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Sample records for mitochondrial atp production

  1. Alternative mitochondrial functions in cell physiopathology: beyond ATP production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowaltowski A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mitochondria are the main site for ATP generation within most tissues. However, mitochondria also participate in a surprising number of alternative activities, including intracellular Ca2+ regulation, thermogenesis and the control of apoptosis. In addition, mitochondria are the main cellular generators of reactive oxygen species, and may trigger necrotic cell death under conditions of oxidative stress. This review concentrates on these alternative mitochondrial functions, and their role in cell physiopathology.

  2. Ca2+-mobilizing agonists increase mitochondrial ATP production to accelerate cytosolic Ca2+ removal: aberrations in human complex I deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, H.J.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Zeegers, D.; Emst-de Vries, S.E. van; Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Heuvel, L.W. van den; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Willems, P.H.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we reported that both the bradykinin (Bk)-induced increase in mitochondrial ATP concentration ([ATP]M) and the rate of cytosolic Ca2+ removal are significantly decreased in skin fibroblasts from a patient with an isolated complex I deficiency. Here we demonstrate that the mitochondrial

  3. RNS60, a charge-stabilized nanostructure saline alters Xenopus Laevis oocyte biophysical membrane properties by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Kim, Duk-Soo; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2015-01-01

    We have examined the effects of RNS60, a 0.9% saline containing charge-stabilized oxygen nanobubble-based structures. RNS60 is generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor–Couette–Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. This study, implemented in Xenopus laevis oocytes, addresses both the electrophysiological membrane properties and parallel biological processes in the cytoplasm. Intracellular recordings from defolliculated X. laevis oocytes were implemented in: (1) air oxygenated standard Ringer's solution, (2) RNS60-based Ringer's solution, (3) RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen)-based Ringer's, and (4) ONS60 (saline containing high pressure oxygen without TCP modification)-based Ringer's. RNS60-based Ringer's solution induced membrane hyperpolarization from the resting membrane potential. This effect was prevented by: (1) ouabain (a blocker of the sodium/potassium ATPase), (2) rotenone (a mitochondrial electron transfer chain inhibitor preventing usable ATP synthesis), and (3) oligomycin A (an inhibitor of ATP synthase) indicating that RNS60 effects intracellular ATP levels. Increased intracellular ATP levels following RNS60 treatment were directly demonstrated using luciferin/luciferase photon emission. These results indicate that RNS60 alters intrinsic the electrophysiological properties of the X. laevis oocyte membrane by increasing mitochondrial-based ATP synthesis. Ultrastructural analysis of the oocyte cytoplasm demonstrated increased mitochondrial length in the presence of RNS60-based Ringer's solution. It is concluded that the biological properties of RNS60 relate to its ability to optimize ATP synthesis. PMID:25742953

  4. Non-cytochrome mediated mitochondrial ATP production in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bienen, E. J.; Maturi, R. K.; Pollakis, G.; Clarkson, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    The life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei brucei involves a series of differentiation steps characterized by marked changes in mitochondrial development and function. The bloodstream forms of this parasite completely lack cytochromes and have not been considered to have any Krebs cycle function. It has

  5. How the nucleus and mitochondria communicate in energy production during stress: nuclear MtATP6, an early-stress responsive gene, regulates the mitochondrial F₁F₀-ATP synthase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Ali Asghar; Ebrahimie, Eemaeil; Taghavi, Seyed Mohsen; Niazi, Ali; Babgohari, Mahbobeh Zamani; Deihimi, Tahereh; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Ramezani, Amin

    2013-07-01

    A small number of stress-responsive genes, such as those of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase complex, are encoded by both the nucleus and mitochondria. The regulatory mechanism of these joint products is mysterious. The expression of 6-kDa subunit (MtATP6), a relatively uncharacterized nucleus-encoded subunit of F0 part, was measured during salinity stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivated wheat genotypes, as well as in the wild wheat genotypes, Triticum and Aegilops using qRT-PCR. The MtATP6 expression was suddenly induced 3 h after NaCl treatment in all genotypes, indicating an early inducible stress-responsive behavior. Promoter analysis showed that the MtATP6 promoter includes cis-acting elements such as ABRE, MYC, MYB, GTLs, and W-boxes, suggesting a role for this gene in abscisic acid-mediated signaling, energy metabolism, and stress response. It seems that 6-kDa subunit, as an early response gene and nuclear regulatory factor, translocates to mitochondria and completes the F1F0-ATP synthase complex to enhance ATP production and maintain ion homeostasis under stress conditions. These communications between nucleus and mitochondria are required for inducing mitochondrial responses to stress pathways. Dual targeting of 6-kDa subunit may comprise as a mean of inter-organelle communication and save energy for the cell. Interestingly, MtATP6 showed higher and longer expression in the salt-tolerant wheat and the wild genotypes compared to the salt-sensitive genotype. Apparently, salt-sensitive genotypes have lower ATP production efficiency and weaker energy management than wild genotypes; a stress tolerance mechanism that has not been transferred to cultivated genotypes.

  6. Antihypertrophic Effects of Small Molecules that Maintain Mitochondrial ATP Levels Under Hypoxia

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    Hiroaki Nagai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since impaired mitochondrial ATP production in cardiomyocytes is thought to lead to heart failure, a drug that protects mitochondria and improves ATP production under disease conditions would be an attractive treatment option. In this study, we identified small-molecule drugs, including the anti-parasitic agent, ivermectin, that maintain mitochondrial ATP levels under hypoxia in cardiomyocytes. Mechanistically, transcriptomic analysis and gene silencing experiments revealed that ivermectin increased mitochondrial ATP production by inducing Cox6a2, a subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Furthermore, ivermectin inhibited the hypertrophic response of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Pharmacological inhibition of importin β, one of the targets of ivermectin, exhibited protection against mitochondrial ATP decline and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These findings indicate that maintaining mitochondrial ATP under hypoxia may prevent hypertrophy and improve cardiac function, providing therapeutic options for mitochondrial dysfunction.

  7. Cultured senescent myoblasts derived from human vastus lateralis exhibit normal mitochondrial ATP synthesis capacities with correlating concomitant ROS production while whole cell ATP production is decreased

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The free radical theory of aging says that increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with old age. In the present study we have investigated the effects of cellular senescence on muscle energetic by comparing mitochondrial content and function in cultured muscle sate...... in the single mitochondrion in response to decreased mitochondrial mass and reduced extra-mitochondrial energy supply. This then can lead to the increased damage of DNA, lipids and proteins of the mitochondria as postulated by the free radical theory of aging....

  8. Nuclear genetic defects of mitochondrial ATP synthase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Mráček, Tomáš; Vrbacký, Marek; Kaplanová, Vilma; Karbanová, Vendula; Nůsková, Hana; Pecina, Petr; Houštěk, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S57-S71 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0970; GA ČR GAP303/12/1363; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370; GA MZd(CZ) NT14050 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 370411 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial diseases * TMEM70 * ATPAF1 * ATP5A1 * ATP5E Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  9. Highly divergent mitochondrial ATP synthase complexes in Tetrahymena thermophila.

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    Praveen Balabaskaran Nina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The F-type ATP synthase complex is a rotary nano-motor driven by proton motive force to synthesize ATP. Its F(1 sector catalyzes ATP synthesis, whereas the F(o sector conducts the protons and provides a stator for the rotary action of the complex. Components of both F(1 and F(o sectors are highly conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Therefore, it was a surprise that genes encoding the a and b subunits as well as other components of the F(o sector were undetectable in the sequenced genomes of a variety of apicomplexan parasites. While the parasitic existence of these organisms could explain the apparent incomplete nature of ATP synthase in Apicomplexa, genes for these essential components were absent even in Tetrahymena thermophila, a free-living ciliate belonging to a sister clade of Apicomplexa, which demonstrates robust oxidative phosphorylation. This observation raises the possibility that the entire clade of Alveolata may have invented novel means to operate ATP synthase complexes. To assess this remarkable possibility, we have carried out an investigation of the ATP synthase from T. thermophila. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE revealed the ATP synthase to be present as a large complex. Structural study based on single particle electron microscopy analysis suggested the complex to be a dimer with several unique structures including an unusually large domain on the intermembrane side of the ATP synthase and novel domains flanking the c subunit rings. The two monomers were in a parallel configuration rather than the angled configuration previously observed in other organisms. Proteomic analyses of well-resolved ATP synthase complexes from 2-D BN/BN-PAGE identified orthologs of seven canonical ATP synthase subunits, and at least 13 novel proteins that constitute subunits apparently limited to the ciliate lineage. A mitochondrially encoded protein, Ymf66, with predicted eight transmembrane domains could be a

  10. Functional mitochondrial ATP synthase proteolipid gene produced by recombination of parental genes in a petunia somatic hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, M.; Hanson, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    A novel ATP synthase subunit 9 gene (atp9) was identified in the mitochondrial genome of a Petunia somatic hybrid line (13-133) which was produced from a fusion between Petunia lines 3688 and 3704. The novel gene was generated by intergenomic recombination between atp9 genes from the two parental plant lines. The entire atp9 coding region is represented on the recombinant gene. Comparison of gene sequences using electrophoresis and autoradiography, indicate that the 5' transcribed region is contributed by an atp9 gene from 3704 and the 3' transcribed region is contributed by an atp9 gene from 3688. The recombinant atp9 gene is transcriptionally active. The location of the 5' and 3' transcript termini are conserved with respect to the parental genes, resulting in the production of hybrid transcripts

  11. Malnutrition-associated liver steatosis and ATP depletion is caused by peroxisomal and mitochondrial dysfunction.

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    van Zutphen, Tim; Ciapaite, Jolita; Bloks, Vincent W; Ackereley, Cameron; Gerding, Albert; Jurdzinski, Angelika; de Moraes, Roberta Allgayer; Zhang, Ling; Wolters, Justina C; Bischoff, Rainer; Wanders, Ronald J; Houten, Sander M; Bronte-Tinkew, Dana; Shatseva, Tatiana; Lewis, Gary F; Groen, Albert K; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M; Jonker, Johan W; Kim, Peter K; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2016-12-01

    Severe malnutrition in young children is associated with signs of hepatic dysfunction such as steatosis and hypoalbuminemia, but its etiology is unknown. Peroxisomes and mitochondria play key roles in various hepatic metabolic functions including lipid metabolism and energy production. To investigate the involvement of these organelles in the mechanisms underlying malnutrition-induced hepatic dysfunction we developed a rat model of malnutrition. Weanling rats were placed on a low protein or control diet (5% or 20% of calories from protein, respectively) for four weeks. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial structural features were characterized using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Mitochondrial function was assessed using high-resolution respirometry. A novel targeted quantitative proteomics method was applied to analyze 47 mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid β-oxidation pathways. Low protein diet-fed rats developed hypoalbuminemia and hepatic steatosis, consistent with the human phenotype. Hepatic peroxisome content was decreased and metabolomic analysis indicated peroxisomal dysfunction. This was followed by changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure and increased mitochondrial content. Mitochondrial function was impaired due to multiple defects affecting respiratory chain complex I and IV, pyruvate uptake and several β-oxidation enzymes, leading to strongly reduced hepatic ATP levels. Fenofibrate supplementation restored hepatic peroxisome abundance and increased mitochondrial β-oxidation capacity, resulting in reduced steatosis and normalization of ATP and plasma albumin levels. Malnutrition leads to severe impairments in hepatic peroxisomal and mitochondrial function, and hepatic metabolic dysfunction. We discuss the potential future implications of our findings for the clinical management of malnourished children. Severe malnutrition in children is associated with metabolic disturbances

  12. Mitochondrial complex III defects contribute to inefficient respiration and ATP synthesis in the myocardium of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice.

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    Wen, Jian-Jun; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a thorough analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetic function as well as the biochemical and molecular factors that are deregulated and contribute to compromised adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in the myocardium during Trypanosoma cruzi infection. We show that ADP-stimulated state 3 respiration and ATP synthesis supported by pyruvate/malate (provides electrons to complex I) and succinate (provides electrons to complex II) substrates were significantly decreased in left ventricular tissue and isolated cardiac mitochondria of infected mice. The decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis in infected murine hearts was not a result of uncoupling between the electron-transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation and decreased availability of the intermediary metabolites (e.g., NADH). The observed decline in the activities of complex-I, -IV, and -V was not physiologically relevant and did not contribute to compromised respiration and ATP synthesis in infected myocardium. Instead, complex III activity was decreased above the threshold level and contributed to respiratory-chain inefficiency and the resulting decline in mitochondrial ATP synthesis in infected myocardium. The loss in complex III activity occurred as a consequence of cytochrome b depletion. Treatment of infected mice with phenyl-alpha-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN, antioxidant) was beneficial in preserving the mtDNA-encoded cytochrome b expression, and subsequently resulted in improved complex III activity, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP production in infected myocardium. Overall, we provide novel data on the mechanism(s) involved in cardiac bioenergetic inefficiency during T. cruzi infection.

  13. Dioxin-induced acute cardiac mitochondrial oxidative damage and increased activity of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Susana P.; Pereira, Gonçalo C.; Pereira, Cláudia V.; Carvalho, Filipa S.; Cordeiro, Marília H.; Mota, Paula C.; Ramalho-Santos, João; Moreno, António J.; Oliveira, Paulo J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental dioxin 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is classified as a Group 1 human carcinogen and teratogenic agent. We hypothesize that TCDD-induced oxidative stress may also interfere with mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels (mitoKATP), which are known to regulate and to be regulated by mitochondrial redox state. We investigated the effects of an acute treatment of male Wistar rats with TCDD (50 μg/kg i.p.) and measured the regulation of cardiac mitoKATP. While the function of cardiac mitochondria was slightly depressed, mitoKATP activity was 52% higher in animals treated with TCDD. The same effects were not observed in liver mitochondria isolated from the same animals. Our data also shows that regulation of mitochondrial ROS production by mitoKATP activity is different in both groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that TCDD increases mitoKATP activity in the heart, which may counteract the increased oxidative stress caused by the dioxin during acute exposure. -- Highlights: •Acute TCDD treatment of Wistar rats causes cardiac oxidative stress. •Acute TCDD treatment causes cardiac mitochondrial alterations. •Mitochondrial liver vs. heart alterations are distinct. •TCDD treatment resulted in altered activity of cardiac mitochondrial K-ATP channels. -- Dioxin alters the regulation of cardiac mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels and disturbs mitochondrial physiology

  14. Low energy costs of F1Fo ATP synthase reversal in colon carcinoma cells deficient in mitochondrial complex IV.

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    Zhdanov, Alexander V; Andreev, Dmitry E; Baranov, Pavel V; Papkovsky, Dmitri B

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial polarisation is paramount for a variety of cellular functions. Under ischemia, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and proton gradient (ΔpH) are maintained via a reversal of mitochondrial F1Fo ATP synthase (mATPase), which can rapidly deplete ATP and drive cells into energy crisis. We found that under normal conditions in cells with disassembled cytochrome c oxidase complex (COX-deficient HCT116), mATPase maintains ΔΨm at levels only 15-20% lower than in WT cells, and for this utilises relatively little ATP. For a small energy expenditure, mATPase enables mitochondrial ΔpH, protein import, Ca 2+ turnover, and supports free radical detoxication machinery enlarged to protect the cells from oxidative damage. Whereas in COX-deficient cells the main source of ATP is glycolysis, the ΔΨm is still maintained upon inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocators with bongkrekic acid and carboxyatractyloside, indicating that the role of ANTs is redundant, and matrix substrate level phosphorylation alone or in cooperation with ATP-Mg/P i carriers can continuously support the mATPase activity. Intriguingly, we found that mitochondrial complex III is active, and it contributes not only to free radical production, but also to ΔΨm maintenance and energy budget of COX-deficient cells. Overall, this study demonstrates that F1Fo ATP synthase can support general mitochondrial and cellular functions, working in extremely efficient 'energy saving' reverse mode and flexibly recruiting free radical detoxication and ATP producing / transporting pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy-dependent dissociation of ATP from high affinity catalytic sites of beef heart mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penefsky, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    Incubation of [gamma- 32 P]ATP with a molar excess of the membrane-bound form of mitochondrial ATPase (F1) results in binding of the bulk of the radioactive nucleotide in high affinity catalytic sites (Ka = 10(12) M-1). Subsequent initiation of respiration by addition of succinate or NADH is accompanied by a profound decrease in the affinity for ATP. About one-third of the bound radioactive ATP appears to dissociate, that is, the [gamma- 32 P]ATP becomes accessible to hexokinase. The NADH-stimulated dissociation of [gamma- 32 P]ATP is energy-dependent since the stimulation is inhibited by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and is prevented by respiratory chain inhibitors. The rate of the energy-dependent dissociation of ATP that occurs in the presence of NADH, ADP, and Pi is commensurate with the measured initial rate of ATP synthesis in NADH-supported oxidative phosphorylation catalyzed by the same submitochondrial particles. Thus, the rate of dissociation of ATP from the high affinity catalytic site of submitochondrial particles meets the criterion of kinetic competency under the conditions of oxidative phosphorylation. These experiments provide evidence in support of the argument that energy conserved during the oxidation of substrates by the respiratory chain can be utilized to reduce the very tight binding of product ATP in high affinity catalytic sites and to promote dissociation of the nucleotide

  16. Highly Divergent Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Complexes in Tetrahymena thermophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nina, Praveen Balabaskaran; Dudkina, Natalya V.; Kane, Lesley A.; van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Mather, Michael W.; Vaidya, Akhil B.; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    The F-type ATP synthase complex is a rotary nano-motor driven by proton motive force to synthesize ATP. Its F(1) sector catalyzes ATP synthesis, whereas the F(o) sector conducts the protons and provides a stator for the rotary action of the complex. Components of both F(1) and F(o) sectors are

  17. Lysosomal Storage of Subunit c of Mitochondrial ATP Synthase in Brain-Specific Atp13a2-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shigeto; Koike, Masato; Funayama, Manabu; Ezaki, Junji; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ueno, Takashi; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2016-12-01

    Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS) is an autosomal recessive form of early-onset parkinsonism linked to the PARK9 locus. The causative gene for KRS is Atp13a2, which encodes a lysosomal type 5 P-type ATPase. We recently showed that KRS/PARK9-linked mutations lead to several lysosomal alterations, including reduced proteolytic processing of cathepsin D in vitro. However, it remains unknown how deficiency of Atp13a2 is connected to lysosomal impairments. To address this issue, we analyzed brain tissues of Atp13a2 conditional-knockout mice, which exhibited characteristic features of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, including accumulation of lipofuscin positive for subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase, suggesting that a common pathogenic mechanism underlies both neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cyclophilin D Promotes Brain Mitochondrial F1FO ATP Synthase Dysfunction in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauba, Esha; Guo, Lan; Du, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Brain aging is the known strongest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In recent years, mitochondrial deficits have been proposed to be a common mechanism linking brain aging to AD. Therefore, to elucidate the causative mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging brains is of paramount importance for our understanding of the pathogenesis of AD, in particular its sporadic form. Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a specific mitochondrial protein. Recent studies have shown that F1FO ATP synthase oligomycin sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP) is a binding partner of CypD. The interaction of CypD with OSCP modulates F1FO ATP synthase function and mediates mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. Here, we have found that increased CypD expression, enhanced CypD/OSCP interaction, and selective loss of OSCP are prominent brain mitochondrial changes in aging mice. Along with these changes, brain mitochondria from the aging mice demonstrated decreased F1FO ATP synthase activity and defective F1FO complex coupling. In contrast, CypD deficient mice exhibited substantially mitigated brain mitochondrial F1FO ATP synthase dysfunction with relatively preserved mitochondrial function during aging. Interestingly, the aging-related OSCP loss was also dramatically attenuated by CypD depletion. Therefore, the simplest interpretation of this study is that CypD promotes F1FO ATP synthase dysfunction and the resultant mitochondrial deficits in aging brains. In addition, in view of CypD and F1FO ATP synthase alterations seen in AD brains, the results further suggest that CypD-mediated F1FO ATP synthase deregulation is a shared mechanism linking mitochondrial deficits in brain aging and AD.

  19. Yeast Mitochondrial ADP/ATP Carriers Are Monomeric in Detergents as Demonstrated by Differential Affinity Purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamber, Lisa; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Kunji, Edmund R.S.; Barber, L

    2007-01-01

    Most mitochondrial carriers carry out equimolar exchange of substrates and they are believed widely to exist as homo-dimers. Here we show by differential tagging that the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier AAC2 is a monomer in mild detergents. Carriers with and without six-histidine or

  20. Yeast Mitochondrial Interactosome Model: Metabolon Membrane Proteins Complex Involved in the Channeling of ADP/ATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Clémençon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a mitochondrial interactosome (MI has been currently well established in mammalian cells but the exact composition of this super-complex is not precisely known, and its organization seems to be different from that in yeast. One major difference is the absence of mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK in yeast, unlike that described in the organization model of MI, especially in cardiac, skeletal muscle and brain cells. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed description of different partner proteins involved in the synergistic ADP/ATP transport across the mitochondrial membranes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to propose a new mitochondrial interactosome model. The ADP/ATP (Aacp and inorganic phosphate (PiC carriers as well as the VDAC (or mitochondrial porin catalyze the import and export of ADP, ATP and Pi across the mitochondrial membranes. Aacp and PiC, which appear to be associated with the ATP synthase, consist of two nanomotors (F0, F1 under specific conditions and form ATP synthasome. Identification and characterization of such a complex were described for the first time by Pedersen and co-workers in 2003.

  1. Persistence of the mitochondrial permeability transition in the absence of subunit c of human ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiuya; Ford, Holly C; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2017-03-28

    The permeability transition in human mitochondria refers to the opening of a nonspecific channel, known as the permeability transition pore (PTP), in the inner membrane. Opening can be triggered by calcium ions, leading to swelling of the organelle, disruption of the inner membrane, and ATP synthesis, followed by cell death. Recent proposals suggest that the pore is associated with the ATP synthase complex and specifically with the ring of c-subunits that constitute the membrane domain of the enzyme's rotor. The c-subunit is produced from three nuclear genes, ATP5G1 , ATP5G2 , and ATP5G3 , encoding identical copies of the mature protein with different mitochondrial-targeting sequences that are removed during their import into the organelle. To investigate the involvement of the c-subunit in the PTP, we generated a clonal cell, HAP1-A12, from near-haploid human cells, in which ATP5G1 , ATP5G2 , and ATP5G3 were disrupted. The HAP1-A12 cells are incapable of producing the c-subunit, but they preserve the characteristic properties of the PTP. Therefore, the c-subunit does not provide the PTP. The mitochondria in HAP1-A12 cells assemble a vestigial ATP synthase, with intact F 1 -catalytic and peripheral stalk domains and the supernumerary subunits e, f, and g, but lacking membrane subunits ATP6 and ATP8. The same vestigial complex plus associated c-subunits was characterized from human 143B ρ 0 cells, which cannot make the subunits ATP6 and ATP8, but retain the PTP. Therefore, none of the membrane subunits of the ATP synthase that are involved directly in transmembrane proton translocation is involved in forming the PTP.

  2. Defects in mitochondrial ATP synthesis in dystrophin-deficient mdx skeletal muscles may be caused by complex I insufficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Rybalka

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a chronic, progressive and ultimately fatal skeletal muscle wasting disease characterised by sarcolemmal fragility and intracellular Ca2+ dysregulation secondary to the absence of dystrophin. Mounting literature also suggests that the dysfunction of key energy systems within the muscle may contribute to pathological muscle wasting by reducing ATP availability to Ca2+ regulation and fibre regeneration. No study to date has biochemically quantified and contrasted mitochondrial ATP production capacity by dystrophic mitochondria isolated from their pathophysiological environment such to determine whether mitochondria are indeed capable of meeting this heightened cellular ATP demand, or examined the effects of an increasing extramitochondrial Ca2+ environment. Using isolated mitochondria from the diaphragm and tibialis anterior of 12 week-old dystrophin-deficient mdx and healthy control mice (C57BL10/ScSn we have demonstrated severely depressed Complex I-mediated mitochondrial ATP production rate in mdx mitochondria that occurs irrespective of the macronutrient-derivative substrate combination fed into the Kreb's cycle, and, which is partially, but significantly, ameliorated by inhibition of Complex I with rotenone and stimulation of Complex II-mediated ATP-production with succinate. There was no difference in the MAPR response of mdx mitochondria to increasing extramitochondrial Ca2+ load in comparison to controls, and 400 nM extramitochondrial Ca2+ was generally shown to be inhibitory to MAPR in both groups. Our data suggests that DMD pathology is exacerbated by a Complex I deficiency, which may contribute in part to the severe reductions in ATP production previously observed in dystrophic skeletal muscle.

  3. Non-bilayer structures in mitochondrial membranes regulate ATP synthase activity.

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    Gasanov, Sardar E; Kim, Aleksandr A; Yaguzhinsky, Lev S; Dagda, Ruben K

    2018-02-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic phospholipid at the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) that facilitates the formation of transient non-bilayer (non-lamellar) structures to maintain mitochondrial integrity. CL modulates mitochondrial functions including ATP synthesis. However, the biophysical mechanisms by which CL generates non-lamellar structures and the extent to which these structures contribute to ATP synthesis remain unknown. We hypothesized that CL and ATP synthase facilitate the formation of non-bilayer structures at the IMM to stimulate ATP synthesis. By using 1 H NMR and 31 P NMR techniques, we observed that increasing the temperature (8°C to 37°C), lowering the pH (3.0), or incubating intact mitochondria with CTII - an IMM-targeted toxin that increases the formation of immobilized non-bilayer structures - elevated the formation of non-bilayer structures to stimulate ATP synthesis. The F 0 sector of the ATP synthase complex can facilitate the formation of non-bilayer structures as incubating model membranes enriched with IMM-specific phospholipids with exogenous DCCD-binding protein of the F 0 sector (DCCD-BPF) elevated the formation of immobilized non-bilayer structures to a similar manner as CTII. Native PAGE assays revealed that CL, but not other anionic phospholipids, specifically binds to DCCD-BPF to promote the formation of stable lipid-protein complexes. Mechanistically, molecular docking studies identified two lipid binding sites for CL in DCCD-BPF. We propose a new model of ATP synthase regulation in which CL mediates the formation of non-bilayer structures that serve to cluster protons and ATP synthase complexes as a mechanism to enhance proton translocation to the F 0 sector, and thereby increase ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The requirement of matrix ATP for the import of precursor proteins into the mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuart, Rosemary A.; Gruhler, Albrecht; Klei, Ida van der; Guiard, Bernard; Koll, Hans; Neupert, Walter

    1994-01-01

    The role of ATP in the matrix for the import of precursor proteins into the various mitochondrial subcompartments was investigated by studying protein translocation at experimentally defined ATP levels. Proteins targeted to the matrix were neither imported or processed when matrix ATP was depleted.

  5. Mitochondrial Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bulent Kurt; Turgut Topal

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are the major energy source of cells. Mitochondrial disease occurs due to a defect in mitochondrial energy production. A valuable energy production in mitochondria depend a healthy interconnection between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. A mutation in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA may cause abnormalities in ATP production and single or multiple organ dysfunctions, secondarily. In this review, we summarize mitochondrial physiology, mitochondrial genetics, and clinical expression and ...

  6. Mitochondrial ADP/ATP exchange inhibition: a novel off-target mechanism underlying ibipinabant-induced myotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirris, Tom J J; Ritschel, Tina; Herma Renkema, G; Willems, Peter H G M; Smeitink, Jan A M; Russel, Frans G M

    2015-09-29

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) antagonists appear to be promising drugs for the treatment of obesity, however, serious side effects have hampered their clinical application. Rimonabant, the first in class CB1R antagonist, was withdrawn from the market because of psychiatric side effects. This has led to the search for more peripherally restricted CB1R antagonists, one of which is ibipinabant. However, this 3,4-diarylpyrazoline derivative showed muscle toxicity in a pre-clinical dog study with mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we studied the molecular mechanism by which ibipinabant induces mitochondrial toxicity. We observed a strong cytotoxic potency of ibipinabant in C2C12 myoblasts. Functional characterization of mitochondria revealed increased cellular reactive oxygen species generation and a decreased ATP production capacity, without effects on the catalytic activities of mitochondrial enzyme complexes I-V or the complex specific-driven oxygen consumption. Using in silico off-target prediction modelling, combined with in vitro validation in isolated mitochondria and mitoplasts, we identified adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)-dependent mitochondrial ADP/ATP exchange as a novel molecular mechanism underlying ibipinabant-induced toxicity. Minor structural modification of ibipinabant could abolish ANT inhibition leading to a decreased cytotoxic potency, as observed with the ibipinabant derivative CB23. Our results will be instrumental in the development of new types of safer CB1R antagonists.

  7. Episodic weakness due to mitochondrial DNA MT-ATP6/8 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auré, Karine; Dubourg, Odile; Jardel, Claude; Clarysse, Lucie; Sternberg, Damien; Fournier, Emmanuel; Laforêt, Pascal; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Petiot, Philippe; Gervais-Bernard, Hélène; Vial, Christophe; Bedat-Millet, Anne-Laure; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Vandier, Christophe; Fontaine, Bertrand; Lombès, Anne

    2013-11-19

    To report that homoplasmic deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA MT-ATP6/8 genes may be responsible for acute episodes of limb weakness mimicking periodic paralysis due to channelopathies and dramatically responding to acetazolamide. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing and restriction PCR, oxidative phosphorylation functional assays, reactive oxygen species metabolism, and patch-clamp technique in cultured skin fibroblasts. Occurrence of a typical MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) syndrome in a single member of a large pedigree with episodic weakness associated with a later-onset distal motor neuropathy led to the disclosure of 2 deleterious mitochondrial DNA mutations. The MT-ATP6 m.9185T>C p.Leu220Pro mutation, previously associated with Leigh syndrome, was present in all family members, while the MT-TL1 m.3271T>C mutation, a known cause of MELAS syndrome, was observed in the sole patient with MELAS presentation. Significant defect of complexes V and I as well as oxidative stress were observed in both primary fibroblasts and cybrid cells with 100% m.9185T>C mutation. Permanent plasma membrane depolarization and altered permeability to K(+) in fibroblasts provided a link with the paralysis episodes. Screening of 9 patients, based on their clinical phenotype, identified 4 patients with similar deleterious MT-ATP6 mutations (twice m.9185T>C and once m.9176T>C or m.8893T>C). A fifth patient presented with an original potentially deleterious MT-ATP8 mutation (m.8403T>C). All mutations were associated with almost-normal complex V activity but significant oxidative stress and permanent plasma membrane depolarization. Homoplasmic mutations in the MT-ATP6/8 genes may cause episodic weakness responding to acetazolamide treatment.

  8. Nuclear Expression of a Mitochondrial DNA Gene: Mitochondrial Targeting of Allotopically Expressed Mutant ATP6 in Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Dunn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear encoding of mitochondrial DNA transgenes followed by mitochondrial targeting of the expressed proteins (allotopic expression; AE represents a potentially powerful strategy for creating animal models of mtDNA disease. Mice were created that allotopically express either a mutant (A6M or wildtype (A6W mt-Atp6 transgene. Compared to non-transgenic controls, A6M mice displayed neuromuscular and motor deficiencies (wire hang, pole, and balance beam analyses; P0.05. This study illustrates a mouse model capable of circumventing in vivo mitochondrial mutations. Moreover, it provides evidence supporting AE as a tool for mtDNA disease research with implications in development of DNA-based therapeutics.

  9. Sildenafil protects neuronal cells from mitochondrial toxicity induced by β-amyloid peptide via ATP-sensitive K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yonghae; Kim, Koanhoi; Cho, Hyok-Rae

    2018-06-02

    To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of sildenafil in animal models of neurological disorders, we investigated the effects of sildenafil on the mitochondrial toxicity induced by β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide. Treatment of HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells with Aβ 25∼35 results in increased mitochondrial Ca 2+ load, which is subsequently suppressed by sildenafil as well as by diazoxide, a selective opener of the ATP-sensitive K + channels (K ATP ). However, the suppressive effects of sildenafil and diazoxide are significantly attenuated by 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5-HD), a K ATP inhibitor. The increased mitochondrial Ca 2+ overload is accompanied by decrease in the intracellular ATP concentration, increase in intracellular ROS generation, occurrence of mitochondrial permeability transition, and activation of caspase-9 and cell death. Exposure to sildenafil inhibited the mitochondria-associated changes and cell death induced by Aβ. However, the inhibitory effects of sildenafil are abolished or weakened in the presence of 5-HD, suggesting that opening of the mitochondrial K ATP is required for sildenafil to exert these effects. Taken together, these results indicate that at the mitochondrial levels, sildenafil plays a protective role towards neuronal cell in an environment rich in Aβ, and exerts its effects via the mitochondrial K ATP channels-dependent mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Place of Mitochondrial Potassium-ATP Channels in The Mechanism of Effect of Ischemic Conditionings

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    İlker Şengül

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion episodes in a short interval “just before” ischemia performed experimentally have been called preconditioning, where as “just after” ischemia have been called postconditioning and tissue protective effects of these endogenous mechanisms have been shown in various organs via various studies. Although multipl mechanisms have been being propounded about these phenomenons which have been found area of usage from hearth surgery to organ transplantation, mitochondrial potassium ATP-channels have been maintaining its importance.

  11. GUG is an efficient initiation codon to translate the human mitochondrial ATP6 gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubot, A.; Godinot, C.; Dumur, V.; Sablonniere, B.; Stojkovic, T.; Cuisset, J. M.; Vojtíšková, Alena; Pecina, Petr; Ješina, Pavel; Houštěk, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 313, č. 3 (2004), s. 687-693 ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA MZd NE6533 Grant - others:Fondation Jerome LeJeune(XE) Grant project; GA-(FR) CNRS; GA-(FR) Rhone Alpes Region Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : GUG initiation codon * ATP6 gene * mitochondrial diseases Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.904, year: 2004

  12. The mitochondrial phosphate transporters modulate plant responses to salt stress via affecting ATP and gibberellin metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial phosphate transporter (MPT plays crucial roles in ATP production in plant cells. Three MPT genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that the mRNA accumulations of AtMPTs were up-regulated by high salinity stress in A. thaliana seedlings. And the transgenic lines overexpressing AtMPTs displayed increased sensitivity to salt stress compared with the wild-type plants during seed germination and seedling establishment stages. ATP content and energy charge was higher in overexpressing plants than those in wild-type A. thaliana under salt stress. Accordingly, the salt-sensitive phenotype of overexpressing plants was recovered after the exogenous application of atractyloside due to the change of ATP content. Interestingly, Genevestigator survey and qRT-PCR analysis indicated a large number of genes, including those related to gibberellin synthesis could be regulated by the energy availability change under stress conditions in A. thaliana. Moreover, the exogenous application of uniconazole to overexpressing lines showed that gibberellin homeostasis was disturbed in the overexpressors. Our studies reveal a possible link between the ATP content mediated by AtMPTs and gibberellin metabolism in responses to high salinity stress in A. thaliana.

  13. The Mimivirus Genome Encodes a Mitochondrial Carrier That Transports dATP and dTTP▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monné, Magnus; Robinson, Alan J.; Boes, Christoph; Harbour, Michael E.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Kunji, Edmund R. S.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the mitochondrial carrier family have been reported in eukaryotes only, where they transport metabolites and cofactors across the mitochondrial inner membrane to link the metabolic pathways of the cytosol and the matrix. The genome of the giant virus Mimiviridae mimivirus encodes a member of the mitochondrial carrier family of transport proteins. This viral protein has been expressed in Lactococcus lactis and is shown to transport dATP and dTTP. As the 1.2-Mb double-stranded DNA mimivirus genome is rich in A and T residues, we speculate that the virus is using this protein to target the host mitochondria as a source of deoxynucleotides for its replication. PMID:17229695

  14. Optimized Mitochondrial Targeting of Proteins Encoded by Modified mRNAs Rescues Cells Harboring Mutations in mtATP6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Marcelo Chin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Mitochondrial disease may be caused by mutations in the protein-coding genes of the mitochondrial genome. A promising strategy for treating such diseases is allotopic expression—the translation of wild-type copies of these proteins in the cytosol, with subsequent translocation into the mitochondria, resulting in rescue of mitochondrial function. In this paper, we develop an automated, quantitative, and unbiased screening platform to evaluate protein localization and mitochondrial morphology. This platform was used to compare 31 mitochondrial targeting sequences and 15 3′ UTRs in their ability to localize up to 9 allotopically expressed proteins to the mitochondria and their subsequent impact on mitochondrial morphology. Taking these two factors together, we synthesized chemically modified mRNAs that encode for an optimized allotopic expression construct for mtATP6. These mRNAs were able to functionally rescue a cell line harboring the 8993T > G point mutation in the mtATP6 gene. : Allotopic expression of proteins normally encoded by mtDNA is a promising therapy for mitochondrial disease. Chin et al. use an unbiased and high-content imaging-based screening platform to optimize allotopic expression. Modified mRNAs encoding for the optimized allotopic expression constructs rescued the respiration and growth of mtATP6-deficient cells. Keywords: mitochondria, mitochondrial disease, mRNA, modified mRNA, ATP6, allotopic expression, rare disease, gene therapy, screening, high content imaging

  15. Increased ATP generation in the host cell is required for efficient vaccinia virus production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Che-Fang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To search for cellular genes up-regulated by vaccinia virus (VV infection, differential display-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (ddRT-PCR assays were used to examine the expression of mRNAs from mock-infected and VV-infected HeLa cells. Two mitochondrial genes for proteins that are part of the electron transport chain that generates ATP, ND4 and CO II, were up-regulated after VV infection. Up-regulation of ND4 level by VV infection was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. Up-regulation of ND4 was reduced by the MAPK inhibitor, apigenin, which has been demonstrated elsewhere to inhibit VV replication. The induction of ND4 expression occurred after viral DNA replication since ara C, an inhibitor of poxviral DNA replication, could block this induction. ATP production was increased in the host cells after VV infection. Moreover, 4.5 μM oligomycin, an inhibitor of ATP production, reduced the ATP level 13 hr after virus infection to that of mock-infected cells and inhibited viral protein expression and virus production, suggesting that increased ATP production is required for efficient VV production. Our results further suggest that induction of ND4 expression is through a Bcl-2 independent pathway.

  16. Determination of glucose deficiency-induced cell death by mitochondrial ATP generation-driven proton homeostasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfen Cui; Yuanyuan Wang; Miao Liu; Li Qiu; Pan Xing; Xin Wang; Guoguang Ying; Binghui Li

    2017-01-01

    Glucose is one of major nutrients and its catabolism provides energy and/or building bricks for cell proliferation.Glucose deficiency results in cell death.However,the underlying mechanism still remains elusive.By using our recently developed method to monitor real-time cellular apoptosis and necrosis,we show that glucose deprivation can directly elicit necrosis,which is promoted by mitochondrial impairment,depending on mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation instead of ATP depletion.We demonstrate that glucose metabolism is the major source to produce protons.Glucose deficiency leads to lack of proton provision while mitochondrial electron transfer chain continues consuming protons to generate energy,which provokes a compensatory iysosomal proton effiux and resultant increased lysosomal pH.This lysosomal alkalinization can trigger apoptosis or necrosis depending on the extent of alkalinization.Taken together,our results build up a metabolic connection between glycolysis,mitochondrion,and lysosome,and reveal an essential role of glucose metabolism in maintaining proton homeostasis to support cell survival.

  17. In vivo inhibition of the mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase in neurons promotes metabolic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini, Laura; Pereira, Marta P; Sánchez-Cenizo, Laura; Santacatterina, Fulvio; Lucas, José J; Navarro, Carmen; Martínez-Serrano, Alberto; Cuezva, José M

    2014-04-01

    A key transducer in energy conservation and signaling cell death is the mitochondrial H(+)-ATP synthase. The expression of the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) is a strategy used by cancer cells to inhibit the activity of the H(+)-ATP synthase to generate a ROS signal that switches on cellular programs of survival. We have generated a mouse model expressing a mutant of human IF1 in brain neurons to assess the role of the H(+)-ATP synthase in cell death in vivo. The expression of hIF1 inhibits the activity of oxidative phosphorylation and mediates the shift of neurons to an enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Metabolic reprogramming induces brain preconditioning affording protection against quinolinic acid-induced excitotoxicity. Mechanistically, preconditioning involves the activation of the Akt/p70S6K and PARP repair pathways and Bcl-xL protection from cell death. Overall, our findings provide the first in vivo evidence highlighting the H(+)-ATP synthase as a target to prevent neuronal cell death.

  18. Dietary Tocotrienol/γ-Cyclodextrin Complex Increases Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and ATP Concentrations in the Brains of Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Schloesser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain aging is accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial function. In vitro studies suggest that tocotrienols, including γ- and δ-tocotrienol (T3, may exhibit neuroprotective properties. However, little is known about the effect of dietary T3 on mitochondrial function in vivo. In this study, we monitored the effect of a dietary T3/γ-cyclodextrin complex (T3CD on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels in the brain of 21-month-old mice. Mice were fed either a control diet or a diet enriched with T3CD providing 100 mg T3 per kg diet for 6 months. Dietary T3CD significantly increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels compared to those of controls. The increase in MMP and ATP due to dietary T3CD was accompanied by an increase in the protein levels of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM. Furthermore, dietary T3CD slightly increased the mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase, γ-glutamyl cysteinyl synthetase, and heme oxygenase 1 in the brain. Overall, the present data suggest that T3CD increases TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP synthesis in the brains of aged mice.

  19. ATP Synthase Deficiency due to TMEM70 Mutation Leads to Ultrastructural Mitochondrial Degeneration and Is Amenable to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne K. Braczynski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TMEM70 is involved in the biogenesis of mitochondrial ATP synthase and mutations in the TMEM70 gene impair oxidative phosphorylation. Herein, we report on pathology and treatment of ATP synthase deficiency in four siblings. A consanguineous family of Roma (Gipsy ethnic origin gave birth to 6 children of which 4 were affected presenting with dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, cardiomyopathy, metabolic crises, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria as clinical symptoms. Genetic testing revealed a homozygous mutation (c.317-2A>G in the TMEM70 gene. While light microscopy was unremarkable, ultrastructural investigation of muscle tissue revealed accumulation of swollen degenerated mitochondria with lipid crystalloid inclusions, cristae aggregation, and exocytosis of mitochondrial material. Biochemical analysis of mitochondrial complexes showed an almost complete ATP synthase deficiency. Despite harbouring the same mutation, the clinical outcome in the four siblings was different. Two children died within 60 h after birth; the other two had recurrent life-threatening metabolic crises but were successfully managed with supplementation of anaplerotic amino acids, lipids, and symptomatic treatment during metabolic crisis. In summary, TMEM70 mutations can cause distinct ultrastructural mitochondrial degeneration and almost complete deficiency of ATP synthase but are still amenable to treatment.

  20. Comparison of in vivo postexercise phosphocreatine recovery and resting ATP synthesis flux for the assessment of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den N.M.A.; Ciapaite, J.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been used to assess skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in vivo by measuring 1) phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery after exercise or 2) resting ATP synthesis flux with saturation transfer (ST). In this study, we compared both parameters in a rat model of

  1. Protection against Mitochondrial and Metal Toxicity Depends on Functional Lipid Binding Sites in ATP13A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The late endo-/lysosomal P-type ATPase ATP13A2 (PARK9 is implicated in Parkinson’s disease (PD and Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, early-onset atypical Parkinsonism. ATP13A2 interacts at the N-terminus with the signaling lipids phosphatidic acid (PA and phosphatidylinositol (3,5 bisphosphate (PI(3,5P2, which modulate ATP13A2 activity under cellular stress conditions. Here, we analyzed stable human SHSY5Y cell lines overexpressing wild-type (WT or ATP13A2 mutants in which three N-terminal lipid binding sites (LBS1–3 were mutated. We explored the regulatory role of LBS1–3 in the cellular protection by ATP13A2 against mitochondrial stress induced by rotenone and found that the LBS2-3 mutants displayed an abrogated protective effect. Moreover, in contrast to WT, the LBS2 and LBS3 mutants responded poorly to pharmacological inhibition of, respectively, PI(3,5P2 and PA formation. We further demonstrate that PA and PI(3,5P2 are also required for the ATP13A2-mediated protection against the toxic metals Mn2+, Zn2+, and Fe3+, suggesting a general lipid-dependent activation mechanism of ATP13A2 in various PD-related stress conditions. Our results indicate that the ATP13A2-mediated protection requires binding of PI(3,5P2 to LBS2 and PA to LBS3. Thus, targeting the N-terminal lipid binding sites of ATP13A2 might offer a therapeutic approach to reduce cellular toxicity of various PD insults including mitochondrial stress.

  2. Bcl-2 protects against apoptosis induced by antimycin A and bongkrekic acid without restoring cellular ATP levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, A.O. de; Meijerink, J.P.P.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Abreu, R.A. de; Witte, T.J.M. de; Jansen, J.H.; Smeitink, J.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Several studies indicate that mitochondrial ATP production as well as ADP/ATP exchange across mitochondrial membranes are impaired during apoptosis. We investigated whether Bcl-2 could protect against cell death under conditions in which ATP metabolism is inhibited. Inhibition of ATP production

  3. Ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production accompanied by upregulation of mitochondrial electron transport chain function and mitochondrial content under control of the cell cycle checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamori, Tohru; Yasui, Hironobu; Yamazumi, Masayuki; Wada, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yoshinari; Nakamura, Hideo; Inanami, Osamu

    2012-07-15

    Whereas ionizing radiation (Ir) instantaneously causes the formation of water radiolysis products that contain some reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS are also suggested to be released from biological sources in irradiated cells. It is now becoming clear that these ROS generated secondarily after Ir have a variety of biological roles. Although mitochondria are assumed to be responsible for this Ir-induced ROS production, it remains to be elucidated how Ir triggers it. Therefore, we conducted this study to decipher the mechanism of Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. In human lung carcinoma A549 cells, Ir (10 Gy of X-rays) induced a time-dependent increase in the mitochondrial ROS level. Ir also increased mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial ATP production, suggesting upregulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function after Ir. Although we found that Ir slightly enhanced mitochondrial ETC complex II activity, the complex II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid failed to reduce Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. Meanwhile, we observed that the mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA level were upregulated after Ir, indicating that Ir increased the mitochondrial content of the cell. Because irradiated cells are known to undergo cell cycle arrest under control of the checkpoint mechanisms, we examined the relationships between cell cycle and mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. We found that the cells in the G2/M phase had a higher mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level than cells in the G1 or S phase, regardless of whether the cells were irradiated. We also found that Ir-induced accumulation of the cells in the G2/M phase led to an increase in cells with a high mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. This suggested that Ir upregulated mitochondrial ETC function and mitochondrial content, resulting in mitochondrial ROS production, and that

  4. Impaired mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis in respiratory chain-deficient cells but efficient compensation of energetic disadvantage by enhanced anaerobic glycolysis due to low ATP steady state levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleist-Retzow, Juergen-Christoph von; Hue-Tran Hornig-Do; Schauen, Matthias; Eckertz, Sabrina; Tuan Anh Duong Dinh; Stassen, Frank; Lottmann, Nadine; Bust, Maria; Galunska, Bistra; Wielckens, Klaus; Hein, Wolfgang; Beuth, Joseph; Braun, Jan-Matthias; Fischer, Juergen H.; Ganitkevich, Vladimir Y.; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Wiesner, Rudolf J.

    2007-01-01

    Energy-producing pathways, adenine nucleotide levels, oxidative stress response and Ca 2+ homeostasis were investigated in cybrid cells incorporating two pathogenic mitochondrial DNA point mutations, 3243A > G and 3302A > G in tRNA Leu(UUR) , as well as Rho 0 cells and compared to their parental 143B osteosarcoma cell line. All cells suffering from a severe respiratory chain deficiency were able to proliferate as fast as controls. The major defect in oxidative phosphorylation was efficiently compensated by a rise in anaerobic glycolysis, so that the total ATP production rate was preserved. This enhancement of glycolysis was enabled by a considerable decrease of cellular total adenine nucleotide pools and a concomitant shift in the AMP + ADP/ATP ratios, while the energy charge potential was still in the normal range. Further important consequences were an increased production of superoxide which, however, was neither escorted by major changes in the antioxidative defence systems nor was it leading to substantial oxidative damage. Most interestingly, the lowered mitochondrial membrane potential led to a disturbed intramitochondrial calcium homeostasis, which most likely is a major pathomechanism in mitochondrial diseases

  5. HBCDD-induced sustained reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP and steroidogenesis in peripubertal rat Leydig cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa, E-mail: nebojsa.andric@dbe.uns.ac.rs

    2015-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), a brominated flame retardant added to various consumer products, is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. We have previously shown that 6-hour exposure to HBCDD disturbs basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced steroidogenesis in rat Leydig cells. Reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cAMP production was also observed. Here, we further expanded research on the effect of HBCDD on Leydig cells by using a prolonged exposure scenario. Cells were incubated in the presence of HBCDD during 24 h and then treated with HBCDD + hCG for additional 2 h. Results showed that HBCDD caused a sustained reduction in ATP level after 24 h of exposure, which persisted after additional 2-hour treatment with HBCDD + hCG. cAMP and androgen accumulations measured after 2 h of HBCDD + hCG treatment were also inhibited. Real-time PCR analysis showed significant inhibition in the expression of genes for steroidogenic enzymes, luteinizing hormone receptor, regulatory and transport proteins, and several transcription factors under both treatment conditions. Western blot analysis revealed a decreased level of 30 kDa steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) after HBCDD + hCG treatment. In addition, HBCDD decreased the conversion of 22-OH cholesterol to pregnenolone and androstenedione to testosterone, indicating loss of the activity of cytochrome P450C11A1 (CYP11A1) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17β). Cell survival was not affected, as confirmed by cytotoxicity and trypan blue tests or DNA fragmentation analysis. In summary, our data showed that HBCDD inhibits ATP supply, most likely through a decrease in ΔΨm, and targets multiple sites in the steroidogenic pathway in Leydig cells. - Highlights: • HBCDD causes a sustained reduction in ΔΨm and ATP level in Leydig cells. • Prolonged HBCDD exposure decreases hCG-supported steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. • HBCDD targets StAR, HSD17β and CYP11A1 in Leydig

  6. HBCDD-induced sustained reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP and steroidogenesis in peripubertal rat Leydig cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa

    2015-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), a brominated flame retardant added to various consumer products, is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. We have previously shown that 6-hour exposure to HBCDD disturbs basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced steroidogenesis in rat Leydig cells. Reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cAMP production was also observed. Here, we further expanded research on the effect of HBCDD on Leydig cells by using a prolonged exposure scenario. Cells were incubated in the presence of HBCDD during 24 h and then treated with HBCDD + hCG for additional 2 h. Results showed that HBCDD caused a sustained reduction in ATP level after 24 h of exposure, which persisted after additional 2-hour treatment with HBCDD + hCG. cAMP and androgen accumulations measured after 2 h of HBCDD + hCG treatment were also inhibited. Real-time PCR analysis showed significant inhibition in the expression of genes for steroidogenic enzymes, luteinizing hormone receptor, regulatory and transport proteins, and several transcription factors under both treatment conditions. Western blot analysis revealed a decreased level of 30 kDa steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) after HBCDD + hCG treatment. In addition, HBCDD decreased the conversion of 22-OH cholesterol to pregnenolone and androstenedione to testosterone, indicating loss of the activity of cytochrome P450C11A1 (CYP11A1) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17β). Cell survival was not affected, as confirmed by cytotoxicity and trypan blue tests or DNA fragmentation analysis. In summary, our data showed that HBCDD inhibits ATP supply, most likely through a decrease in ΔΨm, and targets multiple sites in the steroidogenic pathway in Leydig cells. - Highlights: • HBCDD causes a sustained reduction in ΔΨm and ATP level in Leydig cells. • Prolonged HBCDD exposure decreases hCG-supported steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. • HBCDD targets StAR, HSD17β and CYP11A1 in Leydig

  7. [Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channel activators in liver mitochondrial function in rats with different resistance to hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, H M; Kurhaliuk, N M; Vovkanych, L S

    2003-01-01

    Effects of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels opener pinacidil (0.06 mg/kg) and inhibitor glibenclamide (1 mg/kg) in rats with different resistance to hypoxia on indices of ADP-stimulation of mitochondrial respiration by Chance, calcium capacity and processes of lipid peroxidation in liver has been investigated. We used next substrates of oxidation: 0.35 mM succinate, 1 mM alpha-ketoglutarate. Additional analyses contain the next inhibitors: mitochondrial fermentative complex I-10 mkM rotenone, succinate dehydrogenase 2 mM malonic acid. It was shown that effects of pinacidil induced the increasing of oxidative phosporylation efficacy and ATP synthesis together with lowering of calcium capacity in rats with low resistance to hypoxia. Effects of pinacidil were leveled by glibenclamide. These changes are connected with the increasing of respiratory rate, calcium overload and intensification of lipid peroxidation processes. A conclusion was made about protective effect of pinacidil on mitochondrial functioning by economization of oxygen-dependent processes, adaptive potentialities of organisms with low resistance to hypoxia being increased.

  8. Elevated levels of mitochonrial respiratory complexes activities and ATP production in 17-β-estradiol-induced prolactin-secretory tumor cells in male rats are inhibited by melatonin in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Qiang; Yang, Quan-Hui; Xu, Rong-Kun; Xu, Jian-Ning

    2013-01-01

    Our earlier studies indicate that melatonin inhibits the proliferation of prolactinoma and induces apoptosis of pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor in rats. Melatonin has also been shown to induce apoptosis and to reduce the production of ATP in breast tumor cells. This study analyzed the levels of the four mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the production of ATP and also the effects of melatonin treatment of prolactinoma. In the in vivo study, mitochondria were harvested from control pituitaries or prolactinoma collected from the pituitaries of melatonin- and 17-β-estradiol (E2)-treated male rats. In the in vitro study, prolactinoma cells mitochondria were harvested. Activities of the four mitochondrial respiratory complexes were assayed using fluorometer. ATP production of prolactinoma cells was estimated using bioluminescent methods. Elevated levels of four mitochondrial respiratory complexes activities and ATP production were recorded in prolactinoma cells. Moreover, in both in vivo and in vitro studies, melatonin inhibited the activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the production of ATP in prolactinoma cells. There is a link between mitochondrial function increase and tumorigenesis. Melatonin induces apoptosis of pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor of rats via the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of energy metabolism.

  9. Stimulation of acetoin production in metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis by increasing ATP demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianming; Kandasamy, Vijayalakshmi; Würtz, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Having a sufficient supply of energy, usually in the form of ATP, is essential for all living organisms. In this study, however, we demonstrate that it can be beneficial to reduce ATP availability when the objective is microbial production. By introducing the ATP hydrolyzing F1-ATPase into a Lact...

  10. Mitochondrial toxicity of diclofenac and its metabolites via inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) in rat liver mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syed, Muzeeb; Skonberg, Christian; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2016-01-01

    Diclofenac is a widely prescribed NSAID, which by itself and its reactive metabolites (Phase-I and Phase-II) may be involved in serious idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Mitochondrial injury is one of the mechanisms of drug induced liver injury (DILI). In the present work, an investigation of the inh......Diclofenac is a widely prescribed NSAID, which by itself and its reactive metabolites (Phase-I and Phase-II) may be involved in serious idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Mitochondrial injury is one of the mechanisms of drug induced liver injury (DILI). In the present work, an investigation...... of the inhibitory effects of diclofenac (Dic) and its phase I [4-hydroxy diclofenac (4'-OH-Dic) and 5-hydroxy diclofenac (5-OH-dic)] and Phase-II [diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DicGluA) and diclofenac glutathione thioester (DicSG)] metabolites, on ATP synthesis in rat liver mitochondria was carried out. A mechanism...

  11. Genetické a funkční příčiny mitochondriálních chorob vyvolaných defekty ATP syntázy

    OpenAIRE

    Tauchmannová, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of ATP synthase, the key enzyme of mitochondrial energy provision belong to the most severe metabolic diseases presenting mostly as early-onset mitochondrial encephalo-cardio-myopathies. Mutations in four nuclear genes can result in isolated deficiency of ATP synthase, all sharing a similar biochemical phenotype - pronounced decrease in the content of fully assembled and functional ATP synthase complex. The thesis summarises studies on two distinct causes of ATP synthase deficiency....

  12. Mitochondrial toxicity of selective COX-2 inhibitors via inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) in rat liver mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syed, Muzeeb; Skonberg, Christian; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (coxibs) are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) designed to selectively inhibit COX-2. However, drugs of this therapeutic class are associated with drug induced liver injury (DILI) and mitochondrial injury is likely to play a role. The effects...... of selective COX-2 inhibitors on inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) in rat liver mitochondria were investigated. The order of potency of inhibition of ATP synthesis was: lumiracoxib (IC50: 6.48 ± 2.74 μM)>celecoxib (IC50: 14.92 ± 6.40 μM)>valdecoxib (IC50: 161.4 ± 28.6 μM)>rofecoxib (IC50...... correlation (with r(2)=0.921) was observed between the potency of inhibition of ATP synthesis and the log P values. The in vitro metabolism of coxibs in rat liver mitochondria yielded for each drug substance a major single metabolite and identified a hydroxy metabolite with each of the coxibs...

  13. Mutations in valosin-containing protein (VCP) decrease ADP/ATP translocation across the mitochondrial membrane and impair energy metabolism in human neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtmann, Marthe H R; Arber, Charles; Bartolome, Fernando; de Vicente, Macarena; Preza, Elisavet; Carro, Eva; Houlden, Henry; Gandhi, Sonia; Wray, Selina; Abramov, Andrey Y

    2017-05-26

    Mutations in the gene encoding valosin-containing protein (VCP) lead to multisystem proteinopathies including frontotemporal dementia. We have previously shown that patient-derived VCP mutant fibroblasts exhibit lower mitochondrial membrane potential, uncoupled respiration, and reduced ATP levels. This study addresses the underlying basis for mitochondrial uncoupling using VCP knockdown neuroblastoma cell lines, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and iPSC-derived cortical neurons from patients with pathogenic mutations in VCP Using fluorescent live cell imaging and respiration analysis we demonstrate a VCP mutation/knockdown-induced dysregulation in the adenine nucleotide translocase, which results in a slower rate of ADP or ATP translocation across the mitochondrial membranes. This deregulation can explain the mitochondrial uncoupling and lower ATP levels in VCP mutation-bearing neurons via reduced ADP availability for ATP synthesis. This study provides evidence for a role of adenine nucleotide translocase in the mechanism underlying altered mitochondrial function in VCP-related degeneration, and this new insight may inform efforts to better understand and manage neurodegenerative disease and other proteinopathies. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. ATP Maintenance via Two Types of ATP Regulators Mitigates Pathological Phenotypes in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Nakano

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease is assumed to be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction in the affected dopaminergic neurons in the brain. We have recently created small chemicals, KUSs (Kyoto University Substances, which can reduce cellular ATP consumption. By contrast, agonistic ligands of ERRs (estrogen receptor-related receptors are expected to raise cellular ATP levels via enhancing ATP production. Here, we show that esculetin functions as an ERR agonist, and its addition to culture media enhances glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, leading to elevated cellular ATP levels. Subsequently, we show the neuroprotective efficacies of KUSs, esculetin, and GSK4716 (an ERRγ agonist against cell death in Parkinson's disease models. In the surviving neurons, ATP levels and expression levels of α-synuclein and CHOP (an ER stress-mediated cell death executor were all rectified. We propose that maintenance of ATP levels, by inhibiting ATP consumption or enhancing ATP production, or both, would be a promising therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease.

  15. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria - An amazing defence tool against hyperosmotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eTrono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the existence of a mitochondrial potassium channel was firstly demonstrated about fifteen years ago in durum wheat as an ATP-dependent potassium channel (PmitoKATP. Since then, both properties of the original PmitoKATP and occurrence of different mitochondrial potassium channels in a number of plant species (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous and tissues/organs (etiolated and green have been shown. Here, an overview of the current knowledge is reported; in particular, the issue of PmitoKATP physiological modulation is addressed. Similarities and differences with other potassium channels, as well as possible cross-regulation with other mitochondrial proteins (Plant Uncoupling Protein, Alternative Oxidase, Plant Inner Membrane Anion Channel are also described. PmitoKATP is inhibited by ATP and activated by superoxide anion, as well as by free fatty acids (FFAs and acyl-CoAs. Interestingly, channel activation increases electrophoretic potassium uptake across the inner membrane towards the matrix, so collapsing membrane potential (ΔΨ, the main component of the protonmotive force (Δp in plant mitochondria; moreover, cooperation between PmitoKATP and the K+/H+ antiporter allows a potassium cycle able to dissipate also ΔpH. Interestingly, ΔΨ collapse matches with an active control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Fully open channel is able to lower superoxide anion up to 35-fold compared to a condition of ATP-inhibited channel. On the other hand, ΔΨ collapse by PmitoKATP was unexpectedly found to not affect ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This may probably occur by means of a controlled collapse due to ATP inhibition of PmitoKATP; this brake to the channel activity may allow a loss of the bulk phase Δp, but may preserve a non-classically detectable localized driving force for ATP synthesis. This ability may become crucial under environmental/oxidative stress. In particular, under moderate

  16. ATP Production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Flagella by Glycolytic Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Beth F; Pedersen, Lotte B; Feely, Michael

    2005-01-01

    reside in the detergent-soluble (membrane + matrix) compartments. We further show that axonemal enolase is a subunit of the CPC1 central pair complex and that reduced flagellar enolase levels in the cpc1 mutant correlate with the reduced flagellar ATP concentrations and reduced in vivo beat frequencies...

