in 10 -3 -10 -2 M aqueous sulphate solutions, uranium seems to be sorbed by hydrous tin oxide mainly as cations, while thorium is sorced as cations and as the neutral complex. At pH values of about 1.1-1.4, both uranium and thorium seem to be mainly sorbed as the neutral complexes. while at lower pH values, sorption of anionic commplexes comes into play. The sorption of uranium generally increased progressively on addition of increasing amounts of methanol, ethanol or acetone. The sorption of thorium decreases a little at 0.01 N H 2 SO 4 and increases a little at 0.5 N H 2 SO 4 on adding the organic solvents. At 0.1 N H 2 SO 4 , the addition of 20percent of the organic solvents brings the sorption of thorium to almost negligible values, which seems to offer an attractive means for U/Th separation. (author)

  2. One-electron reduction of 9,10-anthraquinone, 1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone in aqueous-isopropanol-acetone mixed solvent: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, H.; Mukherjee, T.; Mittal, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The semiquinone radicals produced by one-electron reduction of 9,10-anthraquinone, 1-amino- 9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone have been characterized in aqueous-organic mixed solvent comprising of 30.2 mol dm -3 water, 5 mol dm -3 isopropanol and 1 mol dm -3 acetone, using the pulse radiolysis technique. Spectroscopic characteristics, the kinetic parameters of formation and decay and one acid dissociation constants of the semiquinones and one-electron reduction potentials of the quinones have been estimated. The characteristics of the present semiquinone systems have been compared with those of other similar systems. The observed differences in characteristics of the semiquinones due to different substitutions have been analysed. (Author)

  3. Solvent-free, improved synthesis of pure bixbyite phase of iron and manganese mixed oxides as low-cost, potential oxygen carrier for chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mungse, P.B.; Saravanan, G.; Nishibori, M.; Šubrt, Jan; Labhsetwar, N.K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2017), s. 511-521 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Conference Solid State Chemistry 2016 /12./. Prague, 18.09.2016-23.09.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : CO capture and sequestration * Lattice * Mixed metal oxides * Reactive oxygen * Thermal power plants Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2016

  4. STUDIES ON SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF FREE HYDROGEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    synthesized through glucose degradation (glycolysis) to lactic acid. ... g sample into a well stoppered plastic bottle and mixed with 20 mL of distilled .... Recovery of used solvent is necessary because methylchloroform is toxic to the bacteria.

  5. Solvent extraction of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Yoon, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The extraction of zirconium(VI) from an aqueous solution of constant ionic strength with versatic acid-10 dissolved in benzen was studied as a function of pH and the concentration of zirconium(VI) and organic acid. The effects of sulphate and chlorine ions on the extraction of the zirconium(VI) were briefly examined. It was revealed that (ZrOR 2 .2RH) is the predominant species of extracted zirconium(VI) in the versatic acid-10. The chemical equation and the apparent equilibrium constants thereof have been determined as follows. (ZrOsup(2+))aq+ 2(R 2 H 2 )sub(org) = (ZrOR 2 .2RH)sub(org)+2(H + )aq Ksub(Zr) = (ZrOR 2 .2RH)sub(org)(H + ) 2 /(ZrOsup(2+))sub(aq)(R 2 H 2 )sup(2)sub(org) = 3.3 x 10 -7 . The synergistic effects of TBP and D2EHPA were also studied. In the mixed solvent with 0.1M TBP, the synergistic effect was observed, while the mixed solvent with D2EHPA showed the antisynergistic effect. (Author)

  6. Long-term Stewardship of Mixed Wastes: Passive Reactive Barriers for Simultaneous In Situ Remediation of Chlorinated Solvent, Heavy Metal and Radioactive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, Robin

    2005-01-01

    This project report addresses one part of a 3-way collaboration between researchers (Drs. Robin Gerlach and Al Cunningham) at Montana State University's (MSU's) Center for Biofilm Engineering (CBE), (Dr. Brent Peyton at) the WSU/NSF IGERT Center for Multiphase Environmental Research (CMER) at Washington State University (WSU), and (Drs. William Apel and Frank Roberto at) the Biotechnology Department at the INEEL. Each part of this project is funded under a different contract with the Science Division of the US Department of Energy. The project is designed to evaluate the possibility to develop a subsurface remediation technology for mixed wastes at Department of Energy sites using a group of common soil bacteria of the genus Cellulomonas. We are seeking to gain a better understanding of microbial transformation of chromium, uranium, and carbon tetrachloride by Cellulomonas spp. in simulated subsurface environments

  7. Structural transition of a homopolymer in solvents mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guettari, Moez [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Molle, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Tunisia (Tunisia)], E-mail: gtarimoez@yahoo.fr; Aschi, Adel; Gomati, Riadh; Gharbi, Abdelhafidh [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Molle, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Tunisia (Tunisia)

    2008-07-01

    The present work is aimed at studying the thermodynamic behaviour of a polymer in solvents mixture. Dynamic light scattering is used to measure the hydrodynamic radius of polyvinylpyrrolidone (M{sub w} = 360,000 g/mol), in water/methanol solvents mixture, versus the mixed solvents composition at 25 deg. C. Then, we show that the polymer conformation adopts the Coil-Globule-Coil structure when the methanol molar fraction X{sub A} is varied. This transition is attributed to solvent quality change which result from water and methanol complex formation. The polymer contraction rate calculated for each composition takes its maximum value at X{sub A} = 0.17. Hildebrand theory assuming the solvents mixture as an equivalent solvent was used to analyze the change in mixed solvents quality. These changes can be attributed to dispersive forces in solvents mixture.

  8. Structural transition of a homopolymer in solvents mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettari, Moez; Aschi, Adel; Gomati, Riadh; Gharbi, Abdelhafidh

    2008-01-01

    The present work is aimed at studying the thermodynamic behaviour of a polymer in solvents mixture. Dynamic light scattering is used to measure the hydrodynamic radius of polyvinylpyrrolidone (M w = 360,000 g/mol), in water/methanol solvents mixture, versus the mixed solvents composition at 25 deg. C. Then, we show that the polymer conformation adopts the Coil-Globule-Coil structure when the methanol molar fraction X A is varied. This transition is attributed to solvent quality change which result from water and methanol complex formation. The polymer contraction rate calculated for each composition takes its maximum value at X A = 0.17. Hildebrand theory assuming the solvents mixture as an equivalent solvent was used to analyze the change in mixed solvents quality. These changes can be attributed to dispersive forces in solvents mixture

  9. Thermodynamic properties of solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate in (1-propanol + water) mixed-solvent media over the temperature range of (283.15 to 303.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Parhizkar, Hana

    2008-01-01

    The apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compressibility of solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4 ) in (1-propanol + water) mixed-solvent media with alcohol mass fractions of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 are reported over the range of temperature (283.15 to 303.15) K at 5 K intervals. The results were fitted to a Redlich-Mayer type equation from which the apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compressibility of the solutions at the infinite dilution were also calculated at the working temperature. The results show a positive transfer volume of NaH 2 PO 4 from an aqueous solution to an aqueous 1-propanol solution. The apparent molar isentropic compressibility of NaH 2 PO 4 in aqueous 1-propanol solutions is negative and it increases with increasing the concentration of NaH 2 PO 4 , 1-propanol, and temperature. Electrical conductivity and refractive index of the solutions are also studied at T = 298.15 K. The effects of the electrolyte concentration and relative permittivity of the medium on the molar conductivity were also investigated

  10. One-electron reduction of 1,2-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone and some of its transition metal complexes in aqueous solution and in aqueous isopropanol-acetone-mixed solvent: a steady-state and pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Bhattacharya, A.; Mandal, P.C.; Rath, M.C.; Mukherjee, T.

    2002-01-01

    One-electron reduction of 1,2-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHA) and its complexes with Cu(II), Ni(II) and Fe(III), by acetone ketyl radical, (CH 3 ) 2 C·OH, was carried out in aqueous solution and in aqueous isopropanol acetone mixed solvent using both steady-state gamma radiolysis and pulse radiolysis techniques. The rate constants for the reduction of DHA at different pH values by the ketyl radical are in the order of ∼10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 , whereas those for the metal complexes are comparatively less. These rate constants are, however, in conformity with the one-electron reduction potentials of the ligand in free DHA and in its metal complexes. Decay kinetics of the one-electron reduced semiquinones of the free ligand and its metal complexes suggest disproportionation of the semiquinone in the case of the free ligand and intermolecular electron transfer from the co-ordinated semiquinone radical to the metal centre in the case of the metal complexes

  11. Distribution of multi-component solvents in solvent vapor extraction chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Marathon Oil Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Vapex process performance is sensitive to operating pressures, temperatures and the types of solvent used. The hydrocarbon solvents used in Vapex processes typically have between 5 and 10 per cent hydrocarbon impurities, and the accumulation of dense phases inside the vapor chamber reduces gravity drainage potential. This study investigated the partitioning of solvent compounds inside the vapor chamber during in situ Vapex processes.The aim of the study was to examine how the different components of the mixed solvent partitioned inside the extracted chamber during the oil and vapor phase. A 2-D homogenous reservoir model was used to simulate the Vapex process with a solvent mixture comprised of propane and methane at various percentages. The effect of injecting a hot solvent vapor was also investigated. The study showed that injected methane accumulated at both the top and the extraction interface. Accumulations near the top had a positive impact on solvent confinement in thin reservoirs. Diffusion of the solvent component was controlled by gas phase molecular diffusion, and was much faster than the diffusion of solvent molecules in the liquid phase. The use of hot solvent mixtures slowed the extraction process due to lower solvent solubility in the oil phase. It was concluded that the negative impact on viscosity reduction by dilution was not compensated by rises in temperature. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Solvents and solvent effects in organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reichardt, C; Welton, T

    2011-01-01

    .../guest complexation equilibria and reactions in biphasic solvent systems and neoteric solvents, respectively. More than 900 new references have been added, giving preference to review articles, and many older ones have been deleted. New references either replace older ones or are added to the end of the respective reference list of each chapter. Th...

  13. Organic Solvent Tropical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an unmitigated organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines

  14. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  15. Solvent wash solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neace, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution comprising an admixture of an organic extractant for uranium and plutonium and a non-polar organic liquid diluent, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Comprising combining a wash solution consisting of: (a) water; and (b) a positive amount up to about, an including, 50 volume percent of at least one highly-polar water-miscible organic solvent, based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent, with the solvent extraction solution after uranium and plutonium values have been stripped from the solvent extraction solution, the diluent degradation products dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent and the extractant and diluent of the extraction solution not dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent, and separating the highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solution to obtain a purified extraction solution

  16. Measurement and correlation of solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride in pure solvents and binary solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinxiu; Xie, Chuang; Yin, Qiuxiang; Tao, Linggang; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yongli; He, Fang; Hao, Hongxun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride in pure and binary solvents was determined. • The experimental solubility data were correlated by thermodynamic models. • A model was employed to calculate the melting temperature of cefmenoxime hydrochloride. • Mixing thermodynamic properties of cefmenoxime hydrochloride were calculated. - Abstract: The solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride in pure solvents and binary solvent mixtures was measured at temperatures from (283.15 to 313.15) K by using the UV spectroscopic method. The results reveal that the solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride increases with increasing temperature in all solvent selected. The solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride reaches its maximum value when the mole fraction of isopropanol is 0.2 in the binary solvent mixtures of (isopropanol + water). The modified Apelblat equation and the NRTL model were successfully used to correlate the experimental solubility in pure solvents while the modified Apelblat equation, the CNIBS/R–K model and the Jouyban–Acree model were applied to correlate the solubility in binary solvent mixtures. In addition, the mixing thermodynamic properties of cefmenoxime hydrochloride in different solvents were also calculated based on the NRTL model and experimental solubility data.

  17. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material

  18. Influence of Solvent-Solvent and Solute-Solvent Interaction Properties on Solvent-Mediated Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shiqi

    2005-01-01

    A recently proposed universal calculational recipe for solvent-mediated potential is applied to calculate excess potential of mean force between two large Lennard-Jones (LJ) or hard core attractive Yukawa particles immersed in small LJ solvent bath at supercritical state. Comparison between the present prediction with a hypernetted chain approximation adopted for solute-solute correlation at infinitely dilute limit and existing simulation data shows high accuracy for the region with large separation, and qualitative reliability for the solute particle contact region. The calculational simplicity of the present recipe allows for a detailed investigation on the effect of the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interaction details on the excess potential of mean force. The resultant conclusion is that gathering of solvent particles near a solute particle leads to repulsive excess PMF, while depletion of solvent particles away from the solute particle leads to attractive excess PMF, and minor change of the solvent-solvent interaction range has large influence on the excess PMF.

  19. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article is an overview of efforts at INEL to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes through the elimination of hazardous solvents. To aid in their efforts, a number of databases have been developed and will become a part of an Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System. This latter data system will be accessible through Internet

  20. Method of removing deterioration product in hydrocarbon type solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yoshifumi; Takashina, Toru; Murasawa, Kenji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To remarkably reduce radioactive wastes by bringing adsorbents comprising titanium oxide and/or zirconium oxide into contact with hydrocarbon type solvents. Method: In a nuclear fuel re-processing step, an appropriate processing is applied to extraction solvents suffering from radioactive degradation, to separate the hydrocarbon solvents and store them in a solvent tank. Then, titanium oxide and/or zirconium oxide adsorbents are continuously mixed and agitated therewith to adsorb degradation products on the adsorbents. Then, they are introduced with adsorbent separators to recover purified hydrocarbon type solvents. Meanwhile, the separated adsorbents are discharged from pipeways. This enables to regenerate the hydrocarbon type solvents for reuse, as well as remarkably reduce the radioactive wastes. (Takahashi, M.)

  1. Solvent - solute interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczyk, A.; Kalinowski, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    The electronic absorption spectrum of vanadyl acetylacetonate has been studied in 15 organic solvents. It has been found that wavenumbers and molar absorptivities of the long-wavelength bands (d-d transitions) can be well described by a complementary Lewis acid-base model including Gutmann's donor number [Gutmann V., Wychera E., Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Letters 2, 257 (1966)] and acceptor number [Mayer U., Gutmann V., Gerger W., Monatsh. Chem. 106, 1235 (1975)] of a solvent. This model describes also the solvent effect of the hyperfine splitting constant, Asub(iso)( 51 V), from e.s.r. spectra of VOacac 2 . These observations are discussed in terms of the donor-acceptor concept for solvent-solute interactions. (Author)

  2. One electron reduction of 1,2 dihydroxy 9,10 anthraquinone and its transition metal complexes in aqueous-isopropanol-acetone mixed solvent: a steady state-state and pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Saurabh; Mandal, Parikshit C.; Rath, Madhab C.; Mukherjee, Tulsi

    1998-01-01

    One electron reduction of 1,2 dihydroxy 9,10 anthraquinone and its Cu(II) and Ni(II) and Fe(III) complexes have been studied in aqueous-isopropanol-acetone solvent. Results indicate that the reducing ketyl radical generated reacts with the ligand forming semiquinones which undergoes a disproportionation reaction. Formation and decay rates of semiquinones was calculated using pulse radiolysis. (author)

  3. Purex process solvent: literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables.

  4. Purex process solvent: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables

  5. Extractability of Lanthanoids(III) into Solvents Contributing to Environmental Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Hara, M.

    1999-01-01

    To perform effective mutual separation of lanthanoids(III) by solvent extraction with avoiding several problems caused by diffusion of organic solvents into air and into water , into commercial available mixed solvents, aliphatic and aromatic solvents consisting of carbon number of 9 to 12, which have high flash points, the extraction of lanthanoid(III) thiocyanates with trioctylphosphine oxide has been measured and the equilibrium constants have been determined across lanthanoid series. Then the extraction constants were compared with those of single solvents, hexane and benzene , widely being used as solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. The extraction constants obtained for the aliphatic mixed solvents are very similar to those for hexane across lanthanoid series. The variation of the constants for aromatic mixed solvents is also similar to that for benzene. The pattern of the variation of the distribution ratio under a constant condition across the series is similar to each other, either using the aliphatic solvents or using aromatic ones, except for in the middle of the series. Accordingly, the use of the high molecular weight mixed aromatic solvents would be recommendable as organic solvents in the mutual separation of lanthanoids from the point of view of safety for fire and health for the people handling the extraction

  6. Porous fiber formation in polymer-solvent system undergoing solvent evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Pratyush; Kyu, Thein

    2006-08-01

    Temporal evolution of the fiber morphology during dry spinning has been investigated in the framework of Cahn-Hilliard equation [J. Chem. Phys. 28, 258 (1958)] pertaining to the concentration order parameter or volume fraction given by the Flory-Huggins free energy of mixing [P. J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1953), p. 672] in conjunction with the solvent evaporation rate. To guide the solvent evaporation induced phase separation, equilibrium phase diagram of the starting polymer solution was established on the basis of the Flory-Huggins free energy of mixing. The quasi-steady-state approximation has been adopted to account for the nonconserved nature of the concentration field caused by the solvent loss. The process of solvent evaporation across the fiber skin-air interface was treated in accordance with the classical Fick's law [R. B. Bird et al., Transport Phenomena (J. Wiley, New York, 1960), p. 780]. The simulated morphologies include gradient type, hollow fiber type, bicontinuous type, and host-guest type. The development of these diverse fiber morphologies is explicable in terms of the phase diagram of the polymer solution in a manner dependent on the competition between the phase separation dynamics and rate of solvent evaporation.

  7. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  8. Biodiesel production from ethanolysis of palm oil using deep eutectic solvent (DES) as co-solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, R.; Winarta, A.; Taslim; Indra, L.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel produced from ethanolysis is more renewable and have better properties (higher oxidation stability, lower cloud and pour point) compared to methanolysis, but it has a disadvantage such as complicated purification. To improve ethanolysis process, deep eutectic solvent (DES) can be prepared from choline chloride and glycerol and used as co-solvent in ethanolysis. The deep eutectic solvent is formed from a quaternary ammonium salt (choline chloride) and a hydrogen bond donor (Glycerol), it is a non-toxic, biodegradable solvent compared to a conventional volatile organic solvent such as hexane. The deep eutectic solvent is prepared by mixing choline chloride and glycerol with molar ratio 1:2 at temperature 80 °C, stirring speed 300 rpm for 1 hour. The DES is characterized by its density and viscosity. The ethanolysis is performed at a reaction temperature of 70 °C, ethanol to oil molar ratio of 9:1, potassium hydroxide as catalyst concentration of 1.2 wt. DES as co-solvent with concentration 0.5 to 3 wt. stirring speed 400 rpm, and a reaction time 1 hour. The obtained biodiesel is then characterized by its density, viscosity, and ester content. The oil - ethanol phase condition is observed in the reaction tube. The oil - ethanol phase with DES tends to form meniscus compared to without DES, showed that oil and ethanol become more slightly miscible, which favors the reaction. Using DES as co-solvent in ethanolysis showed increasing in yield and easier purification. The esters properties meet the international standards ASTM D6751, with the highest yield achieved 83,67 with 99,77 conversion at DES concentration 2 . Increasing DES concentration above 2 in ethanolysis decrease the conversion and yield, because of the excessive glycerol in the systems makes the reaction equilibrium moves to the reactant side.

  9. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  10. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  11. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed

  12. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel

  13. DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-aided design of chemicals and chemical mixtures provides a powerful tool to help engineers identify cleaner process designs and more-benign alternatives to toxic industrial solvents. Three software programs are discussed: (1) PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replaceme...

  14. Preparation of membranes using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kevin C [San Ramon, CA; Letts, Stephan A [San Ramon, CA; Spadaccini, Christopher M [Oakland, CA; Morse, Jeffrey C [Pleasant Hill, CA; Buckley, Steven R [Modesto, CA; Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Wilson, Keith B [San Ramon, CA

    2010-07-13

    A system of fabricating a composite membrane from a membrane substrate using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization. A first monomer and a second monomer are directed into a mixing chamber in a deposition chamber. The first monomer and the second monomer are mixed in the mixing chamber providing a mixed first monomer and second monomer. The mixed first monomer and second monomer are solvent-less vapor deposited onto the membrane substrate in the deposition chamber. The membrane substrate and the mixed first monomer and second monomer are heated to produce in-situ polymerization and provide the composite membrane.

  15. Collapse in two good solvents, swelling in two poor solvents: defying the laws of polymer solubility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Marques, Carlos M; Kremer, Kurt

    2018-01-17

    In this work we discuss two mirror but distinct phenomena of polymer paradoxical properties in mixed solvents: co-non-solvency and co-solvency. When a polymer collapses in a mixture of two miscible good solvents the phenomenon is known as co-non-solvency, while co-solvency is a phenomenon that is associated with the swelling of a polymer in poor solvent mixtures. A typical example of co-non-solvency is provided by poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) in aqueous alcohol, while poly(methyl methacrylate) in aqueous alcohol shows co-solvency. We discuss these two phenomena to compare their microscopic origins and show that both can be understood within generic universal concepts. A broad range of polymers is therefore expected to exhibit these phenomena where specific chemical details play a lesser role than the appropriate combination of interactions between the trio of molecular components.

  16. Synergistic solvent extraction investigation of Am (III), Eu (III), Zn(II), and Cs(I), using 2-heptyl-2-methyl-nonanoic acid mixed with different organophosphorus compounds from nitrate media. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, H.A.; Ramadan, A.; Abdel-Fattah, A.

    1996-01-01

    Extraction studies for investigating the effect of mixing 2-heptyl-2-methyl nonanoic acid (HA) with a number of organophosphorus compounds; namely tributyl phosphate (TBP), terphenyl phosphate oxide (TPPO); tri octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) or bis-2-(ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in benzene on the extraction of trace elements Am(III), Eu(III), Zn(II), and Cs(I) from nitrate media of ionic strength, I=0.1 M were carried out. The effect of adding different organophosphorus compounds to HA was tested to account for the presence or absence of the phenomenon of synergism. It was found that TBP, TPPO, and TOPO causing some antagonistic effects for the elements studied. Extraction enhancement was only observed with bis- (2-ethyl-hexyl) -phosphoric acid (HDEHP) for all the elements investigated. The extraction mechanisms as well as the thermodynamic parameters for the mixed extracted species are discussed. 19 figs

  17. Synergistic solvent extraction investigation of Am (III), Eu (III), Zn(II), and Cs(I), using 2-heptyl-2-methyl-nonanoic acid mixed with different organophosphorus compounds from nitrate media. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, H A; Ramadan, A; Abdel-Fattah, A [Nuclear Chemistry Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Extraction studies for investigating the effect of mixing 2-heptyl-2-methyl nonanoic acid (HA) with a number of organophosphorus compounds; namely tributyl phosphate (TBP), terphenyl phosphate oxide (TPPO); tri octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) or bis-2-(ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in benzene on the extraction of trace elements Am(III), Eu(III), Zn(II), and Cs(I) from nitrate media of ionic strength, I=0.1 M were carried out. The effect of adding different organophosphorus compounds to HA was tested to account for the presence or absence of the phenomenon of synergism. It was found that TBP, TPPO, and TOPO causing some antagonistic effects for the elements studied. Extraction enhancement was only observed with bis- (2-ethyl-hexyl) -phosphoric acid (HDEHP) for all the elements investigated. The extraction mechanisms as well as the thermodynamic parameters for the mixed extracted species are discussed. 19 figs.

  18. Double Solvent for Extracting Rare Earth Concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bintarti, AN; Bambang EHB

    2007-01-01

    An extraction process to rare earth concentrate which contain elements were yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), gadolinium (Gd) and dysprosium (Dy) which were dissolved in to nitric acid has been done. The experiment of the extraction by double solvent in batch to mix 10 ml of the feed with 10 ml solvent contained the pair of solvent was TBP and TOA, D2EHPA and TOA, TBP and D2EHPA in cyclohexane as tinner. It was selected a right pairs of solvent for doing variation such as the acidity of the feed from 2 - 6 M and the time of stirring from 5 - 25 minutes gave the good relatively extraction condition to Dy element such as using 10 % volume of TOA in D2EHPA and cyclohexane, the acidity of the feed 3 M and the time stirring 15 minutes produced coefficient distribution to dysprosium = 0.586 and separation factor Dy-Ce = ∼ (unlimited); Dy-Nd = 4.651. (author)

  19. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference...... in pharmaceutical processes as well as new solvent swap alternatives. The method takes into account process considerations such as batch distillation and crystallization to achieve the swap task. Rigorous model based simulations of the swap operation are performed to evaluate and compare the performance...

  20. Improvements in solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughwane, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction columns are used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. For an effective reprocessing operation a solvent extraction column is required which is capable of distributing the feed over most of the column. The patent describes improvements in solvent extractions columns which allows the feed to be distributed over an increased length of column than was previously possible. (U.K.)

  1. Solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.; Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)

  2. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is 'What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?'You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product's constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace

  3. SOLVENT FIRE BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-05-22

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) conducted a burn test of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent to determine the combustion products. The testing showed hydrogen fluoride gas is not a combustion product from a solvent fire when up to 70% of the solvent is consumed. The absence of HF in the combustion gases may reflect concentration of the modifier containing the fluoride groups in the unburned portion. SwRI reported results for other gases (CO, HCN, NOx, formaldehyde, and hydrocarbons). The results, with other supporting information, can be used for evaluating the consequences of a facility fire involving the CSSX solvent inventory.

  4. Extracting solid carbonaceous materials with solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-08

    Solvent extraction of solid carbonaceous materials is performed in the presence of powdered catalysts together with alkaline substances. Oxides of nickel or iron or nickel nitrate have been used together with caustic soda or potash solutions or milk of lime. Solvents used include benzenes, middle oils, tars, tetrahydronaphthalene. The extraction is performed at 200 to 500/sup 0/C under pressures of 20 to 200 atm. Finely ground peat was dried and mixed with milk of lime and nickel nitrate and an equal quantity of middle oil. The mixture was heated for 3 h at 380/sup 0/C at 90 atm. 88.5% of the peat was extracted. In a similar treatment brown coal was impregnated with solutions of caustic soda and ferric chloride.

  5. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  6. Solvent effects in the synergistic solvent extraction of Co2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, A.T.; Ramadan, A.

    1979-01-01

    The extraction of Co 2+ from a 0.1M ionic strength aqueous phase (Na + , CH 3 COOH) of pH = 5.1 was studied using thenoyltrifluoroacetone, HTTA, in eight different solvents and HTTA + trioctylphosphine oxide, TOPO, in the same solvents. A comparison of the effect of solvent dielectric constant on the equilibrium constant shows a synergism as a result of the increased hydrophobic character imparted to the metal complex due to the formation of the TOPO adduct. (author)

  7. 300 area solvent evaporator interim status closure plan: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a hazardous waste tank treatment facility operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This treatment facility was a solvent evaporator located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, from 1975 to 1985 on behalf of DOE-RL. The 300 Area Solvent Evaporator (300 ASE) was a modified load lugger (dumpster) in which solvent wastes were evaporated. Some of the solvents were radioactively contaminated because they came from a degreaser which processed bare uranium metal billets from the N Reactor Fuel Manufacturing Facility. The waste was composed of perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, ethyl acetate/bromine solution, paint shop solvents and possibly some used oil. Also, small amounts of uranium, copper, zirconium and possibly beryllium were present in the degreaser solvents as particulates. Radioactive and non-radioactive solvents were not segregated in the 300 ASE, and the entire mixture was regarded as mixed waste

  8. Fluoro-Carbonate Solvents for Li-Ion Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NAGASUBRAMANIAN, GANESAN

    1999-01-01

    A number of fluoro-carbonate solvents were evaluated as electrolytes for Li-ion cells. These solvents are fluorine analogs of the conventional electrolyte solvents such as dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate in Li-ion cells. Conductivity of single and mixed fluoro carbonate electrolytes containing 1 M LiPF(sub 6) was measured at different temperatures. These electrolytes did not freeze at -40 C. We are evaluating currently, the irreversible 1st cycle capacity loss in carbon anode in these electrolytes and the capacity loss will be compared to that in the conventional electrolytes. Voltage stability windows of the electrolytes were measured at room temperature and compared with that of the conventional electrolytes. The fluoro-carbon electrolytes appear to be more stable than the conventional electrolytes near Li voltage. Few preliminary electrochemical data of the fluoro-carbonate solvents in full cells are reported in the literature. For example, some of the fluorocarbonate solvents appear to have a wider voltage window than the conventional electrolyte solvents. For example, methyl 2,2,2 trifluoro ethyl carbonate containing 1 M LiPF(sub 6) electrolyte has a decomposition voltage exceeding 6 V vs. Li compared to and lt;5 V for conventional electrolytes. The solvent also appears to be stable in contact with lithium at room temperature

  9. Comparison Pore Aggregate Levels After Extraction With Solvents Pertamax Plus And Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, Muthia

    2017-12-01

    Loss of asphalt content extraction results become problems in Field Work For implementing parties. The use of solvents with high octane (pertamax plus) for the extraction, dissolving the asphalt more than gasoline. By comparing the levels of aggregate pores after using solvent extraction pertamax plus compared to gasoline could answer that pertamax plus more solvent dissolves the bitumen compared to gasoline. This study aims to obtain comparative levels of porous aggregate mix AC-WC after using solvent extraction pertamax plus compared to gasoline. This study uses the aggregate that has been extracted from the production of asphalt mixtures, when finisher and after compaction field. The method used is the assay of coarse and fine aggregate pores, extraction of bitumen content to separate the aggregate with bitumen. Results of testing the total absorption after extraction using a solvent preta max plus in the production of asphalt mixtures 0.80%, while gasoline solvent 0.67% deviation occurs 0.13%. In the finisher after the solvent extraction preta max plus 0.77%, while 0.67% gasoline solvent occurs deviation of 0.1%. At the core after extraction and solvent pertamax plus 0.71%, while gasoline solvent 0.60% 0.11% deviation occurs. The total water absorption after extraction using a solvent pertamax plus greater than gasoline. This proves that the solvent dissolves pertamax plus more asphalt than gasoline.

  10. Multiple Solvent Extraction System with Flow Injection Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    encounters a back extraction step where the direction of the extraction is from organic to aqueous solvent. Thus it is advantageous to incorporate both...stainless steel ( Alltech Associates, Arlington Heights, IQ) and prepared from a single section of 180 cmn in length. The Section 2 mixing and extraction

  11. Solution thermodynamics of valnemulin hydrogen fumarate in different pure solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Jinbo; Wang, Jingkang; Huang, Xin; Bao, Ying; Wang, Yongli; Yin, Qiuxiang; Liu, Ailing; Li, Xudong; Hao, Hongxun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility of valnemulin hydrogen fumarate in five pure solvents was experimentally determined. • The solubility data were correlated by Wilson model, NRTL model and UNIQUAC model. • Mixing thermodynamic properties of valnemulin hydrogen fumarate in five pure solvents were calculated. - Abstract: Solubility of valnemulin hydrogen fumarate in five pure solvents was determined within temperature range of (278.15 to 323.15) K by a gravimetric method. The results show that the solubility of valnemulin hydrogen fumarate in tested pure solvents increases with the increasing temperature. The solubility values were correlated by the Wilson model, NRTL model and UNIQUAC model. The UNIQUAC volume parameter, area parameter, and Wilson liquid molar volume parameter of valnemulin hydrogen fumarate were estimated by the group contribution method. It was found that the correlated results are in good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, the mixing thermodynamic properties of valnemulin hydrogen fumarate in solutions, including the mixing Gibbs energy, the mixing enthalpy and entropy, were determined by using the Wilson model and the experimental solubility results.

  12. Solvent sorption measurements in polymeric membranes with ATR-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manito Pereira, A.M.; Lopes, M.C.; Timmer, J.M.K.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term stability and performance of polymeric membranes in solvent and mixed solvent media can be reduced due to sorption and swelling of the membrane matrix. For this reason quantification of sorption and swelling is of major importance for the development of future applications of membrane

  13. Control of Chemical Equilibrium by Solvent: A Basis for Teaching Physical Chemistry of Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezhdo, Oleg V.; Craig, Colleen F.; Fialkov, Yuriy; Prezhdo, Victor V.

    2007-01-01

    The study demonstrates that the solvent present in a system can highly alter and control the chemical equilibrium of a system. The results show that the dipole moment and polarizibility of a system can be highly altered by using different mixed solvents.

