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Sample records for mixed reality simulation

  1. Mixed reality ventriculostomy simulation: experience in neurosurgical residency.

    Hooten, Kristopher G; Lister, J Richard; Lombard, Gwen; Lizdas, David E; Lampotang, Samsun; Rajon, Didier A; Bova, Frank; Murad, Gregory J A

    2014-12-01

    Medicine and surgery are turning toward simulation to improve on limited patient interaction during residency training. Many simulators today use virtual reality with augmented haptic feedback with little to no physical elements. In a collaborative effort, the University of Florida Department of Neurosurgery and the Center for Safety, Simulation & Advanced Learning Technologies created a novel "mixed" physical and virtual simulator to mimic the ventriculostomy procedure. The simulator contains all the physical components encountered for the procedure with superimposed 3-D virtual elements for the neuroanatomical structures. To introduce the ventriculostomy simulator and its validation as a necessary training tool in neurosurgical residency. We tested the simulator in more than 260 residents. An algorithm combining time and accuracy was used to grade performance. Voluntary postperformance surveys were used to evaluate the experience. Results demonstrate that more experienced residents have statistically significant better scores and completed the procedure in less time than inexperienced residents. Survey results revealed that most residents agreed that practice on the simulator would help with future ventriculostomies. This mixed reality simulator provides a real-life experience, and will be an instrumental tool in training the next generation of neurosurgeons. We have now implemented a standard where incoming residents must prove efficiency and skill on the simulator before their first interaction with a patient.

  2. Communication Architecture in Mixed-Reality Simulations of Unmanned Systems.

    Selecký, Martin; Faigl, Jan; Rollo, Milan

    2018-03-14

    Verification of the correct functionality of multi-vehicle systems in high-fidelity scenarios is required before any deployment of such a complex system, e.g., in missions of remote sensing or in mobile sensor networks. Mixed-reality simulations where both virtual and physical entities can coexist and interact have been shown to be beneficial for development, testing, and verification of such systems. This paper deals with the problems of designing a certain communication subsystem for such highly desirable realistic simulations. Requirements of this communication subsystem, including proper addressing, transparent routing, visibility modeling, or message management, are specified prior to designing an appropriate solution. Then, a suitable architecture of this communication subsystem is proposed together with solutions to the challenges that arise when simultaneous virtual and physical message transmissions occur. The proposed architecture can be utilized as a high-fidelity network simulator for vehicular systems with implicit mobility models that are given by real trajectories of the vehicles. The architecture has been utilized within multiple projects dealing with the development and practical deployment of multi-UAV systems, which support the architecture's viability and advantages. The provided experimental results show the achieved similarity of the communication characteristics of the fully deployed hardware setup to the setup utilizing the proposed mixed-reality architecture.

  3. Communication Architecture in Mixed-Reality Simulations of Unmanned Systems

    Martin Selecký

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Verification of the correct functionality of multi-vehicle systems in high-fidelity scenarios is required before any deployment of such a complex system, e.g., in missions of remote sensing or in mobile sensor networks. Mixed-reality simulations where both virtual and physical entities can coexist and interact have been shown to be beneficial for development, testing, and verification of such systems. This paper deals with the problems of designing a certain communication subsystem for such highly desirable realistic simulations. Requirements of this communication subsystem, including proper addressing, transparent routing, visibility modeling, or message management, are specified prior to designing an appropriate solution. Then, a suitable architecture of this communication subsystem is proposed together with solutions to the challenges that arise when simultaneous virtual and physical message transmissions occur. The proposed architecture can be utilized as a high-fidelity network simulator for vehicular systems with implicit mobility models that are given by real trajectories of the vehicles. The architecture has been utilized within multiple projects dealing with the development and practical deployment of multi-UAV systems, which support the architecture’s viability and advantages. The provided experimental results show the achieved similarity of the communication characteristics of the fully deployed hardware setup to the setup utilizing the proposed mixed-reality architecture.

  4. Hybrid simulation using mixed reality for interventional ultrasound imaging training.

    Freschi, C; Parrini, S; Dinelli, N; Ferrari, M; Ferrari, V

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging offers advantages over other imaging modalities and has become the most widespread modality for many diagnostic and interventional procedures. However, traditional 2D US requires a long training period, especially to learn how to manipulate the probe. A hybrid interactive system based on mixed reality was designed, implemented and tested for hand-eye coordination training in diagnostic and interventional US. A hybrid simulator was developed integrating a physical US phantom and a software application with a 3D virtual scene. In this scene, a 3D model of the probe with its relative scan plane is coherently displayed with a 3D representation of the phantom internal structures. An evaluation study of the diagnostic module was performed by recruiting thirty-six novices and four experts. The performances of the hybrid (HG) versus physical (PG) simulator were compared. After the training session, each novice was required to visualize a particular target structure. The four experts completed a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire. Seventy-eight percentage of the HG novices successfully visualized the target structure, whereas only 45% of the PG reached this goal. The mean scores from the questionnaires were 5.00 for usefulness, 4.25 for ease of use, 4.75 for 3D perception, and 3.25 for phantom realism. The hybrid US training simulator provides ease of use and is effective as a hand-eye coordination teaching tool. Mixed reality can improve US probe manipulation training.

  5. A Modular Set of Mixed Reality Simulators for Blind and Guided Procedures

    2016-08-01

    presented the mixed reality simulator among other technologies at a lecture at the University of Southern California Institute of Creative Technologies (ICT...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0113 TITLE: A Modular Set of Mixed Reality Simulators for “blind” and Guided Procedures PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2015 – 07/31/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Modular Set of Mixed Reality Simulators for “Blind” and Guided Procedures 5b

  6. A Modular Set of Mixed Reality Simulators for Blind and Guided Procedures

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0113 TITLE: A modular set of mixed reality simulators for blind and guided procedures PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A modular set of mixed reality simulators for blind and guided procedures 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...A Modular Set of Mixed Reality Simulators for “Blind” and Guided Procedures Award W81XWH-14-1-0113 Reporting Period: 8/1/2016 – 7/31/2017 (Year 3

  7. Improving Paramedic Distance Education through Mobile Mixed Reality Simulation

    Birt, James; Moore, Emma; Cowling, Michael

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the use of simulation in teaching is a key means of improving learning, skills, and outcomes, particularly for practical skills. In the health sciences, the use of high-fidelity task trainers has been shown to be ideal for reducing cognitive load and leading to enhanced learning outcomes. However, how do we make…

  8. A mixed reality simulator for feline abdominal palpation training in veterinary medicine.

    Parkes, Rebecca; Forrest, Neil; Baillie, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The opportunities for veterinary students to practice feline abdominal palpation are limited as cats have a low tolerance to being examined. Therefore, a mixed reality simulator was developed to complement clinical training. Two PHANToM premium haptic devices were positioned either side of a modified toy cat. Virtual models of the chest and some abdominal contents were superimposed on the physical model. The haptic properties of the virtual models were set by seven veterinarians; values were adjusted while the simulation was being palpated until the representation was satisfactory. Feedback from the veterinarians was encouraging suggesting that the simulator has a potential role in student training.

  9. Mixed Reality Systems

    Dieter Müller

    2009-01-01

    Currently one of the most challenging aspects of human computer interaction design is the integration of physical and digital worlds in a single environment. This fusion involves the development of "Mixed Reality Systems”, including various technologies from the domains of augmented and virtual reality. In this paper I will present related concepts and discuss lessons learned from our own research and prototype development. Our recent work involves the use of mixed reality (as opposed to ‘pur...

  10. Mixed Reality Systems

    Dieter Müller

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently one of the most challenging aspects of human computer interaction design is the integration of physical and digital worlds in a single environment. This fusion involves the development of "Mixed Reality Systems”, including various technologies from the domains of augmented and virtual reality. In this paper I will present related concepts and discuss lessons learned from our own research and prototype development. Our recent work involves the use of mixed reality (as opposed to ‘pure’ virtual reality techniques to support seamless collaborative work between remote and hands-on laboratories.

  11. Alternative realities : from augmented reality to mobile mixed reality

    Claydon, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of (mobile) augmented and mixed reality by clarifying the different concepts of reality, briefly covering the technology behind mobile augmented and mixed reality systems, conducting a concise survey of existing and emerging mobile augmented and mixed reality applications and devices. Based on the previous analysis and the survey, this work will next attempt to assess what mobile augmented and mixed reality could make possible, and what related applications an...

  12. Applying mixed reality to simulate vulnerable populations for practicing clinical communication skills.

    Chuah, Joon Hao; Lok, Benjamin; Black, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Health sciences students often practice and are evaluated on interview and exam skills by working with standardized patients (people that role play having a disease or condition). However, standardized patients do not exist for certain vulnerable populations such as children and the intellectually disabled. As a result, students receive little to no exposure to vulnerable populations before becoming working professionals. To address this problem and thereby increase exposure to vulnerable populations, we propose using virtual humans to simulate members of vulnerable populations. We created a mixed reality pediatric patient that allowed students to practice pediatric developmental exams. Practicing several exams is necessary for students to understand how to properly interact with and correctly assess a variety of children. Practice also increases a student's confidence in performing the exam. Effective practice requires students to treat the virtual child realistically. Treating the child realistically might be affected by how the student and virtual child physically interact, so we created two object interaction interfaces - a natural interface and a mouse-based interface. We tested the complete mixed reality exam and also compared the two object interaction interfaces in a within-subjects user study with 22 participants. Our results showed that the participants accepted the virtual child as a child and treated it realistically. Participants also preferred the natural interface, but the interface did not affect how realistically participants treated the virtual child.

  13. Mixed reality simulation of rasping procedure in artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) surgery.

    Halic, Tansel; Kockara, Sinan; Bayrak, Coskun; Rowe, Richard

    2010-10-07

    Until quite recently spinal disorder problems in the U.S. have been operated by fusing cervical vertebrae instead of replacement of the cervical disc with an artificial disc. Cervical disc replacement is a recently approved procedure in the U.S. It is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in the medical field due to the deficiencies in available diagnostic tools and insufficient number of surgical practices For physicians and surgical instrument developers, it is critical to understand how to successfully deploy the new artificial disc replacement systems. Without proper understanding and practice of the deployment procedure, it is possible to injure the vertebral body. Mixed reality (MR) and virtual reality (VR) surgical simulators are becoming an indispensable part of physicians' training, since they offer a risk free training environment. In this study, MR simulation framework and intricacies involved in the development of a MR simulator for the rasping procedure in artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) surgery are investigated. The major components that make up the MR surgical simulator with motion tracking system are addressed. A mixed reality surgical simulator that targets rasping procedure in the artificial cervical disc replacement surgery with a VICON motion tracking system was developed. There were several challenges in the development of MR surgical simulator. First, the assembly of different hardware components for surgical simulation development that involves knowledge and application of interdisciplinary fields such as signal processing, computer vision and graphics, along with the design and placements of sensors etc . Second challenge was the creation of a physically correct model of the rasping procedure in order to attain critical forces. This challenge was handled with finite element modeling. The third challenge was minimization of error in mapping movements of an actor in real model to a virtual model in a process called

  14. Experiments in mixed reality

    Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

  15. Mobile Mixed Reality for Experiential Learning and Simulation in Medical and Health Sciences Education

    James Birt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New accessible learning methods delivered through mobile mixed reality are becoming possible in education, shifting pedagogy from the use of two dimensional images and videos to facilitating learning via interactive mobile environments. This is especially important in medical and health education, where the required knowledge acquisition is typically much more experiential, self-directed, and hands-on than in many other disciplines. Presented are insights obtained from the implementation and testing of two mobile mixed reality interventions across two Australian higher education classrooms in medicine and health sciences, concentrating on student perceptions of mobile mixed reality for learning physiology and anatomy in a face-to-face medical and health science classroom and skills acquisition in airways management focusing on direct laryngoscopy with foreign body removal in a distance paramedic science classroom. This is unique because most studies focus on a single discipline, focusing on either skills or the learner experience and a single delivery modality rather than linking cross-discipline knowledge acquisition and the development of a student’s tangible skills across multimodal classrooms. Outcomes are presented from post-intervention student interviews and discipline academic observation, which highlight improvements in learner motivation and skills, but also demonstrated pedagogical challenges to overcome with mobile mixed reality learning.

  16. Authoring Immersive Mixed Reality Experiences

    Misker, Jan M. V.; van der Ster, Jelle

    Creating a mixed reality experience is a complicated endeavour. From our practice as a media lab in the artistic domain we found that engineering is “only” a first step in creating a mixed reality experience. Designing the appearance and directing the user experience are equally important for creating an engaging, immersive experience. We found that mixed reality artworks provide a very good test bed for studying these topics. This chapter details three steps required for authoring mixed reality experiences: engineering, designing and directing. We will describe a platform (VGE) for creating mixed reality environments that incorporates these steps. A case study (EI4) is presented in which this platform was used to not only engineer the system, but in which an artist was given the freedom to explore the artistic merits of mixed reality as an artistic medium, which involved areas such as the look and feel, multimodal experience and interaction, immersion as a subjective emotion and game play scenarios.

  17. A 'mixed reality' simulator concept for future Medical Emergency Response Team training.

    Stone, Robert J; Guest, R; Mahoney, P; Lamb, D; Gibson, C

    2017-08-01

    The UK Defence Medical Service's Pre-Hospital Emergency Care (PHEC) capability includes rapid-deployment Medical Emergency Response Teams (MERTs) comprising tri-service trauma consultants, paramedics and specialised nurses, all of whom are qualified to administer emergency care under extreme conditions to improve the survival prospects of combat casualties. The pre-deployment training of MERT personnel is designed to foster individual knowledge, skills and abilities in PHEC and in small team performance and cohesion in 'mission-specific' contexts. Until now, the provision of airborne pre-deployment MERT training had been dependent on either the availability of an operational aircraft (eg, the CH-47 Chinook helicopter) or access to one of only two ground-based facsimiles of the Chinook 's rear cargo/passenger cabin. Although MERT training has high priority, there will always be competition with other military taskings for access to helicopter assets (and for other platforms in other branches of the Armed Forces). This paper describes the development of an inexpensive, reconfigurable and transportable MERT training concept based on 'mixed reality' technologies-in effect the 'blending' of real-world objects of training relevance with virtual reality reconstructions of operational contexts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Mixed reality orthognathic surgical simulation by entity model manipulation and 3D-image display

    Shimonagayoshi, Tatsunari; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Fushima, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masaru

    2005-12-01

    In orthognathic surgery, the framing of 3D-surgical planning that considers the balance between the front and back positions and the symmetry of the jawbone, as well as the dental occlusion of teeth, is essential. In this study, a support system for orthodontic surgery to visualize the changes in the mandible and the occlusal condition and to determine the optimum position in mandibular osteotomy has been developed. By integrating the operating portion of a tooth model that is to determine the optimum occlusal position by manipulating the entity tooth model and the 3D-CT skeletal images (3D image display portion) that are simultaneously displayed in real-time, the determination of the mandibular position and posture in which the improvement of skeletal morphology and occlusal condition is considered, is possible. The realistic operation of the entity model and the virtual 3D image display enabled the construction of a surgical simulation system that involves augmented reality.

  19. Beyond Simulation As Substitution: From Mixed Reality To Ego-Shots

    Alberich Pascual, Jordi; San Cornelio Esquerdo, Gemma

    2012-01-01

    The dominant formulation of simulation theories in the 1980s and 1990s (Baudrillard, Lévy et al.) suggested a theoretical and technological paradigm based on the impersonation (when not substitution) of the real by the virtual. The present article explores the recent emergence of an integrated, mixed or altered conception of virtualisation in regards to the real, but no longer a substitutive one: a conception that is related to a significant set of digital technologies and current audiovisual...

  20. Implementation of laparoscopic virtual-reality simulation training in gynaecology: a mixed-methods design.

    Burden, Christy; Appleyard, Tracy-Louise; Angouri, Jo; Draycott, Timothy J; McDermott, Leanne; Fox, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Virtual-reality (VR) training has been demonstrated to improve laparoscopic surgical skills in the operating theatre. The incorporation of laparoscopic VR simulation into surgical training in gynaecology remains a significant educational challenge. We undertook a pilot study to assess the feasibility of the implementation of a laparoscopic VR simulation programme into a single unit. An observational study with qualitative analysis of semi-structured group interviews. Trainees in gynaecology (n=9) were scheduled to undertake a pre-validated structured training programme on a laparoscopic VR simulator (LapSim(®)) over six months. The main outcome measure was the trainees' progress through the training modules in six months. Trainees' perceptions of the feasibility and barriers to the implementation of laparoscopic VR training were assessed in focus groups after training. Sixty-six percent of participants completed six of ten modules. Overall, feedback from the focus groups was positive; trainees felt training improved their dexterity, hand-eye co-ordination and confidence in theatre. Negative aspects included lack of haptic feedback, and facility for laparoscopic port placement training. Time restriction emerged as the main barrier to training. Despite positive perceptions of training, no trainee completed more than two-thirds of the modules of a self-directed laparoscopic VR training programme. Suggested improvements to the integration of future laparoscopic VR training include an additional theoretical component with a fuller understanding of benefits of VR training, and scheduled supervision. Ultimately, the success of a laparoscopic VR simulation training programme might only be improved if it is a mandatory component of the curriculum, together with dedicated time for training. Future multi-centred implementation studies of validated laparoscopic VR curricula are required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using game engines in mixed reality installations

    Nakevska, M.; Vos, E.C.; Juarez, Alex; Hu, J.; Langereis, G.R.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Anacleto, J.; Fels, S.; Graham, N.; et al., xx

    2011-01-01

    In a mixed reality installation, a variety of technologies is integrated such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and animated virtual agents and robotic agents. One of the main challenges is how to design and implement a mixed reality installation that integrates a heterogeneous array of sensors

  2. Using mixed reality, force feedback and tactile augmentation to improve the realism of medical simulation.

    Fisher, J Brian; Porter, Susan M

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an application of a display approach which uses chromakey techniques to composite real and computer-generated images allowing a user to see his hands and medical instruments collocated with the display of virtual objects during a medical training simulation. Haptic feedback is provided through the use of a PHANTOM force feedback device in addition to tactile augmentation, which allows the user to touch virtual objects by introducing corresponding real objects in the workspace. A simplified catheter introducer insertion simulation was developed to demonstrate the capabilities of this approach.

  3. Reality Check: Basics of Augmented, Virtual, and Mixed Reality.

    Brigham, Tara J

    2017-01-01

    Augmented, virtual, and mixed reality applications all aim to enhance a user's current experience or reality. While variations of this technology are not new, within the last few years there has been a significant increase in the number of artificial reality devices or applications available to the general public. This column will explain the difference between augmented, virtual, and mixed reality and how each application might be useful in libraries. It will also provide an overview of the concerns surrounding these different reality applications and describe how and where they are currently being used.

  4. Mixed Reality Meets Pharmaceutical Development.

    Forrest, William P; Mackey, Megan A; Shah, Vivek M; Hassell, Kerry M; Shah, Prashant; Wylie, Jennifer L; Gopinath, Janakiraman; Balderhaar, Henning; Li, Li; Wuelfing, W Peter; Helmy, Roy

    2017-12-01

    As science evolves, the need for more efficient and innovative knowledge transfer capabilities becomes evident. Advances in drug discovery and delivery sciences have directly impacted the pharmaceutical industry, though the added complexities have not shortened the development process. These added complexities also make it difficult for scientists to rapidly and effectively transfer knowledge to offset the lengthened drug development timelines. While webcams, camera phones, and iPads have been explored as potential new methods of real-time information sharing, the non-"hands-free" nature and lack of viewer and observer point-of-view render them unsuitable for the R&D laboratory or manufacturing setting. As an alternative solution, the Microsoft HoloLens mixed-reality headset was evaluated as a more efficient, hands-free method of knowledge transfer and information sharing. After completing a traditional method transfer between 3 R&D sites (Rahway, NJ; West Point, PA and Schnachen, Switzerland), a retrospective analysis of efficiency gain was performed through the comparison of a mock method transfer between NJ and PA sites using the HoloLens. The results demonstrated a minimum 10-fold gain in efficiency, weighing in from a savings in time, cost, and the ability to have real-time data analysis and discussion. In addition, other use cases were evaluated involving vendor and contract research/manufacturing organizations. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mixed Reality with HoloLens: Where Virtual Reality Meets Augmented Reality in the Operating Room.

    Tepper, Oren M; Rudy, Hayeem L; Lefkowitz, Aaron; Weimer, Katie A; Marks, Shelby M; Stern, Carrie S; Garfein, Evan S

    2017-11-01

    Virtual reality and augmented reality devices have recently been described in the surgical literature. The authors have previously explored various iterations of these devices, and although they show promise, it has become clear that virtual reality and/or augmented reality devices alone do not adequately meet the demands of surgeons. The solution may lie in a hybrid technology known as mixed reality, which merges many virtual reality and augmented realty features. Microsoft's HoloLens, the first commercially available mixed reality device, provides surgeons intraoperative hands-free access to complex data, the real environment, and bidirectional communication. This report describes the use of HoloLens in the operating room to improve decision-making and surgical workflow. The pace of mixed reality-related technological development will undoubtedly be rapid in the coming years, and plastic surgeons are ideally suited to both lead and benefit from this advance.

  6. Fast mental states decoding in mixed reality.

    Daniele eDe Massari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Brain-Computer Interface technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. In this context, assessing to what extent brain states can be discriminated during mixed reality experience is critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded EEG data while participants experienced a mixed reality scenario implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM. The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in mixed reality, using LDA and SVM classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled mixed reality scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in mixed reality.

  7. Gestaltung und Erforschung eines Mixed Reality Lernsystems.

    Hochberg, Jana; Vogel, Cathrin; Bastiaens, Theo

    2018-01-01

    In diesem Artikel wird ein Entwurf eines Lernsystems vorgestellt, in welchem Mixed- Reality (MR) Technologien und didaktischen Modelle für den Einsatz in der industriellen Weiterbildung kombiniert werden. Mit diesem System soll das Erlernen von Problemlösekompetenzen über visuelle Einblendung

  8. Mixed reality for neurosurgery: a novel prototype.

    Alcañiz Raya, Mariano; Varvaro Marcinek, Hugo; Martinez Saez, José Miguel; Torres Sanchez, Roque; Juan Lizandra, M Carmen; Monserrat Aranda, Carlos; Gil Gomez, José Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Microscopes and neuronavigators are often used in neurosurgical procedures. Our Mixed Reality prototype proposes to show neuronavigator imaging overlayed onto the surgical field of view. The proposal is to replace the traditional optical microscope with a digital one. The system is presented in this article. Firsts trials have been performed at the laboratory with satisfactory results.

  9. Mixed Reality: Concepts, Tools and Applications

    Ildeberto Aparecido Rodello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mixed Reality proposes scenes combining between virtual and real worlds offering to the user an intuitive way of interaction according to a specific application. This tutorial paper aims at presenting the fundamentals concepts of this emergent kind of human-computer interface.

  10. System architecture of a mixed reality framework

    Seibert, Helmut; Dähne, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the software architecture of a framework which simplifies the development of applications in the area of Virtual and Augmented Reality is presented. It is based on VRML/X3D to enable rendering of audio-visual information. We extended our VRML rendering system by a device management system that is based on the concept of a data-flow graph. The aim of the system is to create Mixed Reality (MR) applications simply by plugging together small prefabricated software components, instea...

  11. The Engineering of Mixed Reality Systems

    Dubois, Emmanuel; Gray, Philip; Nigay, Laurence

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is no longer restricted to interaction between users and computers via keyboard and screen: Currently one of the most challenging aspects of interactive systems is the integration of the physical and digital aspects of interaction in a smooth and usable way. The design challenge of such mixed reality (MR) systems lies in the fluid and harmonious fusion of the physical and digital worlds. Examples of MR systems include tangible user interfaces, augmented reality, augmented virtuality and embodied interfaces. The diversity of terms highlights the ever growing interest in MR systems and the very dynamic and challenging domain they define.

  12. Mixed reality temporal bone surgical dissector: mechanical design.

    Hochman, Jordan Brent; Sepehri, Nariman; Rampersad, Vivek; Kraut, Jay; Khazraee, Milad; Pisa, Justyn; Unger, Bertram

    2014-08-08

    The Development of a Novel Mixed Reality (MR) Simulation. An evolving training environment emphasizes the importance of simulation. Current haptic temporal bone simulators have difficulty representing realistic contact forces and while 3D printed models convincingly represent vibrational properties of bone, they cannot reproduce soft tissue. This paper introduces a mixed reality model, where the effective elements of both simulations are combined; haptic rendering of soft tissue directly interacts with a printed bone model. This paper addresses one aspect in a series of challenges, specifically the mechanical merger of a haptic device with an otic drill. This further necessitates gravity cancelation of the work assembly gripper mechanism. In this system, the haptic end-effector is replaced by a high-speed drill and the virtual contact forces need to be repositioned to the drill tip from the mid wand. Previous publications detail generation of both the requisite printed and haptic simulations. Custom software was developed to reposition the haptic interaction point to the drill tip. A custom fitting, to hold the otic drill, was developed and its weight was offset using the haptic device. The robustness of the system to disturbances and its stable performance during drilling were tested. The experiments were performed on a mixed reality model consisting of two drillable rapid-prototyped layers separated by a free-space. Within the free-space, a linear virtual force model is applied to simulate drill contact with soft tissue. Testing illustrated the effectiveness of gravity cancellation. Additionally, the system exhibited excellent performance given random inputs and during the drill's passage between real and virtual components of the model. No issues with registration at model boundaries were encountered. These tests provide a proof of concept for the initial stages in the development of a novel mixed-reality temporal bone simulator.

  13. Mixed Reality for PTSD/TBI Assessment.

    Fidopiastis, Cali; Hughes, Charles E; Smith, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Mixed Reality (MR) refers to the blending of virtual content into the real world. Using MR, we create contextually meaningful scenarios in which users carry out tasks encountered in the presence of visual and aural distracters. Visual distracters can include subtle ones - people walking; and more abrupt ones - cartons falling. Aural distracters can include gentle ones - fans whirring; and more aggressive ones - automobiles backfiring. The intensity of these distracters can be dynamically controlled by a therapist or software that takes into account the patient's perceived level of stress. Intensity can also be controlled between experiences. For example, one may increase the stress level in a subsequent session, attempting to improve a person's tolerance. Assessment of progress includes psychophysical metrics (stress indicators) and the performance of tasks (accuracy and adherence to time constraints). By accurately capturing a patient's interaction with the environment in the context of simulation events, we can use MR as a tool for assessment and rehabilitation planning for individuals with stress-related injuries. This paper reports on the MR environment we have developed and its efficacy (realized and potential) for the assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with or without traumatic brain injury (TBI).

  14. HoloR: Interactive Mixed-Reality Rooms

    Schwede, Carsten; Hermann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Existing virtual reality technologies only cover certain areas of the mixed-reality spectrum: Augmented reality goggles are unable to provide immersion while head-mounted displays make it difficult to interact with the real world. In this paper we introduce HoloR - short for Holographic Room: A stereoscopic, multi-person, multi-viewer, spatial projected augmented reality system, which enables applications to fade between different parts of the mixed-reality spectrum. By using web-technologies...

  15. Presence within a mixed reality environment.

    van Schaik, Paul; Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; Drummond, Sarah

    2004-10-01

    Mixed reality environments represent a new approach to creating technology-mediated experiences. However, there is a lack of empirical research investigating users' actual experience. The aim of the current exploratory, non-experimental study was to establish levels of and identify factors associated with presence, within the framework of Schubert et al.'s model of presence. Using questionnaire and interview methods, the experience of the final performance of the Desert Rain mixed reality environment was investigated. Levels of general and spatial presence were relatively high, but levels of involvement and realness were not. Overall, intrinsic motivation, confidence and intention to re-visit Desert Rain were high. However, age was negatively associated with both spatial presence and confidence to play. Furthermore, various problems in navigating the environment were identified. Results are discussed in terms of Schubert's model and other theoretical perspectives. Implications for system design are presented.

  16. Remote Collaboration With Mixed Reality Displays

    Müller, Jens; Rädle, Roman; Reiterer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    HCI research has demonstrated Mixed Reality (MR) as being beneficial for co-located collaborative work. For remote collaboration, however, the collaborators' visual contexts do not coincide due to their individual physical environments. The problem becomes apparent when collaborators refer...... to physical landmarks in their individual environments to guide each other's attention. In an experimental study with 16 dyads, we investigated how the provisioning of shared virtual landmarks (SVLs) influences communication behavior and user experience. A quantitative analysis revealed that participants used...

  17. Teaching and Learning in the Mixed-Reality Science Classroom

    Tolentino, Lisa; Birchfield, David; Megowan-Romanowicz, Colleen; Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C.; Kelliher, Aisling; Martinez, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    As emerging technologies become increasingly inexpensive and robust, there is an exciting opportunity to move beyond general purpose computing platforms to realize a new generation of K-12 technology-based learning environments. Mixed-reality technologies integrate real world components with interactive digital media to offer new potential to combine best practices in traditional science learning with the powerful affordances of audio/visual simulations. This paper introduces the realization of a learning environment called SMALLab, the Situated Multimedia Arts Learning Laboratory. We present a recent teaching experiment for high school chemistry students. A mix of qualitative and quantitative research documents the efficacy of this approach for students and teachers. We conclude that mixed-reality learning is viable in mainstream high school classrooms and that students can achieve significant learning gains when this technology is co-designed with educators.

  18. Simulated maintenance a virtual reality

    Lirvall, P.

    1995-01-01

    The article describes potential applications of personal computer-based virtual reality software. The applications are being investigated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories for the Canadian deuterium-uranium (Candu) reactor. Objectives include: (1) reduction of outage duration and improved safety, (2) cost-effective and safe maintenance of equipment, (3) reduction of exposure times and identification of overexposure situations, (4) cost-effective training in a virtual control room simulator, (5) human factors evaluation of design interface, and (6) visualization of conceptual and detailed designs of critical nuclear field environments. A demonstration model of a typical reactor control room, the use of virtual reality in outage planning, and safety issues are outlined

  19. The Perceptions of CEIT Postgraduate Students Regarding Reality Concepts: Augmented, Virtual, Mixed and Mirror Reality

    Taçgin, Zeynep; Arslan, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine perception of postgraduate Computer Education and Instructional Technologies (CEIT) students regarding the concepts of Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), Mixed Reality (MR), Augmented Virtuality (AV) and Mirror Reality; and to offer a table that includes differences and similarities between…

  20. Simplified Computer Interaction Using Mixed Reality

    Balabanian, Jean-Paul

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a system for mixing reality, as captured by a camera, with a virtual 3-dimensional world. A system to recognize and track a square pattern of markers is created in order to obtain the extrinsic parameters of the camera. The parameters are used for rotating and translating the virtual world to align it with the pattern of markers in the image. The result is a system where a user can interact with a virtual world. A camera can be move freely around the pa...

  1. Fast mental states decoding in mixed reality.

    De Massari, Daniele; Pacheco, Daniel; Malekshahi, Rahim; Betella, Alberto; Verschure, Paul F M J; Birbaumer, Niels; Caria, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The combination of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality (MR) systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. Brain states discrimination during mixed reality experience is thus critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) data while participants experienced MR scenarios implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM). The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in MR, using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled MR scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in MR.

  2. [Team training and assessment in mixed reality-based simulated operating room : Current state of research in the field of simulation in spine surgery exemplified by the ATMEOS project].

    Stefan, P; Pfandler, M; Wucherer, P; Habert, S; Fürmetz, J; Weidert, S; Euler, E; Eck, U; Lazarovici, M; Weigl, M; Navab, N

    2018-04-01

    Surgical simulators are being increasingly used as an attractive alternative to clinical training in addition to conventional animal models and human specimens. Typically, surgical simulation technology is designed for the purpose of teaching technical surgical skills (so-called task trainers). Simulator training in surgery is therefore in general limited to the individual training of the surgeon and disregards the participation of the rest of the surgical team. The objective of the project Assessment and Training of Medical Experts based on Objective Standards (ATMEOS) is to develop an immersive simulated operating room environment that enables the training and assessment of multidisciplinary surgical teams under various conditions. Using a mixed reality approach, a synthetic patient model, real surgical instruments and radiation-free virtual X‑ray imaging are combined into a simulation of spinal surgery. In previous research studies, the concept was evaluated in terms of realism, plausibility and immersiveness. In the current research, assessment measurements for technical and non-technical skills are developed and evaluated. The aim is to observe multidisciplinary surgical teams in the simulated operating room during minimally invasive spinal surgery and objectively assess the performance of the individual team members and the entire team. Moreover, the effectiveness of training methods and surgical techniques or success critical factors, e. g. management of crisis situations, can be captured and objectively assessed in the controlled environment.

  3. Simulators and virtual reality in surgical education.

    Chou, Betty; Handa, Victoria L

    2006-06-01

    This article explores the pros and cons of virtual reality simulators, their abilities to train and assess surgical skills, and their potential future applications. Computer-based virtual reality simulators and more conventional box trainers are compared and contrasted. The virtual reality simulator provides objective assessment of surgical skills and immediate feedback further to enhance training. With this ability to provide standardized, unbiased assessment of surgical skills, the virtual reality trainer has the potential to be a tool for selecting, instructing, certifying, and recertifying gynecologists.

  4. Sensors in Distributed Mixed Reality Environments

    Felix Hamza-Lup

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A distributed mixed-reality (MR or virtual reality (VR environment implies the cooperative engagement of a set of software and hardware resources. With the advances in sensors and computer networks we have seen an increase in the number of potential MR/VR applications that require large amounts of information from the real world collected through sensors (e.g. position and orientation tracking sensors. These sensors collect data from the real environment in real-time at different locations and a distributed environment connecting them must assure data distribution among collaborative sites at interactive speeds. With the advances in sensor technology, we envision that in future systems a significant amount of data will be collected from sensors and devices attached to the participating nodes This paper proposes a new architecture for sensor based interactive distributed MR/VR environments that falls in-between the atomistic peer-to-peer model and the traditional client-server model. Each node is autonomous and fully manages its resources and connectivity. The dynamic behavior of the nodes is dictated by the human participants that manipulate the sensors attached to these nodes.

  5. Pond of Illusion: Interacting through Mixed Reality

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2013-01-01

    Pond of Illusion is a mixed reality installation where a virtual space (the pond) is injected between two real spaces. The users are in either of the real spaces, and they can see each other through windows in the virtual space as illustrated in Figure 1(left). The installation attracts people...... to a large display in either of the real spaces by allowing them to feed virtual fish swimming in the pond. Figure 1(middle) shows how a Microsoft Kinect mounted on top of the display is used for detecting throw motions, which triggers virtual breadcrumbs to be thrown into the pond for feeding the nearby...... fish. Of course, the fish may not be available because they are busy eating what people have thrown into the pond from the other side....

  6. A Mixed Reality Game for Urban Planning

    Nielsen, Rune; Delman, Thomas Fabian; Løssing, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a case study based on an innovative collaborative, game-based approach to urban planning utilizing mixed and augmented reality techniques. Modern urban planning involves a wide variety of interests and individuals, consequently new methods and tools are needed to assure...... the active involvement of all parties in the planning process. The Harbour Game is a debating game employing visual tracking and pattern recognition to superimpose information, e.g. 3-dimensional models, text, and photos on physical artefacts facilitating the understanding of complex relations in urban...... planning. The paper discusses the Harbour Game as an innovative approach to urban planning and the technology used in the Harbour Game in relation to similar approaches....

  7. Designing performativity for mixed reality installations

    Andrew Morrison

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article takes up the concept of performativity prevalent in the humanities and applies it to the design of installation arts in mixed reality mode. Based on the design, development and public access to two specific works, the concept is related to a form of research by design. We argue that the concept of performativity may be further usefully employed in investigations (design and research, artistic and public into digital arts where complex intersections between concepts, technologies, dramaturgy, media and participant actions are in flux and together constitute the emergence and experience of a work. Theories of performativity are related to these two works in an argument that further suggests there is room in research by design to also include ‘performative design’. The article is the result of a wide-ranging interdisciplinary collaboration and aims to convey some sense of that in its reporting style, content and analysis.

  8. Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers

    Squire, Kurt; Klopfer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in handheld computing, particularly its portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality, open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. This article articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations in environmental engineering education by immersing students in…

  9. Transduction between worlds: using virtual and mixed reality for earth and planetary science

    Hedley, N.; Lochhead, I.; Aagesen, S.; Lonergan, C. D.; Benoy, N.

    2017-12-01

    Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have the potential to transform the way we visualize multidimensional geospatial datasets in support of geoscience research, exploration and analysis. The beauty of virtual environments is that they can be built at any scale, users can view them at many levels of abstraction, move through them in unconventional ways, and experience spatial phenomena as if they had superpowers. Similarly, augmented reality allows you to bring the power of virtual 3D data visualizations into everyday spaces. Spliced together, these interface technologies hold incredible potential to support 21st-century geoscience. In my ongoing research, my team and I have made significant advances to connect data and virtual simulations with real geographic spaces, using virtual environments, geospatial augmented reality and mixed reality. These research efforts have yielded new capabilities to connect users with spatial data and phenomena. These innovations include: geospatial x-ray vision; flexible mixed reality; augmented 3D GIS; situated augmented reality 3D simulations of tsunamis and other phenomena interacting with real geomorphology; augmented visual analytics; and immersive GIS. These new modalities redefine the ways in which we can connect digital spaces of spatial analysis, simulation and geovisualization, with geographic spaces of data collection, fieldwork, interpretation and communication. In a way, we are talking about transduction between real and virtual worlds. Taking a mixed reality approach to this, we can link real and virtual worlds. This paper presents a selection of our 3D geovisual interface projects in terrestrial, coastal, underwater and other environments. Using rigorous applied geoscience data, analyses and simulations, our research aims to transform the novelty of virtual and augmented reality interface technologies into game-changing mixed reality geoscience.

  10. Virtual Reality and Simulation in Neurosurgical Training.

    Bernardo, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Recent biotechnological advances, including three-dimensional microscopy and endoscopy, virtual reality, surgical simulation, surgical robotics, and advanced neuroimaging, have continued to mold the surgeon-computer relationship. For developing neurosurgeons, such tools can reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual understanding of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills. We explore the current and future roles and application of virtual reality and simulation in neurosurgical training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of Virtual Reality Cycling Simulator

    Schramka, Filip; Arisona, Stefan; Joos, Michael; Erath, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a cycling simulator implemented using consumer virtual reality hardware and additional off-the-shelf sensors. Challenges like real time motion tracking within the performance requirements of state of the art virtual reality are successfully mastered. Retrieved data from digital motion processors is sent over Bluetooth to a render machine running Unity3D. By processing this data a bicycle is mapped into virtual space. Physically correct behaviour is simulated and high quali...

  12. Reflective and refractive objects for mixed reality.

    Knecht, Martin; Traxler, Christoph; Winklhofer, Christoph; Wimmer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present a novel rendering method which integrates reflective or refractive objects into a differential instant radiosity (DIR) framework usable for mixed-reality (MR) applications. This kind of objects are very special from the light interaction point of view, as they reflect and refract incident rays. Therefore they may cause high-frequency lighting effects known as caustics. Using instant-radiosity (IR) methods to approximate these high-frequency lighting effects would require a large amount of virtual point lights (VPLs) and is therefore not desirable due to real-time constraints. Instead, our approach combines differential instant radiosity with three other methods. One method handles more accurate reflections compared to simple cubemaps by using impostors. Another method is able to calculate two refractions in real-time, and the third method uses small quads to create caustic effects. Our proposed method replaces parts in light paths that belong to reflective or refractive objects using these three methods and thus tightly integrates into DIR. In contrast to previous methods which introduce reflective or refractive objects into MR scenarios, our method produces caustics that also emit additional indirect light. The method runs at real-time frame rates, and the results show that reflective and refractive objects with caustics improve the overall impression for MR scenarios.

  13. Some Human Factors Considerations for Designing Mixed Reality Interfaces

    Milgram, Paul

    2006-01-01

    ...), as well as the case of Augmented Virtuality (AV). In designing human-machine interfaces for mixed reality applications, a number of considerations are discussed which may potentially impact the effectiveness of the design...

  14. Acting rehearsal in collaborative multimodal mixed reality environments

    Steptoe, William; Normand, Jean-Marie; Oyekoya, Oyewole; Pece, Fabrizio; Giannopoulos, Elias; Tecchia, Franco; Steed, Anthony; Weyrich, Tim; Kautz, Jan; Slater, Mel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the use of our multimodal mixed reality telecommunication system to support remote acting rehearsal. The rehearsals involved two actors, located in London and Barcelona, and a director in another location in London. This triadic audiovisual telecommunication was performed in a spatial and multimodal collaborative mixed reality environment based on the 'destination-visitor' paradigm, which we define and put into use. We detail our heterogeneous system architecture, which sp...

  15. Development of SMATER Virtual Reality Simulator

    Chung, Byoung Ha; Chung, B. H.; You, H. Y.; Kim, Y. M.; Park, J. B.; Choi, I. S.; Won, T. W.; Bae, J. B.; Kang, H. K.; Jang, J. M.; Heo, J. W.; Park, M. Y.; Kyun, H. S.; Lee, C. J. [Post Media Ltd., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    In this research task, we want to develop the most suitable design of Spent Fuel Management Facility and develop 3D simulator for our illustration by applying method as such as graphics, simulation, kinematics, dynamics, and collision detection in virtual reality. Through this, we set the capability of making verification on modifying existing conceptual design as our final objective. 6 tabs., 35 figs. (author)

  16. Virtual reality simulation of basic pulmonary procedures

    Konge, Lars; Arendrup, Henrik; von Buchwald, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Virtual reality (VR) bronchoscopy simulators have been available for more than a decade, and have been recognized as an important aid in bronchoscopy training. The existing literature has only examined the role of VR simulators in diagnostic bronchoscopy. The aim of this study...

  17. Mixed Reality Environment for Web-Based Laboratory Interactive Learning

    A. I. Saleem

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a web-based laboratory fordistance learners by incorporating simulation andhardware implementation into web-based e-learningsystems. It presents a development consisting of laboratorycourse through internet based on mixed reality technique tosetup, run and manipulateset of experiments. Eachexperiment has been designed in a way that allows thelearner to manipulate the components and check if it worksproperly in order to achieve the experiment objective. Theproposed laboratory e-learning tool has web-basedcomponents accessed by authorized users. Learners canacquire the necessary skills they need, while learning thetheory of the experiment and the basic characteristics ofeach component used in the experiment. Finally, a casestudy was conducted to show the feasibility and efficiencyof the proposed method.

  18. Practical system for generating digital mixed reality video holograms.

    Song, Joongseok; Kim, Changseob; Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il

    2016-07-10

    We propose a practical system that can effectively mix the depth data of real and virtual objects by using a Z buffer and can quickly generate digital mixed reality video holograms by using multiple graphic processing units (GPUs). In an experiment, we verify that real objects and virtual objects can be merged naturally in free viewing angles, and the occlusion problem is well handled. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed system can generate mixed reality video holograms at 7.6 frames per second. Finally, the system performance is objectively verified by users' subjective evaluations.

  19. Enhancing Health-Care Services with Mixed Reality Systems

    Stantchev, Vladimir

    This work presents a development approach for mixed reality systems in health care. Although health-care service costs account for 5-15% of GDP in developed countries the sector has been remarkably resistant to the introduction of technology-supported optimizations. Digitalization of data storing and processing in the form of electronic patient records (EPR) and hospital information systems (HIS) is a first necessary step. Contrary to typical business functions (e.g., accounting or CRM) a health-care service is characterized by a knowledge intensive decision process and usage of specialized devices ranging from stethoscopes to complex surgical systems. Mixed reality systems can help fill the gap between highly patient-specific health-care services that need a variety of technical resources on the one side and the streamlined process flow that typical process supporting information systems expect on the other side. To achieve this task, we present a development approach that includes an evaluation of existing tasks and processes within the health-care service and the information systems that currently support the service, as well as identification of decision paths and actions that can benefit from mixed reality systems. The result is a mixed reality system that allows a clinician to monitor the elements of the physical world and to blend them with virtual information provided by the systems. He or she can also plan and schedule treatments and operations in the digital world depending on status information from this mixed reality.

  20. Application of Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality to Urology

    Hamacher, Alaric; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Sung Tae; Pardeshi, Sunil; Lee, Seung Hyun; Eun, Sung-Jong; Whangbo, Taeg Keun

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in virtual, augmented, and mixed reality have introduced a considerable number of new devices into the consumer market. This momentum is also affecting the medical and health care sector. Although many of the theoretical and practical foundations of virtual reality (VR) were already researched and experienced in the 1980s, the vastly improved features of displays, sensors, interactivity, and computing power currently available in devices offer a new field of applications t...

  1. Virtual reality simulation in endovascular surgical training.

    Tsang, J S

    2008-08-01

    Shortened trainingtimes duetothe European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Virtual reality (VR) simulation is a fascinating innovation allowing surgeons to develop without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period.

  2. Exploratory Application of Augmented Reality/Mixed Reality Devices for Acute Care Procedure Training

    Kobayashi, Leo; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Collins, Scott A.; Karim, Naz; Merck, Derek L.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and virtual reality devices are enabling technologies that may facilitate effective communication in healthcare between those with information and knowledge (clinician/specialist; expert; educator) and those seeking understanding and insight (patient/family; non-expert; learner). Investigators initiated an exploratory program to enable the study of AR/MR use-cases in acute care clinical and instructional settings. Methods Academic clinician educators, computer scientists, and diagnostic imaging specialists conducted a proof-of-concept project to 1) implement a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and open-access repository at the study institution, and 2) use novel AR/MR techniques on off-the-shelf devices with holoimages generated by the infrastructure to demonstrate their potential role in the instructive communication of complex medical information. Results The study team successfully developed a medical holoimaging infrastructure methodology to identify, retrieve, and manipulate real patients’ de-identified computed tomography and magnetic resonance imagesets for rendering, packaging, transfer, and display of modular holoimages onto AR/MR headset devices and connected displays. Holoimages containing key segmentations of cervical and thoracic anatomic structures and pathology were overlaid and registered onto physical task trainers for simulation-based “blind insertion” invasive procedural training. During the session, learners experienced and used task-relevant anatomic holoimages for central venous catheter and tube thoracostomy insertion training with enhanced visual cues and haptic feedback. Direct instructor access into the learner’s AR/MR headset view of the task trainer was achieved for visual-axis interactive instructional guidance. Conclusion Investigators implemented a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and modular open-access repository to generate and enable access to modular

  3. Exploratory Application of Augmented Reality/Mixed Reality Devices for Acute Care Procedure Training.

    Kobayashi, Leo; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Collins, Scott A; Karim, Naz; Merck, Derek L

    2018-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and virtual reality devices are enabling technologies that may facilitate effective communication in healthcare between those with information and knowledge (clinician/specialist; expert; educator) and those seeking understanding and insight (patient/family; non-expert; learner). Investigators initiated an exploratory program to enable the study of AR/MR use-cases in acute care clinical and instructional settings. Academic clinician educators, computer scientists, and diagnostic imaging specialists conducted a proof-of-concept project to 1) implement a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and open-access repository at the study institution, and 2) use novel AR/MR techniques on off-the-shelf devices with holoimages generated by the infrastructure to demonstrate their potential role in the instructive communication of complex medical information. The study team successfully developed a medical holoimaging infrastructure methodology to identify, retrieve, and manipulate real patients' de-identified computed tomography and magnetic resonance imagesets for rendering, packaging, transfer, and display of modular holoimages onto AR/MR headset devices and connected displays. Holoimages containing key segmentations of cervical and thoracic anatomic structures and pathology were overlaid and registered onto physical task trainers for simulation-based "blind insertion" invasive procedural training. During the session, learners experienced and used task-relevant anatomic holoimages for central venous catheter and tube thoracostomy insertion training with enhanced visual cues and haptic feedback. Direct instructor access into the learner's AR/MR headset view of the task trainer was achieved for visual-axis interactive instructional guidance. Investigators implemented a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and modular open-access repository to generate and enable access to modular holoimages during exploratory pilot stage

  4. Exploratory Application of Augmented Reality/Mixed Reality Devices for Acute Care Procedure Training

    Leo Kobayashi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Augmented reality (AR, mixed reality (MR, and virtual reality devices are enabling technologies that may facilitate effective communication in healthcare between those with information and knowledge (clinician/specialist; expert; educator and those seeking understanding and insight (patient/family; non-expert; learner. Investigators initiated an exploratory program to enable the study of AR/MR use-cases in acute care clinical and instructional settings. Methods Academic clinician educators, computer scientists, and diagnostic imaging specialists conducted a proof-of-concept project to 1 implement a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and open-access repository at the study institution, and 2 use novel AR/MR techniques on off-the-shelf devices with holoimages generated by the infrastructure to demonstrate their potential role in the instructive communication of complex medical information. Results The study team successfully developed a medical holoimaging infrastructure methodology to identify, retrieve, and manipulate real patients’ de-identified computed tomography and magnetic resonance imagesets for rendering, packaging, transfer, and display of modular holoimages onto AR/MR headset devices and connected displays. Holoimages containing key segmentations of cervical and thoracic anatomic structures and pathology were overlaid and registered onto physical task trainers for simulation-based “blind insertion” invasive procedural training. During the session, learners experienced and used task-relevant anatomic holoimages for central venous catheter and tube thoracostomy insertion training with enhanced visual cues and haptic feedback. Direct instructor access into the learner’s AR/MR headset view of the task trainer was achieved for visual-axis interactive instructional guidance. Conclusion Investigators implemented a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and modular open-access repository to generate and enable

  5. Mixed-Reality Prototypes to Support Early Creative Design

    Safin, Stéphane; Delfosse, Vincent; Leclercq, Pierre

    The domain we address is creative design, mainly architecture. Rooted in a multidisciplinary approach as well as a deep understanding of architecture and design, our method aims at proposing adapted mixed-reality solutions to support two crucial activities: sketch-based preliminary design and distant synchronous collaboration in design. This chapter provides a summary of our work on a mixed-reality device, based on a drawing table (the Virtual Desktop), designed specifically to address real-life/business-focused issues. We explain our methodology, describe the two supported activities and the related users’ needs, detail the technological solution we have developed, and present the main results of multiple evaluation sessions. We conclude with a discussion of the usefulness of a profession-centered methodology and the relevance of mixed reality to support creative design activities.

  6. Emboldened by Embodiment: Six Precepts for Research on Embodied Learning and Mixed Reality

    Lindgren, Robb; Johnson-Glenberg, Mina

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe an emerging paradigm of educational research that pairs theories of embodied learning with a class of immersive technologies referred to as "mixed reality" (MR). MR environments merge the digital with the physical, where, for example, students can use their bodies to simulate an orbit around a virtual planet. Recent…

  7. Emboldened by Embodiment: Six Precepts for Research on Embodied Learning and Mixed Reality

    Lindgren, R.; Johnson-Glenberg, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe an emerging paradigm of educational research that pairs theories of embodied learning with a class of immersive technologies referred to as mixed reality (MR). MR environments merge the digital with the physical, where, for example, students can use their bodies to simulate an

  8. Virtual reality simulation of basic pulmonary procedures

    Konge, Lars; Arendrup, Henrik; von Buchwald, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Virtual reality (VR) bronchoscopy simulators have been available for more than a decade, and have been recognized as an important aid in bronchoscopy training. The existing literature has only examined the role of VR simulators in diagnostic bronchoscopy. The aim of this study......, the physicians answered a questionnaire regarding the realism of the simulator. Results: The realism of the anatomy and the appearance of the scope were rated higher than the movement of the scope, feeling of resistance, and performances of bronchoalveolar lavages and biopsies. Overall, the simulator was judged...

  9. The Planetary Collegium: Master Plan for a Distributed Mixed Reality Campus

    Peter Anders

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design for a Mixed Reality campusfor the Planetary Collegium. The Collegium is an international research network centered at Plymouth, U.K. Its plans call for seven sub-centers, or nodes, to be builtin different parts of the world. These nodes would be linked by shared virtual spaces and digital networks. The paper describes how the Collegium’s seeming contradictions (distributed/unified, simulated/physical, local/remote can be reconciled. The resulting project is a mixed reality that transcends scales from global to local and, ultimately, to the constituent buildings and their digital spaces.

  10. Simulation data analysis by virtual reality system

    Ohtani, Hiroaki; Mizuguchi, Naoki; Shoji, Mamoru; Ishiguro, Seiji; Ohno, Nobuaki

    2010-01-01

    We introduce new software for analysis of time-varying simulation data and new approach for contribution of simulation to experiment by virtual reality (VR) technology. In the new software, the objects of time-varying field are visualized in VR space and the particle trajectories in the time-varying electromagnetic field are also traced. In the new approach, both simulation results and experimental device data are simultaneously visualized in VR space. These developments enhance the study of the phenomena in plasma physics and fusion plasmas. (author)

  11. Role of virtual reality simulation in endoscopy training

    Harpham-Lockyer, Louis; Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Berlingieri, Pasquale; Epstein, Owen

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in virtual reality graphics and models have allowed virtual reality simulators to be incorporated into a variety of endoscopic training programmes. Use of virtual reality simulators in training programmes is thought to improve skill acquisition amongst trainees which is reflected in improved patient comfort and safety. Several studies have already been carried out to ascertain the impact that usage of virtual reality simulators may have upon trainee learning curves and how...

  12. Perceiving haptic feedback in virtual reality simulators.

    Våpenstad, Cecilie; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Langø, Thomas; Mårvik, Ronald; Chmarra, Magdalena Karolina

    2013-07-01

    To improve patient safety, training of psychomotor laparoscopic skills is often done on virtual reality (VR) simulators outside the operating room. Haptic sensations have been found to influence psychomotor performance in laparoscopy. The emulation of haptic feedback is thus an important aspect of VR simulation. Some VR simulators try to simulate these sensations with handles equipped with haptic feedback. We conducted a survey on how laparoscopic surgeons perceive handles with and without haptic feedback. Surgeons with different levels of experience in laparoscopy were asked to test two handles: Xitact IHP with haptic feedback and Xitact ITP without haptic feedback (Mentice AB, Gothenburg, Sweden), connected to the LapSim (Surgical Science AB, Sweden) VR simulator. They performed two tasks on the simulator before answering 12 questions regarding the two handles. The surgeons were not informed about the differences in the handles. A total of 85 % of the 20 surgeons who participated in the survey claimed that it is important that handles with haptic feedback feel realistic. Ninety percent of the surgeons preferred the handles without haptic feedback. The friction in the handles with haptic feedback was perceived to be as in reality (5 %) or too high (95 %). Regarding the handles without haptic feedback, the friction was perceived as in reality (45 %), too low (50 %), or too high (5 %). A total of 85 % of the surgeons thought that the handle with haptic feedback attempts to simulate the resistance offered by tissue to deformation. Ten percent thought that the handle succeeds in doing so. The surveyed surgeons believe that haptic feedback is an important feature on VR simulators; however, they preferred the handles without haptic feedback because they perceived the handles with haptic feedback to add additional friction, making them unrealistic and not mechanically transparent.

  13. Mixed Reality Cultural Heritage Communication - The Zea Case

    Veirum, Niels Einar; Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Mayerhofer, Mikkel

    Case is a design scenario for the Museum of the Future showing how Cultural Heritage institutions can use a Glocal Approach to technology and architecture to reinvent the relation to the visitor and the neighbourhood. While Mixed Reality can be used for Cultural Heritage Communication in traditional...

  14. Teaching and Learning in the Mixed-Reality Science Classroom

    Tolentino, L.; Birchfield, D.A.; Megowan-Romanowicz, C.; Johnson-Glenberg, M.C.; Kelliher, A.; Martinez, C.

    2009-01-01

    As emerging technologies become increasingly inexpensive and robust, there is an exciting opportunity to move beyond general purpose computing platforms to realize a new generation of K-12 technology-based learning environments. Mixed-reality technologies integrate real world components with

  15. Teaching and Learning in the Mixed-Reality Science Classroom

    Tolentino, Lisa; Birchfield, David; Megowan-Romanowicz, Colleen; Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C.; Kelliher, Aisling; Martinez, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    As emerging technologies become increasingly inexpensive and robust, there is an exciting opportunity to move beyond general purpose computing platforms to realize a new generation of K-12 technology-based learning environments. Mixed-reality technologies integrate real world components with interactive digital media to offer new potential to…

  16. Evaluation of User Acceptance of Mixed Reality Technology

    Yusoff, Rasimah Che Mohd; Zaman, Halimah Badioze; Ahmad, Azlina

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates users' perception and acceptance of mixed reality (MR) technology. Acceptance of new information technologies has been important research area since 1990s. It is important to understand the reasons why people accept information technologies, as this can help to improve design, evaluation and prediction how users will…

  17. Tele-auscultation support system with mixed reality navigation.

    Hori, Kenta; Uchida, Yusuke; Kan, Tsukasa; Minami, Maya; Naito, Chisako; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Hideya; Ando, Masahiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Kume, Naoto; Okamoto, Kazuya; Takemura, Tadamasa; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop an information support system for tele-auscultation. In auscultation, a doctor requires to understand condition of applying a stethoscope, in addition to auscultatory sounds. The proposed system includes intuitive navigation system of stethoscope operation, in addition to conventional audio streaming system of auscultatory sounds and conventional video conferencing system for telecommunication. Mixed reality technology is applied for intuitive navigation of the stethoscope. Information, such as position, contact condition and breath, is overlaid on a view of the patient's chest. The contact condition of the stethoscope is measured by e-textile contact sensors. The breath is measured by a band type breath sensor. In a simulated tele-auscultation experiment, the stethoscope with the contact sensors and the breath sensor were evaluated. The results show that the presentation of the contact condition was not understandable enough for navigating the stethoscope handling. The time series of the breath phases was usable for the remote doctor to understand the breath condition of the patient.

  18. Virtual reality simulators and training in laparoscopic surgery.

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina; Tsigris, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality simulators provide basic skills training without supervision in a controlled environment, free of pressure of operating on patients. Skills obtained through virtual reality simulation training can be transferred on the operating room. However, relative evidence is limited with data available only for basic surgical skills and for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance on advanced surgical procedures. Evidence suggests that performance on virtual reality simulators reliably distinguishes experienced from novice surgeons Limited available data suggest that independent approach on virtual reality simulation training is not different from proctored approach. The effect of virtual reality simulators training on acquisition of basic surgical skills does not seem to be different from the effect the physical simulators. Limited data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation training on the acquisition of visual spatial perception and stress coping skills. Undoubtedly, virtual reality simulation training provides an alternative means of improving performance in laparoscopic surgery. However, future research efforts should focus on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance in the context of advanced surgical procedure, on standardization of training, on the possibility of synergistic effect of virtual reality simulation training combined with mental training, on personalized training. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation of eye disease in virtual reality.

    Jin, Bei; Ai, Zhuming; Rasmussen, Mary

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult to understand verbal descriptions of visual phenomenon if one has no such experience. Virtual Reality offers a unique opportunity to "experience" diminished vision and the problems it causes in daily life. We have developed an application to simulate age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, protanopia, and diabetic retinopathy in a familiar setting. The application also includes the introduction of eye anatomy representing both normal and pathologic states. It is designed for patient education, health care practitioner training, and eye care specialist education.

  20. Live LEGO House: a Mixed Reality Game for the Edutainment

    Portalés Ricart, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Gaming is a natural way of learning and multimedia technologies bring new possibilities in the field of edutainment. Live LEGO House in an interactive space to explore coexistence and multicultural factors through gaming based on the Mixed Reality(MXR)technology. The system consists basically on a physical/real house built with the LEGO blocks, which is enriched with different non-physical/virtual multimedia files, including sounds, videos and 3D animations with multicultural content. Childre...

