WorldWideScience

Sample records for mitigator material desenvolvimento

  1. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  2. Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodriquez, Jose [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt theft of nuclear materials. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat.

  3. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  4. Paving materials for heat island mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rosenfeld, A.H. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.

  5. Characterization of viscoelastic materials for low-magnitude blast mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W.

    2014-05-01

    Recent research indicates that exposure to low amplitude blast waves, such as IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficiently protecting warfighters from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the blast mitigating behavior of current helmet materials and new materials designed for blast mitigation using a test fixture recently developed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for use with an existing gas gun. The 40-mm-bore gas gun was used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 0.5 to 2 bar) in the test fixture mounted on the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve was used to release helium gas from the breech which formed into a blast wave and impacted instrumented targets in the test fixture. Blast attenuation of selected materials was determined through the measurement of stress data in front of and behind the target. Materials evaluated in this research include polyurethane foam from currently fielded US Army and Marine Corps helmets, polyurea 1000, and three hardnesses of Sorbothane (48, 58, and 70 durometer, Shore 00). Polyurea 1000 and 6061-T6 aluminum were used to calibrate the stress gauges.

  6. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials 5a...directions for future decontamination formulation approaches. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent... DECONTAMINANTS TO PROVIDE HAZARD MITIGATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS FROM MATERIALS 1. INTRODUCTION Decontamination of materials is the

  7. Modeling the dynamic crush of impact mitigating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, R.W.; McMichael, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    Crushable materials are commonly utilized in the design of structural components to absorb energy and mitigate shock during the dynamic impact of a complex structure, such as an automobile chassis or drum-type shipping container. The development and application of several finite-element material models which have been developed at various times at LLNL for DYNA3D will be discussed. Between the models, they are able to account for several of the predominant mechanisms which typically influence the dynamic mechanical behavior of crushable materials. One issue we addressed was that no single existing model would account for the entire gambit of constitutive features which are important for crushable materials. Thus, we describe the implementation and use of an additional material model which attempts to provide a more comprehensive model of the mechanics of crushable material behavior. This model combines features of the pre-existing DYNA models and incorporates some new features as well in an invariant large-strain formulation. In addition to examining the behavior of a unit cell in uniaxial compression, two cases were chosen to evaluate the capabilities and accuracy of the various material models in DYNA. In the first case, a model for foam filled box beams was developed and compared to test data from a 4-point bend test. The model was subsequently used to study its effectiveness in energy absorption in an aluminum extrusion, spaceframe, vehicle chassis. The second case examined the response of the AT-400A shipping container and the performance of the overpack material during accident environments selected from 10CFR71 and IAEA regulations

  8. Can superabsorbent polymers mitigate shrinkage in cementitious materials blended with supplementary cementitious materials?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoeck, Didier; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; De Belie, Nele

    2016-01-01

    A promising way to mitigate autogenous shrinkage in cementitious materials with a low water-to-binder ratio is internal curing by the use of superabsorbent polymers. Superabsorbent polymers are able to absorb multiple times their weight in water and can be applied as an internal water reservoir...... to induce internal curing and mitigation of self-desiccation. Their purposefulness has been demonstrated in Portland cement pastes with and without silica fume. Nowadays, fly ash and blast-furnace slag containing binders are also frequently used in the construction industry. The results on autogenous...... shrinkage in materials blended with fly ash or blast-furnace slag remain scarce, especially after one week of age. This paper focuses on the autogenous shrinkage by performing manual and automated shrinkage measurements up to one month of age. Without superabsorbent polymers, autogenous shrinkage...

  9. Using the Steel Vessel Material-Cost Index to Mitigate Shipbuilder Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keating, Edward G; Murphy, Robert; Schank, John F; Birkler, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how the US Navy structures fixed-price and fixed-price, incentive-fee shipbuilding contracts and how labor- and material-cost indexes can mitigate shipbuilder risk in either type of contract...