  14. Determination and correlation of solubility and thermodynamic properties of pyraclostrobin in pure and binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Peng; Du, Shichao; Qin, Yujia; Zhao, Kaifei; Li, Kangli; Hou, Baohong; Gong, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility data of pyraclostrobin in pure and binary solvents were determined and correlated. • The theory of solubility parameter was used to explain the cosolvency in binary solvents. • A modified mixing rule was proposed to calculate the solubility parameter of binary solvents. • The dissolution thermodynamic properties were calculated and discussed. - Abstract: The solubility of pyraclostrobin in five pure solvents and two binary solvent mixtures was measured from 283.15 K to 308.15 K using a static analytical method. Solubility in five pure solvents was well correlated by the modified Apelblat equation and Wilson model. While the CNIBS/R–K model was applied to correlate the solubility in two binary solvent mixtures, the correlation showed good agreement with experimental results. The solubility of pyraclostrobin reaches its maximum value at a certain cyclohexane mole fraction in the two binary solvent mixtures. The solubility parameter of pyraclostrobin was calculated by the Fedors method and a new modified mixing rule with preferable applicability was proposed to determine the solubility parameter of solvents. Then the co-solvency in the binary solvent mixtures can be explained based on the obtained solubility parameters. In a addition, the dissolution thermodynamic properties were calculated from the experimental values using the Wilson model.

  15. Thermodynamic equilibrium of hydroxyacetic acid in pure and binary solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qiaoyin; Xie, Chuang; Li, Yang; Su, Nannan; Lou, Yajing; Hu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yongli; Bao, Ying; Hou, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of hydroxyacetic acid in mono-solvents and binary solvent mixtures was measured. • Modified Apelblat, NRTL and Wilson model were used to correlate the solubility data in pure solvents. • CNIBS/R-K and Jouyban-Acree model were used to correlate the solubility in binary solvent mixtures. • The mixing properties were calculated based on the NRTL model. - Abstract: The solubility of hydroxyacetic acid in five pure organic solvents and two binary solvent mixtures were experimentally measured from 273.15 K to 313.15 K at atmospheric pressure (p = 0.1 MPa) by using a dynamic method. The order of solubility in pure organic solvents is ethanol > isopropanol > n-butanol > acetonitrile > ethyl acetate within the investigated temperature range, except for temperature lower than 278 K where the solubility of HA in ethyl acetate is slightly larger than that in acetonitrile. Furthermore, the solubility data in pure solvents were correlated with the modified Apelblat model, NRTL model, and Wilson model and that in the binary solvents mixtures were fitted to the CNIBS/R-K model and Jouyban-Acree model. Finally, the mixing thermodynamic properties of hydroxyacetic acid in pure and binary solvent systems were calculated and discussed.

  16. Solvent effect on 14 N NMR shielding of glycine, serine, leucine, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The polarizable continuum model (PCM) is employed to describe the system in the ... order nonlinear mixed electric and magnetic effects in condensed phase are ... of the solvent reaction field rather than on the change of molecular geometry ...

  17. Selective solvent extraction of oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-04-09

    In the selective solvent extraction of naphthenic base oils, the solvent used consists of the extract obtained by treating a paraffinic base oil with a selective solvent. The extract, or partially spent solvent is less selective than the solvent itself. Selective solvents specified for the extraction of the paraffinic base oil are phenol, sulphur dioxide, cresylic acid, nitrobenzene, B:B/sup 1/-dichlorethyl ether, furfural, nitroaniline and benzaldehyde. Oils treated are Coastal lubricating oils, or naphthenic oils from the cracking, or destructive hydrogenation of coal, tar, lignite, peat, shale, bitumen, or petroleum. The extraction may be effected by a batch or counter-current method, and in the presence of (1) liquefied propane, or butane, or naphtha, or (2) agents which modify the solvent power such as, water, ammonia, acetonitrile, glycerine, glycol, caustic soda or potash. Treatment (2) may form a post-treatment effected on the extract phase. In counter-current treatment in a tower some pure selective solvent may be introduced near the raffinate outlet to wash out any extract therefrom.

  18. Selection and design of solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    and design of solvents will be presented together with application examples. The selection problem is defined as finding known chemicals that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. The design problem is defined as finding the molecular structure (or mixture of molecules....... With increasing interest on issues such as waste, sustainability, environmental impact and green chemistry, the selection and design of solvents have become important problems that need to be addressed during chemical product-process design and development. Systematic methods and tools suitable for selection......) that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. Use of organic chemicals and ionic liquids as solvents will be covered....

  19. Thermodynamic properties of L-Theanine in different solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Fuli; Hou, Baohong; Tao, Xiaolong; Hu, Xiaoxue; Huang, Qiaoyin; Zhang, Zaixiang; Wang, Yongli; Hao, Hongxun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility data of L-Theanine in different solvents were measured by using an equilibrium method. • Several models were used to correlate the experimental solubility data. • The mixing thermodynamic properties were calculated. - Abstract: The solubility data of L-Theanine in pure water and three kinds of water + organic solvent mxitures were measured in temperature ranges from (278.15 to 13.15) K by using an equilibrium method. The results show that the solubility of L-Theanine increases with the increasing of temperature in all selected solvents. The modified Apelblat equation and the λ-h model were applied to correlate the solubility data in pure water, while the modified Apelblat equation, the λ-h model, the NRTL model and the Jouyban–Acree model were applied to correlate the solubility data in binary solvent mixtures. Furthermore, the mixing thermodynamic properties of L-Theanine in different solvents were also calculated based on the NRTL model and experimental solubility data.

  20. Effect of solvent blending on cycling characteristics of lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshiharu

    1987-07-01

    The suitability of electrolytes using mixed solvents has been examined for ambient temperature, rechargeable lithium batteries. Sulfolane (S) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been used as base solvents because of their high permittivity, and ethers such as 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) have been blended as a low viscosity co-solvent. This blending has been found to yield electrolytes with a high conductivity, and maximum values are observed in solutions with 40-90 mol% ether. The cycling characteristics of lithium are also improved by blending the ethers. The coulombic efficiencies on a nickel substrate are greater than or equal to 80% in S-DME/LiPF/sub 6/ and DMSO-DME/LiPF/sub 6/ solutions. The lithium electrode characteristics are markedly dependent on the type of co-solvent ether, as well as on the electrolytic salt. The results of the conductance behaviour and the electrode characteristics are discussed in terms of ionic structure in the mixed solvent and the state of the electrode/electrolyte interphase.

  1. Effect of solvent polarity and temperature on the spectral and thermodynamic properties of exciplexes of 1-cyanonaphthalene with hexamethylbenzene in organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asim, Sadia; Mansha, Asim; Grampp, Günter; Landgraf, Stephan; Zahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Study of the effect of solvent polarity and temperature is done on the exciplex emission spectra of 1-cyanonaphthalene with hexamethylbenzene. Exciplex system is studied in the range of partially polar solvents and in solvent mixture of propyl acetate and butyronitrile. The unique feature of this solvent mixture is that only the solvent polarity changes (6.0≤ε s ≤24.7) with the change in the mole fraction of solvents whereas the solvent viscosity and refractive index remains unaffected. Thermodynamic properties are calculated according to the models developed by Weller and Kuzmin. Fluorescence lifetimes for both the fluorophore as well as the exciplex are evaluated in all used solvents. Exciplex energetics as a function of solvent polarity and temperature are also discussed. Kuzmin model of self-consistent polarization is used for the explanation of the exciplex emission spectra. The effects of solvent polarity and temperature on energy of zero–zero transitions (hv 0 / ), Huang–Rhys factor (S), Gauss broadening of vibronic level (σ) and the dominant high-frequency vibration (hν ν ) are investigated. The strong dependence of exciplex stability and energetics upon the solvent polarity and temperature are observed. Full charge transfer exciplexes were observed in solvents of all polarities and stronger exciplex with large emission intensities were found in solvents of low polarities but with the increase in solvent polarity the exciplex becomes weak and they dissociate fastly into radical ion pairs. The kinetic model of Kuzmin was observed to reduce into the Weller kinetic model for this exciplex system with ∆G ET = −0.22 eV and the spectral shift, h∆ν>0.2 eV. - Highlights: • Exciplex formed as a result of mixing of charge transfer and locally excited states. • Effect of solvents polarity and temperature on the exciplex stability and thermodynamics. • Solvent polarity will decide the formation of contact radical ion pair or solvent separated

  2. Effect of solvent polarity and temperature on the spectral and thermodynamic properties of exciplexes of 1-cyanonaphthalene with hexamethylbenzene in organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asim, Sadia [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremaryrgasse 9, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Mansha, Asim [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremaryrgasse 9, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Grampp, Günter, E-mail: grampp@tugraz.at [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremaryrgasse 9, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Landgraf, Stephan [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremaryrgasse 9, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Zahid, Muhammad [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremaryrgasse 9, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    2014-09-15

    Study of the effect of solvent polarity and temperature is done on the exciplex emission spectra of 1-cyanonaphthalene with hexamethylbenzene. Exciplex system is studied in the range of partially polar solvents and in solvent mixture of propyl acetate and butyronitrile. The unique feature of this solvent mixture is that only the solvent polarity changes (6.0≤ε{sub s}≤24.7) with the change in the mole fraction of solvents whereas the solvent viscosity and refractive index remains unaffected. Thermodynamic properties are calculated according to the models developed by Weller and Kuzmin. Fluorescence lifetimes for both the fluorophore as well as the exciplex are evaluated in all used solvents. Exciplex energetics as a function of solvent polarity and temperature are also discussed. Kuzmin model of self-consistent polarization is used for the explanation of the exciplex emission spectra. The effects of solvent polarity and temperature on energy of zero–zero transitions (hv{sub 0}{sup /}), Huang–Rhys factor (S), Gauss broadening of vibronic level (σ) and the dominant high-frequency vibration (hν{sub ν}) are investigated. The strong dependence of exciplex stability and energetics upon the solvent polarity and temperature are observed. Full charge transfer exciplexes were observed in solvents of all polarities and stronger exciplex with large emission intensities were found in solvents of low polarities but with the increase in solvent polarity the exciplex becomes weak and they dissociate fastly into radical ion pairs. The kinetic model of Kuzmin was observed to reduce into the Weller kinetic model for this exciplex system with ∆G{sub ET} = −0.22 eV and the spectral shift, h∆ν>0.2 eV. - Highlights: • Exciplex formed as a result of mixing of charge transfer and locally excited states. • Effect of solvents polarity and temperature on the exciplex stability and thermodynamics. • Solvent polarity will decide the formation of contact radical ion pair

  3. Solvent extraction of Zn and metals in Zn ores by nonphosphorous solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchapt, J.M.; Tostain, Jacqueline.

    1975-07-01

    This bibliography follows a first work on Zn solvent extraction by organo-phosphorous compounds. The other solvents used in Zn extraction, are studied: oxygenated nonphosphorous solvents (ketones, alcohols, carboxylic acids, sulfonates), nitrogenous solvents and hydrocarbons [fr

  4. Cesium Concentration in MCU Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D

    2006-01-01

    During Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) operations, Cs-137 concentrations in product streams will vary depending on the location in the process and on the recent process conditions. Calculations of cesium concentrations under a variety of operating conditions reveal the following: (1) Under nominal operations with salt solution feed containing 1.1 Ci Cs-137 per gallon, the maximum Cs-137 concentration in the process will occur in the strip effluent (SE) and equal 15-16.5 Ci/gal. (2) Under these conditions, the majority of the solvent will contain 0.005 to 0.01 Ci/gal, with a limited portion of the solvent in the contactor stages containing ∼4 Ci/gal. (3) When operating conditions yield product near 0.1 Ci Cs-137/gal in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS), the SE cesium concentration will be the same or lower than in nominal operations, but majority of the stripped solvent will increase to ∼2-3 Ci/gal. (4) Deviations in strip and waste stream flow rates cause the largest variations in cesium content: (a) If strip flow rates deviate by -30% of nominal, the SE will contain ∼23 Ci/gal, although the cesium content of the solvent will increase to only 0.03 Ci/gal; (b) If strip flow rate deviates by -77% (i.e., 23% of nominal), the SE will contain 54 Ci/gal and solvent will contain 1.65 Ci/gal. At this point, the product DSS will just reach the limit of 0.1 Ci/gal, causing the DSS gamma monitors to alarm; and (c) Moderate (+10 to +30%) deviations in waste flow rate cause approximately proportional increases in the SE and solvent cesium concentrations. Recovery from a process failure due to poor cesium stripping can achieve any low cesium concentration required. Passing the solvent back through the contactors while recycling DSS product will produce a ∼70% reduction during one pass through the contactors (assuming the stripping D value is no worse than 0.36). If the solvent is returned to the solvent hold tank (containing additional

  5. The impact of oil dispersant solvent on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Canevari, G.P.; Becker, K.W.; Daling, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    Modern oil spill dispersant formulations are concentrated blends of surface active agents (surfactants) in a solvent carrier system. The surfactants are effective for lowering the interfacial tension of the oil slick and promoting and stabilizing oil-in-water dispersions. The solvent system has 2 key functions: (1) reduce viscosity of the surfactant blend to allow efficient dispersant application, and (2) promote mixing and diffusion of the surfactant blend into the oil film. A more detailed description than previously given in the literature is proposed to explain the mechanism of chemical dispersion and illustrate how the surfactant is delivered by the solvent to the oil-water interface. Laboratory data are presented which demonstrate the variability in dispersing effectiveness due to different solvent composition, particularly for viscous and emulsified test oils with viscosities up to 20,500 mPa·s. Other advantages of improved solvent components can include reduced evaporative losses during spraying, lower marine toxicity and reduced protective equipment requirements. Through this improved understanding of the role of the solvent, dispersants which are more effective over a wider range of oil types are being developed

  6. Solvent refining of low-temperature tar with liquid ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, K

    1953-01-01

    The middle fractions of low-temperature tar were treated with mixed solutions of H/sub 2/O and liquid NH/sub 3/ at 0/sup 0/ and 20/sup 0/, and with liquid NH/sub 3/ at -10, 0, + 10, and 20/sup 0/, and phase equilibrium between tar acids, neutral oil, and solvents were studied. The distribution ratio ranged from less than 1 to greater than 1 when the solvent contained about 20 percent (by weight) H/sub 2/O. When the solvent contained less than 85 percent (by weight) NH/sub 3/, the yield of extract was small but the purity of phenols in the extracted oil was above 90 percent. Solvent containing about 85 percent NH/sub 3/ (by weight) is considered optimum for separating tar acids from oils. A novel definition is proposed for solvent selectivity as the difference between the concentration of the solute in the extract layer, on a solvent-free basis, and the concentration in the raffinate layer.

  7. Watching the Solvation of Atoms in Liquids One Solvent Molecule at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Arthur E.; Glover, William J.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.

    2010-06-01

    We use mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations and ultrafast transient hole-burning spectroscopy to build a molecular-level picture of the motions of solvent molecules around Na atoms in liquid tetrahydrofuran. We find that even at room temperature, the solvation of Na atoms occurs in discrete steps, with the number of solvent molecules nearest the atom changing one at a time. This explains why the rate of solvent relaxation differs for different initial nonequilibrium states, and reveals how the solvent helps determine the identity of atomic species in liquids.

  8. Phase Behavior of Mixtures of Ionic Liquids and Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Ellegaard, Martin Dela; O’Connell, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    A corresponding-states form of the generalized van der Waals equation, previously developed for mixtures of an ionic liquid and a supercritical solute, is here extended to mixtures including an ionic liquid and a solvent (water or organic). Group contributions to characteristic parameters...... are implemented, leading to an entirely predictive method for densities of mixed compressed ionic liquids. Quantitative agreement with experimental data is obtained over wide ranges of conditions. Previously, the method has been applied to solubilities of sparingly soluble gases in ionic liquids and in organic...... solvents. Here we show results for heavier and more-than-sparingly solutes such as carbon dioxide and propane in ionic liquids....

  9. Separation of rare earth metal using micro solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihama, S.; Tajiri, Y.; Yoshizuka, K.

    2005-01-01

    A micro solvent extraction system for the separation of rare earth metals has been investigated. The micro flow channel was fabricated on a PMMA plate. Extraction equilibrium was quickly achieved, without any mechanical mixing. The solvent extraction results obtained for the Pr/Sm binary solutions revealed that both rare earth metals are firstly extracted together. Following, the Pr is extracted in the organic solution and Sm remains in the aqueous phase. The phase separation can be successively achieved by contriving the cross section of the flow channel

  10. Processing of polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, P.J.; Kurja, J.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    1997-01-01

    A review with many refs. on processing of polymers using reactive solvents including classification of synthetic polymers, guidelines for the selection of reactive solvents, basic aspects of processing, examples of intractable and tractable polymer/reactive solvent system

  11. Handbook of organic solvent properties

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The properties of 72 of the most commonly used solvents are given, tabulated in the most convenient way, making this book a joy for industrial chemists to use as a desk reference. The properties covered are those which answer the basic questions of: Will it do the job? Will it harm the user? Will it pollute the air? Is it easy to handle? Will it pollute the water? Can it be recovered or incinerated? These are all factors that need to be considered at the early stages of choosing a solvent for a new product or process.A collection of the physical properties of most commonly used solvents, their

  12. Acetone-based cellulose solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; Heinze, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Acetone containing tetraalkylammonium chloride is found to be an efficient solvent for cellulose. The addition of an amount of 10 mol% (based on acetone) of well-soluble salt triethyloctylammonium chloride (Et3 OctN Cl) adjusts the solvent's properties (increases the polarity) to promote cellulose dissolution. Cellulose solutions in acetone/Et3 OctN Cl have the lowest viscosity reported for comparable aprotic solutions making it a promising system for shaping processes and homogeneous chemical modification of the biopolymer. Recovery of the polymer and recycling of the solvent components can be easily achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Contribution to the study of the degradation of the solvent used in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goasmat, F.

    1984-01-01

    The degradation of a mixed solvent (tributylphosphate - hydrocarbons) in a fuel reprocessing plant (UP 2 at La Hague, France) is studied in this thesis. Laboratory studies on degradation mechanisms, decomposition products and regeneration processes are reviewed in a bibliographic synthesis. Solvent degradation is investigated on a real solvent from a reprocessing plant. Influence of degradation on solvent performance is shown and regeneration processes should be improved. Many regeneration processes are tested on solvent from the plant and results are discussed. Separation and analysis of degradation products show the polyfunctional structure of compounds formed [fr

  14. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.

    1996-01-01

    The yellow cake refining was studied in both laboratory and semi-pilot scales. The process units mainly consist of dissolution and filtration, solvent extraction, and precipitation and filtration. Effect of flow ratio (organic flow rate/ aqueous flow rate) on working efficiencies of solvent extraction process was studied. Detailed studies were carried out on extraction, scrubbing and stripping processes. Purity of yellow cake product obtained is high as 90.32% U 3 O 8

  15. Solubility of Meloxicam in Mixed Solvent Systems | Babu | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solubility of meloxicam is higher in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) compared to water, probably due to ionization of the drug. The solubility of meloxicam is marginally enhanced in surfactant systems (Tween 80 and Brij 35) at concentrations higher than cmc, proving the micellar solubilization. Meloxicam solubility studies in ...

  16. Separation of lanthanides using micro solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihama, S.; Tajiri, Y.; Yoshizuka, K.

    2006-01-01

    A micro solvent extraction system for the separation of lanthanides has been investigated. The micro flow channel is fabricated on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plate, and solvent extraction progresses by feeding aqueous and organic solutions into the channel simultaneously. The extraction equilibrium is quickly achieved, without any mechanical mixing, when a narrow channel (100 μm width and 100 μm depth) is used. The results of solvent extraction from the Pr/Nd and Pr/Sm binary solutions revealed that both lanthanides are firstly extracted together, and then, the lighter lanthanide extracted in the organic solution alternatively exchanges to the heavier one in the aqueous solution to achieve the extraction equilibrium. The phase separation of the aqueous and organic phases after extraction can also be successively achieved by contriving the cross section of the flow channel, and the extractive separation of Pr/Sm is demonstrated. (authors)

  17. Influences of surface and solvent on retention of HEMA/mixture components after evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Fernanda C P; Wang, Linda; Pereira, Lúcia C G; de Andrade e Silva, Safira M; Júnior, Luiz M; Carrilho, Marcela Rocha de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the retention of solvents within experimental HEMA/solvent primers after two conditions for solvent evaporation: from a free surface or from dentine surface. Experimental primers were prepared by mixing 35% HEMA with 65% water, methanol, ethanol or acetone (v/v). Aliquots of each primer (50 microl) were placed on glass wells or they were applied to the surface of acid-etched dentine cubes (2mm x 2mm x 2mm) (n=5). For both conditions (i.e. from free surface or dentine cubes), change in primers mass due to solvent evaporation was gravimetrically measured for 10min at 51% RH and 21 degrees C. The rate of solvent evaporation was calculated as a function of loss of primers mass (%) over time. Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls (pevaporation rate (%/min) depending on the solvent present in the primer and the condition for evaporation (from free surface or dentine cubes) (pevaporation for HEMA/acetone primer was almost 2- to 10-times higher than for HEMA/water primer depending whether evaporation occurred, respectively, from a free surface or dentine cubes. The rate of solvent evaporation varied with time, being in general highest at the earliest periods. The rate of solvent evaporation and its retention into HEMA/solvent primers was influenced by the type of the solvent and condition allowed for their evaporation.

  18. Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering To Make Microsphere Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Cato T.; Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    A solvent/non-solvent sintering technique has been devised for joining polymeric microspheres to make porous matrices for use as drug-delivery devices or scaffolds that could be seeded with cells for growing tissues. Unlike traditional sintering at elevated temperature and pressure, this technique is practiced at room temperature and pressure and, therefore, does not cause thermal degradation of any drug, protein, or other biochemical with which the microspheres might be loaded to impart properties desired in a specific application. Also, properties of scaffolds made by this technique are more reproducible than are properties of comparable scaffolds made by traditional sintering. The technique involves the use of two miscible organic liquids: one that is and one that is not a solvent for the affected polymer. The polymeric microspheres are placed in a mold having the size and shape of the desired scaffold, then the solvent/non-solvent mixture is poured into the mold to fill the void volume between the microspheres, then the liquid mixture is allowed to evaporate. Some of the properties of the resulting scaffold can be tailored through choice of the proportions of the liquids and the diameter of the microspheres.

  19. Solvents interactions with thermochromic print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Rožić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interactions between different solvents (benzene, acetone, cyclohexanone, various alcohols and water and thermochromic printing ink were investigated. Thermochromic printing ink was printed on metal surface. Components of thermochromic printing inks are polymeric microcapsules and classic yellow offset printing ink. Below its activation temperature, dye and developer within the microcapsules form a blue coloured complex. Therefore, thermochromic print is green. By heating above the activation temperature, blue colour of the complex turns into the leuco dye colourless state and the green colour of the prints turns into the yellow colour of the classic offset pigment. The results of the interaction with various solvents show that the thermochromic print is stable in all tested solvents except in ethanol, acetone and cyclohexanone. In ethanol, the green colour of the print becomes yellow. SEM analysis shows that microcapsules are dissolved. In acetone and cyclohexanone, the green colour of the print turns into blue, and the microcapsules become significantly more visible. Thus, the yellow pigment interacts with examined ketones. Based on the obtained interactions it can be concluded that the microcapsules have more polar nature than the classical pigment particles. Solvent-thermocromic print interactions were analysed using Hansen solubility parameters that rank the solvents based on their estimated interaction capabilities.

  20. Prediction of the solubility in lipidic solvent mixture: Investigation of the modeling approach and thermodynamic analysis of solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shruti V; Patel, Sarsvatkumar

    2015-09-18

    Self-micro emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is one of the methods to improve solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drug(s). The knowledge of the solubility of pharmaceuticals in pure lipidic solvents and solvent mixtures is crucial for designing the SMEDDS of poorly soluble drug substances. Since, experiments are very time consuming, a model, which allows for solubility predictions in solvent mixtures based on less experimental data is desirable for efficiency. Solvents employed were Labrafil® M1944CS and Labrasol® as lipidic solvents; Capryol-90®, Capryol-PGMC® and Tween®-80 as surfactants; Transcutol® and PEG-400 as co-solvents. Solubilities of both drugs were determined in single solvent systems at temperature (T) range of 283-333K. In present study, we investigated the applicability of the thermodynamic model to understand the solubility behavior of drugs in the lipiodic solvents. By using the Van't Hoff and general solubility theory, the thermodynamic functions like Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of solution, mixing and solvation for drug in single and mixed solvents were understood. The thermodynamic parameters were understood in the framework of drug-solvent interaction based on their chemical similarity and dissimilarity. Clotrimazole and Fluconazole were used as active ingredients whose solubility was measured in single solvent as a function of temperature and the data obtained were used to derive mathematical models which can predict solubility in multi-component solvent mixtures. Model dependent parameters for each drug were calculated at each temperature. The experimental solubility data of solute in mixed solvent system were measured experimentally and further correlated with the calculates values obtained from exponent model and log-linear model of Yalkowsky. The good correlation was observed between experimental solubility and predicted solubility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  2. Indium recovery by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Marilia Camargos Botelho

    1999-04-01

    Indium has been recovered as a byproduct from residues generated from the sulfuric acid leaching circuits in mineral plants for zinc recovery. Once its recovery comes from the slags of other metals recovery, it is necessary to separate it from the other elements which usually are present in high concentrations. Many works have been approaching this separation and indicate the solvent extraction process as the main technique used. In Brazilian case, indium recovery depends on the knowledge of this technique and its development. This paper describes the solvent extraction knowledge for the indium recovery from aqueous solutions generated in mineral plants. The results for determination of the best experimental conditions to obtain a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with di (2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) solubilized in isoparafin and exxsol has been presented. (author)

  3. Improved Purex solvent scrubbing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of hydrazine and hydroxylamine salts as solvent scrubbing agents that can be decomposed into gases are summarized. Results from testing of countercurrent scrubbers and solid sorber columns that produce lesser amounts of permanent salts are reported. The status of studies of the acid-degradation of paraffin diluent and the options for removal of long-chain organic acids is given

  4. Risk assessment for halogenated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    A recent development in the cancer risk area is the advent of biologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. These models allow for the incorporation of biological and mechanistic data into the risk assessment process. These advances will not only improve the risk assessment process for halogenated solvents but will stimulate and guide basic research in the biological area

  5. A comparison of the effects of solvent and noise exposure on hearing, together and separately

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Unlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of occupational exposure to noise and organic solvents on hearing loss in bus and truck plant workers. Our case control study contained 469 workers from a bus and truck plant divided into three groups. The first group contained workers exposed to only noise; the second group contained workers exposed to both noise and mixture solvents at a permissible level; and the third group included workers exposed to permissible levels of solvents. The control group (Group 4 included 119 individuals selected randomly, persons who were not exposed to noise and solvents. These groups were compared in terms of each individual′s frequency hearing loss in both ears. Our study demonstrates that combined exposure to mixed solvents and noise can exacerbate hearing loss in workers. Hence, a suitable hearing protection program is advised that would contain short-interval audiometric examinations and efficient hearing protectors.

  6. Interaction of organic solvent with a subbituminous coal below pyrolysis temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, D.; Grens, E.A.

    1978-06-01

    The interactions of a subbituminous coal with certain binary organic solvent mixtures have been studied at 250/sup 0/C. Mixtures of pyridine, quinoline, piperidine, tetrahydroquinoline, and ethylenediamine with either toluene or tetralin were contacted with coal in a successive batch, stirred reactor, the extractions being carried to near completion. Two distinct behaviors of extraction yield as a function of composition have been identified. In the majority of the solvent mixtures the extraction yield increases linearly with increasing concentration of the more active solvent. When the active solvent is ethylenediamine, however, the extraction yield increases rapidly when small concentrations of ethylenediamine are used but then levels out close to its maximum value in a 50 to 50 mix. This behavior is an indication that, except in the case of ethylenediamine, the activity of solvent mixtures is a function of bulk solution properties.

  7. Solubility of 3-Caffeoylquinic Acid in Different Solvents at 291-340 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. T.; Zhang, C. L.; Cheng, X. L.; Zhao, J. H.; Wang, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Using a laser monitoring observation technique the solubilities of 3-caffeoylquinic acid in pure solvents, water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and two mixed solvents, methanol + water, ethanol + water have been determined at temperature range from 291-340 K. The experimental data were correlated by the modified Apelblat equation, λ h equation, and ideal model. The calculated solubilities were turned out very consistent with the experimental results, and the modified Apelblat equation shows the best agreement.

  8. Micellization of a Cationic Surfactant in Mixed Aqueous and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reception

    Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port ... surfactants in water-organic mixed-solvent systems is ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... Journal of Applied ... Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, 54,.

  9. Sneutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Y.

    1997-10-01

    In supersymmetric models with nonvanishing Majorana neutrino masses, the sneutrino and antisneutrino mix. The conditions under which this mixing is experimentally observable are studied, and mass-splitting of the sneutrino mass eigenstates and sneutrino oscillation phenomena are analyzed

  10. Effect of hydrogen bonding of a solvent on the thermodynamic stability of cadmium complexes of ethylenediamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenkov, S.F.; Sharnin, V.A.; Chistyakova, G.V.

    2004-01-01

    The composition and stability of cadmium(II) ethylenediamine complexes in water-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvents, depending on the content of organic component, were studied by the methods of pH-metry and calorimetry. It is shown that increase in DMSO content in the solvent gives rise to higher stability of cadmium complexes. The greatest growth of stability constant was pointed out for coordination-saturated compounds. The complexing thermodynamics was discussed from the viewpoint of solvation approach. Protolytic solvents were shown to produce destabilizing effect on the polyligand complexes owing to participation of coordination sphere in H-binding [ru

  11. Application of Solvent-In-Pulp Technique for Uranium Extraction from Mineralization Granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.; Hussein, A.E.M.; Youseif, W.M.; El Didamony, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Investigations on uranium extraction from a representative mineralized granite sample (Gattar granite GII) by solvent-in-pulp (SIP) technique were carried out in the present study. For this purpose, the solvent (tri-butyl amine) (TBA) was mixed with the leaching slurry without prior filtration. The influence of various factors affecting the SIP process, such as contact time, solvent concentration, dilution factor, type of surfactant, surfactant/solid ratio were studied. About 91% uranium extraction efficiency was attained by the application of the chosen extraction SIP conditions. Also, about 96% of the loaded uranium could be stripped by using sulfuric acid as an effective stripping agent

  12. Measurement and correlation of solubility of ciclesonide in seven pure organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Lina; Yin, Qiuxiang; Guo, Zhiqiang; Lu, Haijiao; Liu, Mingyan; Chen, Wei; Hou, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility of ciclesonide in seven pure organic solvents was determined by gravimetric method. • The solubility order was interpreted by virtue of density function theory (DFT). • The experimental solubility of ciclesonide was correlated by four thermodynamic models. • Mixing thermodynamic properties of ciclesonide were calculated and discussed. - Abstract: The solubility of ciclesonide in seven organic solvents (ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, acetonitrile, toluene and ethyl acetate) in the temperature range from 278.15 K to 313.15 K was measured by gravimetrical method under atmospheric pressure. The results indicate that the solubility of ciclesonide increases with elevating temperature in all investigated solvents. The solubility order in different solvents was interpreted through comparing interaction force between solute and solvent molecules by virtue of density function theory (DFT). Thermodynamic equations including the modified Apelblat equation, λh equation, Wilson equation and NRTL equation are all suitable to correlate the solubility results. Based on the Wilson equation, the thermodynamic parameters from the mixing process are calculated, and the results indicate the mixing process of ciclesonide in the selected pure solvents is spontaneous and entropy-driven.

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  14. Safety confirmation study of TRUEX solvent by accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshihiko; Hirumachi, Suguru; Takeda, Shinso; Kanazawa, Yoshito; Sasaya, Shinji

    1999-02-01

    In order to confirm the engineering safety on the TRUEX solvent (mixed solvent of CMPO/TBP/n-dodecane) for separating the transuranics from high-level activity liquid waste in advanced nuclear fuel recycling technological R and D, thermal behavior and pressure behavior in heating PUREX solvent (mixed solvent of 30% TBP-n-dodecane), TRUEX solvent and in the exothermic reaction of TRUEX solvent etc. and nitric acid in sealed adiabatic system which was severer condition than actual plant were measured by using accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC). The Arrhenius parameters (activation energy and frequency factor) which are necessary for the evaluation of reaction rate was examined from the measurement data in ARC. Analytical method and analysis condition of reaction products were examined in order to clarify chemical form of reaction products in exothermic reaction between solvent and nitric acid in ARC, and the qualitative evaluation was carried out. Main results are shown in the following. 1) TBP, CMPO, n-dodecane and 10 M nitric acid hardly exothermed in the simple substance. 2) On the solvent phase after the solvent contacted with 10 M nitric acid and the equilibrium has been attained (single-phase sample), the heat quantity per unit sample weight of the TRUEX solvent tended to be bigger than that of the PUREX solvent when heat quantity was evaluated in ARC. However, on the mixed sample of solvent and 10 M nitric acid enclosed in a sample container simultaneously (two phase system sample), the heat quantity per unit solvent weight was almost equivalent for PUREX solvent and TRUEX solvent. 3) The kinetic analysis was carried out, and on the TBP-10 M nitric acid single-phase sample, the activation energy of the reaction was evaluated to be 118 kJ/mol. Its activation energy was approximately equal to 112 kJ/mol by Nichols. The reaction rate constant was calculated, and it was shown that reaction rate constants of PUREX solvent-10 M nitric acid single-phase sample and

  15. Computer Aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Conte, Elisa; Abildskov, Jens

    and computer-aided tools and methods for property prediction and computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) principles. This framework is applicable for solvent selection and design in product design as well as process design. The first module of the framework is dedicated to the solvent selection and design...... in terms of: physical and chemical properties (solvent-pure properties); Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) characteristic (solvent-EHS properties); operational properties (solvent–solute properties). 3. Performing the search. The search step consists of two stages. The first is a generation and property...... identification of solvent candidates using special software ProCAMD and ProPred, which are the implementations of computer-aided molecular techniques. The second consists of assigning the RS-indices following the reaction–solvent and then consulting the known solvent database and identifying the set of solvents...