  1. Mixed reality virtual pets to reduce childhood obesity.

    Johnsen, Kyle; Ahn, Sun Joo; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Robertson, Thomas P; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2014-04-01

    Novel approaches are needed to reduce the high rates of childhood obesity in the developed world. While multifactorial in cause, a major factor is an increasingly sedentary lifestyle of children. Our research shows that a mixed reality system that is of interest to children can be a powerful motivator of healthy activity. We designed and constructed a mixed reality system that allowed children to exercise, play with, and train a virtual pet using their own physical activity as input. The health, happiness, and intelligence of each virtual pet grew as its associated child owner exercised more, reached goals, and interacted with their pet. We report results of a research study involving 61 children from a local summer camp that shows a large increase in recorded and observed activity, alongside observational evidence that the virtual pet was responsible for that change. These results, and the ease at which the system integrated into the camp environment, demonstrate the practical potential to impact the exercise behaviors of children with mixed reality.

  2. Virtual reality simulation for construction safety promotion.

    Zhao, Dong; Lucas, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Safety is a critical issue for the construction industry. Literature argues that human error contributes to more than half of occupational incidents and could be directly impacted by effective training programs. This paper reviews the current safety training status in the US construction industry. Results from the review evidence the gap between the status and industry expectation on safety. To narrow this gap, this paper demonstrates the development and utilisation of a training program that is based on virtual reality (VR) simulation. The VR-based safety training program can offer a safe working environment where users can effectively rehearse tasks with electrical hazards and ultimately promote their abilities for electrical hazard cognition and intervention. Its visualisation and simulation can also remove the training barriers caused by electricity's features of invisibility and dangerousness.

  3. Application of Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality to Urology.

    Hamacher, Alaric; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Sung Tae; Pardeshi, Sunil; Lee, Seung Hyun; Eun, Sung-Jong; Whangbo, Taeg Keun

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in virtual, augmented, and mixed reality have introduced a considerable number of new devices into the consumer market. This momentum is also affecting the medical and health care sector. Although many of the theoretical and practical foundations of virtual reality (VR) were already researched and experienced in the 1980s, the vastly improved features of displays, sensors, interactivity, and computing power currently available in devices offer a new field of applications to the medical sector and also to urology in particular. The purpose of this review article is to review the extent to which VR technology has already influenced certain aspects of medicine, the applications that are currently in use in urology, and the future development trends that could be expected.

  4. Application of Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality to Urology

    Alaric Hamacher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in virtual, augmented, and mixed reality have introduced a considerable number of new devices into the consumer market. This momentum is also affecting the medical and health care sector. Although many of the theoretical and practical foundations of virtual reality (VR were already researched and experienced in the 1980s, the vastly improved features of displays, sensors, interactivity, and computing power currently available in devices offer a new field of applications to the medical sector and also to urology in particular. The purpose of this review article is to review the extent to which VR technology has already influenced certain aspects of medicine, the applications that are currently in use in urology, and the future development trends that could be expected.

  5. Virtual reality neurosurgery: a simulator blueprint.

    Spicer, Mark A; van Velsen, Martin; Caffrey, John P; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2004-04-01

    This article details preliminary studies undertaken to integrate the most relevant advancements across multiple disciplines in an effort to construct a highly realistic neurosurgical simulator based on a distributed computer architecture. Techniques based on modified computational modeling paradigms incorporating finite element analysis are presented, as are current and projected efforts directed toward the implementation of a novel bidirectional haptic device. Patient-specific data derived from noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging sequences are used to construct a computational model of the surgical region of interest. Magnetic resonance images of the brain may be coregistered with those obtained from magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance venography, and diffusion tensor imaging to formulate models of varying anatomic complexity. The majority of the computational burden is encountered in the presimulation reduction of the computational model and allows realization of the required threshold rates for the accurate and realistic representation of real-time visual animations. Intracranial neurosurgical procedures offer an ideal testing site for the development of a totally immersive virtual reality surgical simulator when compared with the simulations required in other surgical subspecialties. The material properties of the brain as well as the typically small volumes of tissue exposed in the surgical field, coupled with techniques and strategies to minimize computational demands, provide unique opportunities for the development of such a simulator. Incorporation of real-time haptic and visual feedback is approached here and likely will be accomplished soon.

  6. Simulating hemispatial neglect with virtual reality.

    Baheux, Kenji; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Yoshida, Yasuko

    2007-07-19

    Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.

  7. Simulating hemispatial neglect with virtual reality

    Yoshizawa Makoto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. Methods This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. Results We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. Conclusion We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.

  8. Immersive virtual reality simulations in nursing education.

    Kilmon, Carol A; Brown, Leonard; Ghosh, Sumit; Mikitiuk, Artur

    2010-01-01

    This article explores immersive virtual reality as a potential educational strategy for nursing education and describes an immersive learning experience now being developed for nurses. This pioneering project is a virtual reality application targeting speed and accuracy of nurse response in emergency situations requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Other potential uses and implications for the development of virtual reality learning programs are discussed.

  9. Mixed reality for robotic treatment of a splenic artery aneurysm.

    Pietrabissa, Andrea; Morelli, Luca; Ferrari, Mauro; Peri, Andrea; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Moglia, Andrea; Pugliese, Luigi; Guarracino, Fabio; Mosca, Franco

    2010-05-01

    Techniques of mixed reality can successfully be used in preoperative planning of laparoscopic and robotic procedures and to guide surgical dissection and enhance its accuracy. A computer-generated three-dimensional (3D) model of the vascular anatomy of the spleen was obtained from the computed tomography (CT) dataset of a patient with a 3-cm splenic artery aneurysm. Using an environmental infrared localizer and a stereoscopic helmet, the surgeon can see the patient's anatomy in transparency (augmented or mixed reality). This arrangement simplifies correct positioning of trocars and locates surgical dissection directly on top of the aneurysm. In this way the surgeon limits unnecessary dissection, leaving intact the blood supply from the short gastric vessels and other collaterals. Based on preoperative planning, we were able to anticipate that the vascular exclusion of the aneurysm would result in partial splenic ischemia. To re-establish the flow to the spleen, end-to-end robotic anastomosis of the splenic artery with the Da Vinci surgical system was then performed. Finally, the aneurysm was fenestrated to exclude arterial refilling. The postoperative course was uneventful. A control CT scan 4 weeks after surgery showed a well-perfused and homogeneous splenic parenchyma. The final 3D model showed the fenestrated calcified aneurysm and patency of the re-anastomosed splenic artery. The described technique of robotic vascular exclusion of a splenic artery aneurysm, followed by re-anastomosis of the vessel, clearly demonstrates how this technology can reduce the invasiveness of the procedure, obviating an otherwise necessary splenectomy. Also, the use of intraoperative mixed-reality technology proved very useful in this case and is expected to play an increasing role in the operating room of the future.

  10. COMPUTER LEARNING SIMULATOR WITH VIRTUAL REALITY FOR OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Valeria V. Gribova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A toolset of a medical computer learning simulator for ophthalmology with virtual reality and its implementation are considered in the paper. The simulator is oriented for professional skills training for students of medical universities. 

  11. Modeling tides and vertical tidal mixing: A reality check

    Robertson, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great interest in the tidal contribution to vertical mixing in the ocean. In models, vertical mixing is estimated using parameterization of the sub-grid scale processes. Estimates of the vertical mixing varied widely depending on which vertical mixing parameterization was used. This study investigated the performance of ten different vertical mixing parameterizations in a terrain-following ocean model when simulating internal tides. The vertical mixing parameterization was found to have minor effects on the velocity fields at the tidal frequencies, but large effects on the estimates of vertical diffusivity of temperature. Although there was no definitive best performer for the vertical mixing parameterization, several parameterizations were eliminated based on comparison of the vertical diffusivity estimates with observations. The best performers were the new generic coefficients for the generic length scale schemes and Mellor-Yamada's 2.5 level closure scheme.

  12. Evolving virtual reality simulation in neurosurgery.

    Schirmer, Clemens M; Mocco, J; Elder, J Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Virtual reality (VR) applications promise the safe, efficacious, and valid replication of scenarios encountered in modern neurosurgery, and a number of navigation- or dissection-related and endovascular simulators have been successfully deployed in the last 2 decades. Concurrently, neurosurgical training is changing, and VR simulations are expected to play a part in future training. To give an overview of currently available neurosurgical VR applications in the spectrum of desired applications and the outlook of the requirements to be met by future applications. The available literature was analyzed using structured Medline and PubMed searches. Relevant articles were retrieved and reviewed. When quantitative results were available, effect sizes were collated or estimated to check for publication bias. There has been a significant increase in publications concerning the use of VR in neurosurgery in the last 22 years (P < .001). Thirty-eight of 117 publications (32%) identified reported data regarding the use of a simulator by practitioners; 35 of these were reported as positive trials (92%). Twenty-two of 38 studies (58%) reported quantitative data with mostly small positive effect sizes (median, 1.41; interquartile range, 1.08-2). The use of VR simulators in endovascular surgery has the most robust basis, with 65% of studies reporting quantitative outcomes. Current neurosurgical VR applications focus on basic procedural skill acquisition and are valid and efficacious adjuncts to neurosurgical training. In the future, the development of complex procedural simulators, teamwork, and focus on validated measures will lead to robust framework of the use of VR over the entire career of a neurosurgeon.

  13. Role of virtual reality simulation in endoscopy training.

    Harpham-Lockyer, Louis; Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Berlingieri, Pasquale; Epstein, Owen

    2015-12-10

    Recent advancements in virtual reality graphics and models have allowed virtual reality simulators to be incorporated into a variety of endoscopic training programmes. Use of virtual reality simulators in training programmes is thought to improve skill acquisition amongst trainees which is reflected in improved patient comfort and safety. Several studies have already been carried out to ascertain the impact that usage of virtual reality simulators may have upon trainee learning curves and how this may translate to patient comfort. This article reviews the available literature in this area of medical education which is particularly relevant to all parties involved in endoscopy training and curriculum development. Assessment of the available evidence for an optimal exposure time with virtual reality simulators and the long-term benefits of their use are also discussed.

  14. Augmented versus virtual reality laparoscopic simulation: what is the difference? A comparison of the ProMIS augmented reality laparoscopic simulator versus LapSim virtual reality laparoscopic simulator

    Botden, Sanne M. B. I.; Buzink, Sonja N.; Schijven, Marlies P.; Jakimowicz, Jack J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging new modality for laparoscopic skills training; however, most simulators lack realistic haptic feedback. Augmented reality (AR) is a new laparoscopic simulation system offering a combination of physical objects and VR simulation. Laparoscopic

  15. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique, E-mail: karensalazar.1190@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  16. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  17. Design A Situated Learning Environment Using Mixed Reality Technology - A Case Study

    Rasimah Che Mohd Yusoff; Halimah Badioze Zaman; Azlina Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Mixed Reality (MR) is one of the newest technologies explored in education. It promises the potential to promote teaching and learning and making learners- experience more "engaging". However, there still lack of research on designing a virtual learning environment using MR technology. In this paper, we describe the Mixed Reality technology, the characteristics of situated learning as instructional design for virtual environment using mixed reality technology. We also exp...

  18. The magic lens box: Simplifying the development of mixed reality games

    Wetzel, R.; Lindt, I.; Waern, A.; Johnson, S.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed Reality games are becoming more and more popular these days and offer unique experiences to the players. However, development of such games typically still requires expert knowledge and access to Mixed Reality toolkits or frameworks. In this paper, we present the so-called Magic Lens Box that follows a different approach. Based on standard hardware The Magic Lens Box enables game designers with little technological background to create their own Mixed Reality games in a simple yet power...

  19. Application of virtual reality to simulation in nuclear power plant

    Liu Pengfei; Yang Yanhua; Yang Yongmu; Duan Dongdong; Luo Jie

    2008-01-01

    Based on detailed analysis of the structure and key techniques of a virtual reality system, the applications of virtual reality to simulation in nuclear power plant (NPP) were developed. In order to meet the requirement of simulation in NPP, motion simulation of control rod drive system, walking system inside the containment and virtual main control room were presented. A simulator of NPP was connected to interchange dynamic data between virtual main control room and the simulator. The simulating results show that the technique of virtual reality can be applied well to the simulation inside containment, which is filled with activity material, and the simulation of virtual main control room, where human factors must be considered. It also can be used well to design virtual education and training system of NPP. (authors)

  20. Physical Models and Virtual Reality Simulators in Otolaryngology.

    Javia, Luv; Sardesai, Maya G

    2017-10-01

    The increasing role of simulation in the medical education of future otolaryngologists has followed suit with other surgical disciplines. Simulators make it possible for the resident to explore and learn in a safe and less stressful environment. The various subspecialties in otolaryngology use physical simulators and virtual-reality simulators. Although physical simulators allow the operator to make direct contact with its components, virtual-reality simulators allow the operator to interact with an environment that is computer generated. This article gives an overview of the various types of physical simulators and virtual-reality simulators used in otolaryngology that have been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit.

    Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain.

  2. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit

    Juan Mateu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain.

  3. Optical architecture of HoloLens mixed reality headset

    Kress, Bernard C.; Cummings, William J.

    2017-06-01

    HoloLens by Microsoft Corp. is the world's first untethered Mixed Reality (MR) Head Mounted Display (HMD) system, released to developers in March 2016 as a Development Kit. We review in this paper the various display requirements and subsequent optical hardware choices we made for HoloLens. Its main achievements go along performance and comfort for the user: it is the first fully untethered MR headset, with the highest angular resolution and the industry's largest eyebox. It has the first inside-out global sensor fusion system including precise head tracking and 3D mapping all controlled by a fully custom on-board GPU. Based on such achievements, HoloLens came out as the most advanced MR system today. Additional features may be implemented in next generations MR headsets, leading to the ultimate experience for the user, and securing the upcoming fabulous AR/MR market predicted by most analysts.

  4. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit

    Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain. PMID:26334275

  5. A prototype to study cognitive and aesthetic aspects of mixed reality technologies

    Gunia, Artur; Indurkhya, Bipin

    2017-01-01

    Mixed reality systems integrate virtual reality with real-world perception and cognition to offer enhanced interaction possibilities with the environment. Our aim is to demonstrate that mixed reality technologies strongly affect our aesthetic sense and mental models. So, in designing such technologies, we need to incorporate perspectives from different disciplines. We present different approaches and implementations of cognitive enhancement and cognitive technologies, consider some practical ...

  6. Collaborative Embodied Learning in Mixed Reality Motion-Capture Environments: Two Science Studies

    Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C.; Birchfield, David A.; Tolentino, Lisa; Koziupa, Tatyana

    2014-01-01

    These 2 studies investigate the extent to which an Embodied Mixed Reality Learning Environment (EMRELE) can enhance science learning compared to regular classroom instruction. Mixed reality means that physical tangible and digital components were present. The content for the EMRELE required that students map abstract concepts and relations onto…

  7. The Embodied GIS. Using Mixed Reality to explore multi-sensory archaeological landscapes

    Stuart Eve

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We are at a turning point in development and thought about multi-sensorial engagement using digital mediation. From Oculus Rift VR goggles, Google Cardboard, noise-reducing headphones, vibrating-haptic simulating gloves, smell generators and virtual treadmills, every week a new technology or software emerges that can be used to virtualise, augment or diminish our reality, across all of our senses. In many cases these technologies have been used by archaeologists or museum professionals to didactically present or reconstruct archaeological sites or artefacts. However, Mixed Reality is rarely used to actively explore or analyse archaeological sites. This article explores a number of ways that these new multi-sensory developments can be harnessed and linked to a traditional GIS database using Mixed Reality. Through the example of three different sensory applications, I will demonstrate the implementation of an embodied GIS – allowing a multi-sensorial experience of archaeological data in situ, and enabling archaeologists to explore data in new ways, encouraging new interpretations by thinking and working through the body.

  8. A new possibility in thoracoscopic virtual reality simulation training

    Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to develop virtual reality simulation software for video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy, to explore the opinions of thoracic surgeons concerning the VATS lobectomy simulator and to test the validity of the simulator metrics. METHODS: Experienced...... VATS surgeons worked with computer specialists to develop a VATS lobectomy software for a virtual reality simulator. Thoracic surgeons with different degrees of experience in VATS were enrolled at the 22nd meeting of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) held in Copenhagen in June 2014...... content validity. Metrics were compared between the three groups. RESULTS: We succeeded in developing the first version of a virtual reality VATS lobectomy simulator. A total of 103 thoracic surgeons completed the simulated lobectomy and were distributed as follows: novices n = 32, intermediates n = 45...

  9. INTERACTIVE MOTION PLATFORMS AND VIRTUAL REALITY FOR VEHICLE SIMULATORS

    Evžen Thöndel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactive motion platforms are intended for vehicle simulators, where the direct interaction of the human body is used for controlling the simulated vehicle (e.g. bicycle, motorbike or other sports vehicles. The second use of interactive motion platforms is for entertainment purposes or fitness. The development of interactive motion platforms reacts to recent calls in the simulation industry to provide a device, which further enhances the virtual reality experience, especially with connection to the new and very fast growing business in virtual reality glasses. The paper looks at the design and control of an interactive motion platform with two degrees of freedom to be used in virtual reality applications. The paper provides the description of the control methods and new problems related to the virtual reality sickness are discussed here.

  10. Laparoscopic skill improvement after virtual reality simulator training in medical students as assessed by augmented reality simulator.

    Nomura, Tsutomu; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Matsutani, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Nobutoshi; Fujita, Isturo; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Fujikura, Terumichi; Miyashita, Masao; Uchida, Eiji

    2015-11-01

    Definitive assessment of laparoscopic skill improvement after virtual reality simulator training is best obtained during an actual operation. However, this is impossible in medical students. Therefore, we developed an alternative assessment technique using an augmented reality simulator. Nineteen medical students completed a 6-week training program using a virtual reality simulator (LapSim). The pretest and post-test were performed using an object-positioning module and cholecystectomy on an augmented reality simulator(ProMIS). The mean performance measures between pre- and post-training on the LapSim were compared with a paired t-test. In the object-positioning module, the execution time of the task (P virtual reality simulator improved the operative skills of medical students as objectively evaluated by assessment using an augmented reality simulator instead of an actual operation. We hope that these findings help to establish an effective training program for medical students. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Becoming Dragon: a mixed reality durational performance in Second Life

    Cárdenas, Micha; Head, Christopher; Margolis, Todd; Greco, Kael

    2009-02-01

    The goal for Becoming Dragon was to develop a working, immersive Mixed Reality system by using a motion capture system and head mounted display to control a character in Second Life - a Massively Multiplayer Online 3D environment - in order to examine a number of questions regarding identity, gender and the transformative potential of technology. This performance was accomplished through a collaboration between Micha Cardenas, the performer and technical director, Christopher Head, Kael Greco, Benjamin Lotan, Anna Storelli and Elle Mehrmand. The plan for this project was to model the performer's physical environment to enable them to live in the virtual environment for extended amounts of time, using an approach of Mixed Reality, where the physical world is mapped into the virtual. I remain critical of the concept of Mixed Reality, as it presents an idea of realities as totalities and as objective essences independent of interpretation through the symbolic order. Part of my goal with this project is to explore identity as a process of social feedback, in the sense that Donna Haraway describes "becoming with"iii, as well as to explore the concept of Reality Spectrum that Augmentology.com discusses, thinking about states such as AFK (Away From Keyboard) that are in-between virtual and corporeal presence.iv Both of these ideas are ways of overcoming the dualisms of mind/body, real/virtual and self/other that have been a problematic part of thinking about technology for so long. Towards thinking beyond these binaries, Anna Munster offers a concept of enfolding the body and technologyv, building on Gilles Deleuze's notion of the baroque fold. She says "the superfold... opens up for us a twisted topology of code folding back upon itself without determinate start or end points: we now live in a time and space in which body and information are thoroughly imbricated."vi She elaborates on this notion of body and code as becoming with each other saying "the incorporeal

  12. Hysteroscopic resection on virtual reality simulator: What do we measure?

    Panel, P; Neveu, M-E; Villain, C; Debras, F; Fernandez, H; Debras, E

    2018-03-03

    The objective was to compare results of two groups of population (novices and experts) on a virtual reality simulator of hysteroscopy resection for different metrics and for a multimetric score to assess its construct validity. Nineteen gynecologist who had at least 5 years of experience with hysteroscopy and self-evaluated their expertise at 4/5 or 5/5 were included as expert population. Twenty first-year gynecology residents in Paris were included as novice population. A standardized set of 4 hysteroscopy resection cases (polypectomy, myomectomy, roller ball endometrial ablation and septum resection) was performed on a virtual reality simulator (HystSim™) by the group of novices and experts. Results obtained on the simulator for overall score and for the parameters were compared by applying the Mann-Whitney test. Overall score of novices and experts were significantly different for three resection cases (polypectomy Pvirtual reality simulator. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Embodied information behavior, mixed reality and big data

    West, Ruth; Parola, Max J.; Jaycen, Amelia R.; Lueg, Christopher P.

    2015-03-01

    A renaissance in the development of virtual (VR), augmented (AR), and mixed reality (MR) technologies with a focus on consumer and industrial applications is underway. As data becomes ubiquitous in our lives, a need arises to revisit the role of our bodies, explicitly in relation to data or information. Our observation is that VR/AR/MR technology development is a vision of the future framed in terms of promissory narratives. These narratives develop alongside the underlying enabling technologies and create new use contexts for virtual experiences. It is a vision rooted in the combination of responsive, interactive, dynamic, sharable data streams, and augmentation of the physical senses for capabilities beyond those normally humanly possible. In parallel to the varied definitions of information and approaches to elucidating information behavior, a myriad of definitions and methods of measuring and understanding presence in virtual experiences exist. These and other ideas will be tested by designers, developers and technology adopters as the broader ecology of head-worn devices for virtual experiences evolves in order to reap the full potential and benefits of these emerging technologies.

  14. MRTouch: Adding Touch Input to Head-Mounted Mixed Reality.

    Xiao, Robert; Schwarz, Julia; Throm, Nick; Wilson, Andrew D; Benko, Hrvoje

    2018-04-01

    We present MRTouch, a novel multitouch input solution for head-mounted mixed reality systems. Our system enables users to reach out and directly manipulate virtual interfaces affixed to surfaces in their environment, as though they were touchscreens. Touch input offers precise, tactile and comfortable user input, and naturally complements existing popular modalities, such as voice and hand gesture. Our research prototype combines both depth and infrared camera streams together with real-time detection and tracking of surface planes to enable robust finger-tracking even when both the hand and head are in motion. Our technique is implemented on a commercial Microsoft HoloLens without requiring any additional hardware nor any user or environmental calibration. Through our performance evaluation, we demonstrate high input accuracy with an average positional error of 5.4 mm and 95% button size of 16 mm, across 17 participants, 2 surface orientations and 4 surface materials. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of our technique to enable on-world touch interactions through 5 example applications.

  15. Augmenting the thermal flux experiment: a mixed reality approach with the HoloLens

    Strzys, M. P.; Kapp, S.; Thees, M.; Lukowicz, P.; Knierim, P.; Schmidt, A.; Kuhn, J.

    2017-01-01

    In the field of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies have made huge progress during the last years and also reached the field of education. The virtuality continuum, ranging from pure virtuality on one side to the real world on the other has been successfully covered by the use of immersive technologies like head-mounted displays, which allow to embed virtual objects into the real surroundings, leading to a Mixed Reality (MR) experience. In such an environment digital ...

  16. A New Design for Airway Management Training with Mixed Reality and High Fidelity Modeling.

    Shen, Yunhe; Hananel, David; Zhao, Zichen; Burke, Daniel; Ballas, Crist; Norfleet, Jack; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Restoring airway function is a vital task in many medical scenarios. Although various simulation tools have been available for learning such skills, recent research indicated that fidelity in simulating airway management deserves further improvements. In this study, we designed and implemented a new prototype for practicing relevant tasks including laryngoscopy, intubation and cricothyrotomy. A large amount of anatomical details or landmarks were meticulously selected and reconstructed from medical scans, and 3D-printed or molded to the airway intervention model. This training model was augmented by virtually and physically presented interactive modules, which are interoperable with motion tracking and sensor data feedback. Implementation results showed that this design is a feasible approach to develop higher fidelity airway models that can be integrated with mixed reality interfaces.

  17. Relationships of virtual reality neuroendoscopic simulations to actual imaging.

    Riegel, T; Alberti, O; Retsch, R; Shiratori, V; Hellwig, D; Bertalanffy, H

    2000-12-01

    Advances in computer technology have permitted virtual reality images of the ventricular system. To determine the relevance of these images we have compared virtual reality simulations of the ventricular system with endoscopic findings in three patients. The virtual fly-through can be simulated after definition of waypoints. Flight objects of interest can be viewed from all sides. Important drawbacks are that filigree structures may be missed and blood vessels cannot be distinguished clearly. However, virtual endoscopy can presently be used as a planning tool or for training and has future potential for neurosurgery.

  18. Reducing Behavior Problems Among Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Coaching Teachers in a Mixed-Reality Setting.

    Pas, Elise T; Johnson, Stacy R; Larson, Kristine E; Brandenburg, Linda; Church, Robin; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2016-12-01

    Most approaches aiming to reduce behavior problems among youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) focus on individual students; however, school personnel also need professional development to better support students. This study targeted teachers' skill development to promote positive outcomes for students with ASD. The sample included 19 teachers in two non-public special education settings serving students with moderate to severe ASD. Participating teachers received professional development and coaching in classroom management, with guided practice in a mixed-reality simulator. Repeated-measures ANOVAs examining externally-conducted classroom observations revealed statistically significant improvements in teacher management and student behavior over time. Findings suggest that coaching and guided practice in a mixed-reality simulator is perceived as acceptable and may reduce behavior problems among students with ASD.

  19. Ambient Learning Displays - Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning

    Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D. (2010, 19-21 March). Ambient Learning Displays Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning. Presented at the IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2010, Porto, Portugal.

  20. Multi-actor decision making using mixed reality technologies Urban projects and multi-actor collaboration

    Basile,, Maria; Ozdirlik, Burcu; Terrin,, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper is based on the results of an ongoing research project, IPCity, on the application of mixed reality technologies in urban environments. It questions the relevance of traditional language and communication medium such as drawings, perspectives and 3D models in the co-production of urban projects in multi-actor working environments. It then discusses the possible use of “mixed reality technologies” as alternative medium through five workshops organised within ...

  1. Validation of a novel virtual reality simulator for robotic surgery

    Schreuder, Henk W. R.; Persson, Jan E. U.; Wolswijk, Richard G. H.; Ihse, Ingmar; Schijven, Marlies P.; Verheijen, René H. M.

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery there is a concomitant rising demand for training methods. The objective was to establish face and construct validity of a novel virtual reality simulator (dV-Trainer, Mimic Technologies, Seattle, WA) for the use in training of

  2. Virtual reality simulators for rock engineering related training.

    Squelch, A

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR) has been investigated by SIMRAC and CSIR Miningtek as a means of providing an enhancement to current training methods that will lead to more effective hazard awareness training programmes. A VR training simulator developed under...

  3. The efficacy of virtual reality simulation training in laparoscopy

    Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Ottesen, Bent S

    2012-01-01

    Background. Virtual reality (VR) simulators for surgical training might possess the properties needed for basic training in laparoscopy. Evidence for training efficacy of VR has been investigated by research of varying quality over the past decade. Objective. To review randomized controlled trial...

  4. Pedagogy before Technology: A Design-Based Research Approach to Enhancing Skills Development in Paramedic Science Using Mixed Reality

    Michael Cowling

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In health sciences education, there is growing evidence that simulation improves learners’ safety, competence, and skills, especially when compared to traditional didactic methods or no simulation training. However, this approach to simulation becomes difficult when students are studying at a distance, leading to the need to develop simulations that suit this pedagogical problem and the logistics of this intervention method. This paper describes the use of a design-based research (DBR methodology, combined with a new model for putting ‘pedagogy before technology’ when approaching these types of education problems, to develop a mixed reality education solution. This combined model is used to analyse a classroom learning problem in paramedic health sciences with respect to student evidence, assisting the educational designer to identify a solution, and subsequently develop a technology-based mixed reality simulation via a mobile phone application and three-dimensional (3D printed tools to provide an analogue approximation for an on-campus simulation experience. The developed intervention was tested with students and refined through a repeat of the process, showing that a DBR process, supported by a model that puts ‘pedagogy before technology’, can produce over several iterations a much-improved simulation that results in a simulation that satisfies student pedagogical needs.

  5. Simulation and augmented reality in endovascular neurosurgery: lessons from aviation.

    Mitha, Alim P; Almekhlafi, Mohammed A; Janjua, Major Jameel J; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular neurosurgery is a discipline strongly dependent on imaging. Therefore, technology that improves how much useful information we can garner from a single image has the potential to dramatically assist decision making during endovascular procedures. Furthermore, education in an image-enhanced environment, especially with the incorporation of simulation, can improve the safety of the procedures and give interventionalists and trainees the opportunity to study or perform simulated procedures before the intervention, much like what is practiced in the field of aviation. Here, we examine the use of simulators in the training of fighter pilots and discuss how similar benefits can compensate for current deficiencies in endovascular training. We describe the types of simulation used for endovascular procedures, including virtual reality, and discuss the relevant data on its utility in training. Finally, the benefit of augmented reality during endovascular procedures is discussed, along with future computerized image enhancement techniques.

  6. Virtual Reality Simulation of the International Space Welding Experiment

    Phillips, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a set of breakthrough technologies that allow a human being to enter and fully experience a 3-dimensional, computer simulated environment. A true virtual reality experience meets three criteria: (1) It involves 3-dimensional computer graphics; (2) It includes real-time feedback and response to user actions; and (3) It must provide a sense of immersion. Good examples of a virtual reality simulator are the flight simulators used by all branches of the military to train pilots for combat in high performance jet fighters. The fidelity of such simulators is extremely high -- but so is the price tag, typically millions of dollars. Virtual reality teaching and training methods are manifestly effective, and we have therefore implemented a VR trainer for the International Space Welding Experiment. My role in the development of the ISWE trainer consisted of the following: (1) created texture-mapped models of the ISWE's rotating sample drum, technology block, tool stowage assembly, sliding foot restraint, and control panel; (2) developed C code for control panel button selection and rotation of the sample drum; (3) In collaboration with Tim Clark (Antares Virtual Reality Systems), developed a serial interface box for the PC and the SGI Indigo so that external control devices, similar to ones actually used on the ISWE, could be used to control virtual objects in the ISWE simulation; (4) In collaboration with Peter Wang (SFFP) and Mark Blasingame (Boeing), established the interference characteristics of the VIM 1000 head-mounted-display and tested software filters to correct the problem; (5) In collaboration with Peter Wang and Mark Blasingame, established software and procedures for interfacing the VPL DataGlove and the Polhemus 6DOF position sensors to the SGI Indigo serial ports. The majority of the ISWE modeling effort was conducted on a PC-based VR Workstation, described below.

  7. Fostering Learning Through Interprofessional Virtual Reality Simulation Development.

    Nicely, Stephanie; Farra, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a unique strategy for improving didactic learning and clinical skill while simultaneously fostering interprofessional collaboration and communication. Senior-level nursing students collaborated with students enrolled in the Department of Interactive Media Studies to design a virtual reality simulation based upon disaster management and triage techniques. Collaborative creation of the simulation proved to be a strategy for enhancing students' knowledge of and skill in disaster management and triage while impacting attitudes about interprofessional communication and teamwork.

  8. Virtual reality simulator for vitreoretinal surgery using integrated OCT data

    Kozak, Igor; Banerjee,Pat; Luo,Jia; Luciano,Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Igor Kozak,1 Pat Banerjee,2 Jia Luo,2 Cristian Luciano21King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Vitreoretinal Division, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Operative practice using surgical simulators has become a part of training in many surgical specialties, including ophthalmology. We introduce a virtual reality retina surgery simulator capable of integrating optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans from real p...

  9. Virtual reality simulators for gastrointestinal endoscopy training.

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Lazaridis, Lazaros Dimitrios; Dimitriadis, George D

    2014-01-16

    The use of simulators as educational tools for medical procedures is spreading rapidly and many efforts have been made for their implementation in gastrointestinal endoscopy training. Endoscopy simulation training has been suggested for ascertaining patient safety while positively influencing the trainees' learning curve. Virtual simulators are the most promising tool among all available types of simulators. These integrated modalities offer a human-like endoscopy experience by combining virtual images of the gastrointestinal tract and haptic realism with using a customized endoscope. From their first steps in the 1980s until today, research involving virtual endoscopic simulators can be divided in two categories: investigation of the impact of virtual simulator training in acquiring endoscopy skills and measuring competence. Emphasis should also be given to the financial impact of their implementation in endoscopy, including the cost of these state-of-the-art simulators and the potential economic benefits from their usage. Advances in technology will contribute to the upgrade of existing models and the development of new ones; while further research should be carried out to discover new fields of application.

  10. A mixed reality approach for stereo-tomographic quantification of lung nodules.

    Chen, Mianyi; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Yun, Wenbing; Cong, Wenxiang; Yang, Qingsong; Nguyen, Terry; Wei, Biao; Wang, Ge

    2016-05-25

    To reduce the radiation dose and the equipment cost associated with lung CT screening, in this paper we propose a mixed reality based nodule measurement method with an active shutter stereo imaging system. Without involving hundreds of projection views and subsequent image reconstruction, we generated two projections of an iteratively placed ellipsoidal volume in the field of view and merging these synthetic projections with two original CT projections. We then demonstrated the feasibility of measuring the position and size of a nodule by observing whether projections of an ellipsoidal volume and the nodule are overlapped from a human observer's visual perception through the active shutter 3D vision glasses. The average errors of measured nodule parameters are less than 1 mm in the simulated experiment with 8 viewers. Hence, it could measure real nodules accurately in the experiments with physically measured projections.

  11. Challenges to the development of complex virtual reality surgical simulations.

    Seymour, N E; Røtnes, J S

    2006-11-01

    Virtual reality simulation in surgical training has become more widely used and intensely investigated in an effort to develop safer, more efficient, measurable training processes. The development of virtual reality simulation of surgical procedures has begun, but well-described technical obstacles must be overcome to permit varied training in a clinically realistic computer-generated environment. These challenges include development of realistic surgical interfaces and physical objects within the computer-generated environment, modeling of realistic interactions between objects, rendering of the surgical field, and development of signal processing for complex events associated with surgery. Of these, the realistic modeling of tissue objects that are fully responsive to surgical manipulations is the most challenging. Threats to early success include relatively limited resources for development and procurement, as well as smaller potential for return on investment than in other simulation industries that face similar problems. Despite these difficulties, steady progress continues to be made in these areas. If executed properly, virtual reality offers inherent advantages over other training systems in creating a realistic surgical environment and facilitating measurement of surgeon performance. Once developed, complex new virtual reality training devices must be validated for their usefulness in formative training and assessment of skill to be established.

  12. Virtual reality simulator: demonstrated use in neurosurgical oncology.

    Clarke, David B; D'Arcy, Ryan C N; Delorme, Sebastien; Laroche, Denis; Godin, Guy; Hajra, Sujoy Ghosh; Brooks, Rupert; DiRaddo, Robert

    2013-04-01

    The overriding importance of patient safety, the complexity of surgical techniques, and the challenges associated with teaching surgical trainees in the operating room are all factors driving the need for innovative surgical simulation technologies. Despite these issues, widespread use of virtual reality simulation technology in surgery has not been fully implemented, largely because of the technical complexities in developing clinically relevant and useful models. This article describes the successful use of the NeuroTouch neurosurgical simulator in the resection of a left frontal meningioma. The widespread application of surgical simulation technology has the potential to decrease surgical risk, improve operating room efficiency, and fundamentally change surgical training.

  13. Transferability of laparoscopic skills using the virtual reality simulator.

    Yang, Cui; Kalinitschenko, Uljana; Helmert, Jens R; Weitz, Juergen; Reissfelder, Christoph; Mees, Soeren Torge

    2018-03-30

    Skill transfer represents an important issue in surgical education, and is not well understood. The aim of this randomized study is to assess the transferability of surgical skills between two laparoscopic abdominal procedures using the virtual reality simulator in surgical novices. From September 2016 to July 2017, 44 surgical novices were randomized into two groups and underwent a proficiency-based basic training consisting of five selected simulated laparoscopic tasks. In group 1, participants performed an appendectomy training on the virtual reality simulator until they reached a defined proficiency. They moved on to the tutorial procedural tasks of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Participants in group 2 started with the tutorial procedural tasks of laparoscopic cholecystectomy directly. Finishing the training, participants of both groups were required to perform a complete cholecystectomy on the simulator. Time, safety and economy parameters were analysed. Significant differences in the demographic characteristics and previous computer games experience between the two groups were not noted. Both groups took similar time to complete the proficiency-based basic training. Participants in group 1 needed significantly less movements (388.6 ± 98.6 vs. 446.4 ± 81.6; P virtual reality simulator; however, the transfer of cognitive skills is limited. Separate training curricula seem to be necessary for each procedure for trainees to practise task-specific cognitive skills effectively. Mentoring could help trainees to get a deeper understanding of the procedures, thereby increasing the chance for the transfer of acquired skills.

  14. Virtual Reality Simulator Developed Welding Technology Skills

    Yunus, Faizal Amin Nur; Baser, Jamil Abd; Masran, Saiful Hadi; Razali, Nizamuddin; Rahim, Bekri

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the suitability of VR welding simulator application towards CBT in developing welding skills upon new trainees at the Centre of Instructor and Advanced Skills Training (CIAST) Shah Alam Selangor and National Youth Skills Institute (IKBN) Pagoh Johor. The significance of the study was to create a…

  15. Capturing differences in dental training using a virtual reality simulator.

    Mirghani, I; Mushtaq, F; Allsop, M J; Al-Saud, L M; Tickhill, N; Potter, C; Keeling, A; Mon-Williams, M A; Manogue, M

    2018-02-01

    Virtual reality simulators are becoming increasingly popular in dental schools across the world. But to what extent do these systems reflect actual dental ability? Addressing this question of construct validity is a fundamental step that is necessary before these systems can be fully integrated into a dental school's curriculum. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the Simodont (a haptic virtual reality dental simulator) to differences in dental training experience. Two hundred and eighty-nine participants, with 1 (n = 92), 3 (n = 79), 4 (n = 57) and 5 (n = 61) years of dental training, performed a series of tasks upon their first exposure to the simulator. We found statistically significant differences between novice (Year 1) and experienced dental trainees (operationalised as 3 or more years of training), but no differences between performance of experienced trainees with varying levels of experience. This work represents a crucial first step in understanding the value of haptic virtual reality simulators in dental education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A virtual reality tool to measure shoppers’ tenant mix preferences

    Borgers, A.W.J.; Brouwer, Menno; Kunen, T.; Jessurun, A.J.; Janssen, I.I.

    2010-01-01

    Tenant mix is an important key to the success of a shopping centre. Rules dictating the ideal tenant mix are still based on assumptions about consumer preferences and consumer behaviour. However, research into consumers’ tenant mix preferences seems to become more prominent in this context. As

  17. The need for virtual reality simulators in dental education: A review

    Elby Roy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality simulators are becoming an essential part of modern education. The benefits of Virtual reality in dentistry is constantly being assessed as a method or an adjunct to improve fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination in pre-clinical settings and overcome the monetary and intellectual challenges involved with such training. This article, while providing an overview of the virtual reality dental simulators, also looks at the link between virtual reality simulation and current pedagogical knowledge.

  18. The need for virtual reality simulators in dental education: A review

    Roy, Elby; Bakr, Mahmoud M.; George, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality simulators are becoming an essential part of modern education. The benefits of Virtual reality in dentistry is constantly being assessed as a method or an adjunct to improve fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination in pre-clinical settings and overcome the monetary and intellectual challenges involved with such training. This article, while providing an overview of the virtual reality dental simulators, also looks at the link between virtual reality simulation and current peda...

  19. The need for virtual reality simulators in dental education: A review.

    Roy, Elby; Bakr, Mahmoud M; George, Roy

    2017-04-01

    Virtual reality simulators are becoming an essential part of modern education. The benefits of Virtual reality in dentistry is constantly being assessed as a method or an adjunct to improve fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination in pre-clinical settings and overcome the monetary and intellectual challenges involved with such training. This article, while providing an overview of the virtual reality dental simulators, also looks at the link between virtual reality simulation and current pedagogical knowledge.

  20. Mixed-reality Learning Environments: What Happens When You Move from a Laboratory to a Classroom?

    King, Barbara; Smith, Carmen Petrick

    2018-01-01

    The advent ofmotion-controlled technologies has unlocked new possibilities for body-basedlearning in the mathematics classroom. For example, mixed-reality learning environments allow students theopportunity to embody a mathematical concept while simultaneously beingprovided a visual interface that represents their movement.  In the current study, we created amixed-reality environment to help children learn about angle measurement, andwe investigated similarities and differen...

  1. Control and Virtual Reality Simulation of Tendon Driven Mechanisms

    Londi, Fabio; Pennestri, Ettore; Valentini, Pier Paolo; Vita, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a control strategy for tendon driven mechanisms. The aim of the control system is to find the correct torques which the motors have to exert to make the end effector describe a specific trajectory. In robotic assemblies this problem is often solved with closed loop algorithm, but here a simpler method, based on a open loop strategy, is developed. The difficulties in the actuation are in keeping the belt tight during all working conditions. So an innovative solution of this problem is presented here. This methodology can be easily applied in real time monitoring or very fast operations. For this reason several virtual reality simulations, developed using codes written in Virtual Reality Markup Language, are also presented. This approach is very efficient because it requires a very low cpu computation time, small size files, and the manipulator can be easily put into different simulated scenarios

  2. Virtual Reality Simulator Systems in Robotic Surgical Training.

    Mangano, Alberto; Gheza, Federico; Giulianotti, Pier Cristoforo

    2018-06-01

    The number of robotic surgical procedures has been increasing worldwide. It is important to maximize the cost-effectiveness of robotic surgical training and safely reduce the time needed for trainees to reach proficiency. The use of preliminary lab training in robotic skills is a good strategy for the rapid acquisition of further, standardized robotic skills. Such training can be done either by using a simulator or by exercises in a dry or wet lab. While the use of an actual robotic surgical system for training may be problematic (high cost, lack of availability), virtual reality (VR) simulators can overcome many of these obstacles. However, there is still a lack of standardization. Although VR training systems have improved, they cannot yet replace experience in a wet lab. In particular, simulated scenarios are not yet close enough to a real operative experience. Indeed, there is a difference between technical skills (i.e., mechanical ability to perform a simulated task) and surgical competence (i.e., ability to perform a real surgical operation). Thus, while a VR simulator can replace a dry lab, it cannot yet replace training in a wet lab or operative training in actual patients. However, in the near future, it is expected that VR surgical simulators will be able to provide total reality simulation and replace training in a wet lab. More research is needed to produce more wide-ranging, trans-specialty robotic curricula.

  3. Virtual Reality Surgical Simulation: Implications for Resection of Intracranial Gliomas.

    Dakson, Ayoub; Hong, Murray; Clarke, David B

    2018-01-01

    Surgical simulation has the potential to play important roles in surgical training and preoperative planning. The advent of virtual reality (VR) with tactile haptic feedback has revolutionized surgical simulation, creating a novel environment for residents to learn manual skills without compromising patient safety. This concept is particularly relevant in neurosurgical training where the acquired skill set demands performance of technically challenging tasks under pressure and where the consequences of error are significant. The evolution of VR simulation is discussed here within the context of neurosurgical training and its implications for resection of intracranial gliomas. VR holds the promise of providing a useful educational tool for neurosurgical residents to hone their surgical skills and for neurosurgeons to rehearse specific segments of the surgery prior to the actual operation. Also discussed are several important issues related to simulation and simulation-based training that will need to be addressed before widespread adoption of VR simulation as a useful technology. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Augmented reality

    Patrik Pucer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Today we can obtain in a simple and rapid way most of the information that we need. Devices, such as personal computers and mobile phones, enable access to information in different formats (written, pictorial, audio or video whenever and wherever. Daily we use and encounter information that can be seen as virtual objects or objects that are part of the virtual world of computers. Everyone, at least once, wanted to bring these virtual objects from the virtual world of computers into real environments and thus mix virtual and real worlds. In such a mixed reality, real and virtual objects coexist in the same environment. The reality, where users watch and use the real environment upgraded with virtual objects is called augmented reality. In this article we describe the main properties of augmented reality. In addition to the basic properties that define a reality as augmented reality, we present the various building elements (possible hardware and software that provide an insight into such a reality and practical applications of augmented reality. The applications are divided into three groups depending on the information and functions that augmented reality offers, such as help, guide and simulator.

  5. Augmented versus Virtual Reality Laparoscopic Simulation: What Is the Difference?

    Botden, Sanne M.B.I.; Buzink, Sonja N.; Schijven, Marlies P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging new modality for laparoscopic skills training; however, most simulators lack realistic haptic feedback. Augmented reality (AR) is a new laparoscopic simulation system offering a combination of physical objects and VR simulation. Laparoscopic instruments are used within an hybrid mannequin on tissue or objects while using video tracking. This study was designed to assess the difference in realism, haptic feedback, and didactic value between AR and VR laparoscopic simulation. Methods The ProMIS AR and LapSim VR simulators were used in this study. The participants performed a basic skills task and a suturing task on both simulators, after which they filled out a questionnaire about their demographics and their opinion of both simulators scored on a 5-point Likert scale. The participants were allotted to 3 groups depending on their experience: experts, intermediates and novices. Significant differences were calculated with the paired t-test. Results There was general consensus in all groups that the ProMIS AR laparoscopic simulator is more realistic than the LapSim VR laparoscopic simulator in both the basic skills task (mean 4.22 resp. 2.18, P < 0.000) as well as the suturing task (mean 4.15 resp. 1.85, P < 0.000). The ProMIS is regarded as having better haptic feedback (mean 3.92 resp. 1.92, P < 0.000) and as being more useful for training surgical residents (mean 4.51 resp. 2.94, P < 0.000). Conclusions In comparison with the VR simulator, the AR laparoscopic simulator was regarded by all participants as a better simulator for laparoscopic skills training on all tested features. PMID:17361356

  6. Assessing suturing techniques using a virtual reality surgical simulator.

    Kazemi, Hamed; Rappel, James K; Poston, Timothy; Hai Lim, Beng; Burdet, Etienne; Leong Teo, Chee

    2010-09-01

    Advantages of virtual-reality simulators surgical skill assessment and training include more training time, no risk to patient, repeatable difficulty level, reliable feedback, without the resource demands, and ethical issues of animal-based training. We tested this for a key subtask and showed a strong link between skill in the simulator and in reality. Suturing performance was assessed for four groups of participants, including experienced surgeons and naive subjects, on a custom-made virtual-reality simulator. Each subject tried the experiment 30 times using five different types of needles to perform a standardized suture placement task. Traditional metrics of performance as well as new metrics enabled by our system were proposed, and the data indicate difference between trained and untrained performance. In all traditional parameters such as time, number of attempts, and motion quantity, the medical surgeons outperformed the other three groups, though differences were not significant. However, motion smoothness, penetration and exit angles, tear size areas, and orientation change were statistically significant in the trained group when compared with untrained group. This suggests that these parameters can be used in virtual microsurgery training.

  7. Milestone M4900: Simulant Mixing Analytical Results

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2001-07-26

    This report addresses Milestone M4900, ''Simulant Mixing Sample Analysis Results,'' and contains the data generated during the ''Mixing of Process Heels, Process Solutions, and Recycle Streams: Small-Scale Simulant'' task. The Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for this task is BNF-003-98-0079A. A report with a narrative description and discussion of the data will be issued separately.

  8. Virtual reality simulator for vitreoretinal surgery using integrated OCT data

    Kozak I

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Igor Kozak,1 Pat Banerjee,2 Jia Luo,2 Cristian Luciano21King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Vitreoretinal Division, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Operative practice using surgical simulators has become a part of training in many surgical specialties, including ophthalmology. We introduce a virtual reality retina surgery simulator capable of integrating optical coherence tomography (OCT scans from real patients for practicing vitreoretinal surgery using different pathologic scenarios.Keywords: optical coherence tomography

  9. Fundamental arthroscopic skill differentiation with virtual reality simulation.

    Rose, Kelsey; Pedowitz, Robert

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use and validity of virtual reality modules as part of the educational approach to mastering arthroscopy in a safe environment by assessing the ability to distinguish between experience levels. Additionally, the study aimed to evaluate whether experts have greater ambidexterity than do novices. Three virtual reality modules (Swemac/Augmented Reality Systems, Linkoping, Sweden) were created to test fundamental arthroscopic skills. Thirty participants-10 experts consisting of faculty, 10 intermediate participants consisting of orthopaedic residents, and 10 novices consisting of medical students-performed each exercise. Steady and Telescope was designed to train centering and image stability. Steady and Probe was designed to train basic triangulation. Track and Moving Target was designed to train coordinated motions of arthroscope and probe. Metrics reflecting speed, accuracy, and efficiency of motion were used to measure construct validity. Steady and Probe and Track a Moving Target both exhibited construct validity, with better performance by experts and intermediate participants than by novices (P virtual reality modules developed through task deconstruction. Participants with the most arthroscopic experience performed better and were more consistent than novices on all 3 virtual reality modules. Greater arthroscopic experience correlates with more symmetry of ambidextrous performance. However, further adjustment of the modules may better simulate fundamental arthroscopic skills and discriminate between experience levels. Arthroscopy training is a critical element of orthopaedic surgery resident training. Developing techniques to safely and effectively train these skills is critical for patient safety and resident education. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of a Novel Virtual Reality Simulator for Robotic Surgery

    Henk W. R. Schreuder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. With the increase in robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery there is a concomitant rising demand for training methods. The objective was to establish face and construct validity of a novel virtual reality simulator (dV-Trainer, Mimic Technologies, Seattle, WA for the use in training of robot-assisted surgery. Methods. A comparative cohort study was performed. Participants (n=42 were divided into three groups according to their robotic experience. To determine construct validity, participants performed three different exercises twice. Performance parameters were measured. To determine face validity, participants filled in a questionnaire after completion of the exercises. Results. Experts outperformed novices in most of the measured parameters. The most discriminative parameters were “time to complete” and “economy of motion” (P<0.001. The training capacity of the simulator was rated 4.6 ± 0.5 SD on a 5-point Likert scale. The realism of the simulator in general, visual graphics, movements of instruments, interaction with objects, and the depth perception were all rated as being realistic. The simulator is considered to be a very useful training tool for residents and medical specialist starting with robotic surgery. Conclusions. Face and construct validity for the dV-Trainer could be established. The virtual reality simulator is a useful tool for training robotic surgery.

  11. Needs analysis for developing a virtual-reality NOTES simulator.

    Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Matthes, Kai; Nemani, Arun; Ahn, Woojin; Kato, Masayuki; Jones, Daniel B; Schwaitzberg, Steven; De, Suvranu

    2013-05-01

    INTRODUCTION AND STUDY AIM: Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an emerging surgical technique that requires a cautious adoption approach to ensure patient safety. High-fidelity virtual-reality-based simulators allow development of new surgical procedures and tools and train medical personnel without risk to human patients. As part of a project funded by the National Institutes of Health, we are developing the virtual transluminal endoscopic surgery trainer (VTEST) for this purpose. The objective of this study is to conduct a structured needs analysis to identify the design parameters for such a virtual-reality-based simulator for NOTES. A 30-point questionnaire was distributed at the 2011 National Orifice Surgery Consortium for Assessment and Research meeting to obtain responses from experts. Ordinal logistic regression and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used for analysis. A total of 22 NOTES experts participated in the study. Cholecystectomy (CE, 68 %) followed by appendectomy (AE, 63 %) (CE vs AE, p = 0.0521) was selected as the first choice for simulation. Flexible (FL, 47 %) and hybrid (HY, 47 %) approaches were equally favorable compared with rigid (RI, 6 %) with p virtual NOTES simulator in training and testing new tools for NOTES were rated very high by the participants. Our study reinforces the importance of developing a virtual NOTES simulator and clearly presents expert preferences. The results of this analysis will direct our initial development of the VTEST platform.

  12. Virtual reality simulator training of laparoscopic cholecystectomies - a systematic review.

    Ikonen, T S; Antikainen, T; Silvennoinen, M; Isojärvi, J; Mäkinen, E; Scheinin, T M

    2012-01-01

    Simulators are widely used in occupations where practice in authentic environments would involve high human or economic risks. Surgical procedures can be simulated by increasingly complex and expensive techniques. This review gives an update on computer-based virtual reality (VR) simulators in training for laparoscopic cholecystectomies. From leading databases (Medline, Cochrane, Embase), randomised or controlled trials and the latest systematic reviews were systematically searched and reviewed. Twelve randomised trials involving simulators were identified and analysed, as well as four controlled studies. Furthermore, seven studies comparing black boxes and simulators were included. The results indicated any kind of simulator training (black box, VR) to be beneficial at novice level. After VR training, novice surgeons seemed to be able to perform their first live cholecystectomies with fewer errors, and in one trial the positive effect remained during the first ten cholecystectomies. No clinical follow-up data were found. Optimal learning requires skills training to be conducted as part of a systematic training program. No data on the cost-benefit of simulators were found, the price of a VR simulator begins at EUR 60 000. Theoretical background to learning and limited research data support the use of simulators in the early phases of surgical training. The cost of buying and using simulators is justified if the risk of injuries and complications to patients can be reduced. Developing surgical skills requires repeated training. In order to achieve optimal learning a validated training program is needed.

  13. Multi-degree of freedom joystick for virtual reality simulation.

    Head, M J; Nelson, C A; Siu, K C

    2013-11-01

    A modular control interface and simulated virtual reality environment were designed and created in order to determine how the kinematic architecture of a control interface affects minimally invasive surgery training. A user is able to selectively determine the kinematic configuration of an input device (number, type and location of degrees of freedom) for a specific surgical simulation through the use of modular joints and constraint components. Furthermore, passive locking was designed and implemented through the use of inflated latex tubing around rotational joints in order to allow a user to step away from a simulation without unwanted tool motion. It is believed that these features will facilitate improved simulation of a variety of surgical procedures and, thus, improve surgical skills training.

  14. Retention of Mastoidectomy Skills After Virtual Reality Simulation Training

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The ultimate goal of surgical training is consolidated skills with a consistently high performance. However, surgical skills are heterogeneously retained and depend on a variety of factors, including the task, cognitive demands, and organization of practice. Virtual reality (VR......) simulation is increasingly being used in surgical skills training, including temporal bone surgery, but there is a gap in knowledge on the retention of mastoidectomy skills after VR simulation training. OBJECTIVES: To determine the retention of mastoidectomy skills after VR simulation training...... with distributed and massed practice and to investigate participants' cognitive load during retention procedures. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective 3-month follow-up study of a VR simulation trial was conducted from February 6 to September 19, 2014, at an academic teaching hospital among 36 medical...

  15. Semantic and Virtual Reality-Enhanced Configuration of Domestic Environments: The Smart Home Simulator

    Daniele Spoladore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the Smart Home Simulator, one of the main outcomes of the D4All project. This application takes into account the variety of issues involved in the development of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL solutions, such as the peculiarity of each end-users, appliances, and technologies with their deployment and data-sharing issues. The Smart Home Simulator—a mixed reality application able to support the configuration and customization of domestic environments in AAL systems—leverages on integration capabilities of Semantic Web technologies and the possibility to model relevant knowledge (about both the dwellers and the domestic environment into formal models. It also exploits Virtual Reality technologies as an efficient means to simplify the configuration of customized AAL environments. The application and the underlying framework will be validated through two different use cases, each one foreseeing the customized configuration of a domestic environment for specific segments of users.

  16. Mixed reality learning spaces for collaborative experimentation: A challenge for engineering education and training

    Dieter Müller

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the vast majority of research in human-computer interaction involves only our senses of sight and hearing, with sporadic forays into touch, future laboratories used in engineering education will mostly benefit from developments beyond video and sound. Tangible and embedded interaction, augmented and mixed reality characterizes ultimate technologies for further applications in collaborative remote engineering and lab work. This paper presents our latest research to facilitate collaborative experimentation with such innovative technologies. Our vision is a collaborative learning space, which involves an amalgam of real, virtual and remote lab tools to support a wide spectrum of simple and complex, concrete and abstract, safe and dangerous experimentation settings. We will review related concepts and discuss lessons learned from our research and prototype development. Recent work involves the use of mixed reality (as opposed to ‘pure’ virtual reality techniques to support seamless collaborative work between remote sites. We describe this and identify areas for future research.

  17. Paper-based mixed reality sketch augmentation as a conceptual design support tool

    dos Santos, G.J.D.; van Dijk, E.M.A.G.; Vyas, D.M.; Backwell, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This undergraduate student paper explores usage of mixed reality techniques as support tools for conceptual design. A proof-of-concept was developed to illustrate this principle. Using this as an example, a small group of designers was interviewed to determine their views on the use of this

  18. A Mobile Mixed-Reality Environment for Children's Storytelling Using a Handheld Projector and a Robot

    Sugimoto, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a system called GENTORO that uses a robot and a handheld projector for supporting children's storytelling activities. GENTORO differs from many existing systems in that children can make a robot play their own story in a physical space augmented by mixed-reality technologies. Pilot studies have been conducted to clarify the…

  19. Real-time 3D human capture system for mixed-reality art and entertainment.

    Nguyen, Ta Huynh Duy; Qui, Tran Cong Thien; Xu, Ke; Cheok, Adrian David; Teo, Sze Lee; Zhou, ZhiYing; Mallawaarachchi, Asitha; Lee, Shang Ping; Liu, Wei; Teo, Hui Siang; Thang, Le Nam; Li, Yu; Kato, Hirokazu

    2005-01-01

    A real-time system for capturing humans in 3D and placing them into a mixed reality environment is presented in this paper. The subject is captured by nine cameras surrounding her. Looking through a head-mounted-display with a camera in front pointing at a marker, the user can see the 3D image of this subject overlaid onto a mixed reality scene. The 3D images of the subject viewed from this viewpoint are constructed using a robust and fast shape-from-silhouette algorithm. The paper also presents several techniques to produce good quality and speed up the whole system. The frame rate of our system is around 25 fps using only standard Intel processor-based personal computers. Besides a remote live 3D conferencing and collaborating system, we also describe an application of the system in art and entertainment, named Magic Land, which is a mixed reality environment where captured avatars of human and 3D computer generated virtual animations can form an interactive story and play with each other. This system demonstrates many technologies in human computer interaction: mixed reality, tangible interaction, and 3D communication. The result of the user study not only emphasizes the benefits, but also addresses some issues of these technologies.

  20. Earth Science Learning in SMALLab: A Design Experiment for Mixed Reality

    Birchfield, David; Megowan-Romanowicz, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    Conversational technologies such as email, chat rooms, and blogs have made the transition from novel communication technologies to powerful tools for learning. Currently virtual worlds are undergoing the same transition. We argue that the next wave of innovation is at the level of the computer interface, and that mixed-reality environments offer…

  1. Embedding Mixed-Reality Laboratories into E-Learning Systems for Engineering Education

    Al-Tikriti, Munther N.; Al-Aubidy, Kasim M.