  10. A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, V.I.; Bell, R.G. III; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil, rock, and ice penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact of 125-fps. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these more sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reaches the electronics contained in the various mechanical system. As part of the investigation of packaging techniques, a two part study of shock mitigating materials is being conducted. This paper reports the first part of the shock mitigating materials study. A study to compare three thicknesses (0.125, 0.250, and 0.500 in.) of seventeen, unconfined materials for their shock mitigating characteristics has been completed with a split Hopkinson bar configuration. The nominal input as measured by strain gages on the incident Hopkinson bar is 50 fps at sign 100 micros for these tests. It is hypothesized that a shock mitigating material has four purposes: to lengthen the shock pulse, to attenuate the shock pulse, to mitigate high frequency content in the shock pulse, and to absorb energy. Both time domain and frequency domain analyses of the split Hopkinson bar data have been performed to compare the materials' achievement of these purposes

  11. Investigation of Lithium Metal Hydride Materials for Mitigation of Deep Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Atwell, William

    2016-01-01

    Radiation exposure to crew, electronics, and non-metallic materials is one of many concerns with long-term, deep space travel. Mitigating this exposure is approached via a multi-faceted methodology focusing on multi-functional materials, vehicle configuration, and operational or mission constraints. In this set of research, we are focusing on new multi-functional materials that may have advantages over traditional shielding materials, such as polyethylene. Metal hydride materials are of particular interest for deep space radiation shielding due to their ability to store hydrogen, a low-Z material known to be an excellent radiation mitigator and a potential fuel source. We have previously investigated 41 different metal hydrides for their radiation mitigation potential. Of these metal hydrides, we found a set of lithium hydrides to be of particular interest due to their excellent shielding of galactic cosmic radiation. Given these results, we will continue our investigation of lithium hydrides by expanding our data set to include dose equivalent and to further understand why these materials outperformed polyethylene in a heavy ion environment. For this study, we used HZETRN 2010, a one-dimensional transport code developed by NASA Langley Research Center, to simulate radiation transport through the lithium hydrides. We focused on the 1977 solar minimum Galactic Cosmic Radiation environment and thicknesses of 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 g/cm2 to stay consistent with our previous studies. The details of this work and the subsequent results will be discussed in this paper.

  12. A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil, rock, and ice penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact of 125 fps. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these more sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reaches the electronics contained in the various mechanical systems. As part of the investigation of packaging techniques, a two phase study of shock mitigating materials is being conducted. The purpose of the first phase reported here is to examine the performance of a joint that consists of shock mitigating material sandwiched in between steel and to compare the performance of the shock mitigating materials. A split Hopkinson bar experimental configuration simulates this joint and has been used to study the shock mitigating characteristics of seventeen, unconfined materials. The nominal input for these tests is an incident compressive wave with 50 fps peak (1,500 micro var-epsilon peak) amplitude and a 100 micros duration (measured at 10% amplitude)

  13. Developing high-risk scenarios and countermeasure ideas for mitigation of hazardous materials incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.R. Sr.

    1991-01-01

    Kansas State University (KSU) conducted a comprehensive study of the development of a set of prioritized, extreme-risk scenarios, the development of a set of feasible, practical and implementable protective systems, and a report to summarize guidelines on the use of these protective systems to mitigate potential, extreme-risk situations that could occur during the transport of hazardous materials (Hazmat) on our highway system. This paper covers the methodology used to compete the first tow objectives with use of a state's panel. The research study was limited to materials (such as LNG, propane, gasoline, etc.) spilled within the highway system. It focused on potential risks which would result in severe, long-term, permanent, irreparable or catastrophic consequences, and existing technology and state-of-the-art knowledge for development of protective systems to mitigate these consequences. The protective systems within the scope of this study were systems constructed or physically incorporated into the highway system or modifications thereto

  14. Desenvolvimento e aplicação de um material paradidático interativo como auxiliar no ensino de conceitos básicos de termologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernandes Mendes da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2014v31n3p694 Neste artigo relatamos o desenvolvimento e a aplicação de um material paradidático digital interativo, que tem o objetivo de auxiliar o estudo de termologia. O material contém, além de textos didáticos, animações na linguagem Macromedia Flash inseridas num arquivo PDF. Comentamos sobre a aplicação e boa recepção do material por alunos de uma turma de 1ª série do ensino médio.