  17. Characteristics of the formation of enzyme-bound ATP from medium inorganic phosphate by mitochondrial F1 adenosinetriphosphatase in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandpal, R.P.; Stempel, K.E.; Boyer, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Addition of dimethyl sulfoxide promotes the formation of enzyme-bound ATP from medium P/sub i/ by mitochondrial F 1 adenosinetriphosphatase that has tightly bound ADP present. Measurements are reported of medium P/sub i/ ↔ H 18 OH exchange and of the dependence of formation of enzyme-bound ATP on P/sub i/ concentration. Attainment of an apparent equilibrium between medium P/sub i/ and bound ATP requires longer than 30 min, even though the rates of P/sub i/ binding and release after apparent equilibrium is reached would suffice for a faster approach to equilibrium. Slow protein conformational changes or other unknown modulating factors may be responsible for the slow rate of bound ATP formation. After apparent equilibrium is reached, each P/sub i/ that binds to the enzyme reversibly forms ATP about 50 times before being released to the medium. The rate of interconversion of bound ATP to bound ADP and P/sub i/ is much slower than that in the absence of dimethyl sulfoxide as measured with sufficient low ATP concentrations so that single-site catalysis is favored. Although the interconversion rate is slowed, the equilibrium constant for bound ATP formation from bound ADP and P/sub i/ is not far from unity. Dimethyl sulfoxide favors the formation of enzyme-bound ATP by promoting the competent binding of P/sub i/ to enzyme with ADP bound at a catalytic site rather than by promoting formation of bound ATP from bound ADP and P/sub i/

  18. TMEM70 mutations cause isolated ATP synthase deficiency and neonatal mitochondrial encephalocardiomyopathy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, Alena; Stránecký, V.; Mayr, J. A.; Tesařová, M.; Havlíčková, Vendula; Paul, Jan; Ivánek, R.; Kuss, A. W.; Hansíková, H.; Kaplanová, Vilma; Vrbacký, Marek; Hartmannová, H.; Nosková, L.; Honzík, T.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Magner, M.; Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Sperl, W.; Zeman, J.; Houštěk, Josef; Kmoch, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 11 (2008), s. 1288-1290 ISSN 1061-4036 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR GD305/08/H037; GA ČR(CZ) GD303/03/H065 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 97807 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : ATPase biogenesis * TMEM70 * mitochondrial disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 30.259, year: 2008

  19. Bioenergetic Consequences of FLAG Tag Addition to the C-Terminus of Subunit 8 of Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondrial ATP Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE ARTIKA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The yeast mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase is a multisubunit complex that contains at least 17 different subunits. Subunit 8 of yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase is a hydrophobic protein of 48 amino acids encoded by the mitochondrial ATP8 gene. Subunit 8 has three distinct domains; an N-terminal domain, a central hydrophobic domain and a C-terminal domain. FLAG tag addition to subunit 8 protein potentially facilitate elucidation of its topology, structure, and function. It has been shown that following incorporation of FLAG tag to its C-terminus, subunit 8 still assemble into functional ATP synthase complex. In order to analyze bioenergetic consequences of the FLAG tag addition, a yeast strain expressing FLAG tagged-subunit 8 was subjected to cellular respiration assays. Results obtained showed that addition of FLAG tag to the C-terminus of subunit 8 does not impair its proper functioning. The FLAG tag system, therefore, can be employed to study subunit 8′s detailed structure, topology, and function.

  20. ATP synthesis is impaired in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes is based on primarily reduced mitochondrial mass and/or a primarily decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Mitochondrial mass were determined in myotubes established from eight lean, eight...... mass and the ATP synthesis rate, neither at baseline nor during acute insulin stimulation, were not different between groups. The ratio of ATP synthesis rate at hexokinase versus ATP synthesis rate at baseline was lower in diabetic mitochondria compared to lean mitochondria. Thus the lower content...... obese and eight subjects with type 2 diabetes precultured under normophysiological conditions. Furthermore, mitochondria were isolated and ATP production was measured by luminescence at baseline and during acute insulin stimulation with or without concomitant ATP utilization by hexokinase. Mitochondrial...

  1. The Human Escort Protein Hep Binds to the ATPase Domain of Mitochondrial Hsp70 and Regulates ATP Hydrolysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Stanworth, Crystal; Liu, Shirley; Silberg, Jonathan J.

    2008-01-01

    Hsp70 escort proteins (Hep) have been implicated as essential for maintaining the function of yeast mitochondrial hsp70 molecular chaperones (mtHsp70), but the role that escort proteins play in regulating mammalian chaperone folding and function has not been established. We present evidence that human mtHsp70 exhibits limited solubility due to aggregation mediated by its ATPase domain and show that human Hep directly enhances chaperone solubility through interactions with this domain. In the absence of Hep, mtHsp70 was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli, as was its isolated ATPase domain and a chimera having this domain fused to the peptide-binding domain of HscA, a soluble monomeric chaperone. In contrast, these proteins all exhibited increased solubility when expressed in the presence of Hep. In vitro studies further revealed that purified Hep regulates the interaction of mtHsp70 with nucleotides. Full-length mtHsp70 exhibited slow intrinsic ATP hydrolysis activity (6.8 ± 0.2 × 10-4 s-1) at 25 °C, which was stimulated up to 49-fold by Hep. Hep also stimulated the activity of the isolated ATPase domain, albeit to a lower maximal extent (11.5-fold). In addition, gel-filtration studies showed that formation of chaperone-escort protein complexes inhibited mtHsp70 self-association, and they revealed that Hep binding to full-length mtHsp70 and its isolated ATPase domain is strongest in the absence of nucleotides. These findings provide evidence that metazoan escort proteins regulate the catalytic activity and solubility of their cognate chaperones, and they indicate that both forms of regulation arise from interactions with the mtHsp70 ATPase domain. PMID:18632665

  2. The human escort protein Hep binds to the ATPase domain of mitochondrial hsp70 and regulates ATP hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Stanworth, Crystal; Liu, Shirley; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2008-09-19

    Hsp70 escort proteins (Hep) have been implicated as essential for maintaining the function of yeast mitochondrial hsp70 molecular chaperones (mtHsp70), but the role that escort proteins play in regulating mammalian chaperone folding and function has not been established. We present evidence that human mtHsp70 exhibits limited solubility due to aggregation mediated by its ATPase domain and show that human Hep directly enhances chaperone solubility through interactions with this domain. In the absence of Hep, mtHsp70 was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli, as was its isolated ATPase domain and a chimera having this domain fused to the peptide-binding domain of HscA, a soluble monomeric chaperone. In contrast, these proteins all exhibited increased solubility when expressed in the presence of Hep. In vitro studies further revealed that purified Hep regulates the interaction of mtHsp70 with nucleotides. Full-length mtHsp70 exhibited slow intrinsic ATP hydrolysis activity (6.8+/-0.2 x 10(-4) s(-1)) at 25 degrees C, which was stimulated up to 49-fold by Hep. Hep also stimulated the activity of the isolated ATPase domain, albeit to a lower maximal extent (11.5-fold). In addition, gel-filtration studies showed that formation of chaperone-escort protein complexes inhibited mtHsp70 self-association, and they revealed that Hep binding to full-length mtHsp70 and its isolated ATPase domain is strongest in the absence of nucleotides. These findings provide evidence that metazoan escort proteins regulate the catalytic activity and solubility of their cognate chaperones, and they indicate that both forms of regulation arise from interactions with the mtHsp70 ATPase domain.

  3. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane is a novel mitochondrial H(+)-ATP synthase inhibitor that can induce p21(Cip1/Waf1) expression by induction of oxidative stress in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yixuan; Sohn, Heesook; Xue, Ling; Firestone, Gary L; Bjeldanes, Leonard F

    2006-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that high dietary intake of Brassica vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts, protects against tumorigenesis in multiple organs. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane, one of the active products derived from Brassica vegetables, is a promising antitumor agent. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that 3,3'-diindolylmethane induced a G(1) cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells by a mechanism that included increased expression of p21. In the present study, the upstream events leading to p21 overexpression were further investigated. We show for the first time that 3,3'-diindolylmethane is a strong mitochondrial H(+)-ATPase inhibitor (IC(50) approximately 20 micromol/L). 3,3'-Diindolylmethane treatment induced hyperpolarization of mitochondrial inner membrane, decreased cellular ATP level, and significantly stimulated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. ROS production, in turn, led to the activation of stress-activated pathways involving p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Using specific kinase inhibitors (SB203580 and SP600125), we showed the central role of p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways in 3,3'-diindolylmethane-induced p21 mRNA transcription. In addition, antioxidants significantly attenuated 3,3'-diindolylmethane-induced activation of p38 and JNK and induction of p21, indicating that oxidative stress is the major trigger of these events. To further support the role of ROS in 3,3'-diindolylmethane-induced p21 overexpression, we showed that 3,3'-diindolylmethane failed to induce p21 overexpression in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficient rho(0) MCF-7 cells, in which 3,3'-diindolylmethane did not stimulate ROS production. Thus, we have established the critical role of enhanced mitochondrial ROS release in 3,3'-diindolylmethane-induced p21 up-regulation in human breast cancer cells.

  4. Mitochondrial biogenesis and energy production in differentiating murine stem cells: a functional metabolic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sungwon; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C; Beites, Crestina L; Appanna, Vasu D

    2014-02-01

    The significance of metabolic networks in guiding the fate of the stem cell differentiation is only beginning to emerge. Oxidative metabolism has been suggested to play a major role during this process. Therefore, it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of metabolic alterations occurring in stem cells to manipulate the ultimate outcome of these pluripotent cells. Here, using P19 murine embryonal carcinoma cells as a model system, the role of mitochondrial biogenesis and the modulation of metabolic networks during dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation are revealed. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) technology aided in profiling key enzymes, such as hexokinase (HK) [EC 2.7.1.1], glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) [EC 5.3.1.9], pyruvate kinase (PK) [EC 2.7.1.40], Complex I [EC 1.6.5.3], and Complex IV [EC 1.9.3.1], that are involved in the energy budget of the differentiated cells. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production was shown to be increased in DMSO-treated cells upon exposure to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle substrates, such as succinate and malate. The increased mitochondrial activity and biogenesis were further confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Collectively, the results indicate that oxidative energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were sharply upregulated in DMSO-differentiated P19 cells. This functional metabolic and proteomic study provides further evidence that modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism is a pivotal component of the cellular differentiation process and may dictate the final destiny of stem cells.

  5. Estimation of PMI depends on the changes in ATP and its degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shiwei; Fu, Gaowen; Seese, Ronald R; Wang, Zhen-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Estimating the time since death, or postmortem interval (PMI), has been one of the biggest difficulties in modern forensic investigation. This study tests if the concentrations of breakdown products of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) correlate with PMI in multiple organs from rat. Brains, spleens, and kidneys of rats were harvested at different time points in carcasses maintained at 4°C or 20°C. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify concentrations of metabolites related to ATP degradation. A K value (Kv=100×(Hx+HxR)/(ATP+ADP+AMP+IMP+HxR+Hx)) was calculated and correlated with PMI for each organ and temperature. The results indicate that the K value is a robust index for the estimation of PMI based on highly significant linear correlations between PMI and concentrations of ATP breakdown products. Compared with other current research methods, the changing tendency of ATP and its degradation products may be potentially a better way for the estimation of PMI in medico-legal practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pyraclostrobin Impairs Energetic Mitochondrial Metabolism and Productive Performance of Silkworm (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemo, Daniel; Mingatto, Fábio Ermínio; Carvalho, Amanda de; Bizerra, Paulo Francisco Veiga; Tavares, Marco Aurélio; Balieira, Kamila Vilas Boas; Bellini, William Cesar

    2018-03-09

    Silkworm cocoon production has been reduced due to a number of problems other than those inherent in sericulture, such as diseases, malnutrition, and inappropriate management. The use of pesticides in areas surrounding mulberry fields can contaminate these plants and consequently harm caterpillars. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the application of the fungicide pyraclostrobin in mulberry plants interferes with the mitochondrial bioenergetics and the productive performance of silkworms. Mulberry plants were treated with pyraclostrobin (0, 100, 200, and 300 g ha-1). After 30 d of fungicide application, fifth instar caterpillars were fed with leaves from the treated plants. We evaluated in vitro and in vivo mitochondrial bioenergetics of mitochondria from the head and intestines, as well as the feed intake and mortality rate of the caterpillars and the weight of fresh cocoons and cocoons shells. At doses of 50 µM (in vitro) and 200 g ha-1 (in vivo), pyraclostrobin inhibited oxygen consumption in state 3, dissipated membrane potential, and inhibited ATP synthesis in mitochondria. Pyraclostrobin acted as a respiratory chain inhibitor, affecting mitochondrial bioenergetics. The fungicide did not interfere with food consumption but negatively affected mortality rate and weight of cocoons. Mulberry leaves contaminated with pyraclostrobin negatively impact the mitochondrial bioenergetics of silkworms and cocoon production.

  7. Mitochondrial toxicity of diclofenac and its metabolites via inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) in rat liver mitochondria: Possible role in drug induced liver injury (DILI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Muzeeb; Skonberg, Christian; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2016-03-01

    Diclofenac is a widely prescribed NSAID, which by itself and its reactive metabolites (Phase-I and Phase-II) may be involved in serious idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Mitochondrial injury is one of the mechanisms of drug induced liver injury (DILI). In the present work, an investigation of the inhibitory effects of diclofenac (Dic) and its phase I [4-hydroxy diclofenac (4'-OH-Dic) and 5-hydroxy diclofenac (5-OH-dic)] and Phase-II [diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DicGluA) and diclofenac glutathione thioester (DicSG)] metabolites, on ATP synthesis in rat liver mitochondria was carried out. A mechanism based inhibition of ATP synthesis is exerted by diclofenac and its metabolites. Phase-I metabolite (4'-OH-Dic) and Phase-II metabolites (DicGluA and DicSG) showed potent inhibition (2-5 fold) of ATP synthesis, where as 5-OH-Dic, one of the Phase-I metabolite, was a less potent inhibitor as compared to Dic. The calculated kinetic constants of mechanism based inhibition of ATP synthesis by Dic showed maximal rate of inactivation (Kinact) of 2.64 ± 0.15 min(-1) and half maximal rate of inactivation (KI) of 7.69 ± 2.48 μM with Kinact/KI ratio of 0.343 min(-1) μM(-1). Co-incubation of mitochondria with Dic and reduced GSH exhibited a protective effect on Dic mediated inhibition of ATP synthesis. Our data from this study strongly indicate that Dic as well as its metabolites could be involved in the hepato-toxic action through inhibition of ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Calcium-regulation of mitochondrial respiration maintains ATP homeostasis and requires ARALAR/AGC1-malate aspartate shuttle in intact cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Folch, Irene; Rueda, Carlos B; Amigo, Ignacio; del Arco, Araceli; Saheki, Takeyori; Pardo, Beatriz; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2013-08-28

    Neuronal respiration is controlled by ATP demand and Ca2+ but the roles played by each are unknown, as any Ca2+ signal also impacts on ATP demand. Ca2+ can control mitochondrial function through Ca2+-regulated mitochondrial carriers, the aspartate-glutamate and ATP-Mg/Pi carriers, ARALAR/AGC1 and SCaMC-3, respectively, or in the matrix after Ca2+ transport through the Ca2+ uniporter. We have studied the role of Ca2+ signaling in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in intact mouse cortical neurons in basal conditions and in response to increased workload caused by increases in [Na+]cyt (veratridine, high-K+ depolarization) and/or [Ca2+]cyt (carbachol). Respiration in nonstimulated neurons on 2.5-5 mm glucose depends on ARALAR-malate aspartate shuttle (MAS), with a 46% drop in aralar KO neurons. All stimulation conditions induced increased OCR (oxygen consumption rate) in the presence of Ca2+, which was prevented by BAPTA-AM loading (to preserve the workload), or in Ca2+-free medium (which also lowers cell workload). SCaMC-3 limits respiration only in response to high workloads and robust Ca2+ signals. In every condition tested Ca2+ activation of ARALAR-MAS was required to fully stimulate coupled respiration by promoting pyruvate entry into mitochondria. In aralar KO neurons, respiration was stimulated by veratridine, but not by KCl or carbachol, indicating that the Ca2+ uniporter pathway played a role in the first, but not in the second condition, even though KCl caused an increase in [Ca2+]mit. The results suggest a requirement for ARALAR-MAS in priming pyruvate entry in mitochondria as a step needed to activate respiration by Ca2+ in response to moderate workloads.

  9. Triplicate genes for mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers in the aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica are regulated differentially in the absence of oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentel, M.; Piskur, Jure; Neuveglise, C.

    2005-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a strictly aerobic fungus, which differs from the extensively studied model yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe with respect to its physiology, genetics and dimorphic growth habit. We isolated and sequenced cDNA and genomic clones (YlAAC1) from Y....... lipolytica that encode a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier. The YlAAC1 gene can complement the S. cerevisiae Delta aac2 deletion mutant. Southern hybridization, analysis of Yarrowia clones obtained in the course of the Genolevures project, and further sequencing revealed the existence of two paralogs of the Yl...

  10. Mitochondrial PKA mediates sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Rashel; Breitbart, Haim

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria are the major source of ATP to power sperm motility. Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins has been proposed as a major regulatory mechanism for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Sperm motility was measured by a computer-assisted analyzer, protein detection by western blotting, membrane potential by tetramethylrhodamine, cellular ATP by luciferase assay and localization of PKA by immuno-electron microscopy. Bicarbonate is essential for the creation of mitochondrial electro-chemical gradient, ATP synthesis and sperm motility. Bicarbonate stimulates PKA-dependent phosphorylation of two 60kDa proteins identified as Tektin and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. This phosphorylation was inhibited by respiration inhibition and phosphorylation could be restored by glucose in the presence of bicarbonate. However, this effect of glucose cannot be seen when the mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchanger was inhibited indicating that glycolytic-produced ATP is transported into the mitochondria and allows PKA-dependent protein phosphorylation inside the mitochondria. Bicarbonate activates mitochondrial soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) which catalyzes cAMP production leading to the activation of mitochondrial PKA. Glucose can overcome the lack of ATP in the absence of bicarbonate but it cannot affect the mitochondrial sAC/PKA system, therefore the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the 60kDa proteins does not occur in the absence of bicarbonate. Production of CO2 in Krebs cycle, which is converted to bicarbonate is essential for sAC/PKA activation leading to mitochondrial membrane potential creation and ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Timely binding of IHF and Fis to DARS2 regulates ATP-DnaA production and replication initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasho, Kazutoshi; Fujimitsu, Kazuyuki; Matoba, Toshihiro; Oshima, Taku; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2014-12-01

    In Escherichia coli, the ATP-bound form of DnaA (ATP-DnaA) promotes replication initiation. During replication, the bound ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP to yield the ADP-bound form (ADP-DnaA), which is inactive for initiation. The chromosomal site DARS2 facilitates the regeneration of ATP-DnaA by catalyzing nucleotide exchange between free ATP and ADP bound to DnaA. However, the regulatory mechanisms governing this exchange reaction are unclear. Here, using in vitro reconstituted experiments, we show that two nucleoid-associated proteins, IHF and Fis, bind site-specifically to DARS2 to activate coordinately the exchange reaction. The regenerated ATP-DnaA was fully active in replication initiation and underwent DnaA-ATP hydrolysis. ADP-DnaA formed heteromultimeric complexes with IHF and Fis on DARS2, and underwent nucleotide dissociation more efficiently than ATP-DnaA. Consistently, mutant analyses demonstrated that specific binding of IHF and Fis to DARS2 stimulates the formation of ATP-DnaA production, thereby promoting timely initiation. Moreover, we show that IHF-DARS2 binding is temporally regulated during the cell cycle, whereas Fis only binds to DARS2 in exponentially growing cells. These results elucidate the regulation of ATP-DnaA and replication initiation in coordination with the cell cycle and growth phase. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Mitochondrial Complex I superoxide production is attenuated by uncoupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlasková, Andrea; Hlavatá, Lydie; Ježek, Jan; Ježek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 10 (2008), s. 2098-2109 ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP303/05/P100; GA AV ČR IAA500110701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME794 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mitochondrial H2O2 production * mitochondrial Complex I proton pumping * uncoupling Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.178, year: 2008

  13. Hyperthyroidism stimulates mitochondrial proton leak and ATP turnover in rat hepatocytes but does not change the overall kinetics of substrate oxidation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M E; Brand, M D

    1994-08-01

    Thyroid hormones have well-known effects on oxidative phosphorylation, but there is little quantitative information on their important sites of action. We have used top-down elasticity analysis, an extension of metabolic control analysis, to identify the sites of action of thyroid hormones on oxidative phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes. We divided the oxidative phosphorylation system into three blocks of reactions: the substrate oxidation subsystem, the phosphorylating subsystem, and the mitochondrial proton leak subsystem and have identified those blocks of reactions whose kinetics are significantly changed by hyperthyroidism. Our results show significant effects on the kinetics of the proton leak and the phosphorylating subsystems. Quantitative analyses revealed that 43% of the increase in resting respiration rate in hyperthyroid hepatocytes compared with euthyroid hepatocytes was due to differences in the proton leak and 59% was due to differences in the activity of the phosphorylating subsystem. There were no significant effects on the substrate oxidation subsystem. Changes in nonmitochondrial oxygen consumption accounted for -2% of the change in respiration rate. Top-down control analysis revealed that the distribution of control over the rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, ATP synthesis and consumption, and proton leak and over mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m) was similar in hepatocytes from hyperthyroid and littermate-paired euthyroid controls. The results of this study include the first complete top-down elasticity and control analyses of oxidative phosphorylation in hepatocytes from hyperthyroid rats.

  14. Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana B. R. Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step

  15. Fragrance chemicals lyral and lilial decrease viability of HaCat cells' by increasing free radical production and lowering intracellular ATP level: protection by antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Julnar; Hachem, Yassmine; El-Rifai, Omar; Bou-Moughlabey, Yolla; Echtay, Karim; Griffiths, David; Nakkash-Chmaisse, Hania; Makki, Rajaa Fakhoury

    2013-02-01

    We investigate in this study the biochemical effects on cells in culture of two commonly used fragrance chemicals: lyral and lilial. Whereas both chemicals exerted a significant effect on primary keratinocyte(s), HaCat cells, no effect was obtained with any of HepG2, Hek293, Caco2, NIH3T3, and MCF7 cells. Lyral and lilial: (a) decreased the viability of HaCat cells with a 50% cell death at 100 and 60 nM respectively; (b) decreased significantly in a dose dependant manner the intracellular ATP level following 12-h of treatment; (c) inhibited complexes I and II of electron transport chain in liver sub-mitochondrial particles; and (d) increased reactive oxygen species generation that was reversed by N-acetyl cysteine and trolox and the natural antioxidant lipoic acid, without influencing the level of free and/or oxidized glutathione. Lipoic acid protected HaCat cells against the decrease in viability induced by either compound. Dehydrogenation of lyral and lilial produce α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, that reacts with lipoic acid requiring proteins resulting in their inhibition. We propose lyral and lilial as toxic to mitochondria that have a direct effect on electron transport chain, increase ROS production, derange mitochondrial membrane potential, and decrease cellular ATP level, leading thus to cell death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SIRT3 deacetylates ATP synthase F1 complex proteins in response to nutrient- and exercise-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Athanassios; Pennington, J Daniel; Andresson, Thorkell; Rees, David M; Bosley, Allen D; Fearnley, Ian M; Ham, Amy; Flynn, Charles Robb; Hill, Salisha; Rose, Kristie Lindsey; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Deng, Chu-Xia; Walker, John E; Gius, David

    2014-08-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase uses chemiosmotic energy across the inner mitochondrial membrane to convert adenosine diphosphate and orthophosphate into ATP, whereas genetic deletion of Sirt3 decreases mitochondrial ATP levels. Here, we investigate the mechanistic connection between SIRT3 and energy homeostasis. By using both in vitro and in vivo experiments, we demonstrate that ATP synthase F1 proteins alpha, beta, gamma, and Oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP) contain SIRT3-specific reversible acetyl-lysines that are evolutionarily conserved and bind to SIRT3. OSCP was further investigated and lysine 139 is a nutrient-sensitive SIRT3-dependent deacetylation target. Site directed mutants demonstrate that OSCP(K139) directs, at least in part, mitochondrial ATP production and mice lacking Sirt3 exhibit decreased ATP muscle levels, increased ATP synthase protein acetylation, and an exercise-induced stress-deficient phenotype. This work connects the aging and nutrient response, via SIRT3 direction of the mitochondrial acetylome, to the regulation of mitochondrial energy homeostasis under nutrient-stress conditions by deacetylating ATP synthase proteins. Our data suggest that acetylome signaling contributes to mitochondrial energy homeostasis by SIRT3-mediated deacetylation of ATP synthase proteins.

  17. Quercetin, a natural product supplement, impairs mitochondrial bioenergetics and locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Liang; Laurence Souders, Christopher; Denslow, Nancy D; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-07-15

    Quercetin is a natural product that is sold as a supplement in health food stores. While there are reported benefits for this flavonoid as a dietary supplement due to antioxidant properties, the full scope of its biological interactions has not been fully addressed. To learn more about the mechanisms of action related to quercetin, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to 1 and 10μg/L quercetin for 96h starting at 3h post fertilization. Quercetin up to 10μg/L did not induce significant mortality in developing fish, but did increase prevalence of an upward-curved dorsal plane in hatched larvae. To determine whether this developmental defect was potentially related to mitochondrial bioenergetics during development, we measured oxygen consumption rate in whole embryos following a 24-hour exposure to quercetin. Basal mitochondrial and ATP-linked respiration were decreased at 1 and 10μg/L quercetin, and maximal respiration was decreased at 10μg/L quercetin, suggesting that quercetin impairs mitochondrial bioenergetics. This is proposed to be related to the deformities observed during development. Due to the fact that ATP production was affected by quercetin, larval behaviors related to locomotion were investigated, as well as transcriptional responses of six myogenesis transcripts. Quercetin at 10μg/L significantly reduced the swimming velocity of zebrafish larvae. The expression levels of both myostatin A (mstna) and myogenic differentiation (myoD) were also altered by quercetin. Mstna, an inhibitory factor for myogenesis, was significantly increased at 1μg/L quercetin exposure, while myoD, a stimulatory factor for myogenesis, was significantly increased at 10μg/L quercetin exposure. There were no changes in transcripts related to apoptosis (bcl2, bax, casp3, casp7), but we did observe a decrease in mRNA levels for catalase (cat) in fish exposed to each dose, supporting an oxidative stress response. Our data support the hypothesis that quercetin may affect

  18. ATP induces NO production in hippocampal neurons by P2X(7 receptor activation independent of glutamate signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Codocedo

    Full Text Available To assess the putative role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP upon nitric oxide (NO production in the hippocampus, we used as a model both rat hippocampal slices and isolated hippocampal neurons in culture, lacking glial cells. In hippocampal slices, additions of exogenous ATP or 2'(3'-O-(4-Benzoylbenzoyl ATP (Bz-ATP elicited concentration-dependent NO production, which increased linearly within the first 15 min and plateaued thereafter; agonist EC50 values were 50 and 15 µM, respectively. The NO increase evoked by ATP was antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by Coomassie brilliant blue G (BBG or by N(ω-propyl-L-arginine, suggesting the involvement of P2X7Rs and neuronal NOS, respectively. The ATP induced NO production was independent of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor activity as effects were not alleviated by DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV, but antagonized by BBG. In sum, exogenous ATP elicited NO production in hippocampal neurons independently of NMDA receptor activity.

  19. Synergistic augmentation of ATP-induced interleukin-6 production by arsenite in HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Daigo; Asao, Masashi; Okada, Hideta; Yogi, Kuniko; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro

    2016-06-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure causes cutaneous diseases such as hyperkeratosis and skin cancer. However, little information has been available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying these symptoms. Because extracellular ATP and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are involved in pathological aspects of cutaneous diseases, we examined whether sodium arsenite (As(III)) affects ATP-induced IL-6 production in human epidermal keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The results showed that the addition of As(III) into the medium of HaCaT cells dose dependently increased the production of IL-6 induced by extracellular ATP, although As(III) alone had no effect on IL-6 production. To elucidate the mechanism of the synergistic effect of As(III) on IL-6 production by extracellular ATP, we next examined the phosphorylation of p38, ERK and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), since we found that these signaling molecules were stimulated by exposure to extracellular ATP. The results indicated that ATP-induced phosphorylation of p38, ERK and EGFR was synergistically enhanced by co-exposure to As(III). To clarify the mechanisms underlying the enhanced phosphorylation of p38, ERK and EGFR by As(III), we explored two possible mechanisms: the inhibition of extracellular ATP degradation and the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) activity by As(III). The degradation of extracellular ATP was not changed by As(III), whereas the activity of PTPs was significantly inhibited by As(III). Our results suggest that As(III) augments ATP-induced IL-6 production in HaCaT cells through enhanced phosphorylation of the EGFR and p38/ERK pathways, which is associated with the inhibition of PTPs activity.

  20. Influence of erythrocyte oxygenation and intravascular ATP on resting and exercising skeletal muscle blood flow in humans with mitochondrial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina D; Vissing, John; González-Alonso, José

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen (O(2)) extraction is impaired in exercising skeletal muscle of humans with mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but the muscle hemodynamic response to exercise has never been directly investigated. This study sought to examine the extent to which human skeletal muscle perfusion can incr...

  1. Identification of two products of mitochondrial protein synthesis associated with mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase from Neurospora crassa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackl, G.; Sebald, W.

    1975-01-01

    Soluble mitochondrial ATPase (F 1 ) isolated from Neurospora crassa is resolved by dodecyl-sulfate-gel electrophoresis into five polypeptide bands with apparent molecular weights of 59,000, 55,000, 36,000, 15,000 and 12,000. At least nine further polypeptides remain associated with ATPase after disintegration of mitochondria with Triton X-100 as shown by the analysis of an immunoprecipitate obtained with antiserum to F 1 ATPase. Two of the associated polypeptides with apparent molecular weights of 19,000 and 11,000 are translated on mitochondrial ribosomes, as demonstrated by incorporation in vivo of radioactive leucine in the presence of specific inhibitors of mitochondrial (chloramphenicol) and extramitochondrial (cycloheximide) protein synthesis. The appearance of mitochondrial translation products in the immunoprecipitated ATPase complex is inhibited by cycloheximide. The same applies for some of the extramitochondrial translation products in the presence of chloramphenicol. This suggests that both types of polypeptides are necessary for the assembly of the ATPase complex. (orig.) [de

  2. Mesurements of intracellular ATP provide new insight into the regulation of glycolysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Cecilie Karkov; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo

    2012-01-01

    Glycolysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits temporal oscillation under anaerobic or semianaerobic conditions. Previous evidence indicated that at least two membrane-bound ATPases, the mitochondrial F0F1 ATPase and the plasma membrane P-type ATPase (Pma1p), were important in regulating...... of the temporal behaviour of intracellular ATP in a yeast strain with oscillating glycolysis showed that, in addition to oscillation in intracellular ATP, there is an overall slow decrease in intracellular ATP because the ATP consumption rate exceeds the ATP production in glycolysis. Measurements of the temporal...... activity is under strict control. In the absence of glucose ATPase activity is switched off, and the intracellular ATP concentration is high. When glucose is added to the cells the ATP concentration starts to decrease, because ATP consumption exceeds ATP production by glycolysis. Finally, when glucose...

  3. Mutations in the Atp1p and Atp3p subunits of yeast ATP synthase differentially affect respiration and fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Brian R; White, Karen H; Thorsness, Peter E

    2007-04-01

    ATP1-111, a suppressor of the slow-growth phenotype of yme1Delta lacking mitochondrial DNA is due to the substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 111 of the alpha-subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase (Atp1p in yeast). The suppressing activity of ATP1-111 requires intact beta (Atp2p) and gamma (Atp3p) subunits of mitochondrial ATP synthase, but not the stator stalk subunits b (Atp4p) and OSCP (Atp5p). ATP1-111 and other similarly suppressing mutations in ATP1 and ATP3 increase the growth rate of wild-type strains lacking mitochondrial DNA. These suppressing mutations decrease the growth rate of yeast containing an intact mitochondrial chromosome on media requiring oxidative phosphorylation, but not when grown on fermentable media. Measurement of chronological aging of yeast in culture reveals that ATP1 and ATP3 suppressor alleles in strains that contain mitochondrial DNA are longer lived than the isogenic wild-type strain. In contrast, the chronological life span of yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA and containing these mutations is shorter than that of the isogenic wild-type strain. Spore viability of strains bearing ATP1-111 is reduced compared to wild type, although ATP1-111 enhances the survival of spores that lacked mitochondrial DNA.

  4. Altered chromatographic behaviour of mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocase induced by stabilization of the protein by binding of 6'-O-fluorescein-atractyloside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Vernon R; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2003-01-01

    Atractyloside (ATR) is a high-affinity specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocase (AAT). The binding of a fluorescent derivative, 6'- O -fluorescein-ATR (FATR), to mitochondria has been characterized. The binding constants obtained are in agreement with previously published values for ATR, demonstrating that FATR is a suitable probe of the AAT. AAT inhibited by FATR (FATR-AAT) was solubilized in dodecyl maltoside and purified by two separate ion-exchange chromatography steps at different pHs, which allowed FATR-AAT to be purified to homogeneity. The presence of the bound fluorescent probe enabled the inhibited AAT to be distinguished from the unliganded protein during chromatography, as they were markedly different in their chromatographic behaviour. The purified FATR-AAT was dimeric and in a single major conformation containing 1 mole FATR per mole of AAT dimer. In contrast, uninhibited AAT was monomeric and conformationally unstable. Use of the fluorescent ATR derivative in the development of the protocol enabled the stable dimeric AAT to be monitored directly and purified more effectively. The purification protocol was repeated using non-derivatized ATR, and highly pure AAT was obtained that was devoid of other members of the mitochondrial carrier family. PMID:14498831

  5. Disruption of ATP-sensitive potassium channel function in skeletal muscles promotes production and secretion of musclin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Ana, E-mail: ana-sierra@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Subbotina, Ekaterina, E-mail: ekaterina-subbotina@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Zhu, Zhiyong, E-mail: zhiyong-zhu@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gao, Zhan, E-mail: zhan-gao@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Koganti, Siva Rama Krishna, E-mail: sivaramakrishna.koganti@ttuhc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Coetzee, William A., E-mail: william.coetzee@nyumc.org [Department of Pediatrics, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Goldhamer, David J., E-mail: david.goldhamer@uconn.edu [Center for Regenerative Biology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Advanced Technology Laboratory, University of Connecticut, 1392 Storrs Road Unit 4243, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M., E-mail: denice-zingman@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Zingman, Leonid V., E-mail: leonid-zingman@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, Medical Center, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium (K{sub ATP}) channels control skeletal muscle energy use through their ability to adjust membrane excitability and related cell functions in accordance with cellular metabolic status. Mice with disrupted skeletal muscle K{sub ATP} channels exhibit reduced adipocyte size and increased fatty acid release into the circulation. As yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this link between skeletal muscle K{sub ATP} channel function and adipose mobilization have not been established. Here, we demonstrate that skeletal muscle-specific disruption of K{sub ATP} channel function in transgenic (TG) mice promotes production and secretion of musclin. Musclin is a myokine with high homology to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) that enhances ANP signaling by competing for elimination. Augmented musclin production in TG mice is driven by a molecular cascade resulting in enhanced acetylation and nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) – an inhibitor of transcription of the musclin encoding gene. Musclin production/secretion in TG is paired with increased mobilization of fatty acids and a clear trend toward increased circulating ANP, an activator of lipolysis. These data establish K{sub ATP} channel-dependent musclin production as a potential mechanistic link coupling “local” skeletal muscle energy consumption with mobilization of bodily resources from fat. Understanding such mechanisms is an important step toward designing interventions to manage metabolic disorders including those related to excess body fat and associated co-morbidities. - Highlights: • ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channels regulate musclin production by skeletal muscles. • Lipolytic ANP signaling is promoted by augmented skeletal muscle musclin production. • Skeletal muscle musclin transcription is promoted by a CaMKII/HDAC/FOXO1 pathway. • Musclin links adipose mobilization to energy use in K{sub ATP} channel deficient skeletal muscle.

  6. The active transport of histidine and its role in ATP production in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisón, M J; Damasceno, F S; Mantilla, B S; Silber, A M

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas's disease, metabolizes glucose, and after its exhaustion, degrades amino acids as energy source. Here, we investigate histidine uptake and its participation in energy metabolism. No putative genes for the histidine biosynthetic pathway have been identified in genome databases of T. cruzi, suggesting that its uptake from extracellular medium is a requirement for the viability of the parasite. From this assumption, we characterized the uptake of histidine in T. cruzi, showing that this amino acid is incorporated through a single and saturable active system. We also show that histidine can be completely oxidised to CO2. This finding, together with the fact that genes encoding the putative enzymes for the histidine - glutamate degradation pathway were annotated, led us to infer its participation in the energy metabolism of the parasite. Here, we show that His is capable of restoring cell viability after long-term starvation. We confirm that as an energy source, His provides electrons to the electron transport chain, maintaining mitochondrial inner membrane potential and O2 consumption in a very efficient manner. Additionally, ATP biosynthesis from oxidative phosphorylation was found when His was the only oxidisable metabolite present, showing that this amino acid is involved in bioenergetics and parasite persistence within its invertebrate host.

  7. ATP Release from Human Airway Epithelial Cells Exposed to Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Baaske

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Airway epithelial cells reduce cytosolic ATP content in response to treatment with S. aureus alpha-toxin (hemolysin A, Hla. This study was undertaken to investigate whether this is due to attenuated ATP generation or to release of ATP from the cytosol and extracellular ATP degradation by ecto-enzymes. Exposure of cells to rHla did result in mitochondrial calcium uptake and a moderate decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that ATP regeneration may have been attenuated. In addition, ATP may have left the cells through transmembrane pores formed by the toxin or through endogenous release channels (e.g., pannexins activated by cellular stress imposed on the cells by toxin exposure. Exposure of cells to an alpha-toxin mutant (H35L, which attaches to the host cell membrane but does not form transmembrane pores, did not induce ATP release from the cells. The Hla-mediated ATP-release was completely blocked by IB201, a cyclodextrin-inhibitor of the alpha-toxin pore, but was not at all affected by inhibitors of pannexin channels. These results indicate that, while exposure of cells to rHla may somewhat reduce ATP production and cellular ATP content, a portion of the remaining ATP is released to the extracellular space and degraded by ecto-enzymes. The release of ATP from the cells may occur directly through the transmembrane pores formed by alpha-toxin.

  8. ATP Maintenance via Two Types of ATP Regulators Mitigates Pathological Phenotypes in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masaki; Imamura, Hiromi; Sasaoka, Norio; Yamamoto, Masamichi; Uemura, Norihito; Shudo, Toshiyuki; Fuchigami, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Kakizuka, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is assumed to be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction in the affected dopaminergic neurons in the brain. We have recently created small chemicals, KUSs (Kyoto University Substances), which can reduce cellular ATP consumption. By contrast, agonistic ligands of ERRs (estrogen receptor-related receptors) are expected to raise cellular ATP levels via enhancing ATP production. Here, we show that esculetin functions as an ERR agonist, and its addition to culture media enhances glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, leading to elevated cellular ATP levels. Subsequently, we show the neuroprotective efficacies of KUSs, esculetin, and GSK4716 (an ERRγ agonist) against cell death in Parkinson's disease models. In the surviving neurons, ATP levels and expression levels of α-synuclein and CHOP (an ER stress-mediated cell death executor) were all rectified. We propose that maintenance of ATP levels, by inhibiting ATP consumption or enhancing ATP production, or both, would be a promising therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    With the availability of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the use of targeted genetic modifications has become feasible. This, together with the fact that A. niger is well established industrially, makes this fungus an attractive micro-organism for creating a cell...... factory platform for production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering of A. niger to manipulate its organic acid production in the direction of succinic acid. The gene target for complete gene deletion was cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase (acl), which...... the acl gene. Additionally, the total amount of organic acids produced in the deletion strain was significantly increased. Genome-scale stoichiometric metabolic model predictions can be used for identifying gene targets. Deletion of the acl led to increased succinic acid production by A. niger....

  10. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging.Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction fol...

  11. Two components in pathogenic mechanism of mitochondrial ATPase deficiency: energy deprivation and ROS production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráček, Tomáš; Pecina, Petr; Vojtíšková, Alena; Kalous, Martin; Šebesta, Ondřej; Houštěk, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 7 (2006), s. 683-687 ISSN 0531-5565 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7790; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : ATP synthase * ROS * mitochondrial diseases Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.930, year: 2006

  12. Alteration of structure and function of ATP synthase and cytochrome c oxidase by lack of F-o-a and Cox3 subunits caused by mitochondrial DNA 9205delTA mutation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Kaplanová, Vilma; Nůsková, Hana; Kovářová, Nikola; Ješina, Pavel; Drahota, Zdeněk; Mráček, Tomáš; Seneca, S.; Houštěk, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 466, č. 3 (2015), s. 601-611 ISSN 0264-6021 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0970; GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ATP synthase * cytochrome c oxidase * mitochondrial diseases * mtDNA MT-ATP6 mutation * oxidative phosphorylation * threshold effect Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.562, year: 2015

  13. A new member of a family of ATPases is essential for assembly of mitochondrial respiratory chain and ATP synthetase complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzagoloff, A; Yue, J; Jang, J; Paul, M F

    1994-10-21

    Respiration-defective pet mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, assigned to complementation group G25, are grossly deficient in mitochondrial respiratory and ATPase complexes. This phenotype is usually found in strains impaired in mitochondrial protein synthesis. The G25 mutants, however, synthesize all of the proteins encoded by mitochondrial DNA. The mutants are also able to import and process cytoplasmically derived subunits of these enzymes. These results are most compatible with the idea that the gene defined by G25 mutants (RCA1) codes for a protein essential for the assembly of functional respiratory and ATPase complexes. The RCA1 gene has been cloned by complementation of an rca1 mutant with a yeast genomic library. The sequence of the encoded product shows Rca1 protein to be a new member of a recently described family of ATPases. The Rca1 protein is a mitochondrial membrane protein and is the third known member of this family implicated to function in the biogenesis of mitochondria. The primary structure of Rca1 protein indicates several distinct domains in addition to the common purine nucleotide binding region shared by all members of this protein family. One, located in the amino-terminal half, contains two hydrophobic stretches of sufficient length to span a membrane lipid bilayer.

  14. Lactate and Pyruvate Are Major Sources of Energy for Stallion Sperm with Dose Effects on Mitochondrial Function, Motility, and ROS Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Christa R; Varner, Dickson D; Teague, Sheila; Cortopassi, Gino A; Datta, Sandipan; Meyers, Stuart A

    2016-08-01

    Stallion sperm rely primarily on oxidative phosphorylation for production of ATP used in sperm motility and metabolism. The objective of the study was to identify which substrates included in Biggers, Whitten, and Whittingham (BWW) media are key to optimal mitochondrial function through measurements of sperm motility parameters, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. It was expected that mitochondrial substrates, pyruvate and lactate, would support sperm motility and mitochondrial function better than the glycolytic substrate, glucose, due to direct utilization within the mitochondria. Measurements were performed after incubation in modified BWW media with varying concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, and glucose. The effects of media and duration of incubation on sperm motility, ROS production, and oxygen consumption were determined using a linear mixed-effects model. Duplicate ejaculates from four stallions were used in three separate experiments to determine the effects of substrate availability and concentration on sperm motility and mitochondrial function and the relationship of oxygen consumption with cellular ROS production. The present results indicate that lactate and pyruvate are the most important sources of energy for stallion sperm motility and velocity, and elicit a dose-dependent response. Additionally, lactate and pyruvate are ideal for maximal mitochondrial function, as sperm in these media operate at a very high level of their bioenergetic capability due to the high rate of energy metabolism. Moreover, we found that addition of glucose to the media is not necessary for short-term storage of equine sperm, and may even result in reduction of mitochondrial function. Finally, we have confirmed that ROS production can be the result of mitochondrial dysfunction as well as intense mitochondrial activity. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Galectin-3 silencing inhibits epirubicin-induced ATP binding cassette transporters and activates the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway via β-catenin/GSK-3β modulation in colorectal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuo Lee

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR, an unfavorable factor compromising the treatment efficacy of anticancer drugs, involves the upregulation of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters and induction of galectin-3 signaling. Galectin-3 plays an anti-apoptotic role in many cancer cells and regulates various pathways to activate MDR. Thus, the inhibition of galectin-3 has the potential to enhance the efficacy of the anticancer drug epirubicin. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanisms of silencing galectin-3 via RNA interference (RNAi on the β-catenin/GSK-3β pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Galectin-3 knockdown increased the intracellular accumulation of epirubicin in Caco-2 cells; suppressed the mRNA expression of galectin-3, β-catenin, cyclin D1, c-myc, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR-associated protein (MRP 1, and MRP2; and downregulated the protein expression of P-gp, cyclin D1, galectin-3, β-catenin, c-Myc, and Bcl-2. Moreover, galectin-3 RNAi treatment significantly increased the mRNA level of GSK-3β, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9; remarkably increased the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio; and upregulated the GSK-3β and Bax protein expressions. Apoptosis was induced by galectin-3 RNAi and/or epirubicin as demonstrated by chromatin condensation, a higher sub-G1 phase proportion, and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, indicating an intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Epirubicin-mediated resistance was effectively inhibited via galectin-3 RNAi treatment. However, these phenomena could be rescued after galectin-3 overexpression. We show for the first time that the silencing of galectin-3 sensitizes MDR cells to epirubicin by inhibiting ABC transporters and activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis through modulation of the β-catenin/GSK-3β pathway in human colon cancer cells.

  16. Pleiotropic Effects of Biguanides on Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecinová, Alena; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kovalčíková, Jana; Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Alán, Lukáš; Zima, Michal; Houštěk, Josef; Mráček, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 2017 (2017), č. článku 7038603. ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12726S; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : brown adipose tissue * mitochondria * respiratory chain oxidoreductases * mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase * superoxide production * biguanides * metformin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.593, year: 2016

  17. Uncoupling protein and ATP/ADP carrier increase mitochondrial proton conductance after cold adaptation of king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Darren A; Duchamp, Claude; Rey, Benjamin; Hanuise, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Sibille, Brigitte; Brand, Martin D

    2004-07-01

    Juvenile king penguins develop adaptive thermogenesis after repeated immersion in cold water. However, the mechanisms of such metabolic adaptation in birds are unknown, as they lack brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediate adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals. We used three different groups of juvenile king penguins to investigate the mitochondrial basis of avian adaptive thermogenesis in vitro. Skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from penguins that had never been immersed in cold water showed no superoxide-stimulated proton conductance, indicating no functional avian UCP. Skeletal muscle mitochondria from penguins that had been either experimentally immersed or naturally adapted to cold water did possess functional avian UCP, demonstrated by a superoxide-stimulated, GDP-inhibitable proton conductance across their inner membrane. This was associated with a markedly greater abundance of avian UCP mRNA. In the presence (but not the absence) of fatty acids, these mitochondria also showed a greater adenine nucleotide translocase-catalysed proton conductance than those from never-immersed penguins. This was due to an increase in the amount of adenine nucleotide translocase. Therefore, adaptive thermogenesis in juvenile king penguins is linked to two separate mechanisms of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle mitochondria: increased proton transport activity of avian UCP (dependent on superoxide and inhibited by GDP) and increased proton transport activity of the adenine nucleotide translocase (dependent on fatty acids and inhibited by carboxyatractylate).

  18. Sorafenib targets the mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes and ATP synthase to activate the PINK1-Parkin pathway and modulate cellular drug response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Conggang; Liu, Zeyu; Bunker, Eric; Ramirez, Adrian; Lee, Schuyler; Peng, Yinghua; Tan, Aik-Choon; Eckhardt, S Gail; Chapnick, Douglas A; Liu, Xuedong

    2017-09-08

    Sorafenib (Nexavar) is a broad-spectrum multikinase inhibitor that proves effective in treating advanced renal-cell carcinoma and liver cancer. Despite its well-characterized mechanism of action on several established cancer-related protein kinases, sorafenib causes variable responses among human tumors, although the cause for this variation is unknown. In an unbiased screening of an oncology drug library, we found that sorafenib activates recruitment of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Parkin to damaged mitochondria. We show that sorafenib inhibits the activity of both complex II/III of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase. Dual inhibition of these complexes, but not inhibition of each individual complex, stabilizes the serine-threonine protein kinase PINK1 on the mitochondrial outer membrane and activates Parkin. Unlike the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m -chlorophenylhydrazone, which activates the mitophagy response, sorafenib treatment triggers PINK1/Parkin-dependent cellular apoptosis, which is attenuated upon Bcl-2 overexpression. In summary, our results reveal a new mechanism of action for sorafenib as a mitocan and suggest that high Parkin activity levels could make tumor cells more sensitive to sorafenib's actions, providing one possible explanation why Parkin may be a tumor suppressor gene. These insights could be useful in developing new rationally designed combination therapies with sorafenib. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Mitochondrial dysfunction and organophosphorus compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Organophosphorous (OPs) pesticides are the most widely used pesticides in the agriculture and home. However, many acute or chronic poisoning reports about OPs have been published in the recent years. Mitochondria as a site of cellular oxygen consumption and energy production can be a target for OPs poisoning as a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity of OPs. In the present review, we have reviewed and criticized all the evidences about the mitochondrial dysfunctions as a mechanism of toxicity of OPs. For this purpose, all biochemical, molecular, and morphological data were retrieved from various studies. Some toxicities of OPs are arisen from dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through alteration of complexes I, II, III, IV and V activities and disruption of mitochondrial membrane. Reductions of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or induction of its hydrolysis can impair the cellular energy. The OPs disrupt cellular and mitochondrial antioxidant defense, reactive oxygen species generation, and calcium uptake and promote oxidative and genotoxic damage triggering cell death via cytochrome C released from mitochondria and consequent activation of caspases. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by OPs can be restored by use of antioxidants such as vitamin E and C, alpha-tocopherol, electron donors, and through increasing the cytosolic ATP level. However, to elucidate many aspect of mitochondrial toxicity of Ops, further studies should be performed. - Highlights: • As a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity, mitochondria is a target for OPs. • OPs affect action of complexes I, II, III, IV and V in the mitochondria. • OPs reduce mitochondrial ATP. • OPs promote oxidative and genotoxic damage via release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. • OP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be restored by increasing the cytosolic ATP.

  20. Mitochondrial dysfunction and organophosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OPs) pesticides are the most widely used pesticides in the agriculture and home. However, many acute or chronic poisoning reports about OPs have been published in the recent years. Mitochondria as a site of cellular oxygen consumption and energy production can be a target for OPs poisoning as a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity of OPs. In the present review, we have reviewed and criticized all the evidences about the mitochondrial dysfunctions as a mechanism of toxicity of OPs. For this purpose, all biochemical, molecular, and morphological data were retrieved from various studies. Some toxicities of OPs are arisen from dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through alteration of complexes I, II, III, IV and V activities and disruption of mitochondrial membrane. Reductions of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or induction of its hydrolysis can impair the cellular energy. The OPs disrupt cellular and mitochondrial antioxidant defense, reactive oxygen species generation, and calcium uptake and promote oxidative and genotoxic damage triggering cell death via cytochrome C released from mitochondria and consequent activation of caspases. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by OPs can be restored by use of antioxidants such as vitamin E and C, alpha-tocopherol, electron donors, and through increasing the cytosolic ATP level. However, to elucidate many aspect of mitochondrial toxicity of Ops, further studies should be performed. - Highlights: • As a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity, mitochondria is a target for OPs. • OPs affect action of complexes I, II, III, IV and V in the mitochondria. • OPs reduce mitochondrial ATP. • OPs promote oxidative and genotoxic damage via release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. • OP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be restored by increasing the cytosolic ATP

  1. Mitochondria from rat uterine smooth muscle possess ATP-sensitive potassium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga B. Vadzyuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to detect ATP-sensitive K+ uptake in rat uterine smooth muscle mitochondria and to determine possible effects of its activation on mitochondrial physiology. By means of fluorescent technique with usage of K+-sensitive fluorescent probe PBFI (potassium-binding benzofuran isophthalate we showed that accumulation of K ions in isolated mitochondria from rat myometrium is sensitive to effectors of KATP-channel (ATP-sensitive K+-channel – ATP, diazoxide, glibenclamide and 5HD (5-hydroxydecanoate. Our data demonstrates that K+ uptake in isolated myometrium mitochondria results in a slight decrease in membrane potential, enhancement of generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial swelling. Particularly, the addition of ATP into incubation medium led to a decrease in mitochondrial swelling and ROS production, and an increase in membrane potential. These effects were eliminated by diazoxide. If blockers of KATP-channel were added along with diazoxide, the effects of diazoxide were removed. So, we postulate the existence of KATP-channels in rat uterus mitochondria and assume that their functioning may regulate physiological conditions of mitochondria, such as matrix volume, ROS generation and polarization of mitochondrial membrane. Keywords: ATP-sensitive potassium channel, Diazoxide, 5-hydroxydecanoate, Myometrium, Mitochondria, Mitochondrial swelling, Mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS

  2. Autocrine Regulation of UVA-Induced IL-6 Production via Release of ATP and Activation of P2Y Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Ayumi; Kadomatsu, Remi; Ono, Miyu; Kojima, Shuji; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Sakamoto, Hikaru

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP, are released from cells in response to various stimuli and act as intercellular signaling molecules through activation of P2 receptors. Exposure to the ultraviolet radiation A (UVA) component of sunlight causes molecular and cellular damage, and in this study, we investigated the involvement of extracellular nucleotides and P2 receptors in the UVA-induced cellular response. Human keratinocyte-derived HaCaT cells were irradiated with a single dose of UVA (2.5 J/cm2), and ATP release and interleukin (IL)-6 production were measured. ATP was released from cells in response to UVA irradiation, and the release was blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of gap junction hemichannels or P2X7 receptor antagonist. IL-6 production was increased after UVA irradiation, and this increase was inhibited by ecto-nucleotidase or by antagonists of P2Y11 or P2Y13 receptor. These results suggest that UVA-induced IL-6 production is mediated by release of ATP through hemichannels and P2X7 receptor, followed by activation of P2Y11 and P2Y13 receptors. Interestingly, P2Y11 and P2Y13 were associated with the same pattern of IL-6 production, though they trigger different intracellular signaling cascades: Ca2+-dependent and PI3K-dependent, respectively. Thus, IL-6 production in response to UVA-induced ATP release involves at least two distinct pathways, mediated by activation of P2Y11 and P2Y13 receptors. PMID:26030257

  3. ATP signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas......The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas...

  4. Mitochondrial disease and endocrine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jasmine; Rahman, Joyeeta; Achermann, John C; Dattani, Mehul T; Rahman, Shamima

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondria are critical organelles for endocrine health; steroid hormone biosynthesis occurs in these organelles and they provide energy in the form of ATP for hormone production and trafficking. Mitochondrial diseases are multisystem disorders that feature defective oxidative phosphorylation, and are characterized by enormous clinical, biochemical and genetic heterogeneity. To date, mitochondrial diseases have been found to result from >250 monogenic defects encoded across two genomes: the nuclear genome and the ancient circular mitochondrial genome located within mitochondria themselves. Endocrine dysfunction is often observed in genetic mitochondrial diseases and reflects decreased intracellular production or extracellular secretion of hormones. Diabetes mellitus is the most frequently described endocrine disturbance in patients with inherited mitochondrial diseases, but other endocrine manifestations in these patients can include growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, adrenal dysfunction, hypoparathyroidism and thyroid disease. Although mitochondrial endocrine dysfunction frequently occurs in the context of multisystem disease, some mitochondrial disorders are characterized by isolated endocrine involvement. Furthermore, additional monogenic mitochondrial endocrine diseases are anticipated to be revealed by the application of genome-wide next-generation sequencing approaches in the future. Understanding the mitochondrial basis of endocrine disturbance is key to developing innovative therapies for patients with mitochondrial diseases.

  5. Mutations in AtPS1 (Arabidopsis thaliana parallel spindle 1 lead to the production of diploid pollen grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle d'Erfurth

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy has had a considerable impact on the evolution of many eukaryotes, especially angiosperms. Indeed, most--if not all-angiosperms have experienced at least one round of polyploidy during the course of their evolution, and many important crop plants are current polyploids. The occurrence of 2n gametes (diplogametes in diploid populations is widely recognised as the major source of polyploid formation. However, limited information is available on the genetic control of diplogamete production. Here, we describe the isolation and characterisation of the first gene, AtPS1 (Arabidopsis thaliana Parallel Spindle 1, implicated in the formation of a high frequency of diplogametes in plants. Atps1 mutants produce diploid male spores, diploid pollen grains, and spontaneous triploid plants in the next generation. Female meiosis is not affected in the mutant. We demonstrated that abnormal spindle orientation at male meiosis II leads to diplogamete formation. Most of the parent's heterozygosity is therefore conserved in the Atps1 diploid gametes, which is a key issue for plant breeding. The AtPS1 protein is conserved throughout the plant kingdom and carries domains suggestive of a regulatory function. The isolation of a gene involved in diplogamete production opens the way for new strategies in plant breeding programmes and progress in evolutionary studies.

  6. Mitochondrial NUDIX hydrolases: A metabolic link between NAD catabolism, GTP and mitochondrial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Aaron; Klimova, Nina; Kristian, Tibor

    2017-10-01

    NAD + catabolism and mitochondrial dynamics are important parts of normal mitochondrial function and are both reported to be disrupted in aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and acute brain injury. While both processes have been extensively studied there has been little reported on how the mechanisms of these two processes are linked. This review focuses on how downstream NAD + catabolism via NUDIX hydrolases affects mitochondrial dynamics under pathologic conditions. Additionally, several potential targets in mitochondrial dysfunction and fragmentation are discussed, including the roles of mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1(mtPARP1), AMPK, AMP, and intra-mitochondrial GTP metabolism. Mitochondrial and cytosolic NUDIX hydrolases (NUDT9α and NUDT9β) can affect mitochondrial and cellular AMP levels by hydrolyzing ADP- ribose (ADPr) and subsequently altering the levels of GTP and ATP. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is activated after DNA damage, which depletes NAD + pools and results in the PARylation of nuclear and mitochondrial proteins. In the mitochondria, ADP-ribosyl hydrolase-3 (ARH3) hydrolyzes PAR to ADPr, while NUDT9α metabolizes ADPr to AMP. Elevated AMP levels have been reported to reduce mitochondrial ATP production by inhibiting the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), allosterically activating AMPK by altering the cellular AMP: ATP ratio, and by depleting mitochondrial GTP pools by being phosphorylated by adenylate kinase 3 (AK3), which uses GTP as a phosphate donor. Recently, activated AMPK was reported to phosphorylate mitochondria fission factor (MFF), which increases Drp1 localization to the mitochondria and promotes mitochondrial fission. Moreover, the increased AK3 activity could deplete mitochondrial GTP pools and possibly inhibit normal activity of GTP-dependent fusion enzymes, thus altering mitochondrial dynamics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Fluctuation-driven mechanotransduction regulates mitochondrial-network structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Imsirovic, Jasmin; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Wellman, Tyler J.; Martinez, Nuria; Allen, Philip G.; Frey, Urs; Suki, Béla

    2015-10-01

    Cells can be exposed to irregular mechanical fluctuations, such as those arising from changes in blood pressure. Here, we report that ATP production, assessed through changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, is downregulated in vascular smooth muscle cells in culture exposed to monotonous stretch cycles when compared with cells exposed to a variable cyclic stretch that incorporates physiological levels of cycle-by-cycle variability in stretch amplitude. Variable stretch enhances ATP production by increasing the expression of ATP synthase’s catalytic domain, cytochrome c oxidase and its tyrosine phosphorylation, mitofusins and PGC-1α. Such a fluctuation-driven mechanotransduction mechanism is mediated by motor proteins and by the enhancement of microtubule-, actin- and mitochondrial-network complexity. We also show that, in aorta rings isolated from rats, monotonous stretch downregulates--whereas variable stretch maintains--physiological vessel-wall contractility through mitochondrial ATP production. Our results have implications for ATP-dependent and mechanosensitive intracellular processes.

  8. Ca2+-regulated-cAMP/PKA signaling in cardiac pacemaker cells links ATP supply to demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Yael; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Spurgeon, Harold A; Sollott, Steven J; Lakatta, Edward G

    2011-11-01

    In sinoatrial node cells (SANC), Ca(2+) activates adenylate cyclase (AC) to generate a high basal level of cAMP-mediated/protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of Ca(2+) cycling proteins. These result in spontaneous sarcoplasmic-reticulum (SR) generated rhythmic Ca(2+) oscillations during diastolic depolarization, that not only trigger the surface membrane to generate rhythmic action potentials (APs), but, in a feed-forward manner, also activate AC/PKA signaling. ATP is consumed to pump Ca(2+) to the SR, to produce cAMP, to support contraction and to maintain cell ionic homeostasis. Since feedback mechanisms link ATP-demand to ATP production, we hypothesized that (1) both basal ATP supply and demand in SANC would be Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA dependent; and (2) due to its feed-forward nature, a decrease in flux through the Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA signaling axis will reduce the basal ATP production rate. O(2) consumption in spontaneous beating SANC was comparable to ventricular myocytes (VM) stimulated at 3 Hz. Graded reduction of basal Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA signaling to reduce ATP demand in rabbit SANC produced graded ATP depletion (r(2)=0.96), and reduced O(2) consumption and flavoprotein fluorescence. Neither inhibition of glycolysis, selectively blocking contraction nor specific inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+) flux reduced the ATP level. Feed-forward basal Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA signaling both consumes ATP to drive spontaneous APs in SANC and is tightly linked to mitochondrial ATP production. Interfering with Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA signaling not only slows the firing rate and reduces ATP consumption, but also appears to reduce ATP production so that ATP levels fall. This distinctly differs from VM, which lack this feed-forward basal cAMP/PKA signaling, and in which ATP level remains constant when the demand changes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Extracellular ATP drives breast cancer cell migration and metastasis via S100A4 production by cancer cells and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Geng, Yue-Hang; Yang, Hui; Yang, Han; Zhou, Yan-Ting; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Tian, Xin-Xia; Fang, Wei-Gang

    2018-05-04

    Our previous work has demonstrated that extracellular ATP is an important pro-invasive factor, and in this study, we tapped into a possible mechanism involved. We discovered that ATP could upregulate both the intracellular expression and secretion of S100A4 in breast cancer cells and fibroblasts. Apart from stimulating breast cancer cell motility via intracellular S100A4, ATP enhanced the ability of breast cancer cells to transform fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)-like cells, which in turn secreted S100A4 to further promote cancer cell motility. Both apyrase and niclosamide treatments could inhibit metastasis of inoculated tumors to lung, liver and kidney in mice model, and CAFs from these treated tumors exhibited weakened migration-stimulating capacity for breast cancer cells. Collectively, our data indicate that extracellular ATP promotes the interactions between breast cancer cells and fibroblasts, which work collaboratively via production of S100A4 to exacerbate breast cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Pleiotropic Effects of Biguanides on Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pecinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin is widely prescribed as a first-choice antihyperglycemic drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and recent epidemiological studies showed its utility also in cancer therapy. Although it is in use since the 1970s, its molecular target, either for antihyperglycemic or antineoplastic action, remains elusive. However, the body of the research on metformin effect oscillates around mitochondrial metabolism, including the function of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS apparatus. In this study, we focused on direct inhibitory mechanism of biguanides (metformin and phenformin on OXPHOS complexes and its functional impact, using the model of isolated brown adipose tissue mitochondria. We demonstrate that biguanides nonspecifically target the activities of all respiratory chain dehydrogenases (mitochondrial NADH, succinate, and glycerophosphate dehydrogenases, but only at very high concentrations (10−2–10−1 M that highly exceed cellular concentrations observed during the treatment. In addition, these concentrations of biguanides also trigger burst of reactive oxygen species production which, in combination with pleiotropic OXPHOS inhibition, can be toxic for the organism. We conclude that the beneficial effect of biguanides should probably be associated with subtler mechanism, different from the generalized inhibition of the respiratory chain.