    2013-01-01

    E-learning, virtual learning and mixed reality techniques are now a global integral part of the academic and educational systems. They provide easier access to educational opportunities to a very wide spectrum of individuals to pursue their educational and qualification objectives. These modern techniques have the potentials to improve the quality…

  2. Mixed Reality Tools for Playful Representation of Ideation, Conceptual Blending and Pastiche in Design and Engineering

    Wendrich, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of mixed reality tools for the early stages of design and engineering processing. Externalization of ideal and real scenes, scripts, or frames are threads that stir the imaginative exploration of the mind to ideate, formulate, and represent ideas,

  3. An Assessment of a Mixed Reality Environment: Toward an Ethnomethodological Approach

    Dugdale, Julie; Pallamin, Nico; Pavard, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Training firefighters is a difficult process in which emotions and nonverbal behaviors play an important role. The authors have developed a mixed reality environment for training a small group of firefighters, which takes into account these aspects. The assessment of the environment was made up of three phases: assessing the virtual agents to…

  4. Ambient Learning Displays - Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning

    Börner, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D. (2012). Ambient Learning Displays - Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning. 2012 IEEE Seventh International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technology in Education (pp. 337-338). March, 27-30, 2012, Takamatsu, Japan: IEEE Computer

  5. Progress in virtual reality simulators for surgical training and certification.

    de Visser, Hans; Watson, Marcus O; Salvado, Olivier; Passenger, Joshua D

    2011-02-21

    There is increasing evidence that educating trainee surgeons by simulation is preferable to traditional operating-room training methods with actual patients. Apart from reducing costs and risks to patients, training by simulation can provide some unique benefits, such as greater control over the training procedure and more easily defined metrics for assessing proficiency. Virtual reality (VR) simulators are now playing an increasing role in surgical training. However, currently available VR simulators lack the fidelity to teach trainees past the novice-to-intermediate skills level. Recent technological developments in other industries using simulation, such as the games and entertainment and aviation industries, suggest that the next generation of VR simulators should be suitable for training, maintenance and certification of advanced surgical skills. To be effective as an advanced surgical training and assessment tool, VR simulation needs to provide adequate and relevant levels of physical realism, case complexity and performance assessment. Proper validation of VR simulators and an increased appreciation of their value by the medical profession are crucial for them to be accepted into surgical training curricula.

  6. Virtual reality based surgery simulation for endoscopic gynaecology.

    Székely, G; Bajka, M; Brechbühler, C; Dual, J; Enzler, R; Haller, U; Hug, J; Hutter, R; Ironmonger, N; Kauer, M; Meier, V; Niederer, P; Rhomberg, A; Schmid, P; Schweitzer, G; Thaler, M; Vuskovic, V; Tröster, G

    1999-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) based surgical simulator systems offer very elegant possibilities to both enrich and enhance traditional education in endoscopic surgery. However, while a wide range of VR simulator systems have been proposed and realized in the past few years, most of these systems are far from able to provide a reasonably realistic surgical environment. We explore the basic approaches to the current limits of realism and ultimately seek to extend these based on our description and analysis of the most important components of a VR-based endoscopic simulator. The feasibility of the proposed techniques is demonstrated on a first modular prototype system implementing the basic algorithms for VR-training in gynaecologic laparoscopy.

  7. AFFECTIVE COMPUTING AND AUGMENTED REALITY FOR CAR DRIVING SIMULATORS

    Dragoș Datcu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Car simulators are essential for training and for analyzing the behavior, the responses and the performance of the driver. Augmented Reality (AR is the technology that enables virtual images to be overlaid on views of the real world. Affective Computing (AC is the technology that helps reading emotions by means of computer systems, by analyzing body gestures, facial expressions, speech and physiological signals. The key aspect of the research relies on investigating novel interfaces that help building situational awareness and emotional awareness, to enable affect-driven remote collaboration in AR for car driving simulators. The problem addressed relates to the question about how to build situational awareness (using AR technology and emotional awareness (by AC technology, and how to integrate these two distinct technologies [4], into a unique affective framework for training, in a car driving simulator.

  8. Virtual reality and simulation: training the future emergency physician.

    Reznek, Martin; Harter, Phillip; Krummel, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The traditional system of clinical education in emergency medicine relies on practicing diagnostic, therapeutic, and procedural skills on live patients. The ethical, financial, and practical weaknesses of this system are well recognized, but the alternatives that have been explored to date have shown even greater flaws. However, ongoing progress in the area of virtual reality and computer-enhanced simulation is now providing educational applications that show tremendous promise in overcoming most of the deficiencies associated with live-patient training. It will be important for academic emergency physicians to become more involved with this technology to ensure that our educational system benefits optimally.

  9. Procedural virtual reality simulation in minimally invasive surgery.

    Våpenstad, Cecilie; Buzink, Sonja N

    2013-02-01

    Simulation of procedural tasks has the potential to bridge the gap between basic skills training outside the operating room (OR) and performance of complex surgical tasks in the OR. This paper provides an overview of procedural virtual reality (VR) simulation currently available on the market and presented in scientific literature for laparoscopy (LS), flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy (FGE), and endovascular surgery (EVS). An online survey was sent to companies and research groups selling or developing procedural VR simulators, and a systematic search was done for scientific publications presenting or applying VR simulators to train or assess procedural skills in the PUBMED and SCOPUS databases. The results of five simulator companies were included in the survey. In the literature review, 116 articles were analyzed (45 on LS, 43 on FGE, 28 on EVS), presenting a total of 23 simulator systems. The companies stated to altogether offer 78 procedural tasks (33 for LS, 12 for FGE, 33 for EVS), of which 17 also were found in the literature review. Although study type and used outcomes vary between the three different fields, approximately 90 % of the studies presented in the retrieved publications for LS found convincing evidence to confirm the validity or added value of procedural VR simulation. This was the case in approximately 75 % for FGE and EVS. Procedural training using VR simulators has been found to improve clinical performance. There is nevertheless a large amount of simulated procedural tasks that have not been validated. Future research should focus on the optimal use of procedural simulators in the most effective training setups and further investigate the benefits of procedural VR simulation to improve clinical outcome.

  10. Sensorimotor enhancement with a mixed reality system for balance and mobility rehabilitation.

    Fung, Joyce; Perez, Claire F

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a mixed reality system incorporating virtual reality (VR), surface perturbations and light touch for gait rehabilitation. Haptic touch has emerged as a novel and efficient technique to improve postural control and dynamic stability. Our system combines visual display with the manipulation of physical environments and addition of haptic feedback to enhance balance and mobility post stroke. A research study involving 9 participants with stroke and 9 age-matched healthy individuals show that the haptic cue provided while walking is an effective means of improving gait stability in people post stroke, especially during challenging environmental conditions such as downslope walking.

  11. MiRTE: Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game for Mass Casualty information systems design, testing and training.

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game, MiRTE, that is used in the development, testing and training of Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) information systems for first responders. Using the Source game engine from Valve software, MiRTE creates immersive virtual environments to simulate various incident scenarios, and enables interactions between multiple players/first responders. What distinguishes it from a pure computer simulation game is that it can interface with external mass casualty incident management systems, such as DIORAMA. The game will enable system developers to specify technical requirements of underlying technology, and test different alternatives of design. After the information system hardware and software are completed, the game can simulate various algorithms such as localization technologies, and interface with an actual user interface on PCs and Smartphones. We implemented and tested the game with the DIORAMA system.

  12. Laparoscopic virtual reality simulator and box trainer in gynecology.

    Akdemir, Ali; Sendağ, Fatih; Oztekin, Mehmet K

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether a virtual reality simulator (LapSim) and traditional box trainer are effective tools for the acquisition of basic laparoscopic skills, and whether the LapSim is superior to the box trainer in surgical education. In a study at Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey, between September 2008 and March 2013, 40 first- and second-year residents were randomized to train via the LapSim or box trainer for 4 weeks, and 20 senior residents were allocated to a control group. All 3 groups performed laparoscopic bilateral tubal ligation. Video records of each operation were assessed via the general rating scale of the Objective Structured Assessment of Laparoscopic Salpingectomy and by operation time in seconds. Compared with the control group, the LapSim and box trainer groups performed significantly better in total score (Peducation. Training with a virtual reality simulator or box trainer should be considered before actual laparoscopic procedures are carried out. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Virtual reality simulators: valuable surgical skills trainers or video games?

    Willis, Ross E; Gomez, Pedro Pablo; Ivatury, Srinivas J; Mitra, Hari S; Van Sickle, Kent R

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) and physical model (PM) simulators differ in terms of whether the trainee is manipulating actual 3-dimensional objects (PM) or computer-generated 3-dimensional objects (VR). Much like video games (VG), VR simulators utilize computer-generated graphics. These differences may have profound effects on the utility of VR and PM training platforms. In this study, we aimed to determine whether a relationship exists between VR, PM, and VG platforms. VR and PM simulators for laparoscopic camera navigation ([LCN], experiment 1) and flexible endoscopy ([FE] experiment 2) were used in this study. In experiment 1, 20 laparoscopic novices played VG and performed 0° and 30° LCN exercises on VR and PM simulators. In experiment 2, 20 FE novices played VG and performed colonoscopy exercises on VR and PM simulators. In both experiments, VG performance was correlated with VR performance but not with PM performance. Performance on VR simulators did not correlate with performance on respective PM models. VR environments may be more like VG than previously thought. © 2013 Published by Association of Program Directors in Surgery on behalf of Association of Program Directors in Surgery.

  14. Virtual reality applied to hepatic surgery simulation: the next revolution.

    Marescaux, J; Clément, J M; Tassetti, V; Koehl, C; Cotin, S; Russier, Y; Mutter, D; Delingette, H; Ayache, N

    1998-11-01

    This article describes a preliminary work on virtual reality applied to liver surgery and discusses the repercussions of assisted surgical strategy and surgical simulation on tomorrow's surgery. Liver surgery is considered difficult because of the complexity and variability of the organ. Common generic tools for presurgical medical image visualization do not fulfill the requirements for the liver, restricting comprehension of a patient's specific liver anatomy. Using data from the National Library of Medicine, a realistic three-dimensional image was created, including the envelope and the four internal arborescences. A computer interface was developed to manipulate the organ and to define surgical resection planes according to internal anatomy. The first step of surgical simulation was implemented, providing the organ with real-time deformation computation. The three-dimensional anatomy of the liver could be clearly visualized. The virtual organ could be manipulated and a resection defined depending on the anatomic relations between the arborescences, the tumor, and the external envelope. The resulting parts could also be visualized and manipulated. The simulation allowed the deformation of a liver model in real time by means of a realistic laparoscopic tool. Three-dimensional visualization of the organ in relation to the pathology is of great help to appreciate the complex anatomy of the liver. Using virtual reality concepts (navigation, interaction, and immersion), surgical planning, training, and teaching for this complex surgical procedure may be possible. The ability to practice a given gesture repeatedly will revolutionize surgical training, and the combination of surgical planning and simulation will improve the efficiency of intervention, leading to optimal care delivery.

  15. Visuo-Haptic Mixed Reality with Unobstructed Tool-Hand Integration.

    Cosco, Francesco; Garre, Carlos; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio; Otaduy, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Visuo-haptic mixed reality consists of adding to a real scene the ability to see and touch virtual objects. It requires the use of see-through display technology for visually mixing real and virtual objects, and haptic devices for adding haptic interaction with the virtual objects. Unfortunately, the use of commodity haptic devices poses obstruction and misalignment issues that complicate the correct integration of a virtual tool and the user's real hand in the mixed reality scene. In this work, we propose a novel mixed reality paradigm where it is possible to touch and see virtual objects in combination with a real scene, using commodity haptic devices, and with a visually consistent integration of the user's hand and the virtual tool. We discuss the visual obstruction and misalignment issues introduced by commodity haptic devices, and then propose a solution that relies on four simple technical steps: color-based segmentation of the hand, tracking-based segmentation of the haptic device, background repainting using image-based models, and misalignment-free compositing of the user's hand. We have developed a successful proof-of-concept implementation, where a user can touch virtual objects and interact with them in the context of a real scene, and we have evaluated the impact on user performance of obstruction and misalignment correction.

  16. Uterus models for use in virtual reality hysteroscopy simulators.

    Niederer, Peter; Weiss, Stephan; Caduff, Rosmarie; Bajka, Michael; Szekély, Gabor; Harders, Matthias

    2009-05-01

    Virtual reality models of human organs are needed in surgery simulators which are developed for educational and training purposes. A simulation can only be useful, however, if the mechanical performance of the system in terms of force-feedback for the user as well as the visual representation is realistic. We therefore aim at developing a mechanical computer model of the organ in question which yields realistic force-deformation behavior under virtual instrument-tissue interactions and which, in particular, runs in real time. The modeling of the human uterus is described as it is to be implemented in a simulator for minimally invasive gynecological procedures. To this end, anatomical information which was obtained from specially designed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging procedures as well as constitutive tissue properties recorded from mechanical testing were used. In order to achieve real-time performance, the combination of mechanically realistic numerical uterus models of various levels of complexity with a statistical deformation approach is suggested. In view of mechanical accuracy of such models, anatomical characteristics including the fiber architecture along with the mechanical deformation properties are outlined. In addition, an approach to make this numerical representation potentially usable in an interactive simulation is discussed. The numerical simulation of hydrometra is shown in this communication. The results were validated experimentally. In order to meet the real-time requirements and to accommodate the large biological variability associated with the uterus, a statistical modeling approach is demonstrated to be useful.

  17. A virtual reality based simulator for learning nasogastric tube placement.

    Choi, Kup-Sze; He, Xuejian; Chiang, Vico Chung-Lim; Deng, Zhaohong

    2015-02-01

    Nasogastric tube (NGT) placement is a common clinical procedure where a plastic tube is inserted into the stomach through the nostril for feeding or drainage. However, the placement is a blind process in which the tube may be mistakenly inserted into other locations, leading to unexpected complications or fatal incidents. The placement techniques are conventionally acquired by practising on unrealistic rubber mannequins or on humans. In this paper, a virtual reality based training simulation system is proposed to facilitate the training of NGT placement. It focuses on the simulation of tube insertion and the rendering of the feedback forces with a haptic device. A hybrid force model is developed to compute the forces analytically or numerically under different conditions, including the situations when the patient is swallowing or when the tube is buckled at the nostril. To ensure real-time interactive simulations, an offline simulation approach is adopted to obtain the relationship between the insertion depth and insertion force using a non-linear finite element method. The offline dataset is then used to generate real-time feedback forces by interpolation. The virtual training process is logged quantitatively with metrics that can be used for assessing objective performance and tracking progress. The system has been evaluated by nursing professionals. They found that the haptic feeling produced by the simulated forces is similar to their experience during real NGT insertion. The proposed system provides a new educational tool to enhance conventional training in NGT placement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly immersive virtual reality laparoscopy simulation: development and future aspects.

    Huber, Tobias; Wunderling, Tom; Paschold, Markus; Lang, Hauke; Kneist, Werner; Hansen, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Virtual reality (VR) applications with head-mounted displays (HMDs) have had an impact on information and multimedia technologies. The current work aimed to describe the process of developing a highly immersive VR simulation for laparoscopic surgery. We combined a VR laparoscopy simulator (LapSim) and a VR-HMD to create a user-friendly VR simulation scenario. Continuous clinical feedback was an essential aspect of the development process. We created an artificial VR (AVR) scenario by integrating the simulator video output with VR game components of figures and equipment in an operating room. We also created a highly immersive VR surrounding (IVR) by integrating the simulator video output with a [Formula: see text] video of a standard laparoscopy scenario in the department's operating room. Clinical feedback led to optimization of the visualization, synchronization, and resolution of the virtual operating rooms (in both the IVR and the AVR). Preliminary testing results revealed that individuals experienced a high degree of exhilaration and presence, with rare events of motion sickness. The technical performance showed no significant difference compared to that achieved with the standard LapSim. Our results provided a proof of concept for the technical feasibility of an custom highly immersive VR-HMD setup. Future technical research is needed to improve the visualization, immersion, and capability of interacting within the virtual scenario.

  19. To a cultural perspective of mixed reality events: a case study of event overflow in operas and concerts in mixed reality

    Lucas, Jean-François; Cornish, Tracy; Margolis, Todd

    2012-12-01

    Mixed reality defines the sharing of a space-time between the real and the virtual world. The definition of this concept is further extended when virtual worlds such as Second Life® (SL) are included. Through cultural events such as concerts and operas, we will see that the main goal of these kinds of projects is not simply to offer a video and audio broadcast of these events in the digital dimension. The current challenge is to create interactions between the individuals who are in different shared spaces. By studying the unfolding of these events in its various phases-before, during, and after-we examine the culture of the event. We question how the culture of the event can be transposed in a mixed reality display, and how this kind of event can affect people on both sides of the "membrane" made by the technical configuration. Beyond the alignments and adjustments that we can see between the different individuals involved in these events, we examine more broadly the changes and mutations of the culture of the event in this specific configuration.

  20. Virtual reality-based simulators for spine surgery: a systematic review.

    Pfandler, Michael; Lazarovici, Marc; Stefan, Philipp; Wucherer, Patrick; Weigl, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR)-based simulators offer numerous benefits and are very useful in assessing and training surgical skills. Virtual reality-based simulators are standard in some surgical subspecialties, but their actual use in spinal surgery remains unclear. Currently, only technical reviews of VR-based simulators are available for spinal surgery. Thus, we performed a systematic review that examined the existing research on VR-based simulators in spinal procedures. We also assessed the quality of current studies evaluating VR-based training in spinal surgery. Moreover, we wanted to provide a guide for future studies evaluating VR-based simulators in this field. This is a systematic review of the current scientific literature regarding VR-based simulation in spinal surgery. Five data sources were systematically searched to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles regarding virtual, mixed, or augmented reality-based simulators in spinal surgery. A qualitative data synthesis was performed with particular attention to evaluation approaches and outcomes. Additionally, all included studies were appraised for their quality using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) tool. The initial review identified 476 abstracts and 63 full texts were then assessed by two reviewers. Finally, 19 studies that examined simulators for the following procedures were selected: pedicle screw placement, vertebroplasty, posterior cervical laminectomy and foraminotomy, lumbar puncture, facet joint injection, and spinal needle insertion and placement. These studies had a low-to-medium methodological quality with a MERSQI mean score of 11.47 out of 18 (standard deviation=1.81). This review described the current state and applications of VR-based simulator training and assessment approaches in spinal procedures. Limitations, strengths, and future advancements of VR-based simulators for training and assessment in spinal surgery were explored. Higher-quality studies with

  1. Virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy - studies on novice performance.

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2016-08-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulation-based training is increasingly used in surgical technical skills training including in temporal bone surgery. The potential of VR simulation in enabling high-quality surgical training is great and VR simulation allows high-stakes and complex procedures such as mastoidectomy to be trained repeatedly, independent of patients and surgical tutors, outside traditional learning environments such as the OR or the temporal bone lab, and with fewer of the constraints of traditional training. This thesis aims to increase the evidence-base of VR simulation training of mastoidectomy and, by studying the final-product performances of novices, investigates the transfer of skills to the current gold-standard training modality of cadaveric dissection, the effect of different practice conditions and simulator-integrated tutoring on performance and retention of skills, and the role of directed, self-regulated learning. Technical skills in mastoidectomy were transferable from the VR simulation environment to cadaveric dissection with significant improvement in performance after directed, self-regulated training in the VR temporal bone simulator. Distributed practice led to a better learning outcome and more consolidated skills than massed practice and also resulted in a more consistent performance after three months of non-practice. Simulator-integrated tutoring accelerated the initial learning curve but also caused over-reliance on tutoring, which resulted in a drop in performance when the simulator-integrated tutor-function was discontinued. The learning curves were highly individual but often plateaued early and at an inadequate level, which related to issues concerning both the procedure and the VR simulator, over-reliance on the tutor function and poor self-assessment skills. Future simulator-integrated automated assessment could potentially resolve some of these issues and provide trainees with both feedback during the procedure and immediate

  2. ESSE: Engineering Super Simulation Emulation for Virtual Reality Systems Environment

    Suh, Kune Y.; Yeon, Choul W.

    2008-01-01

    The trademark 4 + D Technology TM based Engineering Super Simulation Emulation (ESSE) is introduced. ESSE resorting to three-dimensional (3D) Virtual Reality (VR) technology pledges to provide with an interactive real-time motion, sound and tactile and other forms of feedback in the man machine systems environment. In particular, the 3D Virtual Engineering Neo cybernetic Unit Soft Power (VENUS) adds a physics engine to the VR platform so as to materialize a physical atmosphere. A close cooperation system and prompt information share are crucial, thereby increasing the necessity of centralized information system and electronic cooperation system. VENUS is further deemed to contribute towards public acceptance of nuclear power in general, and safety in particular. For instance, visualization of nuclear systems can familiarize the public in answering their questions and alleviating misunderstandings on nuclear power plants answering their questions and alleviating misunderstandings on nuclear power plants (NPPs) in general, and performance, security and safety in particular. An in-house flagship project Systemic Three-dimensional Engine Platform Prototype Engineering (STEPPE) endeavors to develop the Systemic Three-dimensional Engine Platform (STEP) for a variety of VR applications. STEP is home to a level system providing the whole visible scene of virtual engineering of man machine system environment. The system is linked with video monitoring that provides a 3D Computer Graphics (CG) visualization of major events. The database linked system provides easy access to relevant blueprints. The character system enables the operators easy access to visualization of major events. The database linked system provides easy access to relevant blueprints. The character system enables the operators to access the virtual systems by using their virtual characters. Virtually Engineered NPP Informative systems by using their virtual characters. Virtually Engineered NPP Informative

  3. Integration of laparoscopic virtual-reality simulation into gynaecology training.

    Burden, C; Oestergaard, J; Larsen, C R

    2011-11-01

    Surgery carries the risk of serious harm, as well as benefit, to patients. For healthcare organisations, theatre time is an expensive commodity and litigation costs for surgical specialities are very high. Advanced laparoscopic surgery, now widely used in gynaecology for improved outcomes and reduced length of stay, involves longer operation times and a higher rate of complications for surgeons in training. Virtual-reality (VR) simulation is a relatively new training method that has the potential to promote surgical skill development before advancing to surgery on patients themselves. VR simulators have now been on the market for more than 10 years and, yet, few countries in the world have fully integrated VR simulation training into their gynaecology surgical training programmes. In this review, we aim to summarise the VR simulators currently available together with evidence of their effectiveness in gynaecology, to understand their limitations and to discuss their incorporation into national training curricula. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  4. Pulse and vital sign measurement in mixed reality using a HoloLens

    Mcduff , Daniel; Hurter , Christophe; Gonzalez-Franco , Mar

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Cardiography, quantitative measurement of the functioning of the heart, traditionally requires customized obtrusive contact sensors. Using new methods photoplethysmography and ballistocardiography signals can be captured using ubiquitous sensors, such as webcams and accelerometers. However, these signals are not visible to the unaided eye. We present Cardiolens-a mixed reality system that enables real-time, hands-free measurement and visu-alization of blood ow and vita...

  5. What is going on in augmented reality simulation in laparoscopic surgery?

    Botden, Sanne M B I; Jakimowicz, Jack J

    2009-08-01

    To prevent unnecessary errors and adverse results of laparoscopic surgery, proper training is of paramount importance. A safe way to train surgeons for laparoscopic skills is simulation. For this purpose traditional box trainers are often used, however they lack objective assessment of performance. Virtual reality laparoscopic simulators assess performance, but lack realistic haptic feedback. Augmented reality (AR) combines a virtual reality (VR) setting with real physical materials, instruments, and feedback. This article presents the current developments in augmented reality laparoscopic simulation. Pubmed searches were performed to identify articles regarding surgical simulation and augmented reality. Identified companies manufacturing an AR laparoscopic simulator received the same questionnaire referring to the features of the simulator. Seven simulators that fitted the definition of augmented reality were identified during the literature search. Five of the approached manufacturers returned a completed questionnaire, of which one simulator appeared to be VR and was therefore not applicable for this review. Several augmented reality simulators have been developed over the past few years and they are improving rapidly. We recommend the development of AR laparoscopic simulators for component tasks of procedural training. AR simulators should be implemented in current laparoscopic training curricula, in particular for laparoscopic suturing training.

  6. Chavir: Virtual reality simulation for interventions in nuclear installations

    Thevenon, J. B.; Tirel, O.; Lopez, L.; Chodorge, L.; Desbats, P.

    2006-01-01

    Companies involved in the nuclear industry have to prepare for interventions by precisely analyzing the radiological risks and rapidly evaluating the consequences of their operational choices. They also need to consolidate the experiences gained in the field with greater responsiveness and lower costs. This paper brings out the advantages of using virtual reality technology to meet the demands in the industry. The CHAVIR software allows the operators to prepare (and repeat) all the operations they would have to do in a safe virtual world, before performing the actual work inside the facilities. Since the decommissioning or maintenance work is carried out in an environment where there is radiation, the amount of radiation that the operator would be exposed to is calculated and integrated into the simulator. (authors)

  7. Mapping the plateau of novices in virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy

    A.W. Andersen, Steven; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier

    2016-01-01

    To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved.......To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved....

  8. Virtual reality simulation training in a high-fidelity procedure suite

    Lönn, Lars; Edmond, John J; Marco, Jean

    2012-01-01

    To assess the face and content validity of a novel, full physics, full procedural, virtual reality simulation housed in a hybrid procedure suite.......To assess the face and content validity of a novel, full physics, full procedural, virtual reality simulation housed in a hybrid procedure suite....

  9. Multi-modal imaging, model-based tracking, and mixed reality visualisation for orthopaedic surgery

    Fuerst, Bernhard; Tateno, Keisuke; Johnson, Alex; Fotouhi, Javad; Osgood, Greg; Tombari, Federico; Navab, Nassir

    2017-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons are still following the decades old workflow of using dozens of two-dimensional fluoroscopic images to drill through complex 3D structures, e.g. pelvis. This Letter presents a mixed reality support system, which incorporates multi-modal data fusion and model-based surgical tool tracking for creating a mixed reality environment supporting screw placement in orthopaedic surgery. A red–green–blue–depth camera is rigidly attached to a mobile C-arm and is calibrated to the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging space via iterative closest point algorithm. This allows real-time automatic fusion of reconstructed surface and/or 3D point clouds and synthetic fluoroscopic images obtained through CBCT imaging. An adapted 3D model-based tracking algorithm with automatic tool segmentation allows for tracking of the surgical tools occluded by hand. This proposed interactive 3D mixed reality environment provides an intuitive understanding of the surgical site and supports surgeons in quickly localising the entry point and orienting the surgical tool during screw placement. The authors validate the augmentation by measuring target registration error and also evaluate the tracking accuracy in the presence of partial occlusion. PMID:29184659

  10. The mixed reality of things: emerging challenges for human-information interaction

    Spicer, Ryan P.; Russell, Stephen M.; Rosenberg, Evan Suma

    2017-05-01

    Virtual and mixed reality technology has advanced tremendously over the past several years. This nascent medium has the potential to transform how people communicate over distance, train for unfamiliar tasks, operate in challenging environments, and how they visualize, interact, and make decisions based on complex data. At the same time, the marketplace has experienced a proliferation of network-connected devices and generalized sensors that are becoming increasingly accessible and ubiquitous. As the "Internet of Things" expands to encompass a predicted 50 billion connected devices by 2020, the volume and complexity of information generated in pervasive and virtualized environments will continue to grow exponentially. The convergence of these trends demands a theoretically grounded research agenda that can address emerging challenges for human-information interaction (HII). Virtual and mixed reality environments can provide controlled settings where HII phenomena can be observed and measured, new theories developed, and novel algorithms and interaction techniques evaluated. In this paper, we describe the intersection of pervasive computing with virtual and mixed reality, identify current research gaps and opportunities to advance the fundamental understanding of HII, and discuss implications for the design and development of cyber-human systems for both military and civilian use.

  11. Collaborative virtual reality based advanced cardiac life support training simulator using virtual reality principles.

    Khanal, Prabal; Vankipuram, Akshay; Ashby, Aaron; Vankipuram, Mithra; Gupta, Ashish; Drumm-Gurnee, Denise; Josey, Karen; Tinker, Linda; Smith, Marshall

    2014-10-01

    Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) is a series of team-based, sequential and time constrained interventions, requiring effective communication and coordination of activities that are performed by the care provider team on a patient undergoing cardiac arrest or respiratory failure. The state-of-the-art ACLS training is conducted in a face-to-face environment under expert supervision and suffers from several drawbacks including conflicting care provider schedules and high cost of training equipment. The major objective of the study is to describe, including the design, implementation, and evaluation of a novel approach of delivering ACLS training to care providers using the proposed virtual reality simulator that can overcome the challenges and drawbacks imposed by the traditional face-to-face training method. We compare the efficacy and performance outcomes associated with traditional ACLS training with the proposed novel approach of using a virtual reality (VR) based ACLS training simulator. One hundred and forty-eight (148) ACLS certified clinicians, translating into 26 care provider teams, were enrolled for this study. Each team was randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups: control (traditional ACLS training), persuasive (VR ACLS training with comprehensive feedback components), or minimally persuasive (VR ACLS training with limited feedback components). The teams were tested across two different ACLS procedures that vary in the degree of task complexity: ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia (VFib/VTach) and pulseless electric activity (PEA). The difference in performance between control and persuasive groups was not statistically significant (P=.37 for PEA and P=.1 for VFib/VTach). However, the difference in performance between control and minimally persuasive groups was significant (P=.05 for PEA and P=.02 for VFib/VTach). The pre-post comparison of performances of the groups showed that control (P=.017 for PEA, P=.01 for VFib/VTach) and

  12. Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of virtual-reality simulator training in acquisition of competency in colonoscopy.

    Cohen, Jonathan; Cohen, Seth A; Vora, Kinjal C; Xue, Xiaonan; Burdick, J Steven; Bank, Simmy; Bini, Edmund J; Bodenheimer, Henry; Cerulli, Maurice; Gerdes, Hans; Greenwald, David; Gress, Frank; Grosman, Irwin; Hawes, Robert; Mullin, Gerard; Mullen, Gerard; Schnoll-Sussman, Felice; Starpoli, Anthony; Stevens, Peter; Tenner, Scott; Villanueva, Gerald

    2006-09-01

    The GI Mentor is a virtual reality simulator that uses force feedback technology to create a realistic training experience. To define the benefit of training on the GI Mentor on competency acquisition in colonoscopy. Randomized, controlled, blinded, multicenter trial. Academic medical centers with accredited gastroenterology training programs. First-year GI fellows. Subjects were randomized to receive 10 hours of unsupervised training on the GI Mentor or no simulator experience during the first 8 weeks of fellowship. After this period, both groups began performing real colonoscopies. The first 200 colonoscopies performed by each fellow were graded by proctors to measure technical and cognitive success, and patient comfort level during the procedure. A mixed-effects model comparison between the 2 groups of objective and subjective competency scores and patient discomfort in the performance of real colonoscopies over time. Forty-five fellows were randomized from 16 hospitals over 2 years. Fellows in the simulator group had significantly higher objective competency rates during the first 100 cases. A mixed-effects model demonstrated a higher objective competence overall in the simulator group (P < .0001), with the difference between groups being significantly greater during the first 80 cases performed. The median number of cases needed to reach 90% competency was 160 in both groups. The patient comfort level was similar. Fellows who underwent GI Mentor training performed significantly better during the early phase of real colonoscopy training.

  13. Interaction Design of Augmented Education Environments - Augmented and Mixed Reality for performance and training support of Aviation / Automotive Technicians.

    Behringer, R; Christian, J; Krieger, H; Moore, D; Holzinger, A

    2011-01-01

    "Augmented reality (AR),Mixed Reality (MR) and their mix and combination with other disruptive technologies offer an enormous potential for supporting instructors and trainees in modern education and working environments such as of aircraft maintenance technicians or automotive service technicians. In this paper we investigate and show some examples on how the performance and training of such instructors and trainees can be actively supported. Furthermore we will discuss the new challenges fo...

  14. Augmenting the thermal flux experiment: A mixed reality approach with the HoloLens

    Strzys, M. P.; Kapp, S.; Thees, M.; Kuhn, J.; Lukowicz, P.; Knierim, P.; Schmidt, A.

    2017-09-01

    In the field of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR), technologies have made huge progress during the last years and also reached the field of education. The virtuality continuum, ranging from pure virtuality on one side to the real world on the other, has been successfully covered by the use of immersive technologies like head-mounted displays, which allow one to embed virtual objects into the real surroundings, leading to a Mixed Reality (MR) experience. In such an environment, digital and real objects do not only coexist, but moreover are also able to interact with each other in real time. These concepts can be used to merge human perception of reality with digitally visualized sensor data, thereby making the invisible visible. As a first example, in this paper we introduce alongside the basic idea of this column an MR experiment in thermodynamics for a laboratory course for freshman students in physics or other science and engineering subjects that uses physical data from mobile devices for analyzing and displaying physical phenomena to students.

  15. Distributed simulation of mixing flow of dough

    Baloch, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a study concerned with the numerical simulation of incompressible complex mixing flows of viscoelastic fluids is of industrial importance, particularly relevance in the food processing industry, such as occurs in dough mixing. The flows considered are in a complex domain setting. The present problem is one of this form, expressed as the flow between an outer rotating cylindrical vessel all and a stationary cylindrical/stirrers. The context is one of mixing with in a cylindrical vessel, where stirrers are located on the mixing vessel lid, and placed in a concentric/eccentric position with respect to the central cylindrical axis of the vessel. Here, the motion is considered as driven by the rotation of the outer vessel wall, with various stirrer locations. Two dough mixers at various rotation speeds are studied; one with one stirrer and the other with two stirrers. With a singular circular stirrer, an eccentric configuration is adopted. A further eccentric case with two circular stirrers is also contrasted against the above, where a symmetrical arrangement is assumed. Numerical simulations are based on two dimensions in the cylindrical polar co-ordinates system. The results reflected close agreement with the equivalent experimental results. The motivation for this work is to develop and advance technology to model the mixing of dough. The ultimate target is to predict and adjust the design of dough mixers, so that optimal dough processing may be achieved notably, with reference to work input on the dough. The hardware platform is a network combination of homogeneous Intel Linux clusters of workstations. A semi-implicit time-stepping Taylor-Galerkin scheme is employed with PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) message passing libraries as the message passing protocol. Parallel results are compared against single processor (sequentially) solutions, using the parallelism paradigm of domain decomposition. Linear speed-up with the number of processors is

  16. Using virtual reality simulation to assess competence in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy

    Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen

    2017-01-01

    for a virtual reality simulator test of a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy of a right upper lobe. METHODS: Participants with varying experience in VATS lobectomy were included. They were familiarized with a virtual reality simulator (LapSim(®)) and introduced to the steps of the procedure...... % false positives) and failed four of the experienced surgeons (29 % false negatives). CONCLUSION: This study is the first to establish validity evidence for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy virtual reality simulator test. Several simulator metrics demonstrated significant differences between novices...

  17. Interactive exploration of tokamak turbulence simulations in virtual reality

    Kerbel, G.D.; Pierce, T.; Milovich, J.L.; Shumaker, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed an immersive visualization system designed for interactive data exploration as an integral part of our computing environment for studying tokamak turbulence. This system of codes can reproduce the results of simulations visually for scrutiny in real time, interactively and with more realism than ever before. At peak performance, the VR system can present for view some 400 coordinated images per second. The long term vision this approach targets is a open-quote holodeck-like close-quote virtual-reality environment in which one can explore gyrofluid or gyrokinetic plasma simulations interactively and in real time, visually, with concurrent simulations of experimental diagnostic devices. In principle, such a open-quote virtual tokamak close-quote computed environment could be as all encompassing or as focussed as one likes, in terms of the physics involved. The computing framework in one within which a group of researchers can work together to produce a real and identifiable product with easy access to all contributions. This could be our version of NASA's next generation Numerical Wind Tunnel. The principal purpose of this VR capability for Numerical Tokamak simulation is to provide interactive visual experience to help create new ways of understanding aspects of the convective transport processes operating in tokamak fusion experiments. The effectiveness of the visualization method is strongly dependent on the density of frame-to-frame correlation. Below a threshold of this quantity, short term visual memory does not bridge the gap between frames well enough for there to exist a strong visual connection. Above the threshold, evolving structures appear clearly. The visualizations show the 3D structure of vortex evolution and the gyrofluid motion associated with it. We discovered that it was very helpful for visualizing the cross field flows to compress the virtual world in the toroidal angle

  18. Virtual reality simulation: using three-dimensional technology to teach nursing students.

    Jenson, Carole E; Forsyth, Diane McNally

    2012-06-01

    The use of computerized technology is rapidly growing in the classroom and in healthcare. An emerging computer technology strategy for nursing education is the use of virtual reality simulation. This computer-based three-dimensional educational tool simulates real-life patient experiences in a risk-free environment, allows for repeated practice sessions, requires clinical decision making, exposes students to diverse patient conditions, provides immediate feedback, and is portable. The purpose of this article was to review the importance of virtual reality simulation as a computerized teaching strategy. In addition, a project to explore readiness of nursing faculty at one major Midwestern university for the use of virtual reality simulation as a computerized teaching strategy is described where faculty thought virtual reality simulation would increase students' knowledge of an intravenous line insertion procedure. Faculty who practiced intravenous catheter insertion via virtual reality simulation expressed a wide range of learning experiences from using virtual reality simulation that is congruent with the literature regarding the barriers to student learning. Innovative teaching strategies, such as virtual reality simulation, address barriers of increasing patient acuity, high student-to-faculty ratio, patient safety concerns from faculty, and student anxiety and can offer rapid feedback to students.

  19. Simulated mixed absorbers and effective atomic numbers for γ ...

    Keywords. γ-rays; γ attenuation; simulated mixed absorbers; effective atomic ... We have tried to simulate composite (mixed) absorbers ... Experimental method .... puter, Program manual, Centre for Radiation Research, National Bureau of ...

  20. Retention of Mastoidectomy Skills After Virtual Reality Simulation Training.

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2016-07-01

    The ultimate goal of surgical training is consolidated skills with a consistently high performance. However, surgical skills are heterogeneously retained and depend on a variety of factors, including the task, cognitive demands, and organization of practice. Virtual reality (VR) simulation is increasingly being used in surgical skills training, including temporal bone surgery, but there is a gap in knowledge on the retention of mastoidectomy skills after VR simulation training. To determine the retention of mastoidectomy skills after VR simulation training with distributed and massed practice and to investigate participants' cognitive load during retention procedures. A prospective 3-month follow-up study of a VR simulation trial was conducted from February 6 to September 19, 2014, at an academic teaching hospital among 36 medical students: 19 from a cohort trained with distributed practice and 17 from a cohort trained with massed practice. Participants performed 2 virtual mastoidectomies in a VR simulator a mean of 3.2 months (range, 2.4-5.0 months) after completing initial training with 12 repeated procedures. Practice blocks were spaced apart in time (distributed), or all procedures were performed in 1 day (massed). Performance of the virtual mastoidectomy as assessed by 2 masked senior otologists using a modified Welling scale, as well as cognitive load as estimated by reaction time to perform a secondary task. Among 36 participants, mastoidectomy final-product skills were largely retained at 3 months (mean change in score, 0.1 points; P = .89) regardless of practice schedule, but the group trained with massed practice took more time to complete the task. The performance of the massed practice group increased significantly from the first to the second retention procedure (mean change, 1.8 points; P = .001), reflecting that skills were less consolidated. For both groups, increases in reaction times in the secondary task (distributed practice group: mean

  1. A 3-D mixed-reality system for stereoscopic visualization of medical dataset.

    Ferrari, Vincenzo; Megali, Giuseppe; Troia, Elena; Pietrabissa, Andrea; Mosca, Franco

    2009-11-01

    We developed a simple, light, and cheap 3-D visualization device based on mixed reality that can be used by physicians to see preoperative radiological exams in a natural way. The system allows the user to see stereoscopic "augmented images," which are created by mixing 3-D virtual models of anatomies obtained by processing preoperative volumetric radiological images (computed tomography or MRI) with real patient live images, grabbed by means of cameras. The interface of the system consists of a head-mounted display equipped with two high-definition cameras. Cameras are mounted in correspondence of the user's eyes and allow one to grab live images of the patient with the same point of view of the user. The system does not use any external tracker to detect movements of the user or the patient. The movements of the user's head and the alignment of virtual patient with the real one are done using machine vision methods applied on pairs of live images. Experimental results, concerning frame rate and alignment precision between virtual and real patient, demonstrate that machine vision methods used for localization are appropriate for the specific application and that systems based on stereoscopic mixed reality are feasible and can be proficiently adopted in clinical practice.

  2. Man, mind, and machine: the past and future of virtual reality simulation in neurologic surgery.

    Robison, R Aaron; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2011-11-01

    To review virtual reality in neurosurgery, including the history of simulation and virtual reality and some of the current implementations; to examine some of the technical challenges involved; and to propose a potential paradigm for the development of virtual reality in neurosurgery going forward. A search was made on PubMed using key words surgical simulation, virtual reality, haptics, collision detection, and volumetric modeling to assess the current status of virtual reality in neurosurgery. Based on previous results, investigators extrapolated the possible integration of existing efforts and potential future directions. Simulation has a rich history in surgical training, and there are numerous currently existing applications and systems that involve virtual reality. All existing applications are limited to specific task-oriented functions and typically sacrifice visual realism for real-time interactivity or vice versa, owing to numerous technical challenges in rendering a virtual space in real time, including graphic and tissue modeling, collision detection, and direction of the haptic interface. With ongoing technical advancements in computer hardware and graphic and physical rendering, incremental or modular development of a fully immersive, multipurpose virtual reality neurosurgical simulator is feasible. The use of virtual reality in neurosurgery is predicted to change the nature of neurosurgical education, and to play an increased role in surgical rehearsal and the continuing education and credentialing of surgical practitioners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Virtual reality application for simulating and minimizing worker radiation exposure

    Kang, Ki Doo; Hajek, Brian K.; Lee, Yon Sik; Shin, Yoo Jin

    2004-01-01

    To plan work and preclude unexpected radiation exposures in a nuclear power plant, a virtual nuclear plant is a good solution. For this, there are prerequisites such as displaying real time radiation exposure data onto an avatar and preventing speed reduction caused by multiple users on the net-based system. The work space is divided into several sections and radiation information is extracted section by section. Based on the simulation algorithm, real time processing is applied to the events and movements of the avatar. Because there are millions of parts in a nuclear power plant, it is almost impossible to model all of them. Several parts of virtual plant have been modeled using 3D internet virtual reality for the model development. Optimum one-click Active-X is applied for the system, which provides easy access to the virtual plant. Connection time on the net is 20-30 sec for initial loading and 3-4 sec for the 2nd and subsequent times

  4. Decontamination training: with and without virtual reality simulation.

    Farra, Sharon Lee; Smith, Sherrill; Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Nicely, Stephanie; Ulrich, Deborah L; Hodgson, Eric; French, DeAnne

    2015-01-01

    Nurses must be prepared to care for patients following a disaster, including patients exposed to hazardous contaminants. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of virtual reality simulation (VRS) to teach the disaster-specific skill of decontamination. A quasi-experimental design was used to assign nursing students from 2 baccalaureate nursing programs to 1 of 2 groups to learn the disaster skill of decontamination-printed written directions or VRS. Performance, knowledge, and self-efficacy were outcome measures. Although students in the treatment group had significantly lower performance scores than the control group (p = 0.004), students taking part in VRS completed the skill in a significantly shorter amount of time (p = 0.008). No significant group differences were found for self-efficacy (p = 0.172) or knowledge (p = 0.631). However, students in the VRS treatment group reported high levels of satisfaction with VRS as a training method. The disaster-specific skill of decontamination is a low-volume, high-risk skill that must be performed with accuracy to protect both exposed patients and providers performing decontamination. As frontline providers for casualties following a disaster event, emergency nurses must be prepared to perform this skill when needed. Preparation requires cost-effective, timely, and evidence-based educational opportunities that promote positive outcomes. Further investigation is needed to determine the benefits and long-term effects of VRS for disaster education.

  5. [Interest of complex tasks on laparoscopic virtual reality simulator].

    Valentin, L; Rabischong, B; Compan, C; Botchorichvili, R; Pereira, B; Avan, P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of complex tasks on virtual reality simulator (VRS) for novice surgeons in laparoscopy learning. Fifty-five medical students were prospectively randomized in two groups (A: basic skills, n=28 and B: basic and complex skills, n=27) and then trained during two sessions on VRS. Evaluations took place before and after each training. These evaluations consisted of the achievement of an intracorporeal suture, recorded on video, with the left then with the right hand. Two independent experts evaluated those gestures blindly. A significant progression in terms of times and technical scores was observed in both groups between the first and the last evaluations (P between 0.001 and 0.04). Students in group B improved slower and longer than those in group A. However, left and right hands results confused did not highlight significant differences between the two groups. At the third session, the first hand to train is significantly faster in group B than in group A (P=0.04). This study found only a late and minimal impact of complex skills to reduce the execution time of intracorporeal suture. It also showed an slower and longer overall progression for those who use them compared to subjects using basic skills only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Mixed Methods for Mixed Reality: Understanding Users' Avatar Activities in Virtual Worlds

    Feldon, David F.; Kafai, Yasmin B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of mixed methods for analyzing users' avatar-related activities in a virtual world. Server logs recorded keystroke-level activity for 595 participants over a six-month period in Whyville.net, an informal science website. Participants also completed surveys and participated in interviews regarding their experiences.…

  7. CFD simulation on reactor flow mixing phenomena

    Kwon, T.S.; Kim, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    A pre-test calculation for multi-dimensional flow mixing in a reactor core and downcomer has been studied using a CFD code. To study the effects of Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) and core zone on the boron mixing behaviors in a lower downcomer and core inlet, a 1/5-scale CFD model of flow mixing test facility for the APR+ reference plant was simulated. The flow paths of the 1/5-scale model were scaled down by the linear scaling method. The aspect ratio (L/D) of all flow paths was preserved to 1. To preserve a dynamic similarity, the ratio of Euler number was also preserved to 1. A single phase water flow at low pressure and temperature conditions was considered in this calculation. The calculation shows that the asymmetric effect driven by RCPs shifted the high velocity field to the failed pump's flow zone. The borated water flow zone at the core inlet was also shifted to the failed RCP side. (author)

  8. Virtual Reality Robotic Operation Simulations Using MEMICA Haptic System

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Mavroidis, C.; Bouzit, M.; Dolgin, B.; Harm, D. L.; Kopchok, G. E.; White, R.

    2000-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that some tasks can be performed significantly better by humans than robots but, due to associated hazards, distance, etc., only a robot can be employed. Telemedicine is one area where remotely controlled robots can have a major impact by providing urgent care at remote sites. In recent years, remotely controlled robotics has been greatly advanced. The robotic astronaut, "Robonaut," at NASA Johnson Space Center is one such example. Unfortunately, due to the unavailability of force and tactile feedback capability the operator must determine the required action using only visual feedback from the remote site, which limits the tasks that Robonaut can perform. There is a great need for dexterous, fast, accurate teleoperated robots with the operator?s ability to "feel" the environment at the robot's field. Recently, we conceived a haptic mechanism called MEMICA (Remote MEchanical MIrroring using Controlled stiffness and Actuators) that can enable the design of high dexterity, rapid response, and large workspace system. Our team is developing novel MEMICA gloves and virtual reality models to allow the simulation of telesurgery and other applications. The MEMICA gloves are designed to have a high dexterity, rapid response, and large workspace and intuitively mirror the conditions at a virtual site where a robot is simulating the presence of the human operator. The key components of MEMICA are miniature electrically controlled stiffness (ECS) elements and Electrically Controlled Force and Stiffness (ECFS) actuators that are based on the sue of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERF). In this paper the design of the MEMICA system and initial experimental results are presented.

  9. Preoperative Warm-Up Using a Virtual Reality Simulator

    Târcoveanu, Eugen; Dimofte, Gabriel; Lupaşcu, Cristian; Bradea, Costel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: All modern surgical procedures require a high level of cognitive and psychomotor skills achieved using different training methods, but could be influenced by fatigue and other psychological factors. We evaluated the effect of warm-up exercises on operative laparoscopic performances. Methods: The surgical team operated on a consecutive series of 20 patients with gallstones. Patients were randomly allocated in 2 groups: group A to be operated on without warm-up exercises and group B to be operated on after a short-term warm-up. All the patients were operated on by the same surgical team. The full-time records of the operation were analyzed by 2 independent reviewers. A modified simplified Global Rating Score (GRS) was used to assess the surgical procedures. A training module using the Lap Mentor simulator was designed for the warm-up. Results: Better performances were noted by both observers in group B only regarding “Respect for tissue” scores (3.75±0.16 vs 4.43±0.20, P=.021 and 3.87±0.22 vs 4.57±0.20, P=.041) achieving significant or marginally significant differences for all categories; GRS scores for “time and motion” and “overall impression” tend to be better after warm-up, but differences failed to reach statistical significance in our series. Conclusion: Surgeons, even the most experienced in laparoscopic surgery, can increase specific psychomotor skills associated with a laparoscopic environment by doing simple exercises on a virtual reality simulator, just before an operation. These improvements are reflected in more accurate handling of tissue during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:22643511

  10. Virtual reality bronchoscopy simulation: a revolution in procedural training.

    Colt, H G; Crawford, S W; Galbraith, O

    2001-10-01

    In the airline industry, training is costly and operator error must be avoided. Therefore, virtual reality (VR) is routinely used to learn manual and technical skills through simulation before pilots assume flight responsibilities. In the field of medicine, manual and technical skills must also be acquired to competently perform invasive procedures such as flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FFB). Until recently, training in FFB and other endoscopic procedures has occurred on the job in real patients. We hypothesized that novice trainees using a VR skill center could rapidly acquire basic skills, and that results would compare favorably with those of senior trainees trained in the conventional manner. We prospectively studied five novice bronchoscopists entering a pulmonary and critical care medicine training program. They were taught to perform inspection flexible bronchoscopy using a VR bronchoscopy skill center; dexterity, speed, and accuracy were tested using the skill center and an inanimate airway model before and after 4 h of group instruction and 4 h of individual unsupervised practice. Results were compared to those of a control group of four skilled physicians who had performed at least 200 bronchoscopies during 2 years of training. Student's t tests were used to compare mean scores of study and control groups for the inanimate model and VR bronchoscopy simulator. Before-training and after-training test scores were compared using paired t tests. For comparisons between after-training novice and skilled physician scores, unpaired two-sample t tests were used. Novices significantly improved their dexterity and accuracy in both models. They missed fewer segments after training than before training, and had fewer contacts with the bronchial wall. There was no statistically significant improvement in speed or total time spent not visualizing airway anatomy. After training, novice performance equaled or surpassed that of the skilled physicians. Novices performed

  11. "How We Stay Together Without Going Crazy:" Reconstruction of Reality Among Women of Mixed-Orientation Relationships.

    Adler, Adir; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2018-01-01

    Until recently, the literature that addressed the phenomenon of mixed-orientation relationships, in which the female partner is straight and the male partner is non-straight, has focused mainly on the men's perspective. Most of the studies have employed a pessimistic tone, underscoring the obstacles faced by each of the partners. This study was designed to understand how women of mixed-orientation relationships construct their reality within such a relationship, focusing on elements that assist them in maintaining those relationships. Based on the phenomenological paradigm, in-depth interviews with eight women in mixed-orientation relationships were conducted. The findings indicate that in order to adapt to their newly constructed reality, women reframe various individual, marital, and social aspects in their lives. Those reframing processes constituted a point of departure to developing a conceptual model, which outlines the journey to reality reconstruction among women in mixed-orientation relationships.

  12. Effectiveness of a Virtual Reality Forest on People With Dementia: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study.

    Moyle, Wendy; Jones, Cindy; Dwan, Toni; Petrovich, Tanya

    2018-05-08

    To measure and describe the effectiveness of a Virtual Reality Forest (VRF) on engagement, apathy, and mood states of people with dementia, and explore the experiences of staff, people with dementia and their families. A mixed-methods study conducted between February and May 2016. Ten residents with dementia, 10 family members, and 9 care staff were recruited from 2 residential aged care facilities, operated by one care provider, located in Victoria, Australia. Residents participated in one facilitated VRF session. Residents' mood, apathy, and engagement were measured by the Observed Emotion Rating Scale, Person-Environment Apathy Rating Scale, and Types of Engagement. All participants were interviewed. Overall, the VRF was perceived by residents, family members, and staff to have a positive effect. During the VRF experience, residents experienced more pleasure (p = .008) and a greater level of alertness (p anxiety during the forest experience than the comparative normative sample (p = .016). This initial, small-scale study represents the first to introduce the VRF activity and describe the impact on people with dementia. The VRF was perceived to have a positive effect on people with dementia, although, compared to the normative sample, a greater level of fear/anxiety during the VRF was experienced. This study suggests virtual reality may have the potential to improve quality of life, and the outcomes can be used to inform the development of future Virtual Reality activities for people with dementia.

  13. Possibility of applying large-scale point cloud/mixed reality technology in decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Shoji, Kimiaki

    2017-01-01

    After the accident at Tokyo Electric Company's Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, decommissioning projects of nuclear power plants exceeding 40 years since the start of operation began to move in full swing. And four nuclear power plants have already been under decommissioning. Several decommissioning engineering systems (ES) have been developed according to these decommissioning projects. Various problems were clarified and many findings were obtained by these efforts. On the other, advanced information technologies and products such as three-dimensional CAD, CG, 3D laser measurement, computer aided engineering (CAE) and mixed reality (MR) are progressing rapidly. By combining these technologies and products, it has become possible not only to enhance the usefulness of existing 3D CAD data but also to enable high-level digital study that combines reality and virtual models. Furthermore, it can be applied to a wide range of fields such as demolition simulation for dismantling works of nuclear facilities, which is expected to increase in future, human resource development and skill transfer. In this paper, focusing on a video see-through method capable of displaying a virtual object at a correct position of a real image accurately reflecting the positional relationship between the real image and the virtual object, we introduce items that should contribute to the feasibility and usefulness of application to decommissioning of nuclear facilities. (author)

  14. Using virtual reality in simulation training system of radiation reconnaissance by vehicle

    He Shuijun

    2007-01-01

    The article introduced the Virtual Reality and development tools. It put forward the component and the characteristic feature of the simulation training system. It opens up prospects for chemical defense military training. (author)

  15. Feasibility of Augmented Reality in Clinical Simulations: Using Google Glass With Manikins.

    Chaballout, Basil; Molloy, Margory; Vaughn, Jacqueline; Brisson Iii, Raymond; Shaw, Ryan

    2016-03-07

    Studies show that students who use fidelity-based simulation technology perform better and have higher retention rates than peers who learn in traditional paper-based training. Augmented reality is increasingly being used as a teaching and learning tool in a continual effort to make simulations more realistic for students. The aim of this project was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of using augmented reality via Google Glass during clinical simulation scenarios for training health science students. Students performed a clinical simulation while watching a video through Google Glass of a patient actor simulating respiratory distress. Following participation in the scenarios students completed two surveys and were questioned if they would recommend continued use of this technology in clinical simulation experiences. We were able to have students watch a video in their field of vision of a patient who mimicked the simulated manikin. Students were overall positive about the implications for being able to view a patient during the simulations, and most students recommended using the technology in the future. Overall, students reported perceived realism with augmented reality using Google Glass. However, there were technical and usability challenges with the device. As newer portable and consumer-focused technologies become available, augmented reality is increasingly being used as a teaching and learning tool to make clinical simulations more realistic for health science students. We found Google Glass feasible and acceptable as a tool for augmented reality in clinical simulations.

  16. Doppler Lidar Vector Retrievals and Atmospheric Data Visualization in Mixed/Augmented Reality

    Cherukuru, Nihanth Wagmi

    Environmental remote sensing has seen rapid growth in the recent years and Doppler wind lidars have gained popularity primarily due to their non-intrusive, high spatial and temporal measurement capabilities. While lidar applications early on, relied on the radial velocity measurements alone, most of the practical applications in wind farm control and short term wind prediction require knowledge of the vector wind field. Over the past couple of years, multiple works on lidars have explored three primary methods of retrieving wind vectors viz., using homogeneous windfield assumption, computationally extensive variational methods and the use of multiple Doppler lidars. Building on prior research, the current three-part study, first demonstrates the capabilities of single and dual Doppler lidar retrievals in capturing downslope windstorm-type flows occurring at Arizona's Barringer Meteor Crater as a part of the METCRAX II field experiment. Next, to address the need for a reliable and computationally efficient vector retrieval for adaptive wind farm control applications, a novel 2D vector retrieval based on a variational formulation was developed and applied on lidar scans from an offshore wind farm and validated with data from a cup and vane anemometer installed on a nearby research platform. Finally, a novel data visualization technique using Mixed Reality (MR)/ Augmented Reality (AR) technology is presented to visualize data from atmospheric sensors. MR is an environment in which the user's visual perception of the real world is enhanced with live, interactive, computer generated sensory input (in this case, data from atmospheric sensors like Doppler lidars). A methodology using modern game development platforms is presented and demonstrated with lidar retrieved wind fields. In the current study, the possibility of using this technology to visualize data from atmospheric sensors in mixed reality is explored and demonstrated with lidar retrieved wind fields as well as

  17. Recent advancements in medical simulation: patient-specific virtual reality simulation.

    Willaert, Willem I M; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; Cheshire, Nicholas J; Vermassen, Frank E

    2012-07-01

    Patient-specific virtual reality simulation (PSVR) is a new technological advancement that allows practice of upcoming real operations and complements the established role of VR simulation as a generic training tool. This review describes current developments in PSVR and draws parallels with other high-stake industries, such as aviation, military, and sports. A review of the literature was performed using PubMed and Internet search engines to retrieve data relevant to PSVR in medicine. All reports pertaining to PSVR were included. Reports on simulators that did not incorporate a haptic interface device were excluded from the review. Fifteen reports described 12 simulators that enabled PSVR. Medical procedures in the field of laparoscopy, vascular surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, and plastic surgery were included. In all cases, source data was two-dimensional CT or MRI data. Face validity was most commonly reported. Only one (vascular) simulator had undergone face, content, and construct validity. Of the 12 simulators, 1 is commercialized and 11 are prototypes. Five simulators have been used in conjunction with real patient procedures. PSVR is a promising technological advance within medicine. The majority of simulators are still in the prototype phase. As further developments unfold, the validity of PSVR will have to be examined much like generic VR simulation for training purposes. Nonetheless, similar to the aviation, military, and sport industries, operative performance and patient safety may be enhanced by the application of this novel technology.

  18. Mobile Mixed-Reality Interfaces That Enhance Human–Robot Interaction in Shared Spaces

    Jared A. Frank

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although user interfaces with gesture-based input and augmented graphics have promoted intuitive human–robot interactions (HRI, they are often implemented in remote applications on research-grade platforms requiring significant training and limiting operator mobility. This paper proposes a mobile mixed-reality interface approach to enhance HRI in shared spaces. As a user points a mobile device at the robot’s workspace, a mixed-reality environment is rendered providing a common frame of reference for the user and robot to effectively communicate spatial information for performing object manipulation tasks, improving the user’s situational awareness while interacting with augmented graphics to intuitively command the robot. An evaluation with participants is conducted to examine task performance and user experience associated with the proposed interface strategy in comparison to conventional approaches that utilize egocentric or exocentric views from cameras mounted on the robot or in the environment, respectively. Results indicate that, despite the suitability of the conventional approaches in remote applications, the proposed interface approach provides comparable task performance and user experiences in shared spaces without the need to install operator stations or vision systems on or around the robot. Moreover, the proposed interface approach provides users the flexibility to direct robots from their own visual perspective (at the expense of some physical workload and leverages the sensing capabilities of the tablet to expand the robot’s perceptual range.