  15. Desenvolvimento de material de referência para microbiologia de alimentos contendo estafilococos coagulase positiva em matriz queijo

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão,Marcelo Luiz Lima; Costa,Juliana de Castro Beltrão da; Farias,Felipe Miceli de; Rosas,Carla de Oliveira; Bricio,Silvia Maria Lopes; Nascimento,Janaína dos Santos; Cardarelli-Leite,Paola

    2013-01-01

    O uso de materiais de referência (MR) é uma das principais ferramentas utilizadas para garantia e controle da qualidade de laboratórios de microbiologia de alimentos. No Brasil, a RDC n.º 12/01 da Anvisa prevê como um dos parâmetros para a avaliação da qualidade de queijos a enumeração de estafilococos coagulase positiva (ECP). O grande desafio na produção de MR destinados a ensaios microbiológicos é a instabilidade natural dos micro-organismos, o que dificulta o desenvolvimento e a manutençã...

  16. Method of approximating the effects of blast mitigation materials on particulate-containing clouds formed by explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyckes, G.W.

    1983-09-01

    A numerical model was developed for predicting the effect of blast mitigation materials on the rise and entrainment rate of explosively driven buoyant clouds containing radiotoxic particles. Model predictions for clouds from unmitigated explosions agree with published observations. More experimental data are needed to assess the validity of predictions for clouds from mitigated explosions

  17. Two-material optimization of plate armour for blast mitigation using hybrid cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J.; Tan, H.; Renaud, J.; Tovar, A.

    2012-08-01

    With the increased use of improvised explosive devices in regions at war, the threat to military and civilian life has risen. Cabin penetration and gross acceleration are the primary threats in an explosive event. Cabin penetration crushes occupants, damaging the lower body. Acceleration causes death at high magnitudes. This investigation develops a process of designing armour that simultaneously mitigates cabin penetration and acceleration. The hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method of topology optimization has proven efficient and robust in problems involving large, plastic deformations such as crash impact. Here HCA is extended to the design of armour under blast loading. The ability to distribute two metallic phases, as opposed to one material and void, is also added. The blast wave energy transforms on impact into internal energy (IE) inside the solid medium. Maximum attenuation occurs with maximized IE. The resulting structures show HCA's potential for designing blast mitigating armour structures.

  18. A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil and rock penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reached the electronics contained in the various mechanical systems. Here, a study to compare two thickness values, 0.125 and 0.250 in. of five materials, GE RTV 630, HS II Silicone, Polysulfide Rubber, Sylgard 184, and Teflon for their shock mitigating characteristics with a split Hopkinson bar configuration has been completed. The five materials have been tested in both unconfined and confined conditions at ambient temperature and with two applied loads of 750 με peak (25 fps peak) with a 100 micros duration, measured at 10% amplitude, and 1500 με peak (50 fps peak) with a 100 micros duration, measured at 10% amplitude. The five materials have been tested at ambient, cold (-65 F), and hot (+165 F) for the unconfined condition with the 750 με peak (25 fps peak) applied load. Time domain and frequency domain analyses of the split Hopkinson bar data have been performed to compare how these materials lengthen the shock pulse, attenuate the shock pulse, reflect high

  19. Plasma facing materials performance under ITER-relevant mitigated disruption photonic heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, N. S.; Putrik, A. B.; Linke, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Kuprianov, I. B.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Ivanov, B. V.; Sergeecheva, Ya. V.; Lesina, I. G.; Kovalenko, D. V.; Barsuk, V. A.; Danilina, N. A.; Bazylev, B. N.; Giniyatulin, R. N.