  11. Loss of the gene for the alpha subunit of ATP synthase (ATP5A1) from the W chromosome in the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, S R

    2001-08-01

    This study describes the results of an analysis using Southern blotting, the polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing which shows that the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) lacks the W-chromosomal gene for the alpha subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATP5A1W). Additional evidence shows that in other psittacines a fragment of the ATP5A1W gene contains five times as many nonsynonymous nucleotide replacements as the homologous fragment of the Z gene. Therefore, whereas in these other psittacines the corresponding ATP5A1Z protein fragment is highly conserved and varies by only a few, moderately conservative amino acid substitutions, the homologous ATP5A1W fragments contain a considerable number of, sometimes highly nonconservative, amino acid replacements. In one of these species, the ringneck parakeet (Psittacula krameri), the ATP5A1W gene is present in an inactive form because of the presence of a nonsense codon. Other changes, possibly leading to an inactive ATP5A1W gene product, involve the substitution of arginine residues by cysteine in the ATP5A1W protein of the mitred conure (Aratinga mitrata) and the blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna). The data suggest also that although the divergence of the psittacine ATP5A1W and ATP5A1Z genes preceded the origin of the psittacidae, this divergence occurred independently of a similar process in the myna (Gracula religiosa), the outgroup used in this study.

  12. Regulation of glycolytic oscillations by mitochondrial and plasma membrane H+-ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Folke; Andersen, Ann Zahle; Lunding, Anita

    2009-01-01

    ,3'-diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide. The responses of glycolytic and membrane potential oscillations to a number of inhibitors of glycolysis, mitochondrial electron flow, and mitochondrial and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase were investigated. Furthermore, the glycolytic flux was determined as the rate of production of ethanol....../ATP antiporter and the mitochondrial F(0)F(1)-ATPase. The results further suggest that ATP hydrolysis, through the action of the mitochondrial F(0)F(1)-ATPase and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, are important in regulating these oscillations. We conclude that it is glycolysis that drives the oscillations...

  13. SMG-1 kinase attenuates mitochondrial ROS production but not cell respiration deficits during hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resseguie, Emily A; Brookes, Paul S; O'Reilly, Michael A

    Supplemental oxygen (hyperoxia) used to treat individuals in respiratory distress causes cell injury by enhancing the production of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. The suppressor of morphogenesis of genitalia (SMG-1) kinase is activated during hyperoxia and promotes cell survival by phosphorylating the tumor suppressor p53 on serine 15. Here, we investigate whether SMG-1 and p53 blunt this vicious cycle of progressive ROS production and decline in mitochondrial respiration seen during hyperoxia. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and H1299 or colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were depleted of SMG-1, UPF-1, or p53 using RNA interference, and then exposed to room air (21% oxygen) or hyperoxia (95% oxygen). Immunoblotting was used to evaluate protein expression; a Seahorse Bioanalyzer was used to assess cellular respiration; and flow cytometry was used to evaluate fluorescence intensity of cells stained with mitochondrial or redox sensitive dyes. Hyperoxia increased mitochondrial and cytoplasmic ROS and suppressed mitochondrial respiration without changing mitochondrial mass or membrane potential. Depletion of SMG-1 or its cofactor, UPF1, significantly enhanced hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial but not cytosolic ROS abundance. They did not affect mitochondrial mass, membrane potential, or hyperoxia-induced deficits in mitochondrial respiration. Genetic depletion of p53 in A549 cells and ablation of the p53 gene in H1299 or HCT116 cells revealed that SMG-1 influences mitochondrial ROS through activation of p53. Our findings show that hyperoxia does not promote a vicious cycle of progressive mitochondrial ROS and dysfunction because SMG-1-p53 signaling attenuates production of mitochondrial ROS without preserving respiration. This suggests antioxidant therapies that blunt ROS production during hyperoxia may not suffice to restore cellular respiration.

  14. Human skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, U F; Rasmussen, H N

    2000-04-01

    Under aerobic work, the oxygen consumption and major ATP production occur in the mitochondria and it is therefore a relevant question whether the in vivo rates can be accounted for by mitochondrial capacities measured in vitro. Mitochondria were isolated from human quadriceps muscle biopsies in yields of approximately 45%. The tissue content of total creatine, mitochondrial protein and different cytochromes was estimated. A number of activities were measured in functional assays of the mitochondria: pyruvate, ketoglutarate, glutamate and succinate dehydrogenases, palmitoyl-carnitine respiration, cytochrome oxidase, the respiratory chain and the ATP synthesis. The activities involved in carbohydrate oxidation could account for in vivo oxygen uptakes of 15-16 mmol O2 min-1 kg-1 or slightly above the value measured at maximal work rates in the knee-extensor model of Saltin and co-workers, i.e. without limitation from the cardiac output. This probably indicates that the maximal oxygen consumption of the muscle is limited by the mitochondrial capacities. The in vitro activities of fatty acid oxidation corresponded to only 39% of those of carbohydrate oxidation. The maximal rate of free energy production from aerobic metabolism of glycogen was calculated from the mitochondrial activities and estimates of the DeltaG or ATP hydrolysis and the efficiency of the actin-myosin reaction. The resultant value was 20 W kg-1 or approximately 70% of the maximal in vivo work rates of which 10-20% probably are sustained by the anaerobic ATP production. The lack of aerobic in vitro ATP synthesis might reflect termination of some critical interplay between cytoplasm and mitochondria.

  15. Beyond the polymerase-γ theory: Production of ROS as a mode of NRTI-induced mitochondrial toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben L Smith

    Full Text Available Use of some HIV-1 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI is associated with severe adverse events. However, the exact mechanisms behind their toxicity has not been fully understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction after chronic exposure to specific NRTIs has predominantly been assigned to mitochondrial polymerase-γ inhibition by NRTIs. However, an increasing amount of data suggests that this is not the sole mechanism. Many NRTI induced adverse events have been linked to the incurrence of oxidative stress, although the causality of events leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS production and their role in toxicity is unclear. In this study we show that short-term effects of first generation NRTIs, which are rarely discussed in the literature, include inhibition of oxygen consumption, decreased ATP levels and increased ROS production. Collectively these events affect fitness and longevity of C. elegans through mitohormetic signalling events. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these effects can be normalized by addition of the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC, which suggests that ROS likely influence the onset and severity of adverse events upon drug exposure.

  16. Photo-excitation of electrons in cytochrome c oxidase as a theory of the mechanism of the increase of ATP production in mitochondria by laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Andrzej

    2014-02-01

    The hypothesis explains the molecular basis for restoring mitochondrial function by laser therapy. It also explains how laser therapy reverses both excessive oxidation (lack of NADH/FADH2) and excessive reduction (lack of O2) states of cytochrome c oxidase complex. It is proposed that photons interact with heme molecules of cytochrome c oxidase. A molecule of heme contains a porphyrin ring and an atom of iron in the center. The iron atom (Fe) can switch oxidation states back and forth between ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) by accepting or releasing an electron. The porphyrin ring is a complex aromatic molecule that has 26 pi electrons which are "delocalized", spinning in the carbon rings creating a resonating electromagnetic cloud. Photons with similar wavelengths are absorbed by the cloud increasing its energy. The energy is then passed on to the centrally located atom of iron existing in a reduced state (Fe2+). The electrons on the orbits of the iron atom accept this electromagnetic energy, and change orbitals to a higher energetic level. If the energy is sufficient, electrons leave the atom entirely. If this occurs, Fe2+ become oxidized to Fe3+ releasing electrons, thus restoring electron flow and the production of ATP. At the same time, electrons freed from complex IV may have sufficient energy to be picked by NAD+/FADH and re-enter the chain at the complex I or II amplifying the flow of electrons.

  17. Osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 Cells Prefer Glycolysis for ATP Production but Adipocyte-like 3T3-L1 Cells Prefer Oxidative Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, Anyonya R; Gerencser, Akos A; Le, Phuong T; DeMambro, Victoria E; Bornstein, Sheila A; Mookerjee, Shona A; Maridas, David E; Clemmons, David E; Brand, Martin D; Rosen, Clifford J

    2018-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are early progenitors that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. We hypothesized that osteoblasts and adipocytes utilize distinct bioenergetic pathways during MSC differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we compared the bioenergetic profiles of preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and calvarial osteoblasts with preadipocyte 3T3L1 cells, before and after differentiation. Differentiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts met adenosine triphosphate (ATP) demand mainly by glycolysis with minimal reserve glycolytic capacity, whereas nondifferentiated cells generated ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. A marked Crabtree effect (acute suppression of respiration by addition of glucose, observed in both MC3T3-E1 and calvarial osteoblasts) and smaller mitochondrial membrane potential in the differentiated osteoblasts, particularly those incubated at high glucose concentrations, indicated a suppression of oxidative phosphorylation compared with nondifferentiated osteoblasts. In contrast, both nondifferentiated and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes met ATP demand primarily by oxidative phosphorylation despite a large unused reserve glycolytic capacity. In sum, we show that nondifferentiated precursor cells prefer to use oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP; when they differentiate to osteoblasts, they gain a strong preference for glycolytic ATP generation, but when they differentiate to adipocytes, they retain the strong preference for oxidative phosphorylation. Unique metabolic programming in mesenchymal progenitor cells may influence cell fate and ultimately determine the degree of bone formation and/or the development of marrow adiposity. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. Mitochondrial ROS Production Protects the Intestine from Inflammation through Functional M2 Macrophage Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Formentini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are signaling hubs in cellular physiology that play a role in inflammatory diseases. We found that partial inhibition of the mitochondrial ATP synthase in the intestine of transgenic mice triggers an anti-inflammatory response through NFκB activation mediated by mitochondrial mtROS. This shielding phenotype is revealed when mice are challenged by DSS-induced colitis, which, in control animals, triggers inflammation, recruitment of M1 pro-inflammatory macrophages, and the activation of the pro-oncogenic STAT3 and Akt/mTOR pathways. In contrast, transgenic mice can polarize macrophages to the M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. Using the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ to quench mtROS in vivo, we observe decreased NFκB activation, preventing its cellular protective effects. These findings stress the relevance of mitochondrial signaling to the innate immune system and emphasize the potential role of the ATP synthase as a therapeutic target in inflammatory and other related diseases.

  19. Cytosolic calcium mediates RIP1/RIP3 complex-dependent necroptosis through JNK activation and mitochondrial ROS production in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaxia; Gao, Hongwei; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Wenwen; Lu, Jin-Jian; Wang, Jinhua; Du, Guanhua; Chen, Xiuping

    2017-07-01

    Necroptosis is a form of programmed necrosis mediated by signaling complexes with receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 kinases as the main mediators. However, the underlying execution pathways of this phenomenon have yet to be elucidated in detail. In this study, a RIP1/RIP3 complex was formed in 2-methoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyljuglone (MAM)-treated HCT116 and HT29 colon cancer cells. With this formation, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased, mitochondrial depolarization occurred, and ATP concentrations decreased. This process was identified as necroptosis. This finding was confirmed by experiments showing that MAM-induced cell death was attenuated by the pharmacological or genetic blockage of necroptosis signaling, including RIP1 inhibitor necrostatin-1s (Nec-1s) and siRNA-mediated gene silencing of RIP1 and RIP3, but was unaffected by caspase inhibitor z-vad-fmk or necrosis inhibitor 2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-3-pentylamino-maleimide (IM54). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis further revealed the ultrastructural features of MAM-induced necroptosis. MAM-induced RIP1/RIP3 complex triggered necroptosis through cytosolic calcium (Ca 2+ ) accumulation and sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Both calcium chelator BAPTA-AM and JNK inhibitor SP600125 could attenuate necroptotic features, including mitochondrial ROS elevation, mitochondrial depolarization, and ATP depletion. 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), which is a mitochondrial complex II inhibitor, was found to effectively reverse both MAM induced mitochondrial ROS generation and cell death, indicating the complex II was the ROS-producing site. The essential role of mitochondrial ROS was confirmed by the protective effect of overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). MAM-induced necroptosis was independent of TNFα, p53, MLKL, and lysosomal membrane permeabilization. In summary, our study demonstrated that RIP1/RIP3 complex-triggered cytosolic calcium

  20. Loss of the SIN3 transcriptional corepressor results in aberrant mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüttemann Maik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SIN3 is a transcriptional repressor protein known to regulate many genes, including a number of those that encode mitochondrial components. Results By monitoring RNA levels, we find that loss of SIN3 in Drosophila cultured cells results in up-regulation of not only nuclear encoded mitochondrial genes, but also those encoded by the mitochondrial genome. The up-regulation of gene expression is accompanied by a perturbation in ATP levels in SIN3-deficient cells, suggesting that the changes in mitochondrial gene expression result in altered mitochondrial activity. In support of the hypothesis that SIN3 is necessary for normal mitochondrial function, yeast sin3 null mutants exhibit very poor growth on non-fermentable carbon sources and show lower levels of ATP and reduced respiration rates. Conclusions The findings that both yeast and Drosophila SIN3 affect mitochondrial activity suggest an evolutionarily conserved role for SIN3 in the control of cellular energy production.

  1. H+/ATP ratio during ATP hydrolysis by mitochondria: modification of the chemiosmotic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1977-01-01

    The stoichiometry of H+ ejection by mitochondria during hydrolysis of a small pulse of ATP (the H+/ATP ratio) has been reexamined in the light of our recent observation that the stoichiometry of H+ ejection during mitochondrial electron transport (the H+/site ratio) was previously underestimated. We show that earlier estimates of the H+/ATP ratio in intact mitochondria were based upon an invalid correction for scaler H+ production and describe a modified method for determination of this ratio which utilizes mersalyl or N-ethylmaleimide to prevent complicating transmembrane movements of phosphate and H+. This method gives a value for the H+/ATP ratio of 2.0 without the need for questionable corrections, compared with a value of 3.0 for the H+/site ratio also obtained by pulse methods. A modified version of the chemiosmotic theory is presented, in which 3 H+ are ejected per pair of electrons traversing each energy-conserving site of the respiratory chain. Of these, 2 H+ return to the matrix through the ATPase to form ATP from ADP and phosphate, and 1 H+ returns through the combined action of the phosphate and adenine nucleotide exchange carriers of the inner membrane to allow the energy-requiring influx of Pi and ADP3- and efflux of ATP4-. Thus, up to one-third of the energy input into synthesis of extramitochondrial ATP may be required for transport work. Since other methods suggest that the H+/site significantly exceeds 3.0, an alternative possibility is that 4 h+ are ejected per site, followed by return of 3 H+ through the ATPase and 1 H+ through the operation of the proton-coupled membrane transport systems. PMID:17116

  2. Contributions of citrate in redox potential maintenance and ATP production: metabolic pathways and their regulation in Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-10-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 belongs to the group III heterofermentative lactobacilli and can utilize various NADH-reoxidizing routes (e.g., citrate, glycerol, and oxygen) according to environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated the ability of L. panis PM1 to produce succinate, acetate, and lactate via citrate utilization. Possible pathways, as well as regulation, for citrate metabolism were examined on the basis of the genome sequence data and metabolic profiles of L. panis PM1. The presence of citrate led to the up-regulation, at the transcriptional level, of the genes encoding for citrate lyase, malate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme of the citrate pathways by 10- to 120-fold. The transcriptional regulator of the dha operon coding for glycerol dehydratase of L. panis PM1 repressed the expression of the citrate lyase gene (10-fold). Metabolite analyses indicated that the transcriptional enhancement by citrate stimulated succinate yield. Citrate metabolism contributed to energy production by providing a major alternate pathway for NAD(+) regeneration and allowed acetyl phosphate to yield acetate/ATP instead of ethanol/NAD(+). Additionally, a branching pathway from oxaloacetate to pyruvate increased the pool of lactate, which was then used to produce ATP during stationary phase. However, the redirection of NADH-to-citrate utilization resulted in stress caused by end-products (i.e., succinate and acetate). This stress reduced succinate production by up to 50 % but did not cause significant changes at transcriptional level. Overall, citrate utilization was beneficial for the growth of L. panis PM1 by providing a NAD(+) regeneration route and producing extra ATP.

  3. L-cysteine reversibly inhibits glucose-induced biphasic insulin secretion and ATP production by inactivating PKM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Daiki; Horiuchi, Yuta; Kano, Fumi; Noguchi, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Taichi; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-03-10

    Increase in the concentration of plasma L-cysteine is closely associated with defective insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, which results in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we investigated the effects of prolonged L-cysteine treatment on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells and from mouse pancreatic islets, and found that the treatment reversibly inhibited glucose-induced ATP production and resulting GSIS without affecting proinsulin and insulin synthesis. Comprehensive metabolic analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that prolonged L-cysteine treatment decreased the levels of pyruvate and its downstream metabolites. In addition, methyl pyruvate, a membrane-permeable form of pyruvate, rescued L-cysteine-induced inhibition of GSIS. Based on these results, we found that both in vitro and in MIN6 cells, L-cysteine specifically inhibited the activity of pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2), an isoform of pyruvate kinases that catalyze the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. L-cysteine also induced PKM2 subunit dissociation (tetramers to dimers/monomers) in cells, which resulted in impaired glucose-induced ATP production for GSIS. DASA-10 (NCGC00181061, a substituted N,N'-diarylsulfonamide), a specific activator for PKM2, restored the tetramer formation and the activity of PKM2, glucose-induced ATP production, and biphasic insulin secretion in L-cysteine-treated cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion due to exposure to L-cysteine resulted from its direct binding and inactivation of PKM2 and suggest that PKM2 is a potential therapeutic target for T2D.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide production regulates the mitochondrial function in insulin resistant muscle cells: effect of catalase overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Marina R; Sampaio, Igor H; Teodoro, Bruno G; Sousa, Thais A; Zoppi, Claudio C; Queiroz, André L; Passos, Madla A; Alberici, Luciane C; Teixeira, Felipe R; Manfiolli, Adriana O; Batista, Thiago M; Cappelli, Ana Paula Gameiro; Reis, Rosana I; Frasson, Danúbia; Kettelhut, Isis C; Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Carneiro, Everardo M; Curi, Rui; Silveira, Leonardo R

    2013-10-01

    The mitochondrial redox state plays a central role in the link between mitochondrial overloading and insulin resistance. However, the mechanism by which the ROS induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells is not completely understood. We examined the association between mitochondrial function and H2O2 production in insulin resistant cells. Our hypothesis is that the low mitochondrial oxygen consumption leads to elevated ROS production by a mechanism associated with reduced PGC1α transcription and low content of phosphorylated CREB. The cells were transfected with either the encoded sequence for catalase overexpression or the specific siRNA for catalase inhibition. After transfection, myotubes were incubated with palmitic acid (500μM) and the insulin response, as well as mitochondrial function and fatty acid metabolism, was determined. The low mitochondrial oxygen consumption led to elevated ROS production by a mechanism associated with β-oxidation of fatty acids. Rotenone was observed to reduce the ratio of ROS production. The elevated H2O2 production markedly decreased the PGC1α transcription, an effect that was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Akt and CREB. The catalase transfection prevented the reduction in the phosphorylated level of Akt and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated CREB. The mitochondrial function was elevated and H2O2 production reduced, thus increasing the insulin sensitivity. The catalase overexpression improved mitochondrial respiration protecting the cells from fatty acid-induced, insulin resistance. This effect indicates that control of hydrogen peroxide production regulates the mitochondrial respiration preventing the insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells by a mechanism associated with CREB phosphorylation and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transgenic expression of an unedited mitochondrial orfB gene product from wild abortive (WA) cytoplasm of rice (Oryza sativa L.) generates male sterility in fertile rice lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Mitra, Joy; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Pradhan, Subrata; Sikdar, Narattam; Das, Srirupa; Chakraborty, Saikat; Kumar, Sachin; Lakhanpaul, Suman; Sen, Soumitra K

    2015-06-01

    Over-expression of the unedited mitochondrial orfB gene product generates male sterility in fertile indica rice lines in a dose-dependent manner. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and nuclear-controlled fertility restoration are widespread developmental features in plant reproductive systems. In self-pollinated crop plants, these processes often provide useful tools to exploit hybrid vigour. The wild abortive CMS has been employed in the majority of the "three-line" hybrid rice production since 1970s. In the present study, we provide experimental evidence for a positive functional relationship between the 1.1-kb unedited orfB gene transcript, and its translated product in the mitochondria with male sterility. The generation of the 1.1-kb unedited orfB gene transcripts increased during flowering, resulting in low ATP synthase activity in sterile plants. Following insertion of the unedited orfB gene into the genome of male-fertile plants, the plants became male sterile in a dose-dependent manner with concomitant reduction of ATPase activity of F1F0-ATP synthase (complex V). Fertility of the transgenic lines and normal activity of ATP synthase were restored by down-regulation of the unedited orfB gene expression through RNAi-mediated silencing. The genetic elements deciphered in this study could further be tested for their use in hybrid rice development.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens and Laodelphax striatellus: conserved genome rearrangement in Delphacidae and discovery of new characteristics of atp8 and tRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Jun; Zhu, Wen-Chao; Rong, Xia; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Ding, Xiu-Lei; Liu, Jing; Chen, Da-Song; Du, Yu; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-06-22

    Nilaparvata lugens (the brown planthopper, BPH) and Laodelphax striatellus (the small brown planthopper, SBPH) are two of the most important pests of rice. Up to now, there was only one mitochondrial genome of rice planthopper has been sequenced and very few dependable information of mitochondria could be used for research on population genetics, phylogeographics and phylogenetic evolution of these pests. To get more valuable information from the mitochondria, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of BPH and SBPH. These two planthoppers were infected with two different functional Wolbachia (intracellular endosymbiont) strains (wLug and wStri). Since both mitochondria and Wolbachia are transmitted by cytoplasmic inheritance and it was difficult to separate them when purified the Wolbachia particles, concomitantly sequencing the genome of Wolbachia using next generation sequencing method, we also got nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of these two rice planthoppers. After gap closing, we present high quality and reliable complete mitochondrial genomes of these two planthoppers. The mitogenomes of N. lugens (BPH) and L. striatellus (SBPH) are 17, 619 bp and 16, 431 bp long with A + T contents of 76.95% and 77.17%, respectively. Both species have typical circular mitochondrial genomes that encode the complete set of 37 genes which are usually found in metazoans. However, the BPH mitogenome also possesses two additional copies of the trnC gene. In both mitochondrial genomes, the lengths of the atp8 gene were conspicuously shorter than that of all other known insect mitochondrial genomes (99 bp for BPH, 102 bp for SBPH). That two rearrangement regions (trnC-trnW and nad6-trnP-trnT) of mitochondrial genomes differing from other known insect were found in these two distantly related planthoppers revealed that the gene order of mitochondria might be conservative in Delphacidae. The large non-coding fragment (the A+T-rich region) putatively

  7. Mitochondrial oxidative function and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Boushel, Robert; Dela, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    The cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is unknown. The major part of insulin-mediated glucose disposal takes place in the skeletal muscle, and increased amounts of intramyocellular lipid has been associated with insulin resistance and linked to decreased activity of mitochondrial...... oxidative phosphorylation. This review will cover the present knowledge and literature on the topics of the activity of oxidative enzymes and the electron transport chain (ETC) in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes. Different methods of studying mitochondrial function are described, including...... biochemical measurements of oxidative enzyme and electron transport activity, isolation of mitochondria for measurements of respiration, and ATP production and indirect measurements of ATP production using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - spectroscopy. Biochemical markers of mitochondrial content are also...

  8. The determination and analysis of site-specific rates of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinlan, Casey L; Perevoschikova, Irina V; Goncalves, Renata L S

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely implicated in physiological and pathological pathways. We propose that it is critical to understand the specific sites of mitochondrial ROS production and their mechanisms of action. Mitochondria possess at least eight distinct sites of ROS...... production in the electron transport chain and matrix compartment. In this chapter, we describe the nature of the mitochondrial ROS-producing machinery and the relative capacities of each site. We provide detailed methods for the measurement of H2O2 release and the conditions under which maximal rates from...

  9. Use the Protonmotive Force: Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Reactive Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Brandon J; Trewin, Adam J; Amitrano, Andrea M; Kim, Minsoo; Wojtovich, Andrew P

    2018-04-04

    Mitochondrial respiration results in an electrochemical proton gradient, or protonmotive force (pmf), across the mitochondrial inner membrane. The pmf is a form of potential energy consisting of charge (∆ψ m ) and chemical (∆pH) components, that together drive ATP production. In a process called uncoupling, proton leak into the mitochondrial matrix independent of ATP production dissipates the pmf and energy is lost as heat. Other events can directly dissipate the pmf independent of ATP production as well, such as chemical exposure or mechanisms involving regulated mitochondrial membrane electrolyte transport. Uncoupling has defined roles in metabolic plasticity and can be linked through signal transduction to physiologic events. In the latter case, the pmf impacts mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Although capable of molecular damage, ROS also have signaling properties that depend on the timing, location, and quantity of their production. In this review, we provide a general overview of mitochondrial ROS production, mechanisms of uncoupling, and how these work in tandem to affect physiology and pathologies, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and immunity. Overall, we highlight that isolated bioenergetic models-mitochondria and cells-only partially recapitulate the complex link between the pmf and ROS signaling that occurs in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Symbiotic Association with Mycoplasma hominis Can Influence Growth Rate, ATP Production, Cytolysis and Inflammatory Response of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarita, Valentina; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Pintus, Gianfranco; Hirt, Robert P.; Fiori, Pier L.

    2016-01-01

    The symbiosis between the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis and the opportunistic bacterium Mycoplasma hominis is the only one currently described involving two obligate human mucosal symbionts with pathogenic capabilities that can cause independent diseases in the same anatomical site: the lower urogenital tract. Although several aspects of this intriguing microbial partnership have been investigated, many questions on the influence of this symbiosis on the parasite pathobiology still remain unanswered. Here, we examined with in vitro cultures how M. hominis could influence the pathobiology of T. vaginalis by investigating the influence of M. hominis on parasite replication rate, haemolytic activity and ATP production. By comparing isogenic mycoplasma-free T. vaginalis and parasites stably associated with M. hominis we could demonstrate that the latter show a higher replication rate, increased haemolytic activity and are able to produce larger amounts of ATP. In addition, we demonstrated in a T. vaginalis-macrophage co-culture system that M. hominis could modulate an aspect of the innate immuno-response to T. vaginalis infections by influencing the production of nitric oxide (NO) by human macrophages, with the parasite-bacteria symbiosis outcompeting the human cells for the key substrate arginine. These results support a model in which the symbiosis between T. vaginalis and M. hominis influences host-microbes interactions to the benefit of both microbial partners during infections and to the detriment of their host. PMID:27379081

  11. Disruption of ATP-sensitive potassium channel function in skeletal muscles promotes production and secretion of musclin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Ana; Subbotina, Ekaterina; Zhu, Zhiyong; Gao, Zhan; Koganti, Siva Rama Krishna; Coetzee, William A.; Goldhamer, David J.; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M.; Zingman, Leonid V.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium (K_A_T_P) channels control skeletal muscle energy use through their ability to adjust membrane excitability and related cell functions in accordance with cellular metabolic status. Mice with disrupted skeletal muscle K_A_T_P channels exhibit reduced adipocyte size and increased fatty acid release into the circulation. As yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this link between skeletal muscle K_A_T_P channel function and adipose mobilization have not been established. Here, we demonstrate that skeletal muscle-specific disruption of K_A_T_P channel function in transgenic (TG) mice promotes production and secretion of musclin. Musclin is a myokine with high homology to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) that enhances ANP signaling by competing for elimination. Augmented musclin production in TG mice is driven by a molecular cascade resulting in enhanced acetylation and nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) – an inhibitor of transcription of the musclin encoding gene. Musclin production/secretion in TG is paired with increased mobilization of fatty acids and a clear trend toward increased circulating ANP, an activator of lipolysis. These data establish K_A_T_P channel-dependent musclin production as a potential mechanistic link coupling “local” skeletal muscle energy consumption with mobilization of bodily resources from fat. Understanding such mechanisms is an important step toward designing interventions to manage metabolic disorders including those related to excess body fat and associated co-morbidities. - Highlights: • ATP-sensitive K"+ channels regulate musclin production by skeletal muscles. • Lipolytic ANP signaling is promoted by augmented skeletal muscle musclin production. • Skeletal muscle musclin transcription is promoted by a CaMKII/HDAC/FOXO1 pathway. • Musclin links adipose mobilization to energy use in K_A_T_P channel deficient skeletal muscle.

  12. Hypoxic HepG2 cell adaptation decreases ATP synthase dimers and ATP production in inflated cristae by mitofilin down-regulation concomitant to MICOS clustering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plecitá-Hlavatá, Lydie; Engstová, Hana; Alán, Lukáš; Špaček, Tomáš; Dlasková, Andrea; Smolková, Katarína; Špačková, Jitka; Tauber, Jan; Strádalová, Vendula; Malínský, Jan; Lessard, M.; Bewersdorf, J.; Ježek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2016), s. 1941-1957 ISSN 0892-6638 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02033S; GA ČR GJ15-02022Y Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : Mitofilin * Mic60 * OPA1 * dSTORM * 3D immunocytochemistry * electron microscopy * mitochondrial cristae morphology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 5.498, year: 2016

  13. Redox regulation of mitochondrial function with emphasis on cysteine oxidation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Ryan J; Jin, Xiaolei; Willmore, William G

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria have a myriad of essential functions including metabolism and apoptosis. These chief functions are reliant on electron transfer reactions and the production of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production of ATP and ROS are intimately linked to the electron transport chain (ETC). Electrons from nutrients are passed through the ETC via a series of acceptor and donor molecules to the terminal electron acceptor molecular oxygen (O2) which ultimately drives the synthesis of ATP. Electron transfer through the respiratory chain and nutrient oxidation also produces ROS. At high enough concentrations ROS can activate mitochondrial apoptotic machinery which ultimately leads to cell death. However, if maintained at low enough concentrations ROS can serve as important signaling molecules. Various regulatory mechanisms converge upon mitochondria to modulate ATP synthesis and ROS production. Given that mitochondrial function depends on redox reactions, it is important to consider how redox signals modulate mitochondrial processes. Here, we provide the first comprehensive review on how redox signals mediated through cysteine oxidation, namely S-oxidation (sulfenylation, sulfinylation), S-glutathionylation, and S-nitrosylation, regulate key mitochondrial functions including nutrient oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, ROS production, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), apoptosis, and mitochondrial fission and fusion. We also consider the chemistry behind these reactions and how they are modulated in mitochondria. In addition, we also discuss emerging knowledge on disorders and disease states that are associated with deregulated redox signaling in mitochondria and how mitochondria-targeted medicines can be utilized to restore mitochondrial redox signaling.

  14. Redox regulation of mitochondrial function with emphasis on cysteine oxidation reactions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Ryan J.; Jin, Xiaolei; Willmore, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria have a myriad of essential functions including metabolism and apoptosis. These chief functions are reliant on electron transfer reactions and the production of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production of ATP and ROS are intimately linked to the electron transport chain (ETC). Electrons from nutrients are passed through the ETC via a series of acceptor and donor molecules to the terminal electron acceptor molecular oxygen (O2) which ultimately drives the synthesis of ATP. Electron transfer through the respiratory chain and nutrient oxidation also produces ROS. At high enough concentrations ROS can activate mitochondrial apoptotic machinery which ultimately leads to cell death. However, if maintained at low enough concentrations ROS can serve as important signaling molecules. Various regulatory mechanisms converge upon mitochondria to modulate ATP synthesis and ROS production. Given that mitochondrial function depends on redox reactions, it is important to consider how redox signals modulate mitochondrial processes. Here, we provide the first comprehensive review on how redox signals mediated through cysteine oxidation, namely S-oxidation (sulfenylation, sulfinylation), S-glutathionylation, and S-nitrosylation, regulate key mitochondrial functions including nutrient oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, ROS production, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), apoptosis, and mitochondrial fission and fusion. We also consider the chemistry behind these reactions and how they are modulated in mitochondria. In addition, we also discuss emerging knowledge on disorders and disease states that are associated with deregulated redox signaling in mitochondria and how mitochondria-targeted medicines can be utilized to restore mitochondrial redox signaling. PMID:24455476

  15. Identification of novel oxidized protein substrates and physiological partners of the mitochondrial ATP-dependent Lon-like protease Pim1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayot, Aurélien; Gareil, Monique; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2010-01-01

    , yeast cells have been shown to accumulate electron-dense inclusion bodies in the matrix space, to lose integrity of mitochondrial genome, and to be respiration-deficient. Because of the severity of phenotypes associated with the depletion of Pim1, this protease appears to be an essential component...

  16. Products of mitochondrial protein synthesis in neurospora crassa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sant, Peter van 't

    1982-01-01

    Het onderzoek, dat in dit proefschrift wordt beschreven, omvat verschillende aspecten van de biogenese van de mitochondriën van de ascomyeet Neurospora crassa. Het eerste hoofdstuk bevat een overzicht van de huidige kennis van de verschillende processen, die betrokken zijn bij de opbouw en de

  17. Methylglyoxal Impairs Insulin Secretion of Pancreatic β-Cells through Increased Production of ROS and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Mediated by Upregulation of UCP2 and MAPKs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshuang Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylglyoxal (MG is a highly reactive glucose metabolic intermediate and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products. MG level is elevated in hyperglycemic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Substantial evidence has shown that MG is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and diabetic complications. We investigated the impact of MG on insulin secretion by MIN6 and INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms of this effect. Our study demonstrates that MG impaired insulin secretion by MIN6 or ISN-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. It increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and apoptosis rate in MIN6 or ISN-1 cells and inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and ATP production. Furthermore, the expression of UCP2, JNK, and P38 as well as the phosphorylation JNK and P38 was increased by MG. These effects of MG were attenuated by MG scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. Collectively, these data indicate that MG impairs insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells through increasing ROS production. High levels of ROS can damage β-cells directly via JNK/P38 upregulation and through activation of UCP2 resulting in reduced MMP and ATP production, leading to β-cell dysfunction and impairment of insulin production.

  18. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging. Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress was investigated using PC12 cells and dissociated brain cells of animals treated with piracetam. Piracetam treatment at concentrations between 100 and 1000 μM improved mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production of PC12 cells following oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and serum deprivation. Under conditions of mild serum deprivation, piracetam (500 μM) induced a nearly complete recovery of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Piracetam also reduced caspase 9 activity after SNP treatment. Piracetam treatment (100–500 mg kg−1 daily) of mice was also associated with improved mitochondrial function in dissociated brain cells. Significant improvement was mainly seen in aged animals and only less in young animals. Moreover, the same treatment reduced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in aged mouse brain only, which are elevated as an adaptive response to the increased oxidative stress with aging. In conclusion, therapeutically relevant in vitro and in vivo concentrations of piracetam are able to improve mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress and/or aging. Mitochondrial stabilization and protection might be an important mechanism to explain many of piracetam's beneficial effects in elderly patients. PMID:16284628

  19. Role of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel-mediated PKC-ε in delayed protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated hearts of sevoflurane-preconditioned rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C. [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, The Second Affiliate Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Hu, S.M. [Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Xie, H.; Qiao, S.G. [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, The Second Affiliate Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, H. [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California Davis Health System, Davis, CA (United States); Liu, C.F. [Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2015-03-27

    This study aimed to determine the role of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (mitoK{sub ATP}) channels and protein kinase C (PKC)-ε in the delayed protective effects of sevoflurane preconditioning using Langendorff isolated heart perfusion models. Fifty-four isolated perfused rat hearts were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=9). The rats were exposed for 60 min to 2.5% sevoflurane (the second window of protection group, SWOP group) or 33% oxygen inhalation (I/R group) 24 h before coronary occlusion. The control group (CON) and the sevoflurane group (SEVO) group were exposed to 33% oxygen and 2.5% sevoflurane for 60 min, respectively, without coronary occlusion. The mitoK{sub ATP} channel inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) was given 30 min before sevoflurane preconditioning (5-HD+SWOP group). Cardiac function indices, infarct sizes, serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations, and the expression levels of phosphorylated PKC-ε (p-PKC-ε) and caspase-8 were measured. Cardiac function was unchanged, p-PKC-ε expression was upregulated, caspase-8 expression was downregulated, cTnI concentrations were decreased, and the infarcts were significantly smaller (P<0.05) in the SWOP group compared with the I/R group. Cardiac function was worse, p-PKC-ε expression was downregulated, caspase-8 expression was upregulated, cTnI concentration was increased and infarcts were larger in the 5-HD+SWOP group (P<0.05) compared with the SWOP group. The results suggest that mitoK{sub ATP} channels are involved in the myocardial protective effects of sevoflurane in preconditioning against I/R injury, by regulating PKC-ε phosphorylation before ischemia, and by downregulating caspase-8 during reperfusion.

  20. Optimization of ATP synthase function in mitochondria and chloroplasts via the adenylate kinase equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir U Igamberdiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of ATP synthesis in plants is performed by ATP synthase, the main bioenergetics engine of cells, operating both in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. The reaction mechanism of ATP synthase has been studied in detail for over half a century; however, its optimal performance depends also on the steady delivery of ATP synthase substrates and the removal of its products. For mitochondrial ATP synthase, we analyze here the provision of stable conditions for (i the supply of ADP and Mg2+, supported by adenylate kinase (AK equilibrium in the intermembrane space, (ii the supply of phosphate via membrane transporter in symport with H+, and (iii the conditions of outflow of ATP by adenylate transporter carrying out the exchange of free adenylates. We also show that, in chloroplasts, AK equilibrates adenylates and governs Mg2+ contents in the stroma, optimizing ATP synthase and Calvin cycle operation, and affecting the import of inorganic phosphate in exchange with triose phosphates. It is argued that chemiosmosis is not the sole component of ATP synthase performance, which also depends on AK-mediated equilibrium of adenylates and Mg2+, adenylate transport and phosphate release and supply.

  1. Hepatocellular toxicity of benzbromarone: Effects on mitochondrial function and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felser, Andrea; Lindinger, Peter W.; Schnell, Dominik; Kratschmar, Denise V.; Odermatt, Alex; Mies, Suzette; Jenö, Paul; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Benzbromarone impairs the electron transport chain and uncouples mitochondria. • Benzbromarone impairs mitochondrial β-oxidation by inhibiting fatty acid activation. • Benzbromarone disrupts the mitochondrial network and induces apoptosis. - Abstract: Benzbromarone is an uricosuric structurally related to amiodarone and a known mitochondrial toxicant. The aim of the current study was to improve our understanding in the molecular mechanisms of benzbromarone-associated hepatic mitochondrial toxicity. In HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes, ATP levels started to decrease in the presence of 25–50 μM benzbromarone for 24–48 h, whereas cytotoxicity was observed only at 100 μM. In HepG2 cells, benzbromarone decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential starting at 50 μM following incubation for 24 h. Additionally, in HepG2 cells, 50 μM benzbromarone for 24 h induced mitochondrial uncoupling,and decreased mitochondrial ATP turnover and maximal respiration. This was accompanied by an increased lactate concentration in the cell culture supernatant, reflecting increased glycolysis as a compensatory mechanism to maintain cellular ATP. Investigation of the electron transport chain revealed a decreased activity of all relevant enzyme complexes. Furthermore, treatment with benzbromarone was associated with increased cellular ROS production, which could be located specifically to mitochondria. In HepG2 cells and in isolated mouse liver mitochondria, benzbromarone also reduced palmitic acid metabolism due to an inhibition of the long-chain acyl CoA synthetase. In HepG2 cells, benzbromarone disrupted the mitochondrial network, leading to mitochondrial fragmentation and a decreased mitochondrial volume per cell. Cell death occurred by both apoptosis and necrosis. The study demonstrates that benzbromarone not only affects the function of mitochondria in HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes, but is also associated with profound changes in mitochondrial

  2. Disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain function potentiates the pro-apoptotic effects of MAPK inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Andrew P; Gelles, Jesse D; Serasinghe, Madhavika N; Loi, Patrick; Arbiser, Jack L; Chipuk, Jerry E

    2017-07-14

    The mitochondrial network is a major site of ATP production through the coupled integration of the electron transport chain (ETC) with oxidative phosphorylation. In melanoma arising from the V600E mutation in the kinase v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF V600E ), oncogenic signaling enhances glucose-dependent metabolism while reducing mitochondrial ATP production. Likewise, when BRAF V600E is pharmacologically inhibited by targeted therapies ( e.g. PLX-4032/vemurafenib), glucose metabolism is reduced, and cells increase mitochondrial ATP production to sustain survival. Therefore, collateral inhibition of oncogenic signaling and mitochondrial respiration may help enhance the therapeutic benefit of targeted therapies. Honokiol (HKL) is a well tolerated small molecule that disrupts mitochondrial function; however, its underlying mechanisms and potential utility with targeted anticancer therapies remain unknown. Using wild-type BRAF and BRAF V600E melanoma model systems, we demonstrate here that HKL administration rapidly reduces mitochondrial respiration by broadly inhibiting ETC complexes I, II, and V, resulting in decreased ATP levels. The subsequent energetic crisis induced two cellular responses involving cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). First, loss of CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of the mitochondrial division GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 promoted mitochondrial fusion, thus coupling mitochondrial energetic status and morphology. Second, HKL decreased CDK2 activity, leading to G 1 cell cycle arrest. Importantly, although pharmacological inhibition of oncogenic MAPK signaling increased ETC activity, co-treatment with HKL ablated this response and vastly enhanced the rate of apoptosis. Collectively, these findings integrate HKL action with mitochondrial respiration and shape and substantiate a pro-survival role of mitochondrial function in melanoma cells after oncogenic MAPK inhibition.

  3. Transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes correlate with mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in a natural population of Silene vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Matthew S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although rapid changes in copy number and gene order are common within plant mitochondrial genomes, associated patterns of gene transcription are underinvestigated. Previous studies have shown that the gynodioecious plant species Silene vulgaris exhibits high mitochondrial diversity and occasional paternal inheritance of mitochondrial markers. Here we address whether variation in DNA molecular markers is correlated with variation in transcription of mitochondrial genes in S. vulgaris collected from natural populations. Results We analyzed RFLP variation in two mitochondrial genes, cox1 and atp1, in offspring of ten plants from a natural population of S. vulgaris in Central Europe. We also investigated transcription profiles of the atp1 and cox1 genes. Most DNA haplotypes and transcription profiles were maternally inherited; for these, transcription profiles were associated with specific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. One individual exhibited a pattern consistent with paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA; this individual exhibited a transcription profile suggestive of paternal but inconsistent with maternal inheritance. We found no associations between gender and transcript profiles. Conclusions Specific transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes were associated with specific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in a natural population of a gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Our findings suggest the potential for a causal association between rearrangements in the plant mt genome and transcription product variation.

  4. Assembly of the membrane domain of ATP synthase in human mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiuya; Ford, Holly C; Carroll, Joe; Douglas, Corsten; Gonzales, Evvia; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2018-03-20

    The ATP synthase in human mitochondria is a membrane-bound assembly of 29 proteins of 18 kinds. All but two membrane components are encoded in nuclear genes, synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes, and imported into the matrix of the organelle, where they are assembled into the complex with ATP6 and ATP8, the products of overlapping genes in mitochondrial DNA. Disruption of individual human genes for the nuclear-encoded subunits in the membrane portion of the enzyme leads to the formation of intermediate vestigial ATPase complexes that provide a description of the pathway of assembly of the membrane domain. The key intermediate complex consists of the F 1 -c 8 complex inhibited by the ATPase inhibitor protein IF 1 and attached to the peripheral stalk, with subunits e, f, and g associated with the membrane domain of the peripheral stalk. This intermediate provides the template for insertion of ATP6 and ATP8, which are synthesized on mitochondrial ribosomes. Their association with the complex is stabilized by addition of the 6.8 proteolipid, and the complex is coupled to ATP synthesis at this point. A structure of the dimeric yeast F o membrane domain is consistent with this model of assembly. The human 6.8 proteolipid (yeast j subunit) locks ATP6 and ATP8 into the membrane assembly, and the monomeric complexes then dimerize via interactions between ATP6 subunits and between 6.8 proteolipids (j subunits). The dimers are linked together back-to-face by DAPIT (diabetes-associated protein in insulin-sensitive tissue; yeast subunit k), forming long oligomers along the edges of the cristae.

  5. Mitochondrial GTP Regulates Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Richard G.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Romanelli, Anthony J.; Wollheim, Claes B.; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Substrate-level mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) and ATP (mtATP) synthesis occurs by nucleotide-specific isoforms of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme succinyl CoA synthetase (SCS). Unlike mtATP, each molecule of glucose metabolized produces approximately one mtGTP in pancreatic β-cells independent of coupling with oxidative phosphorylation making mtGTP a potentially important fuel signal. siRNA suppression of the GTP-producing pathway (ΔSCS-GTP) reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by 50%, whereas suppression of the parallel ATP-producing isoform (ΔSCS-ATP) increased GSIS by two-fold in INS-1 832/13 cells and cultured rat islets. Insulin secretion correlated with increases in cytosolic calcium but not with changes in NAD(P)H or the ATP/ADP ratio. These data suggest an important role for mtGTP in mediating GSIS in β-cells by modulation of mitochondrial metabolism possibly via influencing mitochondrial calcium. Furthermore, by virtue of its tight coupling to TCA oxidation rates, mtGTP production may serve as an important molecular signal of TCA cycle activity. PMID:17403370

  6. The Function of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajin Liao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU—a calcium uniporter on the inner membrane of mitochondria—controls the mitochondrial calcium uptake in normal and abnormal situations. Mitochondrial calcium is essential for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP; however, excessive calcium will induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Calcium homeostasis disruption and mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in many neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role and regulatory mechanism of the MCU in the development of these diseases are obscure. In this review, we summarize the role of the MCU in controlling oxidative stress-elevated mitochondrial calcium and its function in neurodegenerative disorders. Inhibition of the MCU signaling pathway might be a new target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Mitochondrial dynamics in type 2 diabetes: Pathophysiological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rovira-Llopis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in maintaining cellular metabolic homeostasis. These organelles have a high plasticity and are involved in dynamic processes such as mitochondrial fusion and fission, mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction, high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and low levels of ATP. Mitochondrial fusion is modulated by different proteins, including mitofusin-1 (MFN1, mitofusin-2 (MFN2 and optic atrophy (OPA-1, while fission is controlled by mitochondrial fission 1 (FIS1, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1 and mitochondrial fission factor (MFF. PARKIN and (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 participate in the process of mitophagy, for which mitochondrial fission is necessary. In this review, we discuss the molecular pathways of mitochondrial dynamics, their impairment under type 2 diabetes, and pharmaceutical approaches for targeting mitochondrial dynamics, such as mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (mdivi-1, dynasore, P110 and 15-oxospiramilactone. Furthermore, we discuss the pathophysiological implications of impaired mitochondrial dynamics, especially in type 2 diabetes.

  8. Mitochondrial bioenergetics decay in aging: beneficial effect of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradies, Giuseppe; Paradies, Valeria; Ruggiero, Francesca M; Petrosillo, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Aging is a biological process characterized by progressive decline in physiological functions, increased oxidative stress, reduced capacity to respond to stresses, and increased risk of contracting age-associated disorders. Mitochondria are referred to as the powerhouse of the cell through their role in the oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. These organelles contribute to the aging process, mainly through impairment of electron transport chain activity, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and increased oxidative stress. These events lead to damage to proteins, lipids and mitochondrial DNA. Cardiolipin, a phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane, plays a pivotal role in several mitochondrial bioenergetic processes as well as in mitochondrial-dependent steps of apoptosis and in mitochondrial membrane stability and dynamics. Cardiolipin alterations are associated with mitochondrial bienergetics decline in multiple tissues in a variety of physiopathological conditions, as well as in the aging process. Melatonin, the major product of the pineal gland, is considered an effective protector of mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Melatonin preserves mitochondrial function by preventing cardiolipin oxidation and this may explain, at least in part, the protective role of this compound in mitochondrial physiopathology and aging. Here, mechanisms through which melatonin exerts its protective role against mitochondrial dysfunction associated with aging and age-associated disorders are discussed.

  9. HIV antiretroviral drug combination induces endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species production, but not apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Bo; Hebert, Valeria Y.; Li, Yuchi; Mathis, J. Michael; Alexander, J. Steven; Dugas, Tammy R.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous reports now indicate that HIV patients administered long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at a greater risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is an initiating event in atherogenesis and may contribute to HIV-associated atherosclerosis. We previously reported that ART induces direct endothelial dysfunction in rodents. In vitro treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with ART indicated endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and a significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we determined whether ART-induced endothelial dysfunction is mediated via mitochondria-derived ROS and whether this mitochondrial injury culminates in endothelial cell apoptosis. Two major components of ART combination therapy, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and a protease inhibitor, were tested, using AZT and indinavir as representatives for each. Microscopy utilizing fluorescent indicators of ROS and mitochondria demonstrated the mitochondrial localization of ART-induced ROS. MnTBAP, a cell-permeable metalloporphyrin antioxidant, abolished ART-induced ROS production. As a final step in confirming the mitochondrial origin of the ART-induced ROS, HUVEC were transduced with a cytosolic- compared to a mitochondria-targeted catalase. Transduction with the mitochondria-targeted catalase was more effective than cytoplasmic catalase in inhibiting the ROS and 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF 2α ) produced after treatment with either AZT or indinavir. However, both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic catalase attenuated ROS and 8-iso-PGF 2α production induced by the combination treatment, suggesting that in this case, the formation of cytoplasmic ROS may also occur, and thus, that the mechanism of toxicity in the combination treatment group may be different compared to treatment with AZT or indinavir alone. Finally, to determine whether ART-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production

  10. An EMMPRIN–γ-catenin–Nm23 complex drives ATP production and actomyosin contractility at endothelial junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Vanessa; Gonzalo, Pilar; Gómez-Escudero, Jesús; Pollán, Ángela; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Breckenridge, Mark; Yáñez-Mó, María; Barreiro, Olga; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Chen, Christopher S.; Enríquez, José A.; Dejana, Elisabetta; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Arroyo, Alicia G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell–cell adhesions are important sites through which cells experience and resist forces. In endothelial cells, these forces regulate junction dynamics and determine endothelial barrier strength. We identify the Ig superfamily member EMMPRIN (also known as basigin) as a coordinator of forces at endothelial junctions. EMMPRIN localization at junctions correlates with endothelial junction strength in different mouse vascular beds. Accordingly, EMMPRIN-deficient mice show altered junctions and increased junction permeability. Lack of EMMPRIN alters the localization and function of VE-cadherin (also known as cadherin-5) by decreasing both actomyosin contractility and tugging forces at endothelial cell junctions. EMMPRIN ensures proper actomyosin-driven maturation of competent endothelial junctions by forming a molecular complex with γ-catenin (also known as junction plakoglobin) and Nm23 (also known as NME1), a nucleoside diphosphate kinase, thereby locally providing ATP to fuel the actomyosin machinery. These results provide a novel mechanism for the regulation of actomyosin contractility at endothelial junctions and might have broader implications in biological contexts such as angiogenesis, collective migration and tissue morphogenesis by coupling compartmentalized energy production to junction assembly. PMID:24994937

  11. An EMMPRIN-γ-catenin-Nm23 complex drives ATP production and actomyosin contractility at endothelial junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Vanessa; Gonzalo, Pilar; Gómez-Escudero, Jesús; Pollán, Ángela; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Breckenridge, Mark; Yáñez-Mó, María; Barreiro, Olga; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Chen, Christopher S; Enríquez, José A; Dejana, Elisabetta; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Arroyo, Alicia G

    2014-09-01

    Cell-cell adhesions are important sites through which cells experience and resist forces. In endothelial cells, these forces regulate junction dynamics and determine endothelial barrier strength. We identify the Ig superfamily member EMMPRIN (also known as basigin) as a coordinator of forces at endothelial junctions. EMMPRIN localization at junctions correlates with endothelial junction strength in different mouse vascular beds. Accordingly, EMMPRIN-deficient mice show altered junctions and increased junction permeability. Lack of EMMPRIN alters the localization and function of VE-cadherin (also known as cadherin-5) by decreasing both actomyosin contractility and tugging forces at endothelial cell junctions. EMMPRIN ensures proper actomyosin-driven maturation of competent endothelial junctions by forming a molecular complex with γ-catenin (also known as junction plakoglobin) and Nm23 (also known as NME1), a nucleoside diphosphate kinase, thereby locally providing ATP to fuel the actomyosin machinery. These results provide a novel mechanism for the regulation of actomyosin contractility at endothelial junctions and might have broader implications in biological contexts such as angiogenesis, collective migration and tissue morphogenesis by coupling compartmentalized energy production to junction assembly. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates endotoxin-induced liver injury by promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Zhou, Lili; Shu, Xugang; Sun, Xiaohong; Mi, Shumei; Yang, Yuhui; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Acute or chronic hepatic injury is a common pathology worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play important roles in liver injury. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are some of the most abundant phenolic acids in human diet. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that CGA may protect against chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by modulating mitochondrial energy generation. CGA decreased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The contents of ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), as well as the ratio of AMP/ATP, were increased after CGA supplementation. The activities of enzymes that are involved in glycolysis were reduced, while those of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were increased. Moreover, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mRNA levels of AMPK-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial DNA transcription factor A were increased after CGA supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of CGA might be associated with enhanced ATP production, the stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the inhibition of glycolysis. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation with chlorogenic acid (CGA) improved endotoxin-induced liver injury. • Chlorogenic acid enhances ATP increase and shifts energy metabolism, which is correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α. • The possible mechanism of CGA on mitochondrial biogenesis was correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α.

  13. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates endotoxin-induced liver injury by promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology and School of Food Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); College of Food Safety, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Ruan, Zheng, E-mail: ruanzheng@ncu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology and School of Food Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Zhou, Lili; Shu, Xugang [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology and School of Food Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Sun, Xiaohong [College of Food Safety, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Mi, Shumei; Yang, Yuhui [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology and School of Food Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Yin, Yulong, E-mail: yinyulong@isa.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology and School of Food Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China)

    2016-01-22

    Acute or chronic hepatic injury is a common pathology worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play important roles in liver injury. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are some of the most abundant phenolic acids in human diet. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that CGA may protect against chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by modulating mitochondrial energy generation. CGA decreased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The contents of ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), as well as the ratio of AMP/ATP, were increased after CGA supplementation. The activities of enzymes that are involved in glycolysis were reduced, while those of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were increased. Moreover, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mRNA levels of AMPK-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial DNA transcription factor A were increased after CGA supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of CGA might be associated with enhanced ATP production, the stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the inhibition of glycolysis. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation with chlorogenic acid (CGA) improved endotoxin-induced liver injury. • Chlorogenic acid enhances ATP increase and shifts energy metabolism, which is correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α. • The possible mechanism of CGA on mitochondrial biogenesis was correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α.

  14. The Natural Product Osthole Attenuates Yeast Growth by Extensively Suppressing the Gene Expressions of Mitochondrial Respiration Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Shen, Yan

    2017-03-01

    The fast growing evidences have indicated that the natural product osthole is a promising drug candidate for fighting several serious human diseases, for example, cancer and inflammation. However, the mode-of-action (MoA) of osthole remains largely incomplete. In this study, we investigated the growth inhibition activity of osthole using fission yeast as a model, with the goal of understanding the osthole's mechanism of action, especially from the molecular level. Microarray analysis indicated that osthole has significant impacts on gene transcription levels (In total, 214 genes are up-regulated, and 97 genes are down-regulated). Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) indicated that 11 genes belong to the "Respiration module" category, especially including the components of complex III and V of mitochondrial respiration chain. Based on GSEA and network analysis, we also found that 54 up-regulated genes belong to the "Core Environmental Stress Responses" category, particularly including many transporter genes, which suggests that the rapidly activated nutrient exchange between cell and environment is part of the MoA of osthole. In summary, osthole can greatly impact on fission yeast transcriptome, and it primarily represses the expression levels of the genes in respiration chain, which next causes the inefficiency of ATP production and thus largely explains osthole's growth inhibition activity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe). The complexity of the osthole's MoA shown in previous studies and our current research demonstrates that the omics approach and bioinformatics tools should be applied together to acquire the complete landscape of osthole's growth inhibition activity.

  15. [Two patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangma, H R; Smit, G P A; Kuks, J B M; Grevink, R G; Wolffenbuttel, B H R

    2008-10-18

    A 23-year-old woman and a 13-year-old boy were diagnosed with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease. The woman had muscle pain, fatigue and bilateral ophthalmoplegia--symptoms consistent with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. The boy had aspecific symptoms; eventually, reduced activity of complex 1 was found to be the cause of the mitochondrial respiratory chain disease in the boy and his mother, who had suffered from unexplained fatigue and muscle pain for 15 years. Mitochondrial diseases often involve several organ systems. Diagnosis can be difficult, because laboratory tests such as serum and urinary lactate and creatine kinase have low sensitivity and specificity. Biochemical assessment of muscle biopsy can reveal reduced oxidation ATP synthesis and sometimes specific abnormalities in individual protein complexes. DNA analysis may be helpful in demonstrating mitochondrial or nuclear mutations or deletions. The goal of treatment is to increase mitochondrial ATP production, improve clinical symptoms and enhance stamina. Replacement of the following substances (also referred to as cofactors) may be attempted: co-enzyme Q10, antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), riboflavin, thiamine, creatine and carnitine. Evidence regarding the optimal treatment approach is lacking; one usually has to rely on observing effects in the individual patient.

  16. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting, E-mail: BTZhu@kumc.edu

    2012-07-15

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K{sub 3}) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ∼ 12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. -- Highlights: ► Menadione causes mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and injury. ► Menadione-induced cell death is caspase-independent, due to rapid depletion of

  17. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2012-01-01

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K 3 ) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ∼ 12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. -- Highlights: ► Menadione causes mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and injury. ► Menadione-induced cell death is caspase-independent, due to rapid depletion of ATP

  18. ( Atp9) gene between cytoplasmic male sterile line and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... Soybean Research Institute of Nanjing Agricultural University, National Center for Soybean .... All these transgenic experiments confirmed the correlation ... editing of ATP synthase subunit 9 mRNA using wheat mitochondrial.

  19. The Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Selectively Matches Metabolic Output to Acute Contractile Stress in the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Q. Kwong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the heart, augmented Ca2+ fluxing drives contractility and ATP generation through mitochondrial Ca2+ loading. Pathologic mitochondrial Ca2+ overload with ischemic injury triggers mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP opening and cardiomyocyte death. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is primarily mediated by the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU. Here, we generated mice with adult and cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Mcu, which produced mitochondria refractory to acute Ca2+ uptake, with impaired ATP production, and inhibited MPTP opening upon acute Ca2+ challenge. Mice lacking Mcu in the adult heart were also protected from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, resting/basal mitochondrial Ca2+ levels were normal in hearts of Mcu-deleted mice, and mitochondria lacking MCU eventually loaded with Ca2+ after stress stimulation. Indeed, Mcu-deleted mice were unable to immediately sprint on a treadmill unless warmed up for 30 min. Hence, MCU is a dedicated regulator of short-term mitochondrial Ca2+ loading underlying a “fight-or-flight” response that acutely matches cardiac workload with ATP production.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Variants Mediate Energy Production and Expression Levels for CFH, C3 and EFEMP1 Genes: Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, M. Cristina; Chwa, Marilyn; Atilano, Shari R.; Pavlis, Janelle M.; Falatoonzadeh, Payam; Ramirez, Claudio; Malik, Deepika; Hsu, Tiffany; Woo, Grace; Soe, Kyaw; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Boyer, David S.; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Miceli, Michael V.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Udar, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent studies using populations from the United States and Australia have demonstrated that AMD is associated with mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups (as defined by combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms) that represent Northern European Caucasians. The aim of this study was to use the cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) model to investigate the molecular and biological functional consequences that occur when comparing the mtDNA H haplogroup (protective for AMD) versus J haplogroup (high risk for AMD). Methodology/Principal Findings Cybrids were created by introducing mitochondria from individuals with either H or J haplogroups into a human retinal epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) that was devoid of mitochondrial DNA (Rho0). In cybrid lines, all of the cells carry the same nuclear genes but vary in mtDNA content. The J cybrids had significantly lower levels of ATP and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production, but increased lactate levels and rates of growth. Q-PCR analyses showed J cybrids had decreased expressions for CFH, C3, and EFEMP1 genes, high risk genes for AMD, and higher expression for MYO7A, a gene associated with retinal degeneration in Usher type IB syndrome. The H and J cybrids also have comparatively altered expression of nuclear genes involved in pathways for cell signaling, inflammation, and metabolism. Conclusion/Significance Our findings demonstrate that mtDNA haplogroup variants mediate not only energy production and cell growth, but also cell signaling for major molecular pathways. These data support the hypothesis that mtDNA variants play important roles in numerous cellular functions and disease processes, including AMD. PMID:23365660

  1. Mitochondrial DNA variants mediate energy production and expression levels for CFH, C3 and EFEMP1 genes: implications for age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cristina Kenney

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Recent studies using populations from the United States and Australia have demonstrated that AMD is associated with mitochondrial (mt DNA haplogroups (as defined by combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms that represent Northern European Caucasians. The aim of this study was to use the cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid model to investigate the molecular and biological functional consequences that occur when comparing the mtDNA H haplogroup (protective for AMD versus J haplogroup (high risk for AMD.Cybrids were created by introducing mitochondria from individuals with either H or J haplogroups into a human retinal epithelial cell line (ARPE-19 that was devoid of mitochondrial DNA (Rho0. In cybrid lines, all of the cells carry the same nuclear genes but vary in mtDNA content. The J cybrids had significantly lower levels of ATP and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production, but increased lactate levels and rates of growth. Q-PCR analyses showed J cybrids had decreased expressions for CFH, C3, and EFEMP1 genes, high risk genes for AMD, and higher expression for MYO7A, a gene associated with retinal degeneration in Usher type IB syndrome. The H and J cybrids also have comparatively altered expression of nuclear genes involved in pathways for cell signaling, inflammation, and metabolism.Our findings demonstrate that mtDNA haplogroup variants mediate not only energy production and cell growth, but also cell signaling for major molecular pathways. These data support the hypothesis that mtDNA variants play important roles in numerous cellular functions and disease processes, including AMD.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide production is not primarily increased in human myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, A D; Gaster, M

    2011-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. To date, it is unknown whether increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes is primarily increased or a secondary adaptation to environmental, lifestyle, and hormonal factors. This study investigates whether ROS production is primarily increased in isolated diabetic myotubes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide, and mitochondrial mass were determined in human myotubes precultured under normophysiological conditions. Furthermore, the corresponding ATP synthesis was measured in isolated mitochondria. Muscle biopsies were taken from 10 lean subjects, 10 obese subjects, and 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes; satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Mitochondrial mass, membrane potential/mitochondrial mass, and superoxide-production/mitochondrial mass were not different between groups. In contrast, H(2)O(2) production/mitochondrial mass and ATP production were significantly reduced in diabetic myotubes compared to lean controls (P production is not primarily increased in diabetic myotubes but rather is reduced. Moreover, the comparable ATP/H(2)O(2) ratios indicate that the reduced ROS production in diabetic myotubes parallels the reduced ATP production because ROS production in diabetic myotubes must be considered to be in a proportion comparable to lean. Thus, the increased ROS production seen in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients is an adaptation to the in vivo conditions.