  19. A Multiplayer Learning Game based on Mixed Reality to Enhance Awareness on Archaeology

    Mathieu Loiseau

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our research deals with the development of a new type of game-based learning environment: (MMORPG based on mixed reality, applied in the archaeological domain. In this paper, we propose a learning scenario that enhances players’ motivation thanks to individual, collaborative and social activities and that offers a continuous experience between the virtual environment and real places (archaeological sites, museum. After describing the challenge to a rich multidisciplinary approach involving both computer scientists and archaeologists, we present two types of game: multiplayer online role-playing games and mixed reality games. We build on the specificities of these games to make the design choices described in the paper. We also present three modular features we have developed to support independently three activities of the scenario. The proposed approach aims at raising awareness among people on the scientific approach in Archaeology, by providing them information in the virtual environment and encouraging them to go on real sites. We finally discuss the issues raised by this work, such as the tensions between the perceived individual, team and community utilities, as well as the choice of the entering point in the learning scenario (real or virtual for the players’ involvement in the game.

  20. Virtual reality-based simulation system for nuclear and radiation safety SuperMC/RVIS

    He, T.; Hu, L.; Long, P.; Shang, L.; Zhou, S.; Yang, Q.; Zhao, J.; Song, J.; Yu, S.; Cheng, M.; Hao, L., E-mail: liqin.hu@fds.org.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Hefei, Anhu (China)

    2015-07-01

    The suggested work scenarios in radiation environment need to be iterative optimized according to the ALARA principle. Based on Virtual Reality (VR) technology and high-precision whole-body computational voxel phantom, a virtual reality-based simulation system for nuclear and radiation safety named SuperMC/RVIS has been developed for organ dose assessment and ALARA evaluation of work scenarios in radiation environment. The system architecture, ALARA evaluation strategy, advanced visualization methods and virtual reality technology used in SuperMC/RVIS are described. A case is presented to show its dose assessment and interactive simulation capabilities. (author)

  1. Virtual reality-based simulation system for nuclear and radiation safety SuperMC/RVIS

    He, T.; Hu, L.; Long, P.; Shang, L.; Zhou, S.; Yang, Q.; Zhao, J.; Song, J.; Yu, S.; Cheng, M.; Hao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The suggested work scenarios in radiation environment need to be iterative optimized according to the ALARA principle. Based on Virtual Reality (VR) technology and high-precision whole-body computational voxel phantom, a virtual reality-based simulation system for nuclear and radiation safety named SuperMC/RVIS has been developed for organ dose assessment and ALARA evaluation of work scenarios in radiation environment. The system architecture, ALARA evaluation strategy, advanced visualization methods and virtual reality technology used in SuperMC/RVIS are described. A case is presented to show its dose assessment and interactive simulation capabilities. (author)

  2. Virtual reality and live simulation: a comparison between two simulation tools for assessing mass casualty triage skills.

    Luigi Ingrassia, Pier; Ragazzoni, Luca; Carenzo, Luca; Colombo, Davide; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Della Corte, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that virtual reality simulation is equivalent to live simulation for testing naive medical students' abilities to perform mass casualty triage using the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) algorithm in a simulated disaster scenario and to detect the improvement in these skills after a teaching session. Fifty-six students in their last year of medical school were randomized into two groups (A and B). The same scenario, a car accident, was developed identically on the two simulation methodologies: virtual reality and live simulation. On day 1, group A was exposed to the live scenario and group B was exposed to the virtual reality scenario, aiming to triage 10 victims. On day 2, all students attended a 2-h lecture on mass casualty triage, specifically the START triage method. On day 3, groups A and B were crossed over. The groups' abilities to perform mass casualty triage in terms of triage accuracy, intervention correctness, and speed in the scenarios were assessed. Triage and lifesaving treatment scores were assessed equally by virtual reality and live simulation on day 1 and on day 3. Both simulation methodologies detected an improvement in triage accuracy and treatment correctness from day 1 to day 3 (PVirtual reality simulation proved to be a valuable tool, equivalent to live simulation, to test medical students' abilities to perform mass casualty triage and to detect improvement in such skills.

  3. Reality

    Harteveld, Casper

    The first of the three worlds to be discussed is Reality. This whole level is devoted to this world consisting of consultants, subject-matter experts, and disciplines related to the domain and subject of the game. After a short introduction where I show—amongst many other things—a virtual reproduction and game interpretation of Magritte's famous painting of a pipe, I explain by using my experiences from Levee Patroller and drawing upon other examples, four relevant aspects from this world that designers need to consider. The first concerns defining the problem. This is quite hard, especially because at many times, different problem definitions can be conceived. When a problem is finally defined, the second aspect, the factors which are involved with the problem, need to be found and elaborated on. If designers start to relate the factors to each other, they are preoccupied with the third aspect, the relationships. To picture this well, it helps to draw a diagram. Mostly, games are not static and that is why the process needs to be taken into account as well. After considering this fourth aspect, the “model of reality” can be said to be complete. To judge this model and the eventual game, Reality has its own criteria of which I discuss flexibility, fidelity, and validity.

  4. Virtual Reality for Pediatric Sedation: A Randomized Controlled Trial Using Simulation

    Davis, Aisha B; O'Connell, Karen J; Willner, Emily; Aronson Schinasi, Dana A; Ottolini, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Team training for procedural sedation for pediatric residents has traditionally consisted of didactic presentations and simulated scenarios using high-fidelity mannequins. We assessed the effectiveness of a virtual reality module in teaching preparation for and management of sedation for procedures. Methods: After developing a virtual reality environment in Second Life® (Linden Lab, San Francisco, CA) where providers perform and recover patients from procedural sedation, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of the virtual reality module versus a traditional web-based educational module. A 20 question pre- and post-test was administered to assess knowledge change. All subjects participated in a simulated pediatric procedural sedation scenario that was video recorded for review and assessed using a 32-point checklist. A brief survey elicited feedback on the virtual reality module and the simulation scenario. Results: The median score on the assessment checklist was 75% for the intervention group and 70% for the control group (P = 0.32). For the knowledge tests, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (P = 0.14). Users had excellent reviews of the virtual reality module and reported that the module added to their education. Conclusions: Pediatric residents performed similarly in simulation and on a knowledge test after a virtual reality module compared with a traditional web-based module on procedural sedation. Although users enjoyed the virtual reality experience, these results question the value virtual reality adds in improving the performance of trainees. Further inquiry is needed into how virtual reality provides true value in simulation-based education. PMID:27014520

  5. Virtual Reality for Pediatric Sedation: A Randomized Controlled Trial Using Simulation.

    Zaveri, Pavan P; Davis, Aisha B; O'Connell, Karen J; Willner, Emily; Aronson Schinasi, Dana A; Ottolini, Mary

    2016-02-09

    Team training for procedural sedation for pediatric residents has traditionally consisted of didactic presentations and simulated scenarios using high-fidelity mannequins. We assessed the effectiveness of a virtual reality module in teaching preparation for and management of sedation for procedures. After developing a virtual reality environment in Second Life® (Linden Lab, San Francisco, CA) where providers perform and recover patients from procedural sedation, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of the virtual reality module versus a traditional web-based educational module. A 20 question pre- and post-test was administered to assess knowledge change. All subjects participated in a simulated pediatric procedural sedation scenario that was video recorded for review and assessed using a 32-point checklist. A brief survey elicited feedback on the virtual reality module and the simulation scenario. The median score on the assessment checklist was 75% for the intervention group and 70% for the control group (P = 0.32). For the knowledge tests, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (P = 0.14). Users had excellent reviews of the virtual reality module and reported that the module added to their education. Pediatric residents performed similarly in simulation and on a knowledge test after a virtual reality module compared with a traditional web-based module on procedural sedation. Although users enjoyed the virtual reality experience, these results question the value virtual reality adds in improving the performance of trainees. Further inquiry is needed into how virtual reality provides true value in simulation-based education.

  6. The SEP "Robot": A Valid Virtual Reality Robotic Simulator for the Da Vinci Surgical System?

    van der Meijden, O. A. J.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.; Schijven, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if the concept of face and construct validity may apply to the SurgicalSim Educational Platform (SEP) "robot" simulator. The SEP robot simulator is a virtual reality (VR) simulator aiming to train users on the Da Vinci Surgical System. To determine the SEP's

  7. Peripersonal Space: An Index of Multisensory Body–Environment Interactions in Real, Virtual, and Mixed Realities

    Andrea Serino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human–environment interactions normally occur in the physical milieu and thus by medium of the body and within the space immediately adjacent to and surrounding the body, the peripersonal space (PPS. However, human interactions increasingly occur with or within virtual environments, and hence novel approaches and metrics must be developed to index human–environment interactions in virtual reality (VR. Here, we present a multisensory task that measures the spatial extent of human PPS in real, virtual, and augmented realities. We validated it in a mixed reality (MR ecosystem in which real environment and virtual objects are blended together in order to administer and control visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli in ecologically valid conditions. Within this mixed-reality environment, participants are asked to respond as fast as possible to tactile stimuli on their body, while task-irrelevant visual or audiovisual stimuli approach their body. Results demonstrate that, in analogy with observations derived from monkey electrophysiology and in real environmental surroundings, tactile detection is enhanced when visual or auditory stimuli are close to the body, and not when far from it. We then calculate the location where this multisensory facilitation occurs as a proxy of the boundary of PPS. We observe that mapping of PPS via audiovisual, as opposed to visual alone, looming stimuli results in sigmoidal fits—allowing for the bifurcation between near and far space—with greater goodness of fit. In sum, our approach is able to capture the boundaries of PPS on a spatial continuum, at the individual-subject level, and within a fully controlled and previously laboratory-validated setup, while maintaining the richness and ecological validity of real-life events. The task can therefore be applied to study the properties of PPS in humans and to index the features governing human–environment interactions in virtual or MR. We propose PPS as an

  8. Evaluation of a haptics-based virtual reality temporal bone simulator for anatomy and surgery training.

    Fang, Te-Yung; Wang, Pa-Chun; Liu, Chih-Hsien; Su, Mu-Chun; Yeh, Shih-Ching

    2014-02-01

    Virtual reality simulation training may improve knowledge of anatomy and surgical skills. We evaluated a 3-dimensional, haptic, virtual reality temporal bone simulator for dissection training. The subjects were 7 otolaryngology residents (3 training sessions each) and 7 medical students (1 training session each). The virtual reality temporal bone simulation station included a computer with software that was linked to a force-feedback hand stylus, and the system recorded performance and collisions with vital anatomic structures. Subjects performed virtual reality dissections and completed questionnaires after the training sessions. Residents and students had favorable responses to most questions of the technology acceptance model (TAM) questionnaire. The average TAM scores were above neutral for residents and medical students in all domains, and the average TAM score for residents was significantly higher for the usefulness domain and lower for the playful domain than students. The average satisfaction questionnaire for residents showed that residents had greater overall satisfaction with cadaver temporal bone dissection training than training with the virtual reality simulator or plastic temporal bone. For medical students, the average comprehension score was significantly increased from before to after training for all anatomic structures. Medical students had significantly more collisions with the dura than residents. The residents had similar mean performance scores after the first and third training sessions for all dissection procedures. The virtual reality temporal bone simulator provided satisfactory training for otolaryngology residents and medical students. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Virtual Reality Simulators in the Process IndustryA Review of Existing Systems and the Way Towards ETS

    Cibulka, Jaroslav; Komulainen, Tiina M.; Mirtaheri, Peyman; Nazir, Salman; Manca, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Simulator training with Virtual Reality Simulators deeply engages the operators and improves the learning outcome. The available commercial 3D and Virtual Reality Simulator products range from generic models for laptops to specialized projection rooms with a great variety of different audiovisual, haptic, and sensory effects. However, current virtual reality simulators do not take into account the physical and psychological strain involved in field operators’ work in real process plants. Coll...

  10. Simulating video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy: a virtual reality cognitive task simulation.

    Solomon, Brian; Bizekis, Costas; Dellis, Sophia L; Donington, Jessica S; Oliker, Aaron; Balsam, Leora B; Zervos, Michael; Galloway, Aubrey C; Pass, Harvey; Grossi, Eugene A

    2011-01-01

    Current video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery training models rely on animals or mannequins to teach procedural skills. These approaches lack inherent teaching/testing capability and are limited by cost, anatomic variations, and single use. In response, we hypothesized that video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery right upper lobe resection could be simulated in a virtual reality environment with commercial software. An anatomy explorer (Maya [Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, Calif] models of the chest and hilar structures) and simulation engine were adapted. Design goals included freedom of port placement, incorporation of well-known anatomic variants, teaching and testing modes, haptic feedback for the dissection, ability to perform the anatomic divisions, and a portable platform. Preexisting commercial models did not provide sufficient surgical detail, and extensive modeling modifications were required. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery right upper lobe resection simulation is initiated with a random vein and artery variation. The trainee proceeds in a teaching or testing mode. A knowledge database currently includes 13 anatomic identifications and 20 high-yield lung cancer learning points. The "patient" is presented in the left lateral decubitus position. After initial camera port placement, the endoscopic view is displayed and the thoracoscope is manipulated via the haptic device. The thoracoscope port can be relocated; additional ports are placed using an external "operating room" view. Unrestricted endoscopic exploration of the thorax is allowed. An endo-dissector tool allows for hilar dissection, and a virtual stapling device divides structures. The trainee's performance is reported. A virtual reality cognitive task simulation can overcome the deficiencies of existing training models. Performance scoring is being validated as we assess this simulator for cognitive and technical surgical education. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  11. Facial Emotion Recognition: A Survey and Real-World User Experiences in Mixed Reality

    Dhwani Mehta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive possibilities of applications have made emotion recognition ineluctable and challenging in the field of computer science. The use of non-verbal cues such as gestures, body movement, and facial expressions convey the feeling and the feedback to the user. This discipline of Human–Computer Interaction places reliance on the algorithmic robustness and the sensitivity of the sensor to ameliorate the recognition. Sensors play a significant role in accurate detection by providing a very high-quality input, hence increasing the efficiency and the reliability of the system. Automatic recognition of human emotions would help in teaching social intelligence in the machines. This paper presents a brief study of the various approaches and the techniques of emotion recognition. The survey covers a succinct review of the databases that are considered as data sets for algorithms detecting the emotions by facial expressions. Later, mixed reality device Microsoft HoloLens (MHL is introduced for observing emotion recognition in Augmented Reality (AR. A brief introduction of its sensors, their application in emotion recognition and some preliminary results of emotion recognition using MHL are presented. The paper then concludes by comparing results of emotion recognition by the MHL and a regular webcam.

  12. Facial Emotion Recognition: A Survey and Real-World User Experiences in Mixed Reality.

    Mehta, Dhwani; Siddiqui, Mohammad Faridul Haque; Javaid, Ahmad Y

    2018-02-01

    Extensive possibilities of applications have made emotion recognition ineluctable and challenging in the field of computer science. The use of non-verbal cues such as gestures, body movement, and facial expressions convey the feeling and the feedback to the user. This discipline of Human-Computer Interaction places reliance on the algorithmic robustness and the sensitivity of the sensor to ameliorate the recognition. Sensors play a significant role in accurate detection by providing a very high-quality input, hence increasing the efficiency and the reliability of the system. Automatic recognition of human emotions would help in teaching social intelligence in the machines. This paper presents a brief study of the various approaches and the techniques of emotion recognition. The survey covers a succinct review of the databases that are considered as data sets for algorithms detecting the emotions by facial expressions. Later, mixed reality device Microsoft HoloLens (MHL) is introduced for observing emotion recognition in Augmented Reality (AR). A brief introduction of its sensors, their application in emotion recognition and some preliminary results of emotion recognition using MHL are presented. The paper then concludes by comparing results of emotion recognition by the MHL and a regular webcam.

  13. Cognitive load in distributed and massed practice in virtual reality mastoidectomy simulation.

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive load theory states that working memory is limited. This has implications for learning and suggests that reducing cognitive load (CL) could promote learning and skills acquisition. This study aims to explore the effect of repeated practice and simulator-integrated tutoring on CL in virtual reality (VR) mastoidectomy simulation. Prospective trial. Forty novice medical students performed 12 repeated virtual mastoidectomy procedures in the Visible Ear Simulator: 21 completed distributed practice with practice blocks spaced in time and 19 participants completed massed practice (all practices performed in 1 day). Participants were randomized for tutoring with the simulator-integrated tutor function. Cognitive load was estimated by measuring reaction time in a secondary task. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measurements. The mean reaction time increased by 37% during the procedure compared with baseline, demonstrating that the procedure placed substantial cognitive demands. Repeated practice significantly lowered CL in the distributed practice group but not in massed practice group. In addition, CL was found to be further increased by 10.3% in the later and more complex stages of the procedure. The simulator-integrated tutor function did not have an impact on CL. Distributed practice decreased CL in repeated VR mastoidectomy training more consistently than was seen in massed practice. This suggests a possible effect of skills and memory consolidation occurring over time. To optimize technical skills learning, training should be organized as time-distributed practice rather than as a massed block of practice, which is common in skills-training courses. N/A. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Using a Camera Phone as a Mixed-Reality Laser Cannon

    Fadi Chehimi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ubiquity and rich features of current mobile phones, mobile games have failed to reach even the lowest estimates of expected revenues. This is unfortunate as mobile phones offer unique possibilities for creating games aimed at attracting demographics not currently catered for by the traditional console market. As a result, there has been a growing call for greater innovation within the mobile games industry and support for games outside the current console genres. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a novel location-based game which allows us turn a camera phone into a mixed-reality laser cannon. The game uses specially designed coloured tags, which are worn by the players, and advanced colour tracking software running on a camera phone, to create a novel first person shoot-em-up (FPS with innovative game interactions and play.

  15. Pre-Service Teachers’ Responses to Student Behavior in a Mixed-Reality Environment

    Jillian Black

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether student gender and the type of student misbehavior affected the classroom management techniques of pre-service teachers. Participants were pre-service teachers who interacted with avatar students controlled by an actor in a mixed-reality environment. Avatar students’ behaviors were systematically coded along with their gender. Pre-service teachers’ responses were organized into four categories: coercion, retreatism, normative, and remunerative. Pre-service teachers’ use of proximity and tone of voice were also recorded. Data were analyzed using chi-square and ANOVA tests. Significant differences in pre-service teacher responses were found for type of avatar student misbehavior but not avatar student gender. Results and implications for future research are discussed.

  16. MIXED REALITY: THE DECONSTRUCTION OF TIME/THE RESTRUCTURE OF THE FUTURE

    Mohammed Alaa Mandour

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The information age has led us to experience our environment in innovative ways, especially after the emergence of virtual spaces. Our senses have been triggered and our perceptions have been significantly altered through our experience of ever developing virtual spaces, comprising of spatial metaphors coded through an abstract flow of electronic signals, or physical spaces, comprising of zones adapted to activities and channels of communication providing links between zones, or a combination of both. Using the two types of spaces, an architect can more easily interact and communicate with fellow architects as well as clients. This paper intends to explicate the concept of shared mixed realities in the field of architecture based on the construction of transparent boundaries between real and virtual spaces. In order to manage their communication, participants can utilize spatial properties (i.e. containments and movement through the use of shared space technologies which aim to create electronic environments.

  17. Automation and Control Learning Environment with Mixed Reality Remote Experiments Architecture

    Frederico M. Schaf

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to the use of remotely web-based experiments to improve the learning process of automation and control systems theory courses. An architecture combining virtual learning environments, remote experiments, students guide and experiments analysis is proposed based on a wide state of art study. The validation of the architecture uses state of art technologies and new simple developed programs to implement the case studies presented. All implementations presented use an internet accessible virtual learning environment providing educational resources, guides and learning material to create a distance learning course associated with the remote mixed reality experiment. This work is part of the RExNet consortium, supported by the European Alfa project.

  18. Mixed time slicing in path integral simulations

    Steele, Ryan P.; Zwickl, Jill; Shushkov, Philip; Tully, John C.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and efficient scheme is presented for using different time slices for different degrees of freedom in path integral calculations. This method bridges the gap between full quantization and the standard mixed quantum-classical (MQC) scheme and, therefore, still provides quantum mechanical effects in the less-quantized variables. Underlying the algorithm is the notion that time slices (beads) may be 'collapsed' in a manner that preserves quantization in the less quantum mechanical degrees of freedom. The method is shown to be analogous to multiple-time step integration techniques in classical molecular dynamics. The algorithm and its associated error are demonstrated on model systems containing coupled high- and low-frequency modes; results indicate that convergence of quantum mechanical observables can be achieved with disparate bead numbers in the different modes. Cost estimates indicate that this procedure, much like the MQC method, is most efficient for only a relatively few quantum mechanical degrees of freedom, such as proton transfer. In this regime, however, the cost of a fully quantum mechanical simulation is determined by the quantization of the least quantum mechanical degrees of freedom.

  19. A review of virtual reality based training simulators for orthopaedic surgery.

    Vaughan, Neil; Dubey, Venketesh N; Wainwright, Thomas W; Middleton, Robert G

    2016-02-01

    This review presents current virtual reality based training simulators for hip, knee and other orthopaedic surgery, including elective and trauma surgical procedures. There have not been any reviews focussing on hip and knee orthopaedic simulators. A comparison of existing simulator features is provided to identify what is missing and what is required to improve upon current simulators. In total 11 hip replacements pre-operative planning tools were analysed, plus 9 hip trauma fracture training simulators. Additionally 9 knee arthroscopy simulators and 8 other orthopaedic simulators were included for comparison. The findings are that for orthopaedic surgery simulators in general, there is increasing use of patient-specific virtual models which reduce the learning curve. Modelling is also being used for patient-specific implant design and manufacture. Simulators are being increasingly validated for assessment as well as training. There are very few training simulators available for hip replacement, yet more advanced virtual reality is being used for other procedures such as hip trauma and drilling. Training simulators for hip replacement and orthopaedic surgery in general lag behind other surgical procedures for which virtual reality has become more common. Further developments are required to bring hip replacement training simulation up to date with other procedures. This suggests there is a gap in the market for a new high fidelity hip replacement and resurfacing training simulator. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtual reality aided visualization of fluid flow simulations with application in medical education and diagnostics.

    Djukic, Tijana; Mandic, Vesna; Filipovic, Nenad

    2013-12-01

    Medical education, training and preoperative diagnostics can be drastically improved with advanced technologies, such as virtual reality. The method proposed in this paper enables medical doctors and students to visualize and manipulate three-dimensional models created from CT or MRI scans, and also to analyze the results of fluid flow simulations. Simulation of fluid flow using the finite element method is performed, in order to compute the shear stress on the artery walls. The simulation of motion through the artery is also enabled. The virtual reality system proposed here could shorten the length of training programs and make the education process more effective. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Virtual-reality simulation to assess performance in hip fracture surgery

    Pedersen, Poul; Palm, Henrik; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Internal fixation of hip fractures is a common and important procedure that orthopedic surgeons must master early in their career. Virtual-reality training could improve initial skills, and a simulation-based test would make it possible to ensure basic competency of junior...... experienced surgeon failing the test. INTERPRETATION: The simulation-based test was reliable and valid in our setting, and the pass/fail standard could discriminate between novices and experienced surgeons. Potentially, training and testing of future junior surgeons on a virtual-reality simulator could ensure...

  2. A review of virtual reality based training simulators for orthopaedic surgery

    Vaughan, Neil; Dubey, Venketesh N.; Wainwright, Tom; Middleton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This review presents current virtual reality based training simulators for hip, knee and other orthopaedic surgery, including elective and trauma surgical procedures. There have not been any reviews focussing on hip and knee orthopaedic simulators. A comparison of existing simulator features is provided to identify what is missing and what is required to improve upon current simulators. In total 11 total hip replacement pre-operative planning tools were analysed, plus 9 hip trauma fracture tr...

  3. [Simulation training in surgical education - application of virtual reality laparoscopic simulators in a surgical skills course].

    Lehmann, K S; Gröne, J; Lauscher, J C; Ritz, J-P; Holmer, C; Pohlen, U; Buhr, H-J

    2012-04-01

    Training and simulation are gaining importance in surgical education. Today, virtual reality surgery simulators provide sophisticated laparoscopic training scenarios and offer detailed assessment methods. This also makes simulators interesting for the application in surgical skills courses. The aim of the current study was to assess the suitability of a virtual surgery simulator for training and assessment in an established surgical training course. The study was conducted during the annual "Practical Course for Visceral Surgery" (Warnemuende, Germany). 36 of 108 course participants were assigned at random for the study. Training was conducted in 15 sessions over 5 days with 4 identical virtual surgery simulators (LapSim) and 2 standardised training tasks. The simulator measured 16 individual parameters and calculated 2 scores. Questionnaires were used to assess the test persons' laparoscopic experience, their training situation and the acceptance of the simulator training. Data were analysed with non-parametric tests. A subgroup analysis for laparoscopic experience was conducted in order to assess the simulator's construct validity and assessment capabilities. Median age was 32 (27 - 41) years; median professional experience was 3 (1 - 11) years. Typical laparoscopic learning curves with initial significant improvements and a subsequent plateau phase were measured over 5 days. The individual training sessions exhibited a rhythmic variability in the training results. A shorter night's sleep led to a marked drop in performance. The participants' different experience levels could clearly be discriminated ( ≤ 20 vs. > 20 laparoscopic operations; p ≤ 0.001). The questionnaire showed that the majority of the participants had limited training opportunities in their hospitals. The simulator training was very well accepted. However, the participants severely misjudged the real costs of the simulators that were used. The learning curve on the

  4. Simulation of Power Produced by a Building Added PV System in Indonesia using virtual reality

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a PV system will be simulated using virtual reality software for PV system simulations -called VR4PV - to show the effectiveness of the modelling of PV systems on buildings which are placed in the tropics. The PV system used for this study has been installed in Papua, Indonesia and

  5. Face and construct validity of virtual reality simulation of laparoscopic gynecologic surgery

    Schreuder, Henk W. R.; van Dongen, Koen W.; Roeleveld, Susan J.; Schijven, Marlies P.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to validate virtual reality simulation in assessing laparoscopic skills in gynecology by establishing the extent of realism of the simulation to the actual task (face validity) and the degree to which the results of the test one uses reflects the subject

  6. A review of training research and virtual reality simulators for the da Vinci surgical system.

    Liu, May; Curet, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Virtual reality simulators are the subject of several recent studies of skills training for robot-assisted surgery. Yet no consensus exists regarding what a core skill set comprises or how to measure skill performance. Defining a core skill set and relevant metrics would help surgical educators evaluate different simulators. This review draws from published research to propose a core technical skill set for using the da Vinci surgeon console. Publications on three commercial simulators were used to evaluate the simulators' content addressing these skills and associated metrics. An analysis of published research suggests that a core technical skill set for operating the surgeon console includes bimanual wristed manipulation, camera control, master clutching to manage hand position, use of third instrument arm, activating energy sources, appropriate depth perception, and awareness of forces applied by instruments. Validity studies of three commercial virtual reality simulators for robot-assisted surgery suggest that all three have comparable content and metrics. However, none have comprehensive content and metrics for all core skills. INSIGHTS: Virtual reality simulation remains a promising tool to support skill training for robot-assisted surgery, yet existing commercial simulator content is inadequate for performing and assessing a comprehensive basic skill set. The results of this evaluation help identify opportunities and challenges that exist for future developments in virtual reality simulation for robot-assisted surgery. Specifically, the inclusion of educational experts in the development cycle alongside clinical and technological experts is recommended.

  7. Cognitive load in distributed and massed practice in virtual reality mastoidectomy simulation

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    -integrated tutoring on CL in virtual reality (VR) mastoidectomy simulation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective trial. METHODS: Forty novice medical students performed 12 repeated virtual mastoidectomy procedures in the Visible Ear Simulator: 21 completed distributed practice with practice blocks spaced in time and 19...

  8. Particle–Mixing Simulations Using DEM and Comparison of the Performance of Mixing Indices

    Cho, Migyung

    2017-01-01

    Mixing of molecular grains having different characteristics is very important in many industries such as the food and pharmaceutical industries. With the development of computer simulations, it is common practice to find the optimal mixing conditions through a simulation before the actual mixing task to estimate the proper level of mixing. Accordingly, there has been an increasing need for a mixing index to measure the mix of particles in the simulation process. Mixing indices, which have been widely used so far, can largely be classified into two types: first is the statistical-based mixing index, which is prepared using the sampling method, and the second is the mixing index that is prepared using all the particles. In this paper, we calculated mixing indices in different ways for the data in the course of mixing the particles using the DEM simulation. Additionally, we compared the performance, advantages, and disadvantages of each mixing index. Therefore, I propose a standard that can be used to select an appropriate mixing index.

  9. Particle–Mixing Simulations Using DEM and Comparison of the Performance of Mixing Indices

    Cho, Migyung [Tongmyong Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Mixing of molecular grains having different characteristics is very important in many industries such as the food and pharmaceutical industries. With the development of computer simulations, it is common practice to find the optimal mixing conditions through a simulation before the actual mixing task to estimate the proper level of mixing. Accordingly, there has been an increasing need for a mixing index to measure the mix of particles in the simulation process. Mixing indices, which have been widely used so far, can largely be classified into two types: first is the statistical-based mixing index, which is prepared using the sampling method, and the second is the mixing index that is prepared using all the particles. In this paper, we calculated mixing indices in different ways for the data in the course of mixing the particles using the DEM simulation. Additionally, we compared the performance, advantages, and disadvantages of each mixing index. Therefore, I propose a standard that can be used to select an appropriate mixing index.

  10. A demonstration of the ASAP Realizer-Unity3D bridge for virtual and mixed reality applications

    Kolkmeier, Jan; Bruijnes, Merijn; Reidsma, Dennis; Beskow, Jonas; Peters, Christopher; Castellano, Ginevra; O'Sullivan, Carol; Leite, Iolanda; Kopp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Modern game engines such as Unity make prototyping and developing experiences in virtual and mixed reality environments increasingly accessible and efficient, and their value has long been recognized by the scientific community as well. However, these game engines do not easily allow control of

  11. Toward a comprehensive hybrid physical-virtual reality simulator of peripheral anesthesia with ultrasound and neurostimulator guidance.

    Samosky, Joseph T; Allen, Pete; Boronyak, Steve; Branstetter, Barton; Hein, Steven; Juhas, Mark; Nelson, Douglas A; Orebaugh, Steven; Pinto, Rohan; Smelko, Adam; Thompson, Mitch; Weaver, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a simulator of peripheral nerve block utilizing a mixed-reality approach: the combination of a physical model, an MRI-derived virtual model, mechatronics and spatial tracking. Our design uses tangible (physical) interfaces to simulate surface anatomy, haptic feedback during needle insertion, mechatronic display of muscle twitch corresponding to the specific nerve stimulated, and visual and haptic feedback for the injection syringe. The twitch response is calculated incorporating the sensed output of a real neurostimulator. The virtual model is isomorphic with the physical model and is derived from segmented MRI data. This model provides the subsurface anatomy and, combined with electromagnetic tracking of a sham ultrasound probe and a standard nerve block needle, supports simulated ultrasound display and measurement of needle location and proximity to nerves and vessels. The needle tracking and virtual model also support objective performance metrics of needle targeting technique.

  12. Simulation Of Assembly Processes With Technical Of Virtual Reality

    García García, Manuel; Arenas Reina, José Manuel; Lite, Alberto Sánchez; Sebastián Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2009-11-01

    Virtual reality techniques use at industrial processes provides a real approach to product life cycle. For components manual assembly, the use of virtual surroundings facilitates a simultaneous engineering in which variables such as human factors and productivity take a real act. On the other hand, in the actual phase of industrial competition it is required a rapid adjustment to client needs and to market situation. In this work it is analyzed the assembly of the front components of a vehicle using virtual reality tools and following up a product-process design methodology which includes every life service stage. This study is based on workstations design, taking into account productive and human factors from the ergonomic point of view implementing a postural study of every assembly operation, leaving the rest of stages for a later study. Design is optimized applying this methodology together with the use of virtual reality tools. It is also achieved a 15% reduction on time assembly and of 90% reduction in muscle—skeletal diseases at every assembly operation.

  13. Does virtual reality simulation have a role in training trauma and orthopaedic surgeons?

    Bartlett, J D; Lawrence, J E; Stewart, M E; Nakano, N; Khanduja, V

    2018-05-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to assess the current evidence relating to the benefits of virtual reality (VR) simulation in orthopaedic surgical training, and to identify areas of future research. Materials and Methods A literature search using the MEDLINE, Embase, and Google Scholar databases was performed. The results' titles, abstracts, and references were examined for relevance. Results A total of 31 articles published between 2004 and 2016 and relating to the objective validity and efficacy of specific virtual reality orthopaedic surgical simulators were identified. We found 18 studies demonstrating the construct validity of 16 different orthopaedic virtual reality simulators by comparing expert and novice performance. Eight studies have demonstrated skill acquisition on a simulator by showing improvements in performance with repeated use. A further five studies have demonstrated measurable improvements in operating theatre performance following a period of virtual reality simulator training. Conclusion The demonstration of 'real-world' benefits from the use of VR simulation in knee and shoulder arthroscopy is promising. However, evidence supporting its utility in other forms of orthopaedic surgery is lacking. Further studies of validity and utility should be combined with robust analyses of the cost efficiency of validated simulators to justify the financial investment required for their use in orthopaedic training. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:559-65.

  14. A Multi-Projector Calibration Method for Virtual Reality Simulators with Analytically Defined Screens

    Cristina Portalés

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometric calibration of projectors is a demanding task, particularly for the industry of virtual reality simulators. Different methods have been developed during the last decades to retrieve the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of projectors, most of them being based on planar homographies and some requiring an extended calibration process. The aim of our research work is to design a fast and user-friendly method to provide multi-projector calibration on analytically defined screens, where a sample is shown for a virtual reality Formula 1 simulator that has a cylindrical screen. The proposed method results from the combination of surveying, photogrammetry and image processing approaches, and has been designed by considering the spatial restrictions of virtual reality simulators. The method has been validated from a mathematical point of view, and the complete system—which is currently installed in a shopping mall in Spain—has been tested by different users.

  15. A new possibility in thoracoscopic virtual reality simulation training: development and testing of a novel virtual reality simulator for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy.

    Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Petersen, René Horsleben; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Konge, Lars

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to develop virtual reality simulation software for video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy, to explore the opinions of thoracic surgeons concerning the VATS lobectomy simulator and to test the validity of the simulator metrics. Experienced VATS surgeons worked with computer specialists to develop a VATS lobectomy software for a virtual reality simulator. Thoracic surgeons with different degrees of experience in VATS were enrolled at the 22nd meeting of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) held in Copenhagen in June 2014. The surgeons were divided according to the number of performed VATS lobectomies: novices (0 VATS lobectomies), intermediates (1-49 VATS lobectomies) and experienced (>50 VATS lobectomies). The participants all performed a lobectomy of a right upper lobe on the simulator and answered a questionnaire regarding content validity. Metrics were compared between the three groups. We succeeded in developing the first version of a virtual reality VATS lobectomy simulator. A total of 103 thoracic surgeons completed the simulated lobectomy and were distributed as follows: novices n = 32, intermediates n = 45 and experienced n = 26. All groups rated the overall user realism of the VATS lobectomy scenario to a median of 5 on a scale 1-7, with 7 being the best score. The experienced surgeons found the graphics and movements realistic and rated the scenario high in terms of usefulness as a training tool for novice and intermediate experienced thoracic surgeons, but not very useful as a training tool for experienced surgeons. The metric scores were not statistically significant between groups. This is the first study to describe a commercially available virtual reality simulator for a VATS lobectomy. More than 100 thoracic surgeons found the simulator realistic, and hence it showed good content validity. However, none of the built-in simulator metrics could significantly distinguish between novice, intermediate

  16. Practice on an augmented reality/haptic simulator and library of virtual brains improves residents' ability to perform a ventriculostomy.

    Yudkowsky, Rachel; Luciano, Cristian; Banerjee, Pat; Schwartz, Alan; Alaraj, Ali; Lemole, G Michael; Charbel, Fady; Smith, Kelly; Rizzi, Silvio; Byrne, Richard; Bendok, Bernard; Frim, David

    2013-02-01

    Ventriculostomy is a neurosurgical procedure for providing therapeutic cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Complications may arise during repeated attempts at placing the catheter in the ventricle. We studied the impact of simulation-based practice with a library of virtual brains on neurosurgery residents' performance in simulated and live surgical ventriculostomies. Using computed tomographic scans of actual patients, we developed a library of 15 virtual brains for the ImmersiveTouch system, a head- and hand-tracked augmented reality and haptic simulator. The virtual brains represent a range of anatomies including normal, shifted, and compressed ventricles. Neurosurgery residents participated in individual simulator practice on the library of brains including visualizing the 3-dimensional location of the catheter within the brain immediately after each insertion. Performance of participants on novel brains in the simulator and during actual surgery before and after intervention was analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Simulator cannulation success rates increased after intervention, and live procedure outcomes showed improvement in the rate of successful cannulation on the first pass. However, the incidence of deeper, contralateral (simulator) and third-ventricle (live) placements increased after intervention. Residents reported that simulations were realistic and helpful in improving procedural skills such as aiming the probe, sensing the pressure change when entering the ventricle, and estimating how far the catheter should be advanced within the ventricle. Simulator practice with a library of virtual brains representing a range of anatomies and difficulty levels may improve performance, potentially decreasing complications due to inexpert technique.

  17. Virtual reality cerebral aneurysm clipping simulation with real-time haptic feedback.

    Alaraj, Ali; Luciano, Cristian J; Bailey, Daniel P; Elsenousi, Abdussalam; Roitberg, Ben Z; Bernardo, Antonio; Banerjee, P Pat; Charbel, Fady T

    2015-03-01

    With the decrease in the number of cerebral aneurysms treated surgically and the increase of complexity of those treated surgically, there is a need for simulation-based tools to teach future neurosurgeons the operative techniques of aneurysm clipping. To develop and evaluate the usefulness of a new haptic-based virtual reality simulator in the training of neurosurgical residents. A real-time sensory haptic feedback virtual reality aneurysm clipping simulator was developed using the ImmersiveTouch platform. A prototype middle cerebral artery aneurysm simulation was created from a computed tomographic angiogram. Aneurysm and vessel volume deformation and haptic feedback are provided in a 3-dimensional immersive virtual reality environment. Intraoperative aneurysm rupture was also simulated. Seventeen neurosurgery residents from 3 residency programs tested the simulator and provided feedback on its usefulness and resemblance to real aneurysm clipping surgery. Residents thought that the simulation would be useful in preparing for real-life surgery. About two-thirds of the residents thought that the 3-dimensional immersive anatomic details provided a close resemblance to real operative anatomy and accurate guidance for deciding surgical approaches. They thought the simulation was useful for preoperative surgical rehearsal and neurosurgical training. A third of the residents thought that the technology in its current form provided realistic haptic feedback for aneurysm surgery. Neurosurgical residents thought that the novel immersive VR simulator is helpful in their training, especially because they do not get a chance to perform aneurysm clippings until late in their residency programs.

  18. TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR MIXED TRAFFIC SYSTEMS

    EGETE

    2012-05-04

    May 4, 2012 ... Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are ..... The traffic light control system presented by its location on ... multi-destination dynamic routing and real-time.

  19. Development of an augmented reality based simulation system for cooperative plant dismantling work

    Ishii, Hirotake; Man, Zhiyuan; Yan, Weida; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Izumi, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    An augmented reality-based simulation system for cooperative plant dismantling work has been developed and evaluated. In the system, behaviors of virtual objects such as the dismantling target, chain blocks, and trolleys are physically simulated. Their appearance is superimposed on camera images captured with cameras on users' tablet devices. The users can manipulate virtual objects cooperatively via touch operation. They can cut the dismantling targets, lift them on the trolleys using chain blocks, and convey them through narrow passages to ascertain whether the dismantling targets can be conducted without colliding with the passages. During the simulation, collisions between the virtual objects and real work environment are detected based on their three-dimensional shape data measured in advance. The collided parts are visualized using augmented reality superimposition. Four evaluators assessed the simulation system. Results show that the simulation system can be useful for prior examination of dismantling works, but some points were also found to need improvement. (author)

  20. Piloting Augmented Reality Technology to Enhance Realism in Clinical Simulation.

    Vaughn, Jacqueline; Lister, Michael; Shaw, Ryan J

    2016-09-01

    We describe a pilot study that incorporated an innovative hybrid simulation designed to increase the perception of realism in a high-fidelity simulation. Prelicensure students (N = 12) cared for a manikin in a simulation lab scenario wearing Google Glass, a wearable head device that projected video into the students' field of vision. Students reported that the simulation gave them confidence that they were developing skills and knowledge to perform necessary tasks in a clinical setting and that they met the learning objectives of the simulation. The video combined visual images and cues seen in a real patient and created a sense of realism the manikin alone could not provide.

  1. SINERGIA laparoscopic virtual reality simulator: didactic design and technical development.

    Lamata, Pablo; Gómez, Enrique J; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; López, Oscar; Monserrat, Carlos; García, Verónica; Alberola, Carlos; Florido, Miguel Angel Rodríguez; Ruiz, Juan; Usón, Jesús

    2007-03-01

    VR laparoscopic simulators have demonstrated its validity in recent studies, and research should be directed towards a high training effectiveness and efficacy. In this direction, an insight into simulators' didactic design and technical development is provided, by describing the methodology followed in the building of the SINERGIA simulator. It departs from a clear analysis of training needs driven by a surgical training curriculum. Existing solutions and validation studies are an important reference for the definition of specifications, which are described with a suitable use of simulation technologies. Five new didactic exercises are proposed to train some of the basic laparoscopic skills. Simulator construction has required existing algorithms and the development of a particle-based biomechanical model, called PARSYS, and a collision handling solution based in a multi-point strategy. The resulting VR laparoscopic simulator includes new exercises and enhanced simulation technologies, and is finding a very good acceptance among surgeons.

  2. The Reality Check: Evacuation Planning done by Mixed Reality and Simulation

    Keus, D.; Veldhoven, E.R. van; Heemskerck Pillis, F. van; Brink, T. van den; Laar, J. van

    2011-01-01

    Severe natural or man-made disasters that occur in urban areas often require evacuation measures to protect or rescue the population. In crisis situations, different kinds of knowledge are necessary to get insight in the consequences of the proposed set of measures. In addition, there are typically

  3. An elevated plus-maze in mixed reality for studying human anxiety-related behavior.

    Biedermann, Sarah V; Biedermann, Daniel G; Wenzlaff, Frederike; Kurjak, Tim; Nouri, Sawis; Auer, Matthias K; Wiedemann, Klaus; Briken, Peer; Haaker, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Fuss, Johannes

    2017-12-21

    A dearth of laboratory tests to study actual human approach-avoidance behavior has complicated translational research on anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) is the gold standard to assess approach-avoidance behavior in rodents. Here, we translated the EPM to humans using mixed reality through a combination of virtual and real-world elements. In two validation studies, we observed participants' anxiety on a behavioral, physiological, and subjective level. Participants reported higher anxiety on open arms, avoided open arms, and showed an activation of endogenous stress systems. Participants' with high anxiety exhibited higher avoidance. Moreover, open arm avoidance was moderately predicted by participants' acrophobia and sensation seeking, with opposing influences. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled experiment, GABAergic stimulation decreased avoidance of open arms while alpha-2-adrenergic antagonism increased avoidance. These findings demonstrate cross-species validity of open arm avoidance as a translational measure of anxiety. We thus introduce the first ecologically valid assay to track actual human approach-avoidance behavior under laboratory conditions.

  4. For We are Where We are not - Mixed-Reality Narratives, Installation Interfaces and Design Sketches

    Andrea Zapp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Für den französischen Philosophen Gaston Bachelard (1884–1962 schafft der Raum ein Milieu purer Intimität und voller Seele. Andrea Zapp analysiert davon ausgehend in ihrem englischsprachigen Beitrag Mixed-Reality Narratives, Installation Interfaces and Design Sketches. For the French philosopher Gaston Bachelard (1884–1962 space in its very literal sense creates a milieu of pure intimacy and full of soul. His witty and enlightening analysis of the private home and its rooms, cupboards, containers and personal items are described in his book The Poetics of Space (1964 and reveal how spatial surroundings and shapes define our memories, thoughts and identities. His classification of space becomes a portal to imagination, creating a prism in which all physical worlds and objects are enhanced by individual or artistic inner visions and dreams, forming most insightful dialectics of inside and outside, open and closed, being and non-being: leading to what he finally calls 'the phenomenology of roundness' in art and philosophical thinking.

  5. Adaptive mixed reality rehabilitation improves quality of reaching movements more than traditional reaching therapy following stroke.

    Duff, Margaret; Chen, Yinpeng; Cheng, Long; Liu, Sheng-Min; Blake, Paul; Wolf, Steven L; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2013-05-01

    Adaptive mixed reality rehabilitation (AMRR) is a novel integration of motion capture technology and high-level media computing that provides precise kinematic measurements and engaging multimodal feedback for self-assessment during a therapeutic task. We describe the first proof-of-concept study to compare outcomes of AMRR and traditional upper-extremity physical therapy. Two groups of participants with chronic stroke received either a month of AMRR therapy (n = 11) or matched dosing of traditional repetitive task therapy (n = 10). Participants were right handed, between 35 and 85 years old, and could independently reach to and at least partially grasp an object in front of them. Upper-extremity clinical scale scores and kinematic performances were measured before and after treatment. Both groups showed increased function after therapy, demonstrated by statistically significant improvements in Wolf Motor Function Test and upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scores, with the traditional therapy group improving significantly more on the FMA. However, only participants who received AMRR therapy showed a consistent improvement in kinematic measurements, both for the trained task of reaching to grasp a cone and the untrained task of reaching to push a lighted button. AMRR may be useful in improving both functionality and the kinematics of reaching. Further study is needed to determine if AMRR therapy induces long-term changes in movement quality that foster better functional recovery.

  6. Teachers' Conceptions and Their Approaches to Teaching in Virtual Reality and Simulation-Based Learning Environments

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki

    2011-01-01

    This research article focuses on virtual reality (VR) and simulation-based training, with a special focus on the pedagogical use of the Virtual Centre of Wellness Campus known as ENVI (Rovaniemi, Finland). In order to clearly understand how teachers perceive teaching and learning in such environments, this research examines the concepts of…

  7. Affordances and Limitations of Immersive Participatory Augmented Reality Simulations for Teaching and Learning

    Dunleavy, Matt; Dede, Chris; Mitchell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document how teachers and students describe and comprehend the ways in which participating in an augmented reality (AR) simulation aids or hinders teaching and learning. Like the multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) interface that underlies Internet games, AR is a good medium for immersive collaborative…

  8. Augmented Reality-Based Simulators as Discovery Learning Tools: An Empirical Study

    Ibáñez, María-Blanca; Di-Serio, Ángela; Villarán-Molina, Diego; Delgado-Kloos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports empirical evidence on having students use AR-SaBEr, a simulation tool based on augmented reality (AR), to discover the basic principles of electricity through a series of experiments. AR-SaBEr was enhanced with knowledge-based support and inquiry-based scaffolding mechanisms, which proved useful for discovery learning in…

  9. Contemporary virtual reality laparoscopy simulators: quicksand or solid grounds for assessing surgical trainees?

    Thijssen, Anthony S.; Schijven, Marlies P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A demand for safe, efficient laparoscopic training tools has prompted the introduction of virtual reality (VR) laparoscopic simulators, which might be used for performance assessment. The purpose of this review is to determine the value of VR metrics in laparoscopic skills assessment.

  10. Objective assessment of gynecologic laparoscopic skills using the LapSimGyn virtual reality simulator

    Larsen, C R; Grantcharov, Teodor; Aggarwal, R

    2006-01-01

    Safe realistic training and unbiased quantitative assessment of technical skills are required for laparoscopy. Virtual reality (VR) simulators may be useful tools for training and assessing basic and advanced surgical skills and procedures. This study aimed to investigate the construct validity...

  11. Virtual reality myringotomy simulation with real-time deformation: development and validity testing.

    Ho, Andrew K; Alsaffar, Hussain; Doyle, Philip C; Ladak, Hanif M; Agrawal, Sumit K

    2012-08-01

    Surgical simulation is becoming an increasingly common training tool in residency programs. The first objective was to implement real-time soft-tissue deformation and cutting into a virtual reality myringotomy simulator. The second objective was to test the various implemented incision algorithms to determine which most accurately represents the tympanic membrane during myringotomy. Descriptive and face-validity testing. A deformable tympanic membrane was developed, and three soft-tissue cutting algorithms were successfully implemented into the virtual reality myringotomy simulator. The algorithms included element removal, direction prediction, and Delaunay cutting. The simulator was stable and capable of running in real time on inexpensive hardware. A face-validity study was then carried out using a validated questionnaire given to eight otolaryngologists and four senior otolaryngology residents. Each participant was given an adaptation period on the simulator, was blinded to the algorithm being used, and was presented the three algorithms in a randomized order. A virtual reality myringotomy simulator with real-time soft-tissue deformation and cutting was successfully developed. The simulator was stable, ran in real time on inexpensive hardware, and incorporated haptic feedback and stereoscopic vision. The Delaunay cutting algorithm was found to be the most realistic algorithm representing the incision during myringotomy (P virtual reality myringotomy simulator is being developed and now integrates a real-time deformable tympanic membrane that appears to have face validity. Further development and validation studies are necessary before the simulator can be studied with respect to training efficacy and clinical impact. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Interactive Learning Environment: Web-based Virtual Hydrological Simulation System using Augmented and Immersive Reality

    Demir, I.

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in internet technologies make it possible to manage and visualize large data on the web. Novel visualization techniques and interactive user interfaces allow users to create realistic environments, and interact with data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. The hydrological simulation system is a web-based 3D interactive learning environment for teaching hydrological processes and concepts. The simulation systems provides a visually striking platform with realistic terrain information, and water simulation. Students can create or load predefined scenarios, control environmental parameters, and evaluate environmental mitigation alternatives. The web-based simulation system provides an environment for students to learn about the hydrological processes (e.g. flooding and flood damage), and effects of development and human activity in the floodplain. The system utilizes latest web technologies and graphics processing unit (GPU) for water simulation and object collisions on the terrain. Users can access the system in three visualization modes including virtual reality, augmented reality, and immersive reality using heads-up display. The system provides various scenarios customized to fit the age and education level of various users. This presentation provides an overview of the web-based flood simulation system, and demonstrates the capabilities of the system for various visualization and interaction modes.

  13. Virtual reality simulation for the optimization of endovascular procedures: current perspectives

    Rudarakanchana N

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nung Rudarakanchana,1 Isabelle Van Herzeele,2 Liesbeth Desender,2 Nicholas JW Cheshire1 1Department of Surgery, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, BelgiumOn behalf of EVEREST (European Virtual reality Endovascular RESearch TeamAbstract: Endovascular technologies are rapidly evolving, often requiring coordination and cooperation between clinicians and technicians from diverse specialties. These multidisciplinary interactions lead to challenges that are reflected in the high rate of errors occurring during endovascular procedures. Endovascular virtual reality (VR simulation has evolved from simple benchtop devices to full physic simulators with advanced haptics and dynamic imaging and physiological controls. The latest developments in this field include the use of fully immersive simulated hybrid angiosuites to train whole endovascular teams in crisis resource management and novel technologies that enable practitioners to build VR simulations based on patient-specific anatomy. As our understanding of the skills, both technical and nontechnical, required for optimal endovascular performance improves, the requisite tools for objective assessment of these skills are being developed and will further enable the use of VR simulation in the training and assessment of endovascular interventionalists and their entire teams. Simulation training that allows deliberate practice without danger to patients may be key to bridging the gap between new endovascular technology and improved patient outcomes.Keywords: virtual reality, simulation, endovascular, aneurysm

  14. The eXperience Induction Machine: A New Paradigm for Mixed-Reality Interaction Design and Psychological Experimentation

    Bernardet, Ulysses; Bermúdez I Badia, Sergi; Duff, Armin; Inderbitzin, Martin; Le Groux, Sylvain; Manzolli, Jônatas; Mathews, Zenon; Mura, Anna; Väljamäe, Aleksander; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    The eXperience Induction Machine (XIM) is one of the most advanced mixed-reality spaces available today. XIM is an immersive space that consists of physical sensors and effectors and which is conceptualized as a general-purpose infrastructure for research in the field of psychology and human-artifact interaction. In this chapter, we set out the epistemological rational behind XIM by putting the installation in the context of psychological research. The design and implementation of XIM are based on principles and technologies of neuromorphic control. We give a detailed description of the hardware infrastructure and software architecture, including the logic of the overall behavioral control. To illustrate the approach toward psychological experimentation, we discuss a number of practical applications of XIM. These include the so-called, persistent virtual community, the application in the research of the relationship between human experience and multi-modal stimulation, and an investigation of a mixed-reality social interaction paradigm.

  15. The design of VR-CATS for power plant simulator using virtual reality

    Park, S. Y.; Yoo, H. J.; Lee, M. S.; Hong, J. H.; Lee, Y. K.

    2001-01-01

    In Hadong fossil power plant simulator project (1998. 1 ∼ 2000. 7), KEPRI applied virtual reality to the simulator. To provide more efficient operator training, KEPRI further developed the virtual reality technology into VR-CATS( Virtual Reality Computer Assistance Training System), a web-based multimedia training system with virtual reality technologies, in KNPEC-2 projects. By visualizing nuclear power plant system with stereoscopic 3-graphics in this project, VR-CATS enable trainee to navigate whole nuclear power plants including high radiation areas and other restricted areas. In addition, instructors can train the local operators to operate the local valves and other equipment in the local area of the plant. It aims at helping trainees understand system locations and system functions more easily. And, by reproducing main control room with stereoscopic 3-D graphics and linking it with P and ID, operating procedures, and plant components, Virtual panels maximize training effects. During the classroom training, the instructor can acess the stand-by host computer of the simulator through a network. This enables the instructor to can operate the simulator with only soft-panel. With the soft-panel, the instructor can activate any malfunction that he wants to instruct, show the trends of major parameters to the trainee and discuss with them. This desktop simulator function helps trainee to understand basic symptoms of the accidents. With CBT, operators can easily understand why some parameters are increasing or decreasing and what they should to mak the system stable. The VR-CATS for Uljin equips with much stronger and higher level virtual environment. First, all components of the virtual plant are linked with P and ID, ISO drawings, and engineering database. In addition, virtual MCR provides much immersive environment with such virtual reality equipment as HMD and data glove. Operators can also do collaboration work in the network through avatar, real

  16. Using virtual reality technology to include field operators in simulation and training

    Nystad, E.; Strand, S.

    2006-01-01

    By using virtual reality technology, field operators can be included in simulator training. A study has been performed where field operators could perform their activities in a virtual plant and communicate with a control room operator who was placed in a physical control room simulator. This paper describes the use of VR technology in the study and how the operators experienced interacting with the virtual plant. (author)

  17. Virtual reality in neurosurgical education: part-task ventriculostomy simulation with dynamic visual and haptic feedback.

    Lemole, G Michael; Banerjee, P Pat; Luciano, Cristian; Neckrysh, Sergey; Charbel, Fady T

    2007-07-01

    Mastery of the neurosurgical skill set involves many hours of supervised intraoperative training. Convergence of political, economic, and social forces has limited neurosurgical resident operative exposure. There is need to develop realistic neurosurgical simulations that reproduce the operative experience, unrestricted by time and patient safety constraints. Computer-based, virtual reality platforms offer just such a possibility. The combination of virtual reality with dynamic, three-dimensional stereoscopic visualization, and haptic feedback technologies makes realistic procedural simulation possible. Most neurosurgical procedures can be conceptualized and segmented into critical task components, which can be simulated independently or in conjunction with other modules to recreate the experience of a complex neurosurgical procedure. We use the ImmersiveTouch (ImmersiveTouch, Inc., Chicago, IL) virtual reality platform, developed at the University of Illinois at Chicago, to simulate the task of ventriculostomy catheter placement as a proof-of-concept. Computed tomographic data are used to create a virtual anatomic volume. Haptic feedback offers simulated resistance and relaxation with passage of a virtual three-dimensional ventriculostomy catheter through the brain parenchyma into the ventricle. A dynamic three-dimensional graphical interface renders changing visual perspective as the user's head moves. The simulation platform was found to have realistic visual, tactile, and handling characteristics, as assessed by neurosurgical faculty, residents, and medical students. We have developed a realistic, haptics-based virtual reality simulator for neurosurgical education. Our first module recreates a critical component of the ventriculostomy placement task. This approach to task simulation can be assembled in a modular manner to reproduce entire neurosurgical procedures.

  18. Discrete event simulation and virtual reality use in industry: new opportunities and future trends

    Turner, Christopher; Hutabarat, Windo; Oyekan, John; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the area of combined discrete event simulation (DES) and virtual reality (VR) use within industry. While establishing a state of the art for progress in this area, this paper makes the case for VR DES as the vehicle of choice for complex data analysis through interactive simulation models, highlighting both its advantages and current limitations. This paper reviews active research topics such as VR and DES real-time integration, communication protocols,...

  19. Virtual reality: emerging role of simulation training in vascular access.

    Davidson, Ingemar J A; Lok, Charmaine; Dolmatch, Bart; Gallieni, Maurizio; Nolen, Billy; Pittiruti, Mauro; Ross, John; Slakey, Douglas

    2012-11-01

    Evolving new technologies in vascular access mandate increased attention to patient safety; an often overlooked yet valuable training tool is simulation. For the end-stage renal disease patient, simulation tools are effective for all aspects of creating access for peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Based on aviation principles, known as crew resource management, we place equal emphasis on team training as individual training to improve interactions between team members and systems, cumulating in improved safety. Simulation allows for environmental control and standardized procedures, letting the trainee practice and correct mistakes without harm to patients, compared with traditional patient-based training. Vascular access simulators range from suture devices, to pressurized tunneled conduits for needle cannulation, to computer-based interventional simulators. Simulation training includes simulated case learning, root cause analysis of adverse outcomes, and continual update and refinement of concepts. Implementation of effective human to complex systems interaction in end-stage renal disease patients involves a change in institutional culture. Three concepts discussed in this article are as follows: (1) the need for user-friendly systems and technology to enhance performance, (2) the necessity for members to both train and work together as a team, and (3) the team assigned to use the system must test and practice it to a proficient level before safely using the system on patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Randomized Clinical Trial of Virtual Reality Simulation Training for Transvaginal Gynecologic Ultrasound Skills.

    Chao, Coline; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Bouhanna, Philippe; Ville, Yves; Dommergues, Marc

    2015-09-01

    To compare the impact of virtual reality simulation training and theoretical teaching on the ability of inexperienced trainees to produce adequate virtual transvaginal ultrasound images. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with parallel groups. Participants included inexperienced residents starting a training program in Paris. The intervention consisted of 40 minutes of virtual reality simulation training using a haptic transvaginal simulator versus 40 minutes of conventional teaching including a conference with slides and videos and answers to the students' questions. The outcome was a 19-point image quality score calculated from a set of 4 images (sagittal and coronal views of the uterus and left and right ovaries) produced by trainees immediately after the intervention, using the same simulator on which a new virtual patient had been uploaded. Experts assessed the outcome on stored images, presented in a random order, 2 months after the trial was completed. They were blinded to group assignment. The hypothesis was an improved outcome in the intervention group. Randomization was 1 to 1. The mean score was significantly greater in the simulation group (n = 16; mean score, 12; SEM, 0.8) than the control group (n = 18; mean score, 9; SEM, 1.0; P= .0302). The quality of virtual vaginal images produced by inexperienced trainees was greater immediately after a single virtual reality simulation training session than after a single theoretical teaching session. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Validation of a virtual reality-based simulator for shoulder arthroscopy.