    2015-08-01

    PFMs (Plasma-facing materials: ITER grade stainless steel, beryllium, and ferritic-martensitic steels) as well as deposited erosion products of PFCs (Be-like, tungsten, and carbon based) were tested in QSPA under photonic heat loads relevant to those expected from photon radiation during disruptions mitigated by massive gas injection in ITER. Repeated pulses slightly above the melting threshold on the bulk materials eventually lead to a regular, "corrugated" surface, with hills and valleys spaced by 0.2-2 mm. The results indicate that hill growth (growth rate of ∼1 μm per pulse) and sample thinning in the valleys is a result of melt-layer redistribution. The measurements on the 316L(N)-IG indicate that the amount of tritium absorbed by the sample from the gas phase significantly increases with pulse number as well as the modified layer thickness. Repeated pulses significantly below the melting threshold on the deposited erosion products lead to a decrease of hydrogen isotopes trapped during the deposition of the eroded material.

  20. Plasma facing materials performance under ITER-relevant mitigated disruption photonic heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, N.S., E-mail: klimov@triniti.ru [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoye shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Putrik, A.B. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Jülich D-52425 (Germany); Pitts, R.A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Zhitlukhin, A.M. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Kuprianov, I.B. [Bochvar Institute, ul. Rogova, 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Spitsyn, A.V. [NRC «Kurchatov Institute», Akademika Kurchatova pl., 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Ogorodnikova, O.V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoye shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, B.V.; Sergeecheva, Ya.V.; Lesina, I.G. [Bochvar Institute, ul. Rogova, 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, D.V.; Barsuk, V.A.; Danilina, N.A. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Bazylev, B.N. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Giniyatulin, R.N. [Efremov Institute, Doroga na Metallostroy, 3 bld., Metallostroy, Saint-Petersburg 196641 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    PFMs (Plasma-facing materials: ITER grade stainless steel, beryllium, and ferritic–martensitic steels) as well as deposited erosion products of PFCs (Be-like, tungsten, and carbon based) were tested in QSPA under photonic heat loads relevant to those expected from photon radiation during disruptions mitigated by massive gas injection in ITER. Repeated pulses slightly above the melting threshold on the bulk materials eventually lead to a regular, “corrugated” surface, with hills and valleys spaced by 0.2–2 mm. The results indicate that hill growth (growth rate of ∼1 μm per pulse) and sample thinning in the valleys is a result of melt-layer redistribution. The measurements on the 316L(N)-IG indicate that the amount of tritium absorbed by the sample from the gas phase significantly increases with pulse number as well as the modified layer thickness. Repeated pulses significantly below the melting threshold on the deposited erosion products lead to a decrease of hydrogen isotopes trapped during the deposition of the eroded material.

  1. Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

  2. Polyimide Nanocomposite Circuit Board Materials to Mitigate Internal Electrostatic Discharge, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Sub-topic T8.02, NASA has identified a need for improved circuit boards to mitigate the hazards of internal electrostatic discharge (IESD) on missions where high...

  3. Desenvolvimento de material de referência para microbiologia de alimentos contendo Listeria monocytogenes em matriz queijo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luiz Lima Brandão

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, uma das normas mais utilizadas em laboratórios de ensaio, descreve como um de seus critérios para a garantia da qualidade dos resultados analíticos a participação periódica dos laboratórios em ensaios de proficiência (EP. Os analitos, utilizados nos EP são materiais de referência (MR provenientes de um mesmo lote, e devem apresentar características de homogeneidade e estabilidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi produzir um MR qualitativo destinado ao ensaio de pesquisa de Listeria monocytogenes em matriz queijo pela técnica de liofilização. Para a produção do MR, foi utilizado como matriz o queijo Minas frescal (QMF ultrafiltrado. A matriz foi distribuída em frascos, contaminada com a bactéria alvo e submetida à liofilização, tendo a sacarose como crioprotetor. O MR produzido foi considerado homogêneo e estável na temperatura de ≤-70°C durante todo o período estudado (10 meses. O material apresentou estabilidade a 4, 25, 30 e 35°C por quatro dias e a -20°C por 48 dias, e os resultados estatísticos indicam tendência à estabilidade. Conclui-se que o material apresentou todos os requisitos necessários de um MR de qualidade e poderia ser transportado aos laboratórios participantes de um EP à temperatura máxima de 35°C por até quatro dias, uma vez que os resultados indicaram a manutenção da concentração celular nesse período. Esse foi o primeiro trabalho a descrever uma metodologia de produção de MR contendo L. monocytogenes em matriz queijo.