  3. Sodium valproate induces mitochondrial respiration dysfunction in HepG2 in vitro cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komulainen, Tuomas; Lodge, Tiffany; Hinttala, Reetta; Bolszak, Maija; Pietilä, Mika; Koivunen, Peppi; Hakkola, Jukka; Poulton, Joanna; Morten, Karl J; Uusimaa, Johanna

    2015-05-04

    Sodium valproate (VPA) is a potentially hepatotoxic antiepileptic drug. Risk of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity is increased in patients with mitochondrial diseases and especially in patients with POLG1 gene mutations. We used a HepG2 cell in vitro model to investigate the effect of VPA on mitochondrial activity. Cells were incubated in glucose medium and mitochondrial respiration-inducing medium supplemented with galactose and pyruvate. VPA treatments were carried out at concentrations of 0-2.0mM for 24-72 h. In both media, VPA caused decrease in oxygen consumption rates and mitochondrial membrane potential. VPA exposure led to depleted ATP levels in HepG2 cells incubated in galactose medium suggesting dysfunction in mitochondrial ATP production. In addition, VPA exposure for 72 h increased levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), but adversely decreased protein levels of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase SOD2, suggesting oxidative stress caused by impaired elimination of mitochondrial ROS and a novel pathomechanism related to VPA toxicity. Increased cell death and decrease in cell number was detected under both metabolic conditions. However, immunoblotting did not show any changes in the protein levels of the catalytic subunit A of mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ, the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II and IV, ATP synthase, E3 subunit dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase of pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase. Our results show that VPA inhibits mitochondrial respiration and leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and increased cell death, thus suggesting an essential role of mitochondria in VPA-induced hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis in hippocampal synaptosomes correlates directly with total mitochondrial volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in many regions of the central nervous system leads to the continuous adjustment of synaptic strength, which is essential for learning and memory. In this study, we show by visualizing synaptic vesicle release in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes that presynaptic mitochondria and specifically, their capacities for ATP production are essential determinants of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and its magnitude. Total internal reflection microscopy of FM1-43 loaded hippocampal synaptosomes showed that inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation reduces evoked synaptic release. This reduction was accompanied by a substantial drop in synaptosomal ATP levels. However, cytosolic calcium influx was not affected. Structural characterization of stimulated hippocampal synaptosomes revealed that higher total presynaptic mitochondrial volumes were consistently associated with higher levels of exocytosis. Thus, synaptic vesicle release is linked to the presynaptic ability to regenerate ATP, which itself is a utility of mitochondrial density and activity. PMID:22772899

  5. Targeted Modification of Mitochondrial ROS Production Converts High Glucose-Induced Cytotoxicity to Cytoprotection: Effects on Anesthetic Preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlic, Filip; Muravyeva, Maria Y; Sepac, Ana; Sedlic, Marija; Williams, Anna Marie; Yang, Meiying; Bai, Xiaowen; Bosnjak, Zeljko J

    2017-01-01

    Contradictory reports on the effects of diabetes and hyperglycemia on myocardial infarction range from cytotoxicity to cytoprotection. The study was designed to investigate acute effects of high glucose-driven changes in mitochondrial metabolism and osmolarity on adaptive mechanisms and resistance to oxidative stress of isolated rat cardiomyocytes. We examined the effects of high glucose on several parameters of mitochondrial bioenergetics, including changes in oxygen consumption, mitochondrial membrane potential, and NAD(P)H fluorometry. Effects of high glucose on the endogenous cytoprotective mechanisms elicited by anesthetic preconditioning (APC) and the mediators of cell injury were also tested. These experiments included real-time measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in single cells by laser scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy, and cell survival assay. High glucose rapidly enhanced mitochondrial energy metabolism, observed by increase in NAD(P)H fluorescence intensity, oxygen consumption, and mitochondrial membrane potential. This substantially elevated production of ROS, accelerated opening of the mPTP, and decreased survival of cells exposed to oxidative stress. Abrogation of high glucose-induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization with 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP) significantly, but not completely, attenuated ROS production to a level similar to hyperosmotic mannitol control. DNP treatment reversed high glucose-induced cytotoxicity to cytoprotection. Hyperosmotic mannitol treatment also induced cytoprotection. High glucose abrogated APC-induced mitochondrial depolarization, delay in mPTP opening and cytoprotection. In conclusion, high glucose-induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization abolishes APC and augments cell injury. Attenuation of high glucose-induced ROS production by eliminating mitochondrial hyperpolarization protects cardiomyocytes. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 216-224, 2017

  6. Tributyltin-induced apoptosis requires glycolytic adenosine trisphosphate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stridh, H; Fava, E; Single, B; Nicotera, P; Orrenius, S; Leist, M

    1999-10-01

    The toxicity of tributyltin chloride (TBT) involves Ca(2+) overload, cytoskeletal damage, and mitochondrial failure leading to cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we examined whether the intracellular ATP level modulates the mode of cell death after exposure to TBT. When Jurkat cells were energized by the mitochondrial substrate, pyruvate, low concentrations of TBT (1-2 microM) triggered an immediate depletion of intracellular ATP followed by necrotic death. When ATP levels were maintained by the addition of glucose, the mode of cell death was typically apoptotic. Glycolytic ATP production was required for apoptosis at two distinct steps. First, maintenance of adequate ATP levels accelerated the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the release of the intermembrane proteins adenylate kinase and cytochrome c from mitochondria. A possible role of the adenine nucleotide exchanger in this first ATP-dependent step is suggested by experiments performed with the specific inhibitor, bongkrekic acid. This substance delayed cytochrome c release in a manner similar to that caused by ATP depletion. Second, caspase activation following cytochrome c release was only observed in ATP-containing cells. Bcl-2 had only a minor effect on TBT-triggered caspase activation or cell death. We conclude that intracellular ATP concentrations control the mode of cell death in TBT-treated Jurkat cells at both the mitochondrial and caspase activation levels.

  7. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin

    2013-01-01

    . Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...

  8. Haloperidol aggravates transverse aortic constriction-induced heart failure via mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Yasuharu; Tagashira, Hideaki; Bhuiyan, Md Shenuarin; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2016-07-01

    Haloperidol is an antipsychotic drug that inhibits the dopamine D2 receptor among others. Haloperidol also binds the sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) and inhibits it irreversibly. A serious outcome of haloperidol treatment of schizophrenia patients is death due to sudden cardiac failure. Although the cause remains unclear, we hypothesized that these effects were mediated by chronic haloperidol inhibition of cardiac σ1R. To test this, we treated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with haloperidol, exposed them to angiotensin II and assessed hypertrophy, σ1R expression, mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport and ATP levels. In this context, haloperidol treatment altered mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport resulting in decreased ATP content by inactivating cardiac σ1R and/or reducing its expression. We also performed transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and then treated mice with haloperidol. After two weeks, haloperidol-treated mice showed enhanced heart failure marked by deteriorated cardiac function, reduced ATP production and increasing mortality relative to TAC only mice. ATP supplementation via sodium pyruvate rescued phenotypes seen in haloperidol-treated TAC mice. We conclude that σ1R inactivation or downregulation in response to haloperidol treatment impairs mitochondrial Ca(2+) mobilization, depleting ATP depletion from cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest a novel approach to mitigate haloperidol-related adverse effects in schizophrenia patients by ATP supplementation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Therapeutic Targeting of the Mitochondria Initiates Excessive Superoxide Production and Mitochondrial Depolarization Causing Decreased mtDNA Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrzywinski, Kaytee L; Biel, Thomas G; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Rao, V Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysregulation is closely associated with excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Altered redox homeostasis has been implicated in the onset of several diseases including cancer. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and proteins are particularly sensitive to ROS as they are in close proximity to the respiratory chain (RC). Mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondria-targeted redox agent, selectively damages breast cancer cells possibly through damage induced via enhanced ROS production. However, the effects of MitoQ and other triphenylphosphonium (TPP+) conjugated agents on cancer mitochondrial homeostasis remain unknown. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of mitochondria-targeted agent [(MTAs) conjugated to TPP+: mitoTEMPOL, mitoquinone and mitochromanol-acetate] on mitochondrial physiology and mtDNA integrity in breast (MDA-MB-231) and lung (H23) cancer cells. The integrity of the mtDNA was assessed by quantifying the degree of mtDNA fragmentation and copy number, as well as by measuring mitochondrial proteins essential to mtDNA stability and maintenance (TFAM, SSBP1, TWINKLE, POLG and POLRMT). Mitochondrial status was evaluated by measuring superoxide production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, oxygen consumption, extracellular acidification and mRNA or protein levels of the RC complexes along with TCA cycle activity. In this study, we demonstrated that all investigated MTAs impair mitochondrial health and decrease mtDNA integrity in MDA-MB-231 and H23 cells. However, differences in the degree of mitochondrial damage and mtDNA degradation suggest unique properties among each MTA that may be cell line, dose and time dependent. Collectively, our study indicates the potential for TPP+ conjugated molecules to impair breast and lung cancer cells by targeting mitochondrial homeostasis.

  10. Comparison of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production of Ectothermic and Endothermic Fish Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Wiens

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently we demonstrated that the capacity of isolated muscle mitochondria to produce reactive oxygen species, measured as H2O2 efflux, is temperature-sensitive in isolated muscle mitochondria of ectothermic fish and the rat, a representative endothermic mammal. However, at physiological temperatures (15° and 37°C for the fish and rat, respectively, the fraction of total mitochondrial electron flux that generated H2O2, the fractional electron leak (FEL, was far lower in the rat than in fish. Those results suggested that the elevated body temperatures associated with endothermy may lead to a compensatory decrease in mitochondrial ROS production relative to respiratory capacity. To test this hypothesis we compare slow twitch (red muscle mitochondria from the endothermic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis with mitochondria from three ectothermic fishes [rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens] and the rat. At a common assay temperature (25°C rates of mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 efflux were similar in tuna and the other fishes. The thermal sensitivity of fish mitochondria was similar irrespective of ectothermy or endothermy. Comparing tuna to the rat at a common temperature, respiration rates were similar, or lower depending on mitochondrial substrates. FEL was not different across fish species at a common assay temperature (25°C but was markedly higher in fishes than in rat. Overall, endothermy and warming of Pacific Bluefin tuna red muscle may increase the potential for ROS production by muscle mitochondria but the evolution of endothermy in this species is not necessarily associated with a compensatory reduction of ROS production relative to the respiratory capacity of mitochondria.

  11. Endogenous ovarian hormones affect mitochondrial efficiency in cerebral endothelium via distinct regulation of PGC-1 isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Martin F; Zhao, Yuanzi; Duckles, Sue P; Krause, Diana N

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria support the energy-intensive functions of brain endothelium but also produce damaging-free radicals that lead to disease. Previously, we found that estrogen treatment protects cerebrovascular mitochondria, increasing capacity for ATP production while decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). To determine whether these effects occur specifically in endothelium in vivo and also explore underlying transcriptional mechanisms, we studied freshly isolated brain endothelial preparations from intact and ovariectomized female mice. This preparation reflects physiologic influences of circulating hormones, hemodynamic forces, and cell-cell interactions of the neurovascular unit. Loss of ovarian hormones affected endothelial expression of the key mitochondrial regulator family, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1), but in a unique way. Ovariectomy increased endothelial PGC-1α mRNA but decreased PGC-1β mRNA. The change in PGC-1β correlated with decreased mRNA for crucial downstream mitochondrial regulators, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, as well as for ATP synthase and ROS protection enzymes, glutamate-cysteine ligase and manganese superoxide dismutase. Ovariectomy also decreased mitochondrial biogenesis (mitochondrial/nuclear DNA ratio). These results indicate ovarian hormones normally act through a distinctive regulatory pathway involving PGC-1β to support cerebral endothelial mitochondrial content and guide mitochondrial function to favor ATP coupling and ROS protection.

  12. Acetoacetate reduces growth and ATP concentration in cancer cell lines which over-express uncoupling protein 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadros Edward V

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that several human cancers are capable of uncoupling of mitochondrial ATP generation in the presence of intact tricarboxylic acid (TCA enzymes. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that ketone bodies can inhibit cell growth in aggressive cancers and that expression of uncoupling protein 2 is a contributing factor. The proposed mechanism involves inhibition of glycolytic ATP production via a Randle-like cycle while increased uncoupling renders cancers unable to produce compensatory ATP from respiration. Methods Seven aggressive human cancer cell lines, and three control fibroblast lines were grown in vitro in either 10 mM glucose medium (GM, or in glucose plus 10 mM acetoacetate [G+AcA]. The cells were assayed for cell growth, ATP production and expression of UCP2. Results There was a high correlation of cell growth with ATP concentration (r = 0.948 in a continuum across all cell lines. Controls demonstrated normal cell growth and ATP with the lowest density of mitochondrial UCP2 staining while all cancer lines demonstrated proportionally inhibited growth and ATP, and over-expression of UCP2 (p Conclusion Seven human cancer cell lines grown in glucose plus acetoacetate medium showed tightly coupled reduction of growth and ATP concentration. The findings were not observed in control fibroblasts. The observed over-expression of UCP2 in cancer lines, but not in controls, provides a plausible molecular mechanism by which acetoacetate spares normal cells but suppresses growth in cancer lines. The results bear on the hypothesized potential for ketogenic diets as therapeutic strategies.

  13. Mitochondrial signaling in health and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orrenius, Sten; Packer, Lester; Cadenas, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    .... The text covers themes essential for the maintenance of mitochondrial activity, including electron transport and energy production, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, mitochondrial signaling...

  14. Mitochondrial myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMauro, Salvatore

    2006-11-01

    Our understanding of mitochondrial diseases (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is expanding rapidly. In this review, I will give the latest information on disorders affecting predominantly or exclusively skeletal muscle. The most recently described mitochondrial myopathies are due to defects in nuclear DNA, including coenzyme Q10 deficiency and mutations in genes controlling mitochondrial DNA abundance and structure, such as POLG, TK2, and MPV17. Barth syndrome, an X-linked recessive mitochondrial myopathy/cardiopathy, is associated with decreased amount and altered structure of cardiolipin, the main phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane, but a secondary impairment of respiratory chain function is plausible. The role of mutations in protein-coding genes of mitochondrial DNA in causing isolated myopathies has been confirmed. Mutations in tRNA genes of mitochondrial DNA can also cause predominantly myopathic syndromes and--contrary to conventional wisdom--these mutations can be homoplasmic. Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle, causing exercise intolerance, cramps, recurrent myoglobinuria, or fixed weakness, which often affects extraocular muscles and results in droopy eyelids (ptosis) and progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

  15. Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Henning F.

    peroxide (H2O2) has traditionally been regarded as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. However, recent findings indicate that H2O2 act as a signalling molecule. The aim of the present study was to monitor, in real time, the rates of ROS generation in order to directly determine their production......Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells. Henning F. Bjerregaard, Roskilde University, Department of Science, Systems and Models , 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. HFB@ RUC.DK Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like, hydrogen...... to G-protein stimulation of phospholipase C and release of inositol -3 phosphate. Cd (0.4 mM) treatment of A6 cells enhanced the ROS production after one minutes incubation. The production rate was constant for at least 10 to 20 min. Experiments showed that the Cd induced increase in ROS production...

  16. A divergent ADP/ATP carrier in the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas gallinae argues for an independent origin of these organelles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjaden, J.; Haferkamp, I.; Boxma, B.; Tielens, A.G.; Huynen, M.A.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of mitochondrial ADP and ATP exchanging proteins (AACs) highlights a key event in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, as ATP exporting carriers were indispensable in establishing the role of mitochondria as ATP-generating cellular organelles. Hydrogenosomes, i.e. ATP- and

  17. High-fat diet induces an initial adaptation of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the kidney despite evident oxidative stress and mitochondrial ROS production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Christine; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Cleland, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with an increased risk for several diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy and chronic kidney diseases. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are often proposed mechanisms in various organs in obesity models, but limited data are available on the kidney. Here, we fed a lard-based high-fat diet to mice to investigate structural changes, cellular and subcellular oxidative stress and redox status, and mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the kidney. The diet induced characteristic changes, including glomerular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and interstitial scarring, which were accompanied by a proinflammatory transition. We demonstrate evidence for oxidative stress in the kidney through 3-nitrotyrosine and protein radical formation on high-fat diet with a contribution from iNOS and NOX-4 as well as increased generation of mitochondrial oxidants on carbohydrate- and lipid-based substrates. The increased H2O2 emission in the mitochondria suggests altered redox balance and mitochondrial ROS generation, contributing to the overall oxidative stress. No major derailments were observed in respiratory function or biogenesis, indicating preserved and initially improved bioenergetic parameters and energy production. We suggest that, regardless of the oxidative stress events, the kidney developed an adaptation to maintain normal respiratory function as a possible response to an increased lipid overload. These findings provide new insights into the complex role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial redox status in the pathogenesis of the kidney in obesity and indicate that early oxidative stress-related changes, but not mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction, may contribute to the pathogenesis and development of obesity-linked chronic kidney diseases. PMID:21386058

  18. Mitochondrial Genetic Variation in Iranian Infertile Men with Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Heidari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several recent studies have shown that mitochondrial DNA mutations lead to major disabilities and premature death in carriers. More than 150 mutations in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genes have been associated with a wide spectrum of disorders. Varicocele, one of the causes of infertility in men wherein abnormal inflexion and distension of veins of the pampiniform plexus is observed within spermatic cord, can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS production in semen and cause oxidative stress and sperm dysfunction in patients. Given that mitochondria are the source of ROS production in cells, the aim of this study was to scan nine mitochondrial genes (MT-COX2, MT-tRNALys, MT-ATP8, MT-ATP6, MT-COX3, MT-tRNAGly, MT-ND3, MT-tRNAArg and MT-ND4L for mutations in infertile patients with varicocele. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing were used to detect and identify point mutations respectively in 9 mitochondrial genes in 72 infertile men with varicocele and 159 fertile men. In brief, the samples showing altered electrophoretic patterns of DNA in the SSCP gel were sent for DNA sequencing to identify the exact nucleotide variation. Results: Ten type nucleotide variants were detected exclusively in mitochondrial DNA of infertile men. These include six novel nucleotide changes and four variants previously reported for other disorders. Conclusion: Mutations in mitochondrial genes may affect respiratory complexes in combination with environmental risk factors. Therefore these nucleotide variants probably lead to impaired ATP synthesis and mitochondrial function ultimately interfering with sperm motility and infertility.

  19. Haloperidol aggravates transverse aortic constriction-induced heart failure via mitochondrial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Shinoda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Haloperidol is an antipsychotic drug that inhibits the dopamine D2 receptor among others. Haloperidol also binds the sigma-1 receptor (σ1R and inhibits it irreversibly. A serious outcome of haloperidol treatment of schizophrenia patients is death due to sudden cardiac failure. Although the cause remains unclear, we hypothesized that these effects were mediated by chronic haloperidol inhibition of cardiac σ1R. To test this, we treated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with haloperidol, exposed them to angiotensin II and assessed hypertrophy, σ1R expression, mitochondrial Ca2+ transport and ATP levels. In this context, haloperidol treatment altered mitochondrial Ca2+ transport resulting in decreased ATP content by inactivating cardiac σ1R and/or reducing its expression. We also performed transverse aortic constriction (TAC and then treated mice with haloperidol. After two weeks, haloperidol-treated mice showed enhanced heart failure marked by deteriorated cardiac function, reduced ATP production and increasing mortality relative to TAC only mice. ATP supplementation via sodium pyruvate rescued phenotypes seen in haloperidol-treated TAC mice. We conclude that σ1R inactivation or downregulation in response to haloperidol treatment impairs mitochondrial Ca2+ mobilization, depleting ATP depletion from cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest a novel approach to mitigate haloperidol-related adverse effects in schizophrenia patients by ATP supplementation.

  20. Enzymatic Production of Glutathione by Bifunctional γ-Glutamylcysteine Synthetase/Glutathione Synthetase Coupled with In Vitro Acetate Kinase-Based ATP Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Tao, Rongsheng; Shen, Zhengquan; Sun, Liangdong; Zhu, Fuyun; Yang, Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Glutathione (γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine, GSH) is a pharmaceutical compound often used in food additives and the cosmetics industry. GSH can be produced biologically from L-glutamic acid, L-cysteine, and glycine through an enzymatic process traditionally involving two sequential adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent reactions catalyzed by γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS or GSHI, EC 6.3.2.2) and GSH synthetase (GS or GSHII, EC 6.3.2.3). Here, we report the enzymatic production of GSH by recombinant cell-free bifunctional γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase/glutathione synthetase (γ-GCS-GS or GshF) coupled with in vitro acetate kinase-based ATP generation. GSH production by an acetate kinase-integrated Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3) mutant expressing Streptococcus thermophilus GshF reached 18.3 ± 0.1 g l -1 (59.5 ± 0.3 mM) within 3 h, with a molar yield of 0.75 ± 0.00 mol mol -1 added cysteine and a productivity of 6.1 ± 0.0 g l -1  h -1 . This is the highest GSH titer reported to date. This newly developed biocatalytic process offers a promising approach for meeting the industrial requirements for GSH production.

  1. Hypotonic stress promotes ATP release, reactive oxygen species production and cell proliferation via TRPV4 activation in rheumatoid arthritis rat synovial fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Fen; Hui, Zhenhai; Wei, Wei; Yang, Jianyu; Chen, Ziyuan; Guo, Bu; Xing, Fulin; Zhang, Xinzheng; Pan, Leiting; Xu, Jingjun

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and systemic autoimmune-disease with complex and unclear etiology. Hypotonicity of synovial fluid is a typical characteristic of RA, which may play pivotal roles in RA pathogenesis. In this work, we studied the responses of RA synovial fibroblasts to hypotonic stress in vitro and further explored the underlying mechanisms. Data showed that hyposmotic solutions significantly triggered increases in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] c ) of synoviocytes. Subsequently, it caused rapid release of ATP, as well as remarkable production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Meanwhile, hypotonic stimulus promoted the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. These effects were almost abolished by calcium-free buffer and significantly inhibited by gadolinium (III) chloride (a mechanosensitive Ca 2+ channel blocker) and ruthenium red (a transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) blocker). 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, a specific agonist of TRPV4, also mimicked hypotonic shock-induced responses shown above. In contrast, voltage-gated channel inhibitors verapamil and nifedipine had little influences on these responses. Furthermore, RT-PCR and western blotting evidently detected TRPV4 expression at mRNA and protein level in isolated synoviocytes. Taken together, our results indicated that hypotonic stimulus resulted in ATP release, ROS production, and cell proliferation depending on Ca 2+ entry through activation of TRPV4 channel in synoviocytes. - Highlights: • Hypotonic stress evokes Ca 2+ entry in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. • Hypotonic stress induces rapid ATP release and ROS production in synoviocytes. • Hypotonic stimulation promotes the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. • TRPV4 controls hypotonic-induced responses in synoviocytes.

  2. Mechanisms of constitutive and ATP-evoked ATP release in neonatal mouse olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayoz Sébastien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP is an extracellular signaling molecule with many ascribed functions in sensory systems, including the olfactory epithelium. The mechanism(s by which ATP is released in the olfactory epithelium has not been investigated. Quantitative luciferin-luciferase assays were used to monitor ATP release, and confocal imaging of the fluorescent ATP marker quinacrine was used to monitor ATP release via exocytosis in Swiss Webster mouse neonatal olfactory epithelial slices. Results Under control conditions, constitutive release of ATP occurs via exocytosis, hemichannels and ABC transporters and is inhibited by vesicular fusion inhibitor Clostridium difficile toxin A and hemichannel and ABC transporter inhibitor probenecid. Constitutive ATP release is negatively regulated by the ATP breakdown product ADP through activation of P2Y receptors, likely via the cAMP/PKA pathway. In vivo studies indicate that constitutive ATP may play a role in neuronal homeostasis as inhibition of exocytosis inhibited normal proliferation in the OE. ATP-evoked ATP release is also present in mouse neonatal OE, triggered by several ionotropic P2X purinergic receptor agonists (ATP, αβMeATP and Bz-ATP and a G protein-coupled P2Y receptor agonist (UTP. Calcium imaging of P2X2-transfected HEK293 “biosensor” cells confirmed the presence of evoked ATP release. Following purinergic receptor stimulation, ATP is released via calcium-dependent exocytosis, activated P2X1,7 receptors, activated P2X7 receptors that form a complex with pannexin channels, or ABC transporters. The ATP-evoked ATP release is inhibited by the purinergic receptor inhibitor PPADS, Clostridium difficile toxin A and two inhibitors of pannexin channels: probenecid and carbenoxolone. Conclusions The constitutive release of ATP might be involved in normal cell turn-over or modulation of odorant sensitivity in physiological conditions. Given the growth-promoting effects of ATP, ATP-evoked ATP

  3. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Lysosomal Storage Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario de la Mata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs describe a heterogeneous group of rare inherited metabolic disorders that result from the absence or loss of function of lysosomal hydrolases or transporters, resulting in the progressive accumulation of undigested material in lysosomes. The accumulation of substances affects the function of lysosomes and other organelles, resulting in secondary alterations such as impairment of autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and apoptosis. LSDs frequently involve the central nervous system (CNS, where neuronal dysfunction or loss results in progressive neurodegeneration and premature death. Many LSDs exhibit signs of mitochondrial dysfunction, which include mitochondrial morphological changes, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, diminished ATP production and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, reduced autophagic flux may lead to the persistence of dysfunctional mitochondria. Gaucher disease (GD, the LSD with the highest prevalence, is caused by mutations in the GBA1 gene that results in defective and insufficient activity of the enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase. Decreased catalytic activity and/or instability of GCase leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer and glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph in the lysosomes of macrophage cells and visceral organs. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported to occur in numerous cellular and mouse models of GD. The aim of this manuscript is to review the current knowledge and implications of mitochondrial dysfunction in LSDs.

  4. Mitochondrial respiratory control is lost during growth factor deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Eyal; Armour, Sean M; Thompson, Craig B

    2002-10-01

    The ability of cells to maintain a bioenergetically favorable ATP/ADP ratio confers a tight balance between cellular events that consume ATP and the rate of ATP production. However, after growth factor withdrawal, the cellular ATP/ADP ratio declines. To investigate these changes, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells isolated before the onset of apoptosis were characterized in vitro. Mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells have lost their ability to undergo matrix condensation in response to ADP, which is accompanied by a failure to perform ADP-coupled respiration. At the time of analysis, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells were not depleted of cytochrome c and cytochrome c-dependent respiration was unaffected, demonstrating that the inhibition of the respiratory rate is not due to loss of cytochrome c. Agents that disrupt the mitochondrial outer membrane, such as digitonin, or maintain outer membrane exchange of adenine nucleotide, such as Bcl-x(L), restored ADP-dependent control of mitochondrial respiration. Together, these data suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability contributes to respiratory control.

  5. Reduction in reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria from elderly subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sangeeta; Lertwattanarak, Raweewan; Lefort, Natalie; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; Joya-Galeana, Joaquin; Bowen, Benjamin P; Garduno-Garcia, Jose de Jesus; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad; Richardson, Arlan; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Mandarino, Lawrence; Van Remmen, Holly; Musi, Nicolas

    2011-08-01

    Aging increases the risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes. It has been proposed that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by dysfunctional mitochondria could play a role in the pathogenesis of these metabolic abnormalities. We examined whether aging per se (in subjects with normal glucose tolerance [NGT]) impairs mitochondrial function and how this relates to ROS generation, whether older subjects with IGT have a further worsening of mitochondrial function (lower ATP production and elevated ROS generation), and whether exercise reverses age-related changes in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial ATP and ROS production were measured in muscle from younger individuals with NGT, older individuals with NGT, and older individuals with IGT. Measurements were performed before and after 16 weeks of aerobic exercise. ATP synthesis was lower in older subjects with NGT and older subjects with IGT versus younger subjects. Notably, mitochondria from older subjects (with NGT and IGT) displayed reduced ROS production versus the younger group. ATP and ROS production were similar between older groups. Exercise increased ATP synthesis in the three groups. Mitochondrial ROS production also increased after training. Proteomic analysis revealed downregulation of several electron transport chain proteins with aging, and this was reversed by exercise. Old mitochondria from subjects with NGT and IGT display mitochondrial dysfunction as manifested by reduced ATP production but not with respect to increased ROS production. When adjusted to age, the development of IGT in elderly individuals does not involve changes in mitochondrial ATP and ROS production. Lastly, exercise reverses the mitochondrial phenotype (proteome and function) of old mitochondria.

  6. Increased reactive oxygen species production and lower abundance of complex I subunits and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B protein despite normal mitochondrial respiration in insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Natalie; Glancy, Brian; Bowen, Benjamin; Willis, Wayne T; Bailowitz, Zachary; De Filippis, Elena A; Brophy, Colleen; Meyer, Christian; Højlund, Kurt; Yi, Zhengping; Mandarino, Lawrence J

    2010-10-01

    The contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains elusive. Comparative proteomics are being applied to generate new hypotheses in human biology and were applied here to isolated mitochondria to identify novel changes in mitochondrial protein abundance present in insulin-resistant muscle. Mitochondria were isolated from vastus lateralis muscle from lean and insulin-sensitive individuals and from obese and insulin-resistant individuals who were otherwise healthy. Respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates were measured in vitro. Relative abundances of proteins detected by mass spectrometry were determined using a normalized spectral abundance factor method. NADH- and FADH(2)-linked maximal respiration rates were similar between lean and obese individuals. Rates of pyruvate and palmitoyl-DL-carnitine (both including malate) ROS production were significantly higher in obesity. Mitochondria from obese individuals maintained higher (more negative) extramitochondrial ATP free energy at low metabolic flux, suggesting that stronger mitochondrial thermodynamic driving forces may underlie the higher ROS production. Tandem mass spectrometry identified protein abundance differences per mitochondrial mass in insulin resistance, including lower abundance of complex I subunits and enzymes involved in the oxidation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and fatty acids (e.g., carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B). We provide data suggesting normal oxidative capacity of mitochondria in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle in parallel with high rates of ROS production. Furthermore, we show specific abundance differences in proteins involved in fat and BCAA oxidation that might contribute to the accumulation of lipid and BCAA frequently associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

  7. Altered Mitochondrial Dynamics and TBI Pathophysiology

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    Tara Diane Fischer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial function is intimately linked to cellular survival, growth, and death. Mitochondria not only generate ATP from oxidative phosphorylation, but also mediate intracellular calcium buffering, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and apoptosis. Electron leakage from the electron transport chain, especially from damaged or depolarized mitochondria, can generate excess free radicals that damage cellular proteins, DNA, and lipids. Furthermore, mitochondrial damage releases pro-apoptotic factors to initiate cell death. Previous studies have reported that traumatic brain injury (TBI reduces mitochondrial respiration, enhances production of ROS, and triggers apoptotic cell death, suggesting a prominent role of mitochondria in TBI pathophysiology. Mitochondria maintain cellular energy homeostasis and health via balanced processes of fusion and fission, continuously dividing and fusing to form an interconnected network throughout the cell. An imbalance of these processes, particularly an excess of fission, can be detrimental to mitochondrial function, causing decreased respiration, ROS production, and apoptosis. Mitochondrial fission is regulated by the cytosolic GTPase, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, which translocates to the mitochondrial outer membrane to initiate fission. Aberrant Drp1 activity has been linked to excessive mitochondrial fission and neurodegeneration. Measurement of Drp1 levels in purified hippocampal mitochondria showed an increase in TBI animals as compared to sham controls. Analysis of cryo-electron micrographs of these mitochondria also showed that TBI caused an initial increase in the length of hippocampal mitochondria at 24 hours post-injury, followed by a significant decrease in length at 72 hours. Post-TBI administration of Mdivi-1, a pharmacological inhibitor of Drp1, prevented this decrease in mitochondria length. Mdivi-1 treatment also reduced the loss of newborn neurons in the hippocampus and improved

  8. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies

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    Ayman W. El-Hattab

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform a variety of essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA while more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA. Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs of various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20-40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular noncompaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain (ETC complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial tRNAs, rRNAs, ribosomal proteins, and translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia.

  9. Kidney outer medulla mitochondria are more efficient compared to cortex mitochondria as a strategy to sustain ATP production in a suboptimal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Tomas A; Gustafsson, Håkan; Palm, Fredrik

    2018-05-30

    The kidneys receive approximately 25% of cardiac output, which is a prerequisite in order to maintain sufficient glomerular filtration rate. However, both intrarenal regional renal blood flow and tissue oxygen levels are heterogeneous with decreasing levels in the inner part of the medulla. These differences in combination with the heterogeneous metabolic activity of the different nephron segment located in the different parts of the kidney may constitute a functional problem when challenged. The proximal tubule and the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle are considered to have the highest metabolic rate, which is relating to the high mitochondria content needed to sustain sufficient ATP production from oxidative phosphorylation in order to support high electrolyte transport activity in these nephron segments. Interestingly, the cells located in kidney medulla functions at the verge of hypoxia and the mitochondria may have adapted to the surrounding environment. However, little is known about intrarenal differences in mitochondria function. We therefore investigated functional differences between mitochondria isolated from kidney cortex and medulla of healthy normoglycemic rats were estimated using high-resolution respirometry. The results demonstrate that medullary mitochondria had a higher degree of coupling, are more efficient and have higher oxygen affinity, which would make them more suitable to function in an environment with limited oxygen supply. Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that mitochondria of medullary cells have adapted to the normal hypoxic in vivo situation as a strategy of sustaining ATP production in a suboptimal environment.

  10. Metabolomic Analysis of Differential Changes in Metabolites during ATP Oscillations in Chondrogenesis

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    Hyuck Joon Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prechondrogenic condensation is a critical step for skeletal pattern formation. Recent studies reported that ATP oscillations play an essential role in prechondrogenic condensation. However, the molecular mechanism to underlie ATP oscillations remains poorly understood. In the present study, it was investigated how changes in metabolites are implicated in ATP oscillations during chondrogenesis by using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF-MS. CE-TOF-MS detected 93 cationic and 109 anionic compounds derived from known metabolic pathways. 15 cationic and 18 anionic compounds revealed significant change between peak and trough of ATP oscillations. These results implicate that glycolysis, mitochondrial respiration and uronic acid pathway oscillate in phase with ATP oscillations, while PPRP and nucleotides synthesis pathways oscillate in antiphase with ATP oscillations. This suggests that the ATP-producing glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration oscillate in antiphase with the ATP-consuming PPRP/nucleotide synthesis pathway during chondrogenesis.

  11. The disruption of mitochondrial axonal transport is an early event in neuroinflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Errea, Oihana; Moreno, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba

    2015-01-01

    in the cerebellar slice cultures was analyzed through high-resolution respirometry assays and quantification of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. RESULTS: Both conditions promoted an increase in the size and complexity of axonal mitochondria evident in electron microscopy images, suggesting a compensatory...... acutely impairs axonal mitochondrial transportation, which would promote an inappropriate delivery of energy throughout axons and, by this way, contribute to axonal damage. Thus, preserving axonal mitochondrial transport might represent a promising avenue to exploit as a therapeutic target...... response. Such compensation was reflected at the tissue level as increased respiratory activity of complexes I and IV and as a transient increase in ATP production in response to acute inflammation. Notably, time-lapse microscopy indicated that mitochondrial transport (mean velocity) was severely impaired...

  12. Ursolic Acid-enriched herba cynomorii extract induces mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione redox cycling through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation: protection against menadione cytotoxicity in h9c2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jihang; Wong, Hoi Shan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2014-01-27

    Herba Cynomorii (Cynomorium songaricum Rupr., Cynomoriaceae) is one of the most commonly used 'Yang-invigorating' tonic herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). An earlier study in our laboratory has demonstrated that HCY2, an ursolic acid-enriched fraction derived from Herba Cynomorii, increased mitochondrial ATP generation capacity (ATP-GC) and induced mitochondrial uncoupling as well as a cellular glutathione response, thereby protecting against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that pre-incubation of H9c2 cells with HCY2 increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in these cells, which is likely an event secondary to the stimulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The suppression of mitochondrial ROS by the antioxidant dimethylthiourea abrogated the HCY2-induced enhancement of mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione reductase (GR)-mediated glutathione redox cycling, and also protected against menadione-induced cytotoxicity. Studies using specific inhibitors of uncoupling protein and GR suggested that the HCY2-induced mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione redox cycling play a determining role in the cytoprotection against menadione-induced oxidant injury in H9c2 cells. Experimental evidence obtained thus far supports the causal role of HCY2-induced mitochondrial ROS production in eliciting mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione antioxidant responses, which offer cytoprotection against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells.

  13. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2013-01-01

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K3) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ~12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. PMID:22575170

  14. Mitochondrial functions of THP-1 monocytes following the exposure to selected natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Nadin; Wanka, Heike; Zwicker, Paula; Lindequist, Ulrike; Haertel, Beate

    2017-02-15

    The immune system is an important target of various xenobiotics, which may lead to severe adverse effects including immunosuppression or inappropriate immunostimulation. Mitochondrial toxicity is one possibility by which xenobiotics exert their toxic effects in cells or organs. In this study, we investigated the impact of three natural compounds, cyclosporine A (CsA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and cannabidiol (CBD) on mitochondrial functions in the THP-1 monocytic cell line. The cells were exposed for 24h to two different concentrations (IC 10 and IC 50 determined by MTT) of each compound. The cells showed concentration-dependent elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) and induction of apoptosis (except DON) in response to the three test compounds. Mitochondrial functions were characterized by using bioenergetics profiling experiments. In THP-1 monocytes, the IC 50 of CsA decreased basal and maximal respiration as well as ATP production with an impact on spare capacity indicating a mitochondrial dysfunction. Similar reaction patterns were observed following CBD exposure. The basal respiration level and ATP-production decreased in the THP-1 cells exposed to the IC 50 of DON with no major impact on mitochondrial function. In conclusion, impaired mitochondrial function was accompanied by elevated iROS and apoptosis level in a monocytic cell line exposed to CsA and CBD. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be one explanation for the cytotoxicity of CBD and CsA also in other in immune cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Similar potential ATP-P production and enzymatic activities in the microplankton community off Concepción (Chile) under oxic and suboxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rodrigo R.; Gutiérrez, Marcelo H.; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2007-11-01

    The effects of the oxygen minimum zone on the metabolism of the heterotrophic microplankton community (0.22-100 μm) in the Humboldt Current System, as well as the factors controlling its biomass production, remain unknown. Here we compare the effect of four sources of dissolved organic carbon (glucose, oxaloacetate, glycine, leucine) on microbial biomass production (such as ATP-P) and the potential enzymatic activities involved in catabolic pathways under oxic and suboxic conditions. Our results show significant differences ( p oxygen minimum zone has the same or greater potential growth than the community inhabiting more oxygenated strata of the water column and that malate dehydrogenase is the activity that best represents the metabolic potential of the community.

  16. Effect of 808 nm Diode Laser on Swimming Behavior, Food Vacuole Formation and Endogenous ATP Production of Paramecium primaurelia (Protozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaroli, Andrea; Ravera, Silvia; Parker, Steven; Panfoli, Isabella; Benedicenti, Alberico; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 40 years. To clarify the mechanisms of action of PBM at cellular and organism levels, we investigated its effect on Paramecium primaurelia (Protozoa) irradiated by an 808 nm infrared diode laser with a flat-top handpiece (1 W in CW). Our results led to the conclusion that: (1) the 808 nm laser stimulates the P. primaurelia without a thermal effect, (2) the laser effect is demonstrated by an increase in swimming speed and in food vacuole formation, (3) the laser treatment affects endogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in a positive way, (4) the effects of irradiation dose suggest an optimum exposure time of 50 s (64 J cm(-2) of fluence) to stimulate the Paramecium cells; irradiation of 25 s shows no effect or only mild effects and irradiation up to 100 s does not increase the effect observed with 50 s of treatment, (5) the increment of endogenous ATP concentration highlights the positive photobiomodulating effect of the 808 nm laser and the optimal irradiation conditions by the flat-top handpiece. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  17. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributes to Impaired Insulin Secretion in INS-1 Cells with Dominant-negative Mutations of HNF-1α and in HNF-1α-deficient Islets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Kibbey, Richard G.; Kirkpatrick, Clare L.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Pontoglio, Marco; Yaniv, Moshe; Wollheim, Claes B.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Cline, Gary W.

    2009-01-01

    Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young-type 3 (MODY-3) has been linked to mutations in the transcription factor hepatic nuclear factor (HNF)-1α, resulting in deficiency in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In INS-1 cells overexpressing doxycycline-inducible HNF-1α dominant-negative (DN-) gene mutations, and islets from Hnf-1α knock-out mice, insulin secretion was impaired in response to glucose (15 mm) and other nutrient secretagogues. Decreased rates of insulin secretion in response to glutamine plus leucine and to methyl pyruvate, but not potassium depolarization, indicate defects specific to mitochondrial metabolism. To identify the biochemical mechanisms responsible for impaired insulin secretion, we used 31P NMR measured mitochondrial ATP synthesis (distinct from glycolytic ATP synthesis) together with oxygen consumption measurements to determine the efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial uncoupling was significantly higher in DN-HNF-1α cells, such that rates of ATP synthesis were decreased by approximately one-half in response to the secretagogues glucose, glutamine plus leucine, or pyruvate. In addition to closure of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels with mitochondrial ATP synthesis, mitochondrial production of second messengers through increased anaplerotic flux has been shown to be critical for coupling metabolism to insulin secretion. 13C-Isotopomer analysis and tandem mass spectrometry measurement of Krebs cycle intermediates revealed a negative impact of DN-HNF-1α and Hnf-1α knock-out on mitochondrial second messenger production with glucose but not amino acids. Taken together, these results indicate that, in addition to reduced glycolytic flux, uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation contributes to impaired nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion with either mutations or loss of HNF-1α. PMID:19376774

  18. Oleuropein Prevents Neuronal Death, Mitigates Mitochondrial Superoxide Production and Modulates Autophagy in a Dopaminergic Cellular Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imène Achour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, primarily affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. There is currently no cure for PD and present medications aim to alleviate clinical symptoms, thus prevention remains the ideal strategy to reduce the prevalence of this disease. The goal of this study was to investigate whether oleuropein (OLE, the major phenolic compound in olive derivatives, may prevent neuronal degeneration in a cellular dopaminergic model of PD, differentiated PC12 cells exposed to the potent parkinsonian toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA. We also investigated OLE’s ability to mitigate mitochondrial oxidative stress and modulate the autophagic flux. Our results obtained by measuring cytotoxicity and apoptotic events demonstrate that OLE significantly decreases neuronal death. OLE could also reduce mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species resulting from blocking superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, quantification of autophagic and acidic vesicles in the cytoplasm alongside expression of specific autophagic markers uncovered a regulatory role for OLE against autophagic flux impairment induced by bafilomycin A1. Altogether, our results define OLE as a neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and autophagy-regulating molecule, in a neuronal dopaminergic cellular model.

  19. Glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in mouse LDHC-null sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odet, Fanny; Gabel, Scott; London, Robert E; Goldberg, Erwin; Eddy, Edward M

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrated previously that a knockout (KO) of the lactate dehydrogenase type C (Ldhc) gene disrupted male fertility and caused a considerable reduction in sperm glucose consumption, ATP production, and motility. While that study used mice with a mixed genetic background, the present study used C57BL/6 (B6) and 129S6 (129) Ldhc KO mice. We found that B6 KO males were subfertile and 129 KO males were infertile. Sperm from 129 wild-type (WT) mice have a lower glycolytic rate than sperm from B6 WT mice, resulting in a greater reduction in ATP production in 129 KO sperm than in B6 KO sperm. The lower glycolytic rate in 129 sperm offered a novel opportunity to examine the role of mitochondrial respiration in sperm ATP production and motility. We observed that in media containing a mitochondrial substrate (pyruvate or lactate) as the sole energy source, ATP levels and progressive motility in 129 KO sperm were similar to those in 129 WT sperm. However, when glucose was added, lactate was unable to maintain ATP levels or progressive motility in 129 KO sperm. The rate of respiration (ZO2) was high when 129 KO or WT sperm were incubated with lactate alone, but addition of glucose caused a reduction in ZO2. These results indicate that in the absence of glucose, 129 sperm can produce ATP via oxidative phosphorylation, but in the presence of glucose, oxidative phosphorylation is suppressed and the sperm utilize aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the Crabtree effect.

  20. Genetic dysfunction of MT-ATP6 causes axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pitceathly, Robert D S

    2012-09-11

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, affecting 1 in 2,500 individuals. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are not generally considered within the differential diagnosis of patients with uncomplicated inherited neuropathy, despite the essential requirement of ATP for axonal function. We identified the mtDNA mutation m.9185T>C in MT-ATP6, encoding the ATP6 subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase (OXPHOS complex V), at homoplasmic levels in a family with mitochondrial disease in whom a severe motor axonal neuropathy was a striking feature. This led us to hypothesize that mutations in the 2 mtDNA complex V subunit encoding genes, MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8, might be an unrecognized cause of isolated axonal CMT and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN).

  1. CoQ10 Deficiency May Indicate Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cr(VI Toxicity

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    Xiali Zhong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the toxic mechanism of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI and search for an antidote for Cr(VI-induced cytotoxicity, a study of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Cr(VI and cell survival by recovering mitochondrial function was performed. In the present study, we found that the gene expression of electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH was strongly downregulated by Cr(VI exposure. The levels of coenzyme 10 (CoQ10 and mitochondrial biogenesis presented by mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA copy number were also significantly reduced after Cr(VI exposure. The subsequent, Cr(VI-induced mitochondrial damage and apoptosis were characterized by reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD and ATP production, increased methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA content, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP opening, increased Ca2+ levels, Cyt c release, decreased Bcl-2 expression, and significantly elevated Bax expression. The Cr(VI-induced deleterious changes were attenuated by pretreatment with CoQ10 in L-02 hepatocytes. These data suggest that Cr(VI induces CoQ10 deficiency in L-02 hepatocytes, indicating that this deficiency may be a biomarker of mitochondrial dysfunction in Cr(VI poisoning and that exogenous administration of CoQ10 may restore mitochondrial function and protect the liver from Cr(VI exposure.

  2. Maintaining ancient organelles: mitochondrial biogenesis and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Rick B; Horton, Julie L; Kelly, Daniel P

    2015-05-22

    The ultrastructure of the cardiac myocyte is remarkable for the high density of mitochondria tightly packed between sarcomeres. This structural organization is designed to provide energy in the form of ATP to fuel normal pump function of the heart. A complex system comprised of regulatory factors and energy metabolic machinery, encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, is required for the coordinate control of cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis, maturation, and high-capacity function. This process involves the action of a transcriptional regulatory network that builds and maintains the mitochondrial genome and drives the expression of the energy transduction machinery. This finely tuned system is responsive to developmental and physiological cues, as well as changes in fuel substrate availability. Deficiency of components critical for mitochondrial energy production frequently manifests as a cardiomyopathic phenotype, underscoring the requirement to maintain high respiration rates in the heart. Although a precise causative role is not clear, there is increasing evidence that perturbations in this regulatory system occur in the hypertrophied and failing heart. This review summarizes current knowledge and highlights recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory factors and signaling networks that serve to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mammalian heart. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Regulated production of free radicals by the mitochondrial electron transport chain: Cardiac ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Szweda, Pamela A; Szweda, Luke I; Humphries, Kenneth M

    2009-11-30

    Excessive production of free radicals by mitochondria is associated with, and likely contributes to, the progression of numerous pathological conditions. Nevertheless, the production of free radicals by the mitochondria may have important biological functions under normal or stressed conditions by activating or modulating redox-sensitive cellular signaling pathways. This raises the intriguing possibility that regulated mitochondrial free radical production occurs via mechanisms that are distinct from pathologies associated with oxidative damage. Indeed, the capacity of mitochondria to produce free radicals in a limited manner may play a role in ischemic preconditioning, the phenomenon whereby short bouts of ischemia protect from subsequent prolonged ischemia and reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning can thus serve as an important model system for defining regulatory mechanisms that allow for transient, signal-inducing, production of free radicals by mitochondria. Defining how these mechanism(s) occur will provide insight into therapeutic approaches that minimize oxidative damage without altering normal cellular redox biology. The aim of this review is to present and discuss evidence for the regulated production of superoxide by the electron transport chain within the ischemic preconditioning paradigm of redox regulation.

  4. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Woo Sophie Kang

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK. When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury.

  5. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniane, Caitlin; Farrell, Geoffrey; Arias, Irwin M.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Fu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27792760

  6. ATP Release Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  7. Assessment of mitochondrial dysfunction-related, drug-induced hepatotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cong; Sekine, Shuichi; Ito, Kousei

    2016-01-01

    Evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in drug-induced liver injury is rapidly accumulating. In contrast to physiological conditions, in which almost all adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in hepatocytes is generated in mitochondria via aerobic respiration, the high glucose content and limited oxygen supply of conventional culture systems force primary hepatocytes to generate most ATP via cytosolic glycolysis. Thus, such anaerobically poised cells are resistant to xenobiotics that impair mitochondrial function, and are not suitable to identify drugs with mitochondrial liabilities. In this study, primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in galactose-based medium, instead of the conventional glucose-based medium, and in hyperoxia to improve the reliance of energy generation on aerobic respiration. Activation of mitochondria was verified by diminished cellular lactate release and increased oxygen consumption. These conditions improved sensitivity to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. Since oxidative stress is also a general cause of mitochondrial impairment, cells were exposed to test compounds in the presence of transferrin to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species via increased uptake of iron. Finally, 14 compounds with reported mitochondrial liabilities were tested to validate this new drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity assay. Overall, the culture of primary rat hepatocytes in galactose, hyperoxia and transferrin is a useful model for the identification of mitochondrial dysfunction-related drug-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • Drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity was evaluated using primary rat hepatocytes. • Galactose and hyperoxia could activate OXPHOS in primary rat hepatocytes. • Cells with enhanced OXPHOS exhibit improved sensitivity to mitochondrial toxins. • Transferrin potentiate mitochondrial toxicity via increased ROS production.

  8. Assessment of mitochondrial dysfunction-related, drug-induced hepatotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cong; Sekine, Shuichi, E-mail: ssekine@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Ito, Kousei

    2016-07-01

    Evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in drug-induced liver injury is rapidly accumulating. In contrast to physiological conditions, in which almost all adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in hepatocytes is generated in mitochondria via aerobic respiration, the high glucose content and limited oxygen supply of conventional culture systems force primary hepatocytes to generate most ATP via cytosolic glycolysis. Thus, such anaerobically poised cells are resistant to xenobiotics that impair mitochondrial function, and are not suitable to identify drugs with mitochondrial liabilities. In this study, primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in galactose-based medium, instead of the conventional glucose-based medium, and in hyperoxia to improve the reliance of energy generation on aerobic respiration. Activation of mitochondria was verified by diminished cellular lactate release and increased oxygen consumption. These conditions improved sensitivity to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. Since oxidative stress is also a general cause of mitochondrial impairment, cells were exposed to test compounds in the presence of transferrin to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species via increased uptake of iron. Finally, 14 compounds with reported mitochondrial liabilities were tested to validate this new drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity assay. Overall, the culture of primary rat hepatocytes in galactose, hyperoxia and transferrin is a useful model for the identification of mitochondrial dysfunction-related drug-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • Drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity was evaluated using primary rat hepatocytes. • Galactose and hyperoxia could activate OXPHOS in primary rat hepatocytes. • Cells with enhanced OXPHOS exhibit improved sensitivity to mitochondrial toxins. • Transferrin potentiate mitochondrial toxicity via increased ROS production.

  9. MitoRes: a resource of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes and their products in Metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Domenico; Licciulli, Flavio; Turi, Antonio; Grillo, Giorgio; Saccone, Cecilia; D'Elia, Domenica

    2006-01-24

    Mitochondria are sub-cellular organelles that have a central role in energy production and in other metabolic pathways of all eukaryotic respiring cells. In the last few years, with more and more genomes being sequenced, a huge amount of data has been generated providing an unprecedented opportunity to use the comparative analysis approach in studies of evolution and functional genomics with the aim of shedding light on molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism. In this context, the problem of the optimal extraction of representative datasets of genomic and proteomic data assumes a crucial importance. Specialised resources for nuclear-encoded mitochondria-related proteins already exist; however, no mitochondrial database is currently available with the same features of MitoRes, which is an update of the MitoNuc database extensively modified in its structure, data sources and graphical interface. It contains data on nuclear-encoded mitochondria-related products for any metazoan species for which this type of data is available and also provides comprehensive sequence datasets (gene, transcript and protein) as well as useful tools for their extraction and export. MitoRes http://www2.ba.itb.cnr.it/MitoRes/ consolidates information from publicly external sources and automatically annotates them into a relational database. Additionally, it also clusters proteins on the basis of their sequence similarity and interconnects them with genomic data. The search engine and sequence management tools allow the query/retrieval of the database content and the extraction and export of sequences (gene, transcript, protein) and related sub-sequences (intron, exon, UTR, CDS, signal peptide and gene flanking regions) ready to be used for in silico analysis. The tool we describe here has been developed to support lab scientists and bioinformaticians alike in the characterization of molecular features and evolution of mitochondrial targeting sequences. The

  10. Soluble products of Escherichia coli induce mitochondrial dysfunction-related sperm membrane lipid peroxidation which is prevented by lactobacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo Barbonetti

    Full Text Available Unidentified soluble factors secreted by E. coli, a frequently isolated microorganism in genitourinary infections, have been reported to inhibit mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, motility and vitality of human spermatozoa. Here we explore the mechanisms involved in the adverse impact of E. coli on sperm motility, focusing mainly on sperm mitochondrial function and possible membrane damage induced by mitochondrial-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, as lactobacilli, which dominate the vaginal ecosystem of healthy women, have been shown to exert anti-oxidant protective effects on spermatozoa, we also evaluated whether soluble products from these microorganisms could protect spermatozoa against the effects of E. coli. We assessed motility (by computer-aided semen analysis, ΔΨm (with JC-1 dye by flow cytometry, mitochondrial ROS generation (with MitoSOX red dye by flow cytometry and membrane lipid-peroxidation (with the fluorophore BODIPY C11 by flow cytometry of sperm suspensions exposed to E. coli in the presence and in the absence of a combination of 3 selected strains of lactobacilli (L. brevis, L. salivarius, L. plantarum. A Transwell system was used to avoid direct contact between spermatozoa and microorganisms. Soluble products of E. coli induced ΔΨm loss, mitochondrial generation of ROS and membrane lipid-peroxidation, resulting in motility loss. Soluble factors of lactobacilli prevented membrane lipid-peroxidation of E. coli-exposed spermatozoa, thus preserving their motility. In conclusion, sperm motility loss by soluble products of E. coli reflects a mitochondrial dysfunction-related membrane lipid-peroxidation. Lactobacilli could protect spermatozoa in the presence of vaginal disorders, by preventing ROS-induced membrane damage.

  11. Nrf2 impacts cellular bioenergetics by controlling substrate availability for mitochondrial respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira M. Holmström

    2013-06-01

    Transcription factor Nrf2 and its repressor Keap1 regulate a network of cytoprotective genes involving more than 1% of the genome, their best known targets being drug-metabolizing and antioxidant genes. Here we demonstrate a novel role for this pathway in directly regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics in murine neurons and embryonic fibroblasts. Loss of Nrf2 leads to mitochondrial depolarisation, decreased ATP levels and impaired respiration, whereas genetic activation of Nrf2 increases the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels, the rate of respiration and the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. We further show that Nrf2-deficient cells have increased production of ATP in glycolysis, which is then used by the F1Fo-ATPase for maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential. While the levels and in vitro activities of the respiratory complexes are unaffected by Nrf2 deletion, their activities in isolated mitochondria and intact live cells are substantially impaired. In addition, the rate of regeneration of NADH after inhibition of respiration is much slower in Nrf2-knockout cells than in their wild-type counterparts. Taken together, these results show that Nrf2 directly regulates cellular energy metabolism through modulating the availability of substrates for mitochondrial respiration. Our findings highlight the importance of efficient energy metabolism in Nrf2-mediated cytoprotection.

  12. Optogenetic control of mitochondrial metabolism and Ca2+ signaling by mitochondria-targeted opsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, Tatiana; Greotti, Elisa; Baranauskas, Gytis; Pendin, Diana; Roy, Soumitra; Nita, Luliaoana I; Wettmarshausen, Jennifer; Prigge, Matthias; Yizhar, Ofer; Shirihai, Orian S; Fishman, Daniel; Hershfinkel, Michal; Fleidervish, Ilya A; Perocchi, Fabiana; Pozzan, Tullio; Sekler, Israel

    2017-06-27

    Key mitochondrial functions such as ATP production, Ca 2+ uptake and release, and substrate accumulation depend on the proton electrochemical gradient (ΔμH + ) across the inner membrane. Although several drugs can modulate ΔμH + , their effects are hardly reversible, and lack cellular specificity and spatial resolution. Although channelrhodopsins are widely used to modulate the plasma membrane potential of excitable cells, mitochondria have thus far eluded optogenetic control. Here we describe a toolkit of optometabolic constructs based on selective targeting of channelrhodopsins with distinct functional properties to the inner mitochondrial membrane of intact cells. We show that our strategy enables a light-dependent control of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m ) and coupled mitochondrial functions such as ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation, Ca 2+ dynamics, and respiratory metabolism. By directly modulating Δψ m , the mitochondria-targeted opsins were used to control complex physiological processes such as spontaneous beats in cardiac myocytes and glucose-dependent ATP increase in pancreatic β-cells. Furthermore, our optometabolic tools allow modulation of mitochondrial functions in single cells and defined cell regions.

  13. Cardiomyocyte mitochondrial respiration is reduced by receptor for advanced glycation end-product signaling in a ceramide-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael B; Swensen, Adam C; Winden, Duane R; Bodine, Jared S; Bikman, Benjamin T; Reynolds, Paul R

    2015-07-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications. The role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is already well established in numerous comorbidities, including cardiomyopathy. Given the role of AGEs and their receptor, RAGE, in activating inflammatory pathways, we sought to determine whether ceramides could be a mediator of RAGE-induced altered heart mitochondrial function. Using an in vitro model, we treated H9C2 cardiomyocytes with the AGE carboxy-methyllysine before mitochondrial respiration assessment. We discovered that mitochondrial respiration was significantly impaired in AGE-treated cells, but not when cotreated with myriocin, an inhibitor of de novo ceramide biosynthesis. Moreover, we exposed wild-type and RAGE knockout mice to secondhand cigarette smoke and found reduced mitochondrial respiration in the left ventricular myocardium from wild-type mice, but RAGE knockout mice were protected from this effect. Finally, conditional overexpression of RAGE in the lungs of transgenic mice elicited a robust increase in left ventricular ceramides in the absence of smoke exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest a RAGE-ceramide axis as an important contributor to AGE-mediated disrupted cardiomyocyte mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) regulates skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signaling via altered mitochondrial oxidation and reactive oxygen species production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Enxuan; Emanuelli, Brice; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2011-01-01

    Sirt3 is a member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases that is localized in mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial function. Sirt3 expression in skeletal muscle is decreased in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and regulated by feeding, fasting, and caloric restriction. Sirt3 knockout...... mice exhibit decreased oxygen consumption and develop oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, leading to JNK activation and impaired insulin signaling. This effect is mimicked by knockdown of Sirt3 in cultured myoblasts, which exhibit reduced mitochondrial oxidation, increased reactive oxygen species......, activation of JNK, increased serine and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and decreased insulin signaling. Thus, Sirt3 plays an important role in diabetes through regulation of mitochondrial oxidation, reactive oxygen species production, and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle....

  15. The dynamic equilibrium between ATP synthesis and ATP consumption is lower in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2011-01-01

    compared to lean control. The ATP synthesis rate without ATP consumption was not different between groups and there were no significant gender differences. The mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes in vivo is partly based on a primarily impaired ATP synthesis....... or not in the mitochondria of diabetic skeletal muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes. ATP synthesis was measured on mitochondria isolated from cultured myotubes established from lean (11/9), obese (9/11) and subjects with type 2 diabetes (9/11) (female/male, n=20 in each group), precultured under normophysiological...... selects the mitochondria based on an antibody recognizing the mitochondrial outer membrane and not by size through gradient centrifugation. The dynamic equilibrium between ATP synthesis and ATP consumption is 35% lower in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects...

  16. The uniqueness of the plant mitochondrial potassium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Pastore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ATP-inhibited Plant Mitochondrial K+ Channel (PmitoKATPwas discovered about fifteen years ago in Durum WheatMitochondria (DWM. PmitoKATP catalyses the electrophoreticK+ uniport through the inner mitochondrial membrane;moreover, the co-operation between PmitoKATP and K+/H+antiporter allows such a great operation of a K+ cycle tocollapse mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ and ΔpH, thusimpairing protonmotive force (Δp. A possible physiological roleof such ΔΨ control is the restriction of harmful reactive oxygenspecies (ROS production under environmental/oxidative stressconditions. Interestingly, DWM lacking Δp were found to benevertheless fully coupled and able to regularly accomplish ATPsynthesis; this unexpected behaviour makes necessary to recastin some way the classical chemiosmotic model. In the whole,PmitoKATP may oppose to large scale ROS production bylowering ΔΨ under environmental/oxidative stress, but, whenstress is moderate, this occurs without impairing ATP synthesisin a crucial moment for cell and mitochondrial bioenergetics.[BMB Reports 2013; 46(8: 391-397

  17. Neurodegenerative and Fatiguing Illnesses, Infections and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Use of Natural Supplements to Improve Mitochondrial Function

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    Garth L. Nicolson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many chronic diseases and illnesses are associated with one or more chronic infections, dysfunction of mitochondria and reduced production of ATP. This results in fatigue and other symptoms that occur in most if not all chronic conditions and diseases. Methods: This is a review of the published literature on chronic infections in neurodegenerative diseases and fatiguing illnesses that are also typified by mitochondrial dysfunction. This contribution also reviews the use of natural supplements to enhance mitochondrial function and reduce the effects of chronic infections to improve overall function in various chronic illnesses. Results: Mitochondrial function can be enhanced by the use of various natural supplements, notably Lipid Replacement Therapy (LRT using glyerolphospholipids and other mitochondrial supplements. In various chronic illnesses that are characterized by the presence of chronic infections, such as intracellular bacteria (Mycoplasma, Borrelia, Chlamydia and other infections and viruses, LRT has proven useful in multiple clinical trials. For example, in clinical studies on chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome and other chronic fatiguing illnesses where a large majority of patients have chronic infections, LRT significantly reduced fatigue by 35-43% in different clinical trials and increased mitochondrial function. In clinical trials on patients with multiple intracellular bacterial infections and intractable fatigue LRT plus other mitochondrial supplements significantly decreased fatigue and improved mood and cognition. Conclusions: LRT formulations designed to improve mitochondrial function appear to be useful as non-toxic dietary supplements for reducing fatigue and restoring mitochondrial and other cellular membrane functions in patients with chronic illnesses and multiple chronic infections.