    Rahm, Stefan; Germann, Marco; Hingsammer, Andreas; Wieser, Karl; Gerber, Christian

    2016-05-01

    This study was to determine face and construct validity of a new virtual reality-based shoulder arthroscopy simulator which uses passive haptic feedback. Fifty-one participants including 25 novices (100 shoulder arthroscopies) completed two tests: for assessment of face validity, a questionnaire was filled out concerning quality of simulated reality and training potential using a 7-point Likert scale (range 1-7). Construct validity was tested by comparing simulator metrics (operation time in seconds, camera and grasper pathway in centimetre and grasper openings) between novices and experts test results. Overall simulated reality was rated high with a median value of 5.5 (range 2.8-7) points. Training capacity scored a median value of 5.8 (range 3-7) points. Experts were significantly faster in the diagnostic test with a median of 91 (range 37-208) s than novices with 1177 (range 81-383) s (p < 0.0001) and in the therapeutic test 102 (range 58-283) s versus 229 (range 114-399) s (p < 0.0001). Similar results were seen in the other metric values except in the camera pathway in the therapeutic test. The tested simulator achieved high scores in terms of realism and training capability. It reliably discriminated between novices and experts. Further improvements of the simulator, especially in the field of therapeutic arthroscopy, might improve its value as training and assessment tool for shoulder arthroscopy skills. II.

  2. Virtual Reality System with Integrated Sound Field Simulation and Reproduction

    Ingo Assenmacher

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time audio rendering system is introduced which combines a full room-specific simulation, dynamic crosstalk cancellation, and multitrack binaural synthesis for virtual acoustical imaging. The system is applicable for any room shape (normal, long, flat, coupled, independent of the a priori assumption of a diffuse sound field. This provides the possibility of simulating indoor or outdoor spatially distributed, freely movable sources and a moving listener in virtual environments. In addition to that, near-to-head sources can be simulated by using measured near-field HRTFs. The reproduction component consists of a headphone-free reproduction by dynamic crosstalk cancellation. The focus of the project is mainly on the integration and interaction of all involved subsystems. It is demonstrated that the system is capable of real-time room simulation and reproduction and, thus, can be used as a reliable platform for further research on VR applications.

  3. Virtual reality simulation training for health professions trainees in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Walsh, Catharine M; Sherlock, Mary E; Ling, Simon C; Carnahan, Heather

    2012-06-13

    Traditionally, training in gastrointestinal endoscopy has been based upon an apprenticeship model, with novice endoscopists learning basic skills under the supervision of experienced preceptors in the clinical setting. Over the last two decades, however, the growing awareness of the need for patient safety has brought the issue of simulation-based training to the forefront. While the use of simulation-based training may have important educational and societal advantages, the effectiveness of virtual reality gastrointestinal endoscopy simulators has yet to be clearly demonstrated. To determine whether virtual reality simulation training can supplement and/or replace early conventional endoscopy training (apprenticeship model) in diagnostic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy and/or sigmoidoscopy for health professions trainees with limited or no prior endoscopic experience. Health professions, educational and computer databases were searched until November 2011 including The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Biosis Previews, CINAHL, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, ERIC, Education Full Text, CBCA Education, Career and Technical Education @ Scholars Portal, Education Abstracts @ Scholars Portal, Expanded Academic ASAP @ Scholars Portal, ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, Abstracts in New Technologies and Engineering and Computer & Information Systems Abstracts. The grey literature until November 2011 was also searched. Randomised and quasi-randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality endoscopy (oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy) simulation training versus any other method of endoscopy training including conventional patient-based training, in-job training, training using another form of endoscopy simulation (e.g. low-fidelity simulator), or no training (however defined by authors) were included.  Trials comparing one method of virtual reality training versus

  4. Mobile Applications and Multi-User Virtual Reality Simulations

    Gordillo, Orlando Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This is my third internship with NASA and my second one at the Johnson Space Center. I work within the engineering directorate in ER7 (Software Robotics and Simulations Division) at a graphics lab called IGOAL. We are a very well-rounded lab because we have dedicated software developers and dedicated 3D artist, and when you combine the two, what you get is the ability to create many different things such as interactive simulations, 3D models, animations, and mobile applications.

  5. Virtual Reality Simulation as a Tool to Monitor Surgical Performance Indicators: VIRESI Observational Study.

    Muralha, Nuno; Oliveira, Manuel; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Costa-Maia, José

    2017-05-31

    Virtual reality simulation is a topic of discussion as a complementary tool to traditional laparoscopic surgical training in the operating room. However, it is unclear whether virtual reality training can have an impact on the surgical performance of advanced laparoscopic procedures. Our objective was to assess the ability of the virtual reality simulator LAP Mentor to identify and quantify changes in surgical performance indicators, after LAP Mentor training for digestive anastomosis. Twelve surgeons from Centro Hospitalar de São João in Porto (Portugal) performed two sessions of advanced task 5: anastomosis in LAP Mentor, before and after completing the tutorial, and were evaluated on 34 surgical performance indicators. The results show that six surgical performance indicators significantly changed after LAP Mentor training. The surgeons performed the task significantly faster as the median 'total time' significantly reduced (p virtual reality training simulation as a benchmark tool to assess the surgical performance of Portuguese surgeons. LAP Mentor is able to identify variations in surgical performance indicators of digestive anastomosis.

  6. Operative and diagnostic hysteroscopy: A novel learning model combining new animal models and virtual reality simulation.

    Bassil, Alfred; Rubod, Chrystèle; Borghesi, Yves; Kerbage, Yohan; Schreiber, Elie Servan; Azaïs, Henri; Garabedian, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Hysteroscopy is one of the most common gynaecological procedure. Training for diagnostic and operative hysteroscopy can be achieved through numerous previously described models like animal models or virtual reality simulation. We present our novel combined model associating virtual reality and bovine uteruses and bladders. End year residents in obstetrics and gynaecology attended a full day workshop. The workshop was divided in theoretical courses from senior surgeons and hands-on training in operative hysteroscopy and virtual reality Essure ® procedures using the EssureSim™ and Pelvicsim™ simulators with multiple scenarios. Theoretical and operative knowledge was evaluated before and after the workshop and General Points Averages (GPAs) were calculated and compared using a Student's T test. GPAs were significantly higher after the workshop was completed. The biggest difference was observed in operative knowledge (0,28 GPA before workshop versus 0,55 after workshop, pvirtual reality simulation is an efficient model not described before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [The virtual reality simulation research of China Mechanical Virtual Human based on the Creator/Vega].

    Wei, Gaofeng; Tang, Gang; Fu, Zengliang; Sun, Qiuming; Tian, Feng

    2010-10-01

    The China Mechanical Virtual Human (CMVH) is a human musculoskeletal biomechanical simulation platform based on China Visible Human slice images; it has great realistic application significance. In this paper is introduced the construction method of CMVH 3D models. Then a simulation system solution based on Creator/Vega is put forward for the complex and gigantic data characteristics of the 3D models. At last, combined with MFC technology, the CMVH simulation system is developed and a running simulation scene is given. This paper provides a new way for the virtual reality application of CMVH.

  8. Augmenting the Thermal Flux Experiment: A Mixed Reality Approach with the HoloLens

    Strzys, M. P.; Kapp, S.; Thees, M.; Kuhn, J.; Lukowicz, P.; Knierim, P.; Schmidt, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the field of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR), technologies have made huge progress during the last years and also reached the field of education. The virtuality continuum, ranging from pure virtuality on one side to the real world on the other, has been successfully covered by the use of immersive technologies like head-mounted…

  9. Development of simulation interfaces for evaluation task with the use of physiological data and virtual reality applied to a vehicle simulator

    Miranda, Mateus R.; Costa, Henrik; Oliveira, Luiz; Bernardes, Thiago; Aguiar, Carla; Miosso, Cristiano; Oliveira, Alessandro B. S.; Diniz, Alberto C. G. C.; Domingues, Diana Maria G.

    2015-03-01

    physiological data, mixed to embedded simulation in Mixed Reality.

  10. Instructor feedback versus no instructor feedback on performance in a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator

    Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Bjerrum, Flemming; Maagaard, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    % vs 49%; P = 0.004). Men used less time (in minutes) than women (P = 0.037), but no sex difference was observed for repetitions (P = 0.20). Participants in the intervention group had higher self-perception regarding surgical skills after the trial (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS:: Instructor feedback...... increases the efficiency when training a complex operational task on a virtual reality simulator; time and repetitions used to achieve a predefined proficiency level were significantly reduced in the group that received instructor feedback compared with the control group. Trial registration number: NCT......OBJECTIVE:: To investigate the impact of instructor feedback versus no instructor feedback when training a complex operational task on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator. BACKGROUND:: Simulators are now widely accepted as a training tool, but there is insufficient knowledge about how much...

  11. Using Virtual Reality in K-12 Education: A Simulation of Shooting Bottle Rockets for Distance

    Charles Nippert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, it is often more challenging to shoot bottle rockets for distance instead of shooting them straight up and measuring altitude, as is often done.Using a device made from pipe and wood to launch bottle rockets and control the launch angle creates a much more interesting problem for students who are attempting to optimize launch conditions.Plans are presented for a launcher that allow students to adjust the launch angle. To help embellish the exercise, we supplement the bottle rocket with a model using virtual reality and a photorealistic simulation of the launch that allows the students to appreciate the optimization problems associated with water and air pressure and launch angle. Our usage data indicates that students easily adapt to the virtual reality simulation and use our simulation for intuitive experiments on their own to optimize launch conditions.

  12. [Lack of correlation between performances in a simulator and in reality].

    Konge, Lars; Bitsch, Mikael

    2010-12-13

    Simulation-based training provides obvious benefits for patients and doctors in education. Frequently, virtual reality simulators are expensive and evidence for their efficacy is poor, particularly as a result of studies with poor methodology and few test participants. In medical simulated training- and evaluation programmes it is always a question of transfer to the real clinical world. To illustrate this problem a study comparing the test performance of persons on a bowling simulator with their performance in a real bowling alley was conducted. Twenty-five test subjects played two rounds of bowling on a Nintendo Wii and 25 days later on a real bowling alley. Correlations of the scores in the first and second round (test-retest-reliability) and of the scores on the simulator and in reality (criterion validation) were studied and there was tested for any difference between female and male performance. The intraclass correlation coefficient equalled 0.76, i.e. the simulator fairly accurately measured participant performance. In contrast to this there was absolutely no correlation between participants' real bowling abilities and their scores on the simulator (Pearson's r = 0.06). There was no significant difference between female and male abilities. Simulation-based testing and training must be based on evidence. More studies are needed to include an adequate number of subjects. Bowling competence should not be based on Nintendo Wii measurements. Simulated training- and evaluation programmes should be validated before introduction, to ensure consistency with the real world.

  13. Classroom as Reality: Demonstrating Campaign Effects through Live Simulation

    Coffey, Daniel J.; Miller, William J.; Feuerstein, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Scholastic research has demonstrated that when conducted properly, active learning exercises are successful at increasing student awareness, student interest, and knowledge retention. Face-to-face simulations, in particular, have been demonstrated to add positively to classrooms focusing on comparative politics, international relations, public…

  14. Minerve: thermal-hydraulic phenomena simulation and virtual reality

    Laffont, A.; Pentori, B.

    2003-01-01

    MINERVE is a 3D interactive application representing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena happening in a nuclear plant. Therefore, the 3D geometric model of the French 900 MW PWR installations has been built. The users can interact in real time with this model to see at each step of the simulation what happens in the pipes. The thermal-hydraulic simulation is made by CATHARE-2, which calculates at every time step data on about one thousand meshes (the whole primary circuit, a part of the second circuit, and the Residual Heat Removal System). The simulation covers incidental and accidental cases on these systems. There are two main innovations in MINERVE: In the domain of nuclear plant's visualization, it is to introduce interactive 3D software mechanisms to visualize results of a physical simulation. In the domain of real-time 3D, it is to visualize fluids in a pipe, while they can have several configurations, like bubbles or single liquid phase. These mechanisms enable better comprehension and better visual representation of the possible phenomena. This paper describes the functionalities of MINERVE, and the difficulties to represent fluids with several characteristics like speed, configuration,..., in 3D. On the end, we talk about the future of MINERVE, and more widely of the possible futures of such an application in scientific visualization. (authors)

  15. Minerve: thermal-hydraulic phenomena simulation and virtual reality

    Laffont, A.; Pentori, B. [EDF R and D, EDF SEPTEN Electricity of France - Research and Development, Department SINETICS, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2003-07-01

    MINERVE is a 3D interactive application representing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena happening in a nuclear plant. Therefore, the 3D geometric model of the French 900 MW PWR installations has been built. The users can interact in real time with this model to see at each step of the simulation what happens in the pipes. The thermal-hydraulic simulation is made by CATHARE-2, which calculates at every time step data on about one thousand meshes (the whole primary circuit, a part of the second circuit, and the Residual Heat Removal System). The simulation covers incidental and accidental cases on these systems. There are two main innovations in MINERVE: In the domain of nuclear plant's visualization, it is to introduce interactive 3D software mechanisms to visualize results of a physical simulation. In the domain of real-time 3D, it is to visualize fluids in a pipe, while they can have several configurations, like bubbles or single liquid phase. These mechanisms enable better comprehension and better visual representation of the possible phenomena. This paper describes the functionalities of MINERVE, and the difficulties to represent fluids with several characteristics like speed, configuration,..., in 3D. On the end, we talk about the future of MINERVE, and more widely of the possible futures of such an application in scientific visualization. (authors)

  16. Mixed Reality in Visceral Surgery: Development of a Suitable Workflow and Evaluation of Intraoperative Use-cases.

    Sauer, Igor M; Queisner, Moritz; Tang, Peter; Moosburner, Simon; Hoepfner, Ole; Horner, Rosa; Lohmann, Rudiger; Pratschke, Johann

    2017-11-01

    The paper evaluates the application of a mixed reality (MR) headmounted display (HMD) for the visualization of anatomical structures in complex visceral-surgical interventions. A workflow was developed and technical feasibility was evaluated. Medical images are still not seamlessly integrated into surgical interventions and, thus, remain separated from the surgical procedure.Surgeons need to cognitively relate 2-dimensional sectional images to the 3-dimensional (3D) during the actual intervention. MR applications simulate 3D images and reduce the offset between working space and visualization allowing for improved spatial-visual approximation of patient and image. The surgeon's field of vision was superimposed with a 3D-model of the patient's relevant liver structures displayed on a MR-HMD. This set-up was evaluated during open hepatic surgery. A suitable workflow for segmenting image masks and texture mapping of tumors, hepatic artery, portal vein, and the hepatic veins was developed. The 3D model was positioned above the surgical site. Anatomical reassurance was possible simply by looking up. Positioning in the room was stable without drift and minimal jittering. Users reported satisfactory comfort wearing the device without significant impairment of movement. MR technology has a high potential to improve the surgeon's action and perception in open visceral surgery by displaying 3D anatomical models close to the surgical site. Superimposing anatomical structures directly onto the organs within the surgical site remains challenging, as the abdominal organs undergo major deformations due to manipulation, respiratory motion, and the interaction with the surgical instruments during the intervention. A further application scenario would be intraoperative ultrasound examination displaying the image directly next to the transducer. Displays and sensor-technologies as well as biomechanical modeling and object-recognition algorithms will facilitate the application of MR

  17. Development of a Virtual Reality Simulator for Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) Cholecystectomy Procedure.

    Ahn, Woojin; Dargar, Saurabh; Halic, Tansel; Lee, Jason; Li, Baichun; Pan, Junjun; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Roberts, Kurt; De, Suvranu

    2014-01-01

    The first virtual-reality-based simulator for Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is developed called the Virtual Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery Trainer (VTESTTM). VTESTTM aims to simulate hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy procedure using a rigid scope inserted through the vaginal port. The hardware interface is designed for accurate motion tracking of the scope and laparoscopic instruments to reproduce the unique hand-eye coordination. The haptic-enabled multimodal interactive simulation includes exposing the Calot's triangle and detaching the gall bladder while performing electrosurgery. The developed VTESTTM was demonstrated and validated at NOSCAR 2013.

  18. Using virtual reality simulation to assess competence in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy.

    Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Petersen, René Horsleben; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Konge, Lars

    2017-06-01

    The societies of thoracic surgery are working to incorporate simulation and competency-based assessment into specialty training. One challenge is the development of a simulation-based test, which can be used as an assessment tool. The study objective was to establish validity evidence for a virtual reality simulator test of a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy of a right upper lobe. Participants with varying experience in VATS lobectomy were included. They were familiarized with a virtual reality simulator (LapSim ® ) and introduced to the steps of the procedure for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy. The participants performed two VATS lobectomies on the simulator with a 5-min break between attempts. Nineteen pre-defined simulator metrics were recorded. Fifty-three participants from nine different countries were included. High internal consistency was found for the metrics with Cronbach's alpha coefficient for standardized items of 0.91. Significant test-retest reliability was found for 15 of the metrics (p-values 50 VATS lobectomies performed). A pass/fail level defined as approximately one standard deviation from the mean metric scores for experienced surgeons passed none of the novices (0 % false positives) and failed four of the experienced surgeons (29 % false negatives). This study is the first to establish validity evidence for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy virtual reality simulator test. Several simulator metrics demonstrated significant differences between novices and experienced surgeons and pass/fail criteria for the test were set with acceptable consequences. This test can be used as a first step in assessing thoracic surgery trainees' VATS lobectomy competency.

  19. Virtual Reality As an Effective Simulation Tool for OSH Education on Robotized Workplace

    Janak Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In last decade, the virtual reality became a huge trend in the field of visualization not only for simple elements, but also for complex devices, their actions and processes, rooms and entire areas. This contribution focuses on the possibilities of utilization of the elements of virtual reality for educational purposes regarding the potential employees and their OSH (Occupational Safety and Health training at the specialized workplaces. It points to the possibility of using the applications and simulations of the workplaces and the processes for better understanding of potential danger and eventual prevention options. Such an application simulates the real workplace including the technological processes and provides the user with a motion in 3D environment of virtual scene observing and interacting in actual work zones

  20. Testing Basic Competency in Knee Arthroscopy Using a Virtual Reality Simulator

    Jacobsen, Mads Emil; Andersen, Morten Jon; Hansen, Claus Ol

    2015-01-01

    was set at a total z-score of 15.5 points, resulting in two of the novices passing the test and a single experienced surgeon failing the test. CONCLUSIONS: By combining four procedures on a virtual reality arthroscopy simulator, it was possible to create a valid, reliable, and feasible test of basic......BACKGROUND: Diagnostic knee arthroscopy is a common procedure that orthopaedic residents are expected to learn early in their training. Arthroscopy requires a different skill set from traditional open surgery, and many orthopaedic residents feel less prepared for arthroscopic procedures. Virtual...... reality simulation training and testing provide an opportunity to ensure basic competency before proceeding to supervised procedures in patients. METHODS: Twenty-six physicians (thirteen novices and thirteen experienced arthroscopic surgeons) were voluntarily recruited to perform a test consisting of five...

  1. The Relationship of Endoscopic Proficiency to Educational Expense for Virtual Reality Simulator Training Amongst Surgical Trainees.

    Raque, Jessica; Goble, Adam; Jones, Veronica M; Waldman, Lindsey E; Sutton, Erica

    2015-07-01

    With the introduction of Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery, training methods in flexible endoscopy are being augmented with simulation-based curricula. The investment for virtual reality simulators warrants further research into its training advantage. Trainees were randomized into bedside or simulator training groups (BED vs SIM). SIM participated in a proficiency-based virtual reality curriculum. Trainees' endoscopic skills were rated using the Global Assessment of Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Skills (GAGES) in the patient care setting. The number of cases to reach 90 per cent of the maximum GAGES score and calculated costs of training were compared. Nineteen residents participated in the study. There was no difference in the average number of cases required to achieve 90 per cent of the maximum GAGES score for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 13 (SIM) versus11 (BED) (P = 0.63), or colonoscopy 21 (SIM) versus 4 (BED) (P = 0.34). The average per case cost of training for esophagogastroduodenoscopy was $35.98 (SIM) versus $39.71 (BED) (P = 0.50), not including the depreciation costs associated with the simulator ($715.00 per resident over six years). Use of a simulator appeared to increase the cost of training without accelerating the learning curve or decreasing faculty time spent in instruction. The importance of simulation in endoscopy training will be predicated on more cost-effective simulators.

  2. VIRGY: a virtual reality and force feedback based endoscopic surgery simulator.

    Baur, C; Guzzoni, D; Georg, O

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the VIRGY project at the VRAI Group (Virtual Reality and Active Interface), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Lausanne, Switzerland). Since 1994, we have been investigating a variety of virtual-reality based methods for simulating laparoscopic surgery procedures. Our goal is to develop an endoscopic surgical training tool which realistically simulates the interactions between one or more surgical instruments and gastrointestinal organs. To support real-time interaction and manipulation between instruments and organs, we have developed several novel graphic simulation techniques. In particular, we are using live video texturing to achieve dynamic effects such as bleeding or vaporization of fatty tissues. Special texture manipulations allows us to generate pulsing objects while minimizing processor load. Additionally, we have created a new surface deformation algorithm which enables real-time deformations under external constraints. Lastly, we have developed a new 3D object definition which allows us to perform operations such as total or partial object cuttings, as well as to selectively render objects with different levels of detail. To provide realistic physical simulation of the forces and torques on surgical instruments encountered during an operation, we have also designed a new haptic device dedicated to endososcopic surgery constraints. We are using special interpolation and extrapolation techniques to integrate our 25 Hz visual simulation with the 300 Hz feedback required for realistic tactile interaction. The fully VIRGY simulator has been tested by surgeons and the quality of both our visual and haptic simulation has been judged sufficient for training basic surgery gestures.

  3. The effect of self-directed virtual reality simulation on dissection training performance in mastoidectomy

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Foghsgaard, Søren; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To establish the effect of self-directed virtual reality (VR) simulation training on cadaveric dissection training performance in mastoidectomy and the transferability of skills acquired in VR simulation training to the cadaveric dissection training setting. STUDY DESIGN......: Prospective study. METHODS: Two cohorts of 20 novice otorhinolaryngology residents received either self-directed VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection training or vice versa. Cadaveric and VR simulation performances were assessed using final-product analysis with three blinded expert raters....... RESULTS: The group receiving VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection had a mean final-product score of 14.9 (95 % confidence interval [CI] [12.9-16.9]) compared with 9.8 (95% CI [8.4-11.1]) in the group not receiving VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection. This 52% increase...

  4. Performance Evaluation and Development of Virtual Reality Bike Simulator

    Kim, J.Y.; Song, C.G.; Kim, N.G. [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes a new bike system for the postural balance rehabilitation training. Virtual environment and three dimensional graphic model is designed with CAD tools such as 3D Studio Max and World Up. For the real time bike simulation, the optimized WorldToolKit graphic library is embedded with the dynamic geometry generation method, multi-thread method, and portal generation method. In this experiment, 20 normal adults were tested to investigate the influencing factors of balancing posture. We evaluated the system by measuring the parameters such as path deviation, driving velocity, COP(center of pressure), and average weight shift. Also, we investigated the usefulness of visual feedback information by weight shift. The results showed that continuous visual feedback by weight shift was more effective than no visual feedback in the postural balance control. It is concluded this system might be applied to clinical use as a new postural balance training system. (author). 19 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. [SOPHOCLE (Ophthalmologic Simulator of Laser PHOtocoagulation): contribution to virtual reality].

    Rouland, J F; Dubois, P; Chaillou, C; Meseuree, P; Karpf, S; Godin, S; Duquenoy, F

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to teach laser retinal photocoagulation in different disorders using a "virtual eye". Most ophthalmologists routinely use laser photocoagulator. Both indications and laser effects are well-known. However, in various diseases (diabetic retinopathy, age-related-macular degeneration, myopia...) complications rate increase or at least does not decrease. The main reasons are: - ignorance of risk factors, - misuse of the instrument. We developed a new automated device stimulating a real laser photocoagulator. Only slit-lamp exists. The three-mirror lens, the fundus and the retinal photocoagulation impacts are "virtual". The aim of the simulator is to help practitioners to recognize various pathologies almost as in real conditions and to be familiar with different technics of photocoagulation. By using computer assisted learning, a constant evaluation determines the level and the progress of practitioners.

  6. Industrial application trends and market perspectives for virtual reality and visual simulation

    Antonio Valerio Netto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide an overview of current market trends in industrial applications of VR (Virtual Reality and VisSim (visual simulation for the next few years. Several market studies recently undertaken are presented and commented. A profile of some companies that are starting to work with these technologies is provided, in an attempt to motivate Brazilian companies into the use of these new technologies by describing successful example applications undertaken by foreign companies.

  7. Usefulness of a Virtual Reality Percutaneous Trigeminal Rhizotomy Simulator in Neurosurgical Training.

    Shakur, Sophia F; Luciano, Cristian J; Kania, Patrick; Roitberg, Ben Z; Banerjee, P Pat; Slavin, Konstantin V; Sorenson, Jeffrey; Charbel, Fady T; Alaraj, Ali

    2015-09-01

    Simulation-based training may be incorporated into neurosurgery in the future. To assess the usefulness of a novel haptics-based virtual reality percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy simulator. A real-time augmented reality simulator for percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy was developed using the ImmersiveTouch platform. Ninety-two neurosurgery residents tested the simulator at American Association of Neurological Surgeons Top Gun 2014. Postgraduate year (PGY), number of fluoroscopy shots, the distance from the ideal entry point, and the distance from the ideal target were recorded by the system during each simulation session. Final performance score was calculated considering the number of fluoroscopy shots and distances from entry and target points (a lower score is better). The impact of PGY level on residents' performance was analyzed. Seventy-one residents provided their PGY-level and simulator performance data; 38% were senior residents and 62% were junior residents. The mean distance from the entry point (9.4 mm vs 12.6 mm, P = .01), the distance from the target (12.0 mm vs 15.2 mm, P = .16), and final score (31.1 vs 37.7, P = .02) were lower in senior than in junior residents. The mean number of fluoroscopy shots (9.8 vs 10.0, P = .88) was similar in these 2 groups. Linear regression analysis showed that increasing PGY level is significantly associated with a decreased distance from the ideal entry point (P = .001), a shorter distance from target (P = .05), a better final score (P = .007), but not number of fluoroscopy shots (P = .52). Because technical performance of percutaneous rhizotomy increases with training, we proposed that the skills in performing the procedure in our virtual reality model would also increase with PGY level, if our simulator models the actual procedure. Our results confirm this hypothesis and demonstrate construct validity.

  8. Development and evaluation of a trauma decision-making simulator in Oculus virtual reality.

    Harrington, Cuan M; Kavanagh, Dara O; Quinlan, John F; Ryan, Donncha; Dicker, Patrick; O'Keeffe, Dara; Traynor, Oscar; Tierney, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Consumer-available virtual-reality technology was launched in 2016 with strong foundations in the entertainment-industry. We developed an innovative medical-training simulator on the Oculus™ Gear-VR platform. This novel application was developed utilising internationally recognised Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) principles, requiring decision-making skills for critically-injured virtual-patients. Participants were recruited in June, 2016 at a single-centre trauma-course (ATLS, Leinster, Ireland) and trialled the platform. Simulator performances were correlated with individual expertise and course-performance measures. A post-intervention questionnaire relating to validity-aspects was completed. Eighteen(81.8%) eligible-candidates and eleven(84.6%) course-instructors voluntarily participated. The survey-responders mean-age was 38.9(±11.0) years with 80.8% male predominance. The instructor-group caused significantly less fatal-errors (p virtual-reality headsets. We believe that virtual-reality technology is a viable platform for medical-simulation into the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The GOSTT concept and hybrid mixed/virtual/augmented reality environment radioguided surgery

    Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Van Leeuwen, F. W. B.; Vidal-Sicart, S.; Giammarile, F.; Zaknun, J. J.; Mariani, G.

    2014-01-01

    The popularity gained by the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in the last two decades did increase the interest of the surgical disciplines for other applications of radioguided surgery. An example is the gamma-probe guided localization of occult or difficult to locate neoplastic lesions. Such guidance can be achieved by intralesional delivery (ultrasound, stereotaxis or CT) of a radiolabelled agent that remains accumulated at the site of the injection. Another possibility rested on the use of systemic administration of a tumour-seeking radiopharmaceutical with favourable tumour accumulation and retention. On the other hand, new intraoperative imaging devices for radioguided surgery in complex anatomical areas became available. All this a few years ago led to the delineation of the concept Guided intraOperative Scintigraphic Tumour Targeting (GOSTT) to include the whole spectrum of basic and advanced nuclear medicine procedures required for providing a roadmap that would optimise surgery. The introduction of allied signatures using, e.g. hybrid tracers for simultaneous detection of the radioactive and fluorescent signals did amply the GOSTT concept. It was now possible to combine perioperative nuclear medicine imaging with the superior resolution of additional optical guidance in the operating room. This hybrid approach is currently in progress and probably will become an important model to follow in the coming years. A cornerstone in the GOSTT concept is constituted by diagnostic imaging technologies like SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT was introduced halfway the past decade and was immediately incorporated into the SLN procedure. Important reasons attributing to the success of SPECT/CT were its combination with lymphoscintigraphy, and the ability to display SLNs in an anatomical environment. This latter aspect has significantly been improved in the new generation of SPECT/CT cameras and provides the base for the novel mixed reality protocols of image-guided surgery. In

  10. The GOSTT concept and hybrid mixed/virtual/augmented reality environment radioguided surgery.

    Valdés Olmos, R A; Vidal-Sicart, S; Giammarile, F; Zaknun, J J; Van Leeuwen, F W; Mariani, G

    2014-06-01

    The popularity gained by the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in the last two decades did increase the interest of the surgical disciplines for other applications of radioguided surgery. An example is the gamma-probe guided localization of occult or difficult to locate neoplastic lesions. Such guidance can be achieved by intralesional delivery (ultrasound, stereotaxis or CT) of a radiolabelled agent that remains accumulated at the site of the injection. Another possibility rested on the use of systemic administration of a tumour-seeking radiopharmaceutical with favourable tumour accumulation and retention. On the other hand, new intraoperative imaging devices for radioguided surgery in complex anatomical areas became available. All this a few years ago led to the delineation of the concept Guided intraOperative Scintigraphic Tumour Targeting (GOSTT) to include the whole spectrum of basic and advanced nuclear medicine procedures required for providing a roadmap that would optimise surgery. The introduction of allied signatures using, e.g. hybrid tracers for simultaneous detection of the radioactive and fluorescent signals did amply the GOSTT concept. It was now possible to combine perioperative nuclear medicine imaging with the superior resolution of additional optical guidance in the operating room. This hybrid approach is currently in progress and probably will become an important model to follow in the coming years. A cornerstone in the GOSTT concept is constituted by diagnostic imaging technologies like SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT was introduced halfway the past decade and was immediately incorporated into the SLN procedure. Important reasons attributing to the success of SPECT/CT were its combination with lymphoscintigraphy, and the ability to display SLNs in an anatomical environment. This latter aspect has significantly been improved in the new generation of SPECT/CT cameras and provides the base for the novel mixed reality protocols of image-guided surgery. In

  11. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-11-01

    The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F trademark), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste

  12. Good mixing length: Digital simulation of fluid mixing with and without obstacles

    Suarez Antola, R.; Burgos, D.

    2006-07-01

    The good mixing length of a tracer assures that the samples or measures taken are fair. A non homogeneous tracer mixing through the cross section of the fluid medium involved in the experiment (eg. a river or a pipe) may conduct to erroneous conclusions. For establishing that length, a digital simulation of a two dimensional fluid flow, using Navier-Stokes equations, was done. A continuous tracer injection was simulated.The good mixing length was studied in two cases, first with a free of obstacles situation and then the effect of a significant obstacle located after the tracer injection point. As usual in practice, the good mixing length was estimated using a suitable upper bound for the concentration deviations from the mean in a given cross section. An analytical discussion of the obtained results is done

  13. Evaluating the Effect of Virtual Reality Temporal Bone Simulation on Mastoidectomy Performance: A Meta-analysis.

    Lui, Justin T; Hoy, Monica Y

    2017-06-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of virtual reality simulation in temporal bone surgery warrants an investigation to assess training effectiveness. Objectives To determine if temporal bone simulator use improves mastoidectomy performance. Data Sources Ovid Medline, Embase, and PubMed databases were systematically searched per the PRISMA guidelines. Review Methods Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed publications that utilized quantitative data of mastoidectomy performance following the use of a temporal bone simulator. The search was restricted to human studies published in English. Studies were excluded if they were in non-peer-reviewed format, were descriptive in nature, or failed to provide surgical performance outcomes. Meta-analysis calculations were then performed. Results A meta-analysis based on the random-effects model revealed an improvement in overall mastoidectomy performance following training on the temporal bone simulator. A standardized mean difference of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.38-1.35) was generated in the setting of a heterogeneous study population ( I 2 = 64.3%, P virtual reality simulation temporal bone surgery studies, meta-analysis calculations demonstrate an improvement in trainee mastoidectomy performance with virtual simulation training.

  14. A virtual reality endoscopic simulator augments general surgery resident cancer education as measured by performance improvement.

    White, Ian; Buchberg, Brian; Tsikitis, V Liana; Herzig, Daniel O; Vetto, John T; Lu, Kim C

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of death in the USA. The need for screening colonoscopies, and thus adequately trained endoscopists, particularly in rural areas, is on the rise. Recent increases in required endoscopic cases for surgical resident graduation by the Surgery Residency Review Committee (RRC) further emphasize the need for more effective endoscopic training during residency to determine if a virtual reality colonoscopy simulator enhances surgical resident endoscopic education by detecting improvement in colonoscopy skills before and after 6 weeks of formal clinical endoscopic training. We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected surgery resident data on an endoscopy simulator. Residents performed four different clinical scenarios on the endoscopic simulator before and after a 6-week endoscopic training course. Data were collected over a 5-year period from 94 different residents performing a total of 795 colonoscopic simulation scenarios. Main outcome measures included time to cecal intubation, "red out" time, and severity of simulated patient discomfort (mild, moderate, severe, extreme) during colonoscopy scenarios. Average time to intubation of the cecum was 6.8 min for those residents who had not undergone endoscopic training versus 4.4 min for those who had undergone endoscopic training (p Virtual reality endoscopic simulation is an effective tool for both augmenting surgical resident endoscopy cancer education and measuring improvement in resident performance after formal clinical endoscopic training.

  15. Calorimetry at the international linear collider. From simulation to reality

    Wattimena, Nanda

    2010-02-15

    Calorimetry plays a crucial role in ongoing and upcoming high-energy physics experiments. To build a powerful calorimetric system with a performance tailored to the expected physics signatures, demands dedicated research and development of new readout technologies as well as dedicated reconstruction algorithms. The presented design of a calorimetric system which meets the high demands of precision physics at the future linear collider ILC, follows the paradigm of particle ow. Particle ow is a reconstruction principle that relies on a calorimetric system with high spatial granularity. In the detector optimisation process, the development of hardware and software are interlinked and cannot be judged independently. This thesis addresses two different aspects of detector optimisation, a test of the detector design against one example physics scenario and the development of a stable calibration procedure. In the rst part, a gauge-mediated Supersymmetry breaking scenario is used to test the design of the electromagnetic calorimeter in a full detector simulation study. The reconstruction of the neutralino properties, each decaying into a photon and a gravitino, requires a good energy resolution, as well as excellent position and angular resolution. The error bounds on the neutralino mass is strongly linked to the energy resolution, while the position and angular reconstruction of neutral particles is essential for the determination of the neutralino lifetime. The second part of this thesis focuses on the calibration procedure for a prototype of the hadron calorimeter. 7608 novel photodetectors are operated and tested in this prototype. They are exposed to beams of well de ned particle type and energy. The calibration is tested with a detailed study of electromagnetic showers inside the cubic-metre-sized prototype, with special attention paid towards the non-linearity correction. (orig.)

  16. Calorimetry at the international linear collider. From simulation to reality

    Wattimena, Nanda

    2010-02-01

    Calorimetry plays a crucial role in ongoing and upcoming high-energy physics experiments. To build a powerful calorimetric system with a performance tailored to the expected physics signatures, demands dedicated research and development of new readout technologies as well as dedicated reconstruction algorithms. The presented design of a calorimetric system which meets the high demands of precision physics at the future linear collider ILC, follows the paradigm of particle ow. Particle ow is a reconstruction principle that relies on a calorimetric system with high spatial granularity. In the detector optimisation process, the development of hardware and software are interlinked and cannot be judged independently. This thesis addresses two different aspects of detector optimisation, a test of the detector design against one example physics scenario and the development of a stable calibration procedure. In the rst part, a gauge-mediated Supersymmetry breaking scenario is used to test the design of the electromagnetic calorimeter in a full detector simulation study. The reconstruction of the neutralino properties, each decaying into a photon and a gravitino, requires a good energy resolution, as well as excellent position and angular resolution. The error bounds on the neutralino mass is strongly linked to the energy resolution, while the position and angular reconstruction of neutral particles is essential for the determination of the neutralino lifetime. The second part of this thesis focuses on the calibration procedure for a prototype of the hadron calorimeter. 7608 novel photodetectors are operated and tested in this prototype. They are exposed to beams of well de ned particle type and energy. The calibration is tested with a detailed study of electromagnetic showers inside the cubic-metre-sized prototype, with special attention paid towards the non-linearity correction. (orig.)

  17. Differentiating levels of surgical experience on a virtual reality temporal bone simulator.

    Zhao, Yi C; Kennedy, Gregor; Hall, Richard; O'Leary, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    Virtual reality simulation is increasingly being incorporated into surgical training and may have a role in temporal bone surgical education. Here we test whether metrics generated by a virtual reality surgical simulation can differentiate between three levels of experience, namely novices, otolaryngology residents, and experienced qualified surgeons. Cohort study. Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital. Twenty-seven participants were recruited. There were 12 experts, six residents, and nine novices. After orientation, participants were asked to perform a modified radical mastoidectomy on the simulator. Comparisons of time taken, injury to structures, and forces exerted were made between the groups to determine which specific metrics would discriminate experience levels. Experts completed the simulated task in significantly shorter time than the other two groups (experts 22 minutes, residents 36 minutes, and novices 46 minutes; P = 0.001). Novices exerted significantly higher average forces when dissecting close to vital structures compared with experts (0.24 Newton [N] vs 0.13 N, P = 0.002). Novices were also more likely to injure structures such as dura compared to experts (23 injuries vs 3 injuries, P = 0.001). Compared with residents, the experts modulated their force between initial cortex dissection and dissection close to vital structures. Using the combination of these metrics, we were able to correctly classify the participants' level of experience 90 percent of the time. This preliminary study shows that measurements of performance obtained from within a virtual reality simulator can differentiate between levels of users' experience. These results suggest that simulator training may have a role in temporal bone training beyond foundational training. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding Mixed Code and Classroom Code-Switching: Myths and Realities

    Li, David C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cantonese-English mixed code is ubiquitous in Hong Kong society, and yet using mixed code is widely perceived as improper. This paper presents evidence of mixed code being socially constructed as bad language behavior. In the education domain, an EDB guideline bans mixed code in the classroom. Teachers are encouraged to stick to…

  19. Laparoscopic skills maintenance: a randomized trial of virtual reality and box trainer simulators.

    Khan, Montaha W; Lin, Diwei; Marlow, Nicholas; Altree, Meryl; Babidge, Wendy; Field, John; Hewett, Peter; Maddern, Guy

    2014-01-01

    A number of simulators have been developed to teach surgical trainees the basic skills required to effectively perform laparoscopic surgery; however, consideration needs to be given to how well the skills taught by these simulators are maintained over time. This study compared the maintenance of laparoscopic skills learned using box trainer and virtual reality simulators. Participants were randomly allocated to be trained and assessed using either the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) simulator or the Surgical Science virtual reality simulator. Once participants achieved a predetermined level of proficiency, they were assessed 1, 3, and 6 months later. At each assessment, participants were given 2 practice attempts and assessed on their third attempt. The study was conducted through the Simulated Surgical Skills Program that was held at the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, Adelaide, Australia. Overall, 26 participants (13 per group) completed the training and all follow-up assessments. There were no significant differences between simulation-trained cohorts for age, gender, training level, and the number of surgeries previously performed, observed, or assisted. Scores for the FLS-trained participants did not significantly change over the follow-up period. Scores for LapSim-trained participants significantly deteriorated at the first 2 follow-up points (1 and 3 months) (p < 0.050), but returned to be near initial levels by the final follow-up (6 months). This research showed that basic laparoscopic skills learned using the FLS simulator were maintained more consistently than those learned on the LapSim simulator. However, by the final follow-up, both simulator-trained cohorts had skill levels that were not significantly different to those at proficiency after the initial training period. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Current state of virtual reality simulation in robotic surgery training: a review.

    Bric, Justin D; Lumbard, Derek C; Frelich, Matthew J; Gould, Jon C

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide, the annual number of robotic surgical procedures continues to increase. Robotic surgical skills are unique from those used in either open or laparoscopic surgery. The acquisition of a basic robotic surgical skill set may be best accomplished in the simulation laboratory. We sought to review the current literature pertaining to the use of virtual reality (VR) simulation in the acquisition of robotic surgical skills on the da Vinci Surgical System. A PubMed search was conducted between December 2014 and January 2015 utilizing the following keywords: virtual reality, robotic surgery, da Vinci, da Vinci skills simulator, SimSurgery Educational Platform, Mimic dV-Trainer, and Robotic Surgery Simulator. Articles were included if they were published between 2007 and 2015, utilized VR simulation for the da Vinci Surgical System, and utilized a commercially available VR platform. The initial search criteria returned 227 published articles. After all inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, a total of 47 peer-reviewed manuscripts were included in the final review. There are many benefits to utilizing VR simulation for robotic skills acquisition. Four commercially available simulators have been demonstrated to be capable of assessing robotic skill. Three of the four simulators demonstrate the ability of a VR training curriculum to improve basic robotic skills, with proficiency-based training being the most effective training style. The skills obtained on a VR training curriculum are comparable with those obtained on dry laboratory simulation. The future of VR simulation includes utilization in assessment for re-credentialing purposes, advanced procedural-based training, and as a warm-up tool prior to surgery.

  1. Computer simulation of mixed classical-quantum systems

    Kalia, R.K.; Vashishta, P.

    1988-11-01

    We briefly review three important methods that are currently used in the simulation of mixed systems. Two of these techniques, path integral Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics and dynamical simulated annealing, have the limitation that they can only describe the structural properties in the ground state. The third so-called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) method can provide not only the static properties but also the real-time dynamics of a quantum particle at finite temperatures. 10 refs

  2. From E-Learning to M-Learning - the use of Mixed Reality Games as a new Educational Paradigm

    Rae Earnshaw

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses different definitions of mobile learning which have been proposed by various researchers. The most distinctive features of mobile learning are extracted to propose a new definition for Mobile Educational Mixed Reality Games (MEMRG. A questionnaire and a quantifying scale are designed to assist the game developers in designing MEMRG. A new psycho-pedagogical approach to teaching is proposed for MEMRG. This methodology is based on the theme of ‘conversation’ between different actors of the learning community with the objective of building the architectural framework for MEMRG.

  3. Development and validation of a virtual reality simulator: human factors input to interventional radiology training.

    Johnson, Sheena Joanne; Guediri, Sara M; Kilkenny, Caroline; Clough, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    This study developed and validated a virtual reality (VR) simulator for use by interventional radiologists. Research in the area of skill acquisition reports practice as essential to become a task expert. Studies on simulation show skills learned in VR can be successfully transferred to a real-world task. Recently, with improvements in technology, VR simulators have been developed to allow complex medical procedures to be practiced without risking the patient. Three studies are reported. In Study I, 35 consultant interventional radiologists took part in a cognitive task analysis to empirically establish the key competencies of the Seldinger procedure. In Study 2, 62 participants performed one simulated procedure, and their performance was compared by expertise. In Study 3, the transferability of simulator training to a real-world procedure was assessed with 14 trainees. Study I produced 23 key competencies that were implemented as performance measures in the simulator. Study 2 showed the simulator had both face and construct validity, although some issues were identified. Study 3 showed the group that had undergone simulator training received significantly higher mean performance ratings on a subsequent patient procedure. The findings of this study support the centrality of validation in the successful design of simulators and show the utility of simulators as a training device. The studies show the key elements of a validation program for a simulator. In addition to task analysis and face and construct validities, the authors highlight the importance of transfer of training in validation studies.

  4. Extending Virtual Reality simulation of ITER maintenance operations with dynamic effects

    Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Baar, M.R. de; Boessenkool, H.; Graafland, B.; Haye, M.J.; Koning, J.F.; Vahedi, M.; Visser, M.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) simulation can be used to study, improve and verify ITER maintenance operations during preparation. VR can also improve the situational awareness of human operators during actual Remote Handling (RH) operations. Until now, VR systems use geometric models of the environment and the objects being handled and kinematic models of the manipulation systems. The addition of dynamic effects into the VR simulation was investigated. Important dynamic effects are forces due to contact transitions and the bending of beams under heavy loads. A novel dynamics simulation module was developed and introduced as an add-on to the VR4Robots VR software. Tests were performed under simplified test conditions and in the context of realistic ITER maintenance tasks on a benchmark product and on the ECRH Upper Port Launcher Plug (UPL). The introduction of dynamic effects into VR simulations was found to add realism and provide new insights in procedure development. The quality of the haptic feedback depends strongly on the haptic device used to 'display' haptic feedback to the operator. Dynamic effect simulation can also form the basis for real-time guidance support to operators during the execution of maintenance tasks (augmented reality).

  5. A mixed finite element method for particle simulation in lasertron

    Le Meur, G.

    1987-03-01

    A particle simulation code is being developed with the aim to treat the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic devices, such as Lasertron. The paper describes the use of mixed finite element methods in computing the field components, without derivating them from scalar or vector potentials. Graphical results are shown

  6. Simulation of Micro-fluidic Mixing Using Artificial Cilia

    Baltussen, M.G.H.M.; Toonder, den J.M.J.; Bos, F.M.; Anderson, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Our recently developed micro-mixer based on artificial cilia shows good mixing over relatively short lengthscales[1], which was unexpected. In this paper we present a numerical tool and use it to simulate the micromixerto explain the observed effects. The tool consists of a fully coupled fluid-solid

  7. A mixed finite element method for particle simulation in Lasertron

    Le Meur, G.

    1987-01-01

    A particle simulation code is being developed with the aim to treat the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic devices, such as Lasertron. The paper describes the use of mixed finite element methods in computing the field components, without derivating them from scalar or vector potentials. Graphical results are shown

  8. Virtual Reality Cerebral Aneurysm Clipping Simulation With Real-time Haptic Feedback

    Alaraj, Ali; Luciano, Cristian J.; Bailey, Daniel P.; Elsenousi, Abdussalam; Roitberg, Ben Z.; Bernardo, Antonio; Banerjee, P. Pat; Charbel, Fady T.

    2014-01-01

    Background With the decrease in the number of cerebral aneurysms treated surgically and the increase of complexity of those treated surgically, there is a need for simulation-based tools to teach future neurosurgeons the operative techniques of aneurysm clipping. Objective To develop and evaluate the usefulness of a new haptic-based virtual reality (VR) simulator in the training of neurosurgical residents. Methods A real-time sensory haptic feedback virtual reality aneurysm clipping simulator was developed using the Immersive Touch platform. A prototype middle cerebral artery aneurysm simulation was created from a computed tomography angiogram. Aneurysm and vessel volume deformation and haptic feedback are provided in a 3-D immersive VR environment. Intraoperative aneurysm rupture was also simulated. Seventeen neurosurgery residents from three residency programs tested the simulator and provided feedback on its usefulness and resemblance to real aneurysm clipping surgery. Results Residents felt that the simulation would be useful in preparing for real-life surgery. About two thirds of the residents felt that the 3-D immersive anatomical details provided a very close resemblance to real operative anatomy and accurate guidance for deciding surgical approaches. They believed the simulation is useful for preoperative surgical rehearsal and neurosurgical training. One third of the residents felt that the technology in its current form provided very realistic haptic feedback for aneurysm surgery. Conclusion Neurosurgical residents felt that the novel immersive VR simulator is helpful in their training especially since they do not get a chance to perform aneurysm clippings until very late in their residency programs. PMID:25599200

  9. Preoperative surgical planning and simulation of complex cranial base tumors in virtual reality

    YI Zhi-qiang; LI Liang; MO Da-peng; ZHANG Jia-yong; ZHANG Yang; BAO Sheng-de

    2008-01-01

    @@ The extremely complex anatomic relationships among bone,tumor,blood vessels and cranial nerves remains a big challenge for cranial base tumor surgery.Therefore.a good understanding of the patient specific anatomy and a preoperative planning are helpful and crocial for the neurosurgeons.Three dimensional (3-D) visualization of various imaging techniques have been widely explored to enhance the comprehension of volumetric data for surgical planning.1 We used the Destroscope Virtual Reality (VR) System (Singapore,Volume Interaction Pte Ltd,software:RadioDexterTM 1.0) to optimize preoperative plan in the complex cranial base tumors.This system uses patient-specific,coregistered,fused radiology data sets that may be viewed stereoscopically and can be manipulated in a virtual reality environment.This article describes our experience with the Destroscope VR system in preoperative surgical planning and simulation for 5 patients with complex cranial base tumors and evaluates the clinical usefulness of this system.

  10. CFD simulation of crossflow mixing in a rod bundle with mixing blades

    In, W. K.

    1999-01-01

    A CFD model was developed in this study to simulate the crossflow mixing in a 4x4 square array rod bundle caused by ripped-open blades. The central subchannel and adjacent subchannels of one grid span were modeled using flow symmetry. The lateral velocity pattern within the central subchannel, lateral velocity and the turbulence intensity in the rod gap region were predicted by the CFD method, and the predictions were compared with the measurements. The CFD simulation shows a vortex flow around the fuel rod caused by a pair of blades, which is consistent with the experimental results. The CFD predictions of the lateral velocity on the mixing sections show a near symmetric profile, but the measurements present an asymmetric velocity profile leading to an inversion of lateral velocity. The predicted mixing rate between the central subchannel and the adjacent subchannels reasonably agrees with the measured one. The CFD prediction shows a parabolic distribution of the RMS velocity but the measured one shows a rather flat distribution near the blade that develops to a parabolic distribution far downstream (L=29De). The predicted average RMS velocity on a mixing section is also slightly lower than the measured one. This study confirmed that the CFD simulation can present the effect of the ripped-open blades on the crossflow mixing in a rod bundle well

  11. The Application of the Technology of 3D Satellite Cloud Imaging in Virtual Reality Simulation

    Xiao-fang Xie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Using satellite cloud images to simulate clouds is one of the new visual simulation technologies in Virtual Reality (VR. Taking the original data of satellite cloud images as the source, this paper depicts specifically the technology of 3D satellite cloud imaging through the transforming of coordinates and projection, creating a DEM (Digital Elevation Model of cloud imaging and 3D simulation. A Mercator projection was introduced to create a cloud image DEM, while solutions for geodetic problems were introduced to calculate distances, and the outer-trajectory science of rockets was introduced to obtain the elevation of clouds. For demonstration, we report on a computer program to simulate the 3D satellite cloud images.

  12. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatic tumors: simulation, planning, and contribution of virtual reality and haptics.

    Villard, Caroline; Soler, Luc; Gangi, Afshin

    2005-08-01

    For radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver tumors, evaluation of vascular architecture, post-RFA necrosis prediction, and the choice of a suitable needle placement strategy using conventional radiological techniques remain difficult. In an attempt to enhance the safety of RFA, a 3D simulator, treatment planning, and training tool, that simulates the insertion of the needle, the necrosis of the treated area, and proposes an optimal needle placement, has been developed. The 3D scenes are automatically reconstructed from enhanced spiral CT scans. The simulator takes into account the cooling effect of local vessels greater than 3 mm in diameter, making necrosis shapes more realistic. Optimal needle positioning can be automatically generated by the software to produce complete destruction of the tumor, with maximum respect of the healthy liver and of all major structures to avoid. We also studied how the use of virtual reality and haptic devices are valuable to make simulation and training realistic and effective.

  13. CFD simulation for thermal mixing of a SMART flow mixing header assembly

    Kim, Young In; Bae, Youngmin; Chung, Young Jong; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal mixing performance of a FMHA installed in SMART is investigated numerically. • Effects of operating condition and discharge hole configuration are examined. • FMHA performance satisfies the design requirements under various abnormal conditions. - Abstract: A flow mixing header assembly (FMHA) is installed in a system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART) to enhance the thermal mixing capability and create a uniform core flow distribution under both normal operation and accident conditions. In this study, the thermal mixing characteristics of the FMHA are investigated for various steam generator conditions using a commercial CFD code. Simulations include investigations for the effects of FMHA discharge flow rate differences, turbulence models, and steam generator conditions. The results of the analysis show that the FMHA works effectively for thermal mixing in various conditions and makes the temperature difference at the core inlet decrease noticeably. We verified that the mixing capability of the FMHA is excellent and satisfies the design requirement in all simulation cases tested here

  14. Neurosurgical virtual reality simulation metrics to assess psychomotor skills during brain tumor resection.

    Azarnoush, Hamed; Alzhrani, Gmaan; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Alotaibi, Fahad; Gelinas-Phaneuf, Nicholas; Pazos, Valérie; Choudhury, Nusrat; Fares, Jawad; DiRaddo, Robert; Del Maestro, Rolando F

    2015-05-01

    Virtual reality simulator technology together with novel metrics could advance our understanding of expert neurosurgical performance and modify and improve resident training and assessment. This pilot study introduces innovative metrics that can be measured by the state-of-the-art simulator to assess performance. Such metrics cannot be measured in an operating room and have not been used previously to assess performance. Three sets of performance metrics were assessed utilizing the NeuroTouch platform in six scenarios with simulated brain tumors having different visual and tactile characteristics. Tier 1 metrics included percentage of brain tumor resected and volume of simulated "normal" brain tissue removed. Tier 2 metrics included instrument tip path length, time taken to resect the brain tumor, pedal activation frequency, and sum of applied forces. Tier 3 metrics included sum of forces applied to different tumor regions and the force bandwidth derived from the force histogram. The results outlined are from a novice resident in the second year of training and an expert neurosurgeon. The three tiers of metrics obtained from the NeuroTouch simulator do encompass the wide variability of technical performance observed during novice/expert resections of simulated brain tumors and can be employed to quantify the safety, quality, and efficiency of technical performance during simulated brain tumor resection. Tier 3 metrics derived from force pyramids and force histograms may be particularly useful in assessing simulated brain tumor resections. Our pilot study demonstrates that the safety, quality, and efficiency of novice and expert operators can be measured using metrics derived from the NeuroTouch platform, helping to understand how specific operator performance is dependent on both psychomotor ability and cognitive input during multiple virtual reality brain tumor resections.

  15. Mastery-Based Virtual Reality Robotic Simulation Curriculum: The First Step Toward Operative Robotic Proficiency.

    Hogg, Melissa E; Tam, Vernissia; Zenati, Mazen; Novak, Stephanie; Miller, Jennifer; Zureikat, Amer H; Zeh, Herbert J

    Hepatobiliary surgery is a highly complex, low-volume specialty with long learning curves necessary to achieve optimal outcomes. This creates significant challenges in both training and measuring surgical proficiency. We hypothesize that a virtual reality curriculum with mastery-based simulation is a valid tool to train fellows toward operative proficiency. This study evaluates the content and predictive validity of robotic simulation curriculum as a first step toward developing a comprehensive, proficiency-based pathway. A mastery-based simulation curriculum was performed in a virtual reality environment. A pretest/posttest experimental design used both virtual reality and inanimate environments to evaluate improvement. Participants self-reported previous robotic experience and assessed the curriculum by rating modules based on difficulty and utility. This study was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (Pittsburgh, PA), a tertiary care academic teaching hospital. A total of 17 surgical oncology fellows enrolled in the curriculum, 16 (94%) completed. Of 16 fellows who completed the curriculum, 4 fellows (25%) achieved mastery on all 24 modules; on average, fellows mastered 86% of the modules. Following curriculum completion, individual test scores improved (p < 0.0001). An average of 2.4 attempts was necessary to master each module (range: 1-17). Median time spent completing the curriculum was 4.2 hours (range: 1.1-6.6). Total 8 (50%) fellows continued practicing modules beyond mastery. Survey results show that "needle driving" and "endowrist 2" modules were perceived as most difficult although "needle driving" modules were most useful. Overall, 15 (94%) fellows perceived improvement in robotic skills after completing the curriculum. In a cohort of board-certified general surgeons who are novices in robotic surgery, a mastery-based simulation curriculum demonstrated internal validity with overall score improvement. Time to complete the

  16. Comprehensive modelling and simulation of cylindrical nanoparticles manipulation by using a virtual reality environment.

    Korayem, Moharam Habibnejad; Hoshiar, Ali Kafash; Ghofrani, Maedeh

    2017-08-01

    With the expansion of nanotechnology, robots based on atomic force microscope (AFM) have been widely used as effective tools for displacing nanoparticles and constructing nanostructures. One of the most limiting factors in AFM-based manipulation procedures is the inability of simultaneously observing the controlled pushing and displacing of nanoparticles while performing the operation. To deal with this limitation, a virtual reality environment has been used in this paper for observing the manipulation operation. In the simulations performed in this paper, first, the images acquired by the atomic force microscope have been processed and the positions and dimensions of nanoparticles have been determined. Then, by dynamically modelling the transfer of nanoparticles and simulating the critical force-time diagrams, a controlled displacement of nanoparticles has been accomplished. The simulations have been further developed for the use of rectangular, V-shape and dagger-shape cantilevers. The established virtual reality environment has made it possible to simulate the manipulation of biological particles in a liquid medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lack of transfer of skills after virtual reality simulator training with haptic feedback.

    Våpenstad, Cecilie; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Bø, Lars Eirik; Kuhry, Esther; Johnsen, Gjermund; Mårvik, Ronald; Langø, Thomas; Hernes, Toril Nagelhus

    2017-12-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators enrich surgical training and offer training possibilities outside of the operating room (OR). In this study, we created a criterion-based training program on a VR simulator with haptic feedback and tested it by comparing the performances of a simulator group against a control group. Medical students with no experience in laparoscopy were randomly assigned to a simulator group or a control group. In the simulator group, the candidates trained until they reached predefined criteria on the LapSim ® VR simulator (Surgical Science AB, Göteborg, Sweden) with haptic feedback (Xitact TM IHP, Mentice AB, Göteborg, Sweden). All candidates performed a cholecystectomy on a porcine organ model in a box trainer (the clinical setting). The performances were video rated by two surgeons blinded to subject training status. In total, 30 students performed the cholecystectomy and had their videos rated (N = 16 simulator group, N = 14 control group). The control group achieved better video rating scores than the simulator group (p training program did not transfer skills to the clinical setting. Poor mechanical performance of the simulated haptic feedback is believed to have resulted in a negative training effect.

  18. Neurosurgical Virtual Reality Simulation for Brain Tumor Using High-definition Computer Graphics: A Review of the Literature.