  16. Canyon solvent cleaning with solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent with a solid adsorbent removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  17. Solvent engineering for high-quality perovskite solar cell with an efficiency approaching 20%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongyue; Wu, Jihuai; Tu, Yongguang; He, Xin; Lan, Zhang; Huang, Miaoliang; Lin, Jianming

    2017-10-01

    The perovskite layer is the most crucial factor for the high performance perovskite solar cells. Based on solvent engineering, we develop a ternary-mixed-solvent method for the growth of high-quality [Cs0.05(MA0.17FA0.83)0.95Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3] cation-anion-mixed perovskite films by introducing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) into the precursor mixed solution. By controlling rapid nucleation and retarding crystal growth via intermediate phase PbI2-NMP (Lewis acid-base adduct), a dense, large grain, pinhole-free and long charge carrier lifetime perovskite film is obtained. By optimizing the precursor solvent composition, the perovskite solar cell achieves an impressive power conversion efficiency of 19.61% under one-sun illumination. The research presented here provides a facile, low-cost and highly efficient way for the preparation of perovskite solar cells.

  18. Recent solvent extraction experience at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; Gray, J.H.; Hodges, M.E.; Holt, D.L.; Macafee, I.M.; Reif, D.J.; Shook, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Tributyl phosphate-based solvent extraction processes have been used at Savannah River for more than 30 years to separate and purify thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. This report summarizes the advancement of solvent extraction technology at Savannah River during the 1980's. Topics that are discussed include equipment improvements, solvent treatment, waste reduction, and an improved understanding of the various chemistries in the process streams entering, within, and leaving the solvent extraction processes

  19. Solvent extraction studies of RERTR silicide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, Anthony P.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium silicide fuels, which are candidate RERTR fuel compositions, may require special considerations in solvent extraction reprocessing. Since Savannah River Plant may be reprocessing RERTR fuels as early as 1985, studies have been conducted at Savannah River Laboratory to demonstrate the solvent extraction behavior of this fuel. Results of solvent extraction studies with both unirradiated and irradiated fuel are presented along with the preliminary RERTR solvent extraction reprocessing flow sheet for Savannah River Plant. (author)

  20. Synthesis of silver nanocubes in a hydrophobic binary organic solvent.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.; Sun, Y. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles with controlled shapes in hydrophobic solvents is challenging because homogeneous nucleation with high rate in these solvents is favorable for the formation of multiply twinned (MT) nanoparticles with spherical morphology. In this work, we report an inhomogeneous nucleation strategy in a binary hydrophobic solvent mediated by dimethyldistearylammonium chloride (DDAC), resulting in the coexistence of single-crystalline Ag polyhedrons and MT Ag quasi-spheres at the beginning of the reaction. In the consequent step, the MT Ag nanoparticles are selectively etched and dissolved through oxidation by NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions (from the Ag precursor, AgNO{sub 3}) with the assistance of Cl{sup -} ions (from DDAC). The dissolved Ag species are then reduced and deposited on the more stable single-crystalline polyhedrons to form Ag nanocubes. Synergy of the oxidative etching of MT particles and growth of single-crystalline particles leads to Ag nanocubes with high purity when the ripening time is long enough. For example, refluxing a mixing solvent of octyl ether and oleylamine containing AgNO{sub 3} (0.02 M) and DDAC (0.03 M) at 260 C for 1 h results in Ag nanocubes with an average edge length of 34 nm and a purity higher than 95%.

  1. Restoring solvent for nuclear separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction separation processes are used to recover usable nuclear materials from spent fuels. These processes involve the use of an extractant/diluent (solvent) for separation of the reusable actinides from unwanted fission products. The most widely used processes employ tributyl phosphate as an extractant diluted with a normal-paraffin hydrocarbon. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. In most processes, the solvent is recycled after cleaning. Solvent cleaning generally involves scrubbing with a sodium carbonate solution. Studies at the Savannah River Laboratory have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove more solvent-soluble binding ligands (formed by solvent degradation), which hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of the solvent with a solid adsorbent after carbonate washing removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycled solvent performance. Laboratory work to establish the advantage of adsorbent cleaning and the development of a full-scale adsorption process is described. The application of this process for cleaning the first cycle solvent of a Savannah River Plant production process is discussed

  2. Solvent Extraction of Furfural From Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent-extraction method reduces energy required to remove furfural produced during acid hydrolysis of biomass. Acid hydrolysis performed in vessel containing both solvents and reacting ingredients. With intimate contact between solvents and aqueous hydrolyis liqour, furfural removed form liquor almost as fast as it forms.

  3. Adaptive Resolution Simulation of MARTINI Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavadlav, Julija; Melo, Manuel N.; Cunha, Ana V.; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Praprotnik, Matej

    We present adaptive resolution dynamics simulations of aqueous and apolar solvents coarse-grained molecular models that are compatible with the MARTINI force field. As representatives of both classes solvents we have chosen liquid water and butane, respectively, at ambient temperature. The solvent

  4. CALmsu contactor for solvent extraction with integrated flowrate meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, I.A.; Shah, B.V.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Mixer-settlers are widely used as contactors in solvent extraction processes. In the nuclear industry, solvent extraction techniques are used for the separation and purification of a range of materials. A major difficulty is faced in the nuclear industry due to the constraints on the design of the equipment and its operation by the presence of radioactive materials in process solutions. The development of CALmsu contactor was necessitated by the requirements of the operating environment in radiochemical plants. This contactor is a mixer-settler designed to use a CALMIX (combined air lifting and mixing device) static mixer. The CALMIX comprises two air lifts which raise the liquid phases to a highly turbulent mixing zone situated above the lifts. Its principle and construction are simple, and it is compact in size. It is a passive device and needs no maintenance. It has proved to be efficient during extensive testing. The simple and efficient CALmsu contactor internals are specially engineered for use of CALMIX mixer. It has been extensively tested in pilot plant for extraction and stripping of uranium, recovery of uranium from thorium by THOREX process and for treatment of degraded solvents. A model for the design of CALmsu contactors has been evolved and based on this model a software for engineering design of CALMIX and CALmsu contactors of throughput between 50 and 3000 lph has been developed. (author)

  5. CALmsu contactor for solvent extraction with integrated flowrate meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, I A; Shah, B V; Theyyunni, T K [Process Engineering and Systems Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Mixer-settlers are widely used as contactors in solvent extraction processes. In the nuclear industry, solvent extraction techniques are used for the separation and purification of a range of materials. A major difficulty is faced in the nuclear industry due to the constraints on the design of the equipment and its operation by the presence of radioactive materials in process solutions. The development of CALmsu contactor was necessitated by the requirements of the operating environment in radiochemical plants. This contactor is a mixer-settler designed to use a CALMIX (combined air lifting and mixing device) static mixer. The CALMIX comprises two air lifts which raise the liquid phases to a highly turbulent mixing zone situated above the lifts. Its principle and construction are simple, and it is compact in size. It is a passive device and needs no maintenance. It has proved to be efficient during extensive testing. The simple and efficient CALmsu contactor internals are specially engineered for use of CALMIX mixer. It has been extensively tested in pilot plant for extraction and stripping of uranium, recovery of uranium from thorium by THOREX process and for treatment of degraded solvents. A model for the design of CALmsu contactors has been evolved and based on this model a software for engineering design of CALMIX and CALmsu contactors of throughput between 50 and 3000 lph has been developed. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Apparatus and methods for regeneration of precipitating solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang; Bonsu, Alexander

    2015-08-25

    A regenerator that can handle rich loaded chemical solvent containing precipitated absorption reaction products is disclosed. The invention is particularly suitable for separating CO.sub.2 from large gas streams that are typical of power plant processes. The internally circulating liquid stream in the regenerator (ICLS regenerator) rapidly heats-up the in-coming rich solvent stream in a downcomer standpipe as well as decreases the overall concentration of CO.sub.2 in the mixed stream. Both these actions lead to dissolution of precipitates. Any remaining precipitate further dissolves as heat is transferred to the mixed solution with an inverted bayonet tube heat exchanger in the riser portion of the regenerator. The evolving CO.sub.2 bubbles in the riser portion of the regenerator lead to substantial gas hold-up and the large density difference between the solutions in the downcomer standpipe and riser portions promotes internal circulation of the liquid stream in the regenerator. As minor amounts of solvent components present in the exit gas stream are condensed and returned back to the regenerator, pure CO.sub.2 gas stream exits the disclosed regenerator and condenser system.

  7. Solvent Effects in the Hydrogenation of 2-Butanone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpa, B. S.; DAgostino, C.; Gladden, L. F.; Hindle, K.; Manyar, H.; McGregor, J.; Li, Ruoyu; Neurock, Matthew; Sinha, N.; Stitt, E. H.; Weber, D.; Zeitler, J. A.; Rooney, D. W.

    2012-03-27

    In liquid-phase reaction systems, the role of the solvent is often limited to the simple requirement of dissolving and/or diluting substrates. However, the correct choice, either pure or mixed, can significantly influence both reaction rate and selectivity. For multi-phase heterogeneously catalysed reactions observed variations may be due to changes in mass transfer rates, reaction mechanism, reaction kinetics, adsorption properties and combinations thereof. The liquid-phase hydrogenation of 2-butanone to 2- butanol over a Ru/SiO2 catalyst, for example, shows such complex rate behaviour when varying water/isopropyl alcohol (IPA) solvent ratios. In this paper, we outline a strategy which combines measured rate data with physical property measurements and molecular simulation in order to gain a more fundamental understanding of mixed solvent effects for this heterogeneously catalysed reaction. By combining these techniques, the observed complex behaviour of rate against water fraction is shown to be a combination of both mass transfer and chemical effects.

  8. New RO TFC Membranes by Interfacial Polymerization in n-Dodecane with Various co-Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hobaib, Abdullah Sulaiman; Al-Suhybani, Mohammed Sulaiman; Al-Sheetan, Khalid Mohammed; Mousa, Hasan; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi

    2016-04-29

    The objective of this research is to prepare and characterize a new and highly efficient polyamide TFC RO membrane by interfacial polymerization in dodecane solvent mixed with co-solvents. Three co-solvents were tested namely; acetone, ethyl acetate, and diethyl ether of concentration of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 wt %. The modified membranes were characterized by SEM, EDX, AFM and contact angle techniques. The results showed that addition of co-solvent results in a decrease in the roughness, pore size and thickness of the produced membranes. However, as the concentration of the co-solvent increases the pore size of the membranes gets larger. Among the three co-solvents tested, acetone was found to result in membranes with the largest pore size and contact angle followed by diethyl ether then ethyl acetate. Measured contact angle increases as the concentration of the co-solvent increases reaching a constant value except for ethyl acetate where it was found to drop. Investigating flux and salt rejection by the formulated membranes showed that higher flux was attained when acetone was used as a co-solvent followed by diethyl ether then ethyl acetate. However, the highest salt rejection was achieved with diethyl ether.

  9. The Solvent Selection framework: solvents for organic synthesis, separation processes and ionic-organic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sansonetti, Sascha; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic integrated framework for solvent selection and solvent design. The framework is divided into several modules, which can tackle specific problems in various solvent-based applications. In particular, three modules corresponding to the following solvent selection pr...

  10. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  11. Biodegradation of Chlorinated Solvents: Reactions near DNAPL and Enzyme Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, P. L.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Criddle, Craig, S.

    2003-12-11

    three to five times, leading to a more rapid clean-up of the DNAPL zone. The most favored electron donor to add is one which partitions well with the chlorinated solvent or can be concentrated near it. Unfortunately, an ideal electron donor, such as vegetable oil, is difficult to introduce and mix with DNAPL in the ground, doing this properly remains an engineering challenge. Numerical model studies have indicated that several factors may significantly influence the rate and extent of enhancement, including the inhibitory effects of PCE and cDCE, the level of ED concentration, DNAPL configuration, and competition for ED. Such factors need to be considered when contemplating engineered DNAPL bioremediation. Pseudomonas stuzeri KC is an organism that transforms CT to carbon dioxide and chloride without the formation of the hazardous intermediate, chloroform. This is accomplished by production and secretion of a molecule called PDTC. This study was direct ed towards determining how PDTC works. Cu (II) at a ratio of 1:1 Cu to PDTC was found to result in the most rapid CT transformation, confirming that the PDTC-Cu complex is both a reactant and a catalyst in CT transformation. CT degradation requires that the PDTC be in a reduced form, which is generated by contact with cell components. Fe(II) inhibits CT transformation by PDTC. Studies indicated that this inhibition is enhanced by some compound or factor in the supernatant with molecular weight greater than 10,000 Da. We have made progress in determining what this factor might be, but have not yet been able to identify it. In related studies, we found that CT transformation by another organism, Shewanella oneidensis MR1, also involves an excreted factor, but this factor is different from PDTC and results in chloroform transformation as an intermediate. Our studies have indicated that this factor is similar to vitamin K2, and we have also confirmed that vitamin K2 does transform C T into chloroform.

  12. Biodegradation of Chlorinated Solvents: Reactions near DNAPL and Enzyme Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, P. L.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Criddle, Craig S.

    2003-01-01

    three to five times, leading to a more rapid clean-up of the DNAPL zone. The most favored electron donor to add is one which partitions well with the chlorinated solvent or can be concentrated near it. Unfortunately, an ideal electron donor, such as vegetable oil, is difficult to introduce and mix with DNAPL in the ground, doing this properly remains an engineering challenge. Numerical model studies have indicated that several factors may significantly influence the rate and extent of enhancement, including the inhibitory effects of PCE and cDCE, the level of ED concentration, DNAPL configuration, and competition for ED. Such factors need to be considered when contemplating engineered DNAPL bioremediation. Pseudomonas stuzeri KC is an organism that transforms CT to carbon dioxide and chloride without the formation of the hazardous intermediate, chloroform. This is accomplished by production and secretion of a molecule called PDTC. This study was direct ed towards determining how PDTC works. Cu (II) at a ratio of 1:1 Cu to PDTC was found to result in the most rapid CT transformation, confirming that the PDTC-Cu complex is both a reactant and a catalyst in CT transformation. CT degradation requires that the PDTC be in a reduced form, which is generated by contact with cell components. Fe(II) inhibits CT transformation by PDTC. Studies indicated that this inhibition is enhanced by some compound or factor in the supernatant with molecular weight greater than 10,000 Da. We have made progress in determining what this factor might be, but have not yet been able to identify it. In related studies, we found that CT transformation by another organism, Shewanella oneidensis MR1, also involves an excreted factor, but this factor is different from PDTC and results in chloroform transformation as an intermediate. Our studies have indicated that this factor is similar to vitamin K2, and we have also confirmed that vitamin K2 does transform C T into chloroform

  13. Insecticide solvents: interference with insecticidal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F

    1977-06-10

    Several commercial solvent mixtures commonly used as insecticide carriers in spray formulations increase by more than threefold the microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro N-methylaniline in midgut preparations of southern army-worm (Spodoptera eridania) larvae exposed orally to the test solvents. Under laboratory conditions, the same solvent mixtures exhibit a protective action against the in vivo toxicity of the insecticide carbaryl to the larvae. The data are discussed with respect to possible solvent-insecticide interactions occurring under field conditions and, more broadly, to potential toxicological hazards of these solvents to humans.

  14. Organic solvents in electromembrane extraction: recent insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2016-01-01

    the introduction. Under the influence of an electrical field, EME is based on electrokinetic migration of the analytes through a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which is an organic solvent immobilized in the pores of the polymeric membrane, and into the acceptor solution. Up to date, close to 150 research...... articles with focus on EME have been published. The current review summarizes the performance of EME with different organic solvents and discusses several criteria for efficient solvents in EME. In addition, the authors highlight their personal perspective about the most promising organic solvents for EME...... and have indicated that more fundamental work is required to investigate and discover new organic solvents for EME....

  15. Effect of solvent on crystallization behavior of xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hongxun; Hou, Baohong; Wang, Jing-Kang; Lin, Guangyu

    2006-04-01

    Effect of organic solvents content on crystallization behavior of xylitol was studied. Solubility and crystallization kinetics of xylitol in methanol-water system were experimentally determined. It was found that the solubility of xylitol at various methanol content all increases with increase of temperature. But it decreases when increasing methanol content at constant temperature. Based on the theory of population balance, the nucleation and growth rates of xylitol in methanol-water mixed solvents were calculated by moments method. From a series of experimental population density data of xylitol gotten from a batch-operated crystallizer, parameters of crystal nucleation and growth rate equations at different methanol content were got by the method of nonlinear least-squares. By analyzing, it was found that the content of methanol had an apparent effect on nucleation and growth rate of xylitol. At constant temperature, the nucleation and growth rate of xylitol all decrease with increase of methanol content.

  16. Experiment on the treatment of waste extraction solvent from the molybdenum-99 process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsien-Ming Hsiao; Chang-Liang Hu; Kuang-Li Chien; Wen-Cheng Lee; Tsong-Yang Wei [Division of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-7, Longtan 32546 Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    In the Mo-99 (Molybdenum-99) isotope extraction test process for radiopharmaceutical applications, organic solvent is used to extract Mo-99 from an irradiated UO{sub 2} dissolution. The extraction solvent was stored when the test work was stopped. A total of about 120 liters of waste solvent was stored at INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan). The extraction solvent consisted of 5% di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and kerosene. The radionuclides found in the waste solvent include Cs-137, Am-241, Tc-99, and Sr-90, which give off gross alpha and beta radioactivity of 1898 and 471 Bq/ml, respectively. This study aims to remove radionuclides from the waste solvent using sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide solutions in different concentrations. After mixing the waste solvent with the alkaline solution followed by settling, a third phase other than organic and aqueous phase appeared which is expected due to the saponification reaction. The experimental results showed that increasing the number of washing and the alkaline solution concentration could enhance the radionuclides removal rate. An optimal removal method was proposed using 2 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution twice followed by 1 M NaOH solution one time for the third phase generated early in the mixing stages. The remaining gross alpha and beta radioactivity of the treated organic solvent was 2 and 3 Bq/ml, respectively. The treated solvent could be stabilized by ashing at 500 deg. C and then immobilized. The alkaline solution would be neutralized by hydrochloric or nitric acid and then treated using a variety of adsorbents or bone char via adsorption to remove nuclides to meet the wastewater discharge limitation. (authors)

  17. Assessment of Relationship between Spontaneous Abortion and Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, some studies indicate the adverse effects of exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents on the reproductive system of females. This study aimed to assess the relationship between spontaneous abortion with occupational exposure to organic solvents in pharmaceutical industry. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study which was carried out in 2010 in one of the pharmaceutical factories located in the suburbs of Tehran. During the study, married women who were working in the factory laboratory units and were exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with married women who were working in the packing units of the factory without occupational exposure to organic solvents. Frequency of spontaneous abortion and duration of pregnancy were assessed in both two groups. Collected data were analyzed with the SPSS software using t-test, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Results: In the present study, the frequency of spontaneous abortion in employees with exposure to organic solvents mixture was 10.7%. This study showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, there was a significant correlation between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture and this correlation increased with increasing levels of exposure to organic solvents. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between occupational exposure to mixed organic solvents and waiting time to become pregnant (TTP. Furthermore, this study showed that even after adjustment for confounding variables, shift workers were significantly more affected by spontaneous abortion compared to daytime workers (P < 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, since there is probability of spontaneous abortion resulting from occupational exposure to various chemicals including organic solvents, review of the status of occupational exposure of workers can be helpful

  18. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  19. Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection...

  20. Theory of polyelectrolytes in solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitanvis, Shirish M

    2003-12-01

    Using a continuum description, we account for fluctuations in the ionic solvent surrounding a Gaussian, charged chain and derive an effective short-ranged potential between the charges on the chain. This potential is repulsive at short separations and attractive at longer distances. The chemical potential can be derived from this potential. When the chemical potential is positive, it leads to a meltlike state. For a vanishingly low concentration of segments, this state exhibits scaling behavior for long chains. The Flory exponent characterizing the radius of gyration for long chains is calculated to be approximately 0.63, close to the classical value obtained for second order phase transitions. For short chains, the radius of gyration varies linearly with N, the chain length, and is sensitive to the parameters in the interaction potential. The linear dependence on the chain length N indicates a stiff behavior. The chemical potential associated with this interaction changes sign, when the screening length in the ionic solvent exceeds a critical value. This leads to condensation when the chemical potential is negative. In this state, it is shown using the mean-field approximation that spherical and toroidal condensed shapes can be obtained. The thickness of the toroidal polyelectrolyte is studied as a function of the parameters of the model, such as the ionic screening length. The predictions of this theory should be amenable to experimental verification.

  1. Effect of Exposure to a Mixture of Organic Solvents on Hearing Thresholds in Petrochemical Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Loukzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise.  In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise.   Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups.   Results: The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB. We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss.   Conclusion:  This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers’ hearing threshold in audiometry tests.

  2. Effect of exposure to a mixture of organic solvents on hearing thresholds in petrochemical industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukzadeh, Ziba; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Yazdi, Zohreh; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2014-10-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise. In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups. The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB). We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss. This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years) to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers' hearing threshold in audiometry tests.

  3. Variation of the solvation number of Eu(III) in mixed system of methanol and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganuma, H.; Arisaka, M.; Omori, T.; Satoh, I.; Choppin, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The stability constants (β 1 ) of the monofluoride complex of Eu(III) have been determined in mixed solvents of methanol and water at a 0.10 M ionic strength using a solvent extraction technique. The values of ln β 1 increase as the mole fraction of methanol in the mixed solvent system increases. The variation in the stability constants can be correlated with both the large effect due to the solvation of F and the small effect due to both (1) the solvation of cations in connection with complexation and (2) the electrostatic attraction between Eu 3+ and F - . Based on the variation in the sum of (1) and (2) in water and the mixed solvent solutions, it was determined that the coordination number (CN) of Eu(III) varied from a mixture of CN = 9 and 8 to CN = 8 at about a 0.03 mole fraction of methanol in the mixed solvent. (orig.)

  4. Sustainable development of gree solvent separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Lisickov, Kiril; Fidancevska, Emilija; Grujic, Radoslav; Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Kuvendziev, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Solvents defi ne a major part of the environmental performance of processes in the chemical industry and impact on cost, safety and health issues. The idea of green solvents expresses the goal to minimize the environmental impact resulting from the use of solvents in chemical production. In spite of conventional separation methods, precise process green technologies are based on the application of modern processes and process equipment as well as control and management...

  5. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  6. Canyon solvent cleaning with activated alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents recent work at SRL concerning the cleaning of solvent extraction solvent used at SRP. The paper explains why we undertook the work, and some laboratory studies on two approaches to solvent cleaning, namely extended carbonate washing and use of solid adsorbents. The paper then discusses scale-up of the preferred method and the results of the full-scale cleaning. 19 figs

  7. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  8. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  9. Aminosilicone solvent recovery methods and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiry, Irina Pavlovna; Perry, Robert James; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Farnum, Rachel Lizabeth; Genovese, Sarah Elizabeth

    2018-02-13

    The present invention is directed to aminosilicone solvent recovery methods and systems. The methods and systems disclosed herein may be used to recover aminosilicone solvent from a carbon dioxide containing vapor stream, for example, a vapor stream that leaves an aminosilicone solvent desorber apparatus. The methods and systems of the invention utilize a first condensation process at a temperature from about 80.degree. C. to about 150.degree. C. and a second condensation process at a temperature from about 5.degree. C. to about 75.degree. C. The first condensation process yields recovered aminosilicone solvent. The second condensation process yields water.

  10. A Study of Parameters Affecting the Solvent Extraction-Flocculation Process of Used Lubricating Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Qasim Hussein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of operating variables on, the percentage of removed sludge (PSR obtained during re-refining of 15W-40 Al-Durra spent lubricant by solvent extraction-flocculation treatment method. Binary solvents were used such as, Heavy Naphtha (H.N.: MEK (N:MEK, H.N. : n-Butanol (N:n-But, and H.N. : Iso-Butanol (N:Iso:But. The studied variables were mixing speed (300-900, rpm, mixing time (15-60, min, and operating temperature (2540, oC. This study showed that the studied operating variables have effects where, increasing the mixing time up to 45 min for H.N.: MEK, H.N.: n-Butanol and 30 min for H.N.: Iso-Butanol increased the PSR, after that percentage was decreased; increasing the mixing speed for all the studied solvents up to 700 rpm increased the PSR, after that the percentage was decreased, while increasing the operating temperature decreased the PSR for all the solvents. This study has resulted in reasonably accurate multivariate process correlation that relates the removed sludge percentage to the process variables. The determination coefficients (

  11. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Siang Teh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v. Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH•, 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05 concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems.

  12. Solvent anode for plutonium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Fife, K.W.; Christensen, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technique to allow complete oxidation of plutonium from the anode during plutonium electrorefining. This will eliminate the generation of a ''spent'' anode heel which requires further treatment for recovery. Our approach is to employ a solvent metal in the anode to provide a liquid anode pool throughout electrorefining. We use molten salts and metals in ceramic crucibles at 700 0 C. Our goal is to produce plutonium metal at 99.9% purity with oxidation and transfer of more than 98% of the impure plutonium feed metal from the anode into the salt and product phases. We have met these criteria in experiments on the 100 to 1000 g scale. We plan to scale our operations to 4 kg of feed plutonium and to optimize the process parameters

  13. Quantitation of buried contamination by use of solvents. [degradation of silicone polymers by amine solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, S. P.; Hsiao, Y. C.; Hill, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Spore recovery form cured silicone potting compounds using amine solvents to degrade the cured polymers was investigated. A complete list of solvents and a description of the effect of each on two different silicone polymers is provided.

  14. Cleanup of 7.5% tributyl phosphate/n-paraffin solvent-extraction solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    The HM process at the Savannah River Plant uses 7.5% tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials which influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove binding ligands which hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM process first cycle solvent is discussed

  15. Implicit solvent simulations of DNA and DNA-protein complexes: Agreement with explicit solvent vs experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chocholoušová, Jana; Feig, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 34 (2006), s. 17240-17251 ISSN 1520-6106 Keywords : implicit solvent * explicit solvent * protein DNA complex Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.115, year: 2006

  16. Environment effects on the optical properties of some fluorinated poly(oxadiazole ether)s in binary solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homocianu, Mihaela; Ipate, Alina Mirela; Hamciuc, Corneliu; Airinei, Anton

    2015-01-01

    The solvatochromic behavior of some fluorinated poly(oxadiazole ether)s was studied using UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in neat solvents and in their solvent mixtures at several ratios of cosolvents. Quantitative investigations of the spectral changes caused by solvent polarity were discussed using the Lippert‐Mataga, Bakhshiev and Kawski–Chamma–Viallet polarity functions. Repartitioning of cosolvent between local (solvation shell) and bulk phase was investigated by means of a solvatochromic shift method in chloroform–N,N-dimethylformamide (CHCl 3 /DMF) and chloroform–dimethyl sulfoxide (CHCl 3 /DMSO) solvent mixtures. Solvatochromic properties in the binary solvent environments were predominantly influenced by the acidity and basicity of the solvent systems. The fluorescence quenching process by nitrobenzene was characterized by Stern–Volmer plots which display a positive deviation from linearity. This was explained by static and dynamic quenching mechanisms. - Highlights: • Solvatochromic behavior in solvent mixtures was studied. • Stokes shift and local environments in binary mixed solvent were discussed. • Repartitioning of cosolvent between local and bulk phase in solvent mixture has been investigated. • Fluorescence intensity was quenched in presence of nitrobenzene

  17. Molten salt destruction of rubber and chlorinated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Wilder, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    Acceptable methods for the treatment of mixed wastes are not currently available. The authors have investigated Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) as an alternative to incineration of mixed wastes. MSD differs from incineration in several ways: there is no evidence of open flames in MSD, the containment of actinides is accomplished by chemical means (wetting and dissolution), the operating temperature of MSD is much lower (700--590 C vs 1,000--1,200 C) thus lowering the volatility of actinides. Furthermore, no acid gases are released from MSD. These advantages provide the main incentive for developing MSD as an alternative to incineration. The authors have demonstrated the viability of the MSD process to cleanly destroy rubber and chlorinated solvents

  18. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Iron(II-Iron(III) Electron-Exchange Reaction in Mixed Solvent Media; Cinetique et Mecanisme de l'Echange d'Electrons entre Fer (II) et Fer (III), dans des Melanges de Solvants; Ikinetika i mekhanizm reaktsii ehlektronnogo obmena zheleza (I) - zheleza (III) v smeshannoj rastvoryayushchej srede; Cinetica y Mecanismo del Intercambio de Electrones Entre Fe{sup II} Y Fe{sup lII} en Mezclas de Disolventes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, R. A. [Arthur D. Little, Inc. Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    The specific reaction rate constants of theFe{sup II}-Fe{sup III} electron-exchange reaction have been measured at various temperatures, acidities, and ionic strengths in water-acetone, water-methanol, and water-ethanol media. The reaction rate markedly diminishes as the water concentration in the last system decreases, approaching zero as the water concentration approaches zero. The activation energy of the exchange is the same in mixed solvent as in aqueous solution. The effective dielectric constant which the reactants ''see'' continues to be that of pure water even in water-ethanol solutions quite dilute in water. Alterations in composition of the solvation sheath of Fe{sup III} in mixed media are reflected in both electron-exchange and spectroscopic measurements. These findings in mixed solvent media support the water-bridging theory of electron exchange. (author) [French] Les constantes de vitesse specifiques de l'echange d'electrons entre Fe{sup II} et Fe{sup III} ont ete mesurees a differentes temperatures et pour differentes acidites et forces ioniques, dans des melanges d'eau et d'acetone, d'eau et de methanol et d'eau et d'ethanol. Dans le dernier systeme, la vitesse d'echange diminue considerablement a mesure que la concentration en eau decroit, et tend vers zero en meme temps que cette concentration. L'energie d'activation de l'echange est la meme dans un melange de solvants et dans une solution aqueuse. La constante dielectrique effective qui intervient entre les corps reagissants reste celle de l'eau pure, meme dans des solutions concentrees d'ethanol dans l'eau. Les changements de composition de la gaine de solvatation de Fe{sup III} dans les melanges se manifestent a la fois dans les mesures de l'echange d'electrons et dans les mesures spectroscopiques. Ces observations viennent confirmer la theorie de l'echange d'electrons fondee sur le pontage par l'eau. (author) [Spanish] El autor ha medido las constantes de velocidad especificas de la reaccion

  19. The effect of solvent component on the discharge performance of Lithium-sulfur cell containing various organic electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok; Jung, Yongju; Lim, Hong S.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of solvent component on the discharge performance of lithium-sulfur (Li/S) cell and the optimal composition of ternary electrolyte for the improved discharge performance of the cell have been investigated. The capacity value and capacity stability with cycle are dependent on the nature of solvent as well as the composition of mixed solvent. The change trend of discharge performance as a function of content of each solvent component is studied. Capacity value increases as the 1,3-dioxolane (DOX) content decreases. Average discharge voltage shows larger value when the 1,2-dimethoxy ethane (DME) content is small. Finally, we have obtained the optimal solvent composition by using a statistical method

  20. Solvent-vapor-assisted imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voicu, Nicoleta E.; Ludwigs, Sabine; Crossland, Edward J. W.; Andrew, Piers; Steiner, Ullrich

    2007-01-01

    Sub-micrometer features are replicated into high-molecular-weight polymer resists by using solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (see figure). By swelling the polymer in a controlled solvent-vapor atmosphere, millibar pressures and ambient temperatures are sufficient to achieve high-fidelity

  1. Into the depths of deep eutectic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, N.; Alves da Rocha, M.A.; Kroon, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been successfully tested in a wide range of applications; however, their high price and complicated synthesis make them infeasible for large scale implementation. A decade ago, a new generation of solvents so called deep eutectic solvents (DESs) was reported for the first

  2. Remediation of Contaminated Soils by Solvent Flushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Jessup, Ron E.; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Wood, A. Lynn

    1994-01-01

    Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. This technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, and increases the

  3. Structuring of polymer solutions upon solvent evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, C.; van der Schoot, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102140618; Michels, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of solution-cast, phase-separated polymers becomes finer with increasing solvent evaporation rate. We address this observation theoretically for a model polymer where demixing is induced by steady solvent evaporation. In contrast to what is the case for a classical, thermal quench

  4. Improvement of solvents for chemical decontamination: nickel ferrites removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, Carlos A.; Morando, Pedro J.; Blesa, Miguel A.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are usually included in commercial solvents for the chemical cleaning and decontamination of metal surfaces from the oxide layers grown and/or deposited from high temperature water by corrosive process. In particular oxalic acid is included in second path of AP-Citrox method. However, in some cases, their use shows low efficiency. This fact is attributed to the special passivity of the mixed oxides as nickel ferrites. This work reports a kinetic study of dissolution of a synthetic nickel ferrite (NiFe 2 O 4 ) confronted with simple oxides (NiO and Fe 2 O 3 ) in mineral acids and oxalic acid. The dissolution factor and reaction rate were determined in several conditions (reactive concentrations, pH and added ferrous ions). Experimental data of dissolution (with and without Fe(II) added) show a congruent kinetic regime. Pure nickel oxide (NiO) is rather resistant to the attack by oxalic acid solutions, and ferrous ions do not accelerate dissolution. In fact, nickel oxide dissolves better by oxidative attack that takes advantage of the higher lability of Ni 3+ . It may be concluded that oxalic acid operates to dissolve iron, and the ensuing disruption of the solid framework accelerates the release of nickel. Our results point to use more reactive solvents in iron from mixed oxides and to the possibility of using one stage decontamination method. (author)

  5. Solvent distillations studies for a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, C.; Guillaume, B.

    1989-01-01

    The substantial amounts of solvent used in large reprocessing plants are such that considerable care must be paid to solvent management to limit the production of organic wastes. The installation of intensive treatment by chemical regeneration serves to increase the service life of the solvent. General solvent management, combined with a distillation unit under reduced pressure also helps to recycle the two components of the solvent at a low activity level. Distillation also serves to remove the heavy degradation products that are generally responsible for poor hydraulic behavior and for the holdup of radioactive products such as plutonium, zirconium and ruthenium. From the safety standpoint, the flashpoint of the distilled diluent tends to rise. It can therefore be recycled without risk

  6. Method of decomposing radioactive organic solvent wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uki, Kazuo; Ichihashi, Toshio; Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tatsuaki

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To decompose radioactive organic solvent wastes or radioactive hydrocarbon solvents separated therefrom into organic materials under moderate conditions, as well as greatly decrease the amount of secondary wastes generated. Method: Radioactive organic solvent wastes comprising an organic phosphoric acid ester ingredient and a hydrocarbon ingredient as a diluent therefor, or radioactive hydrocarbon solvents separated therefrom are oxidatively decomposed by hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution of phosphoric acid metal salts finally into organic materials to perform decomposing treatment for the radioactive organic solvent wastes. The decomposing reaction is carried out under relatively moderate conditions and cause less burden to facilities or the likes. Further, since the decomposed liquid after the treatment can be reused for the decomposing reaction as a catalyst solution secondary wastes can significantly be decreased. (Yoshihara, H.)