  18. Dahuang Fuzi Decoction Attenuates Renal Fibrosis and Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chronic Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy

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    Guang-xing Shui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The effects of the traditional formula Dahuang Fuzi Decoction (DFD on chronic aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN in mice and its underlying mechanisms were studied. Methods. Mice were randomly divided into the following six groups: the control group, the model group (AAN, the saline-treated group (AAN + vehicle, the normal dose DFD-treated group (AAN + NDFD, the high dose DFD-treated group (AAN + HDFD, and the rosiglitazone treated group (AAN + Rosi. After treating for 8 weeks, 24 h urine and blood samples were collected and the mice sacrificed to study the biochemical parameters associated with renal function. The samples were analyzed for renal fibrosis and mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD markers. To achieve that, collagen III, collagen I, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers (mtDNA, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ATP content, and ROS production were evaluated. Results. Our results showed that proteinuria, kidney function, and the renal pathological characteristics were improved by DFD and rosiglitazone. The expression of collagen III and collagen I decreased after treating with either DFD or rosiglitazone. Mitochondrial dysfunction based on the increase in ROS production, decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy numbers, and reduction of MMP and ATP content was improved by DFD and rosiglitazone. Conclusions. DFD could protect against renal impairments and ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic AAN mice.

  19. Cudraflavone C Induces Apoptosis of A375.S2 Melanoma Cells through Mitochondrial ROS Production and MAPK Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Feng-Lin; Ko, Horng-Huey; Li, Shu-Yu; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Lee, Ming-Hsueh; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Hsu, Lee-Fen

    2017-07-13

    Melanoma is the most malignant form of skin cancer and is associated with a very poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the apoptotic effects of cudraflavone C on A375.S2 melanoma cells and to determine the underlying mechanisms involved in apoptosis. Cell viability was determined using the MTT and real-time cytotoxicity assays. Flow cytometric evaluation of apoptosis was performed after staining the cells with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using the JC-1 assay. Cellular ROS production was measured using the CellROX assay, while mitochondrial ROS production was evaluated using the MitoSOX assay. It was observed that cudraflavone C inhibited growth in A375.S2 melanoma cells, and promoted apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway mediated by increased mitochondrial ROS production. In addition, cudraflavone C induced phosphorylation of MAPKs (p38, ERK, and JNK) and up-regulated the expression of apoptotic proteins (Puma, Bax, Bad, Bid, Apaf-1, cytochrome C, caspase-9, and caspase-3/7) in A375.S2 cells. Pretreatment of A375.S2 cells with MitoTEMPOL (a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant) attenuated the phosphorylation of MAPKs, expression of apoptotic proteins, and the overall progression of apoptosis. In summary, cudraflavone C induced apoptosis in A375.S2 melanoma cells by increasing mitochondrial ROS production; thus, activating p38, ERK, and JNK; and increasing the expression of apoptotic proteins. Therefore, cudraflavone C may be regarded as a potential form of treatment for malignant melanoma.

  20. Increased androgen levels in rats impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdong; Wang, Xiaping; Zhu, Yunxia; Chen, Fang; Sun, Yujie; Han, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Although insulin resistance is recognized to contribute to the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pancreatic beta cell dysfunction plays an essential role in the progression from PCOS to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of insulin secretory abnormalities in PCOS has received little attention. In addition, the precise changes in beta cells and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we therefore attempted to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in beta cell alterations in a rat model of PCOS. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in islets isolated from DHT-treated and control rats. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ATP production, and mitochondrial copy number were assayed to evaluate mitochondrial function. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is significantly decreased in islets from DHT-treated rats. On the other hand, significant reductions are observed in the expression levels of several key genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and in mitochondrial OCR and ATP production in DHT-treated rat islets. Meanwhile, we found that androgens can directly impair beta cell function by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro in an androgen receptor dependent manner. For the first time, our study demonstrates that increased androgens in female rats can impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion partly through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function. This work has significance for hyperandrogenic women with PCOS: excess activation of the androgen receptor by androgens may provoke beta cell dysfunction via mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective effects of physical exercise on MDMA-induced cognitive and mitochondrial impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Pourahmad, Jalal; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Foroumadi, Alireza; Torkaman-Boutorabi, Anahita; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Shariatmadari, Reyhaneh; Gholami, Mahdi; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Debate continues about the effect of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on cognitive and mitochondrial function through the CNS. It has been shown that physical exercise has an important protective effect on cellular damage and death. Therefore, we investigated the effect of physical exercise on MDMA-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory as well as MDMA effects on brain mitochondrial function in rats. Male wistar rats underwent short-term (2 weeks) or long-term (4 weeks) treadmill exercise. After completion of exercise duration, acquisition and retention of spatial memory were evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. Rats were intraperitoneally (I.P) injected with MDMA (5, 10, and 15mg/kg) 30min before the first training trial in 4 training days of MWM. Different parameters of brain mitochondrial function were measured including the level of ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial outermembrane damage, the amount of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and ADP/ATP ratio. MDMA damaged the spatial learning and memory in a dose-dependent manner. Brain mitochondria isolated from the rats treated with MDMA showed significant increase in ROS formation, collapse of MMP, mitochondrial swelling, and outer membrane damage, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and finally increased ADP/ATP ratio. This study also found that physical exercise significantly decreased the MDMA-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory and also mitochondrial dysfunction. The results indicated that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity leads to brain mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent oxidative stress is followed by cognitive impairments. However, physical exercise could reduce these deleterious effects of MDMA through protective effects on brain mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective decrease of components of the creatine kinase system and ATP synthase complex in chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy.

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    Priscila Camillo Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC is an inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy with a worse prognosis than other cardiomyopathies. CCC occurs in 30 % of individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, endemic in Latin America. Heart failure is associated with impaired energy metabolism, which may be correlated to contractile dysfunction. We thus analyzed the myocardial gene and protein expression, as well as activity, of key mitochondrial enzymes related to ATP production, in myocardial samples of end-stage CCC, idiopathic dilated (IDC and ischemic (IC cardiomyopathies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Myocardium homogenates from CCC (N=5, IC (N=5 and IDC (N=5 patients, as well as from heart donors (N=5 were analyzed for protein and mRNA expression of mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKMit and muscular creatine kinase (CKM and ATP synthase subunits aplha and beta by immunoblotting and by real-time RT-PCR. Total myocardial CK activity was also assessed. Protein levels of CKM and CK activity were reduced in all three cardiomyopathy groups. However, total CK activity, as well as ATP synthase alpha chain protein levels, were significantly lower in CCC samples than IC and IDC samples. CCC myocardium displayed selective reduction of protein levels and activity of enzymes crucial for maintaining cytoplasmic ATP levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The selective impairment of the CK system may be associated to the loss of inotropic reserve observed in CCC. Reduction of ATP synthase alpha levels is consistent with a decrease in myocardial ATP generation through oxidative phosphorylation. Together, these results suggest that the energetic deficit is more intense in the myocardium of CCC patients than in the other tested dilated cardiomyopathies.

  3. Cardiomyocyte specific deletion of Crif1 causes mitochondrial cardiomyopathy in mice.

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    Juhee Shin

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are key organelles dedicated to energy production. Crif1, which interacts with the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome, is indispensable for the mitochondrial translation and membrane insertion of respiratory subunits. To explore the physiological function of Crif1 in the heart, Crif1(f/f mice were crossed with Myh6-cre/Esr1 transgenic mice, which harbor cardiomyocyte-specific Cre activity in a tamoxifen-dependent manner. The tamoxifen injections were given at six weeks postnatal, and the mutant mice survived only five months due to hypertrophic heart failure. In the mutant cardiac muscles, mitochondrial mass dramatically increased, while the inner structure was altered with lack of cristae. Mutant cardiac muscles showed decreased rates of oxygen consumption and ATP production, suggesting that Crif1 plays a critical role in the maintenance of both mitochondrial structure and respiration in cardiac muscles.

  4. Dynamics of enhanced mitochondrial respiration in female compared with male rat cerebral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V; Busija, David W

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial respiration has never been directly examined in intact cerebral arteries. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial energetics of large cerebral arteries ex vivo are sex dependent. The Seahorse XFe24 analyzer was used to examine mitochondrial respiration in isolated cerebral arteries from adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) on mitochondrial respiration under basal conditions, using N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and following pharmacological challenge using diazoxide (DZ), and also determined levels of mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial proteins using Western blot, and vascular diameter responses to DZ. The components of mitochondrial respiration including basal respiration, ATP production, proton leak, maximal respiration, and spare respiratory capacity were elevated in females compared with males, but increased in both male and female arteries in the presence of the NOS inhibitor. Although acute DZ treatment had little effect on mitochondrial respiration of male arteries, it decreased the respiration in female arteries. Levels of mitochondrial proteins in Complexes I-V and the voltage-dependent anion channel protein were elevated in female compared with male cerebral arteries. The DZ-induced vasodilation was greater in females than in males. Our findings show that substantial sex differences in mitochondrial respiratory dynamics exist in large cerebral arteries and may provide the mechanistic basis for observations that the female cerebral vasculature is more adaptable after injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Improvement of mitochondrial function and dynamics by the metabolic enhancer piracetam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Carola; Kurz, Christopher; Koch, Konrad A; Eckert, Schamim H; Leuner, Kristina; Müller, Walter E

    2013-10-01

    The metabolic enhancer piracetam is used in many countries to treat cognitive impairment in aging, brain injuries, as well as dementia such as AD (Alzheimer's disease). As a specific feature of piracetam, beneficial effects are usually associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In previous studies we were able to show that piracetam enhanced ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential as well as neurite outgrowth in cell and animal models for aging and AD. To investigate further the effects of piracetam on mitochondrial function, especially mitochondrial fission and fusion events, we decided to assess mitochondrial morphology. Human neuroblastoma cells were treated with the drug under normal conditions and under conditions imitating aging and the occurrence of ROS (reactive oxygen species) as well as in stably transfected cells with the human wild-type APP (amyloid precursor protein) gene. This AD model is characterized by expressing only 2-fold more human Aβ (amyloid β-peptide) compared with control cells and therefore representing very early stages of AD when Aβ levels gradually increase over decades. Interestingly, these cells exhibit an impaired mitochondrial function and morphology under baseline conditions. Piracetam is able to restore this impairment and shifts mitochondrial morphology back to elongated forms, whereas there is no effect in control cells. After addition of a complex I inhibitor, mitochondrial morphology is distinctly shifted to punctate forms in both cell lines. Under these conditions piracetam is able to ameliorate morphology in cells suffering from the mild Aβ load, as well as mitochondrial dynamics in control cells.

  6. Lycopene Prevents Amyloid [Beta]-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunctions in Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingyue; Jiang, Zheng; Liao, Yuanxiang; Song, Zhenyao; Nan, Xinzhong

    2016-06-01

    Brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) show a large spectrum of mitochondrial alterations at both morphological and genetic level. The causal link between β-amyloid (Aβ) and mitochondrial dysfunction has been established in cellular models of AD. We observed previously that lycopene, a member of the carotenoid family of phytochemicals, could counteract neuronal apoptosis and cell damage induced by Aβ and other neurotoxic substances, and that this neuroprotective action somehow involved the mitochondria. The present study aims to investigate the effects of lycopene on mitochondria in cultured rat cortical neurons exposed to Aβ. It was found that lycopene attenuated Aβ-induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by the decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondria-derived superoxide production. Additionally, lycopene ameliorated Aβ-induced mitochondrial morphological alteration, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pores and the consequent cytochrome c release. Lycopene also improved mitochondrial complex activities and restored ATP levels in Aβ-treated neuron. Furthermore, lycopene prevented mitochondrial DNA damages and improved the protein level of mitochondrial transcription factor A in mitochondria. Those results indicate that lycopene protects mitochondria against Aβ-induced damages, at least in part by inhibiting mitochondrial oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. These beneficial effects of lycopene may account for its protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity.

  7. Is Placental Mitochondrial Function a Regulator that Matches Fetal and Placental Growth to Maternal Nutrient Intake in the Mouse?

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    Marcos R Chiaratti

    Full Text Available Effective fetal growth requires adequate maternal nutrition coupled to active transport of nutrients across the placenta, which, in turn requires ATP. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has shown that impaired maternal nutrition in utero results in an adverse postnatal phenotype for the offspring. Placental mitochondrial function might link maternal food intake to fetal growth since impaired placental ATP production, in response to poor maternal nutrition, could be a pathway linking maternal food intake to reduced fetal growth.We assessed the effects of maternal diet on placental water content, ATP levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in mice at embryonic (E day 18 (E18. Females maintained on either low- (LPD or normal- (NPD protein diets were mated with NPD males.Fetal dry weight and placental efficiency (embryo/placental fresh weight were positively correlated (r = 0.53, P = 0.0001. Individual placental dry weight was reduced by LPD (P = 0.003, as was the expression of amino acid transporter Slc38a2 and of growth factor Igf2. Placental water content, which is regulated by active transport of solutes, was increased by LPD (P = 0.0001. However, placental ATP content was also increased (P = 0.03. To investigate the possibility of an underlying mitochondrial stress response, we studied cultured human trophoblast cells (BeWos. High throughput imaging showed that amino acid starvation induces changes in mitochondrial morphology that suggest stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion. This is a defensive response, believed to increase mitochondrial efficiency, that could underlie the increase in ATP observed in placenta.These findings reinforce the pathophysiological links between maternal diet and conceptus mitochondria, potentially contributing to metabolic programming. The quiet embryo hypothesis proposes that pre-implantation embryo survival is best served by a relatively low level of metabolism. This may extend to post

  8. Investigating the role of melanin in UVA/UVB- and hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular and mitochondrial ROS production and mitochondrial DNA damage in human melanoma cells.

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    Swalwell, Helen; Latimer, Jennifer; Haywood, Rachel M; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    Skin cancer incidence is dramatically increasing worldwide, with exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) a predominant factor. The UVA component initiates oxidative stress in human skin, although its exact role in the initiation of skin cancer, particularly malignant melanoma, remains unclear and is controversial because there is evidence for a melanin-dependent mechanism in UVA-linked melanoma studies. Nonpigmented (CHL-1, A375), moderately pigmented (FM55, SKmel23), and highly pigmented (FM94, hyperpigmented FM55) human melanoma cell lines have been used to investigate UVA-induced production of reactive oxygen species using FACS analysis, at both the cellular (dihydrorhodamine-123) and the mitochondrial (MitoSOX) level, where most cellular stress is generated. For the first time, downstream mtDNA damage (utilizing a quantitative long-PCR assay) has been investigated. Using UVA, UVB, and H(2)O(2) as cellular stressors, we have explored the dual roles of melanin as a photoprotector and photosensitizer. The presence of melanin has no influence over cellular oxidative stress generation, whereas, in contrast, melanin protects against mitochondrial superoxide generation and mtDNA damage (one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey's analysis, Pmelanin binds directly to DNA, it acts as a direct photosensitizer of mtDNA damage during UVA irradiation (Pmelanin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Cardiac Structural, Functional, and Mitochondrial Consequences of Diet-Induced Metabolic Heart Disease.

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    Sverdlov, Aaron L; Elezaby, Aly; Qin, Fuzhong; Behring, Jessica B; Luptak, Ivan; Calamaras, Timothy D; Siwik, Deborah A; Miller, Edward J; Liesa, Marc; Shirihai, Orian S; Pimentel, David R; Cohen, Richard A; Bachschmid, Markus M; Colucci, Wilson S

    2016-01-11

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with metabolic heart disease (MHD). However, the mechanism by which ROS cause MHD is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial ROS are a key mediator of MHD. Mice fed a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet develop MHD with cardiac diastolic and mitochondrial dysfunction that is associated with oxidative posttranslational modifications of cardiac mitochondrial proteins. Transgenic mice that express catalase in mitochondria and wild-type mice were fed an HFHS or control diet for 4 months. Cardiac mitochondria from HFHS-fed wild-type mice had a 3-fold greater rate of H2O2 production (P=0.001 versus control diet fed), a 30% decrease in complex II substrate-driven oxygen consumption (P=0.006), 21% to 23% decreases in complex I and II substrate-driven ATP synthesis (P=0.01), and a 62% decrease in complex II activity (P=0.002). In transgenic mice that express catalase in mitochondria, all HFHS diet-induced mitochondrial abnormalities were ameliorated, as were left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. In HFHS-fed wild-type mice complex II substrate-driven ATP synthesis and activity were restored ex vivo by dithiothreitol (5 mmol/L), suggesting a role for reversible cysteine oxidative posttranslational modifications. In vitro site-directed mutation of complex II subunit B Cys100 or Cys103 to redox-insensitive serines prevented complex II dysfunction induced by ROS or high glucose/high palmitate in the medium. Mitochondrial ROS are pathogenic in MHD and contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction, at least in part, by causing oxidative posttranslational modifications of complex I and II proteins including reversible oxidative posttranslational modifications of complex II subunit B Cys100 and Cys103. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. A mitochondrially targeted compound delays aging in yeast through a mechanism linking mitochondrial membrane lipid metabolism to mitochondrial redox biology

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    Michelle T. Burstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent study revealed a mechanism of delaying aging in yeast by a natural compound which specifically impacts mitochondrial redox processes. In this mechanism, exogenously added lithocholic bile acid enters yeast cells, accumulates mainly in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and elicits an age-related remodeling of phospholipid synthesis and movement within both mitochondrial membranes. Such remodeling of mitochondrial phospholipid dynamics progresses with the chronological age of a yeast cell and ultimately causes significant changes in mitochondrial membrane lipidome. These changes in the composition of membrane phospholipids alter mitochondrial abundance and morphology, thereby triggering changes in the age-related chronology of such longevity-defining redox processes as mitochondrial respiration, the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential, the preservation of cellular homeostasis of mitochondrially produced reactive oxygen species, and the coupling of electron transport to ATP synthesis.

  11. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade

    KAUST Repository

    Jourdain, P.

    2016-02-19

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade.

  12. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade

    KAUST Repository

    Jourdain, P.; Allaman, I.; Rothenfusser, K.; Fiumelli, Hubert; Marquet, P.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade.

  13. Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Forward and Reverse Electron Fluxes in the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain

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    Selivanov, Vitaly A.; Votyakova, Tatyana V.; Pivtoraiko, Violetta N.; Zeak, Jennifer; Sukhomlin, Tatiana; Trucco, Massimo; Roca, Josep; Cascante, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) are primary signals that modulate cellular adaptation to environment, and are also destructive factors that damage cells under the conditions of hypoxia/reoxygenation relevant for various systemic diseases or transplantation. The important role of ROS in cell survival requires detailed investigation of mechanism and determinants of ROS production. To perform such an investigation we extended our rule-based model of complex III in order to account for electron transport in the whole RC coupled to proton translocation, transmembrane electrochemical potential generation, TCA cycle reactions, and substrate transport to mitochondria. It fits respiratory electron fluxes measured in rat brain mitochondria fueled by succinate or pyruvate and malate, and the dynamics of NAD+ reduction by reverse electron transport from succinate through complex I. The fitting of measured characteristics gave an insight into the mechanism of underlying processes governing the formation of free radicals that can transfer an unpaired electron to oxygen-producing superoxide and thus can initiate the generation of ROS. Our analysis revealed an association of ROS production with levels of specific radicals of individual electron transporters and their combinations in species of complexes I and III. It was found that the phenomenon of bistability, revealed previously as a property of complex III, remains valid for the whole RC. The conditions for switching to a state with a high content of free radicals in complex III were predicted based on theoretical analysis and were confirmed experimentally. These findings provide a new insight into the mechanisms of ROS production in RC. PMID:21483483

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

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    Stefania Cocco

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, ubiquitous environmental contaminants, can adversely affect the development and function of the nervous system. Here we evaluated the effect of PCB exposure on mitochondrial function using the PCB mixture Aroclor-1254 (A1254 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. A 6-hour exposure to A1254 (5 μg/ml reduced cellular ATP production by 45%±7, and mitochondrial membrane potential, detected by TMRE, by 49%±7. Consistently, A1254 significantly decreased oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis measured by extracellular flux analyzer. Furthermore, the activity of mitochondrial protein complexes I, II, and IV, but not V (ATPase, measured by BN-PAGE technique, was significantly reduced after 6-hour exposure to A1254. The addition of pyruvic acid during exposure to A1254 significantly prevent A1254-induced cell injury, restoring resting mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels, oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, pyruvic acid significantly preserved the activity of mitochondrial complexes I, II and IV and increased basal activity of complex V. Collectively, the present results indicate that the neurotoxicity of A1254 depends on the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV activity and it was counteracted by pyruvic acid.

  15. ATP-binding cassette B10 regulates early steps of heme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayeva, Marina; Khechaduri, Arineh; Wu, Rongxue; Burke, Michael A; Wasserstrom, J Andrew; Singh, Neha; Liesa, Marc; Shirihai, Orian S; Langer, Nathaniel B; Paw, Barry H; Ardehali, Hossein

    2013-07-19

    Heme plays a critical role in gas exchange, mitochondrial energy production, and antioxidant defense in cardiovascular system. The mitochondrial transporter ATP-binding cassette (ABC) B10 has been suggested to export heme out of the mitochondria and is required for normal hemoglobinization of erythropoietic cells and protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the heart; however, its primary function has not been established. The aim of this study was to identify the function of ABCB10 in heme synthesis in cardiac cells. Knockdown of ABCB10 in cardiac myoblasts significantly reduced heme levels and the activities of heme-containing proteins, whereas supplementation with δ-aminolevulinic acid reversed these defects. Overexpression of mitochondrial δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2, the rate-limiting enzyme upstream of δ-aminolevulinic acid export, failed to restore heme levels in cells with ABCB10 downregulation. ABCB10 and heme levels were increased by hypoxia, and reversal of ABCB10 upregulation caused oxidative stress and cell death. Furthermore, ABCB10 knockdown in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes resulted in a significant delay of calcium removal from the cytoplasm, suggesting a relaxation defect. Finally, ABCB10 expression and heme levels were altered in failing human hearts and mice with ischemic cardiomyopathy. ABCB10 plays a critical role in heme synthesis pathway by facilitating δ-aminolevulinic acid production or export from the mitochondria. In contrast to previous reports, we show that ABCB10 is not a heme exporter and instead is required for the early mitochondrial steps of heme biosynthesis.

  16. Improved mitochondrial function in brain aging and Alzheimer disease - the new mechanism of action of the old metabolic enhancer piracetam

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    Kristina Leuner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Piracetam, the prototype of the so-called nootropic drugs’ is used since many years in different countries to treat cognitive impairment in aging and dementia. Findings that piracetam enhances fluidity of brain mitochondrial membranes led to the hypothesis that piracetam might improve mitochondrial function, e.g. might enhance ATP synthesis. This assumption has recently been supported by a number of observations showing enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, enhanced ATP production, and reduced sensitivity for apoptosis in a variety of cell and animal models for aging and Alzheimer disease (AD. As a specific consequence, substantial evidence for elevated neuronal plasticity as a specific effect of piracetam has emerged. Taken together, these new findings can explain many of the therapeutic effects of piracetam on cognition in aging and dementia as well as different situations of brain dysfunctions.

  17. AKIP1 expression modulates mitochondrial function in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes.

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    Hongjuan Yu

    Full Text Available A kinase interacting protein 1 (AKIP1 is a molecular regulator of protein kinase A and nuclear factor kappa B signalling. Recent evidence suggests AKIP1 is increased in response to cardiac stress, modulates acute ischemic stress response, and is localized to mitochondria in cardiomyocytes. The mitochondrial function of AKIP1 is, however, still elusive. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial function of AKIP1 in a neonatal cardiomyocyte model of phenylephrine (PE-induced hypertrophy. Using a seahorse flux analyzer we show that PE stimulated the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR in cardiomyocytes. This was partially dependent on PE mediated AKIP1 induction, since silencing of AKIP1 attenuated the increase in OCR. Interestingly, AKIP1 overexpression alone was sufficient to stimulate mitochondrial OCR and in particular ATP-linked OCR. This was also true when pyruvate was used as a substrate, indicating that it was independent of glycolytic flux. The increase in OCR was independent of mitochondrial biogenesis, changes in ETC density or altered mitochondrial membrane potential. In fact, the respiratory flux was elevated per amount of ETC, possibly through enhanced ETC coupling. Furthermore, overexpression of AKIP1 reduced and silencing of AKIP1 increased mitochondrial superoxide production, suggesting that AKIP1 modulates the efficiency of electron flux through the ETC. Together, this suggests that AKIP1 overexpression improves mitochondrial function to enhance respiration without excess superoxide generation, thereby implicating a role for AKIP1 in mitochondrial stress adaptation. Upregulation of AKIP1 during different forms of cardiac stress may therefore be an adaptive mechanism to protect the heart.

  18. Inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.

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    Hurd, Thomas R; Collins, Yvonne; Abakumova, Irina; Chouchani, Edward T; Baranowski, Bartlomiej; Fearnley, Ian M; Prime, Tracy A; Murphy, Michael P; James, Andrew M

    2012-10-12

    Reactive oxygen species are byproducts of mitochondrial respiration and thus potential regulators of mitochondrial function. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDHK2) inhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, thereby regulating entry of carbohydrates into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we show that PDHK2 activity is inhibited by low levels of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generated by the respiratory chain. This occurs via reversible oxidation of cysteine residues 45 and 392 on PDHK2 and results in increased pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity. H(2)O(2) derives from superoxide (O(2)(.)), and we show that conditions that inhibit PDHK2 also inactivate the TCA cycle enzyme, aconitase. These findings suggest that under conditions of high mitochondrial O(2)(.) production, such as may occur under nutrient excess and low ATP demand, the increase in O(2)() and H(2)O(2) may provide feedback signals to modulate mitochondrial metabolism.

  19. Ralstonia solanacearum uses inorganic nitrogen metabolism for virulence, ATP production, and detoxification in the oxygen-limited host xylem environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsing, Beth L; Truchon, Alicia N; Gonzalez-Orta, Enid T; Milling, Annett S; Allen, Caitilyn

    2015-03-17

    that R. solanacearum rapidly depletes oxygen in host xylem but can then respire using host nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor. The microbe uses its denitrification pathway to detoxify the reactive nitrogen species nitrite (a product of nitrate respiration) and nitric oxide (a plant defense signal). Detoxification may play synergistic roles in bacterial wilt virulence by converting the host's chemical weapon into an energy source. Mutant bacterial strains lacking elements of the denitrification pathway could not grow as well as the wild type in tomato plants, and some mutants were also reduced in virulence. Our results show how a pathogen's metabolic activity can alter the host environment in ways that increase pathogen success. Copyright © 2015 Dalsing et al.

  20. Obesity-induced down-regulation of the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) impairs placental steroid production.

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    Lassance, Luciana; Haghiac, Maricela; Minium, Judi; Catalano, Patrick; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Low concentrations of estradiol and progesterone are hallmarks of adverse pregnancy outcomes as is maternal obesity. During pregnancy, placental cholesterol is the sole source of sex steroids. Cholesterol trafficking is the limiting step in sex steroid biosynthesis and is mainly mediated by the translocator protein (TSPO), present in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of maternal obesity in placental sex steroid biosynthesis and TSPO regulation. One hundred forty-four obese (body mass index 30-35 kg/m(2)) and 90 lean (body mass index 19-25 kg/m(2)) pregnant women (OP and LP, respectively) recruited at scheduled term cesarean delivery. Placenta and maternal blood were collected. This study was conducted at MetroHealth Medical Center (Cleveland, Ohio). Maternal metabolic components (fasting glucose, insulin, leptin, estradiol, progesterone, and total cholesterol) and placental weight were measured. Placenta (mitochondria and membranes separated) and cord blood cholesterol values were verified. The expression and regulation of TSPO and mitochondrial function were analyzed. Plasma estradiol and progesterone concentrations were significantly lower (P < .04) in OP as compared with LP women. Maternal and cord plasma cholesterol were not different between groups. Placental citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA, markers of mitochondrial density, were unchanged, but the mitochondrial cholesterol concentrations were 40% lower in the placenta of OP. TSPO gene and protein expressions were decreased 2-fold in the placenta of OP. In vitro trophoblast activation of the innate immune pathways with lipopolysaccharide and long-chain saturated fatty acids reduced TSPO expression by 2- to 3-fold (P < .05). These data indicate that obesity in pregnancy impairs mitochondrial steroidogenic function through the negative regulation of mitochondrial TSPO.

  1. Lower Mitochondrial Energy Production of the Thigh Muscles in Patients With Low-Normal Ankle-Brachial Index.

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    AlGhatrif, Majd; Zane, Ariel; Oberdier, Matt; Canepa, Marco; Studenski, Stephanie; Simonsick, Eleanor; Spencer, Richard G; Fishbein, Kenneth; Reiter, David; Lakatta, Edward G; McDermott, Mary M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2017-08-30

    Lower muscle mitochondrial energy production may contribute to impaired walking endurance in patients with peripheral arterial disease. A borderline ankle-brachial index (ABI) of 0.91 to 1.10 is associated with poorer walking endurance compared with higher ABI. We hypothesized that in the absence of peripheral arterial disease, lower ABI is associated with lower mitochondrial energy production. We examined 363 men and women participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging with an ABI between 0.90 and 1.40. Muscle mitochondrial energy production was assessed by post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant ( k PCr) measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the left thigh. A lower post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant reflects decreased mitochondria energy production.The mean age of the participants was 71±12 years. A total of 18.4% had diabetes mellitus and 4% were current and 40% were former smokers. Compared with participants with an ABI of 1.11 to 1.40, those with an ABI of 0.90 to 1.10 had significantly lower post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant (19.3 versus 20.8 ms -1 , P =0.015). This difference remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and cholesterol levels ( P =0.028). Similarly, post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant was linearly associated with ABI as a continuous variable, both in the ABI ranges of 0.90 to 1.40 (standardized coefficient=0.15, P =0.003) and 1.1 to 1.4 (standardized coefficient=0.12, P =0.0405). An ABI of 0.90 to 1.10 is associated with lower mitochondrial energy production compared with an ABI of 1.11 to 1.40. These data demonstrate adverse associations of lower ABI values with impaired mitochondrial activity even within the range of a clinically accepted definition of a normal ABI. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions in persons with ABIs of 0.90 to 1.10 can prevent

  2. Critical role of mitochondrial ROS is dependent on their site of production on the electron transport chain in ischemic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madungwe, Ngonidzashe B; Zilberstein, Netanel F; Feng, Yansheng; Bopassa, Jean C

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been implicated in many pathologies including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This led to multiple studies on antioxidant therapies to treat cardiovascular diseases but paradoxically, results have so far been mixed as ROS production can be beneficial as a signaling mechanism and in cardiac protection via preconditioning interventions. We investigated whether the differential impact of increased ROS in injury as well as in protection could be explained by their site of production on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Using amplex red to measure ROS production, we found that mitochondria isolated from hearts after I/R produced more ROS than non-ischemic when complex I substrate (glutamate/malate) was used. Interestingly, the substrates of complex II (succinate) and ubiquinone (sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, G3P) produced less ROS in mitochondria from I/R hearts compared to normal healthy hearts. The inhibitors of complex I (rotenone) and complex III (antimycin A) increased ROS production when glutamate/malate and G3P were used; in contrast, they reduced ROS production when the complex II substrate was used. Mitochondrial calcium retention capacity required to induce mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was measured using calcium green fluorescence and was found to be higher when mitochondria were treated with G3P and succinate compared to glutamate/malate. Furthermore, Langendorff hearts treated with glutamate/malate exhibited reduced cardiac functional recovery and increased myocardial infarct size compared to hearts treated with G3P. Thus, ROS production by the stimulated respiratory chain complexes I and III has opposite roles: cardio-deleterious when produced in complex I and cardio-protective when produced in complex III. The mechanism of these ROS involves the inhibition of the mPTP opening, a key event in cell death following ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of the Gomphales based on nuc-25S-rDNA, mit-12S-rDNA, and mit-atp6-DNA combined sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admir J. Giachini; Kentaro Hosaka; Eduardo Nouhra; Joseph Spatafora; James M. Trappe

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Geastrales, Gomphales, Hysterangiales, and Phallales were estimated via combined sequences: nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (nuc-25S-rDNA), mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA (mit-12S-rDNA), and mitochondrial atp6 DNA (mit-atp6-DNA). Eighty-one taxa comprising 19 genera and 58 species...

  4. Tempol, a Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic Agent, Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity through Alleviation of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A.; Shehata, Nagwa I.; Abdelkader, Noha F.; Khattab, Mahmoud M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is a crucial mechanism by which cisplatin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, causes nephrotoxicity where mitochondrial electron transport complexes are shifted mostly toward imbalanced reactive oxygen species versus energy production. In the present study, the protective role of tempol, a membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent, was evaluated on mitochondrial dysfunction and the subsequent damage induced by cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice. Methods and Findings Nephrotoxicity was assessed 72 h after a single i.p. injection of cisplatin (25 mg/kg) with or without oral administration of tempol (100 mg/kg/day). Serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria were evaluated. Both kidneys were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, complexes I–IV activities and mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS) protein expression were measured along with histological examinations of renal tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Tempol was effective against cisplatin-induced elevation of serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria. Moreover, pretreatment with tempol notably inhibited cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and disruption of mitochondrial function by restoring mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, complexes I and III activities, mNOS protein expression and ATP content. Tempol also provided significant protection against apoptosis, tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Interestingly, tempol did not interfere with the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin against the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma. Conclusion This study highlights the potential role of tempol in inhibiting cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without affecting its antitumor activity via amelioration of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

  5. Tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic agent, ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through alleviation of mitochondrial dysfunction in mice.

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    Lamiaa A Ahmed

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is a crucial mechanism by which cisplatin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, causes nephrotoxicity where mitochondrial electron transport complexes are shifted mostly toward imbalanced reactive oxygen species versus energy production. In the present study, the protective role of tempol, a membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent, was evaluated on mitochondrial dysfunction and the subsequent damage induced by cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice.Nephrotoxicity was assessed 72 h after a single i.p. injection of cisplatin (25 mg/kg with or without oral administration of tempol (100 mg/kg/day. Serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria were evaluated. Both kidneys were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, adenosine triphosphate (ATP content and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, complexes I-IV activities and mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS protein expression were measured along with histological examinations of renal tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Tempol was effective against cisplatin-induced elevation of serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria. Moreover, pretreatment with tempol notably inhibited cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and disruption of mitochondrial function by restoring mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, complexes I and III activities, mNOS protein expression and ATP content. Tempol also provided significant protection against apoptosis, tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Interestingly, tempol did not interfere with the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin against the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma.This study highlights the potential role of tempol in inhibiting cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without affecting its antitumor activity via amelioration of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  6. A role for human mitochondrial complex II in the production of reactive oxygen species in human skin

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    Alasdair Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a major generator of cellular oxidative stress, thought to be an underlying cause of the carcinogenic and ageing process in many tissues including skin. Previous studies of the relative contributions of the respiratory chain (RC complexes I, II and III towards production of reactive oxygen species (ROS have focussed on rat tissues and certainly not on human skin which is surprising as this tissue is regularly exposed to UVA in sunlight, a potent generator of cellular oxidative stress. In a novel approach we have used an array of established specific metabolic inhibitors and DHR123 fluorescence to study the relative roles of the mitochondrial RC complexes in cellular ROS production in 2 types of human skin cells. These include additional enhancement of ROS production by exposure to physiological levels of UVA. The effects within epidermal and dermal derived skin cells are compared to other tissue cell types as well as those harbouring a compromised mitochondrial status (Rho-zero A549. The results show that the complex II inhibitor, TTFA, was the only RC inhibitor to significantly increase UVA-induced ROS production in both skin cell types (P<0.05 suggesting that the role of human skin complex II in terms of influencing ROS production is more important than previously thought particularly in comparison to liver cells. Interestingly, two-fold greater maximal activity of complex II enzyme was observed in both skin cell types compared to liver (P<0.001. The activities of RC enzymes appear to decrease with increasing age and telomere length is correlated with ageing. Our study showed that the level of maximal complex II activity was higher in the MRC5/hTERT (human lung fibroblasts transfected with telomerase cells than the corresponding wild type cells (P=0.0012 which can be considered (in terms of telomerase activity as models of younger and older cells respectively.

  7. Low ATP level is sufficient to maintain the uncommitted state of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravkova, L B; Rylova, Y V; Andreeva, E R; Kulikov, A V; Pogodina, M V; Zhivotovsky, B; Gogvadze, V

    2013-10-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSCs) are minimally differentiated precursors with great potential to transdifferentiate. These cells are quite resistant to oxygen limitation, suggesting that a hypoxic milieu can be physiological for MMSCs. Human MMSCs isolated from adipose tissue were grown at various oxygen concentrations. Alteration in cell immunophenotype was determined by flow cytometry after staining with specific antibodies. Concentrations of glucose and lactate were determined using the Biocon colorimetric test. Cellular respiration was assessed using oxygen electrode. The modes of cell death were analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with Annexin V and propidium iodide. We found that permanent oxygen deprivation attenuated cellular ATP levels in these cells, diminishing mitochondrial ATP production but stimulating glycolytic ATP production. At the same time, permanent hypoxia did not affect MMSCs' viability, stimulated their proliferation and reduced their capacity to differentiate. Further, permanent hypoxia decreased spontaneous cell death by MMSCs. Under hypoxic conditions glycolysis provides sufficient energy to maintain MMSCs in an uncommitted state. These findings are of interest not only for scientific reasons, but also in practical terms. Oxygen concentration makes an essential contribution to MMSC physiology and should be taken into account in the setting of protocols for cellular therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. PFOS prenatal exposure induce mitochondrial injury and gene expression change in hearts of weaned SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Wei; Wan, Yanjian; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Huaicai; Lv, Ziquan; Li, Gengqi; Wei, Zhengzheng; Xu, Shun-qing

    2011-01-01

    Xenobiotics exposure in early life may have adverse effects on animals' development through mitochondrial injury or dysfunction. The current study demonstrated the possibility of cardiac mitochondrial injury in prenatal PFOS-exposed weaned rat heart. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at doses of 0.1, 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg/d and 0.05% Tween 80 as control by gavage from gestation days 2-21. The dams were allowed to give nature delivery and then heart tissues from weaned (postnatal day 21) offspring rats were analyzed for mitochondrial injury through ultrastructure observation by electron microscope, global gene expression profile by microarray, as well as related mRNA and proteins expression levels by quantitative PCR and western blot. Ultrastructural analysis revealed significant vacuolization and inner membrane injury occurred at the mitochondria of heart tissues from 2.0 mg/kg/d dosage group. Meanwhile, the global gene expression profile showed significant difference in level of some mRNA expression associated with mitochondrial function at 2.0 mg/kg/d dosage group, compared to the control. Furthermore, dose-response trends for the expression of selected genes were analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. The selected genes were mainly focused on those encoding for proteins involved in energy production, control of ion levels, and maintenance of heart function. The down-regulation of mitochondrial ATP synthetase (ATP5E, ATP5I and ATP5O) implicated a decrease in energy supply. This was accompanied by down-regulation of gene transcripts involved in energy consumption such as ion transporting ATPase (ATP1A3 and ATP2B2) and inner membrane protein synthesis (SLC25A3, SLC25A4, SLC25A10, SLC25A29). The up-regulation of gene transcripts encoding for uncoupling proteins (UCP1 and UCP3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was probably a protective process to maintain

  9. Use of L-Glutamic Acid in a New Enrichment Broth (R-TATP Broth) for Detecting the Presence or Absence of Molds in Raw Ingredients/Personal Care Product Formulations by Using an ATP Bioluminescence Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Youjun; English, Donald J

    The present study reports the effects of adding L-glutamic acid to a new enrichment broth designated as R-TATP broth, to promote the growth of slow-growing mold microorganisms such as Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus oryzae , without interfering in the growth of other types of microorganisms. This L-glutamic acid containing enrichment broth would be particularly valuable in a rapid microbial detection assay such as an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assay. By using this new enrichment broth, the amount of ATP (represented as relative light unit ratio after normalized with the negative test control) from mold growth was significantly increased by reducing the time of detection of microbial contamination in a raw ingredient or personal care product formulation from an incubation period of 48-18 h. By using L-glutamic acid in this enrichment broth, the lag phase of the mold growth cycle was shortened. In response to various concentrations of L-glutamic acid in R-TATP broth, there was an increased amount of ATP that had been produced by mold metabolism in an ATP bioluminescence assay. By using L-glutamic acid in R-TATP broth in an ATP bioluminescence assay, the presence of mold could be detected in 18 h as well as other types of microorganisms that may or may not be present in a test sample. By detecting the presence or absence of microbial contamination in 18 h, it is superior in comparison to a 48-96 h incubation period by using either a standard or rapid detection method.

  10. Bauhinia championii Flavone Attenuates Hypoxia-Reoxygenation Induced Apoptosis in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes by Improving Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

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    Liao, Ping; Sun, Guibo; Zhang, Chan; Wang, Min; Sun, Yao; Zhou, Yuehan; Sun, Xiaobo; Jian, Jie

    2016-11-04

    This study aimed to determine the effects of Bauhinia championii flavone (BCF) on hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and to explore potential mechanisms. The H/R model in H9c2 cardiomyocytes was established by 6 h of hypoxia and 12 h of reoxygenation. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. Apoptotic rate was measured by Annexin V/PI staining. Levels of mitochondria-associated ROS, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (∆Ψm) and mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTP) opening were assessed by fluorescent probes. ATP production was measured by ATP assay kit. The release of cytochrome c, translocation of Bax, and related proteins were measured by western blotting. Our results showed that pretreatment with BCF significantly improved cell viability and attenuated the cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by H/R. Furthermore, BCF increased ATP production and inhibited ROS-generating mitochondria, depolarization of ΔΨm, and MPTP opening. Moreover, BCF pretreatment decreased Bax mitochondrial translocation, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-3, as well as increased the expression of p-PI3K, p-Akt, and the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax. Interestingly, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, LY294002, partly reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of BCF. These observations indicated that BCF pretreatment attenuates H/R-induced myocardial apoptosis strength by improving mitochondrial dysfunction via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  11. Differences in mitochondrial function and morphology during cooling and rewarming between hibernator and non-hibernator derived kidney epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Koen D W; Lupi, Eleonora; Hardenberg, Maarten C; Hoogstra-Berends, Femke; Deelman, Leo E; Henning, Robert H

    2017-11-14

    Hibernators show superior resistance to ischemia and hypothermia, also outside the hibernation season. Therefore, hibernation is a promising strategy to decrease cellular damage in a variety of fields, such as organ transplantation. Here, we explored the role of mitochondria herein, by comparing epithelial cell lines from a hibernator (hamster kidney cells, HaK) and a non-hibernator (human embryonic kidney cells, HEK293) during cold preservation at 4 °C and rewarming. Cell survival (Neutral Red), ATP and MDA levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial morphology (using fluorescent probes) and metabolism (seahorse XF) were assessed. Hypothermia induced dispersion of the tubular mitochondrial network, a loss of MMP, increased oxygen radical (MDA) and decreased ATP production in HEK293. In contrast, HaK maintained MMP and ATP production without an increase in oxygen radicals during cooling and rewarming, resulting in superior cell survival compared to HEK293. Further, normothermic HaK showed a dispersed mitochondrial network and higher respiratory and glycolysis capacity compared to HEK293. Disclosing the mechanisms that hibernators use to counteract cell death in hypothermic and ischemic circumstances may help to eventually improve organ preservation in a variety of fields, including organ transplantation.

  12. Ketamine Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tokujiro; Makita, Koshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ketamine toxicity has been demonstrated in nonhuman mammalian neurons. To study the toxic effect of ketamine on human neurons, an experimental model of cultured neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was examined, and the mechanism of its toxicity was investigated. Methods Human iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons were treated with 0, 20, 100 or 500 μM ketamine for 6 and 24 h. Ketamine toxicity was evaluated by quantification of caspase 3/7 activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP concentration, neurotransmitter reuptake activity and NADH/NAD+ ratio. Mitochondrial morphological change was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Results Twenty-four-hour exposure of iPSC-derived neurons to 500 μM ketamine resulted in a 40% increase in caspase 3/7 activity (P ketamine (100 μM) decreased the ATP level (22%, P ketamine concentration, which suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction preceded ROS generation and caspase activation. Conclusions We established an in vitro model for assessing the neurotoxicity of ketamine in iPSC-derived neurons. The present data indicate that the initial mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy may be related to its inhibitory effect on the mitochondrial electron transport system, which underlies ketamine-induced neural toxicity. Higher ketamine concentration can induce ROS generation and apoptosis in human neurons. PMID:26020236

  13. The Drosophila inner-membrane protein PMI controls crista biogenesis and mitochondrial diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Marc; El Fissi, Najla; Tufi, Roberta; Bentobji, Mélanie; Liévens, Jean-Charles; Martins, L Miguel; Royet, Julien; Rival, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Cristae are mitochondrial inner-membrane structures that concentrate respiratory chain complexes and hence regulate ATP production. Mechanisms controlling crista morphogenesis are poorly understood and few crista determinants have been identified. Among them are the Mitofilins that are required to establish crista junctions and ATP-synthase subunits that bend the membrane at the tips of the cristae. We report here the phenotypic consequences associated with the in vivo inactivation of the inner-membrane protein Pantagruelian Mitochondrion I (PMI) both at the scale of the whole organism, and at the level of mitochondrial ultrastructure and function. We show that flies in which PMI is genetically inactivated experience synaptic defects and have a reduced life span. Electron microscopy analysis of the inner-membrane morphology demonstrates that loss of PMI function increases the average length of mitochondrial cristae in embryonic cells. This phenotype is exacerbated in adult neurons in which cristae form a dense tangle of elongated membranes. Conversely, we show that PMI overexpression is sufficient to reduce crista length in vivo. Finally, these crista defects are associated with impaired respiratory chain activity and increases in the level of reactive oxygen species. Since PMI and its human orthologue TMEM11 are regulators of mitochondrial morphology, our data suggest that, by controlling crista length, PMI influences mitochondrial diameter and tubular shape.

  14. Effect of remifentanil on mitochondrial oxygen consumption of cultured human hepatocytes.

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    Siamak Djafarzadeh

    Full Text Available During sepsis, liver dysfunction is common, and failure of mitochondria to effectively couple oxygen consumption with energy production has been described. In addition to sepsis, pharmacological agents used to treat septic patients may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction. This study addressed the hypothesis that remifentanil interacts with hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption. The human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and their isolated mitochondria were exposed to remifentanil, with or without further exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured by high-resolution respirometry, Caspase-3 protein levels by Western blotting, and cytokine levels by ELISA. Inhibitory κBα (IκBα phosphorylation, measurement of the cellular ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential in intact cells were analysed using commercial ELISA kits. Maximal cellular respiration increased after one hour of incubation with remifentanil, and phosphorylation of IκBα occurred, denoting stimulation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. The effect on cellular respiration was not present at 2, 4, 8 or 16 hours of incubation. Remifentanil increased the isolated mitochondrial respiratory control ratio of complex-I-dependent respiration without interfering with maximal respiration. Preincubation with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone prevented a remifentanil-induced increase in cellular respiration. Remifentanil at 10× higher concentrations than therapeutic reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content without uncoupling oxygen consumption and basal respiration levels. TNF-α exposure reduced respiration of complex-I, -II and -IV, an effect which was prevented by prior remifentanil incubation. Furthermore, prior remifentanil incubation prevented TNF-α-induced IL-6 release of HepG2 cells, and attenuated fragmentation of pro-caspase-3 into cleaved active caspase 3 (an early marker of apoptosis. Our data suggest that

  15. Adaptive plasticity of skeletal muscle energetics in hibernating frogs: mitochondrial proton leak during metabolic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutilier, Robert G; St-Pierre, Julie

    2002-08-01

    The common frog (Rana temporaria) spends the coldest months of each year overwintering in ice-covered ponds where temperatures can vary from 0.5 to 4.0 degrees C. Over the course of a winter season, the animals enter progressively into a state of metabolic depression that relies almost exclusively on aerobic production of ATP. However, if aerobic metabolism is threatened, for example by increasingly hypoxic conditions, decreases in the animal's metabolic rate can reach upwards of 75% compared with the 50% decrease seen during normoxia. Under these conditions, the major proportion of the overall reduction in whole-animal metabolic rate can be accounted for by metabolic suppression of the skeletal muscle (which makes up approximately 40% of body mass). Little is known about the properties of mitochondria during prolonged periods of metabolic depression, so we have examined several aspects of mitochondrial metabolism in the skeletal muscle of frogs over periods of hibernation of up to 4 months. Mitochondria isolated from the skeletal muscle of frogs hibernating in hypoxic water show a considerable reorganisation of function compared with those isolated from normoxic submerged animals at the same temperature (3 degrees C). Both the active (state 3) and resting (state 4) respiration rates of mitochondria decrease during hypoxic, but not normoxic, hibernation. In addition, the affinity of mitochondria for oxygen increases during periods of acute hypoxic stress during normoxic hibernation as well as during long-term hibernation in hypoxic water. The decrease in mitochondrial state 4 respiration rates during hypoxic hibernation evidently occurs through a reduction in electron-transport chain activity, not through a lowered proton conductance of the mitochondrial inner membrane. The reduced aerobic capacity of frog skeletal muscle during hypoxic hibernation is accompanied by lowered activities of key enzymes of mitochondrial metabolism caused by changes in the intrinsic

  16. Mitochondria Targeted Nanoscale Zeolitic Imidazole Framework-90 for ATP Imaging in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingjing; Wang, Kai; Wang, Ming; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2017-04-26

    Zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs) are an emerging class of functional porous materials with promising biomedical applications such as molecular sensing and intracellular drug delivery. We report herein the first example of using nanoscale ZIFs (i.e., ZIF-90), self-assembled from Zn 2+ and imidazole-2-carboxyaldehyde, to target subcellular mitochondria and image dynamics of mitochondrial ATP in live cells. Encapsulation of fluorescent Rhodamine B (RhB) into ZIF-90 suppresses the emission of RhB, while the competitive coordination between ATP and the metal node of ZIF-90 dissembles ZIFs, resulting in the release of RhB for ATP sensing. With this method, we are able to image mitochondrial ATP in live cells and study the ATP level fluctuation in cellular glycolysis and apoptosis processes. The strategy reported here could be further extended to tune nanoscale ZIFs inside live cells for targeted delivery of therapeutics to subcellular organelles for advanced biomedical applications.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA as an inflammatory mediator in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Otsu, Kinya

    2018-03-06

    Mitochondria play a central role in multiple cellular functions, including energy production, calcium homeostasis, and cell death. Currently, growing evidence indicates the vital roles of mitochondria in triggering and maintaining inflammation. Chronic inflammation without microbial infection - termed sterile inflammation - is strongly involved in the development of heart failure. Sterile inflammation is triggered by the activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense endogenous ligands called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Mitochondria release multiple DAMPs including mitochondrial DNA, peptides, and lipids, which induce inflammation via the stimulation of multiple PRRs. Among the mitochondrial DAMPs, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is currently highlighted as the DAMP that mediates the activation of multiple PRRs, including Toll-like receptor 9, Nod-like receptors, and cyclic GMP-AMP synthetase/stimulator of interferon gene pathways. These PRR signalling pathways, in turn, lead to the activation of nuclear factor-κB and interferon regulatory factor, which enhances the transcriptional activity of inflammatory cytokines and interferons, and induces the recruitment of inflammatory cells. As the heart is an organ comprising abundant mitochondria for its ATP consumption (needed to maintain constant cyclic contraction and relaxation), the generation of massive amounts of mitochondrial radical oxygen species and mitochondrial DAMPs are predicted to occur and promote cardiac inflammation. Here, we will focus on the role of mtDNA in cardiac inflammation and review the mechanism and pathological significance of mtDNA-induced inflammatory responses in cardiac diseases. © 2018 The Author(s).

  18. 31P NMR saturation-transfer study of the in situ kinetics of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiakos, P.T.; Williams, G.D.; Berkich, D.A.; Smith, M.B.; LaNoue, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The exchange of intramitochondrial ATP (ATP in ) for extramitochondrial ATP (ATP out ) was measured by using 31 P NMR spectroscopy over a range of temperatures in isolated rat liver mitochondria oxidizing glutamate and succinate in the presence of external ATP but no added ADP (state 4). The rate of this exchange is more than an order of magnitude faster than rates reported previously that were determined by using isotopic techniques in the presence of oligomycin, the potent ATPase inhibitor. Differences are ascribed in part to the low levels of matrix ATP present in oligomycin-treated mitochondrial. Intramitochondrial ATP content regulates the rate of the ATP in /ATP out exchange. At 18C, the concentration of internal ATP that produces half-maximal transport rate is 6.6±0.12 nmol/mg of mitochondrial protein. The relationship between substrate concentration and flux is sigmoidal and is 90% saturated at 11.3±0.18 nmol/mg of mitochondrial protein. Since the measured rates of exchange of ATP in for ATP out are almost 10 times faster than the ATP synthase (ATP/P i ) exchange rates, the translocase cannot limit net ATP/P i exchange in state 4. It may, nonetheless, limit net synthesis of ATP under other conditions when matrix ATP concentration is lower than in state 4 and when external ADP is present at higher concentrations than in these experiments

  19. The high-production volume fungicide pyraclostrobin induces triglyceride accumulation associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, and promotes adipocyte differentiation independent of PPARγ activation, in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Anthony L; Kassotis, Christopher D; Stapleton, Heather M; Meyer, Joel N

    2018-01-15

    Pyraclostrobin is one of the most heavily used fungicides, and has been detected on a variety of produce, suggesting human exposure occurs regularly. Recently, pyraclostrobin exposure has been linked to a variety of toxic effects, including neurodegeneration and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. As pyraclostrobin inhibits electron transport chain complex III, and as mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with metabolic syndrome (cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity), we designed experiments to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies its adipogenic activity. 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated according to standard protocols in the presence of pyraclostrobin, resulting in TG accumulation. However, TG accumulation occurred without activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated nuclear receptor gamma (PPARγ), the canonical pathway mediating adipogenesis. Furthermore, cells failed to express many markers of adipogenesis (PPARγ, lpl, CEBPα), while co-exposure to pyraclostrobin and two different PPARγ antagonists (GW9662, T0070907) failed to mitigate TG accumulation, suggesting TG accumulation occurred through a PPARγ-independent mechanism. Instead, pyraclostrobin reduced steady-state ATP, mitochondrial membrane potential, basal mitochondrial respiration, ATP-linked respiration, and spare respiratory capacity, demonstrating mitochondrial dysfunction, while reduced expression of genes involved in glucose transport (Glut-4), glycolysis (Pkm, Pfkl, Pfkm), fatty acid oxidation (Cpt-1b), and lipogenesis (Fasn, Acacα, Acacβ) further suggested a disruption of metabolism. Finally, inhibition of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), a PPARγ coactivator, partially mitigated pyraclostrobin-induced TG accumulation, suggesting TG accumulation is occurring through a CREB-driven mechanism. In contrast, rosiglitazone, a known PPARγ agonist, induced TG accumulation in a PPARγ-dependent manner and enhanced mitochondrial function

  20. Decidual cell polyploidization necessitates mitochondrial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghong Ma

    Full Text Available Cellular polyploidy has been widely reported in nature, yet its developmental mechanism and function remain poorly understood. In the present study, to better define the aspects of decidual cell polyploidy, we isolated pure polyploid and non-polyploid decidual cell populations from the in vivo decidual bed. Three independent RNA pools prepared for each population were then subjected to the Affymetrix gene chip analysis for the whole mouse genome transcripts. Our data revealed up-regulation of 1015 genes and down-regulation of 1207 genes in the polyploid populations, as compared to the non-polyploid group. Comparative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization results indeed confirmed differential expressional regulation of several genes between the two populations. Based on functional enrichment analyses, up-regulated polyploidy genes appeared to implicate several functions, which primarily include cell/nuclear division, ATP binding, metabolic process, and mitochondrial activity, whereas that of down-regulated genes primarily included apoptosis and immune processes. Further analyses of genes that are related to mitochondria and bi-nucleation showed differential and regional expression within the decidual bed, consistent with the pattern of polyploidy. Consistently, studies revealed a marked induction of mitochondrial mass and ATP production in polyploid cells. The inhibition of mitochondrial activity by various pharmacological inhibitors, as well as by gene-specific targeting using siRNA-mediated technology showed a dramatic attenuation of polyploidy and bi-nucleation development during in vitro stromal cell decidualization, suggesting mitochondria play a major role in positive regulation of decidual cell polyploidization. Collectively, analyses of unique polyploidy markers and molecular signaling networks may be useful to further characterize functional aspects of decidual cell polyploidy at the site of implantation.

  1. Improved Mitochondrial Function in Brain Aging and Alzheimer Disease – the New Mechanism of Action of the Old Metabolic Enhancer Piracetam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuner, Kristina; Kurz, Christopher; Guidetti, Giorgio; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Müller, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Piracetam, the prototype of the so-called nootropic drugs’ is used since many years in different countries to treat cognitive impairment in aging and dementia. Findings that piracetam enhances fluidity of brain mitochondrial membranes led to the hypothesis that piracetam might improve mitochondrial function, e.g., might enhance ATP synthesis. This assumption has recently been supported by a number of observations showing enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced ATP production, and reduced sensitivity for apoptosis in a variety of cell and animal models for aging and Alzheimer disease. As a specific consequence, substantial evidence for elevated neuronal plasticity as a specific effect of piracetam has emerged. Taken together, this new findings can explain many of the therapeutic effects of piracetam on cognition in aging and dementia as well as different situations of brain dysfunctions. PMID:20877425

  2. Formation of electrophilic oxidation products from mitochondrial cardiolipin in vitro and in vivo in the context of apoptosis and atherosclerosis

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    Huiqin Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial cardiolipins (CL are prone to free radical oxidation and this process appears to be intimately associated with multiple biological functions of mitochondria. Our previous work demonstrated that a significant amount of potent lipid electrophiles including 4-hydroxy-nonenal (4-HNE was generated from CL oxidation through a novel chemical mechanism. Here we provide further evidence that a characteristic class of CL oxidation products, epoxyalcohol-aldehyde-CL (EAA-CL, is formed through this novel mechanism in isolated mice liver mitochondria when treated with the pro-apoptotic protein t-Bid to induce cyt c release. Generation of these oxidation products are dose-dependently attenuated by a peroxidase inhibitor acetaminophen (ApAP. Using a mouse model of atherosclerosis, we detected significant amount of these CL oxidation products in liver tissue of low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR −/− mice after Western diet feeding. Our studies highlight the importance of lipid electrophiles formation from CL oxidation in the settings of apoptosis and atherosclerosis as inhibition of CL oxidation and lipid electrophiles formation may have potential therapeutic value in diseases linked to oxidant stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions.

  3. Multifunctional Mitochondrial AAA Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Steven E

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria perform numerous functions necessary for the survival of eukaryotic cells. These activities are coordinated by a diverse complement of proteins encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that must be properly organized and maintained. Misregulation of mitochondrial proteostasis impairs organellar function and can result in the development of severe human diseases. ATP-driven AAA+ proteins play crucial roles in preserving mitochondrial activity by removing and remodeling protein molecules in accordance with the needs of the cell. Two mitochondrial AAA proteases, i-AAA and m-AAA, are anchored to either face of the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they engage and process an array of substrates to impact protein biogenesis, quality control, and the regulation of key metabolic pathways. The functionality of these proteases is extended through multiple substrate-dependent modes of action, including complete degradation, partial processing, or dislocation from the membrane without proteolysis. This review discusses recent advances made toward elucidating the mechanisms of substrate recognition, handling, and degradation that allow these versatile proteases to control diverse activities in this multifunctional organelle.

  4. Mangiferin Accelerates Glycolysis and Enhances Mitochondrial Bioenergetics

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    Zhongbo Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main causes of hyperglycemia is inefficient or impaired glucose utilization by skeletal muscle, which can be exacerbated by chronic high caloric intake. Previously, we identified a natural compound, mangiferin (MGF that improved glucose utilization in high fat diet (HFD-induced insulin resistant mice. To further identify the molecular mechanisms of MGF action on glucose metabolism, we conducted targeted metabolomics and transcriptomics studies of glycolyic and mitochondrial bioenergetics pathways in skeletal muscle. These data revealed that MGF increased glycolytic metabolites that were further augmented as glycolysis proceeded from the early to the late steps. Consistent with an MGF-stimulation of glycolytic flux there was a concomitant increase in the expression of enzymes catalyzing glycolysis. MGF also increased important metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, such as α-ketoglutarate and fumarate. Interestingly however, there was a reduction in succinate, a metabolite that also feeds into the electron transport chain to produce energy. MGF increased succinate clearance by enhancing the expression and activity of succinate dehydrogenase, leading to increased ATP production. At the transcriptional level, MGF induced mRNAs of mitochondrial genes and their transcriptional factors. Together, these data suggest that MGF upregulates mitochondrial oxidative capacity that likely drives the acceleration of glycolysis flux.