    Kin, Taichi; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Shono, Naoyuki; Nomura, Seiji; Saito, Toki; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2017-10-15

    Simulation and planning of surgery using a virtual reality model is becoming common with advances in computer technology. In this study, we conducted a literature search to find trends in virtual simulation of surgery for brain tumors. A MEDLINE search for "neurosurgery AND (simulation OR virtual reality)" retrieved a total of 1,298 articles published in the past 10 years. After eliminating studies designed solely for education and training purposes, 28 articles about the clinical application remained. The finding that the vast majority of the articles were about education and training rather than clinical applications suggests that several issues need be addressed for clinical application of surgical simulation. In addition, 10 of the 28 articles were from Japanese groups. In general, the 28 articles demonstrated clinical benefits of virtual surgical simulation. Simulation was particularly useful in better understanding complicated spatial relations of anatomical landmarks and in examining surgical approaches. In some studies, Virtual reality models were used on either surgical navigation system or augmented reality technology, which projects virtual reality images onto the operating field. Reported problems were difficulties in standardized, objective evaluation of surgical simulation systems; inability to respond to tissue deformation caused by surgical maneuvers; absence of the system functionality to reflect features of tissue (e.g., hardness and adhesion); and many problems with image processing. The amount of description about image processing tended to be insufficient, indicating that the level of evidence, risk of bias, precision, and reproducibility need to be addressed for further advances and ultimately for full clinical application.

  19. Mixed Waste Treatment Project: Computer simulations of integrated flowsheets

    Dietsche, L.J.

    1993-12-01

    The disposal of mixed waste, that is waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components, is a challenging waste management problem of particular concern to DOE sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for the destruction of hazardous wastes need to be re-evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and in some cases new technologies need to be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) was set up by DOE's Waste Operations Program (EM30) to provide guidance on mixed waste treatment options. One of MWTP's charters is to develop flowsheets for prototype integrated mixed waste treatment facilities which can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modelling. The objective of the flowsheet simulations is to provide mass and energy balances, product compositions, and equipment sizing (leading to cost) information. The modelled flowsheets need to be easily modified to examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams effect the overall integrated process. One such commercially available simulation program is ASPEN PLUS. This report contains details of the Aspen Plus program

  20. The Persuasive Power of Virtual Reality: Effects of Simulated Human Distress on Attitudes towards Fire Safety

    Chittaro, Luca; Zangrando, Nicola

    Although virtual reality (VR) is a powerful simulation tool that can allow users to experience the effects of their actions in vivid and memorable ways, explorations of VR as a persuasive technology are rare. In this paper, we focus on different ways of providing negative feedback for persuasive purposes through simulated experiences in VR. The persuasive goal we consider concerns awareness of personal fire safety issues and the experiment we describe focuses on attitudes towards smoke in evacuating buildings. We test two techniques: the first technique simulates the damaging effects of smoke on the user through a visualization that should not evoke strong emotions, while the second is aimed at partially reproducing the anxiety of an emergency situation. The results of the study show that the second technique is able to increase user's anxiety as well as producing better results in attitude change.

  1. Mapping the plateau of novices in virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy

    Andersen, Steven A W; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. METHODS: Data on the performances of 40 novices who had completed repeated, directed, self......-regulated VR simulation training of mastoidectomy were included. Data were analyzed to identify key areas of difficulty as well as the procedures terminated without using all the time allowed. RESULTS: Novices had difficulty in avoiding drilling holes in the outer anatomical boundaries of the mastoidectomy...... and often did not make use of the allowed time, lacking knowledge on when to stop or how to excel. CONCLUSION: Directed, self-regulated VR simulation training of mastoidectomy needs a strong instructional design with specific process goals to support deliberate practice because cognitive effort is needed...

  2. High correlation between performance on a virtual-reality simulator and real-life cataract surgery

    Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Smith, Phillip; Subhi, Yousif

    2017-01-01

    -tracking software of cataract surgical videos with a Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.70 (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Performance on the EyeSi simulator is significantly and highly correlated to real-life surgical performance. However, it is recommended that performance assessments are made using multiple data......PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation in performance of cataract surgery between a virtual-reality simulator and real-life surgery using two objective assessment tools with evidence of validity. METHODS: Cataract surgeons with varying levels of experience were included in the study. All...... antitremor training, forceps training, bimanual training, capsulorhexis and phaco divide and conquer. RESULTS: Eleven surgeons were enrolled. After a designated warm-up period, the proficiency-based test on the EyeSi simulator was strongly correlated to real-life performance measured by motion...

  3. A virtual reality instrument: near-future perspective of computer simulations of ion optics

    Veryovkin, Igor V.; Calaway, Wallis F.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The method of accurate modeling of complex ion optical systems is presented. It combines using SIMION 3D (c) with external software generating input ion sets and processing results of ion trajectory simulations. This method was used to simulate time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer of secondary neutrals SARISA (Surface Analysis by Resonance Ionization of Sputtered Atoms), and results of simulations were compared to results of the experiments. It is demonstrated that the accuracy of the presented modeling method is sufficient to reproduce experimental TOF (mass) spectra and dependencies of the instrument useful yield on sputtering and ionization conditions. A concept of 'virtual reality instrument' as a logical extension of the method is discussed

  4. Improvement of registration accuracy of a handheld augmented reality system for urban landscape simulation

    Tomohiro Fukuda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for visual landscape assessment in large-scale projects for the evaluation of the effects of a particular project on the surrounding landscape has grown in recent years. Augmented reality (AR has been considered for use as a landscape simulation system in which a landscape assessment object created by 3D models is included in the present surroundings. With the use of this system, the time and the cost needed to perform a 3DCG modeling of present surroundings, which is a major issue in virtual reality, are drastically reduced. This research presents the development of a 3D map-oriented handheld AR system that achieves geometric consistency using a 3D map to obtain position data instead of GPS, which has low position information accuracy, particularly in urban areas. The new system also features a gyroscope sensor to obtain posture data and a video camera to capture live video of the present surroundings. All these components are mounted in a smartphone and can be used for urban landscape assessment. Registration accuracy is evaluated to simulate an urban landscape from a short- to a long-range scale. The latter involves a distance of approximately 2000 m. The developed AR system enables users to simulate a landscape from multiple and long-distance viewpoints simultaneously and to walk around the viewpoint fields using only a smartphone. This result is the tolerance level of landscape assessment. In conclusion, the proposed method is evaluated as feasible and effective.

  5. Visuospatial and psychomotor aptitude predicts endovascular performance of inexperienced individuals on a virtual reality simulator.

    Van Herzeele, Isabelle; O'Donoghue, Kevin G L; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Vermassen, Frank; Darzi, Ara; Cheshire, Nicholas J W

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated virtual reality (VR) simulation for endovascular training of medical students to determine whether innate perceptual, visuospatial, and psychomotor aptitude (VSA) can predict initial and plateau phase of technical endovascular skills acquisition. Twenty medical students received didactic and endovascular training on a commercially available VR simulator. Each student treated a series of 10 identical noncomplex renal artery stenoses endovascularly. The simulator recorded performance data instantly and objectively. An experienced interventionalist rated the performance at the initial and final sessions using generic (out of 40) and procedure-specific (out of 30) rating scales. VSA were tested with fine motor dexterity (FMD, Perdue Pegboard), psychomotor ability (minimally invasive virtual reality surgical trainer [MIST-VR]), image recall (Rey-Osterrieth), and organizational aptitude (map-planning). VSA performance scores were correlated with the assessment parameters of endovascular skills at commencement and completion of training. Medical students exhibited statistically significant learning curves from the initial to the plateau performance for contrast usage (medians, 28 vs 17 mL, P dexterity as well as with image recall at end of the training period. In addition to current recruitment strategies, VSA may be a useful tool for predictive validity studies.

  6. Apparatus and method for modifying the operation of a robotic vehicle in a real environment, to emulate the operation of the robotic vehicle operating in a mixed reality environment

    Garretson, Justin R [Albuquerque, NM; Parker, Eric P [Albuquerque, NM; Gladwell, T Scott [Albuquerque, NM; Rigdon, J Brian [Edgewood, NM; Oppel, III, Fred J.

    2012-05-29

    Apparatus and methods for modifying the operation of a robotic vehicle in a real environment to emulate the operation of the robotic vehicle in a mixed reality environment include a vehicle sensing system having a communications module attached to the robotic vehicle for communicating operating parameters related to the robotic vehicle in a real environment to a simulation controller for simulating the operation of the robotic vehicle in a mixed (live, virtual and constructive) environment wherein the affects of virtual and constructive entities on the operation of the robotic vehicle (and vice versa) are simulated. These effects are communicated to the vehicle sensing system which generates a modified control command for the robotic vehicle including the effects of virtual and constructive entities, causing the robot in the real environment to behave as if virtual and constructive entities existed in the real environment.

  7. Proficiency of virtual reality simulator training in flexible retrograde ureteroscopy renal stone management.

    Cai, Jian-liang; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Guo-feng; Li, Ning-chen; Yuan, Xue-li; Na, Yan-qun

    2013-10-01

    Minimally invasive flexible ureteroscopy techniques have widely adopted in the management of patients with renal stones. We performed this study to investigate the value of virtual reality simulator training in retrograde flexible ureteroscopy renal stone treatment for catechumen. Thirty catechumen, included 17 attending physicians and 13 associate chief physicians, were selected for study. The trainees first underwent 1-hour basic training to get familiar with the instrument and basic procedures, then followed by 4-hour practice on virtual reality simulators. Before and after the 4-hour training, all trainees undertake an assessment with task 7 program (right low pole calyces stone management). We documented for each trainee the total time of procedure, time of progressing from the orifice to stone, stone translocation and fragmentation time, laser operate proficiency scale, total laser energy, maximal size of residual stone fragments, number of trauma from the scopes and tools, damage to the scope and global rating scale (GRS). The proficiency of this training program was analyzed by the comparison of the first and second assessment outcomes. Significant improvement was observed in retrograde flexible ureteroscopy management of renal stone on virtual reality simulators after finishing the 4 hour special-purpose training. This was demonstrated by improvement in total procedure time ((18.37±2.59) minutes vs. (38.67±1.94) minutes), progressing time from the orifice to stone ((4.00±1.08) minutes vs. (13.80±2.01) minutes), time of stone translocation ((1.80±0.71) minutes vs. (6.57±1.01) minutes), fragmentation time ((4.43±1.25) minutes vs. (13.53±1.46) minutes), laser operate proficiency scale (8.47±0.73 vs. 3.77±0.77), total laser energy ((3231.6±401.4) W vs. (5329.8±448.9) W), maximal size of residual stone fragments ((2.66±0.39) mm vs. (5.77±0.63) mm), number of trauma from the scopes and tools (3.27±1.01 vs. 10.37±3.02), damage to the scope (0 vs

  8. Auralization fundamentals of acoustics, modelling, simulation, algorithms and acoustic virtual reality

    Vorlander, Michael

    2007-01-01

    "Auralization" is the technique of creation and reproduction of sound on the basis of computer data. With this tool is it possible to predict the character of sound signals which are generated at the source and modified by reinforcement, propagation and transmission in systems such as rooms, buildings, vehicles or other technical devices. This book is organized as a comprehensive collection of the basics of sound and vibration, acoustic modelling, simulation, signal processing and audio reproduction. Implementations of the auralization technique are described using examples drawn from various fields in acoustic’s research and engineering, architecture, sound design and virtual reality.

  9. Virtual reality in urban water management: communicating urban flooding with particle-based CFD simulations.

    Winkler, Daniel; Zischg, Jonatan; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    For communicating urban flood risk to authorities and the public, a realistic three-dimensional visual display is frequently more suitable than detailed flood maps. Virtual reality could also serve to plan short-term flooding interventions. We introduce here an alternative approach for simulating three-dimensional flooding dynamics in large- and small-scale urban scenes by reaching out to computer graphics. This approach, denoted 'particle in cell', is a particle-based CFD method that is used to predict physically plausible results instead of accurate flow dynamics. We exemplify the approach for the real flooding event in July 2016 in Innsbruck.

  10. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, we have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epi-chloro-hydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F), poly-tetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to ∼3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 deg. C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using VTR measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, screening criteria of ∼1 g/hr/m 2 for VTR and specific gravity change of 10% were used. Those materials that failed to meet these criteria were judged to have failed the screening tests and were excluded from the next phase of this experimental program. We have completed the comprehensive testing phase of liner materials in a simulant Hanford Tank waste consisting of an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. From the data analyses performed, we have identified the chloro-fluorocarbon Kel-F as having the greatest chemical durability after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the aqueous alkaline simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the extremely poor performance of Teflon under these conditions. We have also completed the comprehensive

  11. Virtual Reality Compared with Bench-Top Simulation in the Acquisition of Arthroscopic Skill: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Banaszek, Daniel; You, Daniel; Chang, Justues; Pickell, Michael; Hesse, Daniel; Hopman, Wilma M; Borschneck, Daniel; Bardana, Davide

    2017-04-05

    Work-hour restrictions as set forth by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and other governing bodies have forced training programs to seek out new learning tools to accelerate acquisition of both medical skills and knowledge. As a result, competency-based training has become an important part of residency training. The purpose of this study was to directly compare arthroscopic skill acquisition in both high-fidelity and low-fidelity simulator models and to assess skill transfer from either modality to a cadaveric specimen, simulating intraoperative conditions. Forty surgical novices (pre-clerkship-level medical students) voluntarily participated in this trial. Baseline demographic data, as well as data on arthroscopic knowledge and skill, were collected prior to training. Subjects were randomized to 5-week independent training sessions on a high-fidelity virtual reality arthroscopic simulator or on a bench-top arthroscopic setup, or to an untrained control group. Post-training, subjects were asked to perform a diagnostic arthroscopy on both simulators and in a simulated intraoperative environment on a cadaveric knee. A more difficult surprise task was also incorporated to evaluate skill transfer. Subjects were evaluated using the Global Rating Scale (GRS), the 14-point arthroscopic checklist, and a timer to determine procedural efficiency (time per task). Secondary outcomes focused on objective measures of virtual reality simulator motion analysis. Trainees on both simulators demonstrated a significant improvement (p virtual reality simulation group consistently outperformed the bench-top model group in the diagnostic arthroscopy crossover tests and in the simulated cadaveric setup. Furthermore, the virtual reality group demonstrated superior skill transfer in the surprise skill transfer task. Both high-fidelity and low-fidelity simulation trainings were effective in arthroscopic skill acquisition. High-fidelity virtual reality

  12. Psychological and physiological human responses to simulated and real environments: A comparison between Photographs, 360° Panoramas, and Virtual Reality.

    Higuera-Trujillo, Juan Luis; López-Tarruella Maldonado, Juan; Llinares Millán, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    Psychological research into human factors frequently uses simulations to study the relationship between human behaviour and the environment. Their validity depends on their similarity with the physical environments. This paper aims to validate three environmental-simulation display formats: photographs, 360° panoramas, and virtual reality. To do this we compared the psychological and physiological responses evoked by simulated environments set-ups to those from a physical environment setup; we also assessed the users' sense of presence. Analysis show that 360° panoramas offer the closest to reality results according to the participants' psychological responses, and virtual reality according to the physiological responses. Correlations between the feeling of presence and physiological and other psychological responses were also observed. These results may be of interest to researchers using environmental-simulation technologies currently available in order to replicate the experience of physical environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation of the convective mixed layer in Athens

    Frank, H.P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    The region of Athens, Greece, has a highly complicated terrain with irregular coastline and mountains next to the sea. This results in complex flow fields. A case study of a simulation of a sea breeze with the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale model KAMM is presented together with remarks on the advection of mixed layer air. The valley of Athens is open to the sea towards the south-west and surrounded by mountains on the other sides. Gaps between the mountains channel the flow into the valley. Simulations were done for 14 September 1994 to compare them with measurements at 6 masts by Risoe during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE experiment. (au)

  14. A virtual reality dental simulator predicts performance in an operative dentistry manikin course.

    Imber, S; Shapira, G; Gordon, M; Judes, H; Metzger, Z

    2003-11-01

    This study was designed to test the ability of a virtual reality dental simulator to predict the performance of students in a traditional operative dentistry manikin course. Twenty-six dental students were pre-tested on the simulator, prior to the course. They were briefly instructed and asked to prepare 12 class I cavities which were automatically graded by the simulator. The instructors in the manikin course that followed were unaware of the students' performances in the simulator pre-test. The scores achieved by each student in the last six simulator cavities were compared to their final comprehensive grades in the manikin course. Class standing of the students in the simulator pre-test positively correlated with their achievements in the manikin course with a correlation coefficient of 0.49 (P = 0.012). Eighty-nine percent of the students in the lower third of the class in the pre-test remained in the low performing half of the class in the manikin course. These results indicate that testing students in a dental simulator, prior to a manikin course, may be an efficient way to allow early identification of those who are likely to perform poorly. This in turn could enable early allocation of personal tutors to these students in order to improve their chances of success.

  15. Cognitive Load in Mastoidectomy Skills Training: Virtual Reality Simulation and Traditional Dissection Compared.

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive load (CL) theoretical framework suggests that working memory is limited, which has implications for learning and skills acquisition. Complex learning situations such as surgical skills training can potentially induce a cognitive overload, inhibiting learning. This study aims to compare CL in traditional cadaveric dissection training and virtual reality (VR) simulation training of mastoidectomy. A prospective, crossover study. Participants performed cadaveric dissection before VR simulation of the procedure or vice versa. CL was estimated by secondary-task reaction time testing at baseline and during the procedure in both training modalities. The national Danish temporal bone course. A total of 40 novice otorhinolaryngology residents. Reaction time was increased by 20% in VR simulation training and 55% in cadaveric dissection training of mastoidectomy compared with baseline measurements. Traditional dissection training increased CL significantly more than VR simulation training (p < 0.001). VR simulation training imposed a lower CL than traditional cadaveric dissection training of mastoidectomy. Learning complex surgical skills can be a challenge for the novice and mastoidectomy skills training could potentially be optimized by employing VR simulation training first because of the lower CL. Traditional dissection training could then be used to supplement skills training after basic competencies have been acquired in the VR simulation. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The use of augmented reality glasses in central line simulation: "see one, simulate many, do one competently, and teach everyone"

    Huang CY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia Y Huang,1 Jonathan B Thomas,2 Abdullah Alismail,3 Avi Cohen,1 Waleed Almutairi,3 Noha S Daher,4 Michael H Terry,5 Laren D Tan1,3 1Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Hyperbaric and Sleep Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Zapara School of Business, La Sierra University, Riverside, CA, USA; 3Cardiopulmonary Sciences Department, School of Allied Health Professions, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 4Department of Allied Health Studies, School of Allied Health Professions, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 5Department of Respiratory Care, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR glasses in central line simulation by novice operators and compare its efficacy to standard central line simulation/teaching. Design: This was a prospective randomized controlled study enrolling 32 novice operators. Subjects were randomized on a 1:1 basis to either simulation using the augmented virtual reality glasses or simulation using conventional instruction. Setting: The study was conducted in tertiary-care urban teaching hospital. Subjects: A total of 32 adult novice central line operators with no visual or auditory impairments were enrolled. Medical doctors, respiratory therapists, and sleep technicians were recruited from the medical field. Measurements and main results: The mean time for AR placement in the AR group was 71±43 s, and the time to internal jugular (IJ cannulation was 316±112 s. There was no significant difference in median (minimum, maximum time (seconds to IJ cannulation for those who were in the AR group and those who were not (339 [130, 550] vs 287 [35, 475], p=0.09, respectively. There was also no significant difference between the two groups in median total procedure time (524 [329, 792] vs 469 [198, 781], p=0.29, respectively. There was a significant

  17. Outcomes of a virtual-reality simulator-training programme on basic surgical skills in robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery.

    Phé, Véronique; Cattarino, Susanna; Parra, Jérôme; Bitker, Marc-Olivier; Ambrogi, Vanina; Vaessen, Christophe; Rouprêt, Morgan

    2017-06-01

    The utility of the virtual-reality robotic simulator in training programmes has not been clearly evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a virtual-reality robotic simulator-training programme on basic surgical skills. A simulator-training programme in robotic surgery, using the da Vinci Skills Simulator, was evaluated in a population including junior and seasoned surgeons, and non-physicians. Their performances on robotic dots and suturing-skin pod platforms before and after virtual-simulation training were rated anonymously by surgeons experienced in robotics. 39 participants were enrolled: 14 medical students and residents in surgery, 14 seasoned surgeons, 11 non-physicians. Junior and seasoned surgeons' performances on platforms were not significantly improved after virtual-reality robotic simulation in any of the skill domains, in contrast to non-physicians. The benefits of virtual-reality simulator training on several tasks to basic skills in robotic surgery were not obvious among surgeons in our initial and early experience with the simulator. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The use of augmented reality glasses in central line simulation: "see one, simulate many, do one competently, and teach everyone".

    Huang, Cynthia Y; Thomas, Jonathan B; Alismail, Abdullah; Cohen, Avi; Almutairi, Waleed; Daher, Noha S; Terry, Michael H; Tan, Laren D

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) glasses in central line simulation by novice operators and compare its efficacy to standard central line simulation/teaching. This was a prospective randomized controlled study enrolling 32 novice operators. Subjects were randomized on a 1:1 basis to either simulation using the augmented virtual reality glasses or simulation using conventional instruction. The study was conducted in tertiary-care urban teaching hospital. A total of 32 adult novice central line operators with no visual or auditory impairments were enrolled. Medical doctors, respiratory therapists, and sleep technicians were recruited from the medical field. The mean time for AR placement in the AR group was 71±43 s, and the time to internal jugular (IJ) cannulation was 316±112 s. There was no significant difference in median (minimum, maximum) time (seconds) to IJ cannulation for those who were in the AR group and those who were not (339 [130, 550] vs 287 [35, 475], p =0.09), respectively. There was also no significant difference between the two groups in median total procedure time (524 [329, 792] vs 469 [198, 781], p =0.29), respectively. There was a significant difference in the adherence level between the two groups favoring the AR group ( p =0.003). AR simulation of central venous catheters in manikins is feasible and efficacious in novice operators as an educational tool. Future studies are recommended in this area as it is a promising area of medical education.

  19. An "intermediate curriculum" for advanced laparoscopic skills training with virtual reality simulation.

    Schreuder, Henk W R; van Hove, P Diederick; Janse, Juliënne A; Verheijen, Rene R M; Stassen, Laurents P S; Dankelman, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    To estimate face and construct validity for a novel curriculum designed for intermediately skilled laparoscopic surgeons on a virtual reality simulator. It consists of 5 exercises that focus on training precision and coordination between both hands. Prospective study (Canadian Task Force II-2). Three university hospitals and 4 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Residents, consultants, and laparoscopic experts (n = 69) in the fields of general surgery, gynecology, and urology participated. Participants were divided into 4 groups on the basis of their level of laparoscopic experience: resident, years 1-3 (n = 15); resident, years 4-6 (n = 17); consultant (n = 19); and laparoscopic experts (n = 18). Participants completed 3 runs of 5 exercises. The first run was an introduction, and the second and third runs were used for analysis. The parameters time, path length, collisions, and displacement were compared between groups. Afterward the participants completed a questionnaire to evaluate their laparoscopic experience and identify issues concerning the simulator and exercises. The expert group was significantly faster (p virtual reality curriculum for intermediately skilled laparoscopic surgeons. The results indicate that the curriculum is suitable for training of residents and consultants and to assess and maintain their laparoscopic skills. Copyright © 2011 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtual reality simulators: current status in acquisition and assessment of surgical skills.

    Cosman, Peter H; Cregan, Patrick C; Martin, Christopher J; Cartmill, John A

    2002-01-01

    Medical technology is currently evolving so rapidly that its impact cannot be analysed. Robotics and telesurgery loom on the horizon, and the technology used to drive these advances has serendipitous side-effects for the education and training arena. The graphical and haptic interfaces used to provide remote feedback to the operator--by passing control to a computer--may be used to generate simulations of the operative environment that are useful for training candidates in surgical procedures. One additional advantage is that the metrics calculated inherently in the controlling software in order to run the simulation may be used to provide performance feedback to individual trainees and mentors. New interfaces will be required to undergo evaluation of the simulation fidelity before being deemed acceptable. The potential benefits fall into one of two general categories: those benefits related to skill acquisition, and those related to skill assessment. The educational value of the simulation will require assessment, and comparison to currently available methods of training in any given procedure. It is also necessary to determine--by repeated trials--whether a given simulation actually measures the performance parameters it purports to measure. This trains the spotlight on what constitutes good surgical skill, and how it is to be objectively measured. Early results suggest that virtual reality simulators have an important role to play in this aspect of surgical training.

  1. Virtual reality simulation for the optimization of endovascular procedures: current perspectives.

    Rudarakanchana, Nung; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; Desender, Liesbeth; Cheshire, Nicholas J W

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular technologies are rapidly evolving, often requiring coordination and cooperation between clinicians and technicians from diverse specialties. These multidisciplinary interactions lead to challenges that are reflected in the high rate of errors occurring during endovascular procedures. Endovascular virtual reality (VR) simulation has evolved from simple benchtop devices to full physic simulators with advanced haptics and dynamic imaging and physiological controls. The latest developments in this field include the use of fully immersive simulated hybrid angiosuites to train whole endovascular teams in crisis resource management and novel technologies that enable practitioners to build VR simulations based on patient-specific anatomy. As our understanding of the skills, both technical and nontechnical, required for optimal endovascular performance improves, the requisite tools for objective assessment of these skills are being developed and will further enable the use of VR simulation in the training and assessment of endovascular interventionalists and their entire teams. Simulation training that allows deliberate practice without danger to patients may be key to bridging the gap between new endovascular technology and improved patient outcomes.

  2. Mixed-reality exercise effects on participation of individuals with spinal cord injuries and developmental disabilities: a pilot study.

    Heyn, Patricia C; Baumgardner, Chad A; McLachlan, Leslie; Bodine, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effectiveness of a mixed-reality (MR) exercise environment on engagement and enjoyment levels of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Six people participated in this cross-sectional, observational pilot study involving one MR exercise trial. The augmented reality environment was based on a first-person perspective video of a scenic biking/walking trail in Colorado. Males and females (mean age, 43.3 ± 13.7 years) were recruited from a research database for their participation in previous clinical studies. Of the 6 participants, 2 had SCI, 2 had IDD, and 2 were without disability. The primary outcome measurement of this pilot study was the self-reported engagement and enjoyment level of each participant after the exercise trial. All participants reported increased levels of engagement, enjoyment, and immersion involving the MR exercise environment as well as positive feedback recommending this type of exercise approach to peers with similar disabilities. All the participants reported higher than normal levels of enjoyment and 66.7% reported higher than normal levels of being on a real trail. Participants' feedback suggested that the MR environment could be entertaining, motivating, and engaging for users with disabilities, resulting in a foundation for further development of this technology for use in individuals with cognitive and physical disabilities.

  3. Impact of virtual reality simulation on learning barriers of phacoemulsification perceived by residents

    Ng DS

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Danny Siu-Chun Ng,1 Zihan Sun,1 Alvin Lerrmann Young,1,2 Simon Tak-Chuen Ko,3 Jerry Ka-Hing Lok,1 Timothy Yuk-Yau Lai,1 Shameema Sikder,4 Clement C Tham1 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Prince of Wales Hospital, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Tung Wah Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Objective: To identify residents’ perceived barriers to learning phacoemulsification surgical procedures and to evaluate whether virtual reality simulation training changed these perceptions. Design: The ophthalmology residents undertook a simulation phacoemulsification course and proficiency assessment on the Eyesi system using the previously validated training modules of intracapsular navigation, anti-tremor, capsulorrhexis, and cracking/chopping. A cross-sectional, multicenter survey on the perceived difficulties in performing phacoemulsification tasks on patients, based on the validated International Council of Ophthalmology’s Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric (ICO-OSCAR, using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = least and 5 = most difficulty, was conducted among residents with or without prior simulation training. Mann–Whitney U tests were carried out to compare the mean scores, and multivariate regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of lower scores with the following potential predictors: 1 higher level trainee, 2 can complete phacoemulsification most of the time (>90% without supervisor’s intervention, and 3 prior simulation training. Setting: The study was conducted in ophthalmology residency training programs in five regional hospitals in Hong Kong. Results: Of the 22 residents, 19 responded (86.3%, of which 13 (68.4% had completed simulation training. Nucleus cracking/chopping was ranked highest in difficulty by all respondents followed by

  4. Miniaturized 3 × 3 array film vibrotactile actuator made with cellulose acetate for virtual reality simulators

    Ko, Hyun-U; Chan Kim, Hyun; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Sang-Youn

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an array vibrotactile actuator which is suitable for fitting into virtual reality simulators. A 3 × 3 array actuator, of size 15 × 15 × 1 mm 3 , consists of nine cantilever structured cells of which the pillars are supported and made with cellulose acetate by a molding technique. The fabrication process and performance test along with results for the suggested vibrotactile actuator are explained. To simulate the touch force, the top mass is added on the actuator and the actuator performance is measured under actuation. When 2000 V p–p voltage is applied to the actuator, the averaged maximum acceleration for all cells is 0.44 ± 0.19 g, which is above the vibrotactile threshold. The actuation mechanism is associated with the electrostatic force between top and bottom electrodes. (paper)

  5. Comparison between three different traffic micro-simulations and reality in Dallas

    Nagel, K.; Pieck, M.; Simon, P.M.; Rickert, M.

    1998-06-18

    It is certainly desirable that transportation forecasting models are correct in the sense that the traffic patterns they predict correspond to what would happen in reality under the circumstances assumed in the forecasting model. Unfortunately, it is notoriously difficult to transform the above common sense statement into a technical specification. Since one cannot run controlled experiments in socio-economic systems, it is usually impossible to check the forecasts. The authors describe three traffic microsimulations which operate at different levels of fidelity. They are used to iteratively generate a self-consistent route-set based upon microsimulation feedback. They compare the simulation results of all three simulations to aggregated turn count data of actual field measurements.

  6. GyroVR: Simulating Inertia in Virtual Reality using Head Worn Flywheels

    Gugenheimer, Jan; Wolf, Dennis; Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar

    2016-01-01

    We present GyroVR, head worn flywheels designed to render inertia in Virtual Reality (VR. Motions such as flying, diving or floating in outer space generate kinesthetic forces onto our body which impede movement and are currently not represented in VR. We simulate those kinesthetic forces...... by attaching flywheels to the users head, leveraging the gyroscopic effect of resistance when changing the spinning axis of rotation. GyroVR is an ungrounded, wireless and self contained device allowing the user to freely move inside the virtual environment. The generic shape allows to attach it to different...... positions on the users body. We evaluated the impact of GyroVR onto different mounting positions on the head (back and front) in terms of immersion, enjoyment and simulator sickness. Our results show, that attaching GyroVR onto the users head (front of the Head Mounted Display (HMD)) resulted in the highest...

  7. Possible applications of the LEAP motion controller for more interactive simulated experiments in augmented or virtual reality

    Wozniak, Peter; Vauderwange, Oliver; Mandal, Avikarsha; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Curticapean, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Practical exercises are a crucial part of many curricula. Even simple exercises can improve the understanding of the underlying subject. Most experimental setups require special hardware. To carry out e. g. a lens experiments the students need access to an optical bench, various lenses, light sources, apertures and a screen. In our previous publication we demonstrated the use of augmented reality visualization techniques in order to let the students prepare with a simulated experimental setup. Within the context of our intended blended learning concept we want to utilize augmented or virtual reality techniques for stationary laboratory exercises. Unlike applications running on mobile devices, stationary setups can be extended more easily with additional interfaces and thus allow for more complex interactions and simulations in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). The most significant difference is the possibility to allow interactions beyond touching a screen. The LEAP Motion controller is a small inexpensive device that allows for the tracking of the user's hands and fingers in three dimensions. It is conceivable to allow the user to interact with the simulation's virtual elements by the user's very hand position, movement and gesture. In this paper we evaluate possible applications of the LEAP Motion controller for simulated experiments in augmented and virtual reality. We pay particular attention to the devices strengths and weaknesses and want to point out useful and less useful application scenarios.

  8. Proficiency performance benchmarks for removal of simulated brain tumors using a virtual reality simulator NeuroTouch.

    AlZhrani, Gmaan; Alotaibi, Fahad; Azarnoush, Hamed; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman; Bajunaid, Khalid; Lajoie, Susanne P; Del Maestro, Rolando F

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of neurosurgical technical skills involved in the resection of cerebral tumors in operative environments is complex. Educators emphasize the need to develop and use objective and meaningful assessment tools that are reliable and valid for assessing trainees' progress in acquiring surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to develop proficiency performance benchmarks for a newly proposed set of objective measures (metrics) of neurosurgical technical skills performance during simulated brain tumor resection using a new virtual reality simulator (NeuroTouch). Each participant performed the resection of 18 simulated brain tumors of different complexity using the NeuroTouch platform. Surgical performance was computed using Tier 1 and Tier 2 metrics derived from NeuroTouch simulator data consisting of (1) safety metrics, including (a) volume of surrounding simulated normal brain tissue removed, (b) sum of forces utilized, and (c) maximum force applied during tumor resection; (2) quality of operation metric, which involved the percentage of tumor removed; and (3) efficiency metrics, including (a) instrument total tip path lengths and (b) frequency of pedal activation. All studies were conducted in the Neurosurgical Simulation Research Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. A total of 33 participants were recruited, including 17 experts (board-certified neurosurgeons) and 16 novices (7 senior and 9 junior neurosurgery residents). The results demonstrated that "expert" neurosurgeons resected less surrounding simulated normal brain tissue and less tumor tissue than residents. These data are consistent with the concept that "experts" focused more on safety of the surgical procedure compared with novices. By analyzing experts' neurosurgical technical skills performance on these different metrics, we were able to establish benchmarks for goal proficiency performance training of neurosurgery residents. This

  9. A Comparison of Robotic Simulation Performance on Basic Virtual Reality Skills: Simulator Subjective Versus Objective Assessment Tools.

    Dubin, Ariel K; Smith, Roger; Julian, Danielle; Tanaka, Alyssa; Mattingly, Patricia

    To answer the question of whether there is a difference between robotic virtual reality simulator performance assessment and validated human reviewers. Current surgical education relies heavily on simulation. Several assessment tools are available to the trainee, including the actual robotic simulator assessment metrics and the Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS) metrics, both of which have been independently validated. GEARS is a rating scale through which human evaluators can score trainees' performances on 6 domains: depth perception, bimanual dexterity, efficiency, force sensitivity, autonomy, and robotic control. Each domain is scored on a 5-point Likert scale with anchors. We used 2 common robotic simulators, the dV-Trainer (dVT; Mimic Technologies Inc., Seattle, WA) and the da Vinci Skills Simulator (dVSS; Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA), to compare the performance metrics of robotic surgical simulators with the GEARS for a basic robotic task on each simulator. A prospective single-blinded randomized study. A surgical education and training center. Surgeons and surgeons in training. Demographic information was collected including sex, age, level of training, specialty, and previous surgical and simulator experience. Subjects performed 2 trials of ring and rail 1 (RR1) on each of the 2 simulators (dVSS and dVT) after undergoing randomization and warm-up exercises. The second RR1 trial simulator performance was recorded, and the deidentified videos were sent to human reviewers using GEARS. Eight different simulator assessment metrics were identified and paired with a similar performance metric in the GEARS tool. The GEARS evaluation scores and simulator assessment scores were paired and a Spearman rho calculated for their level of correlation. Seventy-four subjects were enrolled in this randomized study with 9 subjects excluded for missing or incomplete data. There was a strong correlation between the GEARS score and the simulator metric

  10. Extending the features of RBMK refuelling machine simulator with a training tool based on virtual reality

    Khoudiakov, M.; Slonimsky, V.; Mitrofanov, S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a continuation of efforts of an international Russian - Norwegian joint team to improve operational safety during the refuelling process of an RBMK-type reactor by implementing a training simulator based on an innovative Virtual Reality (VR) approach. During the preceding 1st stage of the project a display-based simulator was extended with VR models of the real Refuelling Machine (RM) and its environment in order to improve both the learning process and operation's effectiveness. The simulator's challenge is to support the performance (operational activity) of RM operational staff firstly by helping them to develop basic knowledge and skills as well as to keep skilled staff in close touch with the complex machinery of the Refuelling Machine. During the 2nd stage of the joint project the functional scope of the VR-simulator was greatly enhanced - firstly, by connecting to the RBMK-unit full-scope simulator, and, secondly, by including a training program and simulator model upgrade. The present 3rd stage of the Project is primarily oriented towards the improvement of the training process for maintenance and operational personnel by means of a development of the Training Support Methodology and Courses (TSMC) to be based on Virtual Reality and enlarged functionality of 3D and process modelling. The TMSC development is based on Russian and International Regulatory Bodies requirements and recommendations. Design, development and creation of a specialised VR-based Training System for RM Maintenance Personnel are very important for the Russian RBMK plants. The main goal is to create a powerful, autonomous VR-based simulator for training technical maintenance personnel on the Refuelling Machine. VR based training is expected to improve the effect of training compared to the current training based on traditional methods using printed documentation. The LNPP management and the Regulatory Bodies supported this goal. The VR-based Training System should

  11. The effect of distributed virtual reality simulation training on cognitive load during subsequent dissection training.

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Konge, Lars; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2018-05-07

    Complex tasks such as surgical procedures can induce excessive cognitive load (CL), which can have a negative effect on learning, especially for novices. To investigate if repeated and distributed virtual reality (VR) simulation practice induces a lower CL and higher performance in subsequent cadaveric dissection training. In a prospective, controlled cohort study, 37 residents in otorhinolaryngology received VR simulation training either as additional distributed practice prior to course participation (intervention) (9 participants) or as standard practice during the course (control) (28 participants). Cognitive load was estimated as the relative change in secondary-task reaction time during VR simulation and cadaveric procedures. Structured distributed VR simulation practice resulted in lower mean reaction times (32% vs. 47% for the intervention and control group, respectively, p training. Repeated and distributed VR simulation causes a lower CL to be induced when the learning situation is increased in complexity. A suggested mechanism is the formation of mental schemas and reduction of the intrinsic CL. This has potential implications for surgical skills training and suggests that structured, distributed training be systematically implemented in surgical training curricula.

  12. Face, content and construct validity of a virtual reality simulator for robotic surgery (SEP Robot).

    Gavazzi, Andrea; Bahsoun, Ali N; Van Haute, Wim; Ahmed, Kamran; Elhage, Oussama; Jaye, Peter; Khan, M Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2011-03-01

    This study aims to establish face, content and construct validation of the SEP Robot (SimSurgery, Oslo, Norway) in order to determine its value as a training tool. The tasks used in the validation of this simulator were arrow manipulation and performing a surgeon's knot. Thirty participants (18 novices, 12 experts) completed the procedures. The simulator was able to differentiate between experts and novices in several respects. The novice group required more time to complete the tasks than the expert group, especially suturing. During the surgeon's knot exercise, experts significantly outperformed novices in maximum tightening stretch, instruments dropped, maximum winding stretch and tool collisions in addition to total task time. A trend was found towards the use of less force by the more experienced participants. The SEP robotic simulator has demonstrated face, content and construct validity as a virtual reality simulator for robotic surgery. With steady increase in adoption of robotic surgery world-wide, this simulator may prove to be a valuable adjunct to clinical mentorship.

  13. Design and evaluation of an augmented reality simulator using leap motion.

    Wright, Trinette; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2017-10-01

    Advances in virtual and augmented reality (AR) are having an impact on the medical field in areas such as surgical simulation. Improvements to surgical simulation will provide students and residents with additional training and evaluation methods. This is particularly important for procedures such as the endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), which residents perform regularly. Simulators such as NeuroTouch, have been designed to aid in training associated with this procedure. The authors have designed an affordable and easily accessible ETV simulator, and compare it with the existing NeuroTouch for its usability and training effectiveness. This simulator was developed using Unity, Vuforia and the leap motion (LM) for an AR environment. The participants, 16 novices and two expert neurosurgeons, were asked to complete 40 targeting tasks. Participants used the NeuroTouch tool or a virtual hand controlled by the LM to select the position and orientation for these tasks. The length of time to complete each task was recorded and the trajectory log files were used to calculate performance. The resulting data from the novices' and experts' speed and accuracy are compared, and they discuss the objective performance of training in terms of the speed and accuracy of targeting accuracy for each system.

  14. A teleoperation training simulator with visual and kinesthetic force virtual reality

    Kim, Won S.; Schenker, Paul

    1992-01-01

    A force-reflecting teleoperation training simulator with a high-fidelity real-time graphics display has been developed for operator training. A novel feature of this simulator is that it enables the operator to feel contact forces and torques through a force-reflecting controller during the execution of the simulated peg-in-hole task, providing the operator with the feel of visual and kinesthetic force virtual reality. A peg-in-hole task is used in our simulated teleoperation trainer as a generic teleoperation task. A quasi-static analysis of a two-dimensional peg-in-hole task model has been extended to a three-dimensional model analysis to compute contact forces and torques for a virtual realization of kinesthetic force feedback. The simulator allows the user to specify force reflection gains and stiffness (compliance) values of the manipulator hand for both the three translational and the three rotational axes in Cartesian space. Three viewing modes are provided for graphics display: single view, two split views, and stereoscopic view.

  15. Affordances and Limitations of Immersive Participatory Augmented Reality Simulations for Teaching and Learning

    Dunleavy, Matt; Dede, Chris; Mitchell, Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to document how teachers and students describe and comprehend the ways in which participating in an augmented reality (AR) simulation aids or hinders teaching and learning. Like the multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) interface that underlies Internet games, AR is a good medium for immersive collaborative simulation, but has different strengths and limitations than MUVEs. Within a design-based research project, the researchers conducted multiple qualitative case studies across two middle schools (6th and 7th grade) and one high school (10th grade) in the northeastern United States to document the affordances and limitations of AR simulations from the student and teacher perspective. The researchers collected data through formal and informal interviews, direct observations, web site posts, and site documents. Teachers and students reported that the technology-mediated narrative and the interactive, situated, collaborative problem solving affordances of the AR simulation were highly engaging, especially among students who had previously presented behavioral and academic challenges for the teachers. However, while the AR simulation provided potentially transformative added value, it simultaneously presented unique technological, managerial, and cognitive challenges to teaching and learning.

  16. The effect of degree of immersion upon learning performance in virtual reality simulations for medical education.

    Gutiérrez, Fátima; Pierce, Jennifer; Vergara, Víctor M; Coulter, Robert; Saland, Linda; Caudell, Thomas P; Goldsmith, Timothy E; Alverson, Dale C

    2007-01-01

    Simulations are being used in education and training to enhance understanding, improve performance, and assess competence. However, it is important to measure the performance of these simulations as learning and training tools. This study examined and compared knowledge acquisition using a knowledge structure design. The subjects were first-year medical students at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine. One group used a fully immersed virtual reality (VR) environment using a head mounted display (HMD) and another group used a partially immersed (computer screen) VR environment. The study aims were to determine whether there were significant differences between the two groups as measured by changes in knowledge structure before and after the VR simulation experience. The results showed that both groups benefited from the VR simulation training as measured by the significant increased similarity to the expert knowledge network after the training experience. However, the immersed group showed a significantly higher gain than the partially immersed group. This study demonstrated a positive effect of VR simulation on learning as reflected by improvements in knowledge structure but an enhanced effect of full-immersion using a HMD vs. a screen-based VR system.

  17. The German VR Simulation Realism Scale--psychometric construction for virtual reality applications with virtual humans.

    Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Virtual training applications with high levels of immersion or fidelity (for example for social phobia treatment) produce high levels of presence and therefore belong to the most successful Virtual Reality developments. Whereas display and interaction fidelity (as sub-dimensions of immersion) and their influence on presence are well researched, realism of the displayed simulation depends on the specific application and is therefore difficult to measure. We propose to measure simulation realism by using a self-report questionnaire. The German VR Simulation Realism Scale for VR training applications was developed based on a translation of scene realism items from the Witmer-Singer-Presence Questionnaire. Items for realism of virtual humans (for example for social phobia training applications) were supplemented. A sample of N = 151 students rated simulation realism of a Fear of Public Speaking application. Four factors were derived by item- and principle component analysis (Varimax rotation), representing Scene Realism, Audience Behavior, Audience Appearance and Sound Realism. The scale developed can be used as a starting point for future research and measurement of simulation realism for applications including virtual humans.

  18. Design and evaluation of an augmented reality simulator using leap motion

    de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Advances in virtual and augmented reality (AR) are having an impact on the medical field in areas such as surgical simulation. Improvements to surgical simulation will provide students and residents with additional training and evaluation methods. This is particularly important for procedures such as the endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), which residents perform regularly. Simulators such as NeuroTouch, have been designed to aid in training associated with this procedure. The authors have designed an affordable and easily accessible ETV simulator, and compare it with the existing NeuroTouch for its usability and training effectiveness. This simulator was developed using Unity, Vuforia and the leap motion (LM) for an AR environment. The participants, 16 novices and two expert neurosurgeons, were asked to complete 40 targeting tasks. Participants used the NeuroTouch tool or a virtual hand controlled by the LM to select the position and orientation for these tasks. The length of time to complete each task was recorded and the trajectory log files were used to calculate performance. The resulting data from the novices' and experts' speed and accuracy are compared, and they discuss the objective performance of training in terms of the speed and accuracy of targeting accuracy for each system. PMID:29184667

  19. Virtual Reality for Artificial Intelligence: human-centered simulation for social science.

    Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    There is a long last tradition in Artificial Intelligence as use of Robots endowing human peculiarities, from a cognitive and emotional point of view, and not only in shape. Today Artificial Intelligence is more oriented to several form of collective intelligence, also building robot simulators (hardware or software) to deeply understand collective behaviors in human beings and society as a whole. Modeling has also been crucial in the social sciences, to understand how complex systems can arise from simple rules. However, while engineers' simulations can be performed in the physical world using robots, for social scientist this is impossible. For decades, researchers tried to improve simulations by endowing artificial agents with simple and complex rules that emulated human behavior also by using artificial intelligence (AI). To include human beings and their real intelligence within artificial societies is now the big challenge. We present an hybrid (human-artificial) platform where experiments can be performed by simulated artificial worlds in the following manner: 1) agents' behaviors are regulated by the behaviors shown in Virtual Reality involving real human beings exposed to specific situations to simulate, and 2) technology transfers these rules into the artificial world. These form a closed-loop of real behaviors inserted into artificial agents, which can be used to study real society.

  20. Case-mix reimbursement for nursing home services: Simulation approach

    Adams, E. Kathleen; Schlenker, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    Nursing home reimbursement based on case mix is a matter of growing interest. Several States either use or are considering this reimbursement method. In this article, we present a method for evaluating key outcomes of such a change for Connecticut nursing homes. A simulation model is used to replicate payments under the case-mix systems used in Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia. The findings indicate that, compared with the system presently used in Connecticut, these systems would better relate dollar payments to measure patient need, and for-profit homes would benefit relative to nonprofit homes. The Ohio methodology would impose the most additional costs, the West Virginia system would actually be somewhat less expensive in terms of direct patient care payments. PMID:10311776

  1. Case-mix reimbursement for nursing home services: simulation approach.

    Adams, E K; Schlenker, R E

    1986-01-01

    Nursing home reimbursement based on case mix is a matter of growing interest. Several States either use or are considering this reimbursement method. In this article, we present a method for evaluating key outcomes of such a change for Connecticut nursing homes. A simulation model is used to replicate payments under the case-mix systems used in Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia. The findings indicate that, compared with the system presently used in Connecticut, these systems would better relate dollar payments to measure patient need, and for-profit homes would benefit relative to nonprofit homes. The Ohio methodology would impose the most additional costs, the West Virginia system would actually be somewhat less expensive in terms of direct patient care payments.

  2. Social Network Mixing Patterns In Mergers & Acquisitions - A Simulation Experiment

    Robert Fabac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world of global business and continuously growing competition, organizations tend to use mergers and acquisitions to enforce their position on the market. The future organization’s design is a critical success factor in such undertakings. The field of social network analysis can enhance our uderstanding of these processes as it lets us reason about the development of networks, regardless of their origin. The analysis of mixing patterns is particularly useful as it provides an insight into how nodes in a network connect with each other. We hypothesize that organizational networks with compatible mixing patterns will be integrated more successfully. After conducting a simulation experiment, we suggest an integration model based on the analysis of network assortativity. The model can be a guideline for organizational integration, such as occurs in mergers and acquisitions.

  3. Impact of virtual reality simulation on learning barriers of phacoemulsification perceived by residents.

    Ng, Danny Siu-Chun; Sun, Zihan; Young, Alvin Lerrmann; Ko, Simon Tak-Chuen; Lok, Jerry Ka-Hing; Lai, Timothy Yuk-Yau; Sikder, Shameema; Tham, Clement C

    2018-01-01

    To identify residents' perceived barriers to learning phacoemulsification surgical procedures and to evaluate whether virtual reality simulation training changed these perceptions. The ophthalmology residents undertook a simulation phacoemulsification course and proficiency assessment on the Eyesi system using the previously validated training modules of intracapsular navigation, anti-tremor, capsulorrhexis, and cracking/chopping. A cross-sectional, multicenter survey on the perceived difficulties in performing phacoemulsification tasks on patients, based on the validated International Council of Ophthalmology's Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric (ICO-OSCAR), using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = least and 5 = most difficulty), was conducted among residents with or without prior simulation training. Mann-Whitney U tests were carried out to compare the mean scores, and multivariate regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of lower scores with the following potential predictors: 1) higher level trainee, 2) can complete phacoemulsification most of the time (>90%) without supervisor's intervention, and 3) prior simulation training. The study was conducted in ophthalmology residency training programs in five regional hospitals in Hong Kong. Of the 22 residents, 19 responded (86.3%), of which 13 (68.4%) had completed simulation training. Nucleus cracking/chopping was ranked highest in difficulty by all respondents followed by capsulorrhexis completion and nucleus rotation/manipulation. Respondents with prior simulation training had significantly lower difficulty scores on these three tasks (nucleus cracking/chopping 3.85 vs 4.75, P = 0.03; capsulorrhexis completion 3.31 vs 4.40, P = 0.02; and nucleus rotation/manipulation 3.00 vs 4.75, P = 0.01). In multivariate analyses, simulation training was significantly associated with lower difficulty scores on these three tasks. Residents who had completed Eyesi simulation training had higher

  4. Full scope simulator of a nuclear power plant control room using 3D stereo virtual reality techniques for operators training

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Almeida, Adino Americo A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Varela, Thiago F.B.

    2007-01-01

    Practical training of nuclear power plants operators are partially performed by means of simulators. Usually these simulators are physical copies of the original control roam, needing a large space on a facility being also very expensive. In this way, the proposal of this paper is to implement the use of Virtual Reality techniques to design a full scope control room simulator, in a manner to reduce costs and physical space usage. (author)

  5. Empirical evidence, evaluation criteria and challenges for the effectiveness of virtual and mixed reality tools for training operators of car service maintenance

    Borsci, Simone; Lawson, Glyn; Broome, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The debate on effectiveness of virtual and mixed reality (VR/MR) tools for training professionals and operators is long-running with prominent contributions arguing that there are several shortfalls of experimental approaches and assessment criteria reported within the literature. In the automotive

  6. O-Tu-Kapua ('What Clouds See'): A Mixed Reality Experience Bridging Art, Science and Technology in Meaningful Ways

    Jowsey, Susan; Aguayo, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Mixed Reality learning environments can provide opportunities to educationally enhance previously isolated scientific concepts by using art and technology as mediums for understanding the world. Participatory experiences provide a kinetic means of comprehending often-abstract knowledge, creating the conditions for sensory learning that is…

  7. Waving real hand gestures recorded by wearable motion sensors to a virtual car and driver in a mixed-reality parking game

    Bannach, D.; Amft, O.D.; Kunze, K.S.; Heinz, E.A.; Tröster, G.; Lukowicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    We envision to add context awareness and ambient intelligence to edutainment and computer gaming applications in general. This requires mixed-reality setups and ever-higher levels of immersive human-computer interaction. Here, we focus on the automatic recognition of natural human hand gestures

  8. Compatibility of packaging components with simulant mixed waste

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations in the US have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified by the US Department of Transportation (US DOT, 49 CFR 173) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 10 CFR 71). Based on these national requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program provides a basis to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. In this paper, the authors present the results of the second phase of this testing program. The first phase screened five liner materials and six seal materials towards four simulant mixed wastes. This phase involved the comprehensive testing of five candidate liner materials to an aqueous Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The comprehensive testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials a matrix of four gamma radiation doses (∼ 1, 3, 6, and 40 kGy), three temperatures (18, 50, and 60 C), and four exposure times (7, 14, 28, and 180 days). Following their exposure to these combinations of conditions, the materials were evaluated by measuring five material properties. These properties were specific gravity, dimensional changes, hardness, stress cracking, and mechanical properties

  9. [Subjective sensations indicating simulator sickness and fatigue after exposure to virtual reality].

    Malińska, Marzena; Zuzewicz, Krystyna; Bugajska, Joanna; Grabowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the incidence and intensity of subjective symptoms indicating simulator sickness among the persons with no inclination to motion sickness, immersed in virtual reality (VR) by watching an hour long movie in the stereoscopic (three-dimensional - 3D) and non-stereoscopic (two-dimensional - 2D) versions and after an hour long training using virtual reality, called sVR. The sample comprised 20 healthy young men with no inclination to motion sickness. The participants' subjective sensations, indicating symptoms of simulator sickness were assessed using the questionnaire completed by the participants immediately, 20 min and 24 h following the test. Grandjean's scale was used to assess fatigue and mood. The symptoms were observed immediately after the exposure to sVR. Their intensity was higher than after watching the 2D and 3D movies. A significant relationship was found between the eye pain and the type of exposure (2D, 3D and sVR) (Chi2)(2) = 6.225, p < or = 0.05); the relationship between excessive perspiration and the exposure to 31) movie and sVR was also noted (Chi2(1) = 9.173, p < or = 0.01). Some symptoms were still observed 20 min after exposure to sVR. The comparison of Grandjean's scale results before and after the training in sVR handing showed significant differences in 11 out of 14 subscales. Before and after exposure to 3D movie, the differences were significant only for the "tired-fatigued" subscale (Z = 2.501, p < or = 0.012) in favor of "fatigued". Based on the subjective sensation of discomfort after watching 2D and 3D movies it is impossible to predict symptoms of simulator sickness after training using sVR.

  10. Virtual reality interactive simulator for training health care professionals in the use of ionising radiations

    Carvalho, Jaime B. de; Silveira, Jefferson Lima da, E-mail: jaimecarvalho4318@hotmail.com [Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mól, Antônio Carlos de Abreu; Legey, Ana Paula; Santo, André Cotelli E.; Marins, Eugenio; Nascimento, Ana Cristina de Holanda; Suita, Júlio Cezar [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine requires a rigorous attention to procedures in order to minimize the risks to the health care professional and to the patient. Risk minimization involves the training of the professional and the adequacy of the facilities. Virtual Reality (VR) is an already consolidated tool for training procedures, including those of the health sciences. In this context, an interactive VR simulator representing a radiotherapy room (bunker) for training health care professionals and the inspectors of such facilities was developed. This VR model allows the user to perform the normal activities on the operation and the inspection procedures of the facility. The model was based on the blueprints of a real radiotherapy clinic. The virtual model of the radiotherapy bunker, developed at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering, was presented to experts of the General Coordination of Medical and Industrial Facilities of CNEN and is in the process of receiving small modifications to the specific needs for its adequateness, as a training tool, in a training course, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for inspectors of radiotherapy installations. This work shows the possibility of using Virtual Reality in the development of training tools for professionals working in radioactive installations. (author)

  11. Virtual reality interactive simulator for training health care professionals in the use of ionising radiations

    Carvalho, Jaime B. de; Silveira, Jefferson Lima da; Mól, Antônio Carlos de Abreu; Legey, Ana Paula; Santo, André Cotelli E.; Marins, Eugenio; Nascimento, Ana Cristina de Holanda; Suita, Júlio Cezar

    2017-01-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine requires a rigorous attention to procedures in order to minimize the risks to the health care professional and to the patient. Risk minimization involves the training of the professional and the adequacy of the facilities. Virtual Reality (VR) is an already consolidated tool for training procedures, including those of the health sciences. In this context, an interactive VR simulator representing a radiotherapy room (bunker) for training health care professionals and the inspectors of such facilities was developed. This VR model allows the user to perform the normal activities on the operation and the inspection procedures of the facility. The model was based on the blueprints of a real radiotherapy clinic. The virtual model of the radiotherapy bunker, developed at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering, was presented to experts of the General Coordination of Medical and Industrial Facilities of CNEN and is in the process of receiving small modifications to the specific needs for its adequateness, as a training tool, in a training course, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for inspectors of radiotherapy installations. This work shows the possibility of using Virtual Reality in the development of training tools for professionals working in radioactive installations. (author)

  12. Numerical simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing layers

    Poujade, O.; Lardjane, N.; Peybernes, M.; Boulet, M.

    2009-01-01

    Accelerations in actual Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are often variable. This article focuses on a particular class of variable accelerations where g(t) ∝ t n . A reference database is built from high resolution hydrodynamic numerical simulations. The successful comparison with a simple OD analytical model and the statistical 2SFK (2-Structure, 2-Fluid, 2-Turbulence) turbulence model is provided. Moreover, we show the difference between the mechanism at play in the Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing zone and Kolmogorov's in the self similar developed turbulent regime. (authors)

  13. Integrated visualization of simulation results and experimental devices in virtual-reality space

    Ohtani, Hiroaki; Ishiguro, Seiji; Shohji, Mamoru; Kageyama, Akira; Tamura, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    We succeeded in integrating the visualization of both simulation results and experimental device data in virtual-reality (VR) space using CAVE system. Simulation results are shown using Virtual LHD software, which can show magnetic field line, particle trajectory, and isosurface of plasma pressure of the Large Helical Device (LHD) based on data from the magnetohydrodynamics equilibrium simulation. A three-dimensional mouse, or wand, determines the initial position and pitch angle of a drift particle or the starting point of a magnetic field line, interactively in the VR space. The trajectory of a particle and the stream-line of magnetic field are calculated using the Runge-Kutta-Huta integration method on the basis of the results obtained after pointing the initial condition. The LHD vessel is objectively visualized based on CAD-data. By using these results and data, the simulated LHD plasma can be interactively drawn in the objective description of the LHD experimental vessel. Through this integrated visualization, it is possible to grasp the three-dimensional relationship of the positions between the device and plasma in the VR space, opening a new path in contribution to future research. (author)

  14. Assessment of skills using a virtual reality temporal bone surgery simulator.

    Linke, R; Leichtle, A; Sheikh, F; Schmidt, C; Frenzel, H; Graefe, H; Wollenberg, B; Meyer, J E

    2013-08-01

    Surgery on the temporal bone is technically challenging due to its complex anatomy. Precise anatomical dissection of the human temporal bone is essential and is fundamental for middle ear surgery. We assessed the possible application of a virtual reality temporal bone surgery simulator to the education of ear surgeons. Seventeen ENT physicians with different levels of surgical training and 20 medical students performed an antrotomy with a computer-based virtual temporal bone surgery simulator. The ease, accuracy and timing of the simulated temporal bone surgery were assessed using the automatic assessment software provided by the simulator device and additionally with a modified Final Product Analysis Scale. Trained ENT surgeons, physicians without temporal bone surgical training and medical students were all able to perform the antrotomy. However, the highly trained ENT surgeons were able to complete the surgery in approximately half the time, with better handling and accuracy as assessed by the significant reduction in injury to important middle ear structures. Trained ENT surgeons achieved significantly higher scores using both dissection analysis methods. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in the results between medical students and physicians without experience in ear surgery. The virtual temporal bone training system can stratify users of known levels of experience. This system can be used not only to improve the surgical skills of trained ENT surgeons for more successful and injury-free surgeries, but also to train inexperienced physicians/medical students in developing their surgical skills for the ear.