  7. Mixed parentage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Appel, Helene; Singla, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increase in cross border intimate relationships and children of mixed parentage, there is little mention or scholarship about them in the area of childhood and migrancy in the Nordic countries. The international literature implies historical pathologisation, contestation and current...... of identity formation in the . They position themselves as having an “in-between” identity or “ just Danes” in their every day lives among friends, family, and during leisure activities. Thus a new paradigm is evolving away- from the pathologisation of mixed children, simplified one-sided categories...

  8. The chemistry of nonaqueous solvents v.4 solution phenomena and aprotic solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Lagowski, J J

    1976-01-01

    The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents, Volume IV: Solution Phenomena and Aprotic Solvents focuses on the chemistry of nonaqueous solvents, with emphasis on solution phenomena and aprotic solvents such as tetramethylurea, inorganic acid chlorides, cyclic carbonates, and sulfolane. This book is organized into seven chapters and begins with an overview of the theory of electrical conductivity and elementary experimental considerations, along with some of the interesting research on nonaqueous solvents. It then turns to a discussion on hydrogen bonding phenomena in nonaqueous systems as probed

  9. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  10. A new decomposition-based computer-aided molecular/mixture design methodology for the design of optimal solvents and solvent mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunanithi, A.T.; Achenie, L.E.K.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel computer-aided molecular/mixture design (CAMD) methodology for the design of optimal solvents and solvent mixtures. The molecular/mixture design problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model in which a performance objective is to be optim......This paper presents a novel computer-aided molecular/mixture design (CAMD) methodology for the design of optimal solvents and solvent mixtures. The molecular/mixture design problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model in which a performance objective...... is to be optimized subject to structural, property, and process constraints. The general molecular/mixture design problem is divided into two parts. For optimal single-compound design, the first part is solved. For mixture design, the single-compound design is first carried out to identify candidates...... and then the second part is solved to determine the optimal mixture. The decomposition of the CAMD MINLP model into relatively easy to solve subproblems is essentially a partitioning of the constraints from the original set. This approach is illustrated through two case studies. The first case study involves...

  11. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  12. Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    negative (right panel c) and the kinetic energy dissipation is larger than that expected from meterological forcing alone (right panel a). This is...10.1002/grl.50919. Shcherbina, A. et al., 2014, The LatMix Summer Campaign: Submesoscale Stirring in the Upper Ocean., Bull. American Meterological

  13. Thermal decomposition of organic solvent with nitric acid in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Tadao; Nishio, Gunji; Takada, Junichi; Tukamoto, Michio; Watanabe, Kouji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Miyata, Sadaichirou

    1995-02-01

    Since a thermal decomposition of organic solvent containing TBP (tributyl phosphate) with nitric acid and heavy metal nitrates is an exothermic reaction, it is possible to cause an explosive decomposition of TBP-complex materials formed by a nitration between the solvent and nitric acid, if the solvent involving TBP-complex is heated upto a thermal limit in an evaporator to concentrate a fuel liquid solution from the extraction process in the reprocessing plant. In JAERI, the demonstration test for explosive decomposition of TBP-complex by the nitration was performed to elucidate the safety margin of the evaporator in the event of hypothetical explosion under auspices of the Science and Technology Agency. The demonstration test was carried out by heating TBP/n-dodecane solvent mixed with nitric acid and uranium nitrate. In the test, the thermal decomposition behavior of the solvent was examined, and also a kinematic reaction constant and a heat formation of the TBP-complex decomposition were measured by the test. In the paper, a safety analysis of a model evaporator was conducted during accidental conditions under the explosive decomposition of the solvent. (author).

  14. Strongly Iridescent Hybrid Photonic Sensors Based on Self-Assembled Nanoparticles for Hazardous Solvent Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Sato

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Facile detection and the identification of hazardous organic solvents are essential for ensuring global safety and avoiding harm to the environment caused by industrial wastes. Here, we present a simple method for the fabrication of silver-coated monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticle photonic structures that are embedded into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS matrix. These hybrid materials exhibit a strong green iridescence with a reflectance peak at 550 nm that originates from the close-packed arrangement of the nanoparticles. This reflectance peak measured under Wulff-Bragg conditions displays a 20 to 50 nm red shift when the photonic sensors are exposed to five commonly employed and highly hazardous organic solvents. These red-shifts correlate well with PDMS swelling ratios using the various solvents, which suggests that the observable color variations result from an increase in the photonic crystal lattice parameter with a similar mechanism to the color modulation of the chameleon skin. Dynamic reflectance measurements enable the possibility of clearly identifying each of the tested solvents. Furthermore, as small amounts of hazardous solvents such as tetrahydrofuran can be detected even when mixed with water, the nanostructured solvent sensors we introduce here could have a major impact on global safety measures as innovative photonic technology for easily visualizing and identifying the presence of contaminants in water.

  15. Ion and solvent diffusion and ion conduction of PC-DEC and PC-DME binary solvent electrolytes of LiN(SO2CF3)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Aihara, Yuichi

    2004-01-01

    Two binary mixed solvent systems typically used for lithium batteries were studied by measuring the self-diffusion coefficients of the solvent, lithium ion and anion, independently by using the multi-nuclear pulsed field-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) 1 H, 7 Li and 19 F NMR method. One system was propylene carbonate (PC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) system and the other binary system was PC and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), and the lithium salt used was LiN(SO 2 CF 3 ) 2 (LiTFSI). The relative ratio of the PC was changed from zero (pure DME and DEC) to 100% (pure PC) in the DME-PC and the DEC-PC systems, respectively. The self-diffusion coefficients of the solvents were measured with and without the lithium salt, and the two solvents had almost the same diffusion coefficient in the DEC-PC system, while DME diffused faster than PC in the DME-PC system. In the electrolytes the solvents diffused the fastest, followed by the anion with the lithium ion diffusing the slowest. The degree of ion dissociation was estimated for each electrolyte by comparing the ionic conductivities estimated from the ion diffusion and those measured directly by the electrochemical method

  16. Fabrication of fullerene nano-strucutres in mixed films and devices utilizing fullerene nano-structures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Yufei

    2017-04-06

    Embodiments provide methods for controlling crystallization of fullerene compounds in mixed films comprising one or more polymers. Methods can include depositing fullerene mixed films comprising one or more polymers on crystalline fullerene substrates and annealing the deposited mixed films. Methods can further include one or more of exposing the annealed mixed film to UV light, and washing the annealed mixed film with a solvent. Fullerene compounds can include one or more of PCBM, PCBNB, and PCBA.

  17. Organic Solvent Tolerant Lipases and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivika Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are a group of enzymes naturally endowed with the property of performing reactions in aqueous as well as organic solvents. The esterification reactions using lipase(s could be performed in water-restricted organic media as organic solvent(s not only improve(s the solubility of substrate and reactant in reaction mixture but also permit(s the reaction in the reverse direction, and often it is easy to recover the product in organic phase in two-phase equilibrium systems. The use of organic solvent tolerant lipase in organic media has exhibited many advantages: increased activity and stability, regiospecificity and stereoselectivity, higher solubility of substrate, ease of products recovery, and ability to shift the reaction equilibrium toward synthetic direction. Therefore the search for organic solvent tolerant enzymes has been an extensive area of research. A variety of fatty acid esters are now being produced commercially using immobilized lipase in nonaqueous solvents. This review describes the organic tolerance and industrial application of lipases. The main emphasis is to study the nature of organic solvent tolerant lipases. Also, the potential industrial applications that make lipases the biocatalysts of choice for the present and future have been presented.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF THE SOLVENT ON THE THERMODYNAMICS OF ION ASSOCIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Chumak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Some approaches which allow to divide thermodynamic functions of the ion associationprocess in two components have been developed. The first component belongs to the process, the second oneis caused by the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity of the solvent. The theory is confirmedby numerous examples of the ion association process of different electrolytes in the binary mixed solvents.Keywords: covalent part of the constant of ionic association, electrostatic part of the constant of ionicassociation, enthalpy of the chemical equilibria in solution, enthropy of the chemical equilibria in solution,ionic association, ionic equilibrias, the equilibrium constant.

  19. Microwave-Assisted Solvent-Free Synthesis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A microporous metal-organic framework (MOF, cobalt-based zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67, was synthesized by the combination of solvent-free hand-mill and microwave irradiation, without any organic solvent and within 30 minutes. The hand-milling process can mix the reactants well by the virtue of high moisture/water absorption capacity of reactants. In addition, the outstanding electromagnetic wave absorption capability of cobalt leads to efficient conversion to MOF structures before carbonization. The obtained ZIF-67 possesses high surface area and micropore volume.

  20. Surface functionalization of SBA-15 by the solvent-free method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yimeng; Zheng Yingwu; Zhu Jianhua

    2004-01-01

    A solvent-free technique was employed for fast modification of mesoporous materials. Copper, chromium and iron oxide species could be highly dispersed in SBA-15 by manually grinding the corresponding precursor salts and the host, followed by calcinations for the first time. This method is more effective to spontaneously disperse oxide species onto SBA-15 than impregnation, probably forming monolayer or submonolayer dispersion of salts or oxides. Besides, Cr(VI) species dominate in the mixing sample while Cr(III) species dominate in the impregnation one. In the temperature programmed surface reaction of nitrosamines, the sample prepared by solvent-free method showed a higher catalytic activity than the impregnation one

  1. Enzymatic Synthesis of Esculin Ester in Ionic Liquids Buffered with Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yifan; Guo, Zheng; Lue, Bena-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The enzymatic esterification of esculin catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) was carried out in ionic liquid (IL)-organic solvent mixed systems in comparison with individual systems. The reaction behaviors in IL-organic solvents were systemically evaluated using acetone as a model...... in IL-acetone mixtures made it possible to improve the solubility of esculin while the effects of ILs on lipase activity were minimized. Following the benignity of ILs to lipase activity, the anions of ILs were ranked in the order as [Tf2N](-) > [PF6](-) > [BF4](-) > [CF3SO3](-) > [C4F9SO3](-) > [TAF...

  2. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C 30 H 62 ) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ( 1 H and 2 H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  3. Solvent Handbook Database System user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Industrial solvents and cleaners are used in maintenance facilities to remove wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold release, and various other contaminants from parts, and to prepare the surface of various metals. However, because of growing environmental and worker-safety concerns, government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals and have restricted the use of halogenated hydrocarbons because they affect the ozone layer and may cause cancer. The Solvent Handbook Database System lets you view information on solvents and cleaners, including test results on cleaning performance, air emissions, recycling and recovery, corrosion, and non-metals compatibility. Company and product safety information is also available

  4. Solvent extraction in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, H.; Naylor, A.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction techniques have been used in the uranium nuclear fuel cycle in three main areas; concentration of uranium from ore leach liquor, purification of ore concentrates and fuel reprocessing. Solvent extraction has been extended to the removal of transuranic elements from active waste liquor, the recovery of uranium from natural sources and the recovery of noble metals from active waste liquor. Schemes are presented for solvent extraction of uranium using the Amex or Dapex process; spent fuel reprocessing and the Purex process. Recent and future developments of the techniques are outlined. (UK)

  5. Chemical reactions in solvents and melts

    CERN Document Server

    Charlot, G

    1969-01-01

    Chemical Reactions in Solvents and Melts discusses the use of organic and inorganic compounds as well as of melts as solvents. This book examines the applications in organic and inorganic chemistry as well as in electrochemistry. Organized into two parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general properties and the different types of reactions, including acid-base reactions, complex formation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. This text then describes the properties of inert and active solvents. Other chapters consider the proton transfer reactions in

  6. Spreadsheet algorithm for stagewise solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    The material balance and equilibrium equations for solvent extraction processes have been combined with computer spreadsheets in a new way so that models for very complex multicomponent multistage operations can be setup and used easily. A part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. TRUEX process solvent cleanup with solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan; Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Solid sorbents, alumina, silica gel, and Amberlyst A-26 have been tested for the cleanup of degraded TRUEX-NPH solvent. A sodium carbonate scrub alone does not completely remove acidic degradation products from highly degraded solvent and cannot restore the stripping performance of the solvent. By following the carbonate scrub with either neutral alumina or Amberlyst A-26 anion exchange resin, the performance of the TRUEX-NPH is substantially restored. The degraded TRUEX-NPH was characterized before and after treatment by supercritical fluid chromatography. Its performance was evaluated by americium distribution ratios, phase-separation times, and lauric acid distribution coefficients. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.; Srinuttrakul, W.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction process to produce higher purity uranium from yellowcake was studied in laboratory scale. Yellowcake, which the uranium purity is around 70% and the main impurity is thorium, was obtained from monazite processing pilot plant of Rare Earth Research and Development Center in Thailand. For uranium re-extraction process, the extractant chosen was Tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. It was found that the optimum concentration of TBP was 10% in kerosene and the optimum nitric acid concentration in uranyl nitrate feed solution was 4 N. An increase in concentrations of uranium and thorium in feed solution resulted in a decrease in the distribution of both components in the extractant. However, the distribution of uranium into the extractant was found to be more than that of thorium. The equilibration study of the extraction system, UO_2(NO_3)/4N HNO_3 – 10%TBP/Kerosene, was also investigated. Two extraction stages were calculated graphically from 100,000 ppm uranium concentration in feed solution input with 90% extraction efficiency and the flow ratio of aqueous phase to organic phase was adjusted to 1.0. For thorium impurity scrubbing process, 10% TBP in kerosene was loaded with uranium and minor thorium from uranyl nitrate solution prepared from yellowcake and was scrubbed with different low concentration nitric acid. The results showed that at nitric acid normality was lower than 1 N, uranium distributed well to aqueous phase. As conclusion, optimum nitric acid concentration for scrubbing process should not less than 1 N and diluted nitric acid or de-ionized water should be applied to strip uranium from organic phase in the final refining process. (author)

  9. Parity mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    The field of parity mixing in light nuclei bears upon one of the exciting and active problems of physics--the nature of the fundamental weak interaction. It is also a subject where polarization techniques play a very important role. Weak interaction theory is first reviewed to motivate the parity mixing experiments. Two very attractive systems are discussed where the nuclear physics is so beautifully simple that the experimental observation of tiny effects directly measures parity violating (PV) nuclear matrix elements which are quite sensitive to the form of the basic weak interaction. Since the measurement of very small analyzing powers and polarizations may be of general interest to this conference, some discussion is devoted to experimental techniques

  10. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim; Amad, Maan H.; Al-Talla, Zeyad

    2012-01-01

    with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  11. [Chemical hazards when working with solvent glues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domański, Wojciech; Makles, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Solvent glues are used in a wide variety of industries, e.g., textile, footwear and rubber. The problem of workers' exposure to solvent vapors is rarely tackled within the area of occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises. In order to assess exposure to solvents, organic solvents emitted by glues were identified in the samples of workplace air. The concentration of acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, ethylbenzene, n-hexane, methylcyclohexane, butyl acetate and toluene were determined. The obtained results evidenced the presence of cyclohexane, ethylbenzene, ethylcyclohexane, heptane, n-hexane, o-xylene, methylcyclohexane, methylcyclopentane, butyl acetate and toluene in workplace air. The concentration of those compounds in workplace air was low, usually below 0.15 of MAC. At some workstations the presence of benzene was also observed. Occupational risk was assessed at workstations where gluing took place. It showed that the risk at those workstations was medium or low.

  12. Organic solvents from sugar cane molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeser, H

    1970-01-01

    The production of organic solvents by fermentation of low priced cane molasses is discussed. Processes described and illustrated in detail include the production of acetone, butanol, ethanol, acetic acid, ethyl acetate and butyl acetate.

  13. Solvent induced supramolecular anisotropy in molecular gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Michael A., E-mail: mroger09@uoguelph.ca [Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N3C3X9 (Canada); Corradini, Maria G. [Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Emge, Thomas [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Herein is the first report of solvent induced anisotropy in 12-hydroxystearic acid self-assembled fibrillar networks. Increasing the chain length of polar solvent, such as nitriles and ketones, tailored the anisotropy of the fibrillar aggregates. 12HSA molecular gels, comprised of alkanes, exhibited an isotropic fibrillar network irrespective of the alkane chain length. In polar solvents, anisotropy, observed using 2D powder x-ray diffraction profiles, is correlated to a fibrillar supramolecular morphologies in long chain nitriles and ketones while sphereulitic crystals are correlated to x-ray diffraction patterns with an isotropic scatter intensity in short chain ketones and nitriles. These changes directly modify the final physical properties of the gels. - Highlights: • 12-HSA self-assembles into crystalline supramolecular morphologies depending on the solvent. • Alkanes, short chain nitriles and ketones led to 12-HSA displaying supramolecular isotropy. • In long chain nitriles and ketones, 12-HSA displays supramolecular anisotropy.

  14. Solvent induced supramolecular anisotropy in molecular gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Michael A.; Corradini, Maria G.; Emge, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Herein is the first report of solvent induced anisotropy in 12-hydroxystearic acid self-assembled fibrillar networks. Increasing the chain length of polar solvent, such as nitriles and ketones, tailored the anisotropy of the fibrillar aggregates. 12HSA molecular gels, comprised of alkanes, exhibited an isotropic fibrillar network irrespective of the alkane chain length. In polar solvents, anisotropy, observed using 2D powder x-ray diffraction profiles, is correlated to a fibrillar supramolecular morphologies in long chain nitriles and ketones while sphereulitic crystals are correlated to x-ray diffraction patterns with an isotropic scatter intensity in short chain ketones and nitriles. These changes directly modify the final physical properties of the gels. - Highlights: • 12-HSA self-assembles into crystalline supramolecular morphologies depending on the solvent. • Alkanes, short chain nitriles and ketones led to 12-HSA displaying supramolecular isotropy. • In long chain nitriles and ketones, 12-HSA displays supramolecular anisotropy.

  15. Full scale solvent extraction remedial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Sevenson Extraction Technology, Inc. has completed the development of the Soil Restoration Unit (initially developed by Terra-Kleen Corporation), a mobile, totally enclosed solvent extraction treatment facility for the removal of organic contaminated media is greater by a closed loop, counter current process that recycles all solvents. The solvents used are selected for the individual site dependant upon the contaminants, such as PCB's, oil, etc. and the soil conditions. A mixture of up to fourteen non-toxic solvents can be used for complicated sites. The full scale unit has been used to treat one superfund site, the Traband Site in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and is currently treating another superfund site, the Pinette's Salvage Yard Site in Washburn, Maine. The full scale Soil Restoration Unit has also been used at a non-superfund site, as part of a TSCA Research and Development permit. The results from these sites will be discussed in brief herein, and in more detail in the full paper

  16. Enantioselective solvent-free Robinson annulation reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    solvents to effect an asymmetric synthesis is an important step forward towards ... In continuation of our preliminary communication 2, we wish to ..... formation of chiral enamine 74 from the reaction of S-proline with pro-R carbonyl group.

  17. Green and Bio-Based Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco G; Monteagudo-Arrebola, María José; Dobado, José A; Isac-García, Joaquín

    2018-04-24

    Chemical reactions and many of the procedures of separation and purification employed in industry, research or chemistry teaching utilize solvents massively. In the last decades, with the birth of Green Chemistry, concerns about the employment of solvents and the effects on human health, as well as its environmental impacts and its dependence on non-renewable raw materials for manufacturing most of them, has drawn the attention of the scientific community. In this work, we review the concept of green solvent and the properties and characteristics to be considered green. Additionally, we discuss the different possible routes to prepare many solvents from biomass, as an alternative way to those methods currently applied in the petrochemical industry.

  18. Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities

  19. An overview of industrial solvent use or is there life after chlorinated solvents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.

    1991-01-01

    Everyone using industrial chemicals has been affected by the fire- storm of new regulations governing solvent use. How will companies currently using hazardous solvents prepare for the changes ahead? What will the impact be on commonly used industrial solvents? What effect are environmental pressures having on solvent use and disposal? Are the responsible individuals in your company up-to-date on phase-out schedules? This paper is written for an audience of compliance coordinators, consultants, production engineers and corporate management. In it, the either addresses the above questions and discusses the specific products affected. The author reviews currently available alternatives to chlorinated and hazardous solvents and introduces a simple system for rating alternatives. The program also includes a discussion of solvent minimization programs and worker reeducation

  20. Occupational exposure to solvents and bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2017-01-01

    logistic regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Increased risks were observed for trichloroethylene (HR 1.23, 95% 95% CI 1.12-1.40), toluene (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.38), benzene (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31), aromatic hydrocarbon solvents (HR 1...... of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, aromatic hydrocarbon solvents, benzene and toluene and the risk of bladder cancer....

  1. Computer-Aided Solvent Screening for Biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Leeuwen, M.B. van; Boeriu, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    constrained properties related to chemical reaction equilibrium, substrate and product solubility, water solubility, boiling points, toxicity and others. Two examples are provided, covering the screening of solvents for lipase-catalyzed transesterification of octanol and inulin with vinyl laurate....... Esterification of acrylic acid with octanol is also addressed. Solvents are screened and candidates identified, confirming existing experimental results. Although the examples involve lipases, the method is quite general, so there seems to be no preclusion against application to other biocatalysts....

  2. Solvent management in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, B.; Germain, M.; Puyou, M.; Rouyer, H.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent management in large capacity reprocessing plant is studied to limit production of organic wastes. Chemical processing increases life time of solvent. Low pressure distillation allows the recycling of TBP and diluent at a low activity level. Besides heavy degradation products are eliminated. For the safety the flash point of distillated diluent increases slightly. Tests on an industrial scale started in 1985 and since more than 500 cubic meters were treated [fr

  3. Natural deep eutectic solvents as new potential media for green technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yuntao; Spronsen, Jaap van; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Natural products were used as a source for deep eutectic solvents and ionic liquids. ► We define own chemical and physical properties of natural deep eutectic solvents. ► Interaction between natural deep eutectic solvents and solutes was confirmed by NMR. ► The developed natural deep eutectic solvents were applied as green media. - Abstract: Developing new green solvents is one of the key subjects in Green Chemistry. Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents, thus, have been paid great attention to replace current harsh organic solvents and have been applied to many chemical processing such as extraction and synthesis. However, current ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have still limitations to be applied to a real chemical industry due to toxicity against human and environment and high cost of ILs and solid state of most deep eutectic solvents at room temperature. Recently we discovered that many plant abundant primary metabolites changed their state from solid to liquid when they were mixed in proper ratio. This finding made us hypothesize that natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) play a role as alternative media to water in living organisms and tested a wide range of natural products, which resulted in discovery of over 100 NADES from nature. In order to prove deep eutectic feature the interaction between the molecules was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All the tested NADES show clear hydrogen bonding between components. As next step physical properties of NADES such as water activity, density, viscosity, polarity and thermal properties were measured as well as the effect of water on the physical properties. In the last stage the novel NADES were applied to the solubilization of wide range of biomolecules such as non-water soluble bioactive natural products, gluten, starch, and DNA. In most cases the solubility of the biomolecules evaluated in this study was greatly higher than water. Based on the

  4. Natural deep eutectic solvents as new potential media for green technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yuntao [Natural Products Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Spronsen, Jaap van; Witkamp, Geert-Jan [Laboratory for Process Equipment, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Verpoorte, Robert [Natural Products Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Choi, Young Hae, E-mail: y.choi@chem.leidenuniv.nl [Natural Products Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-03-05

    Highlights: ► Natural products were used as a source for deep eutectic solvents and ionic liquids. ► We define own chemical and physical properties of natural deep eutectic solvents. ► Interaction between natural deep eutectic solvents and solutes was confirmed by NMR. ► The developed natural deep eutectic solvents were applied as green media. - Abstract: Developing new green solvents is one of the key subjects in Green Chemistry. Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents, thus, have been paid great attention to replace current harsh organic solvents and have been applied to many chemical processing such as extraction and synthesis. However, current ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have still limitations to be applied to a real chemical industry due to toxicity against human and environment and high cost of ILs and solid state of most deep eutectic solvents at room temperature. Recently we discovered that many plant abundant primary metabolites changed their state from solid to liquid when they were mixed in proper ratio. This finding made us hypothesize that natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) play a role as alternative media to water in living organisms and tested a wide range of natural products, which resulted in discovery of over 100 NADES from nature. In order to prove deep eutectic feature the interaction between the molecules was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All the tested NADES show clear hydrogen bonding between components. As next step physical properties of NADES such as water activity, density, viscosity, polarity and thermal properties were measured as well as the effect of water on the physical properties. In the last stage the novel NADES were applied to the solubilization of wide range of biomolecules such as non-water soluble bioactive natural products, gluten, starch, and DNA. In most cases the solubility of the biomolecules evaluated in this study was greatly higher than water. Based on the

  5. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branham-Haar, K.A.; Twitchell, K.E.

    1993-07-01

    Concern for the environment, in addition to Federal regulation, mandate the replacement of hazardous solvents with safer cleaning agents. Manufacturers are working to produce these replacement solvents. As these products are developed, potential users need to be informed of their availability. To promote the use of these new products instead of traditional solvents, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS). The HSSDS provides a comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects, and it makes that information available to solvent users, industrial hygienists, and process engineers. The HSSDS uses TOPIC reg-sign, a text retrieval system produced by Verity, Inc., to allow a user to search for information on a particular subject. TOPIC reg-sign produces a listing of the retrieved documents and allows the use to examine the documents individually and to use the information contained in them. This reference manual does not replace the comprehensive TOPIC reg-sign user documentation (available from Verity, Inc.), or the HSSDS Tutorial (available from the INEL). The purpose of this reference manual is to provide enough instruction on TOPIC reg-sign so the user may begin accessing the data contained in the HSSDS

  6. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-10-08

    This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

  7. Mn(II)-coordinated Fluorescent Carbon Dots: Preparation and Discrimination of Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuru; Wang, Tianren; Chen, Xi; Xu, Yang; Li, Huanrong

    2018-04-01

    Herein, we prepared a Mn(II)-coordinated carbon dots (CDs) with fluorescence and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) bimodal properties by a one-pot solvothermal method and separated via silica column chromatography. The quantum yield of the CDs increased greatly from 2.27% to 6.75% with increase of Mn(II) doping, meanwhile the CDs exhibited a higher MR activity (7.28 mM-1s-1) than that of commercial Gd-DTPA (4.63 mM-1s-1). In addition, white light emitting CDs were obtained by mixing the different types of CDs. Notably, these CDs exhibited different fluorescence emissions in different organic solvents and could be used to discriminate organic solvents based on the polarity and protonation of the solvents.

  8. Biodiesel production by direct transesterification of microalgal biomass with co-solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Ya; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a direct transesterification process using 75% ethanol and co-solvent was studied to reduce the energy consumption of lipid extraction process and improve the conversion yield of the microalgae biodiesel. The addition of a certain amount of co-solvent (n-hexane is most preferable) was required for the direct transesterification of microalgae biomass. With the optimal reaction condition of n-hexane to 75% ethanol volume ratio 1:2, mixed solvent dosage 6.0mL, reaction temperature 90°C, reaction time 2.0h and catalyst volume 0.6mL, the direct transesterification process of microalgal biomass resulted in a high conversion yield up to 90.02±0.55wt.%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Review on Carbon Dioxide Absorption by Choline Chloride/Urea Deep Eutectic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima J. Isaifan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past few years, deep eutectic solvents (DESs were developed sharing similar characteristics to ionic liquids but with more advantageous features related to preparation cost, environmental impact, and efficiency for gas separation processes. Amongst many combinations of DES solvents that have been prepared, reline (choline chloride as the hydrogen bond acceptor mixed with urea as the hydrogen bond donor was the first DES synthesized and is still the one with the lowest melting point. Choline chloride/urea DES has proven to be a promising solvent as an efficient medium for carbon dioxide capture when compared with amine alone or ionic liquids under the same conditions. This review sheds light on the preparation method, physical and chemical characteristics, and the CO2 absorption capacity of choline chloride/urea DES under different temperatures and pressures reported up to date.

  10. Analysis of solvent extracts from coal liquefaction in a flowing solvent reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Ying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Ke-Chang [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, No. 79 Yingze West Street, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Kandiyoti, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College, University of London, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-15

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents, tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) at two temperatures 350 and 450 C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. The three solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilise free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. The extracts were prepared in a flowing solvent reactor to minimise secondary thermal degradation of the primary extracts. Analysis of the pentane-insoluble fractions of the extracts was achieved by size exclusion chromatography, UV-fluorescence spectroscopy in NMP solvent and probe mass. With increasing extraction temperature, the ratio of the amount having big molecular weight to that having small molecular weight in tetralin extracts was increased; the tetralin extract yield increased from 12.8% to 75.9%; in quinoline, increasing extraction temperature did not have an effect on the molecular weight of products but there was a big increase in extract yield. The extracts in NMP showed the enhanced solvent extraction power at both temperatures, with a shift in the ratio of larger molecules to smaller molecules with increasing extraction temperature and with the highest conversion of Point of Ayr coal among these three solvents at both temperatures. Solvent adducts were detected in the tetralin and quinoline extracts by probe mass spectrometry; solvent products were formed from NMP at both temperatures.

  11. Gold recovery from organic solvents using galvanic stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.; O`Keefe, T.J. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    1995-08-01

    A novel process using solid metals for the direct reduction of more noble metal ions from solvent extraction organics has been developed. Base metals recovery has been the principal focus of investigations to date but feasibility tests have now also been made on galvanically stripping selected precious metals. In this study gold (III) was loaded from an aqueous HAuCl{sub 4}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O solution into a mixed organic 40 vol.% TBP, 10 vol.% D2EHPA in kerosene. The direct precipitation of metallic gold from the loaded organic phase using zinc powder and iron, aluminum and copper slabs at 70 C was successfully demonstrated. The gold reduction rates were relatively fast even though the conductivity of the organic solutions is very low. The reaction rates were studied as a function of the variables zinc particulate size, oxygen and nitrogen atmosphere, water content in the organic phase, organic ratios and temperature. The gold morphology was usually powdery or dendritic in nature but continuous films were obtained in some instances. Activation energies were calculated and possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. In general, the results obtained were very promising and showed that gold can be successfully cemented from selected organic solvents by galvanic stripping using less noble solid metal reductants.