  5. Mitochondrial gene polymorphisms alter hepatic cellular energy metabolism and aggravate diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

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    Torsten Schröder

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease and is associated with an enhanced risk for liver and cardiovascular diseases and mortality. NAFLD can progress from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. However, the mechanisms predisposing to this progression remain undefined. Notably, hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is a common finding in patients with NASH. Due to a lack of appropriate experimental animal models, it has not been evaluated whether this mitochondrial dysfunction plays a causative role for the development of NASH. Methods: To determine the effect of a well-defined mitochondrial dysfunction on liver physiology at baseline and during dietary challenge, C57BL/6J-mtFVB/N mice were employed. This conplastic inbred strain has been previously reported to exhibit decreased mitochondrial respiration likely linked to a non-synonymous gene variation (nt7778 G/T of the mitochondrial ATP synthase protein 8 (mt-ATP8. Results: At baseline conditions, C57BL/6J-mtFVB/N mice displayed hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by decreased ATP production and increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Moreover, genes affecting lipid metabolism were differentially expressed, hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels were changed in these animals, and various acyl-carnitines were altered, pointing towards an impaired mitochondrial carnitine shuttle. However, over a period of twelve months, no spontaneous hepatic steatosis or inflammation was observed. On the other hand, upon dietary challenge with either a methionine and choline deficient diet or a western-style diet, C57BL/6J-mtFVB/N mice developed aggravated steatohepatitis as characterized by lipid accumulation, ballooning of hepatocytes and infiltration of immune cells. Conclusions: We observed distinct metabolic alterations in mice with a mitochondrial polymorphism associated hepatic mitochondrial

  6. Insulin prevents mitochondrial generation of H₂O₂ in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Alexandre Pastoris; Haas, Clarissa Branco; Camacho-Pereira, Juliana; Brochier, Andressa Wigner; Gnoatto, Jussânia; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Galina, Antonio; Portela, Luis Valmor

    2013-09-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) is a main source of cellular ROS, including hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). The production of H₂O₂ also involves the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and oxygen consumption. Impaired insulin signaling causes oxidative neuronal damage and places the brain at risk of neurodegeneration. We evaluated whether insulin signaling cross-talks with ETS components (complexes I and F₀F₁ATP synthase) and ΔΨm to regulate mitochondrial H₂O₂ production, in tissue preparations from rat brain. Insulin (50 to 100 ng/mL) decreased H₂O₂ production in synaptosomal preparations in high Na(+) buffer (polarized state), stimulated by glucose and pyruvate, without affecting the oxygen consumption. In addition, insulin (10 to 100 ng/mL) decreased H₂O₂ production induced by succinate in synaptosomes in high K(+) (depolarized state), whereas wortmannin and LY290042, inhibitors of the PI3K pathway, reversed this effect; heated insulin had no effect. Insulin decreased H₂O₂ production when complexes I and F₀F₁ATP synthase were inhibited by rotenone and oligomycin respectively suggesting a target effect on complex III. Also, insulin prevented the generation of maximum level of ∆Ψm induced by succinate. The PI3K inhibitors and heated insulin maintained the maximum level of ∆Ψm induced by succinate in synaptosomes in a depolarized state. Similarly, insulin decreased ROS production in neuronal cultures. In mitochondrial preparations, insulin neither modulated H2O2 production or oxygen consumption. In conclusion, the normal downstream insulin receptor signaling is necessary to regulate complex III of ETS avoiding the generation of maximal ∆Ψm and increased mitochondrial H2O2 production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Peroxynitrite induced mitochondrial biogenesis following MnSOD knockdown in normal rat kidney (NRK cells

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    Akira Marine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide is widely regarded as the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS which initiates downstream oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress contributes, in part, to many disease conditions such as cancer, atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes, aging, and neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide which can then be further detoxified by other antioxidant enzymes. MnSOD is critical in maintaining the normal function of mitochondria, thus its inactivation is thought to lead to compromised mitochondria. Previously, our laboratory observed increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a novel kidney-specific MnSOD knockout mouse. The current study used transient siRNA mediated MnSOD knockdown of normal rat kidney (NRK cells as the in vitro model, and confirmed functional mitochondrial biogenesis evidenced by increased PGC1α expression, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and integrity, electron transport chain protein CORE II, mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption rate, and overall ATP production. Further mechanistic studies using mitoquinone (MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor demonstrated that peroxynitrite (at low micromolar levels induced mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings provide the first evidence that low levels of peroxynitrite can initiate a protective signaling cascade involving mitochondrial biogenesis which may help to restore mitochondrial function following transient MnSOD inactivation.

  8. Sinoporphyrin sodium, a novel sensitizer, triggers mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in ECA-109 cells via production of reactive oxygen species

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    Wang H

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haiping Wang,1 Xiaobing Wang,1 Shaoliang Zhang,2 Pan Wang,1 Kun Zhang,1 Quanhong Liu1 1Key Laboratory of Medicinal Resources and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Ministry of Education, National Engineering Laboratory for Resource Developing of Endangered Chinese Crude Drugs in Northwest of China, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 2Qinglong High-Tech Co, Ltd, Yichun, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China Background: Sonodynamic therapy (SDT is a promising method that uses ultrasound to activate certain chemical sensitizers for the treatment of cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sonoactivity of a novel sensitizer, sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS, and its sonotoxicity in an esophageal cancer (ECA-109 cell line. Methods: The fluorescence intensity of DVDMS, hematoporphyrin, protoporphyrin IX, and Photofrin II was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Generation of singlet oxygen was measured using a 1, 3-diphenylisobenzofuran experiment. A 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used to examine cell viability. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and destabilization of the mitochondrial membrane potential were assessed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was analyzed using Annexin-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D staining. Confocal microscopy was performed to assess mitochondrial damage and identify release of cytochrome C after treatment. Western blots were used to determine expression of oxidative stress-related and apoptosis-associated protein. Ultrastructural changes in the cell were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Results: DVDMS showed higher autofluorescence intensity and singlet oxygen production efficiency compared with other photosensitizers in both cancerous and normal cells. Compared with hematoporphyrin, DVDMS-mediated SDT was more cytotoxic in ECA-109 cells. Abundant intracellular ROS was found in the SDT groups, and the cytotoxicity

  9. miR-27 regulates mitochondrial networks by directly targeting the mitochondrial fission factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Hyosun; Kim, Jihye; Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Lee, Heejin; Kang, Hoin; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Ohn, Takbum; Nam, Suk Woo; Kim, Wook; Lee, Eun Kyung

    2014-11-28

    Mitochondrial morphology is dynamically regulated by forming small, fragmented units or interconnected networks, and this is a pivotal process that is used to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. Although dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics is related to the pathogenesis of several human diseases, its molecular mechanism is not fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate the potential role of miR-27 in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondrial fission factor (MFF) mRNA is a direct target of miR-27, whose ectopic expression decreases MFF expression through binding to its 3'-untranslated region. Expression of miR-27 results in the elongation of mitochondria as well as an increased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP level. Our results suggest that miR-27 is a novel regulator affecting morphological mitochondrial changes by targeting MFF.

  10. In Vitro Evaluation of Mitochondrial Function and Estrogen Signaling in Cell Lines Exposed to the Antiseptic Cetylpyridinium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; He, Guochun; Tomilov, Alexey; Sahdeo, Sunil; Denison, Michael S; Cortopassi, Gino

    2017-08-22

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QUATS), such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and benzalkonium chloride (BAK), are frequently used in antiseptic formulations, including toothpastes, mouthwashes, lozenges, throat and nasal sprays, and as biocides. Although in a recent ruling, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned CPC from certain products and requested more data on BAK's efficacy and safety profile, QUATS, in general, and CPC and BAK, in particular, continue to be used in personal health care, food, and pharmaceutical and cleaning industries. We aimed to assess CPC's effects on mitochondrial toxicity and endocrine disruption in vitro . Mitochondrial O 2 consumption and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rates of osteosarcoma cybrid cells were measured before and after CPC and BAK treatment. Antiestrogenic effects of the compounds were measured by a luciferase-based assay using recombinant human breast carcinoma cells (VM7Luc4E2, ERalpha-positive). CPC inhibited both mitochondrial O 2 consumption [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ): 3.8μM] and ATP synthesis (IC 50 : 0.9μM), and additional findings supported inhibition of mitochondrial complex 1 as the underlying mechanism for these effects. In addition, CPC showed concentration-dependent antiestrogenic activity half maximal effective concentration [(EC 50 ): 4.5μM)]. BAK, another antimicrobial QUATS that is structurally similar to CPC, and the pesticide rotenone, a known complex 1 inhibitor, also showed mitochondrial inhibitory and antiestrogenic effects. In all three cases, there was overlap of the antiestrogenic activity with the mitochondrial inhibitory activity. Mitochondrial inhibition in vitro occurred at a CPC concentration that may be relevant to human exposures. The antiestrogenic activity of CPC, BAK, rotenone, and triclosan may be related to their mitochondrial inhibitory activity. Our findings support the need for additional research on the mitochondrial inhibitory and

  11. Insulin acutely improves mitochondrial function of rat and human skeletal muscle by increasing coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisr, Raid B; Affourtit, Charles

    2014-02-01

    Insulin is essential for the regulation of fuel metabolism and triggers the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle. The imported glucose is either stored or broken down, as insulin stimulates glycogenesis and ATP synthesis. The mechanism by which ATP production is increased is incompletely understood at present and, generally, relatively little functional information is available on the effect of insulin on mitochondrial function. In this paper we have exploited extracellular flux technology to investigate insulin effects on the bioenergetics of rat (L6) and human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. We demonstrate that a 20-min insulin exposure significantly increases (i) the cell respiratory control ratio, (ii) the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and (iii) the glucose sensitivity of anaerobic glycolysis. The improvement of mitochondrial function is explained by an insulin-induced immediate decrease of mitochondrial proton leak. Palmitate exposure annuls the beneficial mitochondrial effects of insulin. Our data improve the mechanistic understanding of insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis, and reveal a hitherto undisclosed insulin sensitivity of cellular bioenergetics that suggests a novel way of detecting insulin responsiveness of cells. © 2013.

  12. Insulin acutely improves mitochondrial function of rat and human skeletal muscle by increasing coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisr, Raid B.; Affourtit, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is essential for the regulation of fuel metabolism and triggers the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle. The imported glucose is either stored or broken down, as insulin stimulates glycogenesis and ATP synthesis. The mechanism by which ATP production is increased is incompletely understood at present and, generally, relatively little functional information is available on the effect of insulin on mitochondrial function. In this paper we have exploited extracellular flux technology to investigate insulin effects on the bioenergetics of rat (L6) and human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. We demonstrate that a 20-min insulin exposure significantly increases (i) the cell respiratory control ratio, (ii) the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and (iii) the glucose sensitivity of anaerobic glycolysis. The improvement of mitochondrial function is explained by an insulin-induced immediate decrease of mitochondrial proton leak. Palmitate exposure annuls the beneficial mitochondrial effects of insulin. Our data improve the mechanistic understanding of insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis, and reveal a hitherto undisclosed insulin sensitivity of cellular bioenergetics that suggests a novel way of detecting insulin responsiveness of cells. PMID:24212054

  13. Biguanide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction yields increased lactate production and cytotoxicity of aerobically-poised HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykens, James A.; Jamieson, Joseph; Marroquin, Lisa; Nadanaciva, Sashi; Billis, Puja A.; Will, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    As a class, the biguanides induce lactic acidosis, a hallmark of mitochondrial impairment. To assess potential mitochondrial impairment, we evaluated the effects of metformin, buformin and phenformin on: 1) viability of HepG2 cells grown in galactose, 2) respiration by isolated mitochondria, 3) metabolic poise of HepG2 and primary human hepatocytes, 4) activities of immunocaptured respiratory complexes, and 5) mitochondrial membrane potential and redox status in primary human hepatocytes. Phenformin was the most cytotoxic of the three with buformin showing moderate toxicity, and metformin toxicity only at mM concentrations. Importantly, HepG2 cells grown in galactose are markedly more susceptible to biguanide toxicity compared to cells grown in glucose, indicating mitochondrial toxicity as a primary mode of action. The same rank order of potency was observed for isolated mitochondrial respiration where preincubation (40 min) exacerbated respiratory impairment, and was required to reveal inhibition by metformin, suggesting intramitochondrial bio-accumulation. Metabolic profiling of intact cells corroborated respiratory inhibition, but also revealed compensatory increases in lactate production from accelerated glycolysis. High (mM) concentrations of the drugs were needed to inhibit immunocaptured respiratory complexes, supporting the contention that bioaccumulation is involved. The same rank order was found when monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, and glutathione levels in primary human hepatocytes. In toto, these data indicate that biguanide-induced lactic acidosis can be attributed to acceleration of glycolysis in response to mitochondrial impairment. Indeed, the desired clinical outcome, viz., decreased blood glucose, could be due to increased glucose uptake and glycolytic flux in response to drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction

  14. Unacylated ghrelin does not alter mitochondrial function, redox state and triglyceride content in rat liver in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gortan Cappellari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in liver mitochondrial function with more oxidized redox state and enhanced inflammation may contribute to the onset of obesity- and insulin resistance-associated hepatic complications, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steato-hepatitis. Unacylated ghrelin (UnAG is a gastric hormone reported to be associated with lower oxidative stress in different cell types, but its potential effects on liver mitochondrial function, redox state and inflammation in vivo remains undetermined. We investigated the impact of chronic UnAG overexpression (Tg Myh6/Ghrl leading to systemic upregulation of circulating hormone on mitochondrial ATP production, redox state (oxidized-to-total glutathione and inflammation markers in lean mice. Compared to wild-type animals (wt, Tg Myh6/Ghrl had superimposable liver weight, triglyceride content and plasma lipid profile. Liver mitochondrial enzyme activities and ATP production as well as oxidized-to-total glutathione were also similar in the two groups. In addition, no differences were observed in tissue inflammation marker TNF-alpha between wild-type and Tg Myh6/Ghrl animals. Thus, chronic systemic UnAG upregulation does not alter liver triglyceride content, mitochondrial function, redox state and inflammation markers in lean mice. These findings do not support a major role of UnAG as a physiological modulator of in vivo liver oxidative-lipid metabolism and inflammation.

  15. Increased platelet mitochondrial respiration after cardiac arrest and resuscitation as a potential peripheral biosignature of cerebral bioenergetic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Michael A; Sutton, Robert M; Karlsson, Michael; Sjövall, Fredrik; Becker, Lance B; Berg, Robert A; Margulies, Susan S; Kilbaugh, Todd J

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) results in a sepsis-like syndrome with activation of the innate immune system and increased mitochondrial bioenergetics. To determine if platelet mitochondrial respiration increases following CA in a porcine pediatric model of asphyxia-associated ventricular fibrillation (VF) CA, and if this readily obtained biomarker is associated with decreased brain mitochondrial respiration. CA protocol: 7 min of asphyxia, followed by VF, protocolized titration of compression depth to systolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg and vasopressor administration to a coronary perfusion pressure greater than 20 mmHg. platelet integrated mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) function evaluated pre- and post-CA/ROSC four hours after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Secondary outcome: correlation of platelet mitochondrial bioenergetics to cerebral bioenergetic function. Platelet maximal oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOSCI+CII), P respiration through Complex II (OXPHOSCII, P respiration was not due to uncoupling, as the LEAKCI + CII respiration (mitochondrial respiration independent of ATP-production) was unchanged after CA/ROSC. Larger increases in platelet mitochondrial respiratory control ratio (RCR) compared to pre-CA RCR were significantly correlated with lower RCRs in the cortex (P respiration. Platelet mitochondrial respiration is significantly increased four hours after ROSC. Future studies will identify mechanistic relationships between this serum biomarker and altered cerebral bioenergetics function following cardiac arrest.

  16. Reduction of brain mitochondrial β-oxidation impairs complex I and V in chronic alcohol intake: the underlying mechanism for neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Haorah

    Full Text Available Neuropathy and neurocognitive deficits are common among chronic alcohol users, which are believed to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain. The specific type of brain mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (mRCC that are adversely affected by alcohol abuse has not been studied. Thus, we examined the alterations of mRCC in freshly isolated mitochondria from mice brain that were pair-fed the ethanol (4% v/v and control liquid diets for 7-8 weeks. We observed that alcohol intake severely reduced the levels of complex I and V. A reduction in complex I was associated with a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cPT1 and cPT2 levels. The mitochondrial outer (cPT1 and inner (cPT2 membrane transporter enzymes are specialized in acylation of fatty acid from outer to inner membrane of mitochondria for ATP production. Thus, our results showed that alterations of cPT1 and cPT2 paralleled a decrease β-oxidation of palmitate and ATP production, suggesting that impairment of substrate entry step (complex I function can cause a negative impact on ATP production (complex V function. Disruption of cPT1/cPT2 was accompanied by an increase in cytochrome C leakage, while reduction of complex I and V paralleled a decrease in depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ, monitored by JC-1 fluorescence and ATP production in alcohol intake. We noted that acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC, a cofactor of cPT1 and cPT2 prevented the adverse effects of alcohol while coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 was not very effective against alcohol insults. These results suggest that understanding the molecular, biochemical, and signaling mechanisms of the CNS mitochondrial β-oxidation such as ALC can mitigate alcohol related neurological disorders.

  17. Reduction of brain mitochondrial β-oxidation impairs complex I and V in chronic alcohol intake: the underlying mechanism for neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haorah, James; Rump, Travis J; Xiong, Huangui

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathy and neurocognitive deficits are common among chronic alcohol users, which are believed to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain. The specific type of brain mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (mRCC) that are adversely affected by alcohol abuse has not been studied. Thus, we examined the alterations of mRCC in freshly isolated mitochondria from mice brain that were pair-fed the ethanol (4% v/v) and control liquid diets for 7-8 weeks. We observed that alcohol intake severely reduced the levels of complex I and V. A reduction in complex I was associated with a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cPT1) and cPT2 levels. The mitochondrial outer (cPT1) and inner (cPT2) membrane transporter enzymes are specialized in acylation of fatty acid from outer to inner membrane of mitochondria for ATP production. Thus, our results showed that alterations of cPT1 and cPT2 paralleled a decrease β-oxidation of palmitate and ATP production, suggesting that impairment of substrate entry step (complex I function) can cause a negative impact on ATP production (complex V function). Disruption of cPT1/cPT2 was accompanied by an increase in cytochrome C leakage, while reduction of complex I and V paralleled a decrease in depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ, monitored by JC-1 fluorescence) and ATP production in alcohol intake. We noted that acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC, a cofactor of cPT1 and cPT2) prevented the adverse effects of alcohol while coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) was not very effective against alcohol insults. These results suggest that understanding the molecular, biochemical, and signaling mechanisms of the CNS mitochondrial β-oxidation such as ALC can mitigate alcohol related neurological disorders.

  18. MicroRNA as biomarkers of mitochondrial toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgart, Bethany R., E-mail: bethany.baumgart@bms.com [Department of Toxicology, Drug Safety Evaluation, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 4401 Highway 62 East, Mount Vernon, IN 47620 (United States); Gray, Katherine L. [Department of Toxicology, Drug Safety Evaluation, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 4401 Highway 62 East, Mount Vernon, IN 47620 (United States); Woicke, Jochen [Department of Pathology, Drug Safety Evaluation, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 4401 Highway 62 East, Mount Vernon, IN 47620 (United States); Bunch, Roderick T.; Sanderson, Thomas P. [Department of Toxicology, Drug Safety Evaluation, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 4401 Highway 62 East, Mount Vernon, IN 47620 (United States); Van Vleet, Terry R. [Department of Investigative Toxicology and Pathology, Abbvie, 1 N. Waukegan Rd., North Chicago, IL 60064-6123, USA. (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity can be difficult to detect as most cells can tolerate reduced activity as long as minimal capacity for function is maintained. However, once minimal capacity is lost, apoptosis or necrosis occurs quickly. Identification of more sensitive, early markers of mitochondrial toxicity was the objective of this work. Rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, and 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), a mitochondrial complex II inhibitor, were administered daily to male Sprague–Dawley rats at subcutaneous doses of 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg/day and intraperitoneal doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 1 week. Samples of kidney, skeletal muscle (quadriceps femoris), and serum were collected for analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns. MtDNA was significantly decreased with administration of rotenone at 0.3 mg/kg/day and 3-NP at 5 and 10 mg/kg/day in the quadriceps femoris and with 3-NP at 10 mg/kg/day in the kidney. Additionally, rotenone and 3-NP treatment produced changes to miRNA expression that were similar in direction (i.e. upregulation, downregulation) to those previously linked to mitochondrial functions, such as mitochondrial damage and biogenesis (miR-122, miR-202-3p); regulation of ATP synthesis, abolished oxidative phosphorylation, and loss of membrane potential due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (miR-338-5p, miR-546, miR-34c); and mitochondrial DNA damage and depletion (miR-546). These results suggest that miRNAs may be sensitive biomarkers for early detection of mitochondrial toxicity. - Highlights: • MtDNA decreased after treatment with respiratory chain inhibitors rotenone and 3-NP. • Decrease in mtDNA is generally dose-related and indicative of mitochondrial toxicity. • Altered miRNA has reported roles in regulating mitochondrial function. • Induction of miR-338-5p in kidney and serum suggests potential as renal biomarker. • Induction of miR-122 implies

  19. Hyperglycemia Alters the Schwann Cell Mitochondrial Proteome and Decreases Coupled Respiration in the Absence of Superoxide Production

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liang; Yu, Cuijuan; Vasquez, Francisco E.; Galeva, Nadya; Onyango, Isaac; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to sensory neuron pathology in diabetic neuropathy. Although Schwann cells (SCs) also undergo substantial degeneration in diabetic neuropathy, the effect of hyperglycemia on SC mitochondrial proteome and mitochondrial function has not been examined. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used to quantify the temporal effect of hyperglycemia on the mitochondrial proteome of primary SCs isolated from neona...

  20. Multiple origins of hydrogenosomes: functional and phylogenetic evidence from the ADP/ATP carrier of the anaerobic chytrid Neocallimastix sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, F.L.M.; Boxma, B.; Tjaden, J.; Akhmanova, A.S.; Huynen, M.A.; Verbeek, F.; Tielens, A.G.; Haferkamp, I.; Neuhaus, H.E.; Vogels, G.D.; Veenhuis, M.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2002-01-01

    A mitochondrial-type ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) has been identified in the hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic chytridiomycete fungus Neocallimastix sp. L2. Biochemical and immunocytochemical studies revealed that this ADP/ATP carrier is an integral component of hydrogenosomal membranes. Expression of the

  1. Multiple origins of hydrogenosomes : functional and phylogenetic evidence from the ADP/ATP carrier of the anaerobic chytrid Neocallimastix sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, F; Boxma, B; Tjaden, J; Akhmanova, A; Huynen, M; Tielens, AGM; Haferkamp, [No Value; Neuhaus, HE; Vogels, G; Veenhuis, M; Hackstein, JHP; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Haferkamp, Ilka; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    A mitochondrial-type ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) has been identified in the hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic chytridiomycete fungus Neocallimastix sp. L2. Biochemical and immunocytochemical studies revealed that this ADP/ATP carrier is an integral component of hydrogenosomal membranes. Expression of the

  2. The metabolic enhancer piracetam ameliorates the impairment of mitochondrial function and neurite outgrowth induced by beta-amyloid peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, C; Ungerer, I; Lipka, U; Kirr, S; Schütt, T; Eckert, A; Leuner, K; Müller, W E

    2010-05-01

    beta-Amyloid peptide (Abeta) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease by initiating a cascade of events from mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death. The metabolic enhancer piracetam has been shown to improve mitochondrial dysfunction following brain aging and experimentally induced oxidative stress. We used cell lines (PC12 and HEK cells) and murine dissociated brain cells. The protective effects of piracetam in vitro and ex vivo on Abeta-induced impairment of mitochondrial function (as mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production), on secretion of soluble Abeta and on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells were investigated. Piracetam improves mitochondrial function of PC12 cells and acutely dissociated brain cells from young NMRI mice following exposure to extracellular Abeta(1-42). Similar protective effects against Abeta(1-42) were observed in dissociated brain cells from aged NMRI mice, or mice transgenic for mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) treated with piracetam for 14 days. Soluble Abeta load was markedly diminished in the brain of those animals after treatment with piracetam. Abeta production by HEK cells stably transfected with mutant human APP was elevated by oxidative stress and this was reduced by piracetam. Impairment of neuritogenesis is an important consequence of Abeta-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and Abeta-induced reduction of neurite growth in PC12 cells was substantially improved by piracetam. Our findings strongly support the concept of improving mitochondrial function as an approach to ameliorate the detrimental effects of Abeta on brain function.

  3. HSP27 Inhibits Homocysteine-Induced Endothelial Apoptosis by Modulation of ROS Production and Mitochondrial Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy could lead to endothelial dysfunction and is viewed as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27, a small heat shock protein, is reported to exert protective effect against atherosclerosis. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of HSP27 against Hcy-induced endothelial cell apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP of normal or HSP27-overexpressing HUVECs in the presence of Hcy were analyzed by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and western blot. Results. We found that Hcy could induce cell apoptosis with corresponding decrease of nitric oxide (NO level, increase of endothelin-1 (ET-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 levels, elevation of ROS, and dissipation of MMP. In addition, HSP27 could protect the cell against Hcy-induced apoptosis and inhibit the effect of Hcy on HUVECs. Furthermore, HSP27 could increase the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibit caspase-3 activity. Conclusions. Therefore, we concluded that HSP27 played a protective role against Hcy-induced endothelial apoptosis through modulation of ROS production and the mitochondrial caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  4. ATP Synthase, a Target for Dementia and Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrick, James W; Larrick, Jasmine W; Mendelsohn, Andrew R

    2018-02-01

    Advancing age is the biggest risk factor for development for the major life-threatening diseases in industrialized nations accounting for >90% of deaths. Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is among the most devastating. Currently approved therapies fail to slow progression of the disease, providing only modest improvements in memory. Recently reported work describes mechanistic studies of J147, a promising therapeutic molecule previously shown to rescue the severe cognitive deficits exhibited by aged, transgenic AD mice. Apparently, J147 targets the mitochondrial alpha-F1-ATP synthase (ATP5A). Modest inhibition of the ATP synthase modulates intracellular calcium to activate AMP-activated protein kinase to inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin, a known mechanism of lifespan extension from worms to mammals.

  5. Glucose-Modulated Mitochondria Adaptation in Tumor Cells: A Focus on ATP Synthase and Inhibitor Factor 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Mavelli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Warburg’s hypothesis has been challenged by a number of studies showing that oxidative phosphorylation is repressed in some tumors, rather than being inactive per se. Thus, treatments able to shift energy metabolism by activating mitochondrial pathways have been suggested as an intriguing basis for the optimization of antitumor strategies. In this study, HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells were cultivated with different metabolic substrates under conditions mimicking “positive” (activation/biogenesis or “negative” (silencing mitochondrial adaptation. In addition to the expected up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose deprivation caused an increase in phosphorylating respiration and a rise in the expression levels of the ATP synthase β subunit and Inhibitor Factor 1 (IF1. Hyperglycemia, on the other hand, led to a markedly decreased level of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-α suggesting down-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, although no change in mitochondrial mass and no impairment of phosphorylating respiration were observed. Moreover, a reduction in mitochondrial networking and in ATP synthase dimer stability was produced. No effect on β-ATP synthase expression was elicited. Notably, hyperglycemia caused an increase in IF1 expression levels, but it did not alter the amount of IF1 associated with ATP synthase. These results point to a new role of IF1 in relation to high glucose utilization by tumor cells, in addition to its well known effect upon mitochondrial ATP synthase regulation.

  6. Cobalamin Deficiency Results in Increased Production of Formate Secondary to Decreased Mitochondrial Oxidation of One-Carbon Units in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Luke; Tingley, Garrett; Young, Sara K; Clow, Kathy A; Randell, Edward W; Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2018-03-01

    Formate is produced in mitochondria via the catabolism of serine, glycine, dimethylglycine, and sarcosine. Formate produced by mitochondria may be incorporated into the cytosolic folate pool where it can be used for important biosynthetic reactions. Previous studies from our lab have shown that cobalamin deficiency results in increased plasma formate concentrations. Our goal was to determine the basis for elevated formate in vitamin B-12 deficiency. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to consume either a cobalamin-replete (50 μg cobalamin/kg diet) or -deficient (no added cobalamin) diet for 6 wk. Formate production was measured in vivo and in isolated liver mitochondria from a variety of one-carbon precursors. We also measured the oxidation of [3-14C]-l-serine to 14CO2 in isolated rat liver mitochondria and the expression of hepatic genes involved in one-carbon unit and formate metabolism. Cobalamin-deficient rats produce formate at a rate 55% higher than that of replete rats. Formate production from serine was increased by 60% and from dimethylglycine and sarcosine by ∼200% in liver mitochondria isolated from cobalamin-deficient rats compared with cobalamin-replete rats. There was a 26% decrease in the 14CO2 produced by mitochondria from cobalamin-deficient rats. Gene expression analysis showed that 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-cytosolic (Aldh1l1) and mitochondrial (Aldh1l2) expression were decreased by 40% and 60%, respectively, compared to control, while 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, mitochondrial, monofunctional (Mthfd1l) expression was unchanged. We propose that a bifurcation in mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism is a key control mechanism in determining the fate of one-carbon units, to formate or CO2. During cobalamin deficiency in rats the disposition of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate carbon is shifted in favor of formate production. This may represent a mechanism to generate more one-carbon units for the replenishment of the S

  7. Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Heng; Verovski, Valeri N.; Leonard, Wim; Law, Ka Lun; Vermeersch, Marieke; Storme, Guy; Van den Berge, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); De Ridder, Mark, E-mail: mark.deridder@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxide–producing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes.

  8. Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Heng; Verovski, Valeri N.; Leonard, Wim; Law, Ka Lun; Vermeersch, Marieke; Storme, Guy; Van den Berge, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra; De Ridder, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxide–producing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes

  9. Fe(III Is Essential for Porcine Embryonic Development via Mitochondrial Function Maintenance.

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    Ming-Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available Iron is an important trace element involved in several biological processes. The role of iron in porcine early embryonic development remains unknown. In the present study, we depleted iron (III, Fe3+ with deferoxamine (DFM, a specific Fe3+ chelator, in cultured porcine parthenotes and monitored embryonic development, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP production. Results showed biphasic function of Fe3+ in porcine embryo development. 0.5 μM DFM obviously increased blastocyst formation (57.49 ± 2.18% vs. control, 43.99 ± 1.72%, P < 0.05 via reduced (P < 0.05 production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, further increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in blastocysts (P < 0.05. 0.5 μM DFM decreased mRNA expression of Caspase 3 (Casp3 and increased Bcl-xL. However, results showed a significant reduction in blastocyst formation in the presence of 5.0 μM DFM compared with the control group (DFM, 21.62 ± 3.92% vs. control, 43.99 ± 1.73%, P < 0.05. Fe3+ depletion reduced the total (DFM, 21.10 ± 8.78 vs. control, 44.09 ± 13.65, P < 0.05 and increased apoptotic cell number (DFM, 11.10 ± 5.24 vs. control, 2.64 ± 1.43, P < 0.05 in the blastocyst. An obvious reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP level after 5.0 μM DFM treatment was observed. Co-localization between mitochondria and cytochrome c was reduced after high concentration of DFM treatment. In conclusion, Fe3+ is essential for porcine embryonic development via mitochondrial function maintenance, but redundant Fe3+ impairs the function of mitochondria.

  10. Metabolic flexibility of mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders predicted by computer modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Łukasz P; Smith, Anthony C; Smith, Alexander G; Robinson, Alan J

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction causes a variety of life-threatening diseases affecting about 1 in 4300 adults. These diseases are genetically heterogeneous, but have the same outcome; reduced activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes causing decreased ATP production and potentially toxic accumulation of metabolites. Severity and tissue specificity of these effects varies between patients by unknown mechanisms and treatment options are limited. So far most research has focused on the complexes themselves, and the impact on overall cellular metabolism is largely unclear. To illustrate how computer modelling can be used to better understand the potential impact of these disorders and inspire new research directions and treatments, we simulated them using a computer model of human cardiomyocyte mitochondrial metabolism containing over 300 characterised reactions and transport steps with experimental parameters taken from the literature. Overall, simulations were consistent with patient symptoms, supporting their biological and medical significance. These simulations predicted: complex I deficiencies could be compensated using multiple pathways; complex II deficiencies had less metabolic flexibility due to impacting both the TCA cycle and the respiratory chain; and complex III and IV deficiencies caused greatest decreases in ATP production with metabolic consequences that parallel hypoxia. Our study demonstrates how results from computer models can be compared to a clinical phenotype and used as a tool for hypothesis generation for subsequent experimental testing. These simulations can enhance understanding of dysfunctional mitochondrial metabolism and suggest new avenues for research into treatment of mitochondrial disease and other areas of mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins in unicellular eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Sluse, Francis E

    2010-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are members of the mitochondrial anion carrier protein family that are present in the mitochondrial inner membrane and mediate free fatty acid (FFA)-activated, purine nucleotide (PN)-inhibited proton conductance. Since 1999, the presence of UCPs has been demonstrated in some non-photosynthesising unicellular eukaryotes, including amoeboid and parasite protists, as well as in non-fermentative yeast and filamentous fungi. In the mitochondria of these organisms, UCP activity is revealed upon FFA-induced, PN-inhibited stimulation of resting respiration and a decrease in membrane potential, which are accompanied by a decrease in membranous ubiquinone (Q) reduction level. UCPs in unicellular eukaryotes are able to divert energy from oxidative phosphorylation and thus compete for a proton electrochemical gradient with ATP synthase. Our recent work indicates that membranous Q is a metabolic sensor that might utilise its redox state to release the PN inhibition of UCP-mediated mitochondrial uncoupling under conditions of phosphorylation and resting respiration. The action of reduced Q (QH2) could allow higher or complete activation of UCP. As this regulatory feature was demonstrated for microorganism UCPs (A. castellanii UCP), plant and mammalian UCP1 analogues, and UCP1 in brown adipose tissue, the process could involve all UCPs. Here, we discuss the functional connection and physiological role of UCP and alternative oxidase, two main energy-dissipating systems in the plant-type mitochondrial respiratory chain of unicellular eukaryotes, including the control of cellular energy balance as well as preventive action against the production of reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nicotinic receptors modulate the onset of reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction evoked by glutamate uptake block in the rat hypoglossal nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Maria; Corsini, Silvia; Nistri, Andrea

    2017-02-03

    In several neurodegenerative diseases, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is considered to be a major process to initiate cell degeneration. Indeed, subsequent to excessive glutamate receptor stimulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial dysfunction are regarded as two major gateways leading to neuron death. These processes are mimicked in an in vitro model of rat brainstem slice when excitotoxicity is induced by DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA), a specific glutamate-uptake blocker that increases extracellular glutamate. Our recent study has demonstrated that brainstem hypoglossal motoneurons, which are very vulnerable to this damage, were neuroprotected from excitotoxicity with nicotine application through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and subsequent inhibition of ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. The present study examined if endogenous cholinergic activity exerted any protective effect in this pathophysiological model and how ROS production (estimated with rhodamine fluorescence) and mitochondrial dysfunction (measured as methyltetrazolium reduction) were time-related during the early phase of excitotoxicity (0-4h). nAChR antagonists did not modify TBOA-evoked ROS production (that was nearly doubled over control) or mitochondrial impairment (25% decline), suggesting that intrinsic nAChR activity was insufficient to contrast excitotoxicity and needed further stimulation with nicotine to become effective. ROS production always preceded mitochondrial dysfunction by about 2h. Nicotine prevented both ROS production and mitochondrial metabolic depression with a delayed action that alluded to a complex chain of events targeting these two lesional processes. The present data indicate a relatively wide time frame during which strong nAChR activation can arrest a runaway neurotoxic process leading to cell death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hyperglycemia Induces Cellular Hypoxia through Production of Mitochondrial ROS Followed by Suppression of Aquaporin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Kiminori; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Kukidome, Daisuke; Yoshinaga, Tomoaki; Kajihara, Nobuhiro; Sonoda, Kazuhiro; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously proposed that hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation is a key event in the development of diabetic complications. Interestingly, some common aspects exist between hyperglycemia and hypoxia-induced phenomena. Thus, hyperglycemia may induce cellular hypoxia, and this phenomenon may also be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In endothelial cells (ECs), cellular hypoxia increased after incubation with high glucose (HG). A similar phenomenon was observed in glomeruli of diabetic mice. HG-induced cellular hypoxia was suppressed by mitochondria blockades or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpression, which is a specific SOD for mtROS. Overexpression of MnSOD also increased the expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a water and oxygen channel. AQP1 overexpression in ECs suppressed hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia, endothelin-1 and fibronectin overproduction, and apoptosis. Therefore, hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia and mtROS generation may promote hyperglycemic damage in a coordinated manner.

  14. Control of mitochondrial pH by uncoupling protein 4 in astrocytes promotes neuronal survival

    KAUST Repository

    Lambert, Hélène Perreten

    2014-09-18

    Brain activity is energetically costly and requires a steady and highly regulated flow of energy equivalents between neural cells. It is believed that a substantial share of cerebral glucose, the major source of energy of the brain, will preferentially be metabolized in astrocytes via aerobic glycolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether uncoupling proteins (UCPs), located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, play a role in setting up the metabolic response pattern of astrocytes. UCPs are believed to mediate the transmembrane transfer of protons, resulting in the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from ATP production. UCPs are therefore potentially important regulators of energy fluxes. The main UCP isoforms expressed in the brain are UCP2, UCP4, and UCP5. We examined in particular the role of UCP4 in neuron-astrocyte metabolic coupling and measured a range of functional metabolic parameters including mitochondrial electrical potential and pH, reactive oxygen species production, NAD/NADH ratio, ATP/ADP ratio, CO2 and lactate production, and oxygen consumption rate. In brief, we found that UCP4 regulates the intramitochondrial pH of astrocytes, which acidifies as a consequence of glutamate uptake, with the main consequence of reducing efficiency of mitochondrial ATP production. The diminished ATP production is effectively compensated by enhancement of glycolysis. This nonoxidative production of energy is not associated with deleterious H2O2 production. We show that astrocytes expressing more UCP4 produced more lactate, which is used as an energy source by neurons, and had the ability to enhance neuronal survival.

  15. Acute Exercise Induced Mitochondrial H2O2 Production in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Association with p66Shc and FOXO3a Signaling and Antioxidant Enzymes

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    Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induced skeletal muscle phenotype change involves a complex interplay between signaling pathways and downstream regulators. This study aims to investigate the effect of acute exercise on mitochondrial H2O2 production and its association with p66Shc, FOXO3a, and antioxidant enzymes. Male ICR/CD-1 mice were subjected to an acute exercise. Muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris were taken after exercise to measure mitochondrial H2O2 content, expression of p66Shc and FOXO3a, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that acute exercise significantly increased mitochondrial H2O2 content and expressions of p66Shc and FOXO3a in a time-dependent manner, with a linear correlation between the increase in H2O2 content and p66Shc or FOXO3a expression. The activity of mitochondrial catalase was slightly reduced in the 90 min exercise group, but it was significantly higher in groups with 120 and 150 min exercise compared to that of 90 min exercise group. The activity of SOD was not significantly affected. The results indicate that acute exercise increases mitochondrial H2O2 production in the skeletal muscle, which is associated with the upregulation of p66Shc and FOXO3a. The association of p66Shc and FOXO3a signaling with exercise induced H2O2 generation may play a role in regulating cellular oxidative stress during acute exercise.

  16. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN

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    Annalisa Canta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial dysfunction has a critical role in several disorders including chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPN. This is due to a related dysregulation of pathways involving calcium signalling, reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. Vincristine is able to affect calcium movement through the Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG neuronal mitochondrial membrane, altering its homeostasis and leading to abnormal neuronal excitability. Paclitaxel induces the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in axons followed by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, increased reactive oxygen species generation, ATP level reduction, calcium release and mitochondrial swelling. Cisplatin and oxaliplatin form adducts with mitochondrial DNA producing inhibition of replication, disruption of transcription and morphological abnormalities within mitochondria in DRG neurons, leading to a gradual energy failure. Bortezomib is able to modify mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, the expression of a certain number of genes, including those controlling mitochondrial functions, was altered in patients with bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  17. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canta, Annalisa; Pozzi, Eleonora; Carozzi, Valentina Alda

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial dysfunction has a critical role in several disorders including chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPN). This is due to a related dysregulation of pathways involving calcium signalling, reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. Vincristine is able to affect calcium movement through the Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) neuronal mitochondrial membrane, altering its homeostasis and leading to abnormal neuronal excitability. Paclitaxel induces the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in axons followed by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, increased reactive oxygen species generation, ATP level reduction, calcium release and mitochondrial swelling. Cisplatin and oxaliplatin form adducts with mitochondrial DNA producing inhibition of replication, disruption of transcription and morphological abnormalities within mitochondria in DRG neurons, leading to a gradual energy failure. Bortezomib is able to modify mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, the expression of a certain number of genes, including those controlling mitochondrial functions, was altered in patients with bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:29056658

  18. Insulin Resistance Is Not Associated with an Impaired Mitochondrial Function in Contracting Gastrocnemius Muscle of Goto-Kakizaki Diabetic Rats In Vivo.

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    Michael Macia

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance, altered lipid metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle would play a major role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM development, but the causal relationships between these events remain conflicting. To clarify this issue, gastrocnemius muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats, a non-obese T2DM model developing peripheral insulin resistant without abnormal level of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Wistar rats were used as controls. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively using magnetic resonance (MR imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS. Compared with control group, plasma insulin and glucose were respectively lower and higher in GK rats, but plasma NEFA level was normal. In resting GK muscle, phosphocreatine content was reduced whereas glucose content and intracellular pH were both higher. However, there were not differences between both groups for basal oxidative ATP synthesis rate, citrate synthase activity, and intramyocellular contents for lipids, glycogen, ATP and ADP (an important in vivo mitochondrial regulator. During a standardized fatiguing protocol (6 min of maximal repeated isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz, mechanical performance and glycolytic ATP production rate were reduced in diabetic animals whereas oxidative ATP production rate, maximal mitochondrial capacity and ATP cost of contraction were not changed. These findings provide in vivo evidence that insulin resistance is not caused by an impairment of mitochondrial function in this diabetic model.

  19. BGP-15 Protects against Oxaliplatin-Induced Skeletal Myopathy and Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, James C; Petersen, Aaron C; Timpani, Cara A; Campelj, Dean G; Cook, Jordan; Trewin, Adam J; Stojanovska, Vanesa; Stewart, Mathew; Hayes, Alan; Rybalka, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy is a leading intervention against cancer. Albeit highly effective, chemotherapy has a multitude of deleterious side-effects including skeletal muscle wasting and fatigue, which considerably reduces patient quality of life and survivability. As such, a defense against chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction is required. Here we investigate the effects of oxaliplatin (OXA) treatment in mice on the skeletal muscle and mitochondria, and the capacity for the Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, BGP-15, to ameliorate any pathological side-effects induced by OXA. To do so, we investigated the effects of 2 weeks of OXA (3 mg/kg) treatment with and without BGP-15 (15 mg/kg). OXA induced a 15% ( p lean tissue mass without significant changes in food consumption or energy expenditure. OXA treatment also altered the muscle architecture, increasing collagen deposition, neutral lipid and Ca 2+ accumulation; all of which were ameliorated with BGP-15 adjunct therapy. Here, we are the first to show that OXA penetrates the mitochondria, and, as a possible consequence of this, increases mtROS production. These data correspond with reduced diameter of isolated FDB fibers and shift in the fiber size distribution frequency of TA to the left. There was a tendency for reduction in intramuscular protein content, albeit apparently not via Murf1 (atrophy)- or p62 (autophagy)- dependent pathways. BGP-15 adjunct therapy protected against increased ROS production and improved mitochondrial viability 4-fold and preserved fiber diameter and number. Our study highlights BGP-15 as a potential adjunct therapy to address chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle and mitochondrial pathology.

  20. Nicotine induces mitochondrial fission through mitofusin degradation in human multipotent embryonic carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Naoya; Yamada, Shigeru [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Asanagi, Miki [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yokohama National University (Japan); Sekino, Yuko [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Kanda, Yasunari, E-mail: kanda@nihs.go.jp [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Nicotine is considered to contribute to the health risks associated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine exerts its cellular functions by acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and adversely affects normal embryonic development. However, nicotine toxicity has not been elucidated in human embryonic stage. In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of nicotine in human multipotent embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2/D1. We found that exposure to 10 μM nicotine decreased intracellular ATP levels and inhibited proliferation of NT2/D1 cells. Because nicotine suppressed energy production, which is a critical mitochondrial function, we further assessed the effects of nicotine on mitochondrial dynamics. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that 10 μM nicotine induced mitochondrial fragmentation. The levels of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusins 1 and 2, were also reduced in cells exposed to nicotine. These nicotine effects were blocked by treatment with mecamylamine, a nonselective nAChR antagonist. These data suggest that nicotine degrades mitofusin in NT2/D1 cells and thus induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell growth inhibition in a nAChR-dependent manner. Thus, mitochondrial function in embryonic cells could be used to assess the developmental toxicity of chemicals.

  1. Microchambers with Solid-State Phosphorescent Sensor for Measuring Single Mitochondrial Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ted D; Wallace, Douglas C; Burke, Peter J

    2016-07-09

    It is now well established that, even within a single cell, multiple copies of the mitochondrial genome may be present (genetic heteroplasmy). It would be interesting to develop techniques to determine if and to what extent this genetic variation results in functional variation from one mitochondrion to the next (functional heteroplasmy). Measuring mitochondrial respiration can reveal the organelles' functional capacity for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and determine mitochondrial damage that may arise from genetic or age related defects. However, available technologies require significant quantities of mitochondria. Here, we develop a technology to assay the respiration of a single mitochondrion. Our "micro-respirometer" consists of micron sized chambers etched out of borofloat glass substrates and coated with an oxygen sensitive phosphorescent dye Pt(II) meso-tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphine (PtTFPP) mixed with polystyrene. The chambers are sealed with a polydimethylsiloxane layer coated with oxygen impermeable Viton rubber to prevent diffusion of oxygen from the environment. As the mitochondria consume oxygen in the chamber, the phosphorescence signal increases, allowing direct determination of the respiration rate. Experiments with coupled vs. uncoupled mitochondria showed a substantial difference in respiration, confirming the validity of the microchambers as single mitochondrial respirometers. This demonstration could enable future high-throughput assays of mitochondrial respiration and benefit the study of mitochondrial functional heterogeneity, and its role in health and disease.

  2. Tributyltin induces mitochondrial fission through NAD-IDH dependent mitofusin degradation in human embryonic carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro; Nakano, Mizuho; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2015-08-01

    Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT), are well-known endocrine disruptors. TBT acts at the nanomolar level through genomic pathways via the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR). We recently reported that TBT inhibits cell growth and the ATP content in the human embryonic carcinoma cell line NT2/D1 via a non-genomic pathway involving NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH), which metabolizes isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. However, the molecular mechanisms by which NAD-IDH mediates TBT toxicity remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of TBT on mitochondrial NAD-IDH and energy production. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that nanomolar TBT levels induced mitochondrial fragmentation. TBT also degraded the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusins 1 and 2. Interestingly, apigenin, an inhibitor of NAD-IDH, mimicked the effects of TBT. Incubation with an α-ketoglutarate analogue partially recovered TBT-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, supporting the involvement of NAD-IDH. Our data suggest that nanomolar TBT levels impair mitochondrial quality control via NAD-IDH in NT2/D1 cells. Thus, mitochondrial function in embryonic cells could be used to assess cytotoxicity associated with metal exposure.

  3. Nicotine induces mitochondrial fission through mitofusin degradation in human multipotent embryonic carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Naoya; Yamada, Shigeru; Asanagi, Miki; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is considered to contribute to the health risks associated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine exerts its cellular functions by acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and adversely affects normal embryonic development. However, nicotine toxicity has not been elucidated in human embryonic stage. In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of nicotine in human multipotent embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2/D1. We found that exposure to 10 μM nicotine decreased intracellular ATP levels and inhibited proliferation of NT2/D1 cells. Because nicotine suppressed energy production, which is a critical mitochondrial function, we further assessed the effects of nicotine on mitochondrial dynamics. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that 10 μM nicotine induced mitochondrial fragmentation. The levels of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusins 1 and 2, were also reduced in cells exposed to nicotine. These nicotine effects were blocked by treatment with mecamylamine, a nonselective nAChR antagonist. These data suggest that nicotine degrades mitofusin in NT2/D1 cells and thus induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell growth inhibition in a nAChR-dependent manner. Thus, mitochondrial function in embryonic cells could be used to assess the developmental toxicity of chemicals.

  4. Inhibitors of Succinate: Quinone Reductase/Complex II Regulate Production of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species and Protect Normal Cells from Ischemic Damage but Induce Specific Cancer Cell Death

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ralph, S.J.; Moreno-Sanchez, R.; Neužil, Jiří; Rodriguez-Enriquez, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 11 (2011), s. 2695-2730 ISSN 0724-8741 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Mitocans * SDH/Complex II * mitochondrial ROS production Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.093, year: 2011

  5. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, Deborah R. [CESyMA, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Silvia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Evelson, Pablo, E-mail: pevelson@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  6. Mitochondrial Morphology and Fundamental Parameters of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Are Altered in Caenorhabditis elegans Strains Deficient in Mitochondrial Dynamics and Homeostasis Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L Luz

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to myriad human diseases and toxicant exposures, highlighting the need for assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial health in vivo. Here, using the Seahorse XFe24 Analyzer and the pharmacological inhibitors dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin (ATP-synthase inhibitors, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy phenylhydrazone (mitochondrial uncoupler and sodium azide (cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor, we measured the fundamental parameters of mitochondrial respiratory chain function: basal oxygen consumption, ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak in the model organism Caenhorhabditis elegans. Since mutations in mitochondrial homeostasis genes cause mitochondrial dysfunction and have been linked to human disease, we measured mitochondrial respiratory function in mitochondrial fission (drp-1-, fusion (fzo-1-, mitophagy (pdr-1, pink-1-, and electron transport chain complex III (isp-1-deficient C. elegans. All showed altered function, but the nature of the alterations varied between the tested strains. We report increased basal oxygen consumption in drp-1; reduced maximal respiration in drp-1, fzo-1, and isp-1; reduced spare respiratory capacity in drp-1 and fzo-1; reduced proton leak in fzo-1 and isp-1; and increased proton leak in pink-1 nematodes. As mitochondrial morphology can play a role in mitochondrial energetics, we also quantified the mitochondrial aspect ratio for each mutant strain using a novel method, and for the first time report increased aspect ratios in pdr-1- and pink-1-deficient nematodes.

  7. Combined Increases in Mitochondrial Cooperation and Oxygen Photoreduction Compensate for Deficiency in Cyclic Electron Flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Kieu-Van; Plet, Julie; Tolleter, Dimitri; Jokel, Martina; Cuiné, Stéphan; Carrier, Patrick; Auroy, Pascaline; Richaud, Pierre; Johnson, Xenie; Alric, Jean; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Peltier, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    During oxygenic photosynthesis, metabolic reactions of CO2 fixation require more ATP than is supplied by the linear electron flow operating from photosystem II to photosystem I (PSI). Different mechanisms, such as cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI, have been proposed to participate in reequilibrating the ATP/NADPH balance. To determine the contribution of CEF to microalgal biomass productivity, here, we studied photosynthesis and growth performances of a knockout Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant (pgrl1) deficient in PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION LIKE1 (PGRL1)–mediated CEF. Steady state biomass productivity of the pgrl1 mutant, measured in photobioreactors operated as turbidostats, was similar to its wild-type progenitor under a wide range of illumination and CO2 concentrations. Several changes were observed in pgrl1, including higher sensitivity of photosynthesis to mitochondrial inhibitors, increased light-dependent O2 uptake, and increased amounts of flavodiiron (FLV) proteins. We conclude that a combination of mitochondrial cooperation and oxygen photoreduction downstream of PSI (Mehler reactions) supplies extra ATP for photosynthesis in the pgrl1 mutant, resulting in normal biomass productivity under steady state conditions. The lower biomass productivity observed in the pgrl1 mutant in fluctuating light is attributed to an inability of compensation mechanisms to respond to a rapid increase in ATP demand. PMID:24989042

  8. Hyperglycemia Induces Cellular Hypoxia through Production of Mitochondrial ROS Followed by Suppression of Aquaporin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiminori Sada

    Full Text Available We previously proposed that hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS generation is a key event in the development of diabetic complications. Interestingly, some common aspects exist between hyperglycemia and hypoxia-induced phenomena. Thus, hyperglycemia may induce cellular hypoxia, and this phenomenon may also be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In endothelial cells (ECs, cellular hypoxia increased after incubation with high glucose (HG. A similar phenomenon was observed in glomeruli of diabetic mice. HG-induced cellular hypoxia was suppressed by mitochondria blockades or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD overexpression, which is a specific SOD for mtROS. Overexpression of MnSOD also increased the expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1, a water and oxygen channel. AQP1 overexpression in ECs suppressed hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia, endothelin-1 and fibronectin overproduction, and apoptosis. Therefore, hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia and mtROS generation may promote hyperglycemic damage in a coordinated manner.

  9. Evaluation of the water disinfection by-product dichloroacetonitrile-induced biochemical, oxidative, histopathological, and mitochondrial functional alterations: Subacute oral toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Li, Fang; Shen, Haijun; Lu, Rongzhu; Yin, Siqi; Yang, Qi; Li, Zhuangfa; Wang, Suhua

    2018-03-01

    Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), an emerging nitrogenous disinfection by-product, is more genotoxic and cytotoxic than the currently regulated carbonaceous disinfection by-products such as haloacetic acids. Few mechanistic studies have been conducted on the hepatic and renal toxicities of DCAN. This study examined the clinical biochemical, hematological, histopathological, oxidative, and mitochondrial functional alterations to evaluate the systematic toxicity after subacute oral exposure of 11 or 44 mg/kg/day in rats for 28 days. Body and spleen weights were lower, and organ-to-body weight ratios of the liver and kidney were higher in rats administered 44-mg/kg DCAN than in controls. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, and concentrations of blood serum urea nitrogen and retinol-binding protein were increased in rats administered 44-mg/kg DCAN compared with those of controls, thereby indicating hepatic and renal damage in this group. This was confirmed by histopathological alterations, including hepatic sinus dilation, extensive hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration in the liver and glomerulus hemorrhage, and renal tubular swelling, in DCAN-exposed rats. Exposure to 44-mg/kg DCAN induced hepatic oxidative damage shown by the significant increase in malonaldehyde levels, a poisonous product of lipid peroxidation. Exposure to 44-mg/kg DCAN significantly increased hepatic glutathione content and mitochondrial bioenergy as noted by the elevation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c oxidase activity, which might be attributed to compensatory pathophysiologic responses to DCAN-induced hepatic mitochondrial damage.

  10. Interplay of Mg2+, ADP, and ATP in the cytosol and mitochondria: unravelling the role of Mg2+ in cell respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Elisabeth; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Douce, Roland; Bligny, Richard

    2014-10-28

    In animal and plant cells, the ATP/ADP ratio and/or energy charge are generally considered key parameters regulating metabolism and respiration. The major alternative issue of whether the cytosolic and mitochondrial concentrations of ADP and ATP directly mediate cell respiration remains unclear, however. In addition, because only free nucleotides are exchanged by the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, whereas MgADP is the substrate of ATP synthase (EC 3.6.3.14), the cytosolic and mitochondrial Mg(2+) concentrations must be considered as well. Here we developed in vivo/in vitro techniques using (31)P-NMR spectroscopy to simultaneously measure these key components in subcellular compartments. We show that heterotrophic sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells incubated in various nutrient media contain low, stable cytosolic ADP and Mg(2+) concentrations, unlike ATP. ADP is mainly free in the cytosol, but complexed by Mg(2+) in the mitochondrial matrix, where [Mg(2+)] is tenfold higher. In contrast, owing to a much higher affinity for Mg(2+), ATP is mostly complexed by Mg(2+) in both compartments. Mg(2+) starvation used to alter cytosolic and mitochondrial [Mg(2+)] reversibly increases free nucleotide concentration in the cytosol and matrix, enhances ADP at the expense of ATP, decreases coupled respiration, and stops cell growth. We conclude that the cytosolic ADP concentration, and not ATP, ATP/ADP ratio, or energy charge, controls the respiration of plant cells. The Mg(2+) concentration, remarkably constant and low in the cytosol and tenfold higher in the matrix, mediates ADP/ATP exchange between the cytosol and matrix, [MgADP]-dependent mitochondrial ATP synthase activity, and cytosolic free ADP homeostasis.

  11. Telmisartan enhances mitochondrial activity and alters cellular functions in human coronary artery endothelial cells via AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Sugiyama, Seigo; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Sugamura, Koichi; Toyama, Kensuke; Matsubara, Junichi; Fujisue, Koichiro; Ohba, Keisuke; Maeda, Hirofumi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Sumida, Hitoshi; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Osamu; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei; Ogawa, Hisao

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in cellular senescence and impaired function of vascular endothelium, resulted in cardiovascular diseases. Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin II type I receptor blocker that has been shown to prevent cardiovascular events in high risk patients. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role in mitochondrial biogenesis and endothelial function. This study assessed whether telmisartan enhances mitochondrial function and alters cellular functions via AMPK in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). In cultured HCAECs, telmisartan significantly enhanced mitochondrial activity assessed by mitochondrial reductase activity and intracellular ATP production and increased the expression of mitochondria related genes. Telmisartan prevented cellular senescence and exhibited the anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic properties. The expression of genes related anti-oxidant and pro-angiogenic properties were increased by telmisartan. Telmisartan increased endothelial NO synthase and AMPK phosphorylation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling was not involved in telmisartan-induced improvement of mitochondrial function. All of these effects were abolished by inhibition of AMPK. Telmisartan enhanced mitochondrial activity and exhibited anti-senescence effects and improving endothelial function through AMPK in HCAECs. Telmisartan could provide beneficial effects on vascular diseases via enhancement of mitochondrial activity and modulating endothelial function through AMPK activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PREVENTION OF PHOSPHATE - INDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Arnold J.; Kuwabara, Toichiro

    1962-01-01

    The prevention of phosphate-induced mitochondrial swelling in the whole retina of the rabbit was studied with the electron microscope. It was found that a mixture of ATP, Mg++, and bovine serum albumin protected the mitochondria in vitro. This finding confirmed the results obtained spectrophotometrically with isolated rat liver mitochondria by Lehninger. PMID:13927020

  13. The plant mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millar, A.H.; Heazlewood, J.L.; Kristensen, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial proteome might contain as many as 2000-3000 different gene products, each of which might undergo post-translational modification. Recent studies using analytical methods, such as one-, two- and three-dimensional gel electrophoresis and one- and two-dimensional liquid...... context to be defined for them. There are indications that some of these proteins add novel activities to mitochondrial protein complexes in plants....

  14. Characterisation and expression of the mitochondrial genome of a new type of cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Moneger, Françoise; Leaver, Christopher J.; Petrov, Peter; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1994-01-01

    A new cytoplasmic male sterile sunflower, CMS3, was characterised in relation to the Petiolaris (PET1) cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower, CMS89. Southern blot analysis showed that the mitochondrial genome of CMS3 contains unique rearrangements in at least five loci (atp6, atp9, atpA, nad1 + 5 and

  15. Identification of a new Mpl-interacting protein, Atp5d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Zhao, Zhenhu; Zhong, Yuxu; Shan, Yajun; Sun, Xiaohong; Mao, Bingzhi; Cong, Yuwen

    2014-06-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) can regulate hematopoiesis and megakaryopoiesis via activation of its receptor, c-Mpl, and multiple downstream signal transduction pathways. Using the cytoplasmic domain of Mpl as bait, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening, and found that the protein Atp5d might associate with Mpl. Atp5d is known as the δ subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase, but little is known about the function of dissociative Atp5d. The interaction between Mpl and Atp5d was confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid system, mammalian two-hybrid assay, pull-down experiment, and co-immunoprecipitation study in vivo and in vitro. An additional immunofluorescence assay showed that the two proteins can colocalize along the plasma membrane in the cytoplasm. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we tested a series of cytoplasmic truncated mutations for their ability to bind Atp5d and found an association between Atp5d and the Aa98-113 domain of Mpl. The dissociation of Atp5d from Mpl after TPO stimulation suggests that Atp5d may be a new component of TPO signaling.

  16. ATP-containing vesicles in stria vascular marginal cell cytoplasms in neonatal rat cochlea are lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Liu, Wenjing; Yang, Jun

    2016-02-11

    We confirmed that ATP is released from cochlear marginal cells in the stria vascular but the cell organelle in which ATP stores was not identified until now. Thus, we studied the ATP-containing cell organelles and suggest that these are lysosomes. Primary cultures of marginal cells of Sprague-Dawley rats aged 1-3 days was established. Vesicles within marginal cells stained with markers were identified under confocal laser scanning microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then ATP release from marginal cells was measured after glycyl-L-phenylalanine-ß- naphthylamide (GPN) treatment using a bioluminescent assay. Quinacrine-stained granules within marginal cells were labeled with LysoTracker, a lysosome tracer, and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1(LAMP1), but not labeled with the mitochondrial tracer MitoTracker. Furthermore, LysoTracker-labelled puncta showed accumulation of Mant-ATP, an ATP analog. Treatment with 200 μM GPN quenched fluorescently labeled puncta after incubation with LysoTracker or quinacrine, but not MitoTracker. Quinacrine-labeled organelles observed by TEM were lysosomes, and an average 27.7 percent increase in ATP luminescence was observed in marginal cells extracellular fluid after GPN treatment. ATP-containing vesicles in cochlear marginal cells of the stria vascular from neonatal rats are likely lysosomes. ATP release from marginal cells may be via Ca(2+)-dependent lysosomal exocytosis.

  17. The Activity of Menkes Disease Protein ATP7A Is Essential for Redox Balance in Mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Ashima; Yang, Haojun; Duffy, Megan; Robinson, Emily; Conrad-Antoville, Arianrhod; Lu, Ya-Wen; Capps, Tony; Braiterman, Lelita; Wolfgang, Michael; Murphy, Michael P.; Yi, Ling; Kaler, Stephen G.; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Ralle, Martina

    2016-05-16

    Copper-transporting ATPase ATP7A is essential for mammalian copper homeostasis. Loss of ATP7A activity is associated with fatal Menkes disease and various other pathologies. In cells, ATP7A inactivation disrupts copper transport from the cytosol into the secretory pathway. Using fibroblasts from Menkes disease patients and mouse 3T3-L1 cells with a CRISPR/Cas9-inactivated ATP7A, we demonstrate that ATP7A dysfunction is also damaging to mitochondrial redox balance. In these cells, copper accumulates in nuclei, cytosol, and mitochondria, causing distinct changes in their redox environment. Quantitative imaging of live cells using GRX1-roGFP2 and HyPer sensors reveals highest glutathione oxidation and elevation of H2O2 in mitochondria, whereas the redox environment of nuclei and the cytosol is much less affected. Decreasing the H2O2 levels in mitochondria with MitoQ does not prevent glutathione oxidation; i.e. elevated copper and not H2O2 is a primary cause of glutathione oxidation. Redox misbalance does not significantly affect mitochondrion morphology or the activity of respiratory complex IV but markedly increases cell sensitivity to even mild glutathione depletion, resulting in loss of cell viability. Thus, ATP7A activity protects mitochondria from excessive copper entry, which is deleterious to redox buffers. Mitochondrial redox misbalance could significantly contribute to pathologies associated with ATP7A inactivation in tissues with paradoxical accumulation of copper (i.e. renal epithelia).

  18. Protective effects of potassium transport in mitochondria from rat myometrium under activation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Vadzyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated using PBFI K+-sensitive fluorescent probe an enhancement of both components of K+-cycle – the ATP-sensitive K+-uptake and quinine-sensitive K+/H+-exchange – under the Ca2+ induced opening­ of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP in rat myometrium mitochondria. Addition of CaCl2 (100 μM to K+-free medium results in the enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, which was eliminated by cyclosporine A. Addition of CaCl2 to K+-rich medium did not increase the rate of ROS production, but blocking of mitoK+ATP-channels with glybenclamide (10 μM increased production of ROS. We conclude that K+-cycle exerts a protective influence in mitochondria from rat myometrium by regulation of matrix volume and rate of ROS production under the condition of Ca2+-induced MPTP.