  15. A 3D virtual reality simulator for training of minimally invasive surgery.

    Mi, Shao-Hua; Hou, Zeng-Gunag; Yang, Fan; Xie, Xiao-Liang; Bian, Gui-Bin

    2014-01-01

    For the last decade, remarkable progress has been made in the field of cardiovascular disease treatment. However, these complex medical procedures require a combination of rich experience and technical skills. In this paper, a 3D virtual reality simulator for core skills training in minimally invasive surgery is presented. The system can generate realistic 3D vascular models segmented from patient datasets, including a beating heart, and provide a real-time computation of force and force feedback module for surgical simulation. Instruments, such as a catheter or guide wire, are represented by a multi-body mass-spring model. In addition, a realistic user interface with multiple windows and real-time 3D views are developed. Moreover, the simulator is also provided with a human-machine interaction module that gives doctors the sense of touch during the surgery training, enables them to control the motion of a virtual catheter/guide wire inside a complex vascular model. Experimental results show that the simulator is suitable for minimally invasive surgery training.

  16. Hysteroscopic sterilization using a virtual reality simulator: assessment of learning curve.

    Janse, Juliënne A; Goedegebuure, Ruben S A; Veersema, Sebastiaan; Broekmans, Frank J M; Schreuder, Henk W R

    2013-01-01

    To assess the learning curve using a virtual reality simulator for hysteroscopic sterilization with the Essure method. Prospective multicenter study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University and teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Thirty novices (medical students) and five experts (gynecologists who had performed >150 Essure sterilization procedures). All participants performed nine repetitions of bilateral Essure placement on the simulator. Novices returned after 2 weeks and performed a second series of five repetitions to assess retention of skills. Structured observations on performance using the Global Rating Scale and parameters derived from the simulator provided measurements for analysis. The learning curve is represented by improvement per procedure. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze learning curves. Effect size (ES) was calculated to express the practical significance of the results (ES ≥ 0.50 indicates a large learning effect). For all parameters, significant improvements were found in novice performance within nine repetitions. Large learning effects were established for six of eight parameters (p learning curve established in this study endorses future implementation of the simulator in curricula on hysteroscopic skill acquisition for clinicians who are interested in learning this sterilization technique. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [3D Virtual Reality Laparoscopic Simulation in Surgical Education - Results of a Pilot Study].

    Kneist, W; Huber, T; Paschold, M; Lang, H

    2016-06-01

    The use of three-dimensional imaging in laparoscopy is a growing issue and has led to 3D systems in laparoscopic simulation. Studies on box trainers have shown differing results concerning the benefit of 3D imaging. There are currently no studies analysing 3D imaging in virtual reality laparoscopy (VRL). Five surgical fellows, 10 surgical residents and 29 undergraduate medical students performed abstract and procedural tasks on a VRL simulator using conventional 2D and 3D imaging in a randomised order. No significant differences between the two imaging systems were shown for students or medical professionals. Participants who preferred three-dimensional imaging showed significantly better results in 2D as wells as in 3D imaging. First results on three-dimensional imaging on box trainers showed different results. Some studies resulted in an advantage of 3D imaging for laparoscopic novices. This study did not confirm the superiority of 3D imaging over conventional 2D imaging in a VRL simulator. In the present study on 3D imaging on a VRL simulator there was no significant advantage for 3D imaging compared to conventional 2D imaging. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. The SEP "robot": a valid virtual reality robotic simulator for the Da Vinci Surgical System?

    van der Meijden, O A J; Broeders, I A M J; Schijven, M P

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if the concept of face and construct validity may apply to the SurgicalSim Educational Platform (SEP) "robot" simulator. The SEP robot simulator is a virtual reality (VR) simulator aiming to train users on the Da Vinci Surgical System. To determine the SEP's face validity, two questionnaires were constructed. First, a questionnaire was sent to users of the Da Vinci system (reference group) to determine a focused user-group opinion and their recommendations concerning VR-based training applications for robotic surgery. Next, clinical specialists were requested to complete a pre-tested face validity questionnaire after performing a suturing task on the SEP robot simulator. To determine the SEP's construct validity, outcome parameters of the suturing task were compared, for example, relative to participants' endoscopic experience. Correlations between endoscopic experience and outcome parameters of the performed suturing task were tested for significance. On an ordinal five-point, scale the average score for the quality of the simulator software was 3.4; for its hardware, 3.0. Over 80% agreed that it is important to train surgeons and surgical trainees to use the Da Vinci. There was a significant but marginal difference in tool tip trajectory (p = 0.050) and a nonsignificant difference in total procedure time (p = 0.138) in favor of the experienced group. In conclusion, the results of this study reflect a uniform positive opinion using VR training in robotic surgery. Concepts of face and construct validity of the SEP robotic simulator are present; however, these are not strong and need to be improved before implementation of the SEP robotic simulator in its present state for a validated training curriculum to be successful .

  19. Face and content validity of the virtual reality simulator 'ScanTrainer®'.

    Alsalamah, Amal; Campo, Rudi; Tanos, Vasilios; Grimbizis, Gregoris; Van Belle, Yves; Hood, Kerenza; Pugh, Neil; Amso, Nazar

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a first-line imaging in the investigation of women's irregular bleeding and other gynaecological pathologies, e.g. ovarian cysts and early pregnancy problems. However, teaching ultrasound, especially transvaginal scanning, remains a challenge for health professionals. New technology such as simulation may potentially facilitate and expedite the process of learning ultrasound. Simulation may prove to be realistic, very close to real patient scanning experience for the sonographer and objectively able to assist the development of basic skills such as image manipulation, hand-eye coordination and examination technique. The aim of this study was to determine the face and content validity of a virtual reality simulator (ScanTrainer®, MedaPhor plc, Cardiff, Wales, UK) as reflective of real transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) scanning. A questionnaire with 14 simulator-related statements was distributed to a number of participants with differing levels of sonography experience in order to determine the level of agreement between the use of the simulator in training and real practice. There were 36 participants: novices ( n  = 25) and experts ( n  = 11) who rated the simulator. Median scores of face validity statements between experts and non-experts using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings ranged between 7.5 and 9.0 ( p  > 0.05) indicated a high level of agreement. Experts' median scores of content validity statements ranged from 8.4 to 9.0. The findings confirm that the simulator has the feel and look of real-time scanning with high face validity. Similarly, its tutorial structures and learning steps confirm the content validity.

  20. Face and content validity of a virtual-reality simulator for myringotomy with tube placement.

    Huang, Caiwen; Cheng, Horace; Bureau, Yves; Agrawal, Sumit K; Ladak, Hanif M

    2015-10-20

    Myringotomy with tube insertion can be challenging for junior Otolaryngology residents as it is one of the first microscopic procedures they encounter. The Western myringotomy simulator was developed to allow trainees to practice microscope positioning, myringotomy, and tube placement. This virtual-reality simulator is viewed in stereoscopic 3D, and a haptic device is used to manipulate the digital ear model and surgical tools. To assess the face and content validity of the Western myringotomy simulator. The myringotomy simulator was integrated with new modules to allow speculum placement, manipulation of an operative microscope, and insertion of the ventilation tube through a deformable tympanic membrane. A questionnaire was developed in consultation with instructing surgeons. Fourteen face validity questions focused on the anatomy of the ear, simulation of the operative microscope, appearance and movement of the surgical instruments, deformation and cutting of the eardrum, and myringotomy tube insertion. Six content validity questions focused on training potential on surgical tasks such as speculum placement, microscope positioning, tool navigation, ear anatomy, myringotomy creation and tube insertion. A total of 12 participants from the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery were recruited for the study. Prior to completing the questionnaire, participants were oriented to the simulator and given unlimited time to practice until they were comfortable with all of its aspects. Responses to 12 of the 14 questions on face validity were predominantly positive. One issue of concern was with contact modeling related to tube insertion into the eardrum, and the second was with the movement of the blade and forceps. The former could be resolved by using a higher resolution digital model for the eardrum to improve contact localization. The latter could be resolved by using a higher fidelity haptic device. With regard to content validity, 64% of the responses

  1. Accurate initial conditions in mixed Dark Matter--Baryon simulations

    Valkenburg, Wessel

    2017-06-01

    We quantify the error in the results of mixed baryon--dark-matter hydrodynamic simulations, stemming from outdated approximations for the generation of initial conditions. The error at redshift 0 in contemporary large simulations, is of the order of few to ten percent in the power spectra of baryons and dark matter, and their combined total-matter power spectrum. After describing how to properly assign initial displacements and peculiar velocities to multiple species, we review several approximations: (1) {using the total-matter power spectrum to compute displacements and peculiar velocities of both fluids}, (2) scaling the linear redshift-zero power spectrum back to the initial power spectrum using the Newtonian growth factor ignoring homogeneous radiation, (3) using longitudinal-gauge velocities with synchronous-gauge densities, and (4) ignoring the phase-difference in the Fourier modes for the offset baryon grid, relative to the dark-matter grid. Three of these approximations do not take into account that ...

  2. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation.

  3. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site's 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation

  4. Development of a virtual reality haptic Veress needle insertion simulator for surgical skills training.

    Okrainec, A; Farcas, M; Henao, O; Choy, I; Green, J; Fotoohi, M; Leslie, R; Wight, D; Karam, P; Gonzalez, N; Apkarian, J

    2009-01-01

    The Veress needle is the most commonly used technique for creating the pneumoperitoneum at the start of a laparoscopic surgical procedure. Inserting the Veress needle correctly is crucial since errors can cause significant harm to patients. Unfortunately, this technique can be difficult to teach since surgeons rely heavily on tactile feedback while advancing the needle through the various layers of the abdominal wall. This critical step in laparoscopy, therefore, can be challenging for novice trainees to learn without adequate opportunities to practice in a safe environment with no risk of injury to patients. To address this issue, we have successfully developed a prototype of a virtual reality haptic needle insertion simulator using the tactile feedback of 22 surgeons to set realistic haptic parameters. A survey of these surgeons concluded that our device appeared and felt realistic, and could potentially be a useful tool for teaching the proper technique of Veress needle insertion.

  5. Interrater Reliability of the Power Mobility Road Test in the Virtual Reality-Based Simulator-2.

    Kamaraj, Deepan C; Dicianno, Brad E; Mahajan, Harshal P; Buhari, Alhaji M; Cooper, Rory A

    2016-07-01

    To assess interrater reliability of the Power Mobility Road Test (PMRT) when administered through the Virtual Reality-based SIMulator-version 2 (VRSIM-2). Within-subjects repeated-measures design. Participants interacted with VRSIM-2 through 2 display options (desktop monitor vs immersive virtual reality screens) using 2 control interfaces (roller system vs conventional movement-sensing joystick), providing 4 different driving scenarios (driving conditions 1-4). Participants performed 3 virtual driving sessions for each of the 2 display screens and 1 session through a real-world driving course (driving condition 5). The virtual PMRT was conducted in a simulated indoor office space, and an equivalent course was charted in an open space for the real-world assessment. After every change in driving condition, participants completed a self-reported workload assessment questionnaire, the Task Load Index, developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A convenience sample of electric-powered wheelchair (EPW) athletes (N=21) recruited at the 31st National Veterans Wheelchair Games. Not applicable. Total composite PMRT score. The PMRT had high interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]>.75) between the 2 raters in all 5 driving conditions. Post hoc analyses revealed that the reliability analyses had >80% power to detect high ICCs in driving conditions 1 and 4. The PMRT has high interrater reliability in conditions 1 and 4 and could be used to assess EPW driving performance virtually in VRSIM-2. However, further psychometric assessment is necessary to assess the feasibility of administering the PMRT using the different interfaces of VRSIM-2. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The efficacy of virtual reality simulation training in laparoscopy: a systematic review of randomized trials.

    Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Ottesen, Bent S; Soerensen, Jette Led

    2012-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators for surgical training might possess the properties needed for basic training in laparoscopy. Evidence for training efficacy of VR has been investigated by research of varying quality over the past decade. To review randomized controlled trials regarding VR training efficacy compared with traditional or no training, with outcome measured as surgical performance in humans or animals. In June 2011 Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched using the following medical subject headings (MeSh) terms: Laparoscopy/standards, Computing methodologies, Programmed instruction, Surgical procedures, Operative, and the following free text terms: Virtual real* OR simulat* AND Laparoscop* OR train* Controlled trials. All randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of VR training in laparoscopy, with outcome measured as surgical performance. A total of 98 studies were screened, 26 selected and 12 included, with a total of 241 participants. Operation time was reduced by 17-50% by VR training, depending on simulator type and training principles. Proficiency-based training appeared superior to training based on fixed time or fixed numbers of repetition. Simulators offering training for complete operative procedures came out as more efficient than simulators offering only basic skills training. Skills in laparoscopic surgery can be increased by proficiency-based procedural VR simulator training. There is substantial evidence (grade IA - IIB) to support the use of VR simulators in laparoscopic training. © 2012 The Authors  Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Bimanual Psychomotor Performance in Neurosurgical Resident Applicants Assessed Using NeuroTouch, a Virtual Reality Simulator.

    Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Bajunaid, Khalid; Mullah, Muhammad A S; Marwa, Ibrahim; Alotaibi, Fahad E; Fares, Jawad; Baggiani, Marta; Azarnoush, Hamed; Zharni, Gmaan Al; Christie, Sommer; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J; Werthner, Penny; Del Maestro, Rolando F

    acquisition, development, and maintenance of psychomotor skills. Technical abilities customized training programs that maximize individual resident bimanual psychomotor training dependant on continuously updated and validated metrics from virtual reality simulation studies should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulation of mixing effects in a VVER-1000 reactor

    Ulrich Bieder; Gauthier Fauchet; Sylvie Betin; Nikola Kolev; Dimitar Popov

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The work presented has been performed in the framework of the OECD/NEA thermalhydraulic benchmark V1000CT-2. This benchmark is related to fluid mixing in the reactor vessel during a MSLB accident scenario in a VVER-1000 reactor. The purpose of the first exercise is to test the capability of CFD codes to represent the coolant mixing in the reactor vessel, in particular in the downcomer and the lower plenum. Coolant mixing in a VVER-1000 V320 reactor was investigated in plant experiments during the commissioning of Kozloduy Unit 5 and 6. Starting from nearly symmetric states, asymmetric loop operation in different combinations was caused by disturbing the steam flow from one or more steam generators. Non-uniform and asymmetric loop flow mixing in the reactor vessel has been observed in the event of asymmetric loop operation. For certain flow patterns there is a shift (swirl) of the main loop flows with respect to the cold leg axes. This azimuthal shift as well as mixing coefficients from cold legs to the fuel assembly inlets have been measured. The presented reference problem is a pure TH problem with given boundary conditions and power distributions. During a stabilization phase, the thermal power of the reactor was 281 MW i.e. 9.36% of the nominal power according to primary balance. Then, a transient was initiated by closing the steam isolation valve of the steam generator one (SG-1) and isolating SG-1 from feed water. The coolant temperature in the cold and hot legs of Loop no 1 rose by 13-13.5 C. After about 20 minutes a stabilized state was reached which is considered as 'final state'. This final state has been analysed with the Trio-U code. Trio-U is a CFD code developed by the CEA Grenoble, aimed to supply an efficient computational tool to simulate transient thermalhydraulic mono-phase turbulent flows encountered in nuclear systems as well as in industrial processes. For the presented study, a LES approach was used. Therefore

  9. Transfer of cysto-urethroscopy skills from a virtual-reality simulator to the operating room : a randomized controlled trial

    Schout, Barbara M. A.; Ananias, Hildo J. K.; Bemelmans, Bart L. H.; d'Ancona, Frank C. H.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Dolmans, Valerie E. M. G.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Hendrikx, Ad J. M.

    OBJECTIVE To assess whether real-time cysto-urethroscopy (CUS) performance improves by simulator-based training (criterion or predictive validity), addressing the research question 'Does practical skills training on the URO Mentor (UM, Simbionix USA Corp., Cleveland, OH, USA) virtual-reality

  10. Hybrid Augmented Reality for Participatory Learning: The Hidden Efficacy of Multi-User Game-Based Simulation

    Oh, Seungjae; So, Hyo-Jeong; Gaydos, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The goal for this research is to articulate and test a new hybrid Augmented Reality (AR) environment for conceptual understanding. From the theoretical lens of embodied interaction, we have designed a multi-user participatory simulation called ARfract where visitors in a science museum can learn about complex scientific concepts on the refraction…

  11. A Comparison Study of Augmented Reality versus Interactive Simulation Technology to Support Student Learning of a Socio-Scientific Issue

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the impact of an augmented reality (AR) versus interactive simulation (IS) activity incorporated in a computer learning environment to facilitate students' learning of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) on nuclear power plants and radiation pollution. We employed a quasi-experimental research design. Two classes (a total of 45…

  12. Construct validity of the LapSim: can the LapSim virtual reality simulator distinguish between novices and experts?

    van Dongen, K. W.; Tournoij, E.; van der Zee, D. C.; Schijven, M. P.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality simulators may be invaluable in training and assessing future endoscopic surgeons. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the results of a training session reflect the actual skill of the trainee who is being assessed and thereby establish construct validity for

  13. Exploring the Adoption of a Virtual Reality Simulation: The Role of Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness and Personal Innovativeness

    Fagan, Mary; Kilmon, Carol; Pandey, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore students' perceptions of a virtual reality simulation that enable nursing students to learn how to use a medical emergency crash cart. Design/methodology/approach: The study was designed to explore how students' perceptions of ease of use and perceived usefulness from the technology acceptance model and the…

  14. Design and development of a virtual reality simulator for advanced cardiac life support training.

    Vankipuram, Akshay; Khanal, Prabal; Ashby, Aaron; Vankipuram, Mithra; Gupta, Ashish; DrummGurnee, Denise; Josey, Karen; Smith, Marshall

    2014-07-01

    The use of virtual reality (VR) training tools for medical education could lead to improvements in the skills of clinicians while providing economic incentives for healthcare institutions. The use of VR tools can also mitigate some of the drawbacks currently associated with providing medical training in a traditional clinical environment such as scheduling conflicts and the need for specialized equipment (e.g., high-fidelity manikins). This paper presents the details of the framework and the development methodology associated with a VR-based training simulator for advanced cardiac life support, a time critical, team-based medical scenario. In addition, we also report the key findings of a usability study conducted to assess the efficacy of various features of this VR simulator through a postuse questionnaire administered to various care providers. The usability questionnaires were completed by two groups that used two different versions of the VR simulator. One version consisted of the VR trainer with it all its features and a minified version with certain immersive features disabled. We found an increase in usability scores from the minified group to the full VR group.

  15. Objective evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills for transplantation. Surgeons using a virtual reality simulator.

    Dănilă, R; Gerdes, B; Ulrike, H; Domínguez Fernández, E; Hassan, I

    2009-01-01

    The learning curve in laparoscopic surgery may be associated with higher patient risk, which is unacceptable in the setting of kidney donation. Virtual reality simulators may increase the safety and efficiency of training in laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate if the results of a training session reflect the actual skill level of transplantation surgeons and whether the simulator could differentiate laparoscopic experienced transplantation surgeon from advanced trainees. 16 subjects were assigned to one of two groups: 5 experienced transplantation surgeon and 11 advanced residents, with only assistant role during transplantation. The level of performance was measured by a relative scoring system that combines single parameters assessed by the computer. The higher the level of transplantation experience of a participant, the higher the laparoscopic performance. Experienced transplantation surgeons showed statistically significant better scores than the advanced group for time and precision parameters. Our results show that performance of the various tasks on the simulator corresponds to the respective level of experience in transplantation surgery in our research groups. This study confirms construct validity for the LapSim. It thus measures relevant skills and can be integrated in an endoscopic training and assessment curriculum for transplantations surgeons.

  16. The international forum of ophthalmic simulation: developing a virtual reality training curriculum for ophthalmology.

    Saleh, George M; Lamparter, Julia; Sullivan, Paul M; O'Sullivan, Fiona; Hussain, Badrul; Athanasiadis, Ioannis; Litwin, Andre S; Gillan, Stewart N

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of a structured, supervised, cataract simulation programme on ophthalmic surgeons in their first year of training, and to evaluate the level of skill transfer. Trainees with minimal intraocular and simulator experience in their first year of ophthalmology undertook a structured, sequential, customised, virtual reality (VR) cataract training programme developed through the International Forum of Ophthalmic Simulation. A set of one-handed, bimanual, static and dynamic tasks were evaluated before and after the course and scores obtained. Statistical significance was evaluated with the Wilcoxon sign-rank test. The median precourse score of 101.50/400 (IQR 58.75-145.75) was significantly improved after completing the training programme ((postcourse score: 302/400, range: 266.25-343), p<0.001). While improvement was evident and found to be statistically significant in all parameters, greatest improvements were found for capsulorhexis and antitremor training ((Capsulorhexis: precourse score=0/100, range 0-4.5; postcourse score=81/100, range 13-87.75; p=0.002), (antitremor training: precourse score=0/100, range 0-0; postcourse score=80/100, range 60.25-91.50; p=0.001)). Structured and supervised VR training can offer a significant level of skills transfer to novice ophthalmic surgeons. VR training at the earliest stage of ophthalmic surgical training may, therefore, be of benefit.

  17. Construct validity and expert benchmarking of the haptic virtual reality dental simulator.

    Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Chaisombat, Monthalee; Kongpunwijit, Thanapohn; Rhienmora, Phattanapon

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate construct validation of the haptic virtual reality (VR) dental simulator and to define expert benchmarking criteria for skills assessment. Thirty-four self-selected participants (fourteen novices, fourteen intermediates, and six experts in endodontics) at one dental school performed ten repetitions of three mode tasks of endodontic cavity preparation: easy (mandibular premolar with one canal), medium (maxillary premolar with two canals), and hard (mandibular molar with three canals). The virtual instrument's path length was registered by the simulator. The outcomes were assessed by an expert. The error scores in easy and medium modes accurately distinguished the experts from novices and intermediates at the onset of training, when there was a significant difference between groups (ANOVA, p<0.05). The trend was consistent until trial 5. From trial 6 on, the three groups achieved similar scores. No significant difference was found between groups at the end of training. Error score analysis was not able to distinguish any group at the hard level of training. Instrument path length showed a difference in performance according to groups at the onset of training (ANOVA, p<0.05). This study established construct validity for the haptic VR dental simulator by demonstrating its discriminant capabilities between that of experts and non-experts. The experts' error scores and path length were used to define benchmarking criteria for optimal performance.

  18. Objective psychomotor skills assessment of experienced and novice flexible endoscopists with a virtual reality simulator.

    Ritter, E Matt; McClusky, David A; Lederman, Andrew B; Gallagher, Anthony G; Smith, C Daniel

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the GI Mentor II virtual reality simulator can distinguish the psychomotor skills of intermediately experienced endoscopists from those of novices, and do so with a high level of consistency and reliability. A total of five intermediate and nine novice endoscopists were evaluated using the EndoBubble abstract psychomotor task. Each subject performed three repetitions of the task. Performance and error data were recorded for each trial. The intermediate group performed better than the novice group in each trial. The differences were significant in trial 1 for balloons popped (P=.001), completion time (P=.04), and errors (P=.03). Trial 2 showed significance only for balloons popped (P=.002). Trial 3 showed significance for balloons popped (P=.004) and errors (P=.008). The novice group showed significant improvement between trials 1 and 3 (P<0.05). No improvement was noted in the intermediate group. Measures of consistency and reliability were greater than 0.8 in both groups with the exception of novice completion time where test-retest reliability was 0.74. The GI Mentor II simulator can distinguish between novice and intermediate endoscopists. The simulator assesses skills with levels of consistency and reliability required for high-stakes assessment.

  19. SmartSIM - a virtual reality simulator for laparoscopy training using a generic physics engine.

    Khan, Zohaib Amjad; Kamal, Nabeel; Hameed, Asad; Mahmood, Amama; Zainab, Rida; Sadia, Bushra; Mansoor, Shamyl Bin; Hasan, Osman

    2017-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR) training simulators have started playing a vital role in enhancing surgical skills, such as hand-eye coordination in laparoscopy, and practicing surgical scenarios that cannot be easily created using physical models. We describe a new VR simulator for basic training in laparoscopy, i.e. SmartSIM, which has been developed using a generic open-source physics engine called the simulation open framework architecture (SOFA). This paper describes the systems perspective of SmartSIM including design details of both hardware and software components, while highlighting the critical design decisions. Some of the distinguishing features of SmartSIM include: (i) an easy-to-fabricate custom-built hardware interface; (ii) use of a generic physics engine to facilitate wider accessibility of our work and flexibility in terms of using various graphical modelling algorithms and their implementations; and (iii) an intelligent and smart evaluation mechanism that facilitates unsupervised and independent learning. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Simulation into Reality: Some Effects of Simulation Techniques on Organizational Communication Students.

    Allen, Richard K.

    In an attempt to discover improved classroom teaching methods, a class was turned into a business organization as a way of bringing life to the previously covered lectures and textual materials. The simulated games were an attempt to get people to work toward a common goal with all of the power plays, secret meetings, brainstorming, anger, and…

  1. Virtual Reality simulator for dental anesthesia training in the inferior alveolar nerve block

    Cléber Gimenez CORRÊA

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study shows the development and validation of a dental anesthesia-training simulator, specifically for the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB. The system developed provides the tactile sensation of inserting a real needle in a human patient, using Virtual Reality (VR techniques and a haptic device that can provide a perceived force feedback in the needle insertion task during the anesthesia procedure. Material and Methods To simulate a realistic anesthesia procedure, a Carpule syringe was coupled to a haptic device. The Volere method was used to elicit requirements from users in the Dentistry area; Repeated Measures Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance, Tukey post-hoc test and averages for the results’ analysis. A questionnaire-based subjective evaluation method was applied to collect information about the simulator, and 26 people participated in the experiments (12 beginners, 12 at intermediate level, and 2 experts. The questionnaire included profile, preferences (number of viewpoints, texture of the objects, and haptic device handler, as well as visual (appearance, scale, and position of objects and haptic aspects (motion space, tactile sensation, and motion reproduction. Results The visual aspect was considered appropriate and the haptic feedback must be improved, which the users can do by calibrating the virtual tissues’ resistance. The evaluation of visual aspects was influenced by the participants’ experience, according to ANOVA test (F=15.6, p=0.0002, with p<0.01. The user preferences were the simulator with two viewpoints, objects with texture based on images and the device with a syringe coupled to it. Conclusion The simulation was considered thoroughly satisfactory for the anesthesia training, considering the needle insertion task, which includes the correct insertion point and depth, as well as the perception of tissues resistances during the insertion.

  2. Virtual Reality simulator for dental anesthesia training in the inferior alveolar nerve block.

    Corrêa, Cléber Gimenez; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Ranzini, Edith; Tori, Romero; Nunes, Fátima de Lourdes Santos

    2017-01-01

    This study shows the development and validation of a dental anesthesia-training simulator, specifically for the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). The system developed provides the tactile sensation of inserting a real needle in a human patient, using Virtual Reality (VR) techniques and a haptic device that can provide a perceived force feedback in the needle insertion task during the anesthesia procedure. To simulate a realistic anesthesia procedure, a Carpule syringe was coupled to a haptic device. The Volere method was used to elicit requirements from users in the Dentistry area; Repeated Measures Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), Tukey post-hoc test and averages for the results' analysis. A questionnaire-based subjective evaluation method was applied to collect information about the simulator, and 26 people participated in the experiments (12 beginners, 12 at intermediate level, and 2 experts). The questionnaire included profile, preferences (number of viewpoints, texture of the objects, and haptic device handler), as well as visual (appearance, scale, and position of objects) and haptic aspects (motion space, tactile sensation, and motion reproduction). The visual aspect was considered appropriate and the haptic feedback must be improved, which the users can do by calibrating the virtual tissues' resistance. The evaluation of visual aspects was influenced by the participants' experience, according to ANOVA test (F=15.6, p=0.0002, with p<0.01). The user preferences were the simulator with two viewpoints, objects with texture based on images and the device with a syringe coupled to it. The simulation was considered thoroughly satisfactory for the anesthesia training, considering the needle insertion task, which includes the correct insertion point and depth, as well as the perception of tissues resistances during the insertion.

  3. The Value of Team-Based Mixed-Reality (TBMR) Games in Higher Education

    Denholm, John A.; Protopsaltis, Aristidis; de Freitas, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a conducted study, measuring the perceptions of post-graduate students on the effectiveness of serious games in the classroom. Four games were used (Project Management Exercise, "Winning Margin" Business Simulation, Management of Change and Management of Product Design and Development) with scenarios ranging from…

  4. Immersive virtual reality-based training improves response in a simulated operating room fire scenario.

    Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Wooley, Lizzy; Hogg, Deborah; Dorozhkin, Denis; Olasky, Jaisa; Chauhan, Sanket; Fleshman, James W; De, Suvranu; Scott, Daniel; Jones, Daniel B

    2018-01-25

    SAGES FUSE curriculum provides didactic knowledge on OR fire prevention. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of an immersive virtual reality (VR)-based OR fire training simulation system in combination with FUSE didactics. The study compared a control with a simulation group. After a pre-test questionnaire that assessed the baseline knowledge, both groups were given didactic material that consists of a 10-min presentation and reading materials about precautions and stopping an OR fire from the FUSE manual. The simulation group practiced on the OR fire simulation for one session that consisted of five trials within a week from the pre-test. One week later, both groups were reassessed using a questionnaire. A week after the post-test both groups also participated in a simulated OR fire scenario while their performance was videotaped for assessment. A total of 20 subjects (ten per group) participated in this IRB approved study. Median test scores for the control group increased from 5.5 to 9.00 (p = 0.011) and for the simulation group it increased from 5.0 to 8.5 (p = 0.005). Both groups started at the same baseline (pre-test, p = 0.529) and reached similar level in cognitive knowledge (post-test, p = 0.853). However, when tested in the mock OR fire scenario, 70% of the simulation group subjects were able to perform the correct sequence of steps in extinguishing the simulated fire whereas only 20% subjects in the control group were able to do so (p = 0.003). The simulation group was better than control group in correctly identifying the oxidizer (p = 0.03) and ignition source (p = 0.014). Interactive VR-based hands-on training was found to be a relatively inexpensive and effective mode for teaching OR fire prevention and management scenarios.

  5. Training and assessment of psychomotor skills for performing laparoscopic surgery using BEST-IRIS virtual reality training simulator.

    Makam, Ramesh; Rajan, C S; Brendon, Tulip; Shreedhar, V; Saleem, K; Shrivastava, Sangeeta; Sudarshan, R; Naidu, Prakash

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a pilot study that examined the performance of people training on a Virtual Reality based BEST-IRIS Laparoscopic Surgery Training Simulator. The performance of experienced surgeons was examined and compared to the performance of residents. The purpose of this study is to validate the BEST-IRIS training simulator. It appeared to be a useful training and assessment tool.

  6. Assessment of performance measures and learning curves for use of a virtual-reality ultrasound simulator in transvaginal ultrasound examination

    Madsen, M E; Konge, L; Nørgaard, L N

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and reliability of performance measures, develop credible performance standards and explore learning curves for a virtual-reality simulator designed for transvaginal gynecological ultrasound examination. METHODS: A group of 16 ultrasound novices, along with a group......-6), corresponding to an average of 219 min (range, 150-251 min) of training. The test/retest reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.93. CONCLUSIONS: Competence in the performance of gynecological ultrasound examination can be assessed in a valid and reliable way using virtual-reality...

  7. Simulation of coolant mixing in pressure vessel reactors

    Hoehne, T.

    2003-06-01

    The work was aimed at the experimental investigation and numerical simulation of coolant mixing in the downcomer and the lower plenum of PWRs. Generally, the coolant mixing is of relevance for two classes of accident scenarios - boron dilution and cold water transients. For the investigation of the relevant mixing phenomena, the Rossendorf test facility ROCOM has been designed. ROCOM is a 1:5 scaled Plexiglas trademark model of the PWR Konvoi allowing conductivity measurements by wire mesh sensors and velocity measurements by the LDA technique. The CFD calculations were carried out with the CFD-code CFX-4. For the design of the facility, calculations were performed to analyze the scaling of the model. It was found, that the scaling of 1:5 to the prototype meets both: physical and economical demands. Flow measurements and the corresponding CFD calculations in the ROCOM downcomer under steady state conditions showed a Re number independency at nominal flow rates. The flow field is dominated by recirculation areas below the inlet nozzles. Transient flow measurements with high performance LDA-technique showed in agreement with CFX-4 results, that in the case of the start up of a pump after a laminar stage large vortices dominate the flow. In the case of stationary mixing, the maximum value of the averaged mixing scalar at the core inlet was found in the sector below the inlet nozzle, where the tracer was injected. At the start-up case of one pump due to a strong impulse driven flow at the inlet nozzle the horizontal part of the flow dominates in the downcomer. The injection is distributed into two main jets, the maximum of the tracer concentration at the core inlet appears at the opposite part of the loop where the tracer was injected. Additionally, the stationary three-dimensional flow distribution in the downcomer and the lower plenum of a VVER-440/V-230 reactor was calculated with CFX-4. The comparison with experimental data and an analytical mixing model showed a

  8. An integrated approach to endoscopic instrument tracking for augmented reality applications in surgical simulation training.

    Loukas, Constantinos; Lahanas, Vasileios; Georgiou, Evangelos

    2013-12-01

    Despite the popular use of virtual and physical reality simulators in laparoscopic training, the educational potential of augmented reality (AR) has not received much attention. A major challenge is the robust tracking and three-dimensional (3D) pose estimation of the endoscopic instrument, which are essential for achieving interaction with the virtual world and for realistic rendering when the virtual scene is occluded by the instrument. In this paper we propose a method that addresses these issues, based solely on visual information obtained from the endoscopic camera. Two different tracking algorithms are combined for estimating the 3D pose of the surgical instrument with respect to the camera. The first tracker creates an adaptive model of a colour strip attached to the distal part of the tool (close to the tip). The second algorithm tracks the endoscopic shaft, using a combined Hough-Kalman approach. The 3D pose is estimated with perspective geometry, using appropriate measurements extracted by the two trackers. The method has been validated on several complex image sequences for its tracking efficiency, pose estimation accuracy and applicability in AR-based training. Using a standard endoscopic camera, the absolute average error of the tip position was 2.5 mm for working distances commonly found in laparoscopic training. The average error of the instrument's angle with respect to the camera plane was approximately 2°. The results are also supplemented by video segments of laparoscopic training tasks performed in a physical and an AR environment. The experiments yielded promising results regarding the potential of applying AR technologies for laparoscopic skills training, based on a computer vision framework. The issue of occlusion handling was adequately addressed. The estimated trajectory of the instruments may also be used for surgical gesture interpretation and assessment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Improved nondominant hand performance on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator after playing the Nintendo Wii.

    Middleton, Kellie K; Hamilton, Travis; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Middleton, Dana B; Falcone, John L; Hamad, Giselle

    2013-11-01

    Video games have been shown to improve eye-hand coordination, spatial visualization, manual dexterity, and rapid mental processing, which are important in the acquisition of laparoscopic skills. This study investigated the relationship between playing Nintendo(®) Wii™ and virtual reality (VR) laparoscopic surgery simulator performance. We hypothesized that playing the Wii would improve surgical skills performance on a VR laparoscopic simulator and hoped to elucidate which tasks, in particular, would be most beneficial for nondominant hand training. This was a single-blinded, randomized, prospective study conducted with 23 student volunteers. VR laparoscopic skills were assessed at baseline on a Simbionix LapMentor™ Surgical Simulator (Simbionix Ltd., Israel) and after the gaming period of 2 weeks. Simulator performance metrics were compared between groups using nonparametric statistics and an alpha of 0.05. Compared with the control group, the Wii-playing group demonstrated greater improvement of six measures, including accuracy on the eye-hand coordination task (p = 0.04), faster completion time (p = 0.04), decreased number of left-handed movements (p = 0.03), decreased left handed total path length (p = 0.03), decreased total number of grasping attempts (p = 0.04), and improved left-handed economy of movement (p = 0.05) for the bimanual clipping and grasping task. When comparing the number of measures improved upon by the Wii-playing group and the control group for all three tasks, the Wii-playing group consistently outperformed the control group in 18 measures compared with the control group's improvement in 6. This study further characterizes the association between video game playing and surgical performance. Improvements following the intervention were made in the most basic of surgical skills, most notably with the nondominant hand, suggesting that short-term playing of the Wii could improve bimanual dexterity and expedite the acquisition of basic

  10. Face and content validation of a virtual reality temporal bone simulator.

    Arora, Asit; Khemani, Sam; Tolley, Neil; Singh, Arvind; Budge, James; Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Francis, Howard W; Darzi, Ara; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2012-03-01

    To validate the VOXEL-MAN TempoSurg simulator for temporal bone dissection. Prospective international study. Otolaryngology departments of 2 academic health care institutions in the United Kingdom and United States. Eighty-five subjects were recruited consisting of an experienced and referent group. Participants performed a standardized familiarization session and temporal bone dissection task. Realism, training effectiveness, and global impressions were evaluated across 21 domains using a 5-point Likert-type scale. A score of 4 was the minimum threshold for acceptability. The experienced group comprised 25 otolaryngology trainers who had performed 150 mastoid operations. The referent group comprised 60 trainees (mean otolaryngology experience of 2.9 years). Familiarization took longer in the experienced group (P = .01). User-friendliness was positively rated (mean score 4.1). Seventy percent of participants rated anatomical appearance as acceptable. Trainers rated drill ergonomics worse than did trainees (P = .01). Simulation temporal bone training scored highly (mean score 4.3). Surgical anatomy, drill navigation, and hand-eye coordination accounted for this. Trainees were more likely to recommend temporal bone simulation to a colleague than were trainers (P = .01). Transferability of skills to the operating room was undecided (mean score 3.5). Realism of the VOXEL-MAN virtual reality temporal bone simulator is suboptimal in its current version. Nonetheless, it represents a useful adjunct to existing training methods and is particularly beneficial for novice surgeons before performing cadaveric temporal bone dissection. Improvements in realism, specifically drill ergonomics and visual-spatial perception during deeper temporal bone dissection, are warranted.

  11. Mixed-Language High-Performance Computing for Plasma Simulations

    Quanming Lu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Java is receiving increasing attention as the most popular platform for distributed computing. However, programmers are still reluctant to embrace Java as a tool for writing scientific and engineering applications due to its still noticeable performance drawbacks compared with other programming languages such as Fortran or C. In this paper, we present a hybrid Java/Fortran implementation of a parallel particle-in-cell (PIC algorithm for plasma simulations. In our approach, the time-consuming components of this application are designed and implemented as Fortran subroutines, while less calculation-intensive components usually involved in building the user interface are written in Java. The two types of software modules have been glued together using the Java native interface (JNI. Our mixed-language PIC code was tested and its performance compared with pure Java and Fortran versions of the same algorithm on a Sun E6500 SMP system and a Linux cluster of Pentium~III machines.

  12. Effects of mixed waste simulants on transportation packaging plastic components

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to, enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified. The design requirements for both hazardous and radioactive materials packaging specify packaging compatibility, i.e., that the materials of the packaging and any contents be chemically compatible with each other. Furthermore, Type A and Type B packaging design requirements stipulate that there be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction between the materials and contents of the package. Based on these requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program, supported by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Transportation Management Division, EM-261 provides the means to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. In this paper, we describe the general elements of the testing program and the experimental results of the screening tests. The implications of the results of this testing are discussed in the general context of packaging development. Additionally, we present the results of the first phase of this experimental program. This phase involved the screening of five candidate liner and six seal materials against four simulant mixed wastes

  13. A Drone Remote Sensing for Virtual Reality Simulation System for Forest Fires: Semantic Neural Network Approach

    Narasimha Rao, Gudikandhula; Jagadeeswara Rao, Peddada; Duvvuru, Rajesh

    2016-09-01

    Wild fires have significant impact on atmosphere and lives. The demand of predicting exact fire area in forest may help fire management team by using drone as a robot. These are flexible, inexpensive and elevated-motion remote sensing systems that use drones as platforms are important for substantial data gaps and supplementing the capabilities of manned aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems. In addition, powerful computational tools are essential for predicting certain burned area in the duration of a forest fire. The reason of this study is to built up a smart system based on semantic neural networking for the forecast of burned areas. The usage of virtual reality simulator is used to support the instruction process of fire fighters and all users for saving of surrounded wild lives by using a naive method Semantic Neural Network System (SNNS). Semantics are valuable initially to have a enhanced representation of the burned area prediction and better alteration of simulation situation to the users. In meticulous, consequences obtained with geometric semantic neural networking is extensively superior to other methods. This learning suggests that deeper investigation of neural networking in the field of forest fires prediction could be productive.

  14. Virtual Reality-Based Simulators for Cranial Tumor Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Mazur, Travis; Mansour, Tarek R; Mugge, Luke; Medhkour, Azedine

    2018-02-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators have become useful tools in various fields of medicine. Prominent uses of VR technologies include assessment of physician skills and presurgical planning. VR has shown effectiveness in multiple surgical specialties, yet its use in neurosurgery remains limited. To examine all current literature on VR-based simulation for presurgical planning and training in cranial tumor surgeries and to assess the quality of these studies. PubMed and Embase were systematically searched to identify studies that used VR for presurgical planning and/or studies that investigated the use of VR as a training tool from inception to May 25, 2017. The initial search identified 1662 articles. Thirty-seven full-text articles were assessed for inclusion. Nine studies were included. These studies were subdivided into presurgical planning and training using VR. Prospects for VR are bright when surgical planning and skills training are considered. In terms of surgical planning, VR has noted and documented usefulness in the planning of cranial surgeries. Further, VR has been central to establishing reproducible benchmarks of performance in relation to cranial tumor resection, which are helpful not only in showing face and construct validity but also in enhancing neurosurgical training in a way not previously examined. Although additional studies are needed to better delineate the precise role of VR in each of these capacities, these studies stand to show the usefulness of VR in the neurosurgery and highlight the need for further investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Improving dental experiences by using virtual reality distraction: a simulation study.

    Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin; Pahl, Sabine; White, Mathew P; Andrade, Jackie; Qian, Cheng; Bruce, Malcolm; May, Jon; Moles, David R

    2014-01-01

    Dental anxiety creates significant problems for both patients and the dental profession. Some distraction interventions are already used by healthcare professionals to help patients cope with unpleasant procedures. The present study is novel because it a) builds on evidence that natural scenery is beneficial for patients, and b) uses a Virtual Reality (VR) representation of nature to distract participants. Extending previous work that has investigated pain and anxiety during treatment, c) we also consider the longer term effects in terms of more positive memories of the treatment, building on a cognitive theory of memory (Elaborated Intrusions). Participants (n = 69) took part in a simulated dental experience and were randomly assigned to one of three VR conditions (active vs. passive vs. control). In addition, participants were distinguished into high and low dentally anxious according to a median split resulting in a 3×2 between-subjects design. VR distraction in a simulated dental context affected memories a week later. The VR distraction had effects not only on concurrent experiences, such as perceived control, but longitudinally upon the vividness of memories after the dental experience had ended. Participants with higher dental anxiety (for whom the dental procedures were presumably more aversive) showed a greater reduction in memory vividness than lower dental-anxiety participants. This study thus suggests that VR distractions can be considered as a relevant intervention for cycles of care in which people's previous experiences affect their behaviour for future events.

  16. Improving dental experiences by using virtual reality distraction: a simulation study.

    Karin Tanja-Dijkstra

    Full Text Available Dental anxiety creates significant problems for both patients and the dental profession. Some distraction interventions are already used by healthcare professionals to help patients cope with unpleasant procedures. The present study is novel because it a builds on evidence that natural scenery is beneficial for patients, and b uses a Virtual Reality (VR representation of nature to distract participants. Extending previous work that has investigated pain and anxiety during treatment, c we also consider the longer term effects in terms of more positive memories of the treatment, building on a cognitive theory of memory (Elaborated Intrusions. Participants (n = 69 took part in a simulated dental experience and were randomly assigned to one of three VR conditions (active vs. passive vs. control. In addition, participants were distinguished into high and low dentally anxious according to a median split resulting in a 3×2 between-subjects design. VR distraction in a simulated dental context affected memories a week later. The VR distraction had effects not only on concurrent experiences, such as perceived control, but longitudinally upon the vividness of memories after the dental experience had ended. Participants with higher dental anxiety (for whom the dental procedures were presumably more aversive showed a greater reduction in memory vividness than lower dental-anxiety participants. This study thus suggests that VR distractions can be considered as a relevant intervention for cycles of care in which people's previous experiences affect their behaviour for future events.

  17. Simulation and virtual reality in medical education and therapy: a protocol.

    Roy, Michael J; Sticha, Deborah L; Kraus, Patricia L; Olsen, Dale E

    2006-04-01

    Continuing medical education has historically been provided primarily by didactic lectures, though adult learners prefer experiential or self-directed learning. Young physicians have extensive experience with computer-based or "video" games, priming them for medical education--and treating their patients--via new technologies. We report our use of standardized patients (SPs) to educate physicians on the diagnosis and treatment of biological and chemical warfare agent exposure. We trained professional actors to serve as SPs representing exposure to biological agents such as anthrax and smallpox. We rotated workshop participants through teaching stations to interview, examine, diagnose and treat SPs. We also trained SPs to simulate a chemical mass casualty (MASCAL) incident. Workshop participants worked together to treat MASCAL victims, followed by discussion of key teaching points. More recently, we developed computer-based simulation (CBS) modules of patients exposed to biological agents. We compare the strengths and weaknesses of CBS vs. live SPs. Finally, we detail plans for a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy compared to pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is associated with significant disability and healthcare costs, which may be ameliorated by the identification of more effective therapy.

  18. Improving Dental Experiences by Using Virtual Reality Distraction: A Simulation Study

    Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin; Pahl, Sabine; P. White, Mathew; Andrade, Jackie; Qian, Cheng; Bruce, Malcolm; May, Jon; Moles, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Dental anxiety creates significant problems for both patients and the dental profession. Some distraction interventions are already used by healthcare professionals to help patients cope with unpleasant procedures. The present study is novel because it a) builds on evidence that natural scenery is beneficial for patients, and b) uses a Virtual Reality (VR) representation of nature to distract participants. Extending previous work that has investigated pain and anxiety during treatment, c) we also consider the longer term effects in terms of more positive memories of the treatment, building on a cognitive theory of memory (Elaborated Intrusions). Participants (n = 69) took part in a simulated dental experience and were randomly assigned to one of three VR conditions (active vs. passive vs. control). In addition, participants were distinguished into high and low dentally anxious according to a median split resulting in a 3×2 between-subjects design. VR distraction in a simulated dental context affected memories a week later. The VR distraction had effects not only on concurrent experiences, such as perceived control, but longitudinally upon the vividness of memories after the dental experience had ended. Participants with higher dental anxiety (for whom the dental procedures were presumably more aversive) showed a greater reduction in memory vividness than lower dental-anxiety participants. This study thus suggests that VR distractions can be considered as a relevant intervention for cycles of care in which people’s previous experiences affect their behaviour for future events. PMID:24621518

  19. Construct validity for eye-hand coordination skill on a virtual reality laparoscopic surgical simulator.

    Yamaguchi, Shohei; Konishi, Kozo; Yasunaga, Takefumi; Yoshida, Daisuke; Kinjo, Nao; Kobayashi, Kiichiro; Ieiri, Satoshi; Okazaki, Ken; Nakashima, Hideaki; Tanoue, Kazuo; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Hashizume, Makoto

    2007-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate whether eye-hand coordination skill on a virtual reality laparoscopic surgical simulator (the LAP Mentor) was able to differentiate among subjects with different laparoscopic experience and thus confirm its construct validity. A total of 31 surgeons, who were all right-handed, were divided into the following two groups according to their experience as an operator in laparoscopic surgery: experienced surgeons (more than 50 laparoscopic procedures) and novice surgeons (fewer than 10 laparoscopic procedures). The subjects were tested using the eye-hand coordination task of the LAP Mentor, and performance was compared between the two groups. Assessment of the laparoscopic skills was based on parameters measured by the simulator. The experienced surgeons completed the task significantly faster than the novice surgeons. The experienced surgeons also achieved a lower number of movements (NOM), better economy of movement (EOM) and faster average speed of the left instrument than the novice surgeons, whereas there were no significant differences between the two groups for the NOM, EOM and average speed of the right instrument. Eye-hand coordination skill of the nondominant hand, but not the dominant hand, measured using the LAP Mentor was able to differentiate between subjects with different laparoscopic experience. This study also provides evidence of construct validity for eye-hand coordination skill on the LAP Mentor.

  20. Virtual reality in simulation of operational procedures in radioactive waste deposits

    Freitas, Victor Goncalves Gloria

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest problems in the nuclear area are still the radioactive waste generated in the various applications of this form of energy, all these tailings are stored in warehouses that often are monitored and restructured for better allocation of then. These tailings are stored until it is safe to release into the environment. This work presents a methodology based on virtual reality, for the development of virtual deposits of radioactive waste in order to enable virtual simulations in these deposits. As application will be developed virtually the nuclear waste repository located at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering IEN/CNEN. The development of a virtual warehouse, more specifically, makes it possible to simulate/train the allocation and reallocation of materials with low and medium level of radioactivity, seen the possibility of locomotion of virtual objects and dynamic calculation of the rate of radiation in this environment. Using this methodology it also possible know the accumulated dose, by the virtual character, during the procedures run in the virtual environment. (author)

  1. CFD Simulations of a Single-phase Mixing Experiment

    Bertolotto, Davide; Chawla, Rakesh; Manera, Annalisa; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The current paper reports on an investigation of the capabilities of CFD codes to model multidimensional mixing phenomena in a loop. For the purpose, a test facility consisting of two loops connected by a double T-junction has been built at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Experiments were carried out, in which a tracer was injected in one loop and the tracer distribution before and after the T-junction was measured by means of wire-mesh sensors located at the outlets of the junction. The tracer distribution after the T-junction is strongly dependent on 3D mixing phenomena, which are dominant due to the particular geometry of the set-up. For the CFD analysis, a 3D model of the double T-junction was created, and different simulations were performed with ANSYS-CFX to study the sensitivity of the results with respect to parameters such as mesh refinement, integration time step, turbulence model, profiles for inlet velocity and injected tracer concentration. Thereafter, these results were compared with the experimental data. The comparisons have clearly pointed out that 3D modelling is able to reproduce (at least qualitatively) the experimental results. Moreover, it has been found that the CFD results are strongly influenced by the velocity profile assumptions at the inlets of the double T-junction. (authors)

  2. A novel adaptive mixed reality system for stroke rehabilitation: principles, proof of concept, and preliminary application in 2 patients.

    Chen, Yinpeng; Duff, Margaret; Lehrer, Nicole; Liu, Sheng-Min; Blake, Paul; Wolf, Steven L; Sundaram, Hari; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the principles of an adaptive mixed reality rehabilitation (AMRR) system, as well as the training process and results from 2 stroke survivors who received AMRR therapy, to illustrate how the system can be used in the clinic. The AMRR system integrates traditional rehabilitation practices with state-of-the-art computational and motion capture technologies to create an engaging environment to train reaching movements. The system provides real-time, intuitive, and integrated audio and visual feedback (based on detailed kinematic data) representative of goal accomplishment, activity performance, and body function during a reaching task. The AMRR system also provides a quantitative kinematic evaluation that measures the deviation of the stroke survivor's movement from an idealized, unimpaired movement. The therapist, using the quantitative measure and knowledge and observations, can adapt the feedback and physical environment of the AMRR system throughout therapy to address each participant's individual impairments and progress. Individualized training plans, kinematic improvements measured over the entire therapy period, and the changes in relevant clinical scales and kinematic movement attributes before and after the month-long therapy are presented for 2 participants. The substantial improvements made by both participants after AMRR therapy demonstrate that this system has the potential to considerably enhance the recovery of stroke survivors with varying impairments for both kinematic improvements and functional ability.

  3. Virtual Environment User Interfaces to Support RLV and Space Station Simulations in the ANVIL Virtual Reality Lab

    Dumas, Joseph D., II

    1998-01-01

    Several virtual reality I/O peripherals were successfully configured and integrated as part of the author's 1997 Summer Faculty Fellowship work. These devices, which were not supported by the developers of VR software packages, use new software drivers and configuration files developed by the author to allow them to be used with simulations developed using those software packages. The successful integration of these devices has added significant capability to the ANVIL lab at MSFC. In addition, the author was able to complete the integration of a networked virtual reality simulation of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System docking Space Station modules which was begun as part of his 1996 Fellowship. The successful integration of this simulation demonstrates the feasibility of using VR technology for ground-based training as well as on-orbit operations.

  4. A Systematic Review of Virtual Reality Simulators for Robot-assisted Surgery.

    Moglia, Andrea; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Morelli, Luca; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2016-06-01

    No single large published randomized controlled trial (RCT) has confirmed the efficacy of virtual simulators in the acquisition of skills to the standard required for safe clinical robotic surgery. This remains the main obstacle for the adoption of these virtual simulators in surgical residency curricula. To evaluate the level of evidence in published studies on the efficacy of training on virtual simulators for robotic surgery. In April 2015 a literature search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the Clinical Trials Database (US) and the Meta Register of Controlled Trials. All publications were scrutinized for relevance to the review and for assessment of the levels of evidence provided using the classification developed by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The publications included in the review consisted of one RCT and 28 cohort studies on validity, and seven RCTs and two cohort studies on skills transfer from virtual simulators to robot-assisted surgery. Simulators were rated good for realism (face validity) and for usefulness as a training tool (content validity). However, the studies included used various simulation training methodologies, limiting the assessment of construct validity. The review confirms the absence of any consensus on which tasks and metrics are the most effective for the da Vinci Skills Simulator and dV-Trainer, the most widely investigated systems. Although there is consensus for the RoSS simulator, this is based on only two studies on construct validity involving four exercises. One study on initial evaluation of an augmented reality module for partial nephrectomy using the dV-Trainer reported high correlation (r=0.8) between in vivo porcine nephrectomy and a virtual renorrhaphy task according to the overall Global Evaluation Assessment of Robotic Surgery (GEARS) score. In one RCT on skills transfer, the experimental group outperformed the control group, with a significant difference in overall

  5. Preliminary assessment of faculty and student perception of a haptic virtual reality simulator for training dental manual dexterity.

    Gal, Gilad Ben; Weiss, Ervin I; Gafni, Naomi; Ziv, Amitai

    2011-04-01

    Virtual reality force feedback simulators provide a haptic (sense of touch) feedback through the device being held by the user. The simulator's goal is to provide a learning experience resembling reality. A newly developed haptic simulator (IDEA Dental, Las Vegas, NV, USA) was assessed in this study. Our objectives were to assess the simulator's ability to serve as a tool for dental instruction, self-practice, and student evaluation, as well as to evaluate the sensation it provides. A total of thirty-three evaluators were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of twenty-one experienced dental educators; the second consisted of twelve fifth-year dental students. Each participant performed drilling tasks using the simulator and filled out a questionnaire regarding the simulator and potential ways of using it in dental education. The results show that experienced dental faculty members as well as advanced dental students found that the simulator could provide significant potential benefits in the teaching and self-learning of manual dental skills. Development of the simulator's tactile sensation is needed to attune it to genuine sensation. Further studies relating to aspects of the simulator's structure and its predictive validity, its scoring system, and the nature of the performed tasks should be conducted.

  6. Embodied science and mixed reality: How gesture and motion capture affect physics education.

    Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C; Megowan-Romanowicz, Colleen

    2017-01-01

    A mixed design was created using text and game-like multimedia to instruct in the content of physics. The study assessed which variables predicted learning gains after a 1-h lesson on the electric field. The three manipulated variables were: (1) level of embodiment; (2) level of active generativity; and (3) presence of story narrative. Two types of tests were administered: (1) a traditional text-based physics test answered with a keyboard; and (2) a more embodied, transfer test using the Wacom large tablet where learners could use gestures (long swipes) to create vectors and answers. The 166 participants were randomly assigned to four conditions: (1) symbols and text; (2) low embodied; (3) high embodied/active; or (4) high embodied/active with narrative. The last two conditions were active because the on-screen content could be manipulated with gross body gestures gathered via the Kinect sensor. Results demonstrated that the three groups that included embodiment learned significantly more than the symbols and text group on the traditional keyboard post-test. When knowledge was assessed with the Wacom tablet format that facilitated gestures, the two active gesture-based groups scored significantly higher. In addition, engagement scores were significantly higher for the two active embodied groups. The Wacom results suggest test sensitivity issues; the more embodied test revealed greater gains in learning for the more embodied conditions. We recommend that as more embodied learning comes to the fore, more sensitive tests that incorporate gesture be used to accurately assess learning. The predicted differences in engagement and learning for the condition with the graphically rich story narrative were not supported. We hypothesize that a narrative effect for motivation and learning may be difficult to uncover in a lab experiment where participants are primarily motivated by course credit. Several design principles for mediated and embodied science education are proposed.

  7. On mixed reality environments for minimally invasive therapy guidance: Systems architecture, successes and challenges in their implementation from laboratory to clinic

    Linte, Cristian A.; Davenport, Katherine P.; Cleary, Kevin; Peters, Craig; Vosburgh, Kirby G.; Navab, Nassir; Edwards, Philip “Eddie”; Jannin, Pierre; Peters, Terry M.; Holmes, David R.; Robb, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed reality environments for medical applications have been explored and developed over the past three decades in an effort to enhance the clinician’s view of anatomy and facilitate the performance of minimally invasive procedures. These environments must faithfully represent the real surgical field and require seamless integration of pre- and intra-operative imaging, surgical instrument tracking, and display technology into a common framework centered around and registered to the patient. However, in spite of their reported benefits, few mixed reality environments have been successfully translated into clinical use. Several challenges that contribute to the difficulty in integrating such environments into clinical practice are presented here and discussed in terms of both technical and clinical limitations. This article should raise awareness among both developers and end-users toward facilitating a greater application of such environments in the surgical practice of the future. PMID:23632059

  8. On mixed reality environments for minimally invasive therapy guidance: systems architecture, successes and challenges in their implementation from laboratory to clinic.

    Linte, Cristian A; Davenport, Katherine P; Cleary, Kevin; Peters, Craig; Vosburgh, Kirby G; Navab, Nassir; Edwards, Philip Eddie; Jannin, Pierre; Peters, Terry M; Holmes, David R; Robb, Richard A

    2013-03-01

    Mixed reality environments for medical applications have been explored and developed over the past three decades in an effort to enhance the clinician's view of anatomy and facilitate the performance of minimally invasive procedures. These environments must faithfully represent the real surgical field and require seamless integration of pre- and intra-operative imaging, surgical instrument tracking, and display technology into a common framework centered around and registered to the patient. However, in spite of their reported benefits, few mixed reality environments have been successfully translated into clinical use. Several challenges that contribute to the difficulty in integrating such environments into clinical practice are presented here and discussed in terms of both technical and clinical limitations. This article should raise awareness among both developers and end-users toward facilitating a greater application of such environments in the surgical practice of the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the bases for a mixed reality stroke rehabilitation system, Part I: A unified approach for representing action, quantitative evaluation, and interactive feedback

    2011-01-01

    Background Although principles based in motor learning, rehabilitation, and human-computer interfaces can guide the design of effective interactive systems for rehabilitation, a unified approach that connects these key principles into an integrated design, and can form a methodology that can be generalized to interactive stroke rehabilitation, is presently unavailable. Results This paper integrates phenomenological approaches to interaction and embodied knowledge with rehabilitation practices and theories to achieve the basis for a methodology that can support effective adaptive, interactive rehabilitation. Our resulting methodology provides guidelines for the development of an action representation, quantification of action, and the design of interactive feedback. As Part I of a two-part series, this paper presents key principles of the unified approach. Part II then describes the application of this approach within the implementation of the Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (AMRR) system for stroke rehabilitation. Conclusions The accompanying principles for composing novel mixed reality environments for stroke rehabilitation can advance the design and implementation of effective mixed reality systems for the clinical setting, and ultimately be adapted for home-based application. They furthermore can be applied to other rehabilitation needs beyond stroke. PMID:21875441

  10. Instructor feedback versus no instructor feedback on performance in a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator: a randomized trial.

    Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Bjerrum, Flemming; Maagaard, Mathilde; Winkel, Per; Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg; Ringsted, Charlotte; Gluud, Christian; Grantcharov, Teodor; Ottesen, Bent; Sorensen, Jette Led

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the impact of instructor feedback versus no instructor feedback when training a complex operational task on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator. : Simulators are now widely accepted as a training tool, but there is insufficient knowledge about how much feedback is necessary, which is useful for sustainable implementation. A randomized trial complying with CONSORT Statement. All participants had to reach a predefined proficiency level for a complex operational task on a virtual reality simulator. The intervention group received standardized instructor feedback a maximum of 3 times. The control group did not receive instructor feedback. Participants were senior medical students without prior laparoscopic experience (n = 99). Outcome measures were time, repetitions, and performance score to reach a predefined proficiency level. Furthermore, influence of sex and perception of own surgical skills were examined. Time (in minutes) and repetitions were reduced in the intervention group (162 vs 342 minutes; P less time (in minutes) than women (P = 0.037), but no sex difference was observed for repetitions (P = 0.20). Participants in the intervention group had higher self-perception regarding surgical skills after the trial (P = 0.011). Instructor feedback increases the efficiency when training a complex operational task on a virtual reality simulator; time and repetitions used to achieve a predefined proficiency level were significantly reduced in the group that received instructor feedback compared with the control group. NCT01497782.

  11. Development and evaluation of temporary placement and conveyance operation simulation system using augmented reality

    Yan, Weida; Aoyama, Shuhei; Ishii, Hirotake; Shimoda, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Sang, Tran T.; Inge, Solhang Lars [AR Lab, Halden (Norway); Lygren, Toppe Aleksander; Terje, Johnsen [Institute for Energy Technolog, Halden (Norway); Izumi, Masanori [Fugen Decommissioning Engineering Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Fukui (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    When decommissioning a nuclear power plant, it is difficult to make an appropriate plan to ensure sufficient space for temporary placement and conveyance operations of dismantling targets. This paper describes a system to support temporary placement and conveyance operations using augmented reality (AR). The system employs a laser range scanner to measure the three-dimensional (3D) information of the environment and a dismantling target to produce 3D surface polygon models. Then, the operator simulates temporary placement and conveyance operations using the system by manipulating the obtained 3D model of the dismantling target in the work field. Referring to the obtained 3D model of the environment, a possible collision between the dismantling target and the environment is detectable. Using AR, the collision position is presented intuitively. After field workers evaluated this system, the authors concluded that the system is feasible and acceptable to verify whether spaces for passage and temporary storage are sufficient for temporary placement and conveyance operations. For practical use in the future, some new functions must be added to improve the system. For example, it must be possible for multiple workers to use the system simultaneously by sharing the view of dismantling work.

  12. Leaching of vitrified high-level-active-waste in a near reality simulated repository system

    Froeschen, W.; Wolf, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    In the FRG it is planned to vitrify the high level waste from spent fuel reprocessing and to dispose of in a salt-mine. If water penetrates into the repository a highly corrosive brine (Q-brine) will be formed and radioactive material may be leached from the glasses and transported to human environment. The corrosion system of brine, corroded steel containers of the vitrified waste, and waste-glasses was investigated under near reality conditions. Experiments in hydrothermal environment were carried out including gamma radiation of the waste-glasses and ceramic In Can Lining between glasses and metallic containments. Screening experiments by application of external cobalt-gamma-radiation showed no principal changes in leaching behaviour of simulate glasses compared to leaching without radiation. Radiation effects result in pH changes mainly which are diminished by buffer capacity of Q-brine. Lining of steel containments with ceramic fleece does not reduce leaching but retards solution of Mo and Sr into brine. Decreasing of elements Sr, Cs and Mo in the near surface area of the glass and increasing of Zr and Ti has been found to be enhanced considerably in presence of canister corrosion products in Q-brine as well as in NaCl-leaching solution. (orig.) With 13 refs., 22 figs [de

  13. Virtual reality body motion induced navigational controllers and their effects on simulator sickness and pathfinding.

    Aldaba, Cassandra N; White, Paul J; Byagowi, Ahmad; Moussavi, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    Virtual reality (VR) navigation is usually constrained by plausible simulator sickness (SS) and intuitive user interaction. The paper reports on the use of four different degrees of body motion induced navigational VR controllers, a TiltChair, omni-directional treadmill, a manual wheelchair joystick (VRNChair), and a joystick in relation to a participant's SS occurrence and a controller's intuitive utilization. Twenty young adult participants utilized all controllers to navigate through the same VR task environment in separate sessions. Throughout the sessions, SS occurrence was measured from a severity score by a standard SS questionnaire and from body sway by a center of pressure path length with eyes opened and closed. SS occurrence did not significantly differ among the controllers. However, time spent in VR significantly contributed to SS occurrence; hence, a few breaks to minimize SS should be interjected throughout a VR task. For all task trials, we recorded the participant's travel trajectories to investigate each controller's intuitive utilization from a computed traversed distance. Shorter traversed distances indicated that participants intuitively utilized the TiltChair with a slower speed; while longer traversed distances indicated participants struggled to utilize the omni-directional treadmill with a unnaturalistic stimulation of gait. Therefore, VR navigation should use technologies best suited for the intended age group that minimizes SS, and produces intuitive interactions for the participants.

  14. Development and evaluation of temporary placement and conveyance operation simulation system using augmented reality

    Yan, Weida; Aoyama, Shuhei; Ishii, Hirotake; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Sang, Tran T.; Inge, Solhang Lars; Lygren, Toppe Aleksander; Terje, Johnsen; Izumi, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    When decommissioning a nuclear power plant, it is difficult to make an appropriate plan to ensure sufficient space for temporary placement and conveyance operations of dismantling targets. This paper describes a system to support temporary placement and conveyance operations using augmented reality (AR). The system employs a laser range scanner to measure the three-dimensional (3D) information of the environment and a dismantling target to produce 3D surface polygon models. Then, the operator simulates temporary placement and conveyance operations using the system by manipulating the obtained 3D model of the dismantling target in the work field. Referring to the obtained 3D model of the environment, a possible collision between the dismantling target and the environment is detectable. Using AR, the collision position is presented intuitively. After field workers evaluated this system, the authors concluded that the system is feasible and acceptable to verify whether spaces for passage and temporary storage are sufficient for temporary placement and conveyance operations. For practical use in the future, some new functions must be added to improve the system. For example, it must be possible for multiple workers to use the system simultaneously by sharing the view of dismantling work.

  15. Application of the Augmented Reality in prototyping the educational simulator in sport - the example of judo

    Cieślńiski, Wojciech B.; Sobecki, Janusz; Piepiora, Paweł A.; Piepiora, Zbigniew N.; Witkowski, Kazimierz

    2016-04-01

    The mental training (Galloway, 2011) is one of the measures of the psychological preparation in sport. Especially such as the judo discipline requires the mental training, due to the fact that the judo is a combat sport, the direct, physical confrontation of two opponents. Hence the mental preparation should be an essential element of preparing for the sports fight. In the article are described the basics of the AR systems and presents selected elements of the AR systems: sight glasses Vuzix glasses, Kinect sensor and an interactive floor Multitap. Next, there are proposed the scenarios for using the AR in the mental training which are based on using both Vuzix glasses type head as well as the interactive floor Multitap. All options, except for the last, are provided for using the Kinect sensor. In addition, these variants differ as to the primary user of the system. It can be an competitor, his coach the competitor and the coach at the same time. In the end of the article are presented methods of exploring, both, the effectiveness and usefulness, and/or the User Experience of the proposed prototypes. There are presented three educational training simulator prototype models in sport (judo) describing their functionality based on the theory of sports training (the cyclical nature of sports training) and the theory of subtle interactions, enabling an explanation of the effects of sports training using the augmented reality technology.

  16. Virtual reality, ultrasound-guided liver biopsy simulator: development and performance discrimination

    Johnson, S J; Hunt, C M; Woolnough, H M; Crawshaw, M; Kilkenny, C; Gould, D A; England, A; Sinha, A; Villard, P F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this article was to identify and prospectively investigate simulated ultrasound-guided targeted liver biopsy performance metrics as differentiators between levels of expertise in interventional radiology. Methods Task analysis produced detailed procedural step documentation allowing identification of critical procedure steps and performance metrics for use in a virtual reality ultrasound-guided targeted liver biopsy procedure. Consultant (n=14; male=11, female=3) and trainee (n=26; male=19, female=7) scores on the performance metrics were compared. Ethical approval was granted by the Liverpool Research Ethics Committee (UK). Independent t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) investigated differences between groups. Results Independent t-tests revealed significant differences between trainees and consultants on three performance metrics: targeting, p=0.018, t=−2.487 (−2.040 to −0.207); probe usage time, p = 0.040, t=2.132 (11.064 to 427.983); mean needle length in beam, p=0.029, t=−2.272 (−0.028 to −0.002). ANOVA reported significant differences across years of experience (0–1, 1–2, 3+ years) on seven performance metrics: no-go area touched, p=0.012; targeting, p=0.025; length of session, p=0.024; probe usage time, p=0.025; total needle distance moved, p=0.038; number of skin contacts, p<0.001; total time in no-go area, p=0.008. More experienced participants consistently received better performance scores on all 19 performance metrics. Conclusion It is possible to measure and monitor performance using simulation, with performance metrics providing feedback on skill level and differentiating levels of expertise. However, a transfer of training study is required. PMID:21304005

  17. An effective repetitive training schedule to achieve skill proficiency using a novel robotic virtual reality simulator.

    Kang, Sung Gu; Ryu, Byung Ju; Yang, Kyung Sook; Ko, Young Hwii; Cho, Seok; Kang, Seok Ho; Patel, Vipul R; Cheon, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A robotic virtual reality simulator (Mimic dV-Trainer) can be a useful training method for the da Vinci surgical system. Herein, we investigate several repetitive training schedules and determine which is the most effective. A total of 30 medical students were enrolled and were divided into 3 groups according to the training schedule. Group 1 performed the task 1 hour daily for 4 consecutive days, group II performed the task on once per week for 1 hour for 4 consecutive weeks, and group III performed the task for 4 consecutive hours in 1 day. The effects of training were investigated by analyzing the number of repetitions and the time required to complete the "Tube 2" simulation task when the learning curve plateau was reached. The point at which participants reached a stable score was evaluated using the cumulative sum control graph. The average time to complete the task at the learning curve plateau was 150.3 seconds in group I, 171.9 seconds in group II, and 188.5 seconds in group III. The number of task repetitions required to reach the learning curve plateau was 45 repetitions in group I, 36 repetitions in group II, and 39 repetitions in group III. Therefore, there was continuous improvement in the time required to perform the task after 40 repetitions in group I only. There was a significant correlation between improvement in each trial interval and attempt, and the correlation coefficient (0.924) in group I was higher than that in group II (0.899) and group III (0.838). Daily 1-hour practice sessions performed for 4 consecutive days resulted in the best final score, continuous score improvement, and effective training while minimizing fatigue. This repetition schedule can be used for effectively training novices in future. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Porcine cadaver organ or virtual-reality simulation training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P; Napolitano, Daniel; De Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc

    2015-01-01

    As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live animal model in a prospective randomized trial. After completing an intensive training in basic laparoscopic skills, 3 groups of 10 participants proceeded with no additional training (control group), 5 hours of cholecystectomy training on cadaver organs (= organ training) or proficiency-based cholecystectomy training on the LapMentor (= virtual-reality training). Participants were evaluated on time and quality during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a live anaesthetized pig at baseline, 1 week (= post) and 4 months (= retention) after training. All research was performed in the Center for Surgical Technologies, Leuven, Belgium. In total, 30 volunteering medical students without prior experience in laparoscopy or minimally invasive surgery from the University of Leuven (Belgium). The organ training group performed the procedure significantly faster than the virtual trainer and borderline significantly faster than control group at posttesting. Only 1 of 3 expert raters suggested significantly better quality of performance of the organ training group compared with both the other groups at posttesting (p virtual trainer group did not outperform the control group at any time. For trainees who are proficient in basic laparoscopic skills, the long-term advantage of additional procedural training, especially on a virtual but also on the conventional organ training model, remains to be proven. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a proficiency-based virtual reality simulation training curriculum for laparoscopic appendicectomy.

    Sirimanna, Pramudith; Gladman, Marc A

    2017-10-01

    Proficiency-based virtual reality (VR) training curricula improve intraoperative performance, but have not been developed for laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA). This study aimed to develop an evidence-based training curriculum for LA. A total of 10 experienced (>50 LAs), eight intermediate (10-30 LAs) and 20 inexperienced (<10 LAs) operators performed guided and unguided LA tasks on a high-fidelity VR simulator using internationally relevant techniques. The ability to differentiate levels of experience (construct validity) was measured using simulator-derived metrics. Learning curves were analysed. Proficiency benchmarks were defined by the performance of the experienced group. Intermediate and experienced participants completed a questionnaire to evaluate the realism (face validity) and relevance (content validity). Of 18 surgeons, 16 (89%) considered the VR model to be visually realistic and 17 (95%) believed that it was representative of actual practice. All 'guided' modules demonstrated construct validity (P < 0.05), with learning curves that plateaued between sessions 6 and 9 (P < 0.01). When comparing inexperienced to intermediates to experienced, the 'unguided' LA module demonstrated construct validity for economy of motion (5.00 versus 7.17 versus 7.84, respectively; P < 0.01) and task time (864.5 s versus 477.2 s versus 352.1 s, respectively, P < 0.01). Construct validity was also confirmed for number of movements, path length and idle time. Validated modules were used for curriculum construction, with proficiency benchmarks used as performance goals. A VR LA model was realistic and representative of actual practice and was validated as a training and assessment tool. Consequently, the first evidence-based internationally applicable training curriculum for LA was constructed, which facilitates skill acquisition to proficiency. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. Construct validity of the LapVR virtual-reality surgical simulator.

    Iwata, Naoki; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Chie; Ohashi, Norifumi; Nakayama, Goro; Koike, Masahiko; Nakao, Akimasa

    2011-02-01

    Laparoscopic surgery requires fundamental skills peculiar to endoscopic procedures such as eye-hand coordination. Acquisition of such skills prior to performing actual surgery is highly desirable for favorable outcome. Virtual-reality simulators have been developed for both surgical training and assessment of performance. The aim of the current study is to show construct validity of a novel simulator, LapVR (Immersion Medical, San Jose, CA, USA), for Japanese surgeons and surgical residents. Forty-four subjects were divided into the following three groups according to their experience in laparoscopic surgery: 14 residents (RE) with no experience in laparoscopic surgery, 14 junior surgeons (JR) with little experience, and 16 experienced surgeons (EX). All subjects executed "essential task 1" programmed in the LapVR, which consists of six tasks, resulting in automatic measurement of 100 parameters indicating various aspects of laparoscopic skills. Time required for each task tended to be inversely correlated with experience in laparoscopic surgery. For the peg transfer skill, statistically significant differences were observed between EX and RE in three parameters, including total time and average time taken to complete the procedure and path length for the nondominant hand. For the cutting skill, similar differences were observed between EX and RE in total time, number of unsuccessful cutting attempts, and path length for the nondominant hand. According to the programmed comprehensive evaluation, performance in terms of successful completion of the task and actual experience of the participants in laparoscopic surgery correlated significantly for the peg transfer (P=0.007) and cutting skills (P=0.026). The peg transfer and cutting skills could best distinguish between EX and RE. This study is the first to provide evidence that LapVR has construct validity to discriminate between novice and experienced laparoscopic surgeons.

  1. Large Eddy Simulation Study for Fluid Disintegration and Mixing

    Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi

    2011-01-01

    A new modeling approach is based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES) within which the large scales are computed and the small scales are modeled. The new approach is expected to retain the fidelity of the physics while also being computationally efficient. Typically, only models for the small-scale fluxes of momentum, species, and enthalpy are used to reintroduce in the simulation the physics lost because the computation only resolves the large scales. These models are called subgrid (SGS) models because they operate at a scale smaller than the LES grid. In a previous study of thermodynamically supercritical fluid disintegration and mixing, additional small-scale terms, one in the momentum and one in the energy conservation equations, were identified as requiring modeling. These additional terms were due to the tight coupling between dynamics and real-gas thermodynamics. It was inferred that if these terms would not be modeled, the high density-gradient magnitude regions, experimentally identified as a characteristic feature of these flows, would not be accurately predicted without the additional term in the momentum equation; these high density-gradient magnitude regions were experimentally shown to redistribute turbulence in the flow. And it was also inferred that without the additional term in the energy equation, the heat flux magnitude could not be accurately predicted; the heat flux to the wall of combustion devices is a crucial quantity that determined necessary wall material properties. The present work involves situations where only the term in the momentum equation is important. Without this additional term in the momentum equation, neither the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Smagorinsky model nor the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Gradient model could reproduce in LES the pressure field or the high density-gradient magnitude regions; the SGS-flux constant- coefficient Scale-Similarity model was the most successful in this endeavor although not

  2. Porcine Transfer Study: Virtual Reality Simulator Training Compared with Porcine Training in Endovascular Novices

    Berry, Max; Lystig, Ted; Beard, Jonathan; Klingestierna, Hans; Reznick, Richard; Loenn, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the learning of endovascular interventional skills by training on pig models versus virtual reality simulators. Methods. Twelve endovascular novices participated in a study consisting of a pig laboratory (P-Lab) and a virtual reality laboratory (VR-Lab). Subjects were stratified by experience and randomized into four training groups. Following 1 hr of didactic instruction, all attempted an iliac artery stenosis (IAS) revascularization in both laboratories. Onsite proctors evaluated performances using task-specific checklists and global rating scales, yielding a Total Score. Participants completed two training sessions of 3 hr each, using their group's assigned method (P-Lab x 2, P-Lab + VR-Lab, VR-Lab + P-Lab, or VR-Lab x 2) and were re-evaluated in both laboratories. A panel of two highly experienced interventional radiologists performed assessments from video recordings. ANCOVA analysis of Total Score against years of surgical, interventional radiology (IR) experience and cumulative number of P-Lab or VR-Lab sessions was conducted. Inter-rater reliability (IRR) was determined by comparing proctored scores with the video assessors in only the VR-Lab. Results. VR-Lab sessions improved the VR-Lab Total Score (β 3.029, p = 0.0015) and P-Lab Total Score (β = 1.814, p = 0.0452). P-Lab sessions increased the P-Lab Total Score (β = 4.074, p < 0.0001) but had no effect on the VR-Lab Total Score. In the general statistical model, both P-Lab sessions (β = 2.552, p = 0.0010) and VR-Lab sessions (β 2.435, p = 0.0032) significantly improved Total Score. Neither previous surgical experience nor IR experience predicted Total Score. VR-Lab scores were consistently higher than the P-Lab scores (Δ = 6.659, p < 0.0001). VR-Lab IRR was substantial (r = 0.649, p < 0.0008). Conclusions. Endovascular skills learned in the virtual environment may be transferable to the real catheterization laboratory as modeled in the P-Lab

  3. Multimodal Image-Based Virtual Reality Presurgical Simulation and Evaluation for Trigeminal Neuralgia and Hemifacial Spasm.

    Yao, Shujing; Zhang, Jiashu; Zhao, Yining; Hou, Yuanzheng; Xu, Xinghua; Zhang, Zhizhong; Kikinis, Ron; Chen, Xiaolei

    2018-05-01

    To address the feasibility and predictive value of multimodal image-based virtual reality in detecting and assessing features of neurovascular confliction (NVC), particularly regarding the detection of offending vessels, degree of compression exerted on the nerve root, in patients who underwent microvascular decompression for nonlesional trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm (HFS). This prospective study includes 42 consecutive patients who underwent microvascular decompression for classic primary trigeminal neuralgia or HFS. All patients underwent preoperative 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with T2-weighted three-dimensional (3D) sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions, 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography, and 3D T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced sequences in combination, whereas 2 patients underwent extra experimental preoperative 7.0-T MRI scans with the same imaging protocol. Multimodal MRIs were then coregistered with open-source software 3D Slicer, followed by 3D image reconstruction to generate virtual reality (VR) images for detection of possible NVC in the cerebellopontine angle. Evaluations were performed by 2 reviewers and compared with the intraoperative findings. For detection of NVC, multimodal image-based VR sensitivity was 97.6% (40/41) and specificity was 100% (1/1). Compared with the intraoperative findings, the κ coefficients for predicting the offending vessel and the degree of compression were >0.75 (P < 0.001). The 7.0-T scans have a clearer view of vessels in the cerebellopontine angle, which may have significant impact on detection of small-caliber offending vessels with relatively slow flow speed in cases of HFS. Multimodal image-based VR using 3D sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions in combination with 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography sequences proved to be reliable in detecting NVC

  4. Exploring the bases for a mixed reality stroke rehabilitation system, Part II: design of interactive feedback for upper limb rehabilitation.

    Lehrer, Nicole; Chen, Yinpeng; Duff, Margaret; L Wolf, Steven; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2011-09-08

    Few existing interactive rehabilitation systems can effectively communicate multiple aspects of movement performance simultaneously, in a manner that appropriately adapts across various training scenarios. In order to address the need for such systems within stroke rehabilitation training, a unified approach for designing interactive systems for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors has been developed and applied for the implementation of an Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (AMRR) System. The AMRR system provides computational evaluation and multimedia feedback for the upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors. A participant's movements are tracked by motion capture technology and evaluated by computational means. The resulting data are used to generate interactive media-based feedback that communicates to the participant detailed, intuitive evaluations of his performance. This article describes how the AMRR system's interactive feedback is designed to address specific movement challenges faced by stroke survivors. Multimedia examples are provided to illustrate each feedback component. Supportive data are provided for three participants of varying impairment levels to demonstrate the system's ability to train both targeted and integrated aspects of movement. The AMRR system supports training of multiple movement aspects together or in isolation, within adaptable sequences, through cohesive feedback that is based on formalized compositional design principles. From preliminary analysis of the data, we infer that the system's ability to train multiple foci together or in isolation in adaptable sequences, utilizing appropriately designed feedback, can lead to functional improvement. The evaluation and feedback frameworks established within the AMRR system will be applied to the development of a novel home-based system to provide an engaging yet low-cost extension of training for longer periods of time.

  5. Virtual reality rehabilitation as a treatment approach for older women with mixed urinary incontinence: a feasibility study.

    Elliott, Valérie; de Bruin, Eling D; Dumoulin, Chantale

    2015-03-01

    Motivated patients are more likely to adhere to treatment resulting in better outcomes. Virtual reality rehabilitation (VRR) is a treatment approach that includes video gaming to enhance motivation and functional training. The study objectives were (1) to evaluate the feasibility of using a combination of pelvic floor muscles (PFM) exercises and VRR (PFM/VRR) to treat mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) in older women, (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of the PFM/VRR program on MUI symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and (3) gather quantitative information regarding patient satisfaction with this new combined training program. Women 65 years and older with at least 2 weekly episodes of MUI were recruited. Participants were evaluated two times before and one time after a 12-week PFM/VRR training program. Feasibility was defined as the participants' rate of participation in and completion of both the PFM/VRR training program and the home exercise. Effectiveness was evaluated through a bladder diary, pad test, symptom and QoL questionnaire, and participant's satisfaction through a questionnaire. Twenty-four women (70.5 ± 3.6 years) participated. The participants complied with the study demands in terms of attendance at the weekly treatment sessions (91%), adherence to home exercise (92%) and completion of the three evaluations (96%). Post-intervention, the frequency and quantity of urine leakage decreased and patient-reported symptoms and QoL improved significantly. Most participants were very satisfied with treatment (91%). A combined PFM/VRR program is an acceptable, efficient, and satisfying functional treatment for older women with MUI and should be explore through further RCTs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Development of an evidence-based training program for laparoscopic hysterectomy on a virtual reality simulator.

    Crochet, Patrice; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Knight, Sophie; Berdah, Stéphane; Boubli, Léon; Agostini, Aubert

    2017-06-01

    Substantial evidence in the scientific literature supports the use of simulation for surgical education. However, curricula lack for complex laparoscopic procedures in gynecology. The objective was to evaluate the validity of a program that reproduces key specific components of a laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) procedure until colpotomy on a virtual reality (VR) simulator and to develop an evidence-based and stepwise training curriculum. This prospective cohort study was conducted in a Marseille teaching hospital. Forty participants were enrolled and were divided into experienced (senior surgeons who had performed more than 100 LH; n = 8), intermediate (surgical trainees who had performed 2-10 LH; n = 8) and inexperienced (n = 24) groups. Baselines were assessed on a validated basic task. Participants were tested for the LH procedure on a high-fidelity VR simulator. Validity evidence was proposed as the ability to differentiate between the three levels of experience. Inexperienced subjects performed ten repetitions for learning curve analysis. Proficiency measures were based on experienced surgeons' performances. Outcome measures were simulator-derived metrics and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scores. Quantitative analysis found significant inter-group differences between experienced intermediate and inexperienced groups for time (1369, 2385 and 3370 s; p < 0.001), number of movements (2033, 3195 and 4056; p = 0.001), path length (3390, 4526 and 5749 cm; p = 0.002), idle time (357, 654 and 747 s; p = 0.001), respect for tissue (24, 40 and 84; p = 0.01) and number of bladder injuries (0.13, 0 and 4.27; p < 0.001). Learning curves plateaued at the 2nd to 6th repetition. Further qualitative analysis found significant inter-group OSATS score differences at first repetition (22, 15 and 8, respectively; p < 0.001) and second repetition (25.5, 19.5 and 14; p < 0.001). The VR program for LH accrued validity evidence and

  7. Instructor feedback versus no instructor feedback on performance in a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator: a randomized educational trial

    Oestergaard Jeanett

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have found a positive effect on the learning curve as well as the improvement of basic psychomotor skills in the operating room after virtual reality training. Despite this, the majority of surgical and gynecological departments encounter hurdles when implementing this form of training. This is mainly due to lack of knowledge concerning the time and human resources needed to train novice surgeons to an adequate level. The purpose of this trial is to investigate the impact of instructor feedback regarding time, repetitions and self-perception when training complex operational tasks on a virtual reality simulator. Methods/Design The study population consists of medical students on their 4th to 6th year without prior laparoscopic experience. The study is conducted in a skills laboratory at a centralized university hospital. Based on a sample size estimation 98 participants will be randomized to an intervention group or a control group. Both groups have to achieve a predefined proficiency level when conducting a laparoscopic salpingectomy using a surgical virtual reality simulator. The intervention group receives standardized instructor feedback of 10 to 12 min a maximum of three times. The control group receives no instructor feedback. Both groups receive the automated feedback generated by the virtual reality simulator. The study follows the CONSORT Statement for randomized trials. Main outcome measures are time and repetitions to reach the predefined proficiency level on the simulator. We include focus on potential sex differences, computer gaming experience and self-perception. Discussion The findings will contribute to a better understanding of optimal training methods in surgical education. Trial Registration NCT01497782

  8. Instructor feedback versus no instructor feedback on performance in a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator: a randomized educational trial.

    Oestergaard, Jeanett; Bjerrum, Flemming; Maagaard, Mathilde; Winkel, Per; Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg; Ringsted, Charlotte; Gluud, Christian; Grantcharov, Teodor; Ottesen, Bent; Soerensen, Jette Led

    2012-02-28

    Several studies have found a positive effect on the learning curve as well as the improvement of basic psychomotor skills in the operating room after virtual reality training. Despite this, the majority of surgical and gynecological departments encounter hurdles when implementing this form of training. This is mainly due to lack of knowledge concerning the time and human resources needed to train novice surgeons to an adequate level. The purpose of this trial is to investigate the impact of instructor feedback regarding time, repetitions and self-perception when training complex operational tasks on a virtual reality simulator. The study population consists of medical students on their 4th to 6th year without prior laparoscopic experience. The study is conducted in a skills laboratory at a centralized university hospital. Based on a sample size estimation 98 participants will be randomized to an intervention group or a control group. Both groups have to achieve a predefined proficiency level when conducting a laparoscopic salpingectomy using a surgical virtual reality simulator. The intervention group receives standardized instructor feedback of 10 to 12 min a maximum of three times. The control group receives no instructor feedback. Both groups receive the automated feedback generated by the virtual reality simulator. The study follows the CONSORT Statement for randomized trials. Main outcome measures are time and repetitions to reach the predefined proficiency level on the simulator. We include focus on potential sex differences, computer gaming experience and self-perception. The findings will contribute to a better understanding of optimal training methods in surgical education. NCT01497782.

  9. Instructor feedback versus no instructor feedback on performance in a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator: a randomized educational trial

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Several studies have found a positive effect on the learning curve as well as the improvement of basic psychomotor skills in the operating room after virtual reality training. Despite this, the majority of surgical and gynecological departments encounter hurdles when implementing this form of training. This is mainly due to lack of knowledge concerning the time and human resources needed to train novice surgeons to an adequate level. The purpose of this trial is to investigate the impact of instructor feedback regarding time, repetitions and self-perception when training complex operational tasks on a virtual reality simulator. Methods/Design The study population consists of medical students on their 4th to 6th year without prior laparoscopic experience. The study is conducted in a skills laboratory at a centralized university hospital. Based on a sample size estimation 98 participants will be randomized to an intervention group or a control group. Both groups have to achieve a predefined proficiency level when conducting a laparoscopic salpingectomy using a surgical virtual reality simulator. The intervention group receives standardized instructor feedback of 10 to 12 min a maximum of three times. The control group receives no instructor feedback. Both groups receive the automated feedback generated by the virtual reality simulator. The study follows the CONSORT Statement for randomized trials. Main outcome measures are time and repetitions to reach the predefined proficiency level on the simulator. We include focus on potential sex differences, computer gaming experience and self-perception. Discussion The findings will contribute to a better understanding of optimal training methods in surgical education. Trial Registration NCT01497782 PMID:22373062

  10. Virtual reality simulation for the operating room: proficiency-based training as a paradigm shift in surgical skills training.

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Ritter, E Matt; Champion, Howard; Higgins, Gerald; Fried, Marvin P; Moses, Gerald; Smith, C Daniel; Satava, Richard M

    2005-02-01

    To inform surgeons about the practical issues to be considered for successful integration of virtual reality simulation into a surgical training program. The learning and practice of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) makes unique demands on surgical training programs. A decade ago Satava proposed virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation as a solution for this problem. Only recently have robust scientific studies supported that vision A review of the surgical education, human-factor, and psychology literature to identify important factors which will impinge on the successful integration of VR training into a surgical training program. VR is more likely to be successful if it is systematically integrated into a well-thought-out education and training program which objectively assesses technical skills improvement proximate to the learning experience. Validated performance metrics should be relevant to the surgical task being trained but in general will require trainees to reach an objectively determined proficiency criterion, based on tightly defined metrics and perform at this level consistently. VR training is more likely to be successful if the training schedule takes place on an interval basis rather than massed into a short period of extensive practice. High-fidelity VR simulations will confer the greatest skills transfer to the in vivo surgical situation, but less expensive VR trainers will also lead to considerably improved skills generalizations. VR for improved performance of MIS is now a reality. However, VR is only a training tool that must be thoughtfully introduced into a surgical training curriculum for it to successfully improve surgical technical skills.

  11. Modeling and computational simulation and the potential of virtual and augmented reality associated to the teaching of nanoscience and nanotechnology

    Ribeiro, Allan; Santos, Helen

    With the advent of new information and communication technologies (ICTs), the communicative interaction changes the way of being and acting of people, at the same time that changes the way of work activities related to education. In this range of possibilities provided by the advancement of computational resources include virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), are highlighted as new forms of information visualization in computer applications. While the RV allows user interaction with a virtual environment totally computer generated; in RA the virtual images are inserted in real environment, but both create new opportunities to support teaching and learning in formal and informal contexts. Such technologies are able to express representations of reality or of the imagination, as systems in nanoscale and low dimensionality, being imperative to explore, in the most diverse areas of knowledge, the potential offered by ICT and emerging technologies. In this sense, this work presents computer applications of virtual and augmented reality developed with the use of modeling and simulation in computational approaches to topics related to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and articulated with innovative pedagogical practices.

  12. Application of virtual reality tools for assembly of WEST components: Comparison between simulations and physical mockups

    Pilia, Arnaud; Brun, Cyril; Doceul, Louis; Gargiulo, Laurent; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Keller, Delphine; Le, Roland; Poli, Serge; Zago, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • VR technologies applied to Fusion enable better and faster understanding of integration issues. • Assembly problems are solved and validated on a numerical mockup. • Integration and accessibility issues can be identified in the earliest design on numerical mockup. • Problems are solved and validated on a physical mockup. • VR technologies are very helpful for assembly and maintenance operation simulations. - Abstract: The WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady state Tokamak) is an upgrade of the existing fusion machine, Tore Supra. The goal is to equip the tokamak with a fully cooled tungsten divertor and to transform the machine in a test platform open to all ITER partners. The main assembly challenge of this project consists of an implementation of two magnet systems, called divertors, with an accuracy of 1 mm. Indeed, each divertor has about 4 m as diameter and has a heavy weight of 10 tons; also it introduces piece by piece in the original vessel through tight ports then assembled inside. To ensure a perfect fitting between these new components and a very constrained environment, it is necessary to use the latest CAD technologies available. Beyond conventional CAD tools, the virtual reality (VR) room of the institute provides several useful tools. Thanks to the 185″ stereoscopic 3D screen and a force feedback arm linked to clash detection software developed by the CEA LIST, a new way to carry out design and assembly studies was performed. In order to improve VR results, metrology data (3D scan) enhance simulations. Therefore, it becomes possible to be aware of the real size of a component and future difficulties in assembling it. At last, performance of such simulations is evaluated and compared to physical mockup in order to bring enhancement to the VR tools, before to be compared to the real operations on Tore Supra. The aim is to build a design tool that helps the designer since early stage of the design of complex systems

  13. Application of virtual reality tools for assembly of WEST components: Comparison between simulations and physical mockups

    Pilia, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.pilia@cea.fr; Brun, Cyril; Doceul, Louis; Gargiulo, Laurent; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Keller, Delphine; Le, Roland; Poli, Serge; Zago, Bertrand

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • VR technologies applied to Fusion enable better and faster understanding of integration issues. • Assembly problems are solved and validated on a numerical mockup. • Integration and accessibility issues can be identified in the earliest design on numerical mockup. • Problems are solved and validated on a physical mockup. • VR technologies are very helpful for assembly and maintenance operation simulations. - Abstract: The WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady state Tokamak) is an upgrade of the existing fusion machine, Tore Supra. The goal is to equip the tokamak with a fully cooled tungsten divertor and to transform the machine in a test platform open to all ITER partners. The main assembly challenge of this project consists of an implementation of two magnet systems, called divertors, with an accuracy of 1 mm. Indeed, each divertor has about 4 m as diameter and has a heavy weight of 10 tons; also it introduces piece by piece in the original vessel through tight ports then assembled inside. To ensure a perfect fitting between these new components and a very constrained environment, it is necessary to use the latest CAD technologies available. Beyond conventional CAD tools, the virtual reality (VR) room of the institute provides several useful tools. Thanks to the 185″ stereoscopic 3D screen and a force feedback arm linked to clash detection software developed by the CEA LIST, a new way to carry out design and assembly studies was performed. In order to improve VR results, metrology data (3D scan) enhance simulations. Therefore, it becomes possible to be aware of the real size of a component and future difficulties in assembling it. At last, performance of such simulations is evaluated and compared to physical mockup in order to bring enhancement to the VR tools, before to be compared to the real operations on Tore Supra. The aim is to build a design tool that helps the designer since early stage of the design of complex systems

  14. Mixed Reality Games

    Marty, Jean-Charles; Carron, Thibault; Pernelle, Philippe; Talbot, Stéphane; Houzet, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The authors' research work deals with the development of new game-based learning (gbl) environments. They think that the way of acquiring knowledge during a learning session is similar to following an adventure in a role-playing game and they apply the metaphor of exploring a virtual world, where each student embarks on a quest in order to collect…

  15. Virtual Reality As an Effective Simulation Tool for OSH Education on Robotized Workplace

    Janak Miroslav; Cmorej Tomas; Vysocky Tomas; Kocisko Marek; Teliskova Monika

    2016-01-01

    In last decade, the virtual reality became a huge trend in the field of visualization not only for simple elements, but also for complex devices, their actions and processes, rooms and entire areas. This contribution focuses on the possibilities of utilization of the elements of virtual reality for educational purposes regarding the potential employees and their OSH (Occupational Safety and Health) training at the specialized workplaces. It points to the possibility of using the applications ...

  16. Development of the McGill simulator for endoscopic sinus surgery: a new high-fidelity virtual reality simulator for endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Varshney, Rickul; Frenkiel, Saul; Nguyen, Lily H P; Young, Meredith; Del Maestro, Rolando; Zeitouni, Anthony; Tewfik, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    The technical challenges of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and the high risk of complications support the development of alternative modalities to train residents in these procedures. Virtual reality simulation is becoming a useful tool for training the skills necessary for minimally invasive surgery; however, there are currently no ESS virtual reality simulators available with valid evidence supporting their use in resident education. Our aim was to develop a new rhinology simulator, as well as to define potential performance metrics for trainee assessment. The McGill simulator for endoscopic sinus surgery (MSESS), a new sinus surgery virtual reality simulator with haptic feedback, was developed (a collaboration between the McGill University Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, the Montreal Neurologic Institute Simulation Lab, and the National Research Council of Canada). A panel of experts in education, performance assessment, rhinology, and skull base surgery convened to identify core technical abilities that would need to be taught by the simulator, as well as performance metrics to be developed and captured. The MSESS allows the user to perform basic sinus surgery skills, such as an ethmoidectomy and sphenoidotomy, through the use of endoscopic tools in a virtual nasal model. The performance metrics were developed by an expert panel and include measurements of safety, quality, and efficiency of the procedure. The MSESS incorporates novel technological advancements to create a realistic platform for trainees. To our knowledge, this is the first simulator to combine novel tools such as the endonasal wash and elaborate anatomic deformity with advanced performance metrics for ESS.

  17. Detailed simulations of liquid and solid-liquid mixing : Turbulent agitated flow and mass transfer

    Hartmann, H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis aims at a contribution to reliable and accurate predictions of complex, multi-phase processes. The reader is presented detailed simulations on liquid and solid-liquid mixing using large eddy simulations (LES) including scalar mixing and particle transport in a Rushton turbine stirred

  18. Virtual reality and hallucination: a technoetic perspective

    Slattery, Diana R.

    2008-02-01

    Virtual Reality (VR), especially in a technologically focused discourse, is defined by a class of hardware and software, among them head-mounted displays (HMDs), navigation and pointing devices; and stereoscopic imaging. This presentation examines the experiential aspect of VR. Putting "virtual" in front of "reality" modifies the ontological status of a class of experience-that of "reality." Reality has also been modified [by artists, new media theorists, technologists and philosophers] as augmented, mixed, simulated, artificial, layered, and enhanced. Modifications of reality are closely tied to modifications of perception. Media theorist Roy Ascott creates a model of three "VR's": Verifiable Reality, Virtual Reality, and Vegetal (entheogenically induced) Reality. The ways in which we shift our perceptual assumptions, create and verify illusions, and enter "the willing suspension of disbelief" that allows us entry into imaginal worlds is central to the experience of VR worlds, whether those worlds are explicitly representational (robotic manipulations by VR) or explicitly imaginal (VR artistic creations). The early rhetoric surrounding VR was interwoven with psychedelics, a perception amplified by Timothy Leary's presence on the historic SIGGRAPH panel, and the Wall Street Journal's tag of VR as "electronic LSD." This paper discusses the connections-philosophical, social-historical, and psychological-perceptual between these two domains.

  19. Automated outcome scoring in a virtual reality simulator for endodontic surgery.

    Yin, Myat Su; Haddawy, Peter; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Rhienmora, Phattanapon

    2018-01-01

    We address the problem of automated outcome assessment in a virtual reality (VR) simulator for endodontic surgery. Outcome assessment is an essential component of any system that provides formative feedback, which requires assessing the outcome, relating it to the procedure, and communicating in a language natural to dental students. This study takes a first step toward automated generation of such comprehensive feedback. Virtual reference templates are computed based on tooth anatomy and the outcome is assessed with a 3D score cube volume which consists of voxel-level non-linear weighted scores based on the templates. The detailed scores are transformed into standard scoring language used by dental schools. The system was evaluated on fifteen outcome samples that contained optimal results and those with errors including perforation of the walls, floor, and both, as well as various combinations of major and minor over and under drilling errors. Five endodontists who had professional training and varying levels of experiences in root canal treatment participated as raters in the experiment. Results from evaluation of our system with expert endodontists show a high degree of agreement with expert scores (information based measure of disagreement 0.04-0.21). At the same time they show some disagreement among human expert scores, reflecting the subjective nature of human outcome scoring. The discriminatory power of the AOS scores analyzed with three grade tiers (A, B, C) using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The AUC values are generally highest for the {AB: C} cutoff which is cutoff at the boundary between clinically acceptable (B) and clinically unacceptable (C) grades. The objective consistency of computed scores and high degree of agreement with experts make the proposed system a promising addition to existing VR simulators. The translation of detailed level scores into terminology commonly used in dental surgery supports natural

  20. Validation of a novel basic virtual reality simulator, the LAP-X, for training basic laparoscopic skills.

    Kawaguchi, Koji; Egi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Minoru; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takahisa; Ohdan, Hideki

    2014-10-01

    Virtual reality surgical simulators are becoming popular as a means of providing trainees with an opportunity to practice laparoscopic skills. The Lap-X (Epona Medical, Rotterdam, the Netherlands) is a novel VR simulator for training basic skills in laparoscopic surgery. The objective of this study was to validate the LAP-X laparoscopic virtual reality simulator by assessing the face and construct validity in order to determine whether the simulator is adequate for basic skills training. The face and content validity were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. To assess the construct validity, the participants, nine expert surgeons (median age: 40 (32-45)) (>100 laparoscopic procedures) and 11 novices performed three basic laparoscopic tasks using the Lap-X. The participants reported a high level of content validity. No significant differences were found between the expert surgeons and the novices (Ps > 0.246). The performance of the expert surgeons on the three tasks was significantly better than that of the novices in all parameters (Ps training device.

  1. Role of cranial and spinal virtual and augmented reality simulation using immersive touch modules in neurosurgical training.

    Alaraj, Ali; Charbel, Fady T; Birk, Daniel; Tobin, Matthew; Tobin, Mathew; Luciano, Cristian; Banerjee, Pat P; Rizzi, Silvio; Sorenson, Jeff; Foley, Kevin; Slavin, Konstantin; Roitberg, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mental script-based rehearsal and simulation-based training improve the transfer of surgical skills in various medical disciplines. Despite significant advances in technology and intraoperative techniques over the last several decades, surgical skills training on neurosurgical operations still carries significant risk of serious morbidity or mortality. Potentially avoidable technical errors are well recognized as contributing to poor surgical outcome. Surgical education is undergoing overwhelming change, as a result of the reduction of work hours and current trends focusing on patient safety and linking reimbursement with clinical outcomes. Thus, there is a need for adjunctive means for neurosurgical training, which is a recent advancement in simulation technology. ImmersiveTouch is an augmented reality system that integrates a haptic device and a high-resolution stereoscopic display. This simulation platform uses multiple sensory modalities, re-creating many of the environmental cues experienced during an actual procedure. Modules available include ventriculostomy, bone drilling, percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy, and simulated spinal modules such as pedicle screw placement, vertebroplasty, and lumbar puncture. We present our experience with the development of such augmented reality neurosurgical modules and the feedback from neurosurgical residents.

  2. Assessment of comparative skills between hand-assisted and straight laparoscopic colorectal training on an augmented reality simulator.

    Leblanc, F; Delaney, C P; Neary, P C; Rose, J; Augestad, K M; Senagore, A J; Ellis, C N; Champagne, B J

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare skills sets during a hand-assisted and straight laparoscopic colectomy on an augmented reality simulator. Twenty-nine surgeons, assigned randomly in 2 groups, performed laparoscopic sigmoid colectomies on a simulator: group A (n = 15) performed hand-assisted then straight procedures; group B (n = 14) performed straight then hand-assisted procedures. Groups were compared according to prior laparoscopic colorectal experience, performance (time, instrument path length, and instrument velocity changes), technical skills, and operative error. Prior laparoscopic colorectal experience was similar in both groups. Both groups had better performances with the hand-assisted approach, although technical skill scores were similar between approaches. The error rate was higher with the hand-assisted approach in group A, but similar between both approaches in group B. These data define the metrics of performance for hand-assisted and straight laparoscopic colectomy on an augmented reality simulator. The improved scores with the hand-assisted approach suggest that with this simulator a hand-assisted model may be technically easier to perform, although it is associated with increased intraoperative errors.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Two-branch Hot Gas Mixing at Reactor Outlet of HTR-PM

    Hao Pengefei; Zhou Yangping; Li Fu; Shi Lei; He Heng

    2014-01-01

    A series of two-branch model experiment has been finished to investigate the thermal mixing efficiency of the HTR-PM reactor outlet. This paper introduces the numerical simulation on the design of thermal mixing structure of HTR-PM and the test facility with Fluent software. The profiles of temperature, pressure and velocity in the mixing structure design and the test facility are discussed by comparing with the model experiment results. The numerical simulation results of the test facility have good agreement to the experiment results. In addition, the thermal-fluid characters obtained by numerical simulation show the thermal mixing structure of HTR-PM has similarity with the test facility. Finally, it is concluded that the thermal mixing design at HTR-PM reactor outlet can fulfilled the requirements for high thermal mixing efficiency and appropriate pressure drop. (author)

  4. Older Adults Pay an Additional Cost When Texting and Walking: Effects of Age, Environment, and Use of Mixed Reality on Dual-Task Performance.

    Krasovsky, Tal; Weiss, Patrice L; Kizony, Rachel

    2018-04-06

    Texting while walking (TeWW) has become common among people of all ages, and mobile phone use during gait is increasingly associated with pedestrian injury. Although dual-task walking performance is known to decline with age, data regarding the effect of age on dual-task performance in ecological settings are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, environment (indoors/outdoors), and mixed reality (merging of real and virtual environments) on TeWW performance. A cross-sectional design was used. Young (N = 30; 27.8 ± 4.4 years) and older (N = 20; 68.9 ± 3.9 years) adults performed single and dual-task texting and walking indoors and outdoors, with and without a mixed reality display. Participants also completed evaluations of visual scanning and cognitive flexibility (Trail Making Test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go). Indoors, similar interference to walking and texting occurred for both groups, but only older adults' gait variability increased under dual task conditions. Outdoors, TeWW was associated with larger age-related differences in gait variability, texting accuracy, and gait dual-task costs. Young adults with better visual scanning and cognitive flexibility performed TeWW with lower gait costs (r = 0.52 to r = 0.65). The mixed reality display was unhelpful and did not modify walking or texting. Older adults tested in this study were relatively high-functioning. Gaze of participants was not directly monitored. Although young and older adults possess the resources necessary for TeWW, older adults pay an additional "price" when dual-tasking, especially outdoors. TeWW may have potential as an ecologically-valid assessment and/or an intervention paradigm for dual task performance among older adults as well as for clinical populations.

  5. fpga controller design and simulation of a portable dough mixing

    modelled and simulated with Matlab/Simulink. Synthesizable VHDL ... Keywords: FPGA, VHDL, PID controller, Pulse Width Modulation, Full H-Bridge DC motor driver. 1. ... and (b) to simulate the control process in a virtual environment, using.

  6. Chemical compatibility screening results of plastic packaging to mixed waste simulants

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a chemical compatibility program for evaluating transportation packaging components for transporting mixed waste forms. We have performed the first phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant mixed wastes on packaging materials. This effort involved the screening of 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to ∼3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14 day exposures to the waste simulants of 60 C. The seal materials or rubbers were tested using VTR (vapor transport rate) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criteria of ∼1 g/m 2 /hr for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. It was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only VITON passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. It is anticipated that those materials with the lowest VTRs will be evaluated in the comprehensive phase of the program. For specific gravity testing of liner materials the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals

  7. Creating Next Generation Blended Learning Environments Using Mixed Reality, Video Games and Simulations

    Kirkley, Sonny E.; Kirkley, Jamie R.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the challenges and issues of designing next generation learning environments using current and emerging technologies are addressed. An overview of the issues is provided as well as design principles that support the design of instruction and the overall learning environment. Specific methods for creating cognitively complex,…

  8. Implications of Mixed Reality and Simulation Technologies on Special Education and Teacher Preparation

    Dieker, Lisa; Hynes, Michael; Hughes, Charles; Smith, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As technology evolves, so does its impact on people's lives. These changes clearly affect people's daily activities, but how might they also impact education, teachers, and the lives of students with disabilities? This article focuses on technological innovations and their potential implications for students and teachers in schools. This article…

  9. A virtual reality based time simulator game for children with ADHD

    Gongsook, P.; Hu, J.; Bellotti, F.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    This project aims at investigating how effective virtual reality is in manipulating and eventually training time perception for children with learning and/or behavior disorders. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appear to have problems in time perception and this affects

  10. The use of virtual reality to simulate room and pillar operations

    Crawshaw, S A.M.; Denby, B; McClarnon, D [Long-Airdox International Limited, Ilkeston (United Kingdom)

    1997-01-01

    Virtual Reality systems allow a user to interact with dynamic three-dimensional computer models of real world situations. The authors show how the complexity of room and pillar mining operations may be mirrored in a user-configurable system. Additionally, an understanding is gained of the mining method, and the operation of equipment in the actual working environment. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  11. The AIDLET Model: A Framework for Selecting Games, Simulations and Augmented Reality Environments in Mobile Learning

    Bidarra, José; Rothschild, Meagan; Squire, Kurt; Figueiredo, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Smartphones and other mobile devices like the iPhone, Android, Kindle Fire, and iPad have boosted educators' interest in using mobile media for education. Applications from games to augmented reality are thriving in research settings, and in some cases schools and universities, but relatively little is known about how such devices may be used for…

  12. Conceptual Framework for Therapeutic Training with Biofeedback in Virtual Reality: First Evaluation of a Relaxation Simulator

    Fominykh, Mikhail; Prasolova-Førland, Ekaterina; Stiles, Tore C.; Krogh, Anne Berit; Linde, Mattias

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a concept for designing low-cost therapeutic training with biofeedback and virtual reality. We completed the first evaluation of a prototype--a mobile learning application for relaxation training, primarily for adolescents suffering from tension-type headaches. The system delivers visual experience on a head-mounted display. A…

  13. Immersive Environments and Virtual Reality: Systematic Review and Advances in Communication, Interaction and Simulation

    Jose Luis Rubio-Tamayo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, virtual reality and immersive environments are lines of research which can be applied to numerous scientific and educational domains. Immersive digital media needs new approaches regarding its interactive and immersive features, which means the design of new narratives and relationships with users. Additionally, ICT (information and communication theory evolves through more immersive and interactive scenarios, it being necessary to design and conceive new forms of representing information and improving users’ interaction with immersive environments. Virtual reality and technologies associated with the virtuality continuum, such as immersive and digital environments, are emerging media. As a medium, this approach may help to build and represent ideas and concepts, as well as developing new languages. This review analyses the cutting-edge expressive, interactive and representative potential of immersive digital technologies. It also considers future possibilities regarding the evolution of these immersive technologies, such as virtual reality, in coming years, in order to apply them to diverse scientific, artistic or informational and educational domains. We conclude that virtual reality is an ensemble of technological innovations, but also a concept, and propose models to link it with the latest in other domains such as UX (user experience, interaction design. This concept can help researchers and developers to design new experiences and conceive new expressive models that can be applied to a wide range of scientific lines of research and educational dynamics.

  14. Acquisition of flexible cystoscopy skills on a virtual reality simulator by experts and novices

    Schout, Barbara M. A.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Hendrikx, Ad J. M.; Ananias, Hildo J. K.; Dolmans, Valerie E. M. G.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Bemelmans, Bart L. H.

    OBJECTIVE To assess the construct validity of the URO MentorTM (Simbionix Corp., Cleveland, OH, USA) virtual reality training model for several variables of skills training in cysto-urethroscopy, addressing two research questions: (i) Does training on the URO Mentor significantly improve novices'

  15. The use of the virtual reality Helmet Samsung gear VR as interaction interface of a radioactive waste repository simulator

    Santos, Julio A. dos; Mól, Antônio C. de A.; Santo, André C. Do E., E-mail: julio_andrade11@hotmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radioactive waste is all material resulting from human activity that contains elements that emit radiation that can generate risks to health and the environment. In this sense, they are very toxic also for those who perform the storage of radioactive waste in nuclear facilities. On the other hand, the virtual reality (VR) has been destined to the most diverse purposes, like simulations for educational systems, for military purposes as for diverse training. VR can be considered as the junction of three basic principles: immersion, interaction and involvement. Bases on these principles of VR, this work aimed to develop a simulator of a repository of nuclear tailings, for mobile computing, whose interaction interface will be through the Samsung Gear VR helmet. The simulator of the nuclear waste repository was developed in the unity 3D tool and the elements that make up the scenario in the 3D MAX program. In this work we tried to put virtual reality under scrutiny in conjunction with Gear VR, to help in the sensation of immersion, as well as, the possibility of interaction with joysticks. The purpose was to provide greater insight into the operating environment. (author)

  16. The use of the virtual reality Helmet Samsung gear VR as interaction interface of a radioactive waste repository simulator

    Santos, Julio A. dos; Mól, Antônio C. de A.; Santo, André C. Do E.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive waste is all material resulting from human activity that contains elements that emit radiation that can generate risks to health and the environment. In this sense, they are very toxic also for those who perform the storage of radioactive waste in nuclear facilities. On the other hand, the virtual reality (VR) has been destined to the most diverse purposes, like simulations for educational systems, for military purposes as for diverse training. VR can be considered as the junction of three basic principles: immersion, interaction and involvement. Bases on these principles of VR, this work aimed to develop a simulator of a repository of nuclear tailings, for mobile computing, whose interaction interface will be through the Samsung Gear VR helmet. The simulator of the nuclear waste repository was developed in the unity 3D tool and the elements that make up the scenario in the 3D MAX program. In this work we tried to put virtual reality under scrutiny in conjunction with Gear VR, to help in the sensation of immersion, as well as, the possibility of interaction with joysticks. The purpose was to provide greater insight into the operating environment. (author)

  17. Effects of Hearing Loss on Dual-Task Performance in an Audiovisual Virtual Reality Simulation of Listening While Walking.

    Lau, Sin Tung; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Li, Karen Z H; Singh, Gurjit; Campos, Jennifer L

    2016-07-01

    Most activities of daily living require the dynamic integration of sights, sounds, and movements as people navigate complex environments. Nevertheless, little is known about the effects of hearing loss (HL) or hearing aid (HA) use on listening during multitasking challenges. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of age-related hearing loss (ARHL) on word recognition accuracy in a dual-task experiment. Virtual reality (VR) technologies in a specialized laboratory (Challenging Environment Assessment Laboratory) were used to produce a controlled and safe simulated environment for listening while walking. In a simulation of a downtown street intersection, participants completed two single-task conditions, listening-only (standing stationary) and walking-only (walking on a treadmill to cross the simulated intersection with no speech presented), and a dual-task condition (listening while walking). For the listening task, they were required to recognize words spoken by a target talker when there was a competing talker. For some blocks of trials, the target talker was always located at 0° azimuth (100% probability condition); for other blocks, the target talker was more likely (60% of trials) to be located at the center (0° azimuth) and less likely (40% of trials) to be located at the left (270° azimuth). The participants were eight older adults with bilateral HL (mean age = 73.3 yr, standard deviation [SD] = 8.4; three males) who wore their own HAs during testing and eight controls with normal hearing (NH) thresholds (mean age = 69.9 yr, SD = 5.4; two males). No participant had clinically significant visual, cognitive, or mobility impairments. Word recognition accuracy and kinematic parameters (head and trunk angles, step width and length, stride time, cadence) were analyzed using mixed factorial analysis of variances with group as a between-subjects factor. Task condition (single versus dual) and probability (100% versus 60%) were within

  18. A Mixed Methods Assessment of Students' Flow Experiences during a Mobile Augmented Reality Science Game

    Bressler, D. M.; Bodzin, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Current studies have reported that secondary students are highly engaged while playing mobile augmented reality (AR) learning games. Some researchers have posited that players' engagement may indicate a flow experience, but no research results have confirmed this hypothesis with vision-based AR learning games. This study investigated factors…

  19. Augmented reality fluoroscopy simulation of the guide-wire insertion in DHS surgery: A proof of concept study.

    van Duren, B H; Sugand, K; Wescott, R; Carrington, R; Hart, A

    2018-05-01

    Hip fractures contribute to a significant clinical burden globally with over 1.6 million cases per annum and up to 30% mortality rate within the first year. Insertion of a dynamic hip screw (DHS) is a frequently performed procedure to treat extracapsular neck of femur fractures. Poorly performed DHS fixation of extracapsular neck of femur fractures can result in poor mobilisation, chronic pain, and increased cut-out rate requiring revision surgery. A realistic, affordable, and portable fluoroscopic simulation system can improve performance metrics in trainees, including the tip-apex distance (the only clinically validated outcome), and improve outcomes. We developed a digital fluoroscopic imaging simulator using orthogonal cameras to track coloured markers attached to the guide-wire which created a virtual overlay on fluoroscopic images of the hip. To test the accuracy with which the augmented reality system could track a guide-wire, a standard workshop femur was used to calibrate the system with a positional marker fixed to indicate the apex; this allowed for comparison between guide-wire tip-apex distance (TAD) calculated by the system to be compared to that physically measured. Tests were undertaken to determine: (1) how well the apex could be targeted; (2) the accuracy of the calculated TAD. (3) The number of iterations through the algorithm giving the optimal accuracy-time relationship. The calculated TAD was found to have an average root mean square error of 4.2 mm. The accuracy of the algorithm was shown to increase with the number of iterations up to 20 beyond which the error asymptotically converged to an error of 2 mm. This work demonstrates a novel augmented reality simulation of guide-wire insertion in DHS surgery. To our knowledge this has not been previously achieved. In contrast to virtual reality, augmented reality is able to simulate fluoroscopy while allowing the trainee to interact with real instrumentation and performing the procedure on

  20. Simulated Prism Therapy in Virtual Reality produces larger after-effects than standard prism exposure in normal healthy subject - Implications for Neglect Therapy

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality is an important area of exploration within computer-based cognitive rehabilitation of visual neglect. Virtual reality will allow for closer monitoring of patient behaviour during prism adaptation therapy and perhaps change the way we induce prismatic after......-effects. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effect of two different prism simulation conditions in virtual reality to a standard exposure to prism goggles after one session of Prism Adaptation Therapy in healthy subjects. METHOD: 20 healthy subjects were subjected to one session of prism adaptation therapy under...... training for rehabilitation of hemi spatial attentional deficits such as visual neglect....