  12. 29 CFR 1915.32 - Toxic cleaning solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toxic cleaning solvents. 1915.32 Section 1915.32 Labor... Preservation § 1915.32 Toxic cleaning solvents. (a) When toxic solvents are used, the employer shall employ one or more of the following measures to safeguard the health of employees exposed to these solvents. (1...

  13. COMPUTER-AIDED SOLVENT DESIGN FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION: PARIS II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvent substitution is an attractive way of elijminating the use of regulated solvents because it usually does not require major chanages in existing processes, equipment or operations. Successful solvent substitution is dependent on finding solvents that are as effective or be...

  14. Solvent Extraction of Rare Earths by Di-2 Ethylhexyl Phosphoric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Kranlert, Kannika; Kraikaew, Jarunee; Pongpansook, Surasak; Chayavadhanangkur, Chavalek; Kranlert, Kannika

    2004-10-01

    Solvent extraction has been widely applied for individual rare earth separation because the separation time is rapid and a large quantity of products is obtained. In this work, this technique was utilized to extract mixed rare earths, obtained from monazite digestion process. Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) was used as an extractant. The factors affected the extraction including HNO 3 concentration in mixed rare earth nitrate solution and the amount of D2EHPA were studied. The appropriate concentrations of HNO 3 and D2EHPA were found to be 0.01 and 1.5 M, respectively. From the result of equilibrium curve study, it was observed that heavy rare earths were extracted more efficient than light rare earths. A 6-stage continuous countercurrent solvent extraction was simulated for rare earth extraction. The optimum ratio of solvent to feed solution (S/F) was 2. Because of the high cost of D2EHPA, 1.0 M of D2EHPA was suitable for the rare earth extraction by the continuous countercurrent solvent extraction

  15. Development of a novel solvent for the simultaneous separation of strontium and cesium from dissolved Spent Nuclear Fuel solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catherine L. Riddle; John D. Baker; Jack D. Law; Christopher A. McGrath; David H. Meikrantz; Bruce J. Mincher; Dean R. Peterman; Terry A. Todd

    2004-01-01

    The recovery of Cs and Sr from acidic solutions by solvent extraction has been investigated. The goal of this project was to develop an extraction process to remove Cs and Sr from high-level waste in an effort to reduce the heat loading in storage. Solvents for the extraction of Cs and Sr separately have been used on both caustic and acidic spent nuclear fuel waste in the past. The objective of this research was to find a suitable solvent for the extraction of both Cs and Sr simultaneously from acidic nitrate media. The solvents selected for this research possess good stability and extraction behavior when mixed together. The extraction experiments were performed with 4,4,(5)-Di-(tbutyldicyclohexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzocrown-6) (BOBCalixC6) and 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB modifier) in a branched aliphatic kerosene (Isopar L). The BOBCalixC6 and Cs-7SB modifier were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by Bonnesen et al. [1]. The values obtained from the SREX solvent for DSr in 1 M nitric acid ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 at 25 C and 10 C respectively. The values for DCs in 1 M nitric acid with the CSSX solvent ranged from 8.0 to 46.0 at 25 C and 10 C respectively. A new mixed solvent, developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) by Riddle et al. [2], showed distributions for Sr ranging from 8.8 to 17.4 in 1 M nitric acid at 25 C and 10 C respectively. The DCs for the mixed solvent ranged from 7.7 to 20.2 in 1 M nitric acid at 25 C to 10 C respectively. The unexpectedly high distributions for Sr at both 25 C and 10 C show a synergy in the mixed solvent. The DCs, although lower than with CSSX solvent, still showed good extraction behavior

  16. Solvent-dependent fluorescence enhancement and piezochromism of a carbazole-substituted naphthopyran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lihui; Wang, Aixia [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Wang, Guang, E-mail: wangg923@nenu.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Munyentwari, Alexis [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Zhou, Yihan, E-mail: yhzhou@ciac.ac.cn [National Analytical Research Center of Electrochemistry and Spectroscopy, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-09-15

    A novel carbazole-substituted naphthopyran, 3,3-bis-(4-carbazolylphenyl)-[3H]-naphtho[2,1-b]pyran (CzNP) was designed and synthesized. The new compound exhibited normal photochromism in dichloromethane solution and the UV irradiation did not influence its fluorescence. On the contrary, the fluorescence of CzNP in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was intensively enhanced to 29 times after 60 min of the UV irradiation and this enhanced fluorescence can be quenched by addition of triethylamine (TEA). The study of enhanced extent of fluorescence of CzNP in solvents with different polarities and in mixed solvents demonstrated that the enhanced fluorescence is dependent on the polarity of solvents. The larger the polarity of solvent was, the stronger was the fluorescence of CzNP. CzNP also exhibited piezochromic performance and the pressure led to the cleavage of the C–O bond of pyran ring. - Highlights: • A carbazole-substituted photochromic naphthopyran was designed and synthesized. • The fluorescence was enhanced under the existence of DMF and UV irradiation. • The polarity of solvent was the dominating factor to affect the fluorescence. • The new compound also displayed piezochromic performance.

  17. New Polymeric Membranes for Organic Solvent Nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah

    2017-05-01

    The focus of this dissertation was the development, synthesis and modification of polymers for the preparation of membranes for organic solvent nanofiltration. High chemical stability in a wide range of solvents was a key requirement. Membranes prepared from synthesized polymers as well as from commercial polymers were designed and chemically modified to reach OSN requirements. A solvent stable thin-film composite (TFC) membrane is reported, which is fabricated on crosslinked polythiosemicarbazide (PTSC) as substrate. The membranes exhibited high fluxes towards solvents like THF, DMF and DMSO ranging around 20 L/m2 h at 5 bar with a MWCO of around 1000 g/mol. Ultrafiltration PTSC membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation and crosslinked with GPTMS. The crosslinking reaction was responsible for the formation of an inorganic-type-network that tuned the membrane pore size. The crosslinked membranes acquired high solvent stability in DMSO, DMF and THF with a MWCO above 1300 g/mol. Reaction Induced Phase Separation (RIPS) was introduced as a new method for the preparation of skinned asymmetric membranes. These membranes have two distinctive layers with different morphologies both from the same polymer. The top dense layer is composed of chemically crosslinked polymer chains while the bottom layer is a porous structure formed by non-crosslinked polymer chains. Such membranes were tested for vitamin B12 in solvents after either crosslinking the support or dissolving the support and fixing the freestanding membrane on alumina. Pebax® 1657 was utilized for the preparation of composite membranes by simple coating. Porous PAN membranes were coated with Pebax® 1657 which was then crosslinked using TDI. Crosslinked Pebax® membranes show high stability towards ethanol, propanol and acetone. The membranes were also stable in DMF once crosslinked PAN supports were used. Sodium alginate polymer was investigated for the preparation of thin film composite

  18. Solvent effects on the photochemistry of dimethyl sulfoxide-Cl complexes studied by combined pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Minegishi, Hideki; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Sawamura, Sadashi

    2006-01-01

    Photolysis of complexes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with chlorine atoms results in rapid and permanent photobleaching which may be due to intramolecular hydrogen abstraction. The effects of solvent polarity were examined in a wide variety of DMSO-carbon tetrachloride mixed solvents. The quantum yields of photobleaching decreased from 0.27 to 0.08 as the solvent polarity increased, while significant changes were observed in the low DMSO concentration range ( -3 ). This cannot be accounted for by simple solvent polarity effects. The effects of polar and nonpolar additives were also examined and it is concluded that the specific solvation effect of DMSO was the main cause of the significant change in quantum yields in the low concentration range of DMSO

  19. Solvent/non-solvent sintering: a novel route to create porous microsphere scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin L; Nair, Lakshmi S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2008-08-01

    Solvent/non-solvent sintering creates porous polymeric microsphere scaffolds suitable for tissue engineering purposes with control over the resulting porosity, average pore diameter, and mechanical properties. Five different biodegradable biocompatible polyphosphazenes exhibiting glass transition temperatures from -8 to 41 degrees C and poly (lactide-co-glycolide), (PLAGA) a degradable polymer used in a number of biomedical settings, were examined to study the versatility of the process and benchmark the process to heat sintering. Parameters such as: solvent/non-solvent sintering solution composition and submersion time effect the sintering process. PLAGA microsphere scaffolds fabricated with solvent/non-solvent sintering exhibited an interconnected porosity and pore size of 31.9% and 179.1 mum, respectively which was analogous to that of conventional heat sintered PLAGA microsphere scaffolds. Biodegradable polyphosphazene microsphere scaffolds exhibited a maximum interconnected porosity of 37.6% and a maximum compressive modulus of 94.3 MPa. Solvent/non-solvent sintering is an effective strategy for sintering polymeric microspheres, with a broad spectrum of glass transition temperatures, under ambient conditions making it an excellent fabrication route for developing tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery vehicles. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Solvent extraction studies in miniature centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siczek, A.A.; Meisenhelder, J.H.; Bernstein, G.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A miniature short-residence-time centrifugal solvent extraction contactor and an eight-stage laboratory minibank of centrifugal contactors were used for testing the possibility of utilizing kinetic effects for improving the separation of uranium from ruthenium and zirconium in the Purex process. Results of these tests showed that a small improvement found in ruthenium and zirconium decontamination in single-stage solvent extraction tests was lost in the multistage extraction tests- in fact, the extent of saturation of the solvent by uranium, rather than the stage residence time, controlled the extent of ruthenium and zirconium extraction. In applying the centrifugal contactor to the Purex process, the primary advantages would be less radiolytic damage to the solvent, high troughput, reduced solvent inventory, and rapid attainment of steady-state operating conditions. The multistage mini contactor was also tested to determine the suitability of short-residence-time contactors for use with the Civex and Thorex processes and was found to be compatible with the requirements of these processes. (orig.) [de

  1. Ions, solutes and solvents, oh my!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Daniel David [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Modern methods in ab initio quantum mechanics have become efficient and accurate enough to study many gas-phase systems. However, chemists often work in the solution phase. The presence of solvent molecules has been shown to affect reaction mechanisms1, lower reaction energy barriers2, participate in energy transfer with the solute3 and change the physical properties of the solute4. These effects would be overlooked in simple gas phase calculations. Careful study of specific solvents and solutes must be done in order to fully understand the chemistry of the solution phase. Water is a key solvent in chemical and biological applications. The properties of an individual water molecule (a monomer) and the behavior of thousands of molecules (bulk solution) are well known for many solvents. Much is also understood about aqueous microsolvation (small clusters containing ten water molecules or fewer) and the solvation characteristics when bulk water is chosen to solvate a solute. However, much less is known about how these properties behave as the cluster size transitions from the microsolvated cluster size to the bulk. This thesis will focus on species solvated with water clusters that are large enough to exhibit the properties of the bulk but small enough to consist of fewer than one hundred solvent molecules. New methods to study such systems will also be presented.

  2. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction values in the.... Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass 1...

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction values in the... Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass 1...

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction... formulation data. Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent...

  5. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S. P. Jeevan; Prasad, S. Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K.; Kulkarni, Kalyani S.; Ramesh, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n-hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330?kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to...

  6. Alternative Solvents through Green Chemistry Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Components in the aerospace industry must perform with accuracy and precision under extreme conditions, and surface contamination can be detrimental to the desired performance, especially in cases when the components come into contact with strong oxidizers such as liquid oxygen. Therefore, precision cleaning is an important part of a components preparation prior to utilization in aerospace applications. Current cleaning technologies employ a variety of cleaning agents, many of which are halogenated solvents that are either toxic or cause environmental damage. Thus, this project seeks to identify alternative precision cleaning solvents and technologies, including use of less harmful cleaning solvents, ultrasonic and megasonic agitation, low-pressure plasma cleaning techniques, and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Please review all data content found in the Public Data tab located at: https:techport.nasa.govview11697public

  7. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.; Skinner, N.L.

    1993-07-01

    This manual is the tutorial for the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS), an online, comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects. The HSSDS data base contains product information, material safety data sheets, toxicity reports, usage reports, biodegradable data, product chemical element lists, and background information on solvents. HSSDS use TOPIC reg-sign to search for information based on a query defined by the user. TOPIC provides a full text retrieval of unstructured source documents. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most queries performed with HSSDS. Instructions are provided for both window-based and character-based applications

  8. NMR spectroscopy using liquid crystal solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Emsley, JW

    2013-01-01

    NMR Spectroscopy using Liquid Crystal Solvents covers the importance of using a liquid crystal solvent in NMR to derive nuclear dipolar spin-spin coupling constants. This book is composed of ten chapters, and begins with a brief description of the features and benefits of liquid crystal in NMR spectroscopic analysis. The succeeding chapters deal with the mode of operation of nuclear spin Hamiltonian for partially oriented molecules and the analysis of NMR spectra of partially oriented molecules, as well as the determination of rigid molecule structure. These topics are followed by discussions

  9. Catalog solvent extraction: anticipate process adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, S.G.; Brass, E.A.; Brown, S.J.; Geeting, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) utilizes commercially available centrifugal contactors to facilitate removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline salt solutions. During the fabrication of the contactor assembly, demonstrations revealed a higher propensity for foaming than was initially expected. A task team performed a series of single-phase experiments that revealed that the shape of the bottom vanes and the outer diameter of those vanes are key to the successful deployment of commercial contactors in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process. (authors)

  10. An Organic Mixed Ion-Electron Conductor for Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting...

  11. An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting...

  12. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scherman, Carl [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Martin, David [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Suggs, Patricia [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  13. Solvent-tolerant bacteria in biocatalysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The toxicity of fine chemicals to the producer organism is a problem in several biotechnological production processes. In several instances, an organic phase can be used to extract the toxic product from the aqueous phase during a fermentation. With the discovery of solvent-tolerant bacteria, more

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION SOLVENT FREE PREPARATION OF N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEYWORDS: Solvent free, Maleanilic acids, Maleic anhydride, Aniline derivatives ... associated with the carboxylic group between 3275-2877 cm-1, the weak –NH .... Chemical shifts (σ/ppm) relative to TMS*. O-H N-H Ha. Hb. Hc. Hd. He. Hf.

  15. Simulation of solvent extraction in reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Shekhar; Koganti, S B [Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1994-06-01

    A SIMulation Program for Solvent EXtraction (SIMPSEX) has been developed for simulation of PUREX process used in nuclear fuel reprocessing. This computer program is written in double precision structured FORTRAN77 and at present it is used in DOS environment on a PC386. There is a plan to port it to ND supermini computers in future. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Deposition dynamics of multi-solvent bioinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneelil, Paul; Pack, Min; Cui, Chunxiao; Han, Li-Hsin; Sun, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Inkjet printing cellular scaffolds using bioinks is gaining popularity due to the advancement of printing technology as well as the growing demands of regenerative medicine. Numerous studies have been conducted on printing scaffolds of biomimetic structures that support the cell production of human tissues. However, the underlying physics of the deposition dynamics of bioinks remains elusive. Of particular interest is the unclear deposition dynamics of multi-solvent bioinks, which is often used to tune the micro-architecture formation. Here we systematically studied the effects of jetting frequency, solvent properties, substrate wettability, and temperature on the three-dimensional deposition patterns of bioinks made of Methacrylated Gelatin and Carboxylated Gelatin. The microflows inside the inkjet-printed picolitre drops were visualized using fluorescence tracer particles to decipher the complex processes of multi-solvent evaporation and solute self-assembly. The evolution of droplet shape was observed using interferometry. With the integrated techniques, the interplay of solvent evaporation, biopolymer deposition, and multi-drop interactions were directly observed for various ink and substrate properties, and printing conditions. Such knowledge enables the design and fabrication of a variety of tissue engineering scaffolds for potential use in regenerative medicine.

  17. Dynamics of solvent-free grafted nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Chremos, Alexandros; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.; Koch, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    as well as grafted nanoparticles in a melt were compared to a reference system of bare (ungrafted) particles in a melt. Whereas longer chains lead to a larger hydrodynamic radius and lower relative diffusivity for grafted particles in a melt, bulk solvent

  18. Solvent (acetone-butanol: ab) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article describes production of butanol [acetone-butanol-ethanol, (also called AB or ABE or solvent)] by fermentation using both traditional and current technologies. AB production from agricultural commodities, such as corn and molasses, was an important historical fermentation. Unfortunately,...

  19. Expanding solvent SAGD in heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, P.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Das, S.; Wheeler, T.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Srinivasan, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects have proven effective for the recovery of oil and bitumen. Expanding solvent (ES) SAGD pilot projects have also demonstrated positive results of improved performance. This paper presented the results of a simulation study that investigated several important factors of the ES-SAGD process, including solvent types; concentration; operating pressure; and injection strategy. The objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of the ES-SAGD process in terms of production acceleration and energy requirements; to optimize solvent selection; to understand the effect of dilation in unconsolidated oil sands and the directional impact on reservoir parameters and oil production rate in ES-SAGD; and to understand the impact of operating conditions such as pressure, solvent concentration, circulation preheating period and the role of conduction heating and grid size in this process. The advantages of ES-SAGD over SAGD were also outlined. The paper presented results of sensitivity studies that were conducted on these four factors. Conclusions and recommendations for operating strategy were also offered. It was concluded that dilation is an important factor for SAGD performance at high operating pressure. 8 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Processing of thermoplastic polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.E.H.; Venderbosch, R.W.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of reactive solvents offers an interesting and flexible route to extent the processing characteristics of thermoplastic polymers beyond their existing limits. This holds for both intractable and tractable polymers. The first mainly applies for amorphous high-Tg polymers where processing may

  1. Combined effects of ototoxic solvents and noise on hearing in automobile plant workers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Saber; Labbafinejad, Yasser; Attarchi, Mirsaeed

    2010-09-01

    Exposure of workers to mixtures of organic solvents and to occupational noise is frequent in a number of industries. Recent studies suggest that exposure to both can cause a more severe hearing loss than exposure to noise alone. Our cross-sectional study included 411 workers of a large automobile plant divided in three groups. The first group included assembly workers exposed to noise alone; the second included workers in a new paint shop, who were exposed to a mixture of organic solvents at a permissible level; and the third group included paint shop workers exposed to both noise and higher than permissible levels of organic solvents in an old paint shop. These groups were compared in terms of low-frequency hearing loss (model 1; average hearing threshold >25 dB at 0.5 kHz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz) and high-frequency hearing loss (model 2; average hearing threshold >25 dB at 3 kHz, 4 kHz, 6 kHz, and 8 kHz). High-frequency hearing loss was more common in workers exposed to a combination of noise and mixed organic solvents even at permissible levels than in workers exposed to noise alone even after correction for confounding variables. This study shows that combined exposure to mixed organic solvents and occupational noise can exacerbate hearing loss in workers. Therefore, an appropriate hearing protection programme is recommended, that would include short-interval audiometric examinations and efficient hearing protectors.

  2. Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    There is disclosed a composite immobulized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation.

  3. Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1989-04-25

    There is disclosed a composite immobilized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation. 3 figs.

  4. Percolation characteristics of solvent invasion in rough fractures under miscible conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfanta, M.; Babadagli, T.; Develi, K.

    2017-10-01

    Surface roughness and flow rate effects on the solvent transport under miscible conditions in a single fracture are studied. Surface replicas of seven different rocks (marble, granite, and limestone) are used to represent different surface roughness characteristics each described by different mathematical models including three fractal dimensions. Distribution of dyed solvent is investigated at various flow rate conditions to clarify the effect of roughness on convective and diffusive mixing. After a qualitative analysis using comparative images of different rocks, the area covered by solvent with respect to time is determined to conduct a semi-quantitative analysis. In this exercise, two distinct zones are identified, namely the straight lines obtained for convective (early times) and diffusive (late times) flow. The bending point between these two lines is used to point the transition between the two zones. Finally, the slopes of the straight lines and the bending points are correlated to five different roughness parameters and the rate (Peclet number). It is observed that both surface roughness and flow rate have significant effect on solvent spatial distribution. The largest area covered is obtained at moderate flow rates and hence not only the average surface roughness characteristic is important, but coessentially total fracture surface area needs to be considered when evaluating fluid distribution. It is also noted that the rate effect is critically different for the fracture samples of large grain size (marbles and granite) compared to smaller grain sizes (limestones). Variogram fractal dimension exhibits the strongest correlation with the maximum area covered by solvent, and display increasing trend at the moderate flow rates. Equations with variogram surface fractal dimension in combination with any other surface fractal parameter coupled with Peclet number can be used to predict maximum area covered by solvent in a single fracture, which in turn can be

  5. Characterization of Samples from Old Solvent Tanks S1 through S22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    1999-03-25

    The Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG, 643-E) contains 22 old solvent tanks (S1 - S22) which were used to receive and store spent PUREX solvent from F- and H-Canyons. The tanks are cylindrical, carbon-steel, single-wall vessels buried at varying depths. A detailed description of the tanks and their history can be found in Reference 1. A Sampling and Analysis Plan for the characterization of the material contained in the old solvent tanks was developed by the Analytical Development Section (ADS) in October of 19972. The Sampling and Analysis Plan identified several potential disposal facilities for the organic and aqueous phases present in the old solvent tanks which included the Solvent Storage Tank Facility (SSTF), the Mixed Waste Storage Facilities (MWSF), Transuranic (TRU) Pad, and/or the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF). In addition, the 241-F/H Tank Farms, TRU Pads, and/or the MWSF were identified as potential disposal facilities for the sludge phases present in the tanks. The purpose of this sampling and characterization was to obtain sufficient data on the material present in the old solvent tanks so that a viable path forward could be established for the closure of the tanks. Therefore, the parameters chosen for the characterization of the various materials present in the tanks were based upon the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) of the SSTF3, TRU Pads4, MWSF5, CIF6, and/or 241-F/H Tank Farms7. Several of the WAC's have been revised, canceled, or replaced by new procedures since October of 1997 and hence where required, the results of this characterization program were compared against the latest revision of the appropriate WAC.

  6. Carbon nanotube embedded PVDF membranes: Effect of solvent composition on the structural morphology for membrane distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapunda, Edgar C.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-08-01

    Rapid population increase, growth in industrial and agricultural sectors and global climate change have added significant pressure on conventional freshwater resources. Tapping freshwater from non-conventional water sources such as desalination and wastewater recycling is considered as sustainable alternative to the fundamental challenges of water scarcity. However, affordable and sustainable technologies need to be applied for the communities to benefit from the treatment of non-conventional water source. Membrane distillation is a potential desalination technology which can be used sustainably for this purpose. In this work multi-walled carbon nanotube embedded polyvinylidene fluoride membranes for application in membrane distillation desalination were prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation method. The casting solution was prepared using mixed solvents (N, N-dimethylacetamide and triethyl phosphate) at varying ratios to study the effect of solvent composition on membrane morphological structures. Membrane morphological features were studied using a number of techniques including scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, SAXSpace tensile strength analysis, membrane thickness, porosity and contact angle measurements. It was revealed that membrane hydrophobicity, thickness, tensile strength and surface roughness were increasing as the composition of N, N-dimethylacetamide in the solvent was increasing with maximum values obtained between 40 and 60% N, N-dimethylacetamide. Internal morphological structures were changing from cellular structures to short finger-like and sponge-like pores and finally to large macro void type of pores when the amount of N, N-dimethylacetamide in the solvent was changed from low to high respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotube embedded polyvinylidene fluoride membranes of desired morphological structures and physical properties can be synthesized by regulating the composition of solvents used to prepare the

  7. Computer-aided tool for solvent selection in pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; K. Tula, Anjan; Gernaey, Krist V.

    -liquid equilibria). The application of the developed model-based framework is highlighted through several cases studies published in the literature. In the current state, the framework is suitable for problems where the original solvent is exchanged by distillation. A solvent selection guide for fast of suitable......-aided framework with the objective to assist the pharmaceutical industry in gaining better process understanding. A software interface to improve the usability of the tool has been created also....

  8. Linear correlation of interfacial tension at water-solvent interface, solubility of water in organic solvents, and SE* scale parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezhov, E.A.; Khananashvili, N.L.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    A linear correlation has been established between the solubility of water in water-immiscible organic solvents and the interfacial tension at the water-solvent interface on the one hand and the parameters of the SE* and π* scales for these solvents on the other hand. This allows us, using the known tabulated SE* or π* parameters for each solvent, to predict the values of the interfacial tension and the solubility of water for the corresponding systems. We have shown that the SE* scale allows us to predict these values more accurately than other known solvent scales, since in contrast to other scales it characterizes solvents found in equilibrium with water

  9. Excess Volumes of Mixing of Cl– and Br– with Na+ and K+ at 308.15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    cross square rule (CSR). The deviation from the CSR increased with increasing ionic strength and is considered to arise from the appreciable contribution of triplet interactions and preferential solvation of the ions and ion-clusters in the mixed solvent system. KEYWORDS. Excess volumes of mixing, Friedman model, Pitzer ...

  10. Excess Enthalpies of Mixing of Binary Mixtures of NaCl, KCl, NaBr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2004-07-01

    Jul 1, 2004 ... NaBr and KBr in Mixed Ternary Solvent Systems at 298.15 K. Bal Raj Deshwala* ... industrial waters and their thermodynamic properties are of practical interest for .... The enthalpy of mixing (∆Hm) is the difference between the excess enthalpy of the ..... tural (categorized by softness, open- ness, and ...

  11. Effects of solvent evaporation conditions on solvent vapor annealed cylinder-forming block polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Meagan; Jakubowski, William; Nelson, Gunnar; Drapes, Chloe; Baruth, A.

    Solvent vapor annealing is a less time and energy intensive method compared to thermal annealing, to direct the self-assembly of block polymer thin films. Periodic nanostructures have applications in ultrafiltration, magnetic arrays, or other structures with nanometer dimensions, driving its continued interest. Our goal is to create thin films with hexagonally packed, perpendicular aligned cylinders of poly(lactide) in a poly(styrene) matrix that span the thickness of the film with low anneal times and low defect densities, all with high reproducibility, where the latter is paramount. Through the use of our computer-controlled, pneumatically-actuated, purpose-built solvent vapor annealing chamber, we have the ability to monitor and control vapor pressure, solvent concentration within the film, and solvent evaporation rate with unprecedented precision and reliability. Focusing on evaporation, we report on two previously unexplored areas, chamber pressure during solvent evaporation and the flow rate of purging gas aiding the evaporation. We will report our exhaustive results following atomic force microscopy analysis of films exposed to a wide range of pressures and flow rates. Reliably achieving well-ordered films, while occurring within a large section of this parameter space, was correlated with high-flow evaporation rates and low chamber pressures. These results have significant implications on other methods of solvent annealing, including ``jar'' techniques.

  12. The Effect of Solvents on the Performance of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hsun Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The properties of perovskite solar cells (PSCs fabricated using various solvents was studied. The devices had an indium tin oxide (ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 (fabricated by using various solvents/fullerene (C60/bathocuproine (BCP/silver (Ag structure. The solvents used were dimethylformamide (DMF, γ-butyrolactone (GBL, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, a mixture of DMSO and DMF (1:1 v/v, and a mixture of DMSO and GBL (DMSO: GBL, 1:1 v/v, respectively. The power conversion efficiency (PCE of the device fabricated using DMF is zero, which is attributed to the poor coverage of CH3NH3PbI3 film on the substrate. In addition, the PCE of the device made using GBL is only 1.74% due to the low solubility of PbI2 and CH3NH3I. In contrast, the PCE of the device fabricated using the solvents containing DMSO showed better performance. This is ascribed to the high solubilization properties and strong coordination of DMSO. As a result, a PCE of 9.77% was obtained using a mixed DMSO:GBL solvent due to the smooth surface, uniform film coverage on the substrate and the high crystallization of the perovskite structure. Finally, a mixed DMSO: DMF:GBL (5:2:3 v/v/v solvent that combined the advantages of each solvent was used to fabricate a device, leading to a further improvement of the PCE of the resulting PSC to 10.84%.

  13. The EED [Emergencies Engineering Division] solvent extraction process for the removal of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, C.Y.

    1994-03-01

    Research was conducted to investigate the ability of hexane and natural gas condensate (NGC) to extract three different types of hydrocarbon contaminant (light crude oil, diesel fuel, and bunker C oil) from three types of soil (sand, peat, and clay). A separate but related study determined the efficiency of solvent extraction (using hexane and five other solvents but not NGC) for removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from contaminated soil. The process developed for this research includes stages of mixing, extraction, separation, and solvent recovery, for eventual implementation as a mobile solvent extraction unit. In experiments on samples created in the laboratory, extraction efficiencies of hydrocarbons often rose above 95%. On samples from a petroleum contaminated site, average extraction efficiency was ca 82%. Sandy soils contaminated in the laboratory were effectively cleaned of all hydrocarbons tested but only diesel fuel was successfully extracted from peat soils. No significant differences were observed in the effectiveness of hexane and NGC for contamination levels above 3%. Below this number, NGC seems more effective at removing oil from peat while hexane is slightly more effective on clay soils. Sand is equally cleaned by both solvents at all contamination levels. Safety considerations, odor, extra care needed to deal with light ends and aromatics, and the fact that only 26% of the solvent is actually usable make NGC an unfeasible option in spite of its significantly lower cost compared to hexane. For extracting PCBs, a hexane/acetone mixture proved to have the best removal efficiency. 14 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Thin porphyrin composite membranes with enhanced organic solvent transport

    KAUST Repository

    Phuoc, Duong; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Extending the stability of polymeric membranes in organic solvents is important for applications in chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Thin-film composite membranes with enhanced solvent permeance are proposed, using porphyrin as a building block

  15. Effects of polar protic solvents on dual emissions of 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Figure 1. Scheme of the ESIPT reaction of 3-hydroxy- chromone, 1. Chart 1. Chemical structures of the studied ... Materials and methods. Absorption and ... 85. Table 1. Spectroscopic properties of 3HC dyes in different polar solvents.a. Solvent.

  16. Selection and Evaluation of Alternative Solvents for Caprolactam Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, M.L.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the strict legislation for currently applied solvents in the industrial extraction of caprolactam, being benzene, toluene and chlorinated hydrocarbons, a need exists for alternative, environmentally benign solvents. An experimental screening procedure consisting of several steps was used

  17. Selection and evaluation of alternative solvents for caprolactam extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van M.L.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the strict legislation for currently applied solvents in the industrial extraction of caprolactam, being benzene, toluene and chlorinated hydrocarbons, a need exists for alternative, environmentally benign solvents. An experimental screening procedure consisting of several steps was used

  18. Occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsen, Jørn; Villeneuve, Sara

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF).......To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF)....

  19. Organic Solvent Tropical Report [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    2000-06-21

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an unmitigated organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines.

  20. Chemical engineering aspect of solvent extraction in mineral processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dara, S.S.; Jakkikar, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Solvent extraction process, types of solvents used, types of extraction, distribution isotherm and McCabe-Thiele diagram for process design, equipment for the process, operating parameters and applications are described. (M.G.B.)

  1. A solvent/non-solvent system for achieving solution-processed multilayer organic light-emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yue; Wu, Zhaoxin, E-mail: zhaoxinwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; He, Lin; Jiao, Bo; Hou, Xun

    2015-08-31

    We developed a solvent/non-solvent system to fabricate the multilayer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) by solution-process. This solvent system consists of both the solvent and non-solvent of PVK, in which fluorescent small molecules could be fully dissolved and directly spin-coated on top of the PVK layer; it could effectively avoid the redissolution of PVK during the spin-coating process of small molecules emitting layer. In the further investigation of this system, we also demonstrated the three-component solvent system, and found out that the third component, a less volatile solvent of PVK, was crucial for preparing a smoother interface between PVK and emitting layer. Compared with OLEDs through the vacuum deposition, the devices fabricated by solution-process from the solvent/non-solvent system showed comparable efficiency, which indicate that the solvent/non-solvent system can be used as an alternative process to prepare the polymer and small molecule multilayer devices through all-solution-process. - Highlights: • We fabricate the multilayer OLEDs by solution-process using a novel system. • We develop a solvent/non-solvent system of polymer (PVK) to avoid redissolution. • Small molecules could be fully dissolved and directly spin-coated on PVK layer. • The devices fabricated by the system and vacuum deposition show comparable efficiency.

  2. Sensibilidade do carrapato Boophilus microplus a solventes Sensibility of Boophilus microplus tick to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Os experimentos envolvendo o uso de acaricidas sintéticos ou naturais, geralmente necessitam da utilização de um solvente. Com a finalidade de verificar a sensibilidade do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus a diferentes solventes, larvas e fêmeas ingurgitadas deste ectoparasito foram expostas a sete solventes em cinco diferentes concentrações, na ausência e presença de azeite de oliva. Os resultados mostraram que a utilização do azeite de oliva não produz resultados diferentes estatisticamente em testes de larvas com papel impregnado, fato não verificado em testes de imersão de adultos com compostos hidrofílicos. A mortalidade média causada pelos solventes foi menor nos testes com papel impregnado, aumentando nos testes de imersão de larvas e de adultos. Solventes de baixo peso molecular e pouca viscosidade como o álcool metílico e o álcool etílico, não interferiram na mortalidade média em testes biológicos de B. microplus, principalmente em concentrações inferiores a 76%.Experiments carried out with synthetic or natural acaricides usually use a solvent. To investigate the sensitivity of Boophilus microplus cattle tick to different solvents, larvae and engorged female were subjected to seven solvents in five different concentrations. It was done in the presence and absence of olive oil. The results showed that the utilization of olive oil doesn't produce different statistical results in impregnated paper larvae test. It did not happen in adults immersion test with hydrophilic compounds. The mean mortality caused by solvents was small in impregnated paper larvae test, increasing in immersion tests of larvae and adults. Solvents with low molecular weight and viscosity like ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol did not cause interference in the mortality of B. microplus in biological tests, mainly in concentrations below 76%.