  4. Harnessing osteopontin and other natural inhibitors to mitigate ectopic calcification of bioprosthetic heart valve material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, Rachit

    Dystrophic calcification has been the long-standing major cause of bioprosthetic heart valve failure, and has been well studied in terms of the underlying causative mechanisms. Such understanding has yielded several anti-calcification strategies involving biomaterial modification at the preparation stage: chemical alteration, extraction of calcifiable components, or material modification with small-molecule anti-calcific agents. However, newer therapeutic opportunities are offered by the growing illustration of the pathology as a dynamic, actively regulated process involving several gene products, such as osteopontin (OPN), matrix-gla protein (MGP) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Osteopontin, a multi-functional matricellular glycosylated phosphoprotein has emerged as a prime candidate for the role of an in vivo inhibitor of ectopic calcification with two putative mechanisms: crystal poisoning and mineral-dissolution. The full therapeutic realization of its potential necessitates a better understanding of the mechanisms of anti-calcification by osteopontin, as well as appropriate in vivo models in which to evaluate its efficacy, potency and molecular mechanisms. In this work, we pursued the development and characterization of a reliable in vivo model with the OPN-null mouse to simulate the calcification of bioprosthetic valve material, namely glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium (GFBP) tissue. Subsequently, we used the calcification model to evaluate hypotheses based on the anti-calcific potential of osteopontin. Several modes of administering exogenous OPN to the implant site in OPN-null mice were explored, including soluble injected OPN, OPN covalently immobilized on the biomaterial, and OPN adsorbed onto the biomaterial. An investigation of the structure-function aspects of the anti-calcific ability of OPN was also pursued in the in vivo model. The OPN-null mouse was also used as an in vivo test-bed to evaluate the anti-calcific potential of other biomolecules

  5. MEIO AMBIENTE E DESENVOLVIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Salgueiro Chacon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é resgatar elementos para subsidiar uma reflexão crítica sobre o modelo de desenvolvimento econômico prevalente na sociedade e as relações com o meio ambiente, sob a ameaça que ronda o destino da espécie humana, conforme afirmação de Lovelock (2006, p. 20 sobre o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável: “uma ideia adorável se a tivéssemos aplicado 200 anos atrás, quando havia um bilhão de pessoas no mundo. Agora é tarde demais. Não há mais espaço para nenhum tipo de desenvolvimento. A humanidade tem que regredir”. Este artigo apresenta a evolução do conceito de desenvolvimento econômico sob a ótica da sustentabilidade, e interliga temas como: o ambientalismo, aglutinador de distintos pensamentos sobre as relações entre a sociedade e a natureza; o movimento ambiental, a fundamentar a disseminação do conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável, e a gestão ambiental, abordada como prática orientada pelo conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável.

  6. Mitigating Voltage Decay of Li-Rich Cathode Material via Increasing Ni Content for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-Lei; Zhang, Jie-Nan; He, Min; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Li, Hong; Guo, Yu-Guo; Gu, Lin; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-08-10

    Li-rich layered materials have been considered as the most promising cathode materials for future high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, they suffer from severe voltage decay upon cycling, which hinders their further commercialization. Here, we report a Li-rich layered material 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 with high nickel content, which exhibits much slower voltage decay during long-term cycling compared to conventional Li-rich materials. The voltage decay after 200 cycles is 201 mV. Combining in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), ex situ XRD, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that nickel ions act as stabilizing ions to inhibit the Jahn-Teller effect of active Mn(3+) ions, improving d-p hybridization and supporting the layered structure as a pillar. In addition, nickel ions can migrate between the transition-metal layer and the interlayer, thus avoiding the formation of spinel-like structures and consequently mitigating the voltage decay. Our results provide a simple and effective avenue for developing Li-rich layered materials with mitigated voltage decay and a long lifespan, thereby promoting their further application in lithium-ion batteries with high energy density.