  19. Disruption of mitochondrial function as mechanism for anti-cancer activity of a novel mitochondriotropic menadione derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, José; Amorim, Ricardo; Santos, Katia; Soares, Pedro; Datta, Sandipan; Cortopassi, Gino A; Serafim, Teresa L; Sardão, Vilma A; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2018-01-15

    Menadione, also known as vitamin K 3 , is a 2-methyl-1,4 naphthoquinone with a potent cytotoxic activity mainly resulting from its quinone redox-cycling with production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although increased ROS generation is considered a relevant mechanism in cancer cell death, it may not be sufficiently effective to kill cancer cells due to phenotypic adaptations. Therefore, combining ROS-generating agents with other molecules targeting important cancer cell phenotypes can be an effective therapeutic strategy. As mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in many human diseases, including cancer, we describe here the discovery of a mitochondrial-directed agent (MitoK 3 ), which was developed by conjugating a TPP cation to the C3 position of the menadione's naphthoquinone ring, increasing its selective accumulation in mitochondria, as well as led to alterations of its redox properties and consequent biological outcome. MitoK 3 disturbed the mitochondrial bioenergetic apparatus, with subsequent loss of mitochondrial ATP production. The combinatory strategy of MitoK 3 with anticancer agent doxorubicin (DOX) resulted in a degree of cytotoxicity higher than those of the individual molecules, as the combination triggered tumour apoptotic cell death evident by caspase 3/9 activities, probably through mitochondrial destabilization or by interference with mitochondrial redox processes. The results of this investigation support the importance of drug discovery process in developing molecules that can be use as adjuvant therapy in patients with specific cancer subtypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mitochondrial coupling and capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of Inuit and Caucasians in the arctic winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaiger, E; Boushel, R; Søndergaard, H; Munch-Andersen, T; Damsgaard, R; Hagen, C; Díez-Sánchez, C; Ara, I; Wright-Paradis, C; Schrauwen, P; Hesselink, M; Calbet, J A L; Christiansen, M; Helge, J W; Saltin, B

    2015-12-01

    During evolution, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of arctic populations may have been selected for lower coupling of mitochondrial respiration to ATP production in favor of higher heat production. We show that mitochondrial coupling in skeletal muscle of traditional and westernized Inuit habituating northern Greenland is identical to Danes of western Europe haplogroups. Biochemical coupling efficiency was preserved across variations in diet, muscle fiber type, and uncoupling protein-3 content. Mitochondrial phenotype displayed plasticity in relation to lifestyle and environment. Untrained Inuit and Danes had identical capacities to oxidize fat substrate in arm muscle, which increased in Danes during the 42 days of acclimation to exercise, approaching the higher level of the Inuit hunters. A common pattern emerges of mitochondrial acclimatization and evolutionary adaptation in humans at high latitude and high altitude where economy of locomotion may be optimized by preservation of biochemical coupling efficiency at modest mitochondrial density, when submaximum performance is uncoupled from VO2max and maximum capacities of oxidative phosphorylation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Infertility and recurrent miscarriage with complex II deficiency-dependent mitochondrial oxidative stress in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takamasa; Yasuda, Kayo; Miyazawa, Masaki; Mitsushita, Junji; Johnson, Thomas E; Hartman, Phil S; Ishii, Naoaki

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with some forms of both male and female infertility. However, there is insufficient knowledge of the influence of oxidative stress on the maintenance of a viable pregnancy, including pregnancy complications and fetal development. There are a number of animal models for understanding age-dependent decrease of reproductive ability and diabetic embryopathy, especially abnormal spermatogenesis, oogenesis and embryogenesis with mitochondrial dysfunctions. Several important processes occur in mitochondria, including ATP synthesis, calcium ion storage, induction of apoptosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These events have different effects on the several aspects of reproductive function. Tet-mev-1 conditional transgenic mice, developed after studies with the mev-1 mutant of the nematode C. elegans, offer the ability to carefully regulate expression of doxycycline-induced mutated SDHC(V69E) levels and hence modulate endogenous oxidative stress. The mev-1 models have served to illuminate the effects of complex II deficiency-dependent mitochondrial ROS production, although interestingly they maintain normal mitochondrial and intracellular ATP levels. In this review, the reproductive dysfunctions are presented focusing on fertility potentials in each gamete, early embryogenesis, maternal conditions with placental function and neonatal development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Pancreatic mitochondrial complex I exhibits aberrant hyperactivity in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzi Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that NADH/NAD+ redox balance is heavily perturbed in diabetes, and the NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance is a major source of oxidative stress in diabetic tissues. In mitochondria, complex I is the only site for NADH oxidation and NAD+ regeneration and is also a major site for production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. Yet how complex I responds to the NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance and any potential consequences of such response in diabetic pancreas have not been investigated. We report here that pancreatic mitochondrial complex I showed aberrant hyperactivity in either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Further studies focusing on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes indicate that complex I hyperactivity could be attenuated by metformin. Moreover, complex I hyperactivity was accompanied by increased activities of complexes II to IV, but not complex V, suggesting that overflow of NADH via complex I in diabetes could be diverted to ROS production. Indeed in diabetic pancreas, ROS production and oxidative stress increased and mitochondrial ATP production decreased, which can be attributed to impaired pancreatic mitochondrial membrane potential that is responsible for increased cell death. Additionally, cellular defense systems such as glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, sirtuin 3, and NQO1 were found to be compromised in diabetic pancreas. Our findings point to the direction that complex I aberrant hyperactivity in pancreas could be a major source of oxidative stress and β cell failure in diabetes. Therefore, inhibiting pancreatic complex I hyperactivity and attenuating its ROS production by various means in diabetes might serve as a promising approach for anti-diabetic therapies.

  3. Mitochondrial Bioenergetics During Ischemia and Reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, Alicia E; Ragone, María I; Bonazzola, Patricia; Colareda, Germán A

    2017-01-01

    During ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) mitochondria suffer a deficiency to supply the cardiomyocyte with chemical energy, but also contribute to the cytosolic ionic alterations especially of Ca 2+ . Their free calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ]m) mainly depends on mitochondrial entrance through the uniporter (UCam) and extrusion in exchange with Na + (mNCX) driven by the electrochemical gradient (ΔΨm). Cardiac energetic is frequently estimated by the oxygen consumption, which determines metabolism coupled to ATP production and to the maintaining of ΔΨm. Nevertheless, a better estimation of heart energy consumption is the total heat release associated to ATP hydrolysis, metabolism, and binding reactions, which is measurable either in the presence or the absence of oxygenation or perfusion. Consequently, a mechano-calorimetrical approach on isolated hearts gives a tool to evaluate muscle economy. The mitochondrial role during I/R depends on the injury degree. We investigated the role of the mitochondrial Ca 2+ transporters in the energetic of hearts stunned by a model of no-flow I/R in rat hearts. This chapter explores an integrated view of previous and new results which give evidences to the mitochondrial role in cardiac stunning by ischemia o hypoxia, and the influence of thyroid alterations and cardioprotective strategies, such as cardioplegic solutions (high K-low Ca, pyruvate) and the phytoestrogen genistein in both sex. Rat ventricles were perfused in a flow-calorimeter at either 30 °C or 37 °C to continuously measure the left ventricular pressure (LVP) and total heat rate (Ht). A pharmacological treatment was done before exposing to no-flow I and R. The post-ischemic contractile (PICR as %) and energetical (Ht) recovery and muscle economy (Eco: P/Ht) were determined during stunning. The functional interaction between mitochondria (Mit) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was evaluated with selective mitochondrial inhibitors in hearts reperfused with Krebs-10 m

  4. Implication of advanced glycation end products (Ages) and their receptor (Rage) on myocardial contractile and mitochondrial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neviere, Remi; Yu, Yichi; Wang, Lei; Tessier, Frederic; Boulanger, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important role for the development and/or progression of cardiovascular diseases, mainly through induction of oxidative stress and inflammation. AGEs are a heterogeneous group of molecules formed by non-enzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with amino acids of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. AGEs are mainly formed endogenously, while recent studies suggest that diet constitutes an important exogenous source of AGEs. The presence and accumulation of AGEs in various cardiac cell types affect extracellular and intracellular structure and function. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Activation of RAGE by AGEs causes up regulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB and its target genes. of the RAGE engagement stimulates oxidative stress, evokes inflammatory and fibrotic reactions, which all contribute to the development and progression of devastating cardiovascular disorders. This review discusses potential targets of glycation in cardiac cells, and underlying mechanisms that lead to heart failure with special interest on AGE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the myocardium.

  5. Unravelling Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Khanna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease associated with systemic, extra-articular and articular effects, causing permanent disability, early morbidity; making the patient compromised with a worldwide prevalence of 0.8%, commonly effecting women with a rate of 0.7% in India. With improved and developing therapeutics, this disease needs special focus for improved diagnosis and better treatment. The hyperactivity of immune cells is responsible for pathogenesis and progression of the disease. This study unravels the changes in mitochondria of RA patients which may be a potential reason for abnormal functioning of immune cells against self-antigens and occurrence of the disease. In this study we examine the following aspects of mitochondrial functions in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of patients and their paired control samples: 1 Change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; 2 mitochondrial mass; 3 mitochondrial superoxide and 4 ATP levels. Patients satisfying the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for RA diagnosis were enrolled in this study. PBMCs of RA patients and controls were collected by differential gradient centrifugation. MMP, mass and superoxide levels were measured using respective commercially available dye using flow cytometry. ATP levels were measured by lysing equal number of cells from patients and controls using ATP measurement kit. In our case control cohort, we found a significant decrease in MMP (p<0.005 in PBMCs of RA patients where the change in mitochondrial mass was insignificant. The mitochondrial superoxide levels were found to be significantly low (p<0.05 in PBMCs of RA patients with significantly low (p<0.005 total cellular ATP as compared to controls. Our results indicate reduced potential and mitochondrial superoxides with decreased total cellular ATP. Reduced potential will disturb proper functioning of mitochondria in PBMCs which may affect most important

  6. Cooperation and competition between adenylate kinase, nucleoside diphosphokinase, electron transport, and ATP synthase in plant mitochondria studied by 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.K.M.; Aubert, S.; Gout, E.; Bligny, R.; Douce, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) mitochondria was studied using 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the O2 electrode. Immediately following the addition of ADP, ATP synthesis exceeded the rate of oxidative phosphorylation, fueled by succinate oxidation, due to mitochondrial adenylate kinase (AK) activity two to four times the maximum activity of ATP synthase. Only when the AK reaction approached equilibrium was oxidative phosphorylation the primary mechanism for net ATP synthesis. A pool of sequestered ATP in mitochondria enabled AK and ATP synthase to convert AMP to ATP in the presence of exogenous inorganic phosphate. During this conversion, AK activity can indirectly influence rates of oxidation of both succinate and NADH via changes in mitochondrial ATP. Mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphokinase, in cooperation with ATP synthase, was found to facilitate phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates other than ADP at rates similar to the maximum rate of oxidative phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that plant mitochondria contain all of the machinery necessary to rapidly regenerate nucleoside triphosphates from AMP and nucleoside diphosphates made during cellular biosynthesis and that AK activity can affect both the amount of ADP available to ATP synthase and the level of ATP regulating electron transport

  7. Overexpression of mitochondrial sirtuins alters glycolysis and mitochondrial function in HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Barbi de Moura

    Full Text Available SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are mitochondrial deacylases that impact multiple facets of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. SIRT3 activates several mitochondrial enzymes, SIRT4 represses its targets, and SIRT5 has been shown to both activate and repress mitochondrial enzymes. To gain insight into the relative effects of the mitochondrial sirtuins in governing mitochondrial energy metabolism, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 overexpressing HEK293 cells were directly compared. When grown under standard cell culture conditions (25 mM glucose all three sirtuins induced increases in mitochondrial respiration, glycolysis, and glucose oxidation, but with no change in growth rate or in steady-state ATP concentration. Increased proton leak, as evidenced by oxygen consumption in the presence of oligomycin, appeared to explain much of the increase in basal oxygen utilization. Growth in 5 mM glucose normalized the elevations in basal oxygen consumption, proton leak, and glycolysis in all sirtuin over-expressing cells. While the above effects were common to all three mitochondrial sirtuins, some differences between the SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 expressing cells were noted. Only SIRT3 overexpression affected fatty acid metabolism, and only SIRT4 overexpression altered superoxide levels and mitochondrial membrane potential. We conclude that all three mitochondrial sirtuins can promote increased mitochondrial respiration and cellular metabolism. SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 appear to respond to excess glucose by inducing a coordinated increase of glycolysis and respiration, with the excess energy dissipated via proton leak.

  8. Site of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in skeletal muscle of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its relationship with exercise oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Maestu, Luis; Tejedor, Alberto; Lázaro, Alberto; de Miguel, Javier; Alvarez-Sala, Luis; González-Aragoneses, Federico; Simón, Carlos; Agustí, Alvar

    2012-09-01

    Exercise triggers skeletal muscle oxidative stress in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this research was to study the specific sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle of patients with COPD and its relationship with local oxidative stress induced by exercise. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained in 16 patients with COPD (66 ± 10 yr; FEV(1), 54 ± 12% ref) and in 14 control subjects with normal lung function who required surgery because of lung cancer (65 ± 7 yr; FEV(1), 91 ± 14% ref) at rest and after exercise. In these biopsies we isolated mitochondria and mitochondrial membrane fragments and determined in vitro mitochondrial oxygen consumption (Mit$$\\stackrel{.}{\\hbox{ V }}$$o(2)) and ROS production before and after inhibition of complex I (rotenone), complex II (stigmatellin), and complex III (antimycin-A). We related the in vitro ROS production during state 3 respiration), which mostly corresponds to the mitochondria respiratory state during exercise, with skeletal muscle oxidative stress after exercise, as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances.State 3 Mit$$\\stackrel{.}{\\hbox{ V }}$$o(2) was similar in patients with COPD and control subjects (191 ± 27 versus 229 ± 46 nmol/min/mg; P = 0.058), whereas H(2)O(2) production was higher in the former (147 ± 39 versus 51 ± 8 pmol/mg/h; P release by mitochondria in patients with COPD and in control subjects. The mitochondrial production of H(2)O(2) in state 3 respiration was related (r = 0.69; P < 0.001) to postexercise muscle thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels. Our results show that complex III is the main site of the enhanced mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production that occurs in skeletal muscle of patients with COPD, and the latter appears to contribute to muscle oxidative damage.

  9. 31P magnetization transfer measurements of Pi→ATP flux in exercising human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, Alison; Savage, David B; Williams, Guy B; Porter, David; Carpenter, T Adrian; Brindle, Kevin M; Kemp, Graham J

    2016-03-15

    Fundamental criticisms have been made over the use of (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) magnetization transfer estimates of inorganic phosphate (Pi)→ATP flux (VPi-ATP) in human resting skeletal muscle for assessing mitochondrial function. Although the discrepancy in the magnitude of VPi-ATP is now acknowledged, little is known about its metabolic determinants. Here we use a novel protocol to measure VPi-ATP in human exercising muscle for the first time. Steady-state VPi-ATP was measured at rest and over a range of exercise intensities and compared with suprabasal oxidative ATP synthesis rates estimated from the initial rates of postexercise phosphocreatine resynthesis (VATP). We define a surplus Pi→ATP flux as the difference between VPi-ATP and VATP. The coupled reactions catalyzed by the glycolytic enzymes GAPDH and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) have been shown to catalyze measurable exchange between ATP and Pi in some systems and have been suggested to be responsible for this surplus flux. Surplus VPi-ATP did not change between rest and exercise, even though the concentrations of Pi and ADP, which are substrates for GAPDH and PGK, respectively, increased as expected. However, involvement of these enzymes is suggested by correlations between absolute and surplus Pi→ATP flux, both at rest and during exercise, and the intensity of the phosphomonoester peak in the (31)P NMR spectrum. This peak includes contributions from sugar phosphates in the glycolytic pathway, and changes in its intensity may indicate changes in downstream glycolytic intermediates, including 3-phosphoglycerate, which has been shown to influence the exchange between ATP and Pi catalyzed by GAPDH and PGK. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Epilepsy and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P. Saneto DO, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. In a large cohort of children and adolescents with mitochondrial disease (n = 180, over 48% of patients developed seizures. The majority (68% of patients were younger than 3 years and medically intractable (90%. The electroencephalographic pattern of multiregional epileptiform discharges over the left and right hemisphere with background slowing occurred in 62%. The epilepsy syndrome, infantile spasms, was seen in 17%. Polymerase γ mutations were the most common genetic etiology of seizures, representing Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (14%. The severity of disease in those patients with epilepsy was significant, as 13% of patients experienced early death. Simply the loss of energy production cannot explain the development of seizures or all patients with mitochondrial dysfunction would have epilepsy. Until the various aspects of mitochondrial physiology that are involved in proper brain development are understood, epilepsy and its treatment will remain unsatisfactory.

  11. Hypobaric Hypoxia Imbalances Mitochondrial Dynamics in Rat Brain Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushbu Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain is predominantly susceptible to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction during hypobaric hypoxia, and therefore undergoes neurodegeneration due to energy crisis. Evidences illustrate a high degree of association for mitochondrial fusion/fission imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial fusion/fission is a recently reported dynamic mechanism which frequently occurs among cellular mitochondrial network. Hence, the study investigated the temporal alteration and involvement of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics (fusion/fission along with disturbed mitochondrial functionality during chronic exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (HH. The Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to simulated high altitude equivalent to 25000 ft for 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Mitochondrial morphology, distribution within neurons, enzyme activity of respiratory complexes, Δψm, ADP: ATP, and expression of fission/fusion key proteins were determined. Results demonstrated HH induced alteration in mitochondrial morphology by damaged, small mitochondria observed in neurons with disturbance of mitochondrial functionality and reduced mitochondrial density in neuronal processes manifested by excessive mitochondrial fragmentation (fission and decreased mitochondrial fusion as compared to unexposed rat brain hippocampus. The study suggested that imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics is one of the noteworthy mechanisms occurring in hippocampal neurons during HH insult.

  12. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier function determines cell stemness and metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoran; Kan, Quancheng; Fan, Zhirui; Li, Yaqing; Ji, Yasai; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Mingzhi; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Berge, Viktor; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; M. Nesland, Jahn; Suo, Zhenhe

    2017-01-01

    One of the remarkable features of cancer cells is aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the “Warburg Effect”, in which cells rely preferentially on glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as the main energy source even in the presence of high oxygen tension. Cells with dysfunctional mitochondria are unable to generate sufficient ATP from mitochondrial OXPHOS, and then are forced to rely on glycolysis for ATP generation. Here we report our results in a prostate cancer cell line in which the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) gene was knockout. It was discovered that the MPC1 gene knockout cells revealed a metabolism reprogramming to aerobic glycolysis with reduced ATP production, and the cells became more migratory and resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In addition, the MPC1 knockout cells expressed significantly higher levels of the stemness markers Nanog, Hif1α, Notch1, CD44 and ALDH. To further verify the correlation of MPC gene function and cell stemness/metabolic reprogramming, MPC inhibitor UK5099 was applied in two ovarian cancer cell lines and similar results were obtained. Taken together, our results reveal that functional MPC may determine the fate of metabolic program and the stemness status of cancer cells in vitro. PMID:28624784

  13. Mitochondrial flash as a novel biomarker of mitochondrial respiration in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Guohua; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Huiliang; Sheu, Shey-Shing; Wang, Wang

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial respiration through electron transport chain (ETC) activity generates ATP and reactive oxygen species in eukaryotic cells. The modulation of mitochondrial respiration in vivo or under physiological conditions remains elusive largely due to the lack of appropriate approach to monitor ETC activity in a real-time manner. Here, we show that ETC-coupled mitochondrial flash is a novel biomarker for monitoring mitochondrial respiration under pathophysiological conditions in cultured adult cardiac myocyte and perfused beating heart. Through real-time confocal imaging, we follow the frequency of a transient bursting fluorescent signal, named mitochondrial flash, from individual mitochondria within intact cells expressing a mitochondrial matrix-targeted probe, mt-cpYFP (mitochondrial-circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein). This mt-cpYFP recorded mitochondrial flash has been shown to be composed of a major superoxide signal with a minor alkalization signal within the mitochondrial matrix. Through manipulating physiological substrates for mitochondrial respiration, we find a close coupling between flash frequency and the ETC electron flow, as measured by oxygen consumption rate in cardiac myocyte. Stimulating electron flow under physiological conditions increases flash frequency. On the other hand, partially block or slowdown electron flow by inhibiting the F0F1 ATPase, which represents a pathological condition, transiently increases then decreases flash frequency. Limiting electron entrance at complex I by knocking out Ndufs4, an assembling subunit of complex I, suppresses mitochondrial flash activity. These results suggest that mitochondrial electron flow can be monitored by real-time imaging of mitochondrial flash. The mitochondrial flash frequency could be used as a novel biomarker for mitochondrial respiration under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Role of polyhydroxybutyrate in mitochondrial calcium uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithen, Matthew; Elustondo, Pia A.; Winkfein, Robert; Zakharian, Eleonora; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Pavlov, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biological polymer which belongs to the class of polyesters and is ubiquitously present in all living organisms. Mammalian mitochondrial membranes contain PHB consisting of up to 120 hydroxybutyrate residues. Roles played by PHB in mammalian mitochondria remain obscure. It was previously demonstrated that PHB of the size similar to one found in mitochondria mediates calcium transport in lipid bilayer membranes. We hypothesized that the presence of PHB in mitochondrial membrane might play a significant role in mitochondrial calcium transport. To test this, we investigated how the induction of PHB hydrolysis affects mitochondrial calcium transport. Mitochondrial PHB was altered enzymatically by targeted expression of bacterial PHB hydrolyzing enzyme (PhaZ7) in mitochondria of mammalian cultured cells. The expression of PhaZ7 induced changes in mitochondrial metabolism resulting in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 but not in U87 and HeLa cells. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited mitochondrial calcium uptake in intact HepG2, U87 and HeLa cells stimulated by the ATP or by the application of increased concentrations of calcium to the digitonin permeabilized cells. Calcium uptake in PhaZ7 expressing cells was restored by mimicking calcium uniporter properties with natural electrogenic calcium ionophore - ferutinin. We propose that PHB is a previously unrecognized important component of the mitochondrial calcium uptake system. PMID:23702223

  15. Modulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics in a skeletal muscle cell line model of mitochondrial toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Dott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial toxicity is increasingly being implicated as a contributing factor to many xenobiotic-induced organ toxicities, including skeletal muscle toxicity. This has necessitated the need for predictive in vitro models that are able to sensitively detect mitochondrial toxicity of chemical entities early in the research and development process. One such cell model involves substituting galactose for glucose in the culture media. Since cells cultured in galactose are unable to generate sufficient ATP from glycolysis they are forced to rely on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for ATP generation and consequently are more sensitive to mitochondrial perturbation than cells grown in glucose. The aim of this study was to characterise cellular growth, bioenergetics and mitochondrial toxicity of the L6 rat skeletal muscle cell line cultured in either high glucose or galactose media. L6 myoblasts proliferated more slowly when cultured in galactose media, although they maintained similar levels of ATP. Galactose cultured L6 cells were significantly more sensitive to classical mitochondrial toxicants than glucose-cultured cells, confirming the cells had adapted to galactose media. Analysis of bioenergetic function with the XF Seahorse extracellular flux analyser demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR was significantly increased whereas extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, a measure of glycolysis, was decreased in cells grown in galactose. Mitochondria operated closer to state 3 respiration and had a lower mitochondrial membrane potential and basal mitochondrial O2·– level compared to cells in the glucose model. An antimycin A (AA dose response revealed that there was no difference in the sensitivity of OCR to AA inhibition between glucose and galactose cells. Importantly, cells in glucose were able to up-regulate glycolysis, while galactose cells were not. These results confirm that L6 cells are able to adapt to growth in a

  16. Ischemic preconditioning improves mitochondrial tolerance to experimental calcium overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestanello, Juan A; Doliba, Nicolai M; Babsky, Andriy M; Doliba, Natalia M; Niibori, Koki; Whitman, Glenn J R; Osbakken, Mary D

    2002-04-01

    Ca(2+) overload leads to mitochondrial uncoupling, decreased ATP synthesis, and myocardial dysfunction. Pharmacologically opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels decreases mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, improving mitochondrial function during Ca(2+) overload. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), by activating mitochondrial K(ATP) channels, may attenuate mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and improve mitochondrial function during reperfusion. The purpose of these experiments was to study the effect of IPC (1) on mitochondrial function and (2) on mitochondrial tolerance to experimental Ca(2+) overload. Rat hearts (n = 6/group) were subjected to (a) 30 min of equilibration, 25 min of ischemia, and 30 min of reperfusion (Control) or (b) two 5-min episodes of ischemic preconditioning, 25 min of ischemia, and 30 min of reperfusion (IPC). Developed pressure (DP) was measured. Heart mitochondria were isolated at end-Equilibration (end-EQ) and at end-Reperfusion (end-RP). Mitochondrial respiratory function (state 2, oxygen consumption with substrate only; state 3, oxygen consumption stimulated by ADP; state 4, oxygen consumption after cessation of ADP phosphorylation; respiratory control index (RCI, state 3/state 4); rate of oxidative phosphorylation (ADP/Deltat), and ADP:O ratio) was measured with polarography using alpha-ketoglutarate as a substrate in the presence of different Ca(2+) concentrations (0 to 5 x 10(-7) M) to simulate Ca(2+) overload. IPC improved DP at end-RP. IPC did not improve preischemic mitochondrial respiratory function or preischemic mitochondrial response to Ca(2+) loading. IPC improved state 3, ADP/Deltat, and RCI during RP. Low Ca(2+) levels (0.5 and 1 x 10(-7) M) stimulated mitochondrial function in both groups predominantly in IPC. The Control group showed evidence of mitochondrial uncoupling at lower Ca(2+) concentrations (1 x 10(-7) M). IPC preserved state 3 at high Ca(2+) concentrations. The cardioprotective effect of IPC results, in part, from

  17. Tributyltin induces mitochondrial fission through Mfn1 degradation in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Asanagi, Miki; Hirata, Naoya; Itagaki, Hiroshi; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2016-08-01

    Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT), are well-known endocrine disruptors. TBT is also known to cause various forms of cytotoxicity, including neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity. However, TBT toxicity has not been identified in normal stem cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of TBT on cell growth in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We found that exposure to nanomolar concentrations of TBT decreased intracellular ATP levels and inhibited cell viability in iPSCs. Because TBT suppressed energy production, which is a critical function of the mitochondria, we further assessed the effects of TBT on mitochondrial dynamics. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that nanomolar concentrations of TBT induced mitochondrial fragmentation. TBT also reduced the expression of mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), and this effect was abolished by knockdown of the E3 ubiquitin ligase membrane-associated RING-CH 5 (MARCH5), suggesting that nanomolar concentrations of TBT could induce mitochondrial dysfunction via MARCH5-mediated Mfn1 degradation in iPSCs. Thus, mitochondrial function in normal stem cells could be used to assess cytotoxicity associated with metal exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resveratrol attenuates methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by Sestrin2 induction

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    Seo, Kyuhwa; Seo, Suho; Han, Jae Yun; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Sang Mi, E-mail: smshin@chosun.ac.kr

    2014-10-15

    Methylglyoxal is found in high levels in the blood and other tissues of diabetic patients and exerts deleterious effects on cells and tissues. Previously, we reported that resveratrol, a polyphenol in grapes, induced the expression of Sestrin2 (SESN2), a novel antioxidant protein, and inhibited hepatic lipogenesis. This study investigated whether resveratrol protects cells from the methylglyoxal-induced toxicity via SESN2 induction. Methylglyoxal significantly induced cell death in HepG2 cells. However, cells pretreated with resveratrol were rescued from methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. Resveratrol attenuated glutathione (GSH) depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. Moreover, mitochondrial damage was observed by methylglyoxal treatment, but resveratrol restored mitochondrial function, as evidenced by the observed lack of mitochondrial permeability transition and increased ADP/ATP ratio. Resveratrol treatment inhibited SESN2 depletion elicited by methylglyoxal. SESN2 overexpression repressed methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Likewise, rotenone-induced cytotoxicity was not observed in SESN2 overexpressed cells. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of SESN2 reduced the ability of resveratrol to prevent methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. In addition, when mice were exposed to methylglyoxal after infection of Ad-SESN2, the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and GSH depletion by methylglyoxal in liver was reduced in Ad-SESN2 infected mice. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol is capable of protecting cells from methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress via SESN2 induction. - Highlights: • Resveratrol decreased methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. • Resveratrol attenuated GSH depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. • Resveratrol restored the mitochondrial function by Sestrin2 induction. • Induction of Sestrin2

  19. Resveratrol attenuates methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by Sestrin2 induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyuhwa; Seo, Suho; Han, Jae Yun; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Sang Mi

    2014-01-01

    Methylglyoxal is found in high levels in the blood and other tissues of diabetic patients and exerts deleterious effects on cells and tissues. Previously, we reported that resveratrol, a polyphenol in grapes, induced the expression of Sestrin2 (SESN2), a novel antioxidant protein, and inhibited hepatic lipogenesis. This study investigated whether resveratrol protects cells from the methylglyoxal-induced toxicity via SESN2 induction. Methylglyoxal significantly induced cell death in HepG2 cells. However, cells pretreated with resveratrol were rescued from methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. Resveratrol attenuated glutathione (GSH) depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. Moreover, mitochondrial damage was observed by methylglyoxal treatment, but resveratrol restored mitochondrial function, as evidenced by the observed lack of mitochondrial permeability transition and increased ADP/ATP ratio. Resveratrol treatment inhibited SESN2 depletion elicited by methylglyoxal. SESN2 overexpression repressed methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Likewise, rotenone-induced cytotoxicity was not observed in SESN2 overexpressed cells. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of SESN2 reduced the ability of resveratrol to prevent methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. In addition, when mice were exposed to methylglyoxal after infection of Ad-SESN2, the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and GSH depletion by methylglyoxal in liver was reduced in Ad-SESN2 infected mice. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol is capable of protecting cells from methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress via SESN2 induction. - Highlights: • Resveratrol decreased methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. • Resveratrol attenuated GSH depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. • Resveratrol restored the mitochondrial function by Sestrin2 induction. • Induction of Sestrin2

  20. Cytosolic Calcium Coordinates Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism with Presynaptic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Amit K.; Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Macleod, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations which blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+, and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs. PMID:22279208

  1. Keragaman Genetik Sekuen Gen ATP Synthase FO Subunit 6 (ATP6 Monyet Hantu (Tarsius Indonesia (GENETIC DIVERSITY STUDY OF ATP6 GENE SEQUENCES OF TARSIERS FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Widayanti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a conservation effort, the identification of Tarsier species, on the bases of the morphological andmolecular characteristic is necessary. Up to now, the identification of the animals were based on themorphology and vocalizations, which is extremely difficult to identify each, tarsier species. The objective ofthis research was to study the genetic diversity on ATP6 gene of Tarsius sp. Based on sequencing of PCRproduct using primer ATP6F and ATP6R with 681 nts. PCR product. The sequence of ATP6 fragmentswere aligned with other primates from Gene bank with aid of software Clustal W, and were analyzed usingMEGA program version 4.0. Three different nucleotide sites were found (nucleotide no. 288, 321 and 367.The genetic distance based on nucleotide ATP6 sequence calculated using Kimura 2-parameter modelindicated that the smallest genetic distance 0%, biggest 0.8% and average 0, 2%. The phylogenetic treeusing neighbor joining method based on the sequence of nucleotide ATP6 gene could not be used todifferentiate among T. Dianae (from Central Sulawesi, T. Spectrum (from North Sulawesi, T. bancanus(from lampung, South Sumatera and T.bancanus from West Kalimantan.

  2. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Gary W; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K

    2011-11-11

    Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with (31)P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by (13)C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-(13)C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM was found to be congruous with the correlation in KRB. Together, these results suggest that signaling mechanisms associated with both TCA cycle flux and with anaplerotic flux, but not ATP production, may be responsible for the enhanced rates of insulin secretion in more complex, and physiologically-relevant media. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  3. CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through upregulating L-type calcium channel activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-09-01

    A specialized culture medium termed ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) allows investigators to assess the peripheral effects of CNTF-induced activated astrocytes upon cultured neurons. CNTF-ACM has been shown to upregulate neuronal L-type calcium channel current activity, which has been previously linked to changes in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons. Cortical neurons, CNTF-ACM, and untreated control astrocyte-conditioned medium (UC-ACM) were prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat cortical tissue. Neurons were cultured in either CNTF-ACM or UC-ACM for a 48-h period. Changes in the following parameters before and after treatment with the L-type calcium channel blocker isradipine were assessed: (i) intracellular calcium levels, (ii) mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), (iii) oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation, (iv) intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, (v) mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and (vi) susceptibility to the mitochondrial complex I toxin rotenone. CNTF-ACM neurons displayed the following significant changes relative to UC-ACM neurons: (i) increased intracellular calcium levels (p ACM (p ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through elevating L-type calcium channel activity.

  4. Induction of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Itraconazole, Terbinafine, and Amphotericin B as a Mode of Action against Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhova, Elena; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A

    2017-11-01

    Drug resistance in fungal pathogens is of incredible importance to global health, yet the mechanisms of drug action remain only loosely defined. Antifungal compounds have been shown to trigger the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human-pathogenic yeasts, but the source of those ROS remained unknown. In the present study, we examined the role of endogenous ROS for the antifungal activity of the three different antifungal substances itraconazole, terbinafine, and amphotericin B, which all target the fungal cell membrane. All three antifungals had an impact on fungal redox homeostasis by causing increased intracellular ROS production. Interestingly, the elevated ROS levels induced by antifungals were abolished by inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory complex I with rotenone. Further, evaluation of lipid peroxidation using the thiobarbituric acid assay revealed that rotenone pretreatment decreased ROS-induced lipid peroxidation during incubation of Aspergillus fumigatus with itraconazole and terbinafine. By applying the mitochondrion-specific lipid peroxidation probe MitoPerOx, we also confirmed that ROS are induced in mitochondria and subsequently cause significant oxidation of mitochondrial membrane in the presence of terbinafine and amphotericin B. To summarize, our study suggests that the induction of ROS production contributes to the ability of antifungal compounds to inhibit fungal growth. Moreover, mitochondrial complex I is the main source of deleterious ROS production in A. fumigatus challenged with antifungal compounds. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. How do yeast sense mitochondrial dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Knorre

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart from energy transformation, mitochondria play important signaling roles. In yeast, mitochondrial signaling relies on several molecular cascades. However, it is not clear how a cell detects a particular mitochondrial malfunction. The problem is that there are many possible manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction. For example, exposure to the specific antibiotics can either decrease (inhibitors of respiratory chain or increase (inhibitors of ATP-synthase mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Moreover, even in the absence of the dysfunctions, a cell needs feedback from mitochondria to coordinate mitochondrial biogenesis and/or removal by mitophagy during the division cycle. To cope with the complexity, only a limited set of compounds is monitored by yeast cells to estimate mitochondrial functionality. The known examples of such compounds are ATP, reactive oxygen species, intermediates of amino acids synthesis, short peptides, Fe-S clusters and heme, and also the precursor proteins which fail to be imported by mitochondria. On one hand, the levels of these molecules depend not only on mitochondria. On the other hand, these substances are recognized by the cytosolic sensors which transmit the signals to the nucleus leading to general, as opposed to mitochondria-specific, transcriptional response. Therefore, we argue that both ways of mitochondria-to-nucleus communication in yeast are mostly (if not completely unspecific, are mediated by the cytosolic signaling machinery and strongly depend on cellular metabolic state.

  6. Over-expression of mitochondrial creatine kinase in the murine heart improves functional recovery and protects against injury following ischaemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Hannah J; Ostrowski, Philip J; McAndrew, Debra J; Cao, Fang; Shaw, Andrew; Eykyn, Thomas R; Lake, Hannah; Tyler, Jack; Schneider, Jurgen E; Neubauer, Stefan; Zervou, Sevasti; Lygate, Craig A

    2018-03-02

    Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) couples ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation to phosphocreatine in the cytosol, which acts as a mobile energy store available for regeneration of ATP at times of high demand. We hypothesised that elevating MtCK would be beneficial in ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mice were created overexpressing the sarcomeric MtCK gene with αMHC promoter at the Rosa26 locus (MtCK-OE) and compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. MtCK activity was 27% higher than WT, with no change in other CK isoenzymes or creatine levels. Electron microscopy confirmed normal mitochondrial cell density and mitochondrial localisation of transgenic protein. Respiration in isolated mitochondria was unaltered and metabolomic analysis by 1H-NMR suggests that cellular metabolism was not grossly affected by transgene expression. There were no significant differences in cardiac structure or function under baseline conditions by cine-MRI or LV haemodynamics. In Langendorff-perfused hearts subjected to 20min ischaemia and 30 min reperfusion, MtCK-OE exhibited less ischaemic contracture and improved functional recovery (Rate pressure product 58% above WT; P < 0.001). These hearts had reduced myocardial infarct size, which was confirmed in vivo: 55±4% in WT vs 29±4% in MtCK-OE; P < 0.0001). Isolated cardiomyocytes from MtCK-OE hearts exhibited delayed opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) compared to WT, which was confirmed by reduced mitochondrial swelling in response to calcium. There was no detectable change in the structural integrity of the mitochondrial membrane. Modest elevation of MtCK activity in the heart does not adversely affect cellular metabolism, mitochondrial or in vivo cardiac function, but modifies mPTP opening to protect against I/R injury and improve functional recovery. Our findings support MtCK as a prime therapeutic target in myocardial ischaemia.

  7. Use of luciferase probes to measure ATP in living cells and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morciano, Giampaolo; Sarti, Alba Clara; Marchi, Saverio; Missiroli, Sonia; Falzoni, Simonetta; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Pistoia, Vito; Giorgi, Carlotta; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Pinton, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    ATP, the energy exchange factor that connects anabolism and catabolism, is required for major reactions and processes that occur in living cells, such as muscle contraction, phosphorylation and active transport. ATP is also the key molecule in extracellular purinergic signaling mechanisms, with an established crucial role in inflammation and several additional disease conditions. Here, we describe detailed protocols to measure the ATP concentration in isolated living cells and animals using luminescence techniques based on targeted luciferase probes. In the presence of magnesium, oxygen and ATP, the protein luciferase catalyzes oxidation of the substrate luciferin, which is associated with light emission. Recombinantly expressed wild-type luciferase is exclusively cytosolic; however, adding specific targeting sequences can modify its cellular localization. Using this strategy, we have constructed luciferase chimeras targeted to the mitochondrial matrix and the outer surface of the plasma membrane. Here, we describe optimized protocols for monitoring ATP concentrations in the cytosol, mitochondrial matrix and pericellular space in living cells via an overall procedure that requires an average of 3 d. In addition, we present a detailed protocol for the in vivo detection of extracellular ATP in mice using luciferase-transfected reporter cells. This latter procedure may require up to 25 d to complete.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA damage and oxidative damage in HL-60 cells exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yulong; Zong, Lin; Gao, Zhen [School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhu, Shunxing [Laboratory Animal Center, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China); Tong, Jian [School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Cao, Yi, E-mail: yicao@suda.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Increased reactive oxygen species. • Decreased mitochondrial transcription Factor A and polymerase gamma. • Decreased mitochondrial transcripts (ND1 and 16S) and mtDNA copy number. • Increased 8-hydroxy-2′deoxyguanosine. • Decreased adenosine triphosphate. - Abstract: HL-60 cells, derived from human promyelocytic leukemia, were exposed to continuous wave 900 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 120 μW/cm{sup 2} power intensity for 4 h/day for 5 consecutive days to examine whether such exposure is capable damaging the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the effect of RF exposure was examined on 8-hydroxy-2′-dexoyguanosine (8-OHdG) which is a biomarker for oxidative damage and on the mitochondrial synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is the energy required for cellular functions. The results indicated a significant increase in ROS and significant decreases in mitochondrial transcription factor A, mtDNA polymerase gamma, mtDNA transcripts and mtDNA copy number in RF-exposed cells compared with those in sham-exposed control cells. In addition, there was a significant increase in 8-OHdG and a significant decrease in ATP in RF-exposed cells. The response in positive control cells exposed to gamma radiation (GR, which is also known to induce ROS) was similar to those in RF-exposed cells. Thus, the overall data indicated that RF exposure was capable of inducing mtDNA damage mediated through ROS pathway which also induced oxidative damage. Prior-treatment of RF- and GR-exposed the cells with melatonin, a well-known free radical scavenger, reversed the effects observed in RF-exposed cells.

  9. Ethanol induced hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is attenuated by all trans retinoic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Saritha S; Prathibha, P; Rejitha, S; Indira, M

    2015-08-15

    Alcoholics have reduced vitamin A levels in serum since vitamin A and ethanol share the same metabolic pathway. Vitamin A supplementation has an additive effect on ethanol induced toxicity. Hence in this study, we assessed the impact of supplementation of all trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an active metabolite of vitamin A on ethanol induced disruptive alterations in liver mitochondria. Male Sprague Dawley rats were grouped as follows: I: Control; II: Ethanol (4 g/kg b.wt./day); III: ATRA (100 μg/kg b.wt./day); and IV: Ethanol (4 g/kg b.wt./day)+ATRA (100 μg/kg b.wt./day). Duration of the experiment was 90 days, after which the animals were sacrificed for the study. The key enzymes of energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential and hepatic mRNA expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, c-fos and c-jun were assessed. Ethanol administration increased the reactive oxygen species generation in mitochondria. It also decreased the activities of the enzymes of citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential were decreased and cytosolic cytochrome c was increased consequently enhancing apoptosis. All these alterations were altered significantly on ATRA supplementation along with ethanol. These results were reinforced by our histopathological studies. ATRA supplementation to ethanol fed rats, led to reduction in oxidative stress, decreased calcium overload in the matrix and increased mitochondrial membrane potential, which might have altered the mitochondrial energy metabolism and elevated ATP production thereby reducing the apoptotic alterations. Hence ATRA supplementation seemed to be an effective intervention against alcohol induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA repair and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandavilli, Bhaskar S.; Santos, Janine H.; Van Houten, Bennett

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain plays an important role in energy production in aerobic organisms and is also a significant source of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA, RNA and proteins in the cell. Oxidative damage to the mitochondrial DNA is implicated in various degenerative diseases, cancer and aging. The importance of mitochondrial ROS in age-related degenerative diseases is further strengthened by studies using animal models, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and yeast. Research in the last several years shows that mitochondrial DNA is more susceptible to various carcinogens and ROS when compared to nuclear DNA. DNA damage in mammalian mitochondria is repaired by base excision repair (BER). Studies have shown that mitochondria contain all the enzymes required for BER. Mitochondrial DNA damage, if not repaired, leads to disruption of electron transport chain and production of more ROS. This vicious cycle of ROS production and mtDNA damage ultimately leads to energy depletion in the cell and apoptosis

  11. Mitochondrial DNA repair and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandavilli, Bhaskar S.; Santos, Janine H.; Van Houten, Bennett

    2002-11-30

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain plays an important role in energy production in aerobic organisms and is also a significant source of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA, RNA and proteins in the cell. Oxidative damage to the mitochondrial DNA is implicated in various degenerative diseases, cancer and aging. The importance of mitochondrial ROS in age-related degenerative diseases is further strengthened by studies using animal models, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and yeast. Research in the last several years shows that mitochondrial DNA is more susceptible to various carcinogens and ROS when compared to nuclear DNA. DNA damage in mammalian mitochondria is repaired by base excision repair (BER). Studies have shown that mitochondria contain all the enzymes required for BER. Mitochondrial DNA damage, if not repaired, leads to disruption of electron transport chain and production of more ROS. This vicious cycle of ROS production and mtDNA damage ultimately leads to energy depletion in the cell and apoptosis.

  12. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2∙- production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined.

  13. Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Different Routes to Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Picone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are dynamic ATP-generating organelle which contribute to many cellular functions including bioenergetics processes, intracellular calcium regulation, alteration of reduction-oxidation potential of cells, free radical scavenging, and activation of caspase mediated cell death. Mitochondrial functions can be negatively affected by amyloid β peptide (Aβ, an important component in Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathogenesis, and Aβ can interact with mitochondria and cause mitochondrial dysfunction. One of the most accepted hypotheses for AD onset implicates that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are one of the primary events in the insurgence of the pathology. Here, we examine structural and functional mitochondrial changes in presence of Aβ. In particular we review data concerning Aβ import into mitochondrion and its involvement in mitochondrial oxidative stress, bioenergetics, biogenesis, trafficking, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP formation, and mitochondrial protein interaction. Moreover, the development of AD therapy targeting mitochondria is also discussed.

  14. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb’s cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, Gary W.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. ► Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. ► Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. ► Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with 31 P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by 13 C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U- 13 C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM

  15. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, Gary W., E-mail: gary.cline@yale.edu [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Papas, Klearchos K. [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with {sup 31}P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by {sup 13}C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found

  16. Human mitochondrial haplogroup H: the highest VO2max consumer--is it a paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Marcuello, Ana; Casajús, José A; Ara, Ignacio; Dahmani, Yahya; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; López-Pérez, Manuel J; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-03-01

    Mitochondrial background has been demonstrated to influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max), in mLkg(-1)min(-1)), but this genetic influence can be compensated for by regular exercise. A positive correlation among electron transport chain (ETC) coupling, ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been established, and mitochondrial variants have been reported to show differences in their ETC performance. In this study, we examined in detail the VO(2max) differences found among mitochondrial haplogroups. We recruited 81 healthy male Spanish Caucasian individuals and determined their mitochondrial haplogroup. Their VO(2max) was determined using incremental cycling exercise (ICE). VO(2max) was lower in J than in non-J haplogroup individuals (P=0.04). The H haplogroup was responsible for this difference (VO(2max); J vs. H; P=0.008) and this group also had significantly higher mitochondrial oxidative damage (mtOD) than the J haplogroup (P=0.04). In agreement with these results, VO(2max) and mtOD were positively correlated (P=0.01). Given that ROS production is the major contributor to mtOD and consumes four times more oxygen per electron than the ETC, our results strongly suggest that ROS production is responsible for the higher VO(2max) found in the H variant. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underneath VO(2max), but also help to explain some reported associations between mitochondrial haplogroups and mtOD with longevity, sperm motility, premature aging and susceptibility to different pathologies.

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Aline Haas; Costa, Ana Beatriz; Engel, Jéssica Della Giustina; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza

    2018-01-01

    Obesity leads to various changes in the body. Among them, the existing inflammatory process may lead to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, in turn, can trigger mitochondrial changes, which is called mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, excess nutrients supply (as it commonly is the case with obesity) can overwhelm the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain, causing a mitochondrial dysfunction, and lead to a higher ROS formation. This increase in ROS production by the respiratory chain may also cause oxidative stress, which may exacerbate the inflammatory process in obesity. All these intracellular changes can lead to cellular apoptosis. These processes have been described in obesity as occurring mainly in peripheral tissues. However, some studies have already shown that obesity is also associated with changes in the central nervous system (CNS), with alterations in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in cerebral structures such as hypothalamus and hippocampus. In this sense, this review presents a general view about mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity, including related alterations, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, and focusing on the whole organism, covering alterations in peripheral tissues, BBB, and CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diminished synthesis of subunit a (ATP6) and altered function of ATP synthase and cytochrome c oxidase due to the mtDNA 2 bp microdeletion of TA at positions 9205 and 9206

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ješina, Pavel; Tesařová, M.; Fornůsková, D.; Vojtíšková, Alena; Pecina, Petr; Kaplanová, Vilma; Hansíková, H.; Zeman, J.; Houštěk, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 383, č. 3 (2004), s. 561-571 ISSN 0264-6021 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/03/0749; GA MZd(CZ) NR7790; GA MZd(CZ) NR8065 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 14/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : ATP6 * ATP synthase * mitochondrial disease Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.278, year: 2004

  19. Mitochondrial Myopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... noting “soft signs” in unaffected relatives. These include deaf- ness, short stature, migraine headaches and PEO. Muscle ... mitochondrial defects and provide valuable information for family planning. Perhaps most important, knowing the genetic defects that ...

  20. Insulin resistance in HIV-infected youth is associated with decreased mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Jody K; Miller, Tracie L; Wang, Jiajia; Jacobson, Denise L; Geffner, Mitchell E; Van Dyke, Russell B; Gerschenson, Mariana

    2017-01-02

    To identify relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and mitochondrial respiration in perinatally HIV-infected youth. Case-control study. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed in perinatally HIV-infected youth in Tanner stages 2-5, 25 youth with IR (IR+) and 50 without IR (IR-) who were enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. IR was defined as a homeostatic model of assessment for IR value at least 4.0. A novel, high-throughput oximetry method was used to evaluate cellular respiration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Unadjusted and adjusted differences in mitochondrial respiration markers between IR+ and IR- were evaluated, as were correlations between mitochondrial respiration markers and biochemical measurements. IR+ and IR- youth were similar on age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Mean age was 16.5 and 15.6 years in IR+ and IR-, respectively. The IR+ group had significantly higher mean BMI and metabolic analytes (fasting glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and venous lactate and pyruvate) compared with the IR-. Mitochondrial respiration markers were, on average, lower in the IR+ compared with IR-, including basal respiration (417.5 vs. 597.5 pmol, P = 0.074), ATP production (11 513 vs. 15 202 pmol, P = 0.078), proton leak (584.6 vs. 790.0 pmol, P = 0.033), maximal respiration (1815 vs. 2399 pmol, P = 0.025), and spare respiration capacity (1162 vs. 2017 pmol, P = 0.032). Nonmitochondrial respiration did not differ by IR status. The results did not change when adjusted for age. HIV-infected youth with IR have lower mitochondrial respiration markers when compared to youth without IR. Disordered mitochondrial respiration may be a potential mechanism for IR in this population.

  1. An integrated model of cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism and calcium dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortassa, Sonia; Aon, Miguel A; Marbán, Eduardo; Winslow, Raimond L; O'Rourke, Brian

    2003-04-01

    We present an integrated thermokinetic model describing control of cardiac mitochondrial bioenergetics. The model describes the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling. The kinetic component of the model includes effectors of the TCA cycle enzymes regulating production of NADH and FADH(2), which in turn are used by the electron transport chain to establish a proton motive force (Delta mu(H)), driving the F(1)F(0)-ATPase. In addition, mitochondrial matrix Ca(2+), determined by Ca(2+) uniporter and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger activities, regulates activity of the TCA cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. The model is described by twelve ordinary differential equations for the time rate of change of mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi(m)), and matrix concentrations of Ca(2+), NADH, ADP, and TCA cycle intermediates. The model is used to predict the response of mitochondria to changes in substrate delivery, metabolic inhibition, the rate of adenine nucleotide exchange, and Ca(2+). The model is able to reproduce, qualitatively and semiquantitatively, experimental data concerning mitochondrial bioenergetics, Ca(2+) dynamics, and respiratory control. Significant increases in oxygen consumption (V(O(2))), proton efflux, NADH, and ATP synthesis, in response to an increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), are obtained when the Ca(2+)-sensitive dehydrogenases are the main rate-controlling steps of respiratory flux. These responses diminished when control is shifted downstream (e.g., the respiratory chain or adenine nucleotide translocator). The time-dependent behavior of the model, under conditions simulating an increase in workload, closely reproduces experimentally observed mitochondrial NADH dynamics in heart trabeculae subjected to changes in pacing frequency. The steady-state and time-dependent behavior of the model support the hypothesis that mitochondrial matrix Ca(2+) plays an

  2. Aspects of thyroid hormone regulation of mitochondrial function in diabetes and diabetic complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Stine

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has been related to lifestyle, obesity and age; however, T2DM has also been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria produce ATP and during this synthesis, reactive oxygen species are generated. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species are associated...... with development of diabetic complications. ATP-synthesis and ROS-generation are dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which indicate the activity of the mitochondria....

  3. The role of SIGMAR1 gene mutation and mitochondrial dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Kohji; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Tagashira, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients exhibit diverse pathologies such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in motor neurons. Five to ten percent of patients have familial ALS, a form of the disease caused by mutations in ALS-related genes, while sporadic forms of the disease occur in 90-95% of patients. Recently, it was reported that familial ALS patients exhibit a missense mutation in SIGMAR1 (c.304G > C), which encodes sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), substituting glutamine for glutamic acid at amino acid residue 102 (p.E102Q). Expression of that mutant Sig-1R(E102Q) protein reduces mitochondrial ATP production, inhibits proteasome activity and causes mitochondrial injury, aggravating ER stress-induced neuronal death in neuro2A cells. In this issue, we discuss mechanisms underlying mitochondrial impairment seen in ALS motor neurons and propose that therapies that protect mitochondria might improve the quality of life (QOL) of ALS patients and should be considered for clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatiotemporal regulation of ATP and Ca2+ dynamics in vertebrate rod and cone ribbon synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry E; Perkins, Guy A; Giddabasappa, Anand; Chaney, Shawntay; Xiao, Weimin; White, Andrew D; Brown, Joshua M; Waggoner, Jenna; Ellisman, Mark H; Fox, Donald A

    2007-06-15

    In conventional neurons, Ca2+ enters presynaptic terminals during an action potential and its increased local concentration triggers transient exocytosis. In contrast, vertebrate photoreceptors are nonspiking neurons that maintain sustained depolarization and neurotransmitter release from ribbon synapses in darkness and produce light-dependent graded hyperpolarizing responses. Rods transmit single photon responses with high fidelity, whereas cones are less sensitive and exhibit faster response kinetics. These differences are likely due to variations in presynaptic Ca2+ dynamics. Metabolic coupling and cross-talk between mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA), and Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) coordinately control presynaptic ATP production and Ca2+ dynamics. The goal of our structural and functional studies was to determine the spatiotemporal regulation of ATP and Ca2+ dynamics in rod spherules and cone pedicles. Central retina tissue from C57BL/6 mice was used. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) experiments were conducted on fixed-frozen vertical sections. Primary antibodies were selected for their tissue/cellular specificity and ability to recognize single, multiple or all splice variants of selected isoforms. Electron microscopy (EM) and 3-D electron tomography (ET) studies used our standard procedures on thin- and thick-sectioned retinas, respectively. Calibrated fluo-3-Ca2+ imaging experiments of dark- and light-adapted rod and cone terminals in retinal slices were conducted. Confocal microscopy showed that mitochondria, ER, PMCA, and NCX1 exhibited distinct retinal lamination patterns and differential distribution in photoreceptor synapses. Antibodies for three distinct mitochondrial compartments differentially labeled retinal areas with high metabolic demand: rod and cone inner segments, previously undescribed cone juxtanuclear mitochondria and the two plexiform layers. Rod spherule membranes uniformly and intensely

  5. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cardiac function is energetically demanding, reliant on efficient well-coupled mitochondria to generate adenosine triphosphate and fulfill the cardiac demand. Predictably then, mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with cardiac pathologies, often related to metabolic disease, most commonly diabetes. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by decreased left ventricular function, arises independently of coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. Dysregulation of Ca2+ handling, metabolic changes, and oxidative stress are observed in DCM, abnormalities reflected in alterations in mitochondrial energetics. Cardiac tissue from DCM patients also presents with altered mitochondrial morphology, suggesting a possible role of mitochondrial dynamics in its pathological progression. Recent Advances: Abnormal mitochondrial morphology is associated with pathologies across diverse tissues, suggesting that this highly regulated process is essential for proper cell maintenance and physiological homeostasis. Highly structured cardiac myofibers were hypothesized to limit alterations in mitochondrial morphology; however, recent work has identified morphological changes in cardiac tissue, specifically in DCM. Critical Issues: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported independently from observations of altered mitochondrial morphology in DCM. The temporal relationship and causative nature between functional and morphological changes of mitochondria in the establishment/progression of DCM is unclear. Future Directions: Altered mitochondrial energetics and morphology are not only causal for but also consequential to reactive oxygen species production, hence exacerbating oxidative damage through reciprocal amplification, which is integral to the progression of DCM. Therefore, targeting mitochondria for DCM will require better mechanistic characterization of morphological distortion and bioenergetic dysfunction. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1545–1562. PMID

  6. Functional expression of a heterologous nickel-dependent, ATP-independent urease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, N.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Cueto Rojas, H.F.; Wahl, A.; Van Maris, A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    In microbial processes for production of proteins, biomass and nitrogen-containing commodity chemicals, ATP requirements for nitrogen assimilation affect product yields on the energy producing substrate. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a current host for heterologous protein production and potential

  7. Toward an adverse outcome pathway for impaired growth: Mitochondrial dysfunction impairs growth in early life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolser, Derek G; Dreier, David A; Li, Erchao; Kroll, Kevin J; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2018-07-01

    Chemical contaminants present in the environment can affect mitochondrial bioenergetics in aquatic organisms and can have substantial effects on individual fitness. As early life stages of fish are particularly vulnerable to environmental contaminants, they are ideal models for examining the relationship between impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics (ATP-dependent respiration, basal oxidative respiration) and apical endpoints such as growth. Here, early life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), an ecologically relevant North American species, were used to investigate the relationship between mitochondrial bioenergetics and growth following perturbation with model mitochondrial toxicants 2,4-dinitrophenol and octylamine. Fathead minnows were exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol and octylamine at 3 concentrations for 24 h and endpoints related to mitochondrial bioenergetics were measured with the Agilent Seahorse XFe24 Bioanalyzer. In order to link changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics to growth, fathead minnows were exposed to the same chemical contaminants for 7-14 days and growth was measured by measuring total length on a weekly basis. There was a significant correlation between decrease in average length at 14 days and basal respiration (r = 0.997, p = 0.050, n = 3), as well as maximal respiration (r = 0.998, p-value = 0.043, n = 3) for embryos exposed to 2,4 dinitrophenol. For octylamine, ATP production was highly correlated with average length at 7 days (p-value = 0.1) and spare respiratory capacity and average length at 14 days were highly correlated (p-value = 0.1). These data improve understanding of how mitochondrial toxicants impair growth in fish larvae and may be useful for developing an adverse outcome pathway for growth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Regorafenib impairs mitochondrial functions, activates AMP-activated protein kinase, induces autophagy, and causes rat hepatocyte necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Zuquan; Luo, Yong; Yang, Xi; Greenhaw, James J; Li, Haibo; Xie, Liming; Mattes, William B; Shi, Qiang

    2015-01-02

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor regorafenib was approved by regulatory agencies for cancer treatment, albeit with strong warnings of severe hepatotoxicity included in the product label. The basis of this toxicity is unknown; one possible mechanism, that of mitochondrial damage, was tested. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, regorafenib directly uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and promoted calcium overload-induced swelling, which were respectively prevented by the recoupler 6-ketocholestanol (KC) and the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore blocker cyclosporine A (CsA). In primary hepatocytes, regorafenib uncoupled OXPHOS, disrupted mitochondrial inner membrane potential (MMP), and decreased cellular ATP at 1h, and triggered MPT at 3h, which was followed by necrosis but not apoptosis at 7h and 24h, all of which were abrogated by KC. The combination of the glycolysis enhancer fructose plus the mitochondrial ATPase synthase inhibitor oligomycin A abolished regorafenib induced necrosis at 7h. This effect was not seen at 24h nor with the fructose or oligomycin A separately. CsA in combination with trifluoperazine, both MPT blockers, showed similar effects. Two compensatory mechanisms, activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to ameliorate ATP shortage and induction of autophagy to remove dysfunctional mitochondria, were found to be mobilized. Hepatocyte necrosis was enhanced either by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C or the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine, while autophagy inducer rapamycin was strongly cytoprotective. Remarkably, all toxic effects were observed at clinically-relevant concentrations of 2.5-15μM. These data suggest that uncoupling of OXPHOS and the resulting ATP shortage and MPT induction are the key mechanisms for regorafenib induced hepatocyte injury, and AMPK activation and autophagy induction serve as pro-survival pathways against such toxicity. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Hyperglycemia induced damage to mitochondrial respiration in renal mesangial and tubular cells: Implications for diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Czajka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Damage to renal tubular and mesangial cells is central to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN, a complication of diabetes which can lead to renal failure. Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration and produce energy in the form of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in DN. Since the kidney is an organ with high bioenergetic needs, we postulated that hyperglycemia causes damage to renal mitochondria resulting in bioenergetic deficit. The bioenergetic profiles and the effect of hyperglycemia on cellular respiration of human primary mesangial (HMCs and proximal tubular cells (HK-2 were compared in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions using the seahorse bio-analyzer. In normoglycemia, HK-2 had significantly lower basal, ATP-linked and maximal respiration rates, and lower reserve capacity compared to HMCs. Hyperglycemia caused a down-regulation of all respiratory parameters within 4 days in HK-2 but not in HMCs. After 8 days of hyperglycemia, down-regulation of respiratory parameters persisted in tubular cells with compensatory up-regulated glycolysis. HMCs had reduced maximal respiration and reserve capacity at 8 days, and by 12 days had compromised mitochondrial respiration despite which they did not enhance glycolysis. These data suggest that diabetes is likely to lead to a cellular deficit in ATP production in both cell types, although with different sensitivities, and this mechanism could significantly contribute to the cellular damage seen in the diabetic kidney. Prevention of diabetes induced damage to renal mitochondrial respiration may be a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention/treatment of DN.

  10. Melatonin and mitochondrial function during ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Xin, Zhenlong; Di, Wencheng; Yan, Xiaolong; Li, Xiaofei; Reiter, Russel J; Yang, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury occurs in many organs and tissues, and contributes to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Melatonin, an endogenously produced indolamine, provides a strong defense against IR injury. Mitochondrion, an organelle for ATP production and a decider for cell fate, has been validated to be a crucial target for melatonin to exert its protection against IR injury. In this review, we first clarify the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction during IR and melatonin's protection of mitochondria under this condition. Thereafter, special focus is placed on the protective actions of melatonin against IR injury in brain, heart, liver, and others. Finally, we explore several potential future directions of research in this area. Collectively, the information compiled here will serve as a comprehensive reference for the actions of melatonin in IR injury identified to date and will hopefully aid in the design of future research and increase the potential of melatonin as a therapeutic agent.