  3. Myoglobin solvent structure at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, B.V.; Korszun, Z.R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schoenborn, B.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The structure of the solvent surrounding myoglobin crystals has been analyzed using neutron diffraction data, and the results indicate that the water around the protein is not disordered, but rather lies in well-defined hydration shells. We have analyzed the structure of the solvent surrounding the protein by collecting neutron diffraction data at four different temperatures, namely, 80, 130, 180, and 240K. Relative Wilson Statistics applied to low resolution data showed evidence of a phase transition in the region of 180K. A plot of the liquidity factor, B{sub sn}, versus distance from the protein surface begins with a high plateau near the surface of the protein and drops to two minima at distances from the protein surface of about 2.35{Angstrom} and 3.85{Angstrom}. Two distinct hydration shells are observed. Both hydration shells are observed to expand as the temperature is increased.

  4. Alternative solvents for post combustion carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The process model of post combustion chemical absorption is developed in Aspen Plus for both coal and gas fired power plant flue gas treating. The re-boiler energy requirement is considered as the most important factor to be optimized. Two types of solvents, mono-ethylamine (MEA) and di-ethylamine (DEA), are used to implement the model for three different efficiencies. The re-boiler energy requirement for regeneration process is calculated. Temperature and concentration profiles in absorption column are analyzed to understand the model behavior. Re-boiler energy requirement is considerably lower for DEA than MEA as well as impact of corrosion also less in DEA. Therefore, DEA can be recommended as a better solvent for post combustion process for carbon capture plants in fossil fuel fired power industries.

  5. Measuring solvent barrier properties of paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollström, Roger; Saarinen, Jarkko J; Toivakka, Martti; Räty, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    New methods for measuring barrier properties against solvents, acids and bases on dispersion coated paper were developed and investigated. Usability, reliability and repeatability were compared both between the new methods and with the standardized method for measuring barrier properties against water vapor. Barrier properties could be measured with all methods and the results obtained by the different methods were in correlation with each other. A qualitative method based on a trace color provided an indicative result, whereas further developed methods also took into account the durability. The effective barrier lifetime could be measured by measuring the conductivity through the substrate as a function of time, or by utilizing a glass prism where the change in refractive index caused by penetrated liquid was monitored, also as a function of time. Barrier properties against water and humidity were also measured and were found not to be predictors for barrier properties against either solvents, or acids or bases, which supports the need to develop new methods

  6. Solvent-extraction purification of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.A.; Hudlow, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has recovered 237 Np from reactor fuel that is currently being processed into NpO 2 for future production of 238 Pu. Several purification flowsheets have been utilized. An oxidizing solvent-extraction (SX) flowsheet was used to remove Fe, sulfate ion, and Th while simultaneously 237 Np, 238 Pu, u, and nonradioactive Ce(IV) was extracted into the tributyl phosphate (TBP) based organic solvent. A reducing SX flowsheet (second pass) removed the Ce and Pu and recovered both Np and U. The oxidizing flowsheet was necessary for solutions that contained excessive amounts of sulfate ion. Anion exchange was used to perform final purification of Np from Pu, U, and various non-actinide impurities. The Np(IV) in the purified solution was then oxalate-precipitated and calcined to an oxide for shipment to other facilities for storage and future target fabrication. Performance details of the SX purification and process difficulties are discussed. (authors)

  7. Myoglobin solvent structure at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, B.V.; Korszun, Z.R.; Schoenborn, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the solvent surrounding myoglobin crystals has been analyzed using neutron diffraction data, and the results indicate that the water around the protein is not disordered, but rather lies in well-defined hydration shells. We have analyzed the structure of the solvent surrounding the protein by collecting neutron diffraction data at four different temperatures, namely, 80, 130, 180, and 240K. Relative Wilson Statistics applied to low resolution data showed evidence of a phase transition in the region of 180K. A plot of the liquidity factor, B sn , versus distance from the protein surface begins with a high plateau near the surface of the protein and drops to two minima at distances from the protein surface of about 2.35 Angstrom and 3.85 Angstrom. Two distinct hydration shells are observed. Both hydration shells are observed to expand as the temperature is increased

  8. The disposal of radioactive solvent waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, B.; Baker, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    As the use of radioisotope techniques increases, laboratories are faced with the problem of disposing of considerable quantities of organic solvent and aqueous liquid wastes. Incineration or collection by a waste contractor both raise problems. Since most of the radiochemicals are preferentially water soluble, an apparatus for washing the radiochemicals out into water and discharging into the normal drainage system in a high diluted form is described. Despite the disadvantages (low efficiency, high water usuage, loss of solvent in presence of surface active agents, precipitation of phosphors from dioxan based liquids) it is felt that the method has some merit if a suitably improved apparatus can be designed at reasonable cost. (U.K.)

  9. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  10. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S P Jeevan; Prasad, S Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K; Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Ramesh, K V

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n -hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330 kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to look for alternative options. To circumvent the problem, green solvents could be a promising approach to replace solvent extraction. In this review, green solvents and technology like aqueous assisted enzyme extraction are better solution for oil extraction from oilseeds. Enzyme mediated extraction is eco-friendly, can obtain higher yields, cost-effective and aids in obtaining co-products without any damage. Enzyme technology has great potential for oil extraction in oilseed industry. Similarly, green solvents such as terpenes and ionic liquids have tremendous solvent properties that enable to extract the oil in eco-friendly manner. These green solvents and technologies are considered green owing to the attributes of energy reduction, eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and non-harmfulness. Hence, the review is mainly focussed on the prospects and challenges of green solvents and technology as the best option to replace the conventional methods without compromising the quality of the extracted products.

  11. 40 CFR 52.254 - Organic solvent usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organic solvent usage. 52.254 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.254 Organic solvent usage. (a) This... (d) of this section and the architectural coatings and solvent disposal emission limitations...

  12. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  13. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes and polymer nanocomposite fabrication using trifluoroacetic acid as a co-solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hui; Muthuraman, Harish; Stokes, Paul; Zou Jianhua; Liu Xiong; Wang, Jinhai; Huo Qun; Khondaker, Saiful I; Zhai Lei

    2007-01-01

    We herein report the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as a co-solvent. TFA is a strong but volatile acid which is miscible with many commonly used organic solvents. Our study demonstrates that MWCNTs can be effectively purified and readily dispersed in a range of organic solvents including dimethyl formamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and dichloromethane when mixed with 10 vol.% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed that the chemical structure of the TFA-treated MWCNTs remained intact without oxidation. The dispersed carbon nanotubes in TFA/THF solution were mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to fabricate polymer nanocomposites. A good dispersion of nanotubes in solution and in polymer matrices was observed and confirmed by SEM, optical microscopy, and light transmittance study. Low percolation thresholds of electrical conductivity were observed from the fabricated MWCNT/PMMA composite films. Further enhancement in the dispersion of MWCNTs was achieved by adding a conjugated conducting polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), to the dispersion, wherein TFA also serves as a doping agent to the conducting polymer. The ternary nanocomposite MWCNT/P3HT/PMMA exhibited an extremely low percolation threshold of less than 0.006 wt% of MWCNT content. This low percolation threshold is attributed to a good dispersion of MWCNTs and enhanced conductivity of the nanocomposites by conjugated conducting polymer

  14. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  15. Fluid mixing III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnby, N.

    1988-01-01

    Covering all aspects of mixing, this work presents research and developments in industrial applications, flow patterns and mixture analysis, mixing of solids into liquids, and mixing of gases into liquids

  16. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwen Niu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC, 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC, 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC, 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC, NaCl SRC (SCSRC, CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC, FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC, sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC, NaOH (pH 10 SRC (SHSRC, Na2CO3 (pH 10 SRC (SCABSRC and SDS (pH 10 SRC (SDSSRC values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl to acidic (5% lactic acid or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3, and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3 increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**, CCSRC (0.82**, SCHSRC (0.80** and FCSRC (0.78*. SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64* but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay.

  18. ACETANILIDA: SÍNTESE VERDE SEM SOLVENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Cunha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We described herein a solvent-free synthesis of acetanilide developed in the context of green chemistry. The synthetic approach consisted of the reaction of aniline with acetic anhydride without additives, while using smaller amounts of reagents and water than previously described for this undergraduate experiment. The E Factor was 0.6 by experienced chemists and 0.9 by students.

  19. Solvent-assisted polymer micro-molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN LuLu; ZHOU Jing; GONG Xiao; GAO ChangYou

    2009-01-01

    The micro-molding technology has played an important role in fabrication of polymer micro-patterns and development of functional devices.In such a process,suitable solvent can swell or dissolve the polymer films to decrease their glass transition temperature (Tg) and viscosity and thereby improve flowing ability.Consequently,it is easy to obtain the 2D and 3D patterns with high fidelity by the solvent-assisted micro-molding.Compared with the high temperature molding,this technology overcomes some shortcomings such as shrinking after cooling,degradation at high temperature,difficulty in processing some functional materials having high Tg,etc.It can be applied to making patterns not only on polymer monolayers but also on polyelectrolyte multilayers.Moreover,the compressioninduced patterns on the multilayers are chemically homogenous but physically heterogeneous.In this review,the controlling factors on the pattern quality are also discussed,including materials of the mold,solvent,pressure,temperature and pattern density.

  20. Dynamics of solvent-free grafted nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Chremos, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    The diffusivity and structural relaxation characteristics of oligomer-grafted nanoparticles have been investigated with simulations of a previously proposed coarse-grained model at atmospheric pressure. Solvent-free, polymer-grafted nanoparticles as well as grafted nanoparticles in a melt were compared to a reference system of bare (ungrafted) particles in a melt. Whereas longer chains lead to a larger hydrodynamic radius and lower relative diffusivity for grafted particles in a melt, bulk solvent-free nanoparticles with longer chains have higher relative diffusivities than their short chain counterparts. Solvent-free nanoparticles with short chains undergo a glass transition as indicated by a vanishing diffusivity, diverging structural relaxation time and the formation of body-centered-cubic-like order. Nanoparticles with longer chains exhibit a more gradual increase in the structural relaxation time with decreasing temperature and concomitantly increasing particle volume fraction. The diffusivity of the long chain nanoparticles exhibits a minimum at an intermediate temperature and volume fraction where the polymer brushes of neighboring particles overlap, but must stretch to fill the interparticle space. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1993-02-01

    An EPR technique developed in this lab is being used to determine the pore size and number distribution changes after swelling the coal samples with various solvents. Stable nitroxide radical spin probes of different sizes, shapes and reactivity are dissolved in an appropriate solvent, the coal sample is added to the resulting solution, stirred over night at elevated temperature, filtered, washed with a non swelling solvent to eliminate any spin probes that are not trapped in the pores and the spin concentration is measured. Comparing these spin probe measurements to DRIFT data have shown that the relative number distribution of acidic functionalities can be accurately predicted by the spin probe method. The spin probe method had also been used to predict the increase in elongated voids in Pittsburgh No. 8 (APCS No. 4) upon swelling with pyridine in agreement with independent SANS data. NMR relaxation data show that it is possible to deduce the pore (accessibility) distribution as a function of size (up to 6 mn). It has also been possible by variable temperature and ENDOR measurements to determine the presence of hydrogen bonding as a function of pore shape and size. The advantage of the EPR method is that it permits molecules of selected shape and size to be used as probes of accessible regions of coal, thus providing information on the importance of molecular shape.

  2. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Finney, R. [Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  3. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  4. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Pppp of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction values in the... solvent blend matches both the name and CAS number for an entry, that entry's organic HAP mass fraction...

  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction.... If a solvent blend matches both the name and CAS number for an entry, that entry's organic HAP mass...

  6. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Diluent effects in solvent extraction. The Effects of Diluents in Solvent Extraction - a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefstroem-Engdahl, Elin; Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Skarnemark, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    The fact that the choice of organic diluent is important for a solvent extraction process goes without saying. Several factors, such as e.g. price, flash point, viscosity, polarity etc. each have their place in the planning of a solvent extraction system. This high number of variables makes the lack of compilations concerning diluent effects to an interesting topic. Often the interest for the research concerning a specific extraction system focuses on the extractant used and the complexes built up during an extraction. The diluents used are often classical ones, even if it has been shown that choice of diluent can affect extraction as well as separation in an extraction system. An attempt to point out important steps in the understanding of diluent effects in solvent extraction is here presented. This large field is, of course, not summarized in this article, but an attempt is made to present important steps in the understanding of diluents effects in solvent extraction. Trying to make the information concerning diluent effects and applications more easily accessible this review offers a selected summarizing of literature concerning diluents effects in solvent extraction. (authors)

  8. Gas chromatographic analysis of extractive solvent in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlet, B.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a reprocessing plant using the Purex process is recalled and analytical controls for optimum performance are specified. The aim of this thesis is the development of analytical methods using gas chromatography required to follow the evolution of the extraction solvent during spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent at different concentrations, is analysed along the reprocessing lines in organic or aqueous phases. Solvent degradation interferes with extraction and decomposition products are analysed. The solvent becomes less and less efficient, also it is distilled and quality is checked. Traces of solvent should also be checked in waste water. Analysis are made as simple as possible to facilitate handling of radioactive samples [fr

  9. The influence of solvent processing on polyester bioabsorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joanne; Dixon, Dorian

    2012-01-01

    Solvent-based methods are commonly employed for the production of polyester-based samples and coatings in both medical device production and research. The influence of solvent casting and subsequent drying time was studied using thermal analysis, spectroscopy and weight measurement for four grades of 50 : 50 poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) produced by using chloroform, dichloromethane, and acetone. The results demonstrate that solvent choice and PLGA molecular weight are critical factors in terms of solvent removal rate and maintaining sample integrity, respectively. The protocols widely employed result in high levels of residual solvent and a new protocol is presented together with solutions to commonly encountered problems.

  10. Batch extracting process using magnetic particle held solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, L.; Vandergrift, G.F.

    1995-11-21

    A process is described for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents. 5 figs.

  11. Equilibrium solubility of carbon dioxide in the amine solvent system of (triethanolamine + piperazine + water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, P.-Y.; Soriano, Allan N.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Li, M.-H.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a new set of data for the equilibrium solubility of carbon dioxide in the amine solvent system that consists of triethanolamine (TEA), piperazine (PZ), and water is presented. Equilibrium solubility values were obtained at T = (313.2, 333.2, and 353.2) K and pressures up to 153 kPa using the vapour-recirculation equilibrium cell. The TEA concentrations in the considered ternary (solvent) mixture were (2 and 3) kmol . m -3 and those of PZ's were (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) kmol . m -3 . The solubility data (CO 2 loading in the amine solution) obtained were correlated as a function of CO 2 partial pressure, system temperature, and amine composition via the modified Kent-Eisenberg model. Results showed that the model applied is generally satisfactory in representing the CO 2 absorption into mixed aqueous solutions of TEA and PZ.

  12. Systematic investigations on acyclic organic carbonate solvents for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, J.; Peter, S.; Novak, P.

    2003-03-01

    Electrochemical cycling tests on cells with graphite electrodes and several alkyl methyl carbonates were performed. Experiments with mixed binary solvent electrolytes with ethylene carbonate (EC) showed that the alkyl methyl carbonates H{sub 3}CO(CO)O(CH{sub 2}){sub n}H (n = 3-5) are suitable as co-solvents in lithium-ion batteries. Ternary mixtures of EC, BMC, and propylene carbonate (PC) showed better overall performances than EC/PC electrolytes. The branched isobutyl methyl carbonate (i-BMC) outperforms its linear isomer (BMC) in terms of electrochemical performance. LiPF{sub 6} is superior to LiClO{sub 4} as conducting salt in both EC/BMC and EC/i-BMC mixtures in terms of electrolyte conductivity, rate capability, and cycling stability. (author)

  13. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  14. Size-controlled fabrication of zein nano/microparticles by modified anti-solvent precipitation with/without sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Chen, Yan; Liu, Shubo; Qi, Jian; Wang, Weiying; Wang, Chenhua; Zhong, Ruiyue; Chen, Zhijun; Li, Xiaoming; Guan, Yuanzhou; Kong, Wei; Zhang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Zein-based nano/microparticles have been demonstrated to be promising carrier systems for both the food industry and biomedical applications. However, the fabrication of size-controlled zein particles has been a challenging issue. In this study, a modified anti-solvent precipitation method was developed, and the effects of various factors, such as mixing method, solvent/anti-solvent ratio, temperature, zein concentrations and the presence of sodium caseinate (SC) on properties of zein particles were investigated. Evidence is presented that, among the previously mentioned factors, the mixing method, especially mixing rate, could be used as an effective parameter to control the size of zein particles without changing other parameters. Moreover, through fine-tuning the mixing rate together with zein concentration, particles with sizes ranging from nanometers to micrometers and low polydispersity index values could be easily obtained. Based on the size-controlled fabrication method, SC-coated zein nanoparticles could also be obtained in a size-controlled manner by incubation of the coating material with the already-formed zein particles. The resultant nanoparticles showed better performance in both drug loading and controlled release, compared with zein/SC hybrid nanoparticles fabricated by adding aqueous ethanol solution to SC solution. The possible mechanisms of the nanoprecipitation process and self-assembly formation of these nanoparticles are discussed.

  15. Permeability of commercial solvents through living human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursin, C; Hansen, C M; Van Dyk, J W

    1995-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for measuring the steady state rate of permeation of commercial solvents through living human skin. To get the most consistent results, it was necessary with some solvents to normalize the solvent permeation rate of a given skin sample with its [3H]water permeation...... rate. For other solvents this was not necessary, so the un-normalized data were used. High [3H]water permeation rate also was used as a criterion for "defective" skin samples that gave erroneous permeability rates, especially for solvents having slow permeability. The linearity of the steady state data...... of DMSO and octyl acetate were measured. No octyl acetate was detected and the permeability of DMSO was proportional to its mole fraction in the mixture. The effect of two hours of solvent exposure on the viability of skin (based on DNA synthesis) was measured and found to be very dependent on the solvent....

  16. Performance of thermal solvent process in Athabasca reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Swapan [Marathon Oil (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the petroleum industry, due to depletion of conventional resources and high demand operators are looking into heavy oil and bitumen production. Different recovery methods exist, some of them based on heating the reservoir and others on the use of solvent. Thermal solvent process is a combination of both: a small amount of heat is used to maintain a solvent vapor phase in the reservoir. This process has advantages, solvent is mostly recycled which increases bitumen recovery efficiency and reduces the need for fresh solvent, but it also poses challenges, such as maintaining a vapor chamber and the fact that solvent solubility might be affected by heating. The aim of this paper is to discuss these issues. Simulations and field tests were conducted on bitumen in the the Athabasca region. This paper presented a thermal solvent process and its application's results in Athabasca reservoir.

  17. The solvation of L-serine in mixtures of water with some aprotic solvents at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhevoi, I. N.; Badelin, V. G.

    2009-03-01

    The integral enthalpies of solution Δsol H m of L-serine in mixtures of water with acetonitrile, 1,4-dioxane, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and acetone were measured by solution calorimetry at organic component concentrations up to 0.31 mole fractions. The standard enthalpies of solution (Δsol H°), transfer (Δtr H°), and solvation (Δsolv H°) of L-serine from water into mixed solvents were calculated. The dependences of Δsol H°, Δsolv H°, and Δtr H° on the composition of aqueous-organic solvents contained extrema. The calculated enthalpy coefficients of pair interactions of the amino acid with cosolvent molecules were positive and increased in the series acetonitrile, 1,4-dioxane, DMSO, acetone. The results obtained were interpreted from the point of view of various types of interactions in solutions and the influence of the nature of organic solvents on the thermochemical characteristics of solutions.

  18. Computing the Absorption and Emission Spectra of 5-Methylcytidine in Different Solvents: A Test-Case for Different Solvation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, L; Pepino, A J; Segarra-Martí, J; Banyasz, A; Garavelli, M; Improta, R

    2016-09-13

    The optical spectra of 5-methylcytidine in three different solvents (tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, and water) is measured, showing that both the absorption and the emission maximum in water are significantly blue-shifted (0.08 eV). The absorption spectra are simulated based on CAM-B3LYP/TD-DFT calculations but including solvent effects with three different approaches: (i) a hybrid implicit/explicit full quantum mechanical approach, (ii) a mixed QM/MM static approach, and (iii) a QM/MM method exploiting the structures issuing from molecular dynamics classical simulations. Ab-initio Molecular dynamics simulations based on CAM-B3LYP functionals have also been performed. The adopted approaches all reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra, giving insights on the chemical-physical effects responsible for the solvent shifts in the spectra of 5-methylcytidine and providing the basis for discussing advantages and limitations of the adopted solvation models.

  19. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  20. Continuous mixing of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raouf, M.S.

    1963-01-01

    The most important literature on theoretical aspects of mixing solids was reviewed.

    Only when the mixed materials showed no segregation it was possible to analyse the mixing process quantitatively. In this case the mixture could be described by the 'χ' Square test. Longitudinal mixing could be

  1. Next Generation Solvent Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birdwell, Joseph F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonnesen, Peter V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Inter laboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  2. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonnesen, Peter V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duncan, Nathan C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ensor, Dale [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Hill, Talon G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Denise L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rajbanshi, Arbin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roach, Benjamin D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Szczygiel, Patricia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sloop, Jr., Frederick V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stoner, Erica L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Neil J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  3. Compound forming extractants, solvating solvents and inert solvents IUPAC chemical data series

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y; Kertes, A S

    2013-01-01

    Equilibrium Constants of Liquid-Liquid Distribution Reactions, Part III: Compound Forming Extractants, Solvating Solvents, and Inert Solvents focuses on the compilation of equilibrium constants of various compounds, such as acids, ions, salts, and aqueous solutions. The manuscript presents tables that show the distribution reactions of carboxylic and sulfonic acid extractants and their dimerization and other reactions in the organic phase and extraction reactions of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The book also states that the inorganic anions in these solutions are irrelevant, since they d

  4. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields...

  5. Effect of solvent medium on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by solvothermal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendil, R., E-mail: radia.mendil@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux appliquée à l' Environnement, Université de Gabès, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Ben Ayadi, Z. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux appliquée à l' Environnement, Université de Gabès, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Djessas, K. [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES-CNRS), TECNOSUD, Rambla de la thermodynamique, 66100 Perpignan (France); Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 68860, Perpignan Cedex9 (France)

    2016-09-05

    Different morphologies of ZnS have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal approach in a mixed solvent made of Ethylenediamine (EN) and distilled water. The effect of solvent medium on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnS nanoparticles were investigated. The formation mechanism of different morphologies was proposed based on the experiment results. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis-IR spectrophotometer. The results show that phase transformation is easily induced and there is a strong correlation between morphology and structure of the ZnS nanocrystals by changing the solvent. The results also show that we have successfully produced hexagonal phase ZnS nanorods with mixed solvent. The grain sizes in the range of 17–22 nm were obtained according to elaboration conditions. Raman spectra show the intense peak at 346 cm{sup −1}, which is a typical Raman peak of bulk ZnS crystal, no signature of secondary phases. The band gap of ZnS increased from 3.49 to 3.74 eV with an increase in the EN composition in the solvent, implying that the optical properties of these materials are clearly affected by the synthesis medium. - Highlights: • ZnS was prepared at low temperature using solvothermal method. • The phase transformation and shape evolution processes were studied. • The role of solvent (EN/W) has been discussed for formation of ZnS nanostructures with different morphology. • The properties and growth mechanism of ZnS nanoparticles were investigated. • Optical band gap of ZnS powder were investigated using UV vis spectroscopy.

  6. Scenarios Evaluation Tool for Chlorinated Solvent MNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, Karen; Michael J. Truex; Charles J. Newell; Brian Looney

    2007-02-28

    Over the past three decades, much progress has been made in the remediation of chlorinated solvents from the subsurface. Yet these pervasive contaminants continue to present a significant challenge to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), other federal agencies, and other public and private organizations. The physical and chemical properties of chlorinated solvents make it difficult to rapidly reach the low concentrations typically set as regulatory limits. These technical challenges often result in high costs and long remediation time frames. In 2003, the DOE through the Office of Environmental Management funded a science-based technical project that uses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's technical protocol (EPA, 1998) and directives (EPA, 1999) on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as the foundation on which to introduce supporting concepts and new scientific developments that will support remediation of chlorinated solvents based on natural attenuation processes. This project supports the direction in which many site owners want to move to complete the remediation of their site(s), that being to complete the active treatment portion of the remedial effort and transition into MNA. The overarching objective of the effort was to examine environmental remedies that are based on natural processes--remedies such as Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or Enhanced Attenuation (EA). The research program did identify several specific opportunities for advances based on: (1) mass balance as the central framework for attenuation based remedies, (2) scientific advancements and achievements during the past ten years, (3) regulatory and policy development and real-world experience using MNA, and (4) exploration of various ideas for integrating attenuation remedies into a systematic set of ''combined remedies'' for contaminated sites. These opportunities are summarized herein and are addressed in more detail in referenced project documents and

  7. On linear correlation between interfacial tension of water-solvent interface solubility of water in organic solvents and parameters of diluent effect scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezhov, Eh.A.; Khananashvili, N.L.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Presence of linear correlation between water solubility in nonmiscible with it organic solvents, interfacial tension of water-solvent interface, on the one hand, and solvent effect scale parameters and these solvents π* - on the other hand, is established. It allows, using certain tabular parameters of solvent effect or each solvent π*, to predict values of interfacial tension and water solubility for corresponding systems. It is shown, that solvent effect scale allows to predict values more accurately, than other known solvent scales, as it in contrast to other scales characterizes solvents, which are in equilibrium with water

  8. Enhanced removal of lead from contaminated soil by polyol-based deep eutectic solvents and saponin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Mukherjee, Sumona; Hayyan, Adeeb; Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar

    2016-11-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a class of green solvents analogous to ionic liquids, but less costly and easier to prepare. The objective of this study is to remove lead (Pb) from a contaminated soil by using polyol based DESs mixed with a natural surfactant saponin for the first time. The DESs used in this study were prepared by mixing a quaternary ammonium salt choline chloride with polyols e.g. glycerol and ethylene glycol. A natural surfactant saponin obtained from soapnut fruit pericarp, was mixed with DESs to boost their efficiency. The DESs on their own did not perform satisfactory due to higher pH; however, they improved the performance of soapnut by up to 100%. Pb removal from contaminated soil using mixture of 40% DES-Gly and 1% saponin and mixture of 10% DES-Gly and 2% saponin were above 72% XRD and SEM studies did not detect any major corrosion in the soil texture. The environmental friendliness of both DESs and saponin and their affordable costs merit thorough investigation of their potential as soil washing agents.

  9. Anodic Oxidation of Furans in Aprotic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-06

    dissolved in 70 mL acetonitrile (0.003% water , K.F. titration) containing 0.1 M tetra-n-butyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TBAF). The solution was...solvent evaporated on a rotary evaporator at 25°C ( water bath temperature). The residue was extracted with 3 x 20 mL portions of diethylether, and the...results for a clean electrode in the same solution after presaturation with oxygen. To make the film conductive for the electrolyses , the voltage was

  10. Solvent extraction studies on cadmium Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; El-Kot, A.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction study was performed on various concentrations of cadmium, zinc and cobalt halides in the presence of sulphuric acid. A long chain amine (Amberlite LA-2) and an organophosphorus solvent (TBP) were used. In most cases the value of the distribution ratio decreases with the increase of metal concentration in the aqueous phase. The various possibilities of chemical and radiochemical separations of cadmium from accompanying metal species are reported: separation of (sup109m)Ag from irradiated Cd targets, separation of (sup115m)In using HDEHP, separation of Cd and Zn from their mixtures. (T.G.)

  11. Co-non-solvency: Mean-field polymer theory does not describe polymer collapse transition in a mixture of two competing good solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Stuehn, Torsten; Kremer, Kurt [Max-Planck Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Marques, Carlos M. [Max-Planck Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Institut Charles Sadron, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-03-21

    Smart polymers are a modern class of polymeric materials that often exhibit unpredictable behavior in mixtures of solvents. One such phenomenon is co-non-solvency. Co-non-solvency occurs when two (perfectly) miscible and competing good solvents, for a given polymer, are mixed together. As a result, the same polymer collapses into a compact globule within intermediate mixing ratios. More interestingly, polymer collapses when the solvent quality remains good and even gets increasingly better by the addition of the better cosolvent. This is a puzzling phenomenon that is driven by strong local concentration fluctuations. Because of the discrete particle based nature of the interactions, Flory-Huggins type mean field arguments become unsuitable. In this work, we extend the analysis of the co-non-solvency effect presented earlier [D. Mukherji et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 4882 (2014)]. We explain why co-non-solvency is a generic phenomenon, which can only be understood by the thermodynamic treatment of the competitive displacement of (co)solvent components. This competition can result in a polymer collapse upon improvement of the solvent quality. Specific chemical details are not required to understand these complex conformational transitions. Therefore, a broad range of polymers are expected to exhibit similar reentrant coil-globule-coil transitions in competing good solvents.

  12. Co-non-solvency: Mean-field polymer theory does not describe polymer collapse transition in a mixture of two competing good solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Stuehn, Torsten; Kremer, Kurt; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Smart polymers are a modern class of polymeric materials that often exhibit unpredictable behavior in mixtures of solvents. One such phenomenon is co-non-solvency. Co-non-solvency occurs when two (perfectly) miscible and competing good solvents, for a given polymer, are mixed together. As a result, the same polymer collapses into a compact globule within intermediate mixing ratios. More interestingly, polymer collapses when the solvent quality remains good and even gets increasingly better by the addition of the better cosolvent. This is a puzzling phenomenon that is driven by strong local concentration fluctuations. Because of the discrete particle based nature of the interactions, Flory-Huggins type mean field arguments become unsuitable. In this work, we extend the analysis of the co-non-solvency effect presented earlier [D. Mukherji et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 4882 (2014)]. We explain why co-non-solvency is a generic phenomenon, which can only be understood by the thermodynamic treatment of the competitive displacement of (co)solvent components. This competition can result in a polymer collapse upon improvement of the solvent quality. Specific chemical details are not required to understand these complex conformational transitions. Therefore, a broad range of polymers are expected to exhibit similar reentrant coil-globule-coil transitions in competing good solvents

  13. Enhanced performance of dicationic ionic liquid electrolytes by organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Song; Feng, Guang; Cummings Peter, T; Zhang, Pengfei; Fulvio Pasquale, F; Hillesheim Patrick, C; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of dicationic ionic liquid (DIL) electrolytes in supercapacitors is impeded by the slow dynamics of DILs, whereas the addition of organic solvents into DIL electrolytes improves ion transport and then enhances the power density of supercapacitors. In this work, the influences of organic solvents on the conductivity of DILs and the electrical double layer (EDL) of DIL-based supercapacitors are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation. Two types of organic solvents, acetonitrile (ACN) and propylene carbonate (PC), were used to explore the effects of different organic solvents on the EDL structure and capacitance of DIL/organic solvent-based supercapacitors. Firstly, it was found that the conductivity of DIL electrolytes was greatly enhanced in the presence of the organic solvent ACN. Secondly, a stronger adsorption of PC on graphite results in different EDL structures formed by DIL/ACN and DIL/PC electrolytes. The expulsion of co-ions from EDLs was observed in DIL/organic solvent electrolytes rather than neat DILs and this feature is more evident in DIL/PC. Furthermore, the bell-shaped differential capacitance–electric potential curve was not essentially changed by the presence of organic solvents. Comparing DIL/organic solvent electrolytes with neat DILs, the capacitance is slightly increased by organic solvents, which is in agreement with experimental observation. (paper)

  14. 19F NMR spectroscopy in monitoring fluorinated-solvent regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogorodnikov, V.D.; Bordunov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive use is made of solvents such as trichloroethylene, freon-133, and perchloroethylene because they are good solvents for inorganic, plant, and animal greases, while the solvents can be recovered and there is no fire hazard. In this paper, the authors examined methods to monitor spent solution regeneration rapidly and with high accuracy. The authors tested perfluorinated telomeric alcohols as solvents for cleaning engineering components which have melting points of 60-120 degrees celsius. The higher working temperatures and the increased energy consumption are disadvantages of these solvents, but these are compensated for by the scope for using them virtually in the solid, liquid, and vapor states. The authors' proposed technology is based on solvents with melting points over 40 degrees celsius which produce virtually no wastes. The telomeric alcohols are recovered after cooling to normal conditions by separation from the oil by filtration and centrifugation, and they can be used in the next purification cycle. When the solvents have been regenerated, the petroleum products such as industrial oils can be reused for their original purpose. However, quantitative data are required on the solvent contents in the oil and the oil contents in the solvent in order to determine the degree of regeneration and the modes to be used. The authors have also proposed a quantitative method of determining traces of these alcohols in oils and residual oils in the solvent by fluorine NMR. All measurements were made with a BS497 NMR spectrometer

  15. Measurement of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a sensitive and highly specific assay for the presence of mixed disulfides between protein thiol groups and endogenous thiols has been undertaken. Previous investigations on the concentrations of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and protein glutathione mixed disulfides (ProSSG) have been of limited usefulness because of the poor specificity of the assays used. Our assay for these forms of glutathione is based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and is an extension of an earlier method. After perchloric acid precipitation, the protein sample is washed with an organic solvent to fully denature the protein. Up to a 10-fold increase in GSH released from fetal bovine serum (FBS) protein has been found when the protein precipitate is washed with ethanol rather than ether, as earlier suggested. Similar effects have been observed with an as yet unidentified thiol which elutes in the chromatography system with a retention volume similar to cysteine

  16. Essential roles of protein-solvent many-body correlation in solvent-entropy effect on protein folding and denaturation: Comparison between hard-sphere solvent and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hiraku; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    In earlier works, we showed that the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of water molecules plays the pivotal role in protein folding and denaturation. The two different solvent models, hard-sphere solvent and model water, were employed in theoretical methods wherein the entropic effect was treated as an essential factor. However, there were similarities and differences in the results obtained from the two solvent models. In the present work, to unveil the physical origins of the similarities and differences, we simultaneously consider structural transition, cold denaturation, and pressure denaturation for the same protein by employing the two solvent models and considering three different thermodynamic states for each solvent model. The solvent-entropy change upon protein folding/unfolding is decomposed into the protein-solvent pair (PA) and many-body (MB) correlation components using the integral equation theories. Each component is further decomposed into the excluded-volume (EV) and solvent-accessible surface (SAS) terms by applying the morphometric approach. The four physically insightful constituents, (PA, EV), (PA, SAS), (MB, EV), and (MB, SAS), are thus obtained. Moreover, (MB, SAS) is discussed by dividing it into two factors. This all-inclusive investigation leads to the following results: (1) the protein-water many-body correlation always plays critical roles in a variety of folding/unfolding processes; (2) the hard-sphere solvent model fails when it does not correctly reproduce the protein-water many-body correlation; (3) the hard-sphere solvent model becomes problematic when the dependence of the many-body correlation on the solvent number density and temperature is essential: it is not quite suited to studies on cold and pressure denaturating of a protein; (4) when the temperature and solvent number density are limited to the ambient values, the hard-sphere solvent model is usually successful; and (5) even at the ambient

  17. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  18. Solvents, Ethanol, Car Crashes and Tolerance: How Risky is Inhalation of Organic Solvents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research program in the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. EPA has led to some surprising considerations regarding the potential hazard of exposure to low concentrations of solvent vapors. This program involved conducting experiments to ch...