  7. Software development for managing nuclear material database; Desenvolvimento de um programa computacional para gerenciamento de banco de dados de material nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondin, Julio Benedito Marin

    2011-07-01

    In nuclear facilities, the nuclear material control is one of the most important activities. The Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), when inspecting routinely, regards the data provided as a major safety factor. Having a control system of nuclear material that allows the amount and location of the various items to be inspected, at any time, is a key factor today. The objective of this work was to enhance the existing system using a more friendly platform of development, through the VisualBasic programming language (Microsoft Corporation), to facilitate the operation team of the reactor IEA-R1 Reactor tasks, providing data that enable a better and prompter control of the IEA-R1 nuclear material. These data have allowed the development of papers presented at national and international conferences and the development of master's dissertations and doctorate theses. The software object of this study was designed to meet the requirements of the CNEN and the IAEA safeguard rules, but its functions may be expanded in accordance with future needs. The program developed can be used in other reactors to be built in the country, since it is very practical and allows an effective control of the nuclear material in the facilities. (author)

  8. Development of a ceramic material to cover walls to be applied in diagnostic radiological protection; Desenvolvimento de um material ceramico para utilizacao em protecao radiologica diagnostica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frimaio, Audrew

    2006-07-01

    This study aims to formulate a ceramic composition for wall coating seeking to contribute to the optimization of diagnosis rooms' shielding. The work was based on experimental measures of X-radiation attenuation (80 and 100 kV) using ceramic coating materials containing different ceramic bases (red, white, gres, stoneware porcelain tiles, etc). Among the appraised ceramic bases, the white gres presented better attenuation properties and it was considered the most suitable material for the targets of this work. Different formulations of white gres were studied and altered in order to obtain better attenuation properties. Simulations of ceramic compositions using gres coating were made maintaining the percentages of 12-20% clay; 6-18% kaolin; 12-25% phyllite; 8-14% quartz; 1018% feldspar; 32-40% pegmatite and 6-8% talc in the composition of the necessary raw-material. The quantitative and qualitative chemical compositions of these materials were also evaluated and the most common representative elements are SiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Formulations containing Pb and Ba oxides were studied, considering that CaO can be replaced by PbO or BaO. The attenuation properties for X-radiation were investigated by computer simulations considering the incident and transmitted X-ray spectra for the different studied compositions and they were compared to the properties of the reference materials Pb, Ba and BaSO{sub 4} (barite). The results obtained with the simulations indicated the formulated composition of gres ceramic base that presented better attenuation properties considering the X-ray energies used in diagnosis (80, 100 and 150 kV). Ceramic plates based on the formulated compositions that presented lower percentage differences related to Pb were experimentally produced and physically tested as wall coating and protecting barrier. Properties as flexion resistance module, density, load rupture, water absorption and X

  9. Irradiation effects and mitigation. Proceedings of the IAEA Specialists Meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The IAEA Specialists Meeting on Irradiation Effects and Mitigation organised in co-operation with the Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' was held at Vladimir, Russian Federation from 15 to 19 September 1997. Topics of the Meeting covered a number of problems including mechanisms of radiation damage, results of surveillance programmes and their analysis, effects of operating parameters, fracture mechanics tests and evaluation, annealing and optimisation of the process and reembrittlement after annealing. Specialists from 17 countries presented 31 paper, published in this proceedings each with a separate abstract

  10. Insect Residue Contamination on Wing Leading Edge Surfaces: A Materials Investigation for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Tyler M.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Smith, Joseph G.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2011-01-01