  11. Profiling of cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2 production using the H2O2-sensitive protein HyPer in LPS-induced microglia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyung; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Sang-Rae; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2017-07-27

    Dysregulation of the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in microglia exacerbates the pathologic process of neurodegenerative disease. ROS actively affect microglia activation by regulating transcription factors that control the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. However, accurate information regarding the function of ROS in different subcellular organelles has not yet been established. Here, we analyzed the pattern of cytosolic and mitochondrial H 2 O 2 formation in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia using the H 2 O 2- sensitive protein HyPer targeted to specific subcellular compartments. Our results show that from an early time, cytosolic H 2 O 2 started increasing constantly, whereas mitochondrial H 2 O 2 rapidly increased later. In addition, we found that MAPK affected cytosolic H 2 O 2 , but not mitochondrial H 2 O 2 . Consequently, our study provides the basic information about subcellular H 2 O 2 generation in activated microglia, and a useful tool for investigating molecular targets that can modulate neuroinflammatory responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reverse electron flow-induced ROS production is attenuated by activation of mitochondrial Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, André; Aldakkak, Mohammed; Stowe, David F.; Rhodes, Samhita S.; Riess, Matthias L.; Varadarajan, Srinivasan G.; Camara, Amadou K. S.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondria generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent on substrate conditions, O(2) concentration, redox state, and activity of the mitochondrial complexes. It is well known that the FADH(2)-linked substrate succinate induces reverse electron flow to complex I of the electron transport chain

  13. Renal disease and mitochondrial genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötig, Agnès

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory chain (RC) deficiencies have long been regarded as neuromuscular diseases mainly originating from mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Oxidative phosphorylation, i.e. adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis-coupled electron transfer from substrate to oxygen through the RC, does not occur only in the neuromuscular system. Therefore, a RC deficiency can theoretically give rise to any symptom, in any organ or tissue, at any age and with any mode of inheritance, owing to the dual genetic origin of RC enzymes (nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA). Mitochondrial diseases can give rise to various syndromes or association, namely, neurologic and neuromuscular diseases, cardiac, renal, hepatic, hematological and endocrin or dermatological presentations. The most frequent renal symptom is proximal tubular dysfunction with a more or less complete de Toni-Debre-Fanconi Syndrome. A few patients have been reported with tubular acidosis, Bartter Syndrome, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis or nephrotic syndrome. The diagnosis of a RC deficiency is difficult when only renal symptoms are present, but should be easier when another, seemingly unrelated symptom is observed. Metabolic screening for abnormal oxidoreduction status in plasma, including lactate/pyruvate and ketone body molar ratios, can help to identify patients for further investigations. These include the measurement of oxygen consumption by mitochondria and the assessment of mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities by spectrophotometric studies. Any mode of inheritance can be observed: sporadic, autosomal dominant or recessive, or maternal inheritance.

  14. Mitochondrial GTP Regulates Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Kibbey, Richard G.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Romanelli, Anthony J.; Wollheim, Claes B.; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Nucleotide-specific isoforms of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS) catalyze substrate-level synthesis of mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) and ATP (mtATP). While mtATP yield from glucose metabolism is coupled with oxidative phosphorylation and can vary, each molecule of glucose metabolized within pancreatic beta cells produces approximately one mtGTP, making mtGTP a potentially important fuel signal. In INS-1 832/13 cells and cultured rat islets, siRNA suppression...

  15. Mitochondrial GTP Regulates Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Kibbey, Richard G.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Romanelli, Anthony J.; Wollheim, Claes B.; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Substrate-level mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) and ATP (mtATP) synthesis occurs by nucleotide-specific isoforms of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme succinyl CoA synthetase (SCS). Unlike mtATP, each molecule of glucose metabolized produces approximately one mtGTP in pancreatic β-cells independent of coupling with oxidative phosphorylation making mtGTP a potentially important fuel signal. siRNA suppression of the GTP-producing pathway (ΔSCS-GTP) reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ...

  16. Tracking protons from respiratory chain complexes to ATP synthase c-subunit: The critical role of serine and threonine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfoli, Isabella; Ponassi, Marco; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Beitia, Maider; Morelli, Alessandro; Rosano, Camillo

    2017-01-22

    F 1 F o -ATP synthase is a multisubunit enzyme responsible for the synthesis of ATP. Among its multiple subunits (8 in E. coli, 17 in yeast S. cerevisiae, 16 in vertebrates), two subunits a and c are known to play a central role controlling the H + flow through the inner mitochondrial membrane which allows the subsequent synthesis of ATP, but the pathway followed by H + within the two proteins is still a matter of debate. In fact, even though the structure of ATP synthase is now well defined, the molecular mechanisms determining the function of both F 1 and F O domains are still largely unknown. In this study, we propose a pathway for proton migration along the ATP synthase by hydrogen-bonded chain mechanism, with a key role of serine and threonine residues, by X-ray diffraction data on the subunit a of E. coli Fo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The energetic state of mitochondria modulates complex III biogenesis through the ATP-dependent activity of Bcs1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Jelena; Panozzo, Cristina; Lasserre, Jean-Paul; Nouet, Cécile; Courtin, Florence; Blancard, Corinne; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Dujardin, Geneviève

    2013-10-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms involved in mitochondrial biogenesis has continuously expanded during the last decades, yet little is known about how they are modulated to optimize the functioning of mitochondria. Here, we show that mutations in the ATP binding domain of Bcs1, a chaperone involved in the assembly of complex III, can be rescued by mutations that decrease the ATP hydrolytic activity of the ATP synthase. Our results reveal a Bcs1-mediated control loop in which the biogenesis of complex III is modulated by the energy-transducing activity of mitochondria. Although ATP is well known as a regulator of a number of cellular activities, we show here that ATP can be also used to modulate the biogenesis of an enzyme by controlling a specific chaperone involved in its assembly. Our study further highlights the intramitochondrial adenine nucleotide pool as a potential target for the treatment of Bcs1-based disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction between endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress (ER/SR stress), mitochondrial signaling and Ca(2+) regulation in airway smooth muscle (ASM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmotte, Philippe; Sieck, Gary C

    2015-02-01

    Airway inflammation is a key aspect of diseases such as asthma. Several inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα and IL-13) increase cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]cyt) responses to agonist stimulation and Ca(2+) sensitivity of force generation, thereby enhancing airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility (hyper-reactive state). Inflammation also induces ASM proliferation and remodeling (synthetic state). In normal ASM, the transient elevation of [Ca(2+)]cyt induced by agonists leads to a transient increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]mito) that may be important in matching ATP production with ATP consumption. In human ASM (hASM) exposed to TNFα and IL-13, the transient increase in [Ca(2+)]mito is blunted despite enhanced [Ca(2+)]cyt responses. We also found that TNFα and IL-13 induce reactive oxidant species (ROS) formation and endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) stress (unfolded protein response) in hASM. ER/SR stress in hASM is associated with disruption of mitochondrial coupling with the ER/SR membrane, which relates to reduced mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression. Thus, in hASM it appears that TNFα and IL-13 result in ROS formation leading to ER/SR stress, reduced Mfn2 expression, disruption of mitochondrion-ER/SR coupling, decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering, mitochondrial fragmentation, and increased cell proliferation.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA triplication and punctual mutations in patients with mitochondrial neuromuscular disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna, E-mail: emna.mkaouar@gmail.com [Département des Sciences de la Vie, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax (Tunisia); Felhi, Rahma; Tabebi, Mouna [Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Faculté de Médecine de Sfax, Université de Sfax (Tunisia); Alila-Fersi, Olfa; Chamkha, Imen [Département des Sciences de la Vie, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax (Tunisia); Maalej, Marwa; Ammar, Marwa [Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Faculté de Médecine de Sfax, Université de Sfax (Tunisia); Kammoun, Fatma [Service de pédiatrie, C.H.U. Hedi Chaker de Sfax (Tunisia); Keskes, Leila [Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Faculté de Médecine de Sfax, Université de Sfax (Tunisia); Hachicha, Mongia [Service de pédiatrie, C.H.U. Hedi Chaker de Sfax (Tunisia); Fakhfakh, Faiza, E-mail: faiza.fakhfakh02@gmail.com [Département des Sciences de la Vie, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-04-29

    Mitochondrial diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders caused by the impairment of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system which have been associated with various mutations of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear gene mutations. The clinical phenotypes are very diverse and the spectrum is still expanding. As brain and muscle are highly dependent on OXPHOS, consequently, neurological disorders and myopathy are common features of mtDNA mutations. Mutations in mtDNA can be classified into three categories: large-scale rearrangements, point mutations in tRNA or rRNA genes and point mutations in protein coding genes. In the present report, we screened mitochondrial genes of complex I, III, IV and V in 2 patients with mitochondrial neuromuscular disorders. The results showed the presence the pathogenic heteroplasmic m.9157G>A variation (A211T) in the MT-ATP6 gene in the first patient. We also reported the first case of triplication of 9 bp in the mitochondrial NC7 region in Africa and Tunisia, in association with the novel m.14924T>C in the MT-CYB gene in the second patient with mitochondrial neuromuscular disorder. - Highlights: • We reported 2 patients with mitochondrial neuromuscular disorders. • The heteroplasmic MT-ATP6 9157G>A variation was reported. • A triplication of 9 bp in the mitochondrial NC7 region was detected. • The m.14924T>C transition (S60P) in the MT-CYB gene was found.

  20. Stable shRNA Silencing of Lactate Dehydrogenase A (LDHA) in Human MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells Fails to Alter Lactic Acid Production, Glycolytic Activity, ATP or Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Nzinga; Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Bauer, David; Flores-Rozas, Hernan; Soliman, Karam F A

    2017-03-01

    In the US, African Americans have a high death rate from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), characterized by lack of hormone receptors (ER, PR, HER2/ERRB2) which are otherwise valuable targets of chemotherapy. There is a need to identify novel targets that negatively impact TNBC tumorigenesis. TNBCs release an abundance of lactic acid, under normoxic, hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions; this referred to as the Warburg effect. Accumulated lactic acid sustains peri-cellular acidity which propels metastatic invasion and malignant aggressive transformation. The source of lactic acid is believed to be via conversion of pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the last step of glycolysis, with most studies focusing on the LDHA isoform. In this study, LDHA was silenced using long-term MISSION® shRNA lentivirus in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Down-regulation of LDHA transcription and protein expression was confirmed by western blot, immunocytochemistry and qPCR. A number of parameters were measured in fully viable vector controls versus knock-down (KD) clones, including levels of lactic acid produced, glucose consumed, ATP and basic metabolic rates. The data show that lentivirus V-165 generated a knock-down clone most effective in reducing both gene and protein levels to less than 1% of vector controls. Stable KD showed absolutely no changes in cell viability, lactic acid production, ATP, glucose consumption or basic metabolic rate. Given the complete absence of impact on any observed parameter by LDH-A KD and this being somewhat contrary to findings in the literature, further analysis was required to determine why. Whole-transcriptome analytic profile on MDA-MB-231 for LDH subtypes using Agilent Human Genome 4×44k microarrays, where the data show the following component breakdown. Transcripts: 30.47 % LDHA, 69.36% LDHB, 0.12% LDHC and 0.05% LDHD. These findings underscore the importance of alternative isoforms of LDH in cancer cells to produce lactic acid

  1. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  2. ATP Release and Effects in Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Amstrup, Jan; Henriksen, Katrine Lütken

    2003-01-01

    ATP and other nucleotides are released from various cells, but the pathway and physiological stimulus for ATP release are often unclear. The focus of our studies is the understanding of ATP release and signaling in rat exocrine pancreas. In acinar suspension mechanical stimulation, hypotonic shock...

  3. Regulation of Mitochondrial Genome Inheritance by Autophagy and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Implications for Health, Fitness, and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Hee Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, mitochondrial replacement (MR, and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease.

  4. Inhibition of ATP synthesis by fenbufen and its conjugated metabolites in rat liver mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syed, Muzeeb; Skonberg, Christian; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2016-01-01

    in the drug induced liver injury (DILI) by fenbufen, the inhibitory effect of fenbufen and its conjugated metabolites on oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) in rat liver mitochondria was investigated. Fenbufen glucuronide (F-GlcA), fenbufen-N-acetyl cysteine-thioester (F-NAC) and fenbufen...... and fenbufen show any protective effect on fenbufen mediated inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. Inclusion of NADPH in mitochondrial preparations with fenbufen did not modulate the inhibitory effects, suggesting no role of CYP mediated oxidative metabolites on the ATP synthesis in isolated mitochondria...

  5. Po2 cycling protects diaphragm function during reoxygenation via ROS, Akt, ERK, and mitochondrial channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Pannell, Benjamin K; Re, Anthony T; Best, Thomas M; Wagner, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Po2 cycling, often referred to as intermittent hypoxia, involves exposing tissues to brief cycles of low oxygen environments immediately followed by hyperoxic conditions. After experiencing long-term hypoxia, muscle can be damaged during the subsequent reintroduction of oxygen, which leads to muscle dysfunction via reperfusion injury. The protective effect and mechanism behind Po2 cycling in skeletal muscle during reoxygenation have yet to be fully elucidated. We hypothesize that Po2 cycling effectively increases muscle fatigue resistance through reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and certain mitochondrial channels during reoxygenation. Using a dihydrofluorescein fluorescent probe, we detected the production of ROS in mouse diaphragmatic skeletal muscle in real time under confocal microscopy. Muscles treated with Po2 cycling displayed significantly attenuated ROS levels (n = 5; P ROS, Akt, ERK, as well as chemical stimulators to close mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) or open mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). All these blockers or stimulators abolished improved muscle function with Po2 cycling treatment. This current investigation has discovered a correlation between KATP and mPTP and the Po2 cycling pathway in diaphragmatic skeletal muscle. Thus we have identified a unique signaling pathway that may involve ROS, Akt, ERK, and mitochondrial channels responsible for Po2 cycling protection during reoxygenation conditions in the diaphragm. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Mitochondrial Dysfunction: The Road to Alpha-Synuclein Oligomerization in PD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Esteves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the etiology of Parkinson's disease remains largely elusive, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs prior to the onset of symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Mitochondria are remarkably primed to play a vital role in neuronal cell survival since they are key regulators of energy metabolism (as ATP producers, of intracellular calcium homeostasis, of NAD+/NADH ratio, and of endogenous reactive oxygen species production and programmed cell death. In this paper, we focus on mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated alpha-synuclein aggregation. We highlight some of the findings that provide proof of evidence for a mitochondrial metabolism control in Parkinson's disease, namely, mitochondrial regulation of microtubule-dependent cellular traffic and autophagic lysosomal pathway. The knowledge that microtubule alterations may lead to autophagic deficiency and may compromise the cellular degradation mechanisms that culminate in the progressive accumulation of aberrant protein aggregates shields new insights to the way we address Parkinson's disease. In line with this knowledge, an innovative window for new therapeutic strategies aimed to restore microtubule network may be unlocked.

  7. Use of the Ketogenic Diet to Treat Intractable Epilepsy in Mitochondrial Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleologou, Eleni; Ismayilova, Naila; Kinali, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders that are caused by defects in the respiratory chain, the metabolic pathway of the adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) production system. Epilepsy is a common and important feature of these disorders and its management can be challenging. Epileptic seizures in the context of mitochondrial disease are usually treated with conventional anti-epileptic medication, apart from valproic acid. However, in accordance with the treatment of intractable epilepsy where there are limited treatment options, the ketogenic diet (KD) has been considered as an alternative therapy. The use of the KD and its more palatable formulations has shown promising results. It is especially indicated and effective in the treatment of mitochondrial disorders due to complex I deficiency. Further research into the mechanism of action and the neuroprotective properties of the KD will allow more targeted therapeutic strategies and thus optimize the treatment of both epilepsy in the context of mitochondrial disorders but also in other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:28587136

  8. Screening SIRT1 Activators from Medicinal Plants as Bioactive Compounds against Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1 belongs to the family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases and plays a critical role in cellular metabolism and response to oxidative stress. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs, as an important part of natural products, have been reported to exert protective effect against oxidative stress in mitochondria. In this study, we screened SIRT1 activators from TCMs and investigated their activities against mitochondrial damage. 19 activators were found in total by in vitro SIRT1 activity assay. Among those active compounds, four compounds, ginsenoside Rb2, ginsenoside F1, ginsenoside Rc, and schisandrin A, were further studied to validate the SIRT1-activation effects by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirm their activities against oxidative damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP. The results showed that those compounds enhanced the deacetylated activity of SIRT1, increased ATP content, and inhibited intracellular ROS formation as well as regulating the activity of Mn-SOD. These SIRT1 activators also showed moderate protective effects on mitochondrial function in t-BHP cells by recovering oxygen consumption and increasing mitochondrial DNA content. Our results suggested that those compounds from TCMs attenuated oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes through activation of SIRT1.

  9. Inhibition of Drp-1 dependent mitochondrial fission augments alcohol-induced cardiotoxicity via dysregulated Akt signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Sivakumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs still claim high mortality in spite of advancements in prognosis and treatment strategies. Alcohol is one of the most commonly consumed drugs globally and chronic/binge consumption (BAC 0.08 g/dL in 2 hours is a risk factor for CVDs. However, the aetiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of alcohol induced cardiotoxicity are still poorly understood. Mitochondria are the prime site for the ATP demands of the heart and also ethanol metabolism. These subcellular organelles depict dynamic fusion and fission events that are vital for structure and functional integrity. While fused mitochondrial improve ATP production and cell survival, increased fragmentation can be the cause or result of apoptosis. In this study, we proposed to analyze the mechanism of mitochondrial fission protein Drp-1-dependent apoptosis during alcohol toxicity. Male Wistar rats (220-250 kg body weight were given isocaloric sucrose or ethanol for 45 days, orally, via drinking water and intermittent gavage twice a week. Histopathological examination of the heart displayed hypertrophy with mild inflammation. Drp-1 immunoblotting showed over-expression of the protein during ethanol treatment. We next hypothesized that inhibiting Drp-1 could attenuate alcohol-induced cardiotoxicity. Interestingly, silencing Drp-1 with siRNA in-vitro augmented cytotoxicity. Also, crude mitochondrial fraction showed increased Bak aggregation, reduced cytochrome c release but increased SMAC/DIABLO. We analyzed the Akt cell survival signaling and found that PTEN showed over-expression at both transcriptional and translational level with no significant change in total Akt but down-regulation of p-Akt (Ser473. In conclusion, we have shown that inhibition of Drp-1 dependent mitochondrial fission is not cardioprotective against alcohol-induced apoptotic signaling and augments the cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, this study is the first to interlink cell survival AKT signaling

  10. Transcriptome response signatures associated with the overexpression of a mitochondrial uncoupling protein (AtUCP1 in tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vasconcellos Nunes Laitz

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial inner membrane uncoupling proteins (UCP dissipate the proton electrochemical gradient established by the respiratory chain, thus affecting the yield of ATP synthesis. UCP overexpression in plants has been correlated with oxidative stress tolerance, improved photosynthetic efficiency and increased mitochondrial biogenesis. This study reports the main transcriptomic responses associated with the overexpression of an UCP (AtUCP1 in tobacco seedlings. Compared to wild-type (WT, AtUCP1 transgenic seedlings showed unaltered ATP levels and higher accumulation of serine. By using RNA-sequencing, a total of 816 differentially expressed genes between the investigated overexpressor lines and the untransformed WT control were identified. Among them, 239 were up-regulated and 577 were down-regulated. As a general response to AtUCP1 overexpression, noticeable changes in the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and redox homeostasis were detected. A substantial set of differentially expressed genes code for products targeted to the chloroplast and mainly involved in photosynthesis. The overall results demonstrate that the alterations in mitochondrial function provoked by AtUCP1 overexpression require important transcriptomic adjustments to maintain cell homeostasis. Moreover, the occurrence of an important cross-talk between chloroplast and mitochondria, which culminates in the transcriptional regulation of several genes involved in different pathways, was evidenced.

  11. ATP-sensitive K(+-channels in muscle cells: features and physiological role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Vadzyuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ATP-sensitive K+-channels of plasma membranes belong to the inward rectifier potassium channels type. They are involved in coupling of electrical activity of muscle cell with its metabolic­ state. These channels are heterooctameric and consist of two types of subunits: four poreforming (Kir 6.х and four regulatory (SUR, sulfonylurea receptor. The Kir subunits contain highly selective K+ filter and provide for high-velocity K+ currents. The SUR subunits contain binding sites for activators and blockers and have metabolic sensor, which enables channel activation under conditions of metabolic stress. ATP blocks K+ currents through the ATP-sensitive K+-channels in the most types of muscle cells. However, functional activity of these channels does not depend on absolute concentration of ATP but on the АТР/ADP ratio and presence of Mg2+. Physiologically active substances, such as phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and fatty acid esters can regulate the activity of these structures in muscle cells. Activation of these channels under ischemic conditions underlies their cytoprotective action, which results in prevention of Ca2+ overload in cytosol. In contrast to ATP-sensitive K+-channels of plasma membranes, the data regarding the structure and function of ATP-sensitive K+-channels of mitochondrial membrane are contradictory. Pore-forming subunits of this channel have not been firmly identified yet. ATP-sensitive K+ transport through the mitochondrial­ membrane is easily tested by different methods, which are briefly reviewed in this paper. Interaction of mitoKATP with physiological and pharmacological ligands is discussed as well.

  12. Ubiquitination of specific mitochondrial matrix proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Gilad; Ziv, Tamar; Braten, Ori; Admon, Arie; Udasin, Ronald G.; Ciechanover, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Several protein quality control systems in bacteria and/or mitochondrial matrix from lower eukaryotes are absent in higher eukaryotes. These are transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), The N-end rule ATP-dependent protease ClpAP, and two more ATP-dependent proteases, HslUV and ClpXP (in yeast). The lost proteases resemble the 26S proteasome and the role of tmRNA and the N-end rule in eukaryotic cytosol is performed by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Therefore, we hypothesized that the UPS might have substituted these systems – at least partially – in the mitochondrial matrix of higher eukaryotes. Using three independent experimental approaches, we demonstrated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in the matrix of isolated yeast mitochondria. First, we show that isolated mitochondria contain ubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, which remained intact after trypsin digestion. Second, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial soluble fraction contains Ub-conjugates, several of which were identified by mass spectrometry and are localized to the matrix. Third, using immunoaffinity enrichment by specific antibodies recognizing digested ubiquitinated peptides, we identified a group of Ub-modified matrix proteins. The modification was further substantiated by separation on SDS-PAGE and immunoblots. Last, we attempted to identify the ubiquitin ligase(s) involved, and identified Dma1p as a trypsin-resistant protein in our mitochondrial preparations. Taken together, these data suggest a yet undefined role for the UPS in regulation of the mitochondrial matrix proteins. -- Highlights: •Mitochondrial matrix contains ubiquitinated proteins. •Ubiquitination occurs most probably in the matrix. •Dma1p is a ubiquitin ligase present in mitochondrial preparations.

  13. Ubiquitination of specific mitochondrial matrix proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Gilad [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel); Ziv, Tamar [The Smoler Proteomics Center, Faculty of Biology – Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Braten, Ori [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel); Admon, Arie [The Smoler Proteomics Center, Faculty of Biology – Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Udasin, Ronald G. [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel); Ciechanover, Aaron, E-mail: aaroncie@tx.technion.ac.il [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel)

    2016-06-17

    Several protein quality control systems in bacteria and/or mitochondrial matrix from lower eukaryotes are absent in higher eukaryotes. These are transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), The N-end rule ATP-dependent protease ClpAP, and two more ATP-dependent proteases, HslUV and ClpXP (in yeast). The lost proteases resemble the 26S proteasome and the role of tmRNA and the N-end rule in eukaryotic cytosol is performed by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Therefore, we hypothesized that the UPS might have substituted these systems – at least partially – in the mitochondrial matrix of higher eukaryotes. Using three independent experimental approaches, we demonstrated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in the matrix of isolated yeast mitochondria. First, we show that isolated mitochondria contain ubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, which remained intact after trypsin digestion. Second, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial soluble fraction contains Ub-conjugates, several of which were identified by mass spectrometry and are localized to the matrix. Third, using immunoaffinity enrichment by specific antibodies recognizing digested ubiquitinated peptides, we identified a group of Ub-modified matrix proteins. The modification was further substantiated by separation on SDS-PAGE and immunoblots. Last, we attempted to identify the ubiquitin ligase(s) involved, and identified Dma1p as a trypsin-resistant protein in our mitochondrial preparations. Taken together, these data suggest a yet undefined role for the UPS in regulation of the mitochondrial matrix proteins. -- Highlights: •Mitochondrial matrix contains ubiquitinated proteins. •Ubiquitination occurs most probably in the matrix. •Dma1p is a ubiquitin ligase present in mitochondrial preparations.

  14. Sustained activation of Akt elicits mitochondrial dysfunction to block Plasmodium falciparum infection in the mosquito host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Luckhart

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of activated, myristoylated Akt in the midgut of female transgenic Anopheles stephensi results in resistance to infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum but also decreased lifespan. In the present study, the understanding of mitochondria-dependent midgut homeostasis has been expanded to explain this apparent paradox in an insect of major medical importance. Given that Akt signaling is essential for cell growth and survival, we hypothesized that sustained Akt activation in the mosquito midgut would alter the balance of critical pathways that control mitochondrial dynamics to enhance parasite killing at some cost to survivorship. Toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RNOS rise to high levels in the midgut after blood feeding, due to a combination of high NO production and a decline in FOXO-dependent antioxidants. Despite an apparent increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in young females (3 d, energy deficiencies were apparent as decreased oxidative phosphorylation and increased [AMP]/[ATP] ratios. In addition, mitochondrial mass was lower and accompanied by the presence of stalled autophagosomes in the posterior midgut, a critical site for blood digestion and stem cell-mediated epithelial maintenance and repair, and by functional degradation of the epithelial barrier. By 18 d, the age at which An. stephensi would transmit P. falciparum to human hosts, mitochondrial dysfunction coupled to Akt-mediated repression of autophagy/mitophagy was more evident and midgut epithelial structure was markedly compromised. Inhibition of RNOS by co-feeding of the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME at infection abrogated Akt-dependent killing of P. falciparum that begins within 18 h of infection in 3-5 d old mosquitoes. Hence, Akt-induced changes in mitochondrial dynamics perturb midgut homeostasis to enhance parasite resistance and decrease mosquito infective lifespan. Further, quality control of mitochondrial

  15. The regulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) expression during skeletal muscle cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collu-Marchese, Melania; Shuen, Michael; Pauly, Marion; Saleem, Ayesha; Hood, David A

    2015-05-19

    The ATP demand required for muscle development is accommodated by elevations in mitochondrial biogenesis, through the co-ordinated activities of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The most important transcriptional activator of the mitochondrial genome is mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam); however, the regulation of Tfam expression during muscle differentiation is not known. Thus, we measured Tfam mRNA levels, mRNA stability, protein expression and localization and Tfam transcription during the progression of muscle differentiation. Parallel 2-fold increases in Tfam protein and mRNA were observed, corresponding with 2-3-fold increases in mitochondrial content. Transcriptional activity of a 2051 bp promoter increased during this differentiation period and this was accompanied by a 3-fold greater Tfam mRNA stabilization. Interestingly, truncations of the promoter at 1706 bp, 978 bp and 393 bp promoter all exhibited 2-3-fold higher transcriptional activity than the 2051 bp construct, indicating the presence of negative regulatory elements within the distal 350 bp of the promoter. Activation of AMP kinase augmented Tfam transcription within the proximal promoter, suggesting the presence of binding sites for transcription factors that are responsive to cellular energy state. During differentiation, the accumulating Tfam protein was progressively distributed to the mitochondrial matrix where it augmented the expression of mtDNA and COX (cytochrome c oxidase) subunit I, an mtDNA gene product. Our data suggest that, during muscle differentiation, Tfam protein levels are regulated by the availability of Tfam mRNA, which is controlled by both transcription and mRNA stability. Changes in energy state and Tfam localization also affect Tfam expression and action in differentiating myotubes. © 2015 Authors.

  16. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Drives Mitochondrial Fragmentation by Suppressing Mitofusins in Cerebellar Granule Neuron Precursors and Medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Anshu; Dey, Abhinav; Prasad, Niyathi; Kenney, Anna Marie

    2016-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is closely coupled with bioenergetics of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Shh-associated medulloblastoma arises from cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNP), a neural progenitor whose developmental expansion requires signaling by Shh, a ligand secreted by the neighboring Purkinje neurons. Previous observations show that Shh signaling inhibits fatty acid oxidation although driving increased fatty acid synthesis. Proliferating CGNPs and mouse Shh medulloblastomas feature high levels of glycolytic enzymes in vivo and in vitro. Because both of these metabolic processes are closely linked to mitochondrial bioenergetics, the role of Shh signaling in mitochondrial biogenesis was investigated. This report uncovers a surprising decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and overall ATP production in CGNPs exposed to Shh, consistent with increased glycolysis resulting in high intracellular acidity, leading to mitochondrial fragmentation. Ultrastructural examination of mitochondria revealed a spherical shape in Shh-treated cells, in contrast to the elongated appearance in vehicle-treated postmitotic cells. Expression of mitofusin 1 and 2 was reduced in these cells, although their ectopic expression restored the MMP to the nonproliferating state and the morphology to a fused, interconnected state. Mouse Shh medulloblastoma cells featured drastically impaired mitochondrial morphology, restoration of which by ectopic mitofusin expression was also associated with a decrease in the expression of Cyclin D2 protein, a marker for proliferation. This report exposes a novel role for Shh in regulating mitochondrial dynamics and rescue of the metabolic profile of tumor cells to that of nontransformed, nonproliferating cells and represents a potential avenue for development of medulloblastoma therapeutics. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. The thermodynamic efficiency of ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Sunil

    2016-12-01

    As the chief energy source of eukaryotic cells, it is important to determine the thermodynamic efficiency of ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation (OX PHOS). Previous estimates of the thermodynamic efficiency of this vital process have ranged from Lehninger's original back-of-the-envelope calculation of 38% to the often quoted value of 55-60% in current textbooks of biochemistry, to high values of 90% from recent information theoretic considerations, and reports of realizations of close to ideal 100% efficiencies by single molecule experiments. Hence this problem has been reinvestigated from first principles. The overall thermodynamic efficiency of ATP synthesis in the mitochondrial energy transduction OX PHOS process has been found to lie between 40 and 41% from four different approaches based on a) estimation using structural and biochemical data, b) fundamental nonequilibrium thermodynamic analysis, c) novel insights arising from Nath's torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis, and d) the overall balance of cellular energetics. The torsional mechanism also offers an explanation for the observation of a thermodynamic efficiency approaching 100% in some experiments. Applications of the unique, molecular machine mode of functioning of F 1 F O -ATP synthase involving direct inter-conversion of chemical and mechanical energies in the design and fabrication of novel, man-made mechanochemical devices have been envisaged, and some new ways to exorcise Maxwell's demon have been proposed. It is hoped that analysis of the fundamental problem of energy transduction in OX PHOS from a fresh perspective will catalyze new avenues of research in this interdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. NAD+/NADH and skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amanda T.

    2012-01-01

    The pyridine nucleotides, NAD+ and NADH, are coenzymes that provide oxidoreductive power for the generation of ATP by mitochondria. In skeletal muscle, exercise perturbs the levels of NAD+, NADH, and consequently, the NAD+/NADH ratio, and initial research in this area focused on the contribution of redox control to ATP production. More recently, numerous signaling pathways that are sensitive to perturbations in NAD+(H) have come to the fore, as has an appreciation for the potential importance of compartmentation of NAD+(H) metabolism and its subsequent effects on various signaling pathways. These pathways, which include the sirtuin (SIRT) proteins SIRT1 and SIRT3, the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins PARP1 and PARP2, and COOH-terminal binding protein (CtBP), are of particular interest because they potentially link changes in cellular redox state to both immediate, metabolic-related changes and transcriptional adaptations to exercise. In this review, we discuss what is known, and not known, about the contribution of NAD+(H) metabolism and these aforementioned proteins to mitochondrial adaptations to acute and chronic endurance exercise. PMID:22436696

  19. Creatine Enhances Mitochondrial-Mediated Oligodendrocyte Survival After Demyelinating Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Kelly A; Chapey, Kristen S; Nanescu, Sonia E; Huang, Jeffrey K

    2017-02-08

    Chronic oligodendrocyte loss, which occurs in the demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), contributes to axonal dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Current therapies are able to reduce MS severity, but do not prevent transition into the progressive phase of the disease, which is characterized by chronic neurodegeneration. Therefore, pharmacological compounds that promote oligodendrocyte survival could be beneficial for neuroprotection in MS. Here, we investigated the role of creatine, an organic acid involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) buffering, in oligodendrocyte function. We found that creatine increased mitochondrial ATP production directly in oligodendrocyte lineage cell cultures and exerted robust protection on oligodendrocytes by preventing cell death in both naive and lipopolysaccharide-treated mixed glia. Moreover, lysolecithin-mediated demyelination in mice deficient in the creatine-synthesizing enzyme guanidinoacetate-methyltransferase ( Gamt ) did not affect oligodendrocyte precursor cell recruitment, but resulted in exacerbated apoptosis of regenerated oligodendrocytes in central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Remarkably, creatine administration into Gamt -deficient and wild-type mice with demyelinating injury reduced oligodendrocyte apoptosis, thereby increasing oligodendrocyte density and myelin basic protein staining in CNS lesions. We found that creatine did not affect the recruitment of macrophages/microglia into lesions, suggesting that creatine affects oligodendrocyte survival independently of inflammation. Together, our results demonstrate a novel function for creatine in promoting oligodendrocyte viability during CNS remyelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We report that creatine enhances oligodendrocyte mitochondrial function and protects against caspase-dependent oligodendrocyte apoptosis during CNS remyelination. This work has important implications for the development of therapeutic targets for diseases characterized by

  20. Antidiabetic Effect of Salvianolic Acid A on Diabetic Animal Models via AMPK Activation and Mitochondrial Regulation

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    Guifen Qiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM characterized by hyperglycemia contributes to macrovascular and microvascular complications. Salvianolic acid A (SalA is a polyphenolic compound isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about its antidiabetic effect. Our study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effect of SalA and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic mice and high-fat diet (HFD and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats received SalA treatment. Blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, 24-h food and water intake were monitored. In vitro, glucose consumption and uptake were measured in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Mitochondrial function was detected in hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondria. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and Akt were analyzed by western blot. Results: In both type 1 and type 2 diabetic animals, SalA lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG and fed blood glucose in dose-dependent manner, as well as reduced 24-h food and water intake. In vitro, SalA caused dose-dependent increase in glucose consumption and enhanced glucose uptake. SalA significantly increased ATP production from 10 min to 12 h in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Interestingly, SalA decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SalA improved hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, increased ATP production, and concurrently decreased MMP. In particularly, SalA activated AMPK phosphorylation through Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ/AMPK signaling pathway, independent of liver kinase 1 (LKB1/AMPK pathway. However, SalA didn't show any effect on insulin secretagogue and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion: SalA exhibits the antidiabetic effects in diabetic animal models through

  1. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on the main kinetic parameters of ATP hydrolysis by ouabain sensitive Na+, K+-ATP-ase in spermatozoa of infertile men

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    Р. В. Фафула

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is known that Na+,K+-ATP-ase plays important role in physiology of spermatozoa including their motility. Na+,K+-ATP-ase is one of the targets for reactive oxygen species. Hyperproduction of reactive oxygen species can damage sperm cells and it is considered to be as one of the mechanisms of male infertility. Objectives: To evaluate the H2O2 effect on the main kinetic parameters of ATP hydrolysis by ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase of spermatozoa of fertile (normozoospermia and infertility men (asthenozoospermia. Materials and methods: Na+, K+-ATP-ase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by production of Pi. Concentration dependencies ware linearized in Lineweaver-Burk plot. Results: Effective inhibitory effect of H2O2 on ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATP-ase activity of sperm cells of fertile and infertile men was demonstrated. The effects of H2O2 on the main kinetic parameters of the ATP hydrolysis with the involvement of Na+, K+-ATP-ase was studied. In the whole range of studied concentrations of ATP the Na+, K+-ATP-ase activity of spermatozoa of fertile and infertile men was reduced in the presence of H2O2 in the incubation medium. However, the optimal activity of the Na+, K+-ATP-ase activity of sperm cells in both normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men was observed in the presence of 5 mM ATP in the incubation medium. By linearization of concentration curves in Lineweaver-Burk plot the main kinetic parameters of Na+, K+-activated, Mg2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis in the sperm cells of fertile and infertile men were determined. Under the effect of H2O2, the affinity constant of enzyme to ATP in normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men increases several times. The initial maximum rate of ATP hydrolysis was significantly reduced only in the spermatozoa of fertile men with normozoospermia. Conclusions: Under conditions of H2O2-induced oxidative stress the inhibition of ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATP-ase activity in sperm cells

  2. Diverse Functional Properties of Wilson Disease ATP7B Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Dominik; Kühne, Angelika; Bhattacharjee, Ashima; Raines, Lily; Jantsch, Vanessa; Noe, Johannes; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Sommerer, Ines; Sabri, Osama; Berr, Frieder; Mössner, Joachim; Stieger, Bruno; Caca, Karel; Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Wilson disease is a severe disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in ATP7B, which encodes a copper-transporting adenosine triphosphatase. The disease presents with a variable phenotype that complicates the diagnostic process and treatment. Little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to the different phenotypes of the disease. METHODS We analyzed 28 variants of ATP7B from patients with Wilson disease that affected different functional domains; the gene products were expressed using the baculovirus expression system in Sf9 cells. Protein function was analyzed by measuring catalytic activity and copper (64Cu) transport into vesicles. We studied intracellular localization of variants of ATP7B that had measurable transport activities and were tagged with green fluorescent protein in mammalian cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS Properties of ATP7B variants with pathogenic amino-acid substitution varied greatly even if substitutions were in the same functional domain. Some variants had complete loss of catalytic and transport activity, whereas others lost transport activity but retained phosphor-intermediate formation or had partial losses of activity. In mammalian cells, transport-competent variants differed in stability and subcellular localization. CONCLUSIONS Variants in ATP7B associated with Wilson disease disrupt the protein’s transport activity, result in its mislocalization, and reduce its stability. Single assays are insufficient to accurately predict the effects of ATP7B variants the function of its product and development of Wilson disease. These findings will contribute to our understanding of genotype–phenotype correlation and mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. PMID:22240481

  3. Natural variation in life history and aging phenotypes is associated with mitochondrial DNA deletion frequency in Caenorhabditis briggsae

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    Smith Samson W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations that impair mitochondrial functioning are associated with a variety of metabolic and age-related disorders. A barrier to rigorous tests of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging processes has been the lack of model systems with relevant, naturally occurring mitochondrial genetic variation. Toward the goal of developing such a model system, we studied natural variation in life history, metabolic, and aging phenotypes as it relates to levels of a naturally-occurring heteroplasmic mitochondrial ND5 deletion recently discovered to segregate among wild populations of the soil nematode, Caenorhabditis briggsae. The normal product of ND5 is a central component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and integral to cellular energy metabolism. Results We quantified significant variation among C. briggsae isolates for all phenotypes measured, only some of which was statistically associated with isolate-specific ND5 deletion frequency. We found that fecundity-related traits and pharyngeal pumping rate were strongly inversely related to ND5 deletion level and that C. briggsae isolates with high ND5 deletion levels experienced a tradeoff between early fecundity and lifespan. Conversely, oxidative stress resistance was only weakly associated with ND5 deletion level while ATP content was unrelated to deletion level. Finally, mean levels of reactive oxygen species measured in vivo showed a significant non-linear relationship with ND5 deletion level, a pattern that may be driven by among-isolate variation in antioxidant or other compensatory mechanisms. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ND5 deletion may adversely affect fitness and mitochondrial functioning while promoting aging in natural populations, and help to further establish this species as a useful model for explicit tests of hypotheses in aging biology and mitochondrial genetics.

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction is responsible for fatty acid synthase inhibition-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells by PdpaMn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Du, Xia; Zhou, Bingjie; Li, Jing; Lu, Wenlong; Chen, Qiuyun; Gao, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Targeting cellular metabolism is becoming a hallmark to overcome drug resistance in breast cancer treatment. Activation of fatty acid synthase (FASN) has been shown to promote breast cancer cell growth. However, there is no concrete report underlying the mechanism associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in relation to fatty acid synthase inhibition-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. The current study is aimed at exploring the effect of the novel manganese (Mn) complex, labeled as PdpaMn, on lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in breast cancer cells. Herein, we observed that PdpaMn displayed strong cytotoxicity on breast cancer cell lines and selectively targeted the tumor without affecting the normal organs or cells in vivo. We also observed that PdpaMn could bind to TE domain of FASN and decrease the activity and the level of expression of FASN, which is an indication that FASN could serve as a target of PdpaMn. In addition, we demonstrated that PdpaMn increased intrinsic apoptosis in breast cancer cells relayed by a suppressed the level of expression of FASN, followed by the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and the activation of caspases-9. Instigated by the above observations, we hypothesized that PdpaMn-induced apoptosis events are dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction. Indeed, we found that mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, mitochondrial oxygen consumption reduction and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release were deeply repressed. Furthermore, our results showed that PdpaMn significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the protection conferred by the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) indicates that PdpaMn-induced apoptosis through an oxidative stress-associated mechanism. More so, the above results have demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction participated in FASN inhibition-induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells by PdpaMn. Therefore, PdpaMn may be considered as a good candidate

  5. Glycation inhibitors extend yeast chronological lifespan by reducing advanced glycation end products and by back regulation of proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Rubina S; Banarjee, Reema M; Deshmukh, Arati B; Patil, Gouri V; Jagadeeshaprasad, Mashanipalya G; Kulkarni, Mahesh J

    2017-03-06

    Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) are implicated in aging process. Thus, reducing AGEs by using glycation inhibitors may help in attenuating the aging process. In this study using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast system, we show that Aminoguanidine (AMG), a well-known glycation inhibitor, decreases the AGE modification of proteins in non-calorie restriction (NR) (2% glucose) and extends chronological lifespan (CLS) similar to that of calorie restriction (CR) condition (0.5% glucose). Proteomic analysis revealed that AMG back regulates the expression of differentially expressed proteins especially those involved in mitochondrial respiration in NR condition, suggesting that it switches metabolism from fermentation to respiration, mimicking CR. AMG induced back regulation of differentially expressed proteins could be possibly due to its chemical effect or indirectly by glycation inhibition. To delineate this, Metformin (MET), a structural analog of AMG and a mild glycation inhibitor and Hydralazine (HYD), another potent glycation inhibitor but not structural analog of AMG were used. HYD was more effective than MET in mimicking AMG suggesting that glycation inhibition was responsible for restoration of differentially expressed proteins. Thus glycation inhibitors particularly AMG, HYD and MET extend yeast CLS by reducing AGEs, modulating the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration and possibly by scavenging glucose. This study reports the role of glycation in aging process. In the non-caloric restriction condition, carbohydrates such as glucose promote protein glycation and reduce CLS. While, the inhibitors of glycation such as AMG, HYD, MET mimic the caloric restriction condition by back regulating deregulated proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration which could facilitate shift of metabolism from fermentation to respiration and extend yeast CLS. These findings suggest that glycation inhibitors can be potential molecules that can be used

  6. Mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I defects in Fanconi anemia complementation group A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Silvia; Vaccaro, Daniele; Cuccarolo, Paola; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Bartolucci, Martina; Panfoli, Isabella; Morelli, Alessandro; Dufour, Carlo; Cappelli, Enrico; Degan, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare and complex inherited blood disorder of the child. At least 15 genes are associated with the disease. The highest frequency of mutations belongs to groups A, C and G. Genetic instability and cytokine hypersensitivity support the selection of leukemic over non-leukemic stem cells. FA cellular phenotype is characterized by alterations in red-ox state, mitochondrial functionality and energy metabolism as reported in the past however a clear picture of the altered biochemical phenotype in FA is still elusive and the final biochemical defect(s) still unknown. Here we report an analysis of the respiratory fluxes in FANCA primary fibroblasts, lymphocytes and lymphoblasts. FANCA mutants show defective respiration through Complex I, diminished ATP production and metabolic sufferance with an increased AMP/ATP ratio. Respiration in FANCC mutants is normal. Treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) restores oxygen consumption to normal level. Defective respiration in FANCA mutants appear correlated with the FA pro-oxidative phenotype which is consistent with the altered morphology of FANCA mitochondria. Electron microscopy measures indeed show profound alterations in mitochondrial ultrastructure and shape. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Concentration-dependent Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) effects on ROS production, energy status, and human sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria Inês; Amaral, Sandra; Tavares, Renata Santos; Paiva, Carla; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2014-04-01

    Literature regarding the effects of sildenafil citrate on sperm function remains controversial. In the present study, we specifically wanted to determine if mitochondrial dysfunction, namely membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, and changes in energy content, are involved in in vitro sildenafil-induced alterations of human sperm function. Sperm samples of healthy men were incubated in the presence of 0.03, 0.3, and 3 μM sildenafil citrate in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-based medium for 2, 3, 12, and 24 hours. Sperm motility and viability were evaluated and mitochondrial function, i.e., mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide production were assessed using flow-cytometry. Additionally, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results show a decrease in sperm motility correlated with the level of mitochondria-generated superoxide, without a visible effect on mitochondrial membrane potential or viability upon exposure to sildenafil. The effect on both motility and superoxide production was higher for the intermediate concentration of sildenafil (0.3 µM) indicating that the in vitro effects of sildenafil on human sperm do not vary linearly with drug concentration. Adenosine triphosphate levels also decreased following sildenafil exposure, but this decrease was only detected after a decrease in motility was already evident. These results suggest that along with the level of ATP and mitochondrial function other factors are involved in the early sildenafil-mediated decline in sperm motility. However, the further decrease in ATP levels and increase in mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species after 24 hours of exposure might further contribute towards declining sperm motility.

  8. Use of atp6 in fungal phylogenetics: an example from the boletales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzer, A M; Bruns, T D

    1999-12-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences have been determined for atp6 from Suillus luteus and cox3 from Suillus sinuspaulianus (Boletales, Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota), which code for ATPase subunit 6 and cytochrome oxidase subunit 3, respectively. These sequences were used to design PCR primers for the amplification of partial atp6 and cox3 sequences from other members of the Boletales and outgroup taxa. In atp6 and cox3 from Russula rosacea, one of the outgroup taxa, we observed a number of in-frame TGA(trp) codons, which imply a Neurospora crassa-type mitochondrial code in R. rosacea and possibly in basidiomycetes in general. Interestingly, however, most basidiomycetes other than R. rosacea appear to strongly prefer the TGG(trp) codon, which is unusual, given the strong A + T bias in fungal mitochondrial genomes. Pairwise comparisons were performed between atp6 sequences from increasingly divergent fungal lineages, and results show that all three codon positions become saturated in substitutions after an estimated divergence time of approx 300 Ma. This means that atp6 is likely to provide phylogenetic resolution within fungal classes but not at higher taxonomic levels. Also, because of the strong A + T bias in fungal mitochondrial genomes, A/T transversions were found to be more common than any other type of substitution, resulting in transversions being about two to three times more common in most pairwise sequence comparisons. Finally, atp6 sequences were used to infer phylogenetic relationships between 27 taxa from the Boletales and 4 outgroup taxa. Analyses were performed (i) on nucleotide sequence data using parsimony (successive approximation) as well as maximum likelihood methods and (ii) on deduced amino acid sequences using distance methods based on empirical substitution probabilities. Results from the various analyses are largely concordant with each other as well as with prior analyses of partial mitochondrial large-subunit rDNA (mtLSU rDNA). Analysis of the

  9. Role of the import motor in insertion of transmembrane segments by the mitochondrial TIM23 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Waegemann, Karin; Mapa, Koyeli; Neupert, Walter; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2011-06-01

    The TIM23 complex mediates translocation of proteins across, and their lateral insertion into, the mitochondrial inner membrane. Translocation of proteins requires both the membrane-embedded core of the complex and its ATP-dependent import motor. Insertion of some proteins, however, occurs in the absence of ATP, questioning the need for the import motor during lateral insertion. We show here that the import motor associates with laterally inserted proteins even when its ATPase activity is not required. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for the import motor in lateral insertion. Thus, the import motor is involved in ATP-dependent translocation and ATP-independent lateral insertion.

  10. Fuel-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Depends upon Mitochondria Activation and the Integration of Mitochondrial and Cytosolic Substrate Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Cline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pancreatic islet β-cell is uniquely specialized to couple its metabolism and rates of insulin secretion with the levels of circulating nutrient fuels, with the mitochondrial playing a central regulatory role in this process. In the β-cell, mitochondrial activation generates an integrated signal reflecting rates of oxidativephosphorylation, Kreb's cycle flux, and anaplerosis that ultimately determines the rate of insulin exocytosis. Mitochondrial activation can be regulated by proton leak and mediated by UCP2, and by alkalinization to utilize the pH gradient to drive substrate and ion transport. Converging lines of evidence support the hypothesis that substrate cycles driven by rates of Kreb's cycle flux and by anaplerosis play an integral role in coupling responsive changes in mitochondrial metabolism with insulin secretion. The components and mechanisms that account for the integrated signal of ATP production, substrate cycling, the regulation of cellular redox state, and the production of other secondary signaling intermediates are operative in both rodent and human islet β-cells.

  11. Co-ordinate decrease in the expression of the mitochondrial genome and nuclear genes for mitochondrial proteins in the lactation-induced mitochondrial hypotrophy of rat brown fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, I; Giralt, M; Viñas, O; Iglesias, R; Mampel, T; Villarroya, F

    1995-01-01

    The relative abundance of the mitochondrial-encoded mRNAs for cytochrome c oxidase subunit II and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I was lower in brown adipose tissue (BAT) from lactating rats than in virgin controls. This decrease was in parallel with a significant decrease in mitochondrial 16 S rRNA levels and in the relative content of mitochondrial DNA in the tissue. BAT from lactating rats showed lowered mRNA expression of the nuclear-encoded genes for the mitochondrial uncoupling protein, subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase and the adenine nucleotide translocase isoforms ANT1 and ANT2, whereas mRNA levels for the ATP synthase beta-subunit were unchanged. However, the relative content of this last protein was lower in BAT mitochondria from lactating rats than in virgin controls. It is concluded that lactation-induced mitochondrial hypotrophy in BAT is associated with a co-ordinate decrease in the expression of the mitochondrial genome and nuclear genes for mitochondrial proteins. This decrease is caused by regulatory events acting at different levels, including pre- and post-transcriptional regulation. BAT appears to be a useful model with which to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the co-ordination of the expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes during mitochondrial biogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8948428

  12. The ADP/ATP Carrier and Its Relationship to Oxidative Phosphorylation in Ancestral Protist Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gnipová, Anna; Šubrtová, Karolína; Panicucci, Brian; Horváth, A.; Lukeš, Julius; Zíková, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2015), s. 297-310 ISSN 1535-9778 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LL1205; GA ČR GAP302/12/2513 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cytochrome c-oxidase * structural basis * mitochondrial ATP synthase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.946, year: 2015

  13. The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma, Amalia; de Lacoba, Mario García; Rial, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    The uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are transporters, present in the mitochondrial inner membrane, that mediate a regulated discharge of the proton gradient that is generated by the respiratory chain. This energy-dissipatory mechanism can serve functions such as thermogenesis, maintenance of the redox balance, or reduction in the production of reactive oxygen species. Some UCP homologs may not act as true uncouplers, however, and their activity has yet to be defined. The UCPs are integral membrane...

  14. Increased Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Zucker Diabetic Rat Liver and Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF, FA/FA rat is a genetic model of type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance with progressive metabolic syndrome. We have previously demonstrated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the heart, kidneys and pancreas of ZDF rats. However, the precise molecular mechanism of disease progression is not clear. Our aim in the present study was to investigate oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver and brain of ZDF rats. Methods: In this study, we have measured mitochondrial oxidative stress, bioenergetics and redox homeostasis in the liver and brain of ZDF rats. Results: Our results showed increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production in the ZDF rat brain compared to the liver, while nitric oxide (NO production was markedly increased both in the brain and liver. High levels of lipid and protein peroxidation were also observed in these tissues. Glutathione metabolism and mitochondrial respiratory functions were adversely affected in ZDF rats when compared to Zucker lean (ZL, +/FA control rats. Reduced ATP synthesis was also observed in the liver and brain of ZDF rats. Western blot analysis confirmed altered expression of cytochrome P450 2E1, iNOS, p-JNK, and IκB-a confirming an increase in oxidative and metabolic stress in ZDF rat tissues. Conclusions: Our data shows that, like other tissues, ZDF rat liver and brain develop complications associated with redox homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction. These results, thus, might have implications in understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of diabesity which in turn, would help in managing the disease associated complications.

  15. Development of a Model for the Teaching of Mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.S. Souza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cellular Biology and Molecular Biology are fields of Science that use very abstract concepts, because they look into microscopic and molecular aspects of the nature. The process of teaching/learning of those disciplines requires didactic material, as an alternative approach for the students, to increase the chances of understanding these issues and to become an important tool in the synthesis of this knowledge. One of the methods that can be employed is the didactic models based on multimedia, because they allow an easy and fun interaction with these subjects. On this work was created a new educational model that represents the human mitochondrial DNA molecule, mtDNA, in its circular form, using the softwares Excel 2007 and PowerPoint 2007. The model was constructed in hypertext format, which allowed a quick and interactive access to the information contained in the genes found in the L and the H strands of mtDNA, and its function in the mitochondrial processes, like themechanism of energy production that occurs inside of the mitochondria by the coupling of electron transfer and ATP synthesis or still others uses like forensic identification.

  16. Defining the pathogenesis of the human Atp12p W94R mutation using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, Ann; Seneca, Sara; Pribyl, Thomas; Smet, Joel; Alderweirldt, Valerie; Waeytens, Anouk; Lissens, Willy; Van Coster, Rudy; De Meirleir, Linda; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Gatti, Domenico L; Ackerman, Sharon H

    2010-02-05

    Studies in yeast have shown that a deficiency in Atp12p prevents assembly of the extrinsic domain (F(1)) of complex V and renders cells unable to make ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. De Meirleir et al. (De Meirleir, L., Seneca, S., Lissens, W., De Clercq, I., Eyskens, F., Gerlo, E., Smet, J., and Van Coster, R. (2004) J. Med. Genet. 41, 120-124) have reported that a homozygous missense mutation in the gene for human Atp12p (HuAtp12p), which replaces Trp-94 with Arg, was linked to the death of a 14-month-old patient. We have investigated the impact of the pathogenic W94R mutation on Atp12p structure/function. Plasmid-borne wild type human Atp12p rescues the respiratory defect of a yeast ATP12 deletion mutant (Deltaatp12). The W94R mutation alters the protein at the most highly conserved position in the Pfam sequence and renders HuAtp12p insoluble in the background of Deltaatp12. In contrast, the yeast protein harboring the corresponding mutation, ScAtp12p(W103R), is soluble in the background of Deltaatp12 but not in the background of Deltaatp12Deltafmc1, a strain that also lacks Fmc1p. Fmc1p is a yeast mitochondrial protein not found in higher eukaryotes. Tryptophan 94 (human) or 103 (yeast) is located in a positively charged region of Atp12p, and hence its mutation to arginine does not alter significantly the electrostatic properties of the protein. Instead, we provide evidence that the primary effect of the substitution is on the dynamic properties of Atp12p.

  17. Kinetic properties of ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase from Thiobacillus denitrificans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Sean C; Fribourgh, Jennifer L; Donohoue, Paul D; Segel, Irwin H; Fisher, Andrew J

    2009-09-01

    The Thiobacillus denitrificans genome contains two sequences corresponding to ATP sulfurylase (Tbd_0210 and Tbd_0874). Both genes were cloned and expressed protein characterized. The larger protein (Tbd_0210; 544 residues) possesses an N-terminal ATP sulfurylase domain and a C-terminal APS kinase domain and was therefore annotated as a bifunctional enzyme. But, the protein was not bifunctional because it lacked ATP sulfurylase activity. However, the enzyme did possess APS kinase activity and displayed substrate inhibition by APS. Truncated protein missing the N-terminal domain had APS kinase activity suggesting the function of the inactive sulfurylase domain is to promote the oligomerization of the APS kinase domains. The smaller gene product (Tbd_0874; 402 residues) possessed strong ATP sulfurylase activity with kinetic properties that appear to be kinetically optimized for the direction of APS utilization and ATP+sulfate production, which is consistent with an enzyme that functions physiologically to produce inorganic sulfate.

  18. Optimisation of ATP determination in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) can be used as a relative measure of cell activity, and is measured by the light output from the reaction between luciferin and ATP catalyzed by firefly luciferase. The measurement has potential as a monitoring and surveillance tool within drinking water distribution,...... be separated from the water phase by filtration.......Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) can be used as a relative measure of cell activity, and is measured by the light output from the reaction between luciferin and ATP catalyzed by firefly luciferase. The measurement has potential as a monitoring and surveillance tool within drinking water distribution...... and an Advance Coupe luminometer. The investigations showed a 60 times higher response of the PCP-kit, making it more suitable for measurement of samples with low ATP content. ATP-standard dilutions prepared in tap water were stable for at least 15 months when stored frozen at -80ºC, and storage of large...

  19. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA

  20. Calcium Co-regulates Oxidative Metabolism and ATP Synthase-dependent Respiration in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Umberto; Thevenet, Jonathan; Hermant, Aurelie; Dioum, Elhadji; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial energy metabolism is essential for glucose-induced calcium signaling and, therefore, insulin granule exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells. Calcium signals are sensed by mitochondria acting in concert with mitochondrial substrates for the full activation of the organelle. Here we have studied glucose-induced calcium signaling and energy metabolism in INS-1E insulinoma cells and human islet beta cells. In insulin secreting cells a surprisingly large fraction of total respiration under resting conditions is ATP synthase-independent. We observe that ATP synthase-dependent respiration is markedly increased after glucose stimulation. Glucose also causes a very rapid elevation of oxidative metabolism as was followed by NAD(P)H autofluorescence. However, neither the rate of the glucose-induced increase nor the new steady-state NAD(P)H levels are significantly affected by calcium. Our findings challenge the current view, which has focused mainly on calcium-sensitive dehydrogenases as the target for the activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. We propose a model of tight calcium-dependent regulation of oxidative metabolism and ATP synthase-dependent respiration in beta cell mitochondria. Coordinated activation of matrix dehydrogenases and respiratory chain activity by calcium allows the respiratory rate to change severalfold with only small or no alterations of the NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio. PMID:24554722

  1. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo, E-mail: cklee2005@korea.ac.kr

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA.

  2. The c-Ring of the F1FO-ATP Synthase: Facts and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesci, Salvatore; Trombetti, Fabiana; Ventrella, Vittoria; Pagliarani, Alessandra

    2016-04-01

    The F1FO-ATP synthase is the only enzyme in nature endowed with bi-functional catalytic mechanism of synthesis and hydrolysis of ATP. The enzyme functions, not only confined to energy transduction, are tied to three intrinsic features of the annular arrangement of c subunits which constitutes the so-called c-ring, the core of the membrane-embedded FO domain: (i) the c-ring constitution is linked to the number of ions (H(+) or Na(+)) channeled across the membrane during the dissipation of the transmembrane electrochemical gradient, which in turn determines the species-specific bioenergetic cost of ATP, the "molecular currency unit" of energy transfer in all living beings; (ii) the c-ring is increasingly involved in the mitochondrial permeability transition, an event linked to cell death and to most mitochondrial dysfunctions; (iii) the c subunit species-specific amino acid sequence and susceptibility to post-translational modifications can address antibacterial drug design according to the model of enzyme inhibitors which target the c subunits. Therefore, the simple c-ring structure not only allows the F1FO-ATP synthase to perform the two opposite tasks of molecular machine of cell life and death, but it also amplifies the enzyme's potential role as a drug target.

  3. ATP5B and ETFB metabolic markers in children with congenital hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Yang, Yi; Wang, Changlin; Hou, Ying; Chen, Hui

    2016-12-01

    Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause of chronic renal failure in children. Disorders of mitochondrial energy metabolism may be a primary factor underlying tubular cell apoptosis in hydronephrosis. The β-F1-ATPase (ATP5B) and electron transfer flavoprotein β subunit (ETFB) metabolic markers are involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism in other diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether ATP5B and ETFB are represented in the hydronephrotic kidney, and whether they are associated with the progression of hydronephrosis. The cohort examined consisted of 20 children with hydronephrosis, graded III and IV using the Society for Fetal Urology grading system, and a control group consisting of 20 patients with nephroblastoma. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses were used to investigate the differential expression of genes and proteins in the two groups. The gene and protein expression levels of ATP5B and ETFB were upregulated in the hydronephrosis group. Correlation analyses revealed negative correlations between ATP5B, ETFB protein and split renal function (SRF). Receiver‑operator curve analysis found a diagnostic profile of the ETFB protein in identifying children with hydronephrosis with abnormal SRF (hydronephrosis and require further detailed investigation.

  4. Stoichiometry of vectorial H+ movements coupled to electron transport and to ATP synthesis in mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Adolfo; Reynafarje, Baltazar; Lehninger, Albert L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to verify more directly our earlier measurements showing that, on the average, close to four vectorial H+ are rejected per pair of electrons passing each of the three energy-conserving sites of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, direct tests of the H+/2e- ratio for sites 2 and 3 were carried out in the presence of permeant charge-compensating cations. Site 2 was examined by utilizing succinate as electron donor and ferricyanide as electron acceptor from mitochondrial cytochrome c; the directly measured H+/2e- ratio was close to 4. Energy-conserving site 3 was isolated for study with ferrocyanide or ascorbate plus tetramethylphenylenediamine as electron donors to cytochrome c and with oxygen as electron acceptor. The directly measured H+/2e- ratio for site 3 was close to 4. The H+/ATP ratio (number of vectorial H+ ejected per ATP hydrolyzed) was determined with a new method in which the steady-state rates of both H+ ejection and ATP hydrolysis were measured in the presence of K+ + valinomycin. The H+/ATP ratio was found to approach 3.0. A proton cycle for oxidative phosphorylation is proposed, in which four electrochemical H+ equivalents are ejected per pair of electrons passing each energy-conserving site; three of the H+ equivalents pass inward to derive ATP synthesis from ADP and phosphate and the fourth H+ is used to bring about the energy-requiring electrogenic expulsion of ATP4- in exchange for extramitochondrial ADP3-, via the H+/H2PO4- symporter. PMID:31621

  5. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization increases reactive oxygen species production and decreases mean sperm velocity but is not associated with DNA fragmentation in human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treulen, F; Uribe, P; Boguen, R; Villegas, J V

    2016-02-01

    Does induction of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) in vitro affect specific functional parameters of human spermatozoa? Our findings show that MOMP induction increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases mean sperm velocity but does not alter DNA integrity. MOMP in somatic cells is related to a variety of apoptotic traits, such as alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and increase in ROS production and DNA fragmentation. Although the presence of these apoptotic features has been reported in spermatozoa, to date the effects of MOMP on sperm function and DNA integrity have not been analysed. The study included spermatozoa from fertile donors. Motile sperm were obtained using the swim-up method. The highly motile sperm were collected and diluted with human tubal fluid to a final cell concentration of 5 × 10(6) ml(-1). To induce MOMP, selected sperm were treated at 37°C for 4 h with a mimetic of a Bcl-2 pro-apoptotic protein, ABT-737. MOMP was evaluated by relocating of cytochrome c. In addition, the effect of ABT-737 on mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization was assessed using the calcein-AM/cobalt chloride method. In turn, ΔΨm was evaluated with JC-1 staining, intracellular ROS production with dihydroethidium, sperm motility was analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis and DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay. Measurements were performed by flow cytometry. MOMP was associated with ΔΨm dissipation (P < 0.05), increased ROS production (P < 0.05) and decreased mean sperm velocity (P < 0.05), but it was not associated with DNA fragmentation. MOMP did not induce a large increase in ROS, which could explain the negligible effect of MOMP on sperm DNA fragmentation under our experimental conditions