  19. PSE For Solvent Applications: A Generic Computer-aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    system engineering view that emphasizes a systematic and generic solution framework to solvent selection problems is presented. The framework integrates different methods and tools to manage the complexity and solve a wide range of problems in efficient and flexible manner. Its software implementation...

  20. γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts in aliphatic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Gagne, N.

    1990-01-01

    γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts was investigated as a model for PCB residues in irradiated food. Formation of cyclohexyl adducts of PCBs was found to be significant when pure PCB congeners and Aroclor mixture were irradiated in cyclohexane and cyclohexene. Reaction pathways were investigated, and the effects of oxygen and electron scavenger were studied

  1. High temperature solvent extraction of oil shale and bituminous coal using binary solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G.K.E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A high volatile bituminous coal from the Saar Basin and an oil shale from the Messel deposit, both Germany, were extracted with binary solvent mixtures using the Advanced Solvent Extraction method (ASE). Extraction temperature and pressure were kept at 100 C, respectively 150 C, and 20,7 MPa. After the heating phase (5 min) static extractions were performed with mixtures (v:v, 1:3) of methanol with toluene, respectively trichloromethane, for further 5 min. Extract yields were the same or on a higher level compared to those from classical soxhlet extractions (3 days) using the same solvents at 60 C. Comparing the results from ASE with those from supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) the extract yields were similar. Increasing the temperature in ASE releases more soluble organic matter from geological samples, because compounds with higher molecular weight and especially more polar substances were solubilized. But also an enhanced extraction efficiency resulted for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons which are used as biomarkers in Organic Geochemistry. Application of thermochemolysis with tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) on the extraction residues shows clearly that at higher extraction temperatures minor amounts of free fatty acids or their methyl esters (original or produced by ASE) were trapped inside the pore systems of the oil shale or the bituminous coal. ASE offers a rapid and very efficient extraction method for geological samples reducing analysis time and costs for solvents. (orig.)

  2. Silk fibroin membranes from solvent-crystallized silk fibroin/gelatin blends: Effects of blend and solvent composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Eun S. [Fiber and Polymer Science Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Frankowski, David J. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Hudson, Samuel M. [Fiber and Polymer Science Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Spontak, Richard J. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States) and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)]. E-mail: Rich_Spontak@ncsu.edu

    2007-04-15

    Protein membranes have been prepared by mixing gelatin (G) with Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF) and using aqueous methanol (MeOH) to induce SF crystallization. Amorphous blends of these polymers appear quasi-homogeneous, as discerned from visual observation, electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Upon subsequent exposure to aqueous MeOH, SF undergoes a conformational change from random-coil to {beta}-sheet. This transformation occurs in pure SF, as well as in each of the G/SF blends, as discerned from FTIR spectroscopy and thermal calorimetry. The influence of MeOH-induced SF crystallization on structure and property development has been measured as functions of blend and solvent composition. By preserving a support scaffold above the G helix-to-coil transition temperature, the formation of crystalline SF networks in G/SF blends can be used to stabilize G-based hydrogels or generate SF membranes for biomaterial, pharmaceutical and gas-separation purposes. The present study not only examines the properties of G/SF blends before and after SF crystallization, but also establishes the foundation for future research into thermally-responsive G/SF bioconjugates.

  3. Recovery of plutonium from solvent wash solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    A number of potential alternatives to the acid hydrolysis recovery of Pu were investigated. The most promising alternative for short-term use appears to be an anion exchange process that would eliminate the long boiling times and the multiple-pass concentration steps needed with the solvent extraction process because it separates the Pu from the dibutyl phosphate (DBP) while at the same time concentrating the Pu. However, restart of the Primary Recovery Column (PRC) to process this solution would require significant administrative effort. The original boiling recovery by acid hydrolysis followed by solvent extraction is probably the most expedient way to process the Pu-DBP-carbonate solution currently stored in tank 13.5 even with its long processing times and dilute product concentration. Anion exchange of a heat stabilized acidified solution is a more efficient process, but requires restart of the PRC. Extended-boiling acid hydrolysis or anion exchange of a heat stabilized acidified solution provide two well developed alternatives for recovery of the Pu from the tank 13.5 carbonate. Further work defining additional recovery processes is not planned at this time

  4. Separation of tributyl phosphate from degraded solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.V.; Nadkarni, M.N.; Ramanujam, A.; Venkatesan, M.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Kazi, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A solvent extraction method is described for the recovery of tributyl phosphate (TBP) from degraded process solvents. The method involves the separation of TBP and shell solT(SST) from 30% TBP/SSP mixture by thorium nitrate extraction leading to the formation of a heavy phase (third phase) which contains essentially TBP. The equilibrium experiments revealed that by utilizing thorium feeds of concentrations above 525 g/L in water at 1:1 ratio, a 30% TBP/SST mixture can be effectively separated into TBP and SST fractions with light SST phase having about 3% TBP. Using single stage mixer settler experiments, the feasibility of continuous separation of the three phases was assessed. Since there is a tendency for the degraded products of the diluent to seek the TBP phase, additional treatment steps would be necessary for their removal if the TBP is to be reused. Activated charcoal was investigated for this purpose. If purification of the TBP is not envisaged the volume of the organic waste generated in processing plants could be reduced by separating the diluent and TBP and only the TBP could be sent as concentrated waste. (author)

  5. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalupski, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR and D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR and D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  6. Tolerance of anaerobic bacteria to chlorinated solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Joanna C; Groissmeier, Kathrin D; Manefield, Mike J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation.

  7. Developing new chemical tools for solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, B.A.; Baes, C.F.; Burns, J.H.; Case, G.N.; Sachleben, R.A.; Bryan, S.A.; Lumetta, G.J.; McDowell, W.J.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Prospects for innovation and for greater technological impact in the field of solvent extraction (SX) seem as bright as ever, despite the maturation of SX as an economically significant separation method and as an important technique in the laboratory. New industrial, environmental, and analytical problems provide compelling motivation for diversifying the application of SX, developing new solvent systems, and seeking improved properties. Toward this end, basic research must be dedicated to enhancing the tools of SX: physical tools for probing the basis of extraction and molecular tools for developing new SX chemistries. In this paper, the authors describe their progress in developing and applying the general tools of equilibrium analysis and of ion recognition in SX. Nearly half a century after the field of SX began in earnest, coordination chemistry continues to provide the impetus for important advancements in understanding SX systems and in controlling SX chemistry. In particular, the physical tools of equilibrium analysis, X-ray crystallography, and spectroscopy are elucidating the molecular basis of SX in unprecedented detail. Moreover, the principles of ion recognition are providing the molecular tools with which to achieve new selectivities and new applications

  8. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Zalupski

    2011-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  9. Influence of a solvent on thermodynamics of electrolytic dissociation of simple and complex rare earth salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodyskij, A.V.; Fialkov, Yu.Ya.; Chernyj, D.B. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii; Kievskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1982-03-01

    Influence of the double mixed solvent on thermodynamic characteristics of ionic migration of lanthanum, neodymium, europium and dysprosium chlorides as well as their phenanthroline complexes is considered. Decrease of lambdasub(c) of simple and complex rare earth salts in the lanthanum, neodymium-europium-dysprosium series as explained by increase of solvation degree, associated with lanthanum compression. It is shown that increase of methanol or propanol content results in exothermicity decrease of the ionic migration process. The temperature constituents of enthalpy and entropy of dissociation of the simple and complex rare earth salts are presented.

  10. Thermodynamic modeling of liquid–liquid phase change solvents for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; von Solms, Nicolas; Thomsen, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    A thermodynamic model based on Extended UNIQUAC framework has been developed in this work for the de-mixing liquid–liquid phase change solvents, DEEA (2-(diethylamino)ethanol) and MAPA (3-(methylamino)propylamine). Parameter estimation was performed for two ternary systems, H2O-DEEA-CO2 and H2O......-MAPA-CO2, and a quaternary system, H2O-DEEA-MAPA-CO2 (phase change system), by using different types of experimental data (equilibrium and thermal) consisting of pure amine vapor pressure, vapor-liquid equilibrium, solid-liquid equilibrium, liquid–liquid equilibrium, excess enthalpy, and heat of absorption...

  11. Effects of solvent and structure on the reactivity of 6-substituted nicotinic acids with diazodiphenylmethane in aprotic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRATISLAV Ž. JOVANOVIĆ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate constants for the reactions of diazodiphenylmethane (DDM with 6-substituted nicotinic acids in aprotic solvents at 30 °C were determined. The obtained second order rate constants in aprotic solvents, together with literature data for benzoic and nicotinic acids in protic solvents, were used for the calculation of solvent effects, employing the Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic equation (linear solvation energy relationship – LSER in the form: log k = log k0 + s* + a + b. The correlations of the kinetic data were performed by means of multiple linear regression analysis taking appropriate solvent parameters. The sign of the equation coefficients (s, a and b were in agreement with the postulated reaction mechanism, and the mode of the solvent influences on the reaction rate is discussed based on the correlation results. A similar contribution of the non-specific solvent effect and electrophilic solvation was observed for all acids, while the highest contribution of nucleophilic solvation was influenced by their high acidity. Correlation analysis of the rate data with substituent p parameters in an appropriate solvent using the Hammett equation was also performed. The substituent effect on the acid reactivity was higher in aprotic solvents of higher dipolarity/polarizability. The mode of the transmission of the substituent effect is discussed in light of the contribution of solute–solvent interaction on the acid reactivity.

  12. Stochastic level-set variational implicit-solvent approach to solute-solvent interfacial fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shenggao, E-mail: sgzhou@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bli@math.ucsd.edu [Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Center for Interdiscipline Research, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Jiangsu, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Hui; Cheng, Li-Tien [Department of Mathematics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); Dzubiella, Joachim [Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin, Germany and Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Li, Bo, E-mail: sgzhou@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bli@math.ucsd.edu [Department of Mathematics and Quantitative Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); McCammon, J. Andrew [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    Recent years have seen the initial success of a variational implicit-solvent model (VISM), implemented with a robust level-set method, in capturing efficiently different hydration states and providing quantitatively good estimation of solvation free energies of biomolecules. The level-set minimization of the VISM solvation free-energy functional of all possible solute-solvent interfaces or dielectric boundaries predicts an equilibrium biomolecular conformation that is often close to an initial guess. In this work, we develop a theory in the form of Langevin geometrical flow to incorporate solute-solvent interfacial fluctuations into the VISM. Such fluctuations are crucial to biomolecular conformational changes and binding process. We also develop a stochastic level-set method to numerically implement such a theory. We describe the interfacial fluctuation through the “normal velocity” that is the solute-solvent interfacial force, derive the corresponding stochastic level-set equation in the sense of Stratonovich so that the surface representation is independent of the choice of implicit function, and develop numerical techniques for solving such an equation and processing the numerical data. We apply our computational method to study the dewetting transition in the system of two hydrophobic plates and a hydrophobic cavity of a synthetic host molecule cucurbit[7]uril. Numerical simulations demonstrate that our approach can describe an underlying system jumping out of a local minimum of the free-energy functional and can capture dewetting transitions of hydrophobic systems. In the case of two hydrophobic plates, we find that the wavelength of interfacial fluctuations has a strong influence to the dewetting transition. In addition, we find that the estimated energy barrier of the dewetting transition scales quadratically with the inter-plate distance, agreeing well with existing studies of molecular dynamics simulations. Our work is a first step toward the

  13. The solvent effects on dimethyl phthalate investigated by FTIR characterization, solvent parameter correlation and DFT computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Wenzhao; Deng, Chao; Liao, Jian

    2018-06-01

    This study set out with the aim of investigating the solvent effects on dimethyl phthalate (DMP) using FTIR characterization, solvent parameter correlation and DFT calculation. DMP exposed to 17 organic solvents manifested varying shift in the carbonyl stretching vibration frequency (νCdbnd O). Non-alkanols induced Band I and alkanols produced Band I and Band II. Through correlating the νCdbnd O with the empirical solvent scales including acceptor parameter (AN), Schleyer's linear free energy parameter (G), and linear free salvation energy relationships (LSER), Band I was mainly ascribed to non-specific effects from either non-alkanols or alkanol polymers ((alkanol)n). νCdbnd O of the latter indicated minor red shift and less variability compared to the former. An assumption was made and validated about the sequestering of hydroxyl group by the bulky hydrophobic chain in (alkanol)n, creating what we refer to as "screening effects". Ab initio calculation, on the other hand, provided insights for possible hydrogen binding between DMP and (ethanol)n or between ethanol monomers. The two components of Band I observed in inert solvents were assigned to the two Cdbnd O groups adopting differentiated conformations. This in turn prompted our consideration that hydrogen binding was highly selective in favor of lowly associated (alkanol)n and the particular Cdbnd O group having relatively less steric hindrance and stronger electron-donating capacity. Band II was therefore believed to derive from hydrogen-bond interactions mainly in manner of 1:1 and 1:2 DMP-(alkanol)n complexes.

  14. Method for Selection of Solvents for Promotion of Organic Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Jiménez-González, Concepción; Constable, David J.C.

    2005-01-01

    is to produce, for a given reaction, a short list of chemicals that could be considered as potential solvents, to evaluate their performance in the reacting system, and, based on this, to rank them according to a scoring system. Several examples of application are given to illustrate the main features and steps......A method to select appropriate green solvents for the promotion of a class of organic reactions has been developed. The method combines knowledge from industrial practice and physical insights with computer-aided property estimation tools for selection/design of solvents. In particular, it employs...... estimates of thermodynamic properties to generate a knowledge base of reaction, solvent and environment related properties that directly or indirectly influence the rate and/or conversion of a given reaction. Solvents are selected using a rules-based procedure where the estimated reaction-solvent properties...

  15. Measurement of oxygen transfer from air into organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, Hemalata; Mayr, Torsten; Hobisch, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    biological reactions require the supply of oxygen, most normally from air. However, reliable on-line measurements of oxygen concentration in organic solvents (and hence oxygen transfer rates from air to the solvent) has to date proven impossible due limitations in the current analytical methods. Results...... applications). Subsequently, we measured the oxygen transfer rates from air into these organic solvents. Conclusion The measurement of oxygen transfer rates from air into organic solvents using the dynamic method was established using the solvent resistant optical sensor. The feasibility of online oxygen...... For the first time, we demonstrate on-line oxygen measurements in non-aqueous media using a novel optical sensor. The sensor was used to measure oxygen concentration in various organic solvents including toluene, THF, isooctane, DMF, heptane and hexane (which have all been shown suitable for several biological...

  16. Biomolecular-solvent stereodynamic coupling probed by deuteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornili, S.L.; Leone, M.; Madonia, F.; Migliore, M.; Palma-Vittorelli, M.B.; Palma, M.U.; San Biagio, P.L.

    1983-01-01

    Thermodynamic interpretation of experiments with isotopically perturbed solvent supports the view that solvent stereodynamics is directly relevant to thermodynamic stability of biomolecules. According with the current understanding of the structure of the aqueous solvent, in any stereodynamic configuration of the latter, connectivity pathways are identifiable for their topologic and order properties. Perturbing the solvent by isotopic substitution or, e.g., by addition of co-solvents, can therefore be viewed as reinforcing or otherwise perturbing these topologic structures. This microscopic model readily visualizes thermodynamic interpretation. In conclusion, the topologic stereodynamic structures of connectivity pathways in the solvent, as modified by interaction with solutes, acquire a specific thermodynamic and biological significance, and the problem of thermodynamic and functional stability of biomolecules is seen in its full pertinent phase space

  17. Permeability of commercial solvents through living human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursin, C; Hansen, C M; Van Dyk, J W

    1995-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for measuring the steady state rate of permeation of commercial solvents through living human skin. To get the most consistent results, it was necessary with some solvents to normalize the solvent permeation rate of a given skin sample with its [3H]water permeation...... rate. For other solvents this was not necessary, so the un-normalized data were used. High [3H]water permeation rate also was used as a criterion for "defective" skin samples that gave erroneous permeability rates, especially for solvents having slow permeability. The linearity of the steady state data...... was characterized by calculation of the "percent error of the slope." The following permeability rates (g/m2h) of single solvents were measured: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 176; N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, 171; dimethyl acetamide, 107; methyl ethyl ketone, 53; methylene chloride, 24; [3H]water, 14.8; ethanol, 11...

  18. Trace elements retained in washed nuclear fuel reprocessing solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; MacMurdo, K.W.

    1979-09-01

    Analysis of purified TBP extractant from solvent extraction processes at Savannah River Plant showed several stable elements and several long-lived radioisotopes. Stable elements Al, Na, Br, Ce, Hg, and Sm are found in trace quantities in the solvent. The only stable metallic element consistently found in the solvent was Al, with a concentration which varies from about 30 ppM to about 10 ppM. The halogens Br and Cl appear to be found in the solvent systems as organo halides. Radionuclides found were principally 106 Ru, 129 I, 3 H, 235 U, and 239 Pu. The 129 I concentration was about 1 ppM in the first solvent extraction cycle of each facility. In the other cycles, 129 I concentration varied from about 0.1 to 0.5 ppM. Both 129 I and 3 H appear to be in the organic solvent as a result of exchange with hydrogen

  19. Influence of the composition of aqueous dimethylsulfoxide solvent on thermodynamics of complexing between 18-crown-6-ether and D,L-alanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usacheva, T. R.; Kuzmina, I. A.; Sharnin, V. A.; Chernov, I. V.; Matteoli, E.

    2012-07-01

    Standard thermodynamic parameters (log K o, Δr H o, TΔr S o) of complexing 18-crown-6 ether (18C6) with D,L-alanine (Ala) in mixed water-dimethysulfoxide (H2O-DMSO) solvents are calculated on the basis of calorimetric titration results. A rise in the DMSO concentration in mixed solvent is found to increase stability and increase the exothermicity of the formation of [Ala-18C6] molecular complex. Changes in the reaction energetic are shown to be determined by changes in the solvation state of 18C6 that is the characteristic of the reactions of molecular complex formation between 18C6 and D,L-alanine or glycine in water-organic solvents.

  20. Heat Effect of the Protonation of Glycine and the Enthalpies of Resolvation of Participating Chemical Species in Water-Dimethylsulfoxide Solvent Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaeva, V. A.; Sharnin, V. A.

    2018-02-01

    Enthalpies of the protonation of glycine in water‒dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvents are determined calorimetrically in the range of DMSO mole fractions of 0.0 to 0.9, at T = 298.15 K and an ionic strength μ = 0.3 (NaClO4). It is established that the protonation of glycine becomes more exothermic with an increasing mole fraction of DMSO, and the enthalpies of resolvation of glycine and glycinium ions in water‒DMSO solvent mixtures are calculated. It is shown that the small changes in the enthalpy of protonation observed at low mole fractions of DMSO are caused by the contributions from the solvation of proton and protonated glycine cancelling each other out. The enthalpy term of the Gibbs energy of the reaction leading to the formation of glycinium ion is estimated along with the enthalpy of resolvation of the reacting species in the water‒DMSO mixed solvent.

  1. Performance of thermally-chargeable supercapacitors in different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyuck; Zhao, Cang; Qiao, Yu

    2014-07-07

    The influence of solvent on the temperature sensitivity of the electrode potential of thermally-chargeable supercapacitors (TCSs) is investigated. For large electrodes, the output voltage is positively correlated with the dielectric constant of solvent. When nanoporous carbon electrodes are used, different characteristics of system performance are observed, suggesting that possible size effects must be taken into consideration when the solvent molecules and solvated ions are confined in a nanoenvironment.

  2. Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David S.; Blessing, James E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

  3. Solvent degradation and cleanup: a survey and recent ORNL studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper surveys the mechanisms for degradation of the tributyl phosphate and diluent components of Purex solvent by acid and radiation, reviews the problems encountered in plant operations resulting from the presence of these degradation products, and discusses methods for minimizing the formation of degradation products and accomplishing their removal. Scrubbing solutions containing sodium carbonate or hydroxylamine salts and secondary cleanup of solvents using solid sorbents are evaluated. Finally, recommendations for improved solvent cleanup are presented. 50 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  4. Solvent distillation studies for a purex reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, C.; Guillaume, B.

    1990-01-01

    A distillation system has been developed for regeneration of Purex solvent and will be implemented for the first time in a reprocessing plant. The results are described and analyzed, with emphasis on laboratory experiments which were made with a radioactive plant solvent. Particularly the distillation provides a good separation of solvent degradation products, which was verified by measurements of interfacial tension and plutonium or ruthenium retention. 16 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Dendritic brushes under theta and poor solvent conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergidis, Leonidas N.; Kalogirou, Andreas; Charalambopoulos, Antonios; Vlahos, Costas

    2013-07-01

    The effects of solvent quality on the internal stratification of polymer brushes formed by dendron polymers up to third generation were studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations with Langevin thermostat. The distributions of polymer units, of the free ends, the radii of gyration, and the back folding probabilities of the dendritic spacers were studied at the macroscopic states of theta and poor solvent. For high grafting densities we observed a small decrease in the height of the brush as the solvent quality decreases. The internal stratification in theta solvent was similar to the one we found in good solvent, with two and in some cases three kinds of populations containing short dendrons with weakly extended spacers, intermediate-height dendrons, and tall dendrons with highly stretched spacers. The differences increase as the grafting density decreases and single dendron populations were evident in theta and poor solvent. In poor solvent at low grafting densities, solvent micelles, polymeric pinned lamellae, spherical and single chain collapsed micelles were observed. The scaling dependence of the height of the dendritic brush at high density brushes for both solvents was found to be in agreement with existing analytical results.

  6. Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel by Oxidation and Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadood Taher Mohammed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a study in ultra-desulfurization of diesel fuel produced from conventional hydro desulfurization process, using oxidation and solvent extraction techniques. Dibenzothiophene (DBT was the organosulfur compound that had been detected in sulfur removal. The oxidation process used hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and acetic acid as homogeneous catalyst . The solvent extraction process used acetonitrile (ACN and N-methyl – 2 - pyrrolidone (NMP as extractants . Also the effect of five parameters (stirring speed :150 , 250 , 350 , and 450 rpm, temperature (30 , 40 , 45 , and 50 oC, oxidant/simulated diesel fuel ratio (0.5 , 0.75 , 1 , and 1.5 , catalyst/oxidant ratio(0.125,0.25,0.5,and0.75 , and solvent/simulated diesel fuel ratio(0.5,0.6,0.75,and1 were examined as well as solvent type. The results exhibit that the highest removal of sulfur is 98.5% using NMP solvent while it is 95.8% for ACN solvent. The set of conditions that show the highest sulfur removal is: stirring speed of 350 rpm , temperature 50oC , oxidant/simulated diesel fuel ratio 1 , catalyst/oxidant ratio 0.5 , solvent/simulated diesel fuel ratio 1. These best conditions were applied upon real diesel fuel (produced from Al-Dora refinerywith 1000 ppm sulfur content . It was found that sulfur removal was 64.4% using ACN solvent and 75% using NMP solvent.

  7. Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oil by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the potential techniques. The advantages of solvent extraction technique practically offers from environmental and economic points of view have received due attention. In this paper selection of composite solvent and technique to upgrade the used lubricant oil into base oil has been made. The composite solvent 2-propanol, 1-butanol and butanone have two alcohols that make a binary system reasonably effective. This work also attempts to study the performance of the composite solvent in the extraction process for recovering waste lubricating oil. The key parameters considered were vacuum pressure, temperature and the weight ratio of solvent to waste lubricating oil. The performance was investigated on the PSR (Percentage Sludge Removal and POL (Percent Oil Loss. The best results were obtained using composite solvent 25% 2-propanol, 37% 1-butanol and 38% butanone by a solvent to oil ratio of 6:1 at vacuum pressure 600mmHg and distillation temperature 250oC. The vacuum distilled oil pretreated with the composite solvents was matched to the standard base oil 500N and 150N, found in close agreement and could be used for similar purpose.

  8. The development of Gallstone solvent temperature adaptive PID control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; BING; QIAO; BO; YAN

    2012-01-01

    The paper expatiated the work principle,general project,and the control part of the corresponding program of the temperature system in the gallstone dissolving instrument.Gallstone dissolving instrument adopts automatic control solvent cycle of direct solution stone treatment,replacing the traditional external shock wave rock row stone and gallblad-der surgery method.PID control system to realize the gall stone solvent temperature intelligent control,the basic principle of work is as solvent temperature below the set temperature,the relay control heater to solvent to be heated,conversely,no heating,achieve better able to dissolve the the rapeutic effect of gallstones.

  9. Decontamination of radioactive contaminated protective wear using dry cleaning solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthiah, Pushpa; Chitra, S.; Paul, Biplob

    2013-01-01

    Liquid waste generated by conventional decontamination of radioactive contaminated cotton protective wear using detergent affects the chemical treatment of the plant. To reduce the generation of aqueous detergent waste, dry cleaning of cotton protective wear, highly soiled with oil and grease towards decontamination was tried with organic solvents. Mineral turpentine oil (MTO) among various other organic solvents was identified as a suitable organic solvent. As MTO leaves characteristic odour on the cloth, various commercial fragrances for the removal of the odour were tried. Application of the optimised dry cleaning solvent and commercial fragrance was adopted in plant scale operation. (author)

  10. Recovery of acid-degraded tributyl phosphate by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.C.; Holladay, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    During nuclear fuel reprocessing the organic solvent becomes loaded with various acidic degradation products, which can be effectively removed through solvent extraction. Studies have been made with a small bench-scale solvent extraction system to optimize such parameters as pH of aqueous phase, phase ratio, residence time, flow rates, and temperature. The necessary decontamination factors have been obtained for various degradation products during continuous solvent extraction in one stage, with the aqueous phase being recycled. The aqueous phase contains compounds that can be degraded to gases to minimize waste disposal problems

  11. Arctic Mixed Layer Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morison, James

    2003-01-01

    .... Over the years we have sought to understand the heat and mass balance of the mixed layer, marginal ice zone processes, the Arctic internal wave and mixing environment, summer and winter leads, and convection...

  12. Contributions to anionexchange separation of metal ions in mixed aqueous-organic solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha-Campos, C.

    1986-01-01

    In the first chapter of the thesis a method is described for the determination of iron, copper, manganese, nickel, cobalt and uranium in samples of manganese nodules. After dissolution of the sample in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric-nitric acids, the elements are adsorbed on a column of the strongly basic anion-exchange resin Dowex 1 from a medium consisting of 80% cyclohexanone 10% methanol and 10% 1M hydrochloric acid. Following removal of iron by washing the resin bed with a mixture of the same composition, 90% methanol-10% 1M hydrochloric containing ascorbic acid is passed through the column to eluate manganese, nickel and cobalt. Subsequently, 4M hydrochloric acid-1% hydrogen peroxid solution and 1M hydrochloric acid are used to elute copper and uranium, respectively. The elements were determined quantitatively by ICP-OES, except for uranium which was determined by fluorimetry. The method was used successfully for the determination of mg and p.p.m. quantities of these elements in samples of manganese nodules. In the second chapter of the thesis a procedure is described for the determination of cadmium, lead, zinc and uranium in samples of Austrian mineral waters. After acidification, the sample was heated to expell CO 2 and the elements in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline are extracted into chloroform at pH-7. Then the metals are adsorbed on a column of the strongly basic anion-exchange resin Dowex 1 from a medium consisting of 55% chloroform, 36% methanol and 9% 12M hydrochloric acid. After simultaneous elution of the elements with 1M nitric acid, a portion of the eluate was passed through another column containing the same resin to separate uranium from the other elements. The uranium was determined fluorimetrically and cadmium, lead and zinc by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The method was successfully used for the quantitative determination of these elements in mineral water samples. (Author)

  13. Synthesis of Aluminium Nanoparticles in A Water/Polyethylene Glycol Mixed Solvent using μ-EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, R. K.; Hiremath, Somashekhar S.

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticles present a practical way of retaining the results of the property at the atomic or molecular level. Due to the recent use of nanoparticles in scientific, industrial and medical applications, synthesis of nanoparticles and their characterization have become considerably important. Currently, aluminium nanoparticles have attracted significant research attention because of their reasonable cost, unique properties and interdisciplinary emerging applications. The present paper reports the synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles in the mixture of Deionized water (DI water) and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) using a developed micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (μ-EDM) method. PEG was used as a stabilizer to prevent nanoparticles from agglomeration produced during the μ -EDM process. The synthesized aluminium nanoparticles were examined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive Analysis by X-rays (EDAX) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) pattern to determine their size, shape, chemical nature and crystal structure. The average size of the polyhedral aluminium nanoparticles is found to be 196 nm.

  14. Ion-exchange behaviour of hydrous zirconia in mixed solvents: capacity and kinetics of exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, N.Z.; Ghoneimy, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    The capacity of the Li + form of hydrous zirconia for Na + and Cs + increases in the presence of methanol. This may be due to the greater stability of Li + in methanol/water than in pure water and to dehydration of Na + and Cs + and their stronger interaction with the exchange sites, which may facilitate their replacing Li + . The ion-exchange capacity of zirconia for NO 3 - , Cl - and Br - is almost the same in aqueous solution and is not affected by addition of up to 90% (v/v) methanol, which probably shows that these anions are electrostatically bound in zirconia without specific interactions. The internal diffusion coefficients of the Na + /H + and Cl - /OH - systems decrease in the presence of alcohol: the decrease is highest with methanol and similar for ethanol and propan-2-ol. This is discussed in the light of ion solvation and alcohol penetration inside zirconia. (author)

  15. Cycloadditions in mixed aqueous solvents : the role of the water concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Theo; Engberts, Jan B. F. N.

    We examined the kinetics of a series of cycloaddition reactions in mixtures of water with methanol, acetonitrile and poly(ethylene glycol) (MW 1000). The reactions include the Diels-Alder (DA) reaction between cyclopentadiene and N-n-butylmaleimide or acridizinium bromide, the retro-Diels-Alder

  16. Analysis of recovered solvents from coal liquefaction in a flowing-solvent reactor by SEC and UV-fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.Y.; Feng, J.; Xie, K.C.; Kandiyoti, R. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2005-08-01

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents: tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP); at two temperatures: 350 {sup o}C and 450{sup o}C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. These solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilize free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. Analysis of the fresh solvents and recovered solvents from coal liquefaction was achieved by size exclusion chromatography and UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. In the blank run, it was testified that the filling material sand and the steel powder did not react with solvent with increasing reaction temperature. The role of hydrogen donation in the tetralin extracts was to increase the proportion of large molecules with increasing extraction temperature. Quinoline and NMP both have the powerful extracting capability to get more materials out of coal with increasing extraction temperature.

  17. Analysis of recovered solvents from coal liquefaction in a flowing-solvent reactor by SEC and UV-fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Ying Li; Jie Feng; Ke-Chang Xie; R. Kandiyoti [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology for Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province

    2005-08-01

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents: tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP); at two temperatures: 350{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. These solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilize free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. Analysis of the fresh solvents and recovered solvents from coal liquefaction was achieved by size exclusion chromatography and UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. In the blank run, it was testified that the filling material sand and the steel powder did not react with solvent with increasing reaction temperature. The role of hydrogen donation in the tetralin extracts was to increase the proportion of large molecules with increasing extraction temperature. Quinoline and NMP both have the powerful extracting capability to get more materials out of coal with increasing extraction temperature.

  18. The effect of solvent swelling for the production of ashless coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylin Kurman; Sultan Giray; Ozgur Sonmez [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Chemistry Department, Art& Science Faculty

    2005-07-01

    Two Turkish coal (a bituminous and a brown coal) were extracted with NMP-CS2 (1:1 v/v) and NMP-EDA (1:17, v/v) at room conditions and with NMP and NMP/EDA under reflux. To obtain any effect of solvent swelling on extraction yield coals were also extracted at same conditions after swelling with NMP and EDA. The extraction yield was maximum in the NMP-CS2 mixed solvent for higher ranked coal, suggesting a synergistic effect of the system. It was possible to extract over 35 % of sub-bituminous coal by using NMP- CS2. The extraction of same coal with NMP under reflux gave an extraction yield of 33% suggesting the useful effect of solvent swelling and heat during the reflux period. A positive effect of pre-swelling with NMP and EDA on extraction yield and recovery of solid extracts were observed , especially for brown coal sample. Following the extraction, solid extracts were produced with less than 0.12 % in ash content for almost all extraction conditions.

  19. Experimental investigation on the minimum ignition temperature of hybrid mixtures of dusts and gases or solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-01-15

    Investigations on the minimum ignition temperatures (MIT) of hybrid mixtures of dusts with gases or solvents were performed in the modified Godbert-Greenwald (GG) furnace. Five combustible dusts and six flammable gases (three ideal and three real) were used. The test protocol was according to EN 50281-2-1 for dust-air mixtures whereas in the case of gases, solvents and hybrid mixtures this standard was used with slight modification. The experimental results demonstrated a significant decrease of the MIT of gas, solvent or dust and an increase in the likelihood of explosion when a small amount of dust, which was either below the minimum explosion concentration or not ignitable by itself, was mixed with gas and vice versa. For example, the MIT of toluene decreased from 540°C to 455°C when small amount of lycopodium was added. It was also confirmed that a hybrid mixture explosion is possible even when both dust and vapour or gas concentrations are respectively lower than their minimum explosion concentration (MEC) and lower explosion limit (LEL). Another example is CN4, the MEC of which of 304 g/m(3) decreased to 37 g/m(3) when propane was added, even though the concentrations of the gas was below its LEL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interfacing solvent extraction in the recovery of pyrochemical residues at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    The traditional feedstock for plutonium recovery at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has been spent reactor fuel elements and irradiated targets. Feed sources have included both onsite reactors and a wide variety of domestic and foreign reactors. For the past few years, a growing and increasingly varied mix of unirradiated plutonium residues has been purified through SRP aqueous-based processes. Recently, plutonium residues generated in various chloride salt melts have become a significant offsite source of feed for SRP recovery operations. Impure plutonium metal and plutonium alloys have also been processed. A broader range of molten salt and other high temperature residues is anticipated for the future. The major advantage of solvent extraction for scrap purification is the versatility of the solvent extraction system which allows numerous contaminants to be removed by routine operations. Major concerns are nuclear safety control, corrosion of equipment, and control of releases to the environment. SRP's past, present, and future interfacing of solvent extraction in processing pyrochemical and other plutonium-containing residues is reviewed

  1. Solvent-Free Manufacturing of Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Brandon; Zheng, Zhangfeng; Shou, Wan; Wang, Yan; Pan, Heng

    2016-03-01

    Lithium ion battery electrodes were manufactured using a new, completely dry powder painting process. The solvents used for conventional slurry-cast electrodes have been completely removed. Thermal activation time has been greatly reduced due to the time and resource demanding solvent evaporation process needed with slurry-cast electrode manufacturing being replaced by a hot rolling process. It has been found that thermal activation time to induce mechanical bonding of the thermoplastic polymer to the remaining active electrode particles is only a few seconds. Removing the solvent and drying process allows large-scale Li-ion battery production to be more economically viable in markets such as automotive energy storage systems. By understanding the surface energies of various powders which govern the powder mixing and binder distribution, bonding tests of the dry-deposited particles onto the current collector show that the bonding strength is greater than slurry-cast electrodes, 148.8 kPa as compared to 84.3 kPa. Electrochemical tests show that the new electrodes outperform conventional slurry processed electrodes, which is due to different binder distribution.

  2. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  3. THE MARKETING MIX OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the marketing mix and the necessity of the marketing mix optimization. In the marketing mix a particularly important issue is to choose the best combination of its variables, this lead to the achievement objectives, in time. Choosing the right marketing mix is possible only by reporting information to some clear benchmarks, these criteria a related to the objective of the company at the time of analyze. The study shows that the companies must give a great importance to opti...

  4. Adsorbents for radioactive organic solvent wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Shigeo; Kiribayashi, Takehiko.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to settle radioactive solvents such as tributyl phosphate (TBP) and n-dodecane as they are without using hydrophobicizing agent such as quaternary ammonium salts. Constitution: The adsorbents are prepared by replacing interlaminer ions of swelling-type synthetic mica with alkaline earth metals or metal ions. For instance, synthetic micas introduced with Zr 4+ or Ca 2+ between the layers provide quite different functions from those of starting materials due to the properties of ions introduced between the layers. That is, they provide an intense affinity to organic phosphates such as TBP and transform into material showing a property of adsorbing and absorbing them. Particularly, the fixing nature to the phosphor content constituting TBP is significantly increased. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Solvent extraction of noble metals by formazans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, M.; Hueppe, U.; Kettrup, A.

    1984-01-01

    The extraction properties of ion-pairs composed of quaternary ammonium cations and a sulphonated formazan were compared with those of an unsulphonated formazan, for various solvent media. In dichloromethane the combined system behaves as a 'coloured anion-exchanger', with displacement of the sulphonated formazan, whereas in toluene Pd(II) and Ag(I) are extracted as the metal formazan chelates from aqueous medium. The rates of extraction are remarkably higher than with the simple extractants. Because of the higher stability only the simple chelating extraction systems afford satisfactory separation of Pd(II) from excess of Pt(IV) and of Ag(I) from Cu(II). The extracted metals can be stripped and the extractant regenerated. (author)

  6. Management of spent solvents of reprocessing origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, S.; Srinivas, C.; Vincent, T.; Wattal, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Spent solvents of reprocessing origin constitute a major portion of radioactive liquid organic wastes arising from nuclear activity. An in-depth study of this waste stream has led to the evolution of a complete management option, which addresses not only the concern of radioactivity but also its organic nature. This is based on alkaline hydrolysis of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), which converts it into aqueous soluble products, viz. sodium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid and butanol. During the process of alkaline hydrolysis almost all the activity associated with the waste gets transferred into the aqueous phase. The recovered diluent virtually free of activity and TBP can be recycled, and in case of it not meeting reprocessing standards, can be incinerated. The process generated aqueous waste is found compatible with cement and can be immobilized in cement matrix. (author)

  7. Alternative solvents for natural products extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Chemat, Farid

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a complete picture of the current state-of-the-art in alternative and green solvents used for laboratory and industrial natural product extraction in terms of the latest innovations, original methods and safe products. It provides the necessary theoretical background and details on extraction, techniques, mechanisms, protocols, industrial applications, safety precautions and environmental impacts. This book is aimed at professionals from industry, academicians engaged in extraction engineering or natural product chemistry research, and graduate level students. The individual chapters complement one another, were written by respected international researchers and recognized professionals from the industry, and address the latest efforts in the field. It is also the first sourcebook to focus on the rapid developments in this field.

  8. Oligoquinolines under Solvent-free Microwave Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwi-Jeon; Kwon, Tae-Woo [Kyungsung University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Quinolines are thermally stable and can be used as an excellent n-type semiconducting materials. Since quinolines are also known to be electron acceptor molecules, combination of various electron donor building blocks can be utilized in photonic and electronic organic light-emitting diode (OLED) applications. For example, donor.acceptor systems with phenothiazine (or carbazole) molecules as electron donors and the phenylquinoline group as an electron acceptor provide an efficient approach for the design of new materials exhibiting highly efficient charge-transfer photophysics and electroluminescence in OLEDs. We have described the Friedlander quinoline synthesis between aminobenzophenones and symmetrical diacetyl compounds having phenothiazine, carbazole, biphenyl, and phenyl moieties under solvent-free microwave irradiation in 12.98% isolated yields.

  9. Solvent Effects on Protein Folding/Unfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A. E.; Hillson, N.; Onuchic, J. N.

    Pressure effects on the hydrophobic potential of mean force led Hummer et al. to postulate a model for pressure denaturation of proteins in which denaturation occurs by means of water penetration into the protein interior, rather than by exposing the protein hydrophobic core to the solvent --- commonly used to describe temperature denaturation. We study the effects of pressure in protein folding/unfolding kinetics in an off-lattice minimalist model of a protein in which pressure effects have been incorporated by means of the pair-wise potential of mean force of hydrophobic groups in water. We show that pressure slows down the kinetics of folding by decreasing the reconfigurational diffusion coefficient and moves the location of the folding transition state.

  10. Solvent extraction studies on cadmium. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Badran, A.; El-Bassiouny, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    An extraction study was performed on tracer concentrations of cadmium, zinc and silver halides in absence and presence of phosphoric acid. A long chain amine (Amberlite LA-2) and an organophosphorus solvent (TBP) have been investigated. Since orthophosphoric acid was found to have a similar role as sulphuric acid, it was interesting to carry out a systematic investigation on the extraction behaviour of the halides of the three elements Cs, Zn and Ag in orthophosphoric acid medium. The separation of Cd from Zn or Ag is frequently encountered in chemical as well as radiochemical analysis. The results presented here give many possibilities for such separation. Amberlite LA-2 was always used as 5 vol% and TBP as 50 vol% in benzene. The presence of phosphoric acid was found to enhance considerably the extraction of most halides. The mechanism of extraction has been discussed in light of the obtained results. (T.G.)

  11. Is Water a Universal Solvent for Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorill, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    There are strong reasons to believe that the laws, principles and constraints of physics and chemistry are universal. It is much less clear how this universality translates into our understanding of the origins of life. Conventionally, discussions of this topic focus on chemistry that must be sufficiently rich to seed life. Although this is clearly a prerequisite for the emergence of living systems, I propose to focus instead on self-organization of matter into functional structures capable of reproduction, evolution and responding to environmental changes. In biology, most essential functions are largely mediated by noncovalent interactions (interactions that do not involve making or breaking chemical bonds). Forming chemical bonds is only a small part of what living systems do. There are specific implications of this point of view for universality. I will concentrate on one of these implications. Strength of non-covalent interactions must be properly tuned. If they were too weak, the system would exhibit undesired, uncontrolled response to natural fluctuations of physical and chemical parameters. If they were too strong kinetics of biological processes would be slow and energetics costly. This balance, however, is not a natural property of complex chemical systems. Instead, it has to be achieved with the aid of an appropriate solvent for life. In particular, potential solvents for life must be characterized by a high dielectric constant to ensure solubility of polar species and sufficient flexibility of biological structures stabilized by electrostatic interactions. Among these solvents, water exhibits a remarkable trait that it also promotes solvophobic (hydrophobic) interactions between non-polar species, typically manifested by a tendency of these species to aggregate and minimize their contacts with the aqueous solvent. Hydrophobic interactions are responsible, at least in part, for many self-organization phenomena in biological systems, such as the formation

  12. Organogels thermodynamics, structure, solvent role, and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Guenet, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a physics-oriented introduction to organogels with a comparison to polymer thermoreversible gels whenever relevant. The past decade has seen the development of a wide variety of newly-synthesized molecules that can spontaneously self-assemble or crystallize from their organic or aqueous solutions to produce fibrillar networks, namely organogels, with potential applications in organic electronics, light harvesting, bio-imaging, non-linear optics, and the like. This compact volume presents a detailed outlook of these novel molecular systems with special emphasis upon their thermodynamics, morphology, molecular structure, and rheology. The definition of these complex systems is also tackled, as well as the role of the solvent. The text features numerous temperature-phase diagrams for a variety of organogels as well as illustrations of their structures at the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic level. A review of some potential applications is provided including hybrid functional materials ...

  13. Mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  14. Improved annular centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, G.J.; Leonard, R.A.; Ziegler, A.A.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved annular centrifugal contactor has been developed for solvent extraction reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The design is an extension of a contactor developed several years ago at Argonne National Laboratory. Its distinguishing features are high throughput, high stage efficiency and the ability to handle a broad range of aqueous-to-organic phase flow ratios and density ratios. Direct coupling of the mixing and separating rotor to a motorized spindle simplifies the design and makes the contactor particularly suitable for remote maintenance. A unit that is critically safe by geometry is under test and a larger unit is being fabricated. Multi-stage miniature contactors operating on the annular mixing principle are being used for laboratory flow sheet studies. 8 figures

  15. Device Scale Modeling of Solvent Absorption using MFIX-TFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carney, Janine E. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Finn, Justin R. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Recent climate change is largely attributed to greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane) and fossil fuels account for a large majority of global CO2 emissions. That said, fossil fuels will continue to play a significant role in the generation of power for the foreseeable future. The extent to which CO2 is emitted needs to be reduced, however, carbon capture and sequestration are also necessary actions to tackle climate change. Different approaches exist for CO2 capture including both post-combustion and pre-combustion technologies, oxy-fuel combustion and/or chemical looping combustion. The focus of this effort is on post-combustion solvent-absorption technology. To apply CO2 technologies at commercial scale, the availability and maturity and the potential for scalability of that technology need to be considered. Solvent absorption is a proven technology but not at the scale needed by typical power plant. The scale up and down and design of laboratory and commercial packed bed reactors depends heavily on the specific knowledge of two-phase pressure drop, liquid holdup, the wetting efficiency and mass transfer efficiency as a function of operating conditions. Simple scaling rules often fail to provide proper design. Conventional reactor design modeling approaches will generally characterize complex non-ideal flow and mixing patterns using simplified and/or mechanistic flow assumptions. While there are varying levels of complexity used within these approaches, none of these models resolve the local velocity fields. Consequently, they are unable to account for important design factors such as flow maldistribution and channeling from a fundamental perspective. Ideally design would be aided by development of predictive models based on truer representation of the physical and chemical processes that occur at different scales. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are based on multidimensional flow equations with first

  16. Effects of temperature and solvent concentration on the solvent crystallization of palm-based dihydroxystearic acid with isopropyl alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregory F.L.Koay; Teong-Guan Chuah; Sumaiya Zainal-Abidin; Salmiah Ahmad; Thomas S.Y.Choong

    2012-01-01

    Palm-based dihydroxystearic acid of 69.55% purity was produced in a 500-kg-per-batch operation pilot plant and purified through solvent crystallization in a custom fabricated simultaneous batch crystallizer unit.The effects of temperature and solvent concentration on yield,particle size distribution and purity were studied.The purity was higher,while the yield and particle size were lower and smaller,respectively,at higher temperature and solvent concentration.The solvent crystallization process efficiency was rated at 66-69% when carried out with 70-80% isopropyl alcohol at 20 ℃.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of solvent systems for countercurrent separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, J Brent; Ahmed, Sana; Pauli, Guido F

    2015-01-16

    Rational solvent system selection for countercurrent chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography technology (collectively known as countercurrent separation) studies continues to be a scientific challenge as the fundamental questions of comparing polarity range and selectivity within a solvent system family and between putative orthogonal solvent systems remain unanswered. The current emphasis on metabolomic investigations and analysis of complex mixtures necessitates the use of successive orthogonal countercurrent separation (CS) steps as part of complex fractionation protocols. Addressing the broad range of metabolite polarities demands development of new CS solvent systems with appropriate composition, polarity (π), selectivity (σ), and suitability. In this study, a mixture of twenty commercially available natural products, called the GUESSmix, was utilized to evaluate both solvent system polarity and selectively characteristics. Comparisons of GUESSmix analyte partition coefficient (K) values give rise to a measure of solvent system polarity range called the GUESSmix polarity index (GUPI). Solvatochromic dye and electrical permittivity measurements were also evaluated in quantitatively assessing solvent system polarity. The relative selectivity of solvent systems were evaluated with the GUESSmix by calculating the pairwise resolution (αip), the number of analytes found in the sweet spot (Nsw), and the pairwise resolution of those sweet spot analytes (αsw). The combination of these parameters allowed for both intra- and inter-family comparison of solvent system selectivity. Finally, 2-dimensional reciprocal shifted symmetry plots (ReSS(2)) were created to visually compare both the polarities and selectivities of solvent system pairs. This study helps to pave the way to the development of new solvent systems that are amenable to successive orthogonal CS protocols employed in metabolomic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Protein-solvent preferential interactions, protein hydration, and the modulation of biochemical reactions by solvent components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timasheff, Serge N

    2002-07-23

    Solvent additives (cosolvents, osmolytes) modulate biochemical reactions if, during the course of the reaction, there is a change in preferential interactions of solvent components with the reacting system. Preferential interactions can be expressed in terms of preferential binding of the cosolvent or its preferential exclusion (preferential hydration). The driving force is the perturbation by the protein of the chemical potential of the cosolvent. It is shown that the measured change of the amount of water in contact with protein during the course of the reaction modulated by an osmolyte is a change in preferential hydration that is strictly a measure of the cosolvent chemical potential perturbation by the protein in the ternary water-protein-cosolvent system. It is not equal to the change in water of hydration, because water of hydration is a reflection strictly of protein-water forces in a binary system. There is no direct relation between water of preferential hydration and water of hydration.

  19. Solvent extraction of thorium(IV) with dibutyldithiophosphoric acid in various organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtui, M.; Haiduc, I.

    1994-01-01

    The extraction of thorium(IV) from perchlorate solutions with di-n-butyldithiophosphoric acid (HBudtp) in various organic solvents occurs through an ion exchange mechanism. The extracted species in the organic phase is an eight-coordinate complex Th(Budtp) 4 . The higher values of the distribution ratio obtained in HBudtp-benzene-water system than in HBudtp-n-butanol-water system are explained by higher solubility of the complex species in nonpolar solvents. The position of the extraction curves in the pH-range lower than 0.7 reduces the complexation of thorium(IV) with Budtp - in the aqueous phase and also the hydrolysis process. (author) 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Mixing vane grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Galbraith, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    An improved mixing vane grid spacer having enhanced flow mixing capability by virtue of mixing vanes being positioned at welded intersecting joints of the spacer wherein each mixing vane has an opening or window formed therein substantially directly over the welded joint to provide improved flow mixing capability is described. Some of the vanes are slotted, depending on their particular location in the spacers. The intersecting joints are welded by initially providing consumable tabs at and within each window, which are consumed during the welding of the spacer joints

  1. Proceedings of ISEC 2008, International Solvent Extraction Conference - Solvent Extraction: Fundamentals to Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    The North American industry has employed major solvent-extraction processes to support a wide range of separations including but not limited to chemical, metallurgical, nuclear, biochemical, pharmaceutical, and petroleum applications. The knowledge enabling these separations has been obtained through fundamental studies in academe, government and industry. The International Solvent Extraction Conferences have been and continue to be a major gathering of scientists, engineers, operators, and vendors from around the world, who present new findings since the last meeting, exchange ideas, make business contacts, and conduct collegial discussions. The ISEC 2008 program emphasizes fundamentals to industrial applications of solvent extraction, particularly how this broad spectrum of activities is interconnected and has led to the implementation of novel processes. The oral and poster sessions have been organized into seven topics: Fundamentals; Novel Reagents, Materials and Techniques; Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing; Hydrometallurgy and Metals Extraction; Analytical and Preparative Applications; Biotechnology, Pharmaceuticals, Life-Science Products, and Organic Products; and Process Chemistry and Engineering. Over 350 abstracts were received, resulting in more than 260 manuscripts published in these proceedings. Five outstanding plenary presentations have been identified, with five parallel sessions for oral presentations and posters. In recognition of the major role solvent extraction (SX) plays in the hydrometallurgical and nuclear industries, these proceedings begin with sections focusing on hydrometallurgy, process chemistry, and engineering. More fundamental topics follow, including sections on novel reagents, materials, and techniques, featuring novel applications in analytical and biotechnology areas. Despite the diversity of topics and ideas represented, however, the primary focus of the ISEC community continues to be metals extraction. Four papers from these

  2. Density Changes in the Optimized CSSX Solvent System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.D.

    2002-11-25

    Density increases in caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) solvent have been observed in separate experimental programs performed by different groups of researchers. Such changes indicate a change in chemical composition. Increased density adversely affects separation of solvent from denser aqueous solutions present in the CSSX process. Identification and control of factors affecting solvent density are essential for design and operation of the centrifugal contactors. The goals of this research were to identify the factors affecting solvent density (composition) and to develop correlations between easily measured solvent properties (density and viscosity) and the chemical composition of the solvent, which will permit real-time determination and adjustment of the solvent composition. In evaporation experiments, virgin solvent was subjected to evaporation under quiescent conditions at 25, 35, and 45 C with continuously flowing dry air passing over the surface of the solvent. Density and viscosity were measured periodically, and chemical analysis was performed on the solvent samples. Chemical interaction tests were completed to determine if any chemical reaction takes place over extended contact time that changes the composition and/or physical properties. Solvent and simulant, solvent and strip solution, and solvent and wash solution were contacted continuously in agitated flasks. They were periodically sampled and the density measured (viscosity was also measured on some samples) and then submitted to the Chemical Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the virgin solvent as the baseline. Chemical interaction tests showed that solvent densities and viscosities did not change appreciably during contact with simulant, strip, or wash solution. No effects on density and viscosity and no chemical changes in the solvent were noted within

  3. Net expansion of dried demineralized dentin matrix produced by monomer/alcohol saturation and solvent evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Kelli A; Becker, Thomas D; Joyce, Anthony P; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Borke, James L; Waller, Jennifer L; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine if nonaqueous methacrylate monomer/alcohol mixtures could expand dried collapsed demineralized dentin matrix. Thin disks (ca. 200 microm) of human dentin were demineralized and placed in wells beneath contact probes of linear variable differential transformers. The probes were placed on water-saturated expanded matrices to record the shrinkage associated with drying. Monomer mixtures containing hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3 methacryloyloxy)propoxyphenyl] propane, or triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate were mixed with methanol or ethanol at alcohol/monomer mass fraction % of 90/10, 70/30, 50/50, or 30/70. They were randomly applied to the dried matrices to determine the rate and magnitude of expansion; then shrinkage was recorded during evaporation of the alcohols. The results indicated that matrix expansion was positively correlated with the Hoy's solubility parameters for hydrogen bonding forces (delta(h)) of the monomer/solvent mixtures (p methanol-containing than with ethanol-containing monomer mixtures. For the test solutions, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate-containing mixtures produced the slowest rate of matrix expansion and hydroxyethyl methacrylate-containing mixtures the most rapid expansion. When the solvents were evaporated, the matrix shrank in proportion to the solvent content and the delta(h) of the monomer-solvent mixtures. The results indicate that expansion of dried, collapsed dentin matrices requires that the delta(h) of the mixtures be larger than 17 (J/cm(3))(1/2). The greater the delta(h) of the monomer solutions, the greater the rate and extent of expansion.

  4. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew; Ashraf, Raja; Abdelsamie, Maged; Pont, Sebastian; Little, Mark; Moser, Maximilian; Hamid, Zeinab; Neophytou, Marios; Zhang, Weimin; Amassian, Aram; Durrant, James R.; Baran, Derya; McCulloch, Iain

    2017-01-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  5. SAGE 2.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives Guide) software system, version 2.O. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating a personal computer under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). AGE recommends solvent repl...

  6. Physiology of solvent tolerance in Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isken, S.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrophobic organic solvents, like toluene, are toxic for living organisms. This toxicity is an important drawback in the environmental biotechnology as well as in the application of solvents in the production of fine chemicals by whole-cell biotransformations. The effects of organic

  7. Solvent Extraction and Characterization of Neutral Lipids in Oocystis sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, Renil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Stuart, Ben, E-mail: stuart@ohio.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2015-01-20

    Microalgae are a favorable feedstock for bioproducts and biofuels due to their high oil content, fast growth rates, and low resource demands. Solvent lipid extraction efficiency from microalgae is dependent on algal strain and the extraction solvent. Four non-polar extraction solvents were evaluated for the recovery of neutral cellular lipids from microalgae Oocystis sp. (University of Texas at Austin LB2396). Methylene chloride, hexane, diethyl ether, and cyclohexane were selected as the extraction solvents. The lipid extracts were derivatized and analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy. All solvent extracts contained hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid; accounting for 70% of total lipid content with a proportional wt% composition of the three fatty acids, except for the hexane extracts that showed only hexadecanoic acid and linoleic acid. While not statistically differentiated, methylene chloride proved to be the most effective solvent for Oocystis sp. among the four solvents tested with a total average neutral lipid recovery of 0.25% of dry weight followed by diethyl ether (0.18%), cyclohexane (0.14%), and hexane (0.11%). This research presents a simple methodology to optimize the selection of lipid specific extraction solvents for the microalgal strain selected.

  8. Compressed air-assisted solvent extraction (CASX) for metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Wang; Chen, Yi-Ming; Hsiao, Shin-Tien

    2008-03-01

    A novel process, compressed air-assisted solvent extraction (CASX), was developed to generate micro-sized solvent-coated air bubbles (MSAB) for metal extraction. Through pressurization of solvent with compressed air followed by releasing air-oversaturated solvent into metal-containing wastewater, MSAB were generated instantaneously. The enormous surface area of MSAB makes extraction process extremely fast and achieves very high aqueous/solvent weight ratio (A/S ratio). CASX process completely removed Cr(VI) from acidic electroplating wastewater under A/S ratio of 115 and extraction time of less than 10s. When synthetic wastewater containing Cd(II) of 50mgl(-1) was treated, A/S ratios of higher than 714 and 1190 could be achieved using solvent with extractant/diluent weight ratio of 1:1 and 5:1, respectively. Also, MSAB have very different physical properties, such as size and density, compared to the emulsified solvent droplets, making separation and recovery of solvent from treated effluent very easy.

  9. Solvent Extraction and Characterization of Neutral Lipids in Oocystis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renil eAnthony

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a favorable feedstock for bioproducts and biofuels due to their high oil content, fast growth rates and low resource demands. Solvent lipid extraction efficiency from microalgae is dependent on algal strain and the extraction solvent. Four non-polar extraction solvents were evaluated for the recovery of neutral cellular lipids from microalgae Oocystis sp. (UTEX LB2396. Methylene chloride, hexane, diethyl ether, and cyclohexane were selected as the extraction solvents. All solvent extracts contained hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid; accounting for 70% of total lipid content with a proportional wt% composition of the three fatty acids, except for the hexane extracts that showed only hexadecanoic acid and linoleic acid. While not statistically differentiated, methylene chloride proved to be the most effective solvent for Oocystis sp. among the four solvents tested with a total average neutral lipid recovery of 0.25% of dry weight followed by diethyl ether (0.18%, cyclohexane (0.14% and hexane (0.11%. This research presents a simple methodology to optimize the selection of lipid specific extraction solvents for the microalgal strain selected.

  10. SAGE 2.1: SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives GuidE) software system, version 2.1. SAGE recommends solvent replacements in cleaning and degreasing operations. It leads the user through a question-and-answer session. The user's responses allow the system ...

  11. Dense chlorinated solvents and other DNAPLs in groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, K.

    1996-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Pankow,J.F. & Cherry,J.A.: Dense chlorinated solvents and other DNAPLs in groundwater. Waterloo Press, Portland, Oregon, USA, 1996......Anmeldelse af Pankow,J.F. & Cherry,J.A.: Dense chlorinated solvents and other DNAPLs in groundwater. Waterloo Press, Portland, Oregon, USA, 1996...

  12. The influence of granulating solvents on drug release from tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... significantly lower than the other wet granulated tablets, but higher than the matrix tablets. The granulating solvent influenced the release of drug which increased with increase in the water content. Key Words: Grewia gum: Granulating solvents; Release mechanisms. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.1(1) 2004: ...

  13. Solvent Extraction and Characterization of Neutral Lipids in Oocystis sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, Renil; Stuart, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a favorable feedstock for bioproducts and biofuels due to their high oil content, fast growth rates, and low resource demands. Solvent lipid extraction efficiency from microalgae is dependent on algal strain and the extraction solvent. Four non-polar extraction solvents were evaluated for the recovery of neutral cellular lipids from microalgae Oocystis sp. (University of Texas at Austin LB2396). Methylene chloride, hexane, diethyl ether, and cyclohexane were selected as the extraction solvents. The lipid extracts were derivatized and analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy. All solvent extracts contained hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid; accounting for 70% of total lipid content with a proportional wt% composition of the three fatty acids, except for the hexane extracts that showed only hexadecanoic acid and linoleic acid. While not statistically differentiated, methylene chloride proved to be the most effective solvent for Oocystis sp. among the four solvents tested with a total average neutral lipid recovery of 0.25% of dry weight followed by diethyl ether (0.18%), cyclohexane (0.14%), and hexane (0.11%). This research presents a simple methodology to optimize the selection of lipid specific extraction solvents for the microalgal strain selected.

  14. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  15. Filming the Birth of Molecules and Accompanying Solvent Rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jae Hyuk; Wulff, Michael; Bratos, Savo

    2013-01-01

    Molecules are often born with high energy and large-amplitude vibrations. In solution, a newly formed molecule cools down by transferring energy to the surrounding solvent molecules. The progression of the molecular and solute−solvent cage structure during this fundamental process has been elusiv...

  16. Temporal epileptic seizures and occupational exposure to solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, M; Bælum, Jesper; Bonde, J P

    1994-01-01

    Long term exposure to organic solvents is usually not considered as a possible cause of chronic epileptic seizures. A case that shows a remarkable coincidence between exposure to organic solvents and occurrence of epileptic seizures is reported. The man was a 58 year old sign writer with lifelong...

  17. Chlorinated solvents in groundwater of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M.J.; Zogorski, J.S.; Squillace, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Four chlorinated solvents-methylene chloride, perchloroethene (PCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethene (TCE)-were analyzed in samples of groundwater taken throughout the conterminous United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. The samples were collected between 1985 and 2002 from more than 5,000 wells. Of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyzed in groundwater samples, solvents were among the most frequently detected. Mixtures of solvents in groundwater were common and may be the result of common usage of solvents or degradation of one solvent to another. Relative to other VOCs with Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs), PCE and TCE ranked high in terms of the frequencies of concentrations greater than or near MCLs. The probability of occurrence of solvents in groundwater was associated with dissolved oxygen content of groundwater, sources such as urban land use and population density, and hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The results reinforce the importance of understanding the redox conditions of aquifers and the hydraulic properties of the saturated and vadose zones in determining the intrinsic susceptibility of groundwater to contamination by solvents. The results also reinforce the importance of controlling sources of solvents to groundwater. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  18. Challenges in subsurface in situ remediation of chlorinated solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Christiansen, Camilla Maymann

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated solvent source zones in the subsurface pose a continuous threat to groundwater quality at many sites worldwide. In situ remediation of these sites is particularly challenging in heterogeneous fractured media and where the solvents are present as DNAPL. In situ remediation by chemical...

  19. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn

    1997-01-01

    Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing...

  20. Method of purifying phosphoric acid after solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloheris, A.P.; Lefever, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of purifying phosphoric acid after solvent extraction is described. The phosphoric acid is contacted with a sorbent which sorbs or takes up the residual amount of organic carrier and the phosphoric acid separated from the organic carrier-laden sorbent. The method is especially suitable for removing residual organic carrier from phosphoric acid after solvent extraction uranium recovery. (author)