    Flight tests have shown that residue from insect strikes on aircraft wing leading edge surfaces may induce localized transition of laminar to turbulent flow. The highest density of insect populations have been observed between ground level and 153 m during light winds (2.6 -- 5.1 m/s), high humidity, and temperatures from 21 -- 29 C. At a critical residue height, dependent on the airfoil and Reynolds number, boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent results in increased drag and fuel consumption. Although this represents a minimal increase in fuel burn for conventional transport aircraft, future aircraft designs will rely on maintaining laminar flow across a larger portion of wing surfaces to reduce fuel burn during cruise. Thus, insect residue adhesion mitigation is most critical during takeoff and initial climb to maintain laminar flow in fuel-efficient aircraft configurations. Several exterior treatments investigated to mitigate insect residue buildup (e.g., paper, scrapers, surfactants, flexible surfaces) have shown potential; however, implementation has proven to be impractical. Current research is focused on evaluation of wing leading edge surface coatings that may reduce insect residue adhesion. Initial work under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Program focused on evaluation of several commercially available products (commercial off-the-shelf, COTS), polymers, and substituted alkoxy silanes that were applied to aluminum (Al) substrates. Surface energies of these coatings were determined from contact angle data and were correlated to residual insect excrescence on coated aluminum substrates using a custom-built "bug gun." Quantification of insect excrescence surface coverage was evaluated by a series of digital photographic image processing techniques.

  11. Mitigation of caustic stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tube materials by blowdown -a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Anu; Patwegar, I.A.; Chaki, S.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2000-01-01

    The vertical U-tube steam generators are among the most important equipment in nuclear power plants as they form the vital link between the reactor and the turbogenerator. Over ∼ 35 years of operating experience of water cooled reactor has demonstrated that steam generator tubes are susceptible to various forms of degradation. This degradation leads to failure and outages of the power plant. A majority of these failures have been attributed to concentrated alkali attacks in the low flow areas such as crevices in the tube to tube sheet joints, baffle plate location and the areas of sludge deposits. Free hydroxides can be produced by improper maintenance of phosphate chemical control in the secondary side of the steam generators and also by the thermal decomposition of impurities present in the condenser cooling water which may leak into the feed water through the condenser tubes. The free hydroxides concentrate in the low flow areas. This buildup of free hydroxide in combination with residual stress leads to caustic stress corrosion cracking. In order to mitigate caustic stress corrosion cracking of Inconel 600 tubes, the trend is to avoid phosphate dosing. Instead All Volatile Treatment (AVT) for secondary water is used backed by full flow condensate polishing. Sodium hydroxide concentration is now being considered as the basis for steam generator blowdown. A methodology has been established for determining the blowdown requirement in order to mitigate caustic stress corrosion cracking in the secondary side of the vertical U-tube natural circulation steam generator. A case study has been carried out for zero solid treatment (AVT coupled with full flow condensate polishing plant) water chemistry. Only continuous blowdown schemes have been studied based on maximum caustic concentration permissible in the secondary side of the steam generator. The methodology established can also be used for deciding concentration of any other impurities

  12. Valores e Desenvolvimento Humano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Comim (Flavio); A. Macedo de Jesus (Anderson); R.C.B Oliveira (Raissa); A. Davison (Anna); S. Galeno (Sabrina); A.C.V. Ribeiro (Ana)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstractA primeira parte desse Relatório de Desenvolvimento Humano do Brasil 2009/2010 começa com a descrição de um amplo processo de consulta aberta à sociedade, denominada Brasil Ponto a Ponto, para a escolha do tema do relatório. A Campanha Brasil Ponto a Ponto teve por objetivo

  13. Microbial biotechnology approaches to mitigating the deterioration of construction and heritage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junier, Pilar; Joseph, Edith

    2017-09-01

    Microorganisms are the main engines of elemental cycling in this planet and therefore have a profound impact on both organic and mineral substrates. As such, past and present human-made structures and cultural heritage can be negatively affected by microbial activity. Processes such as bioweathering (rocks and minerals), biodeterioration (organic substrates) or biocorrosion (metals) participate to the degradation or structural damage of construction and heritage materials. This structural damage can cause major economic losses (e.g. replacement of cast-iron pipes in water distribution networks), and in the case of heritage materials, the entire loss of invaluable objects or monuments. Even though one can regard the influence of microbial activity on construction and heritage materials as negative, remarkably, the same metabolic pathways involved in degradation can be exploited to increase the stability of these materials. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. International conference and workshop on modeling and mitigating the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This conference was held September 26--29, 1995 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials. Attention is focused on air dispersion of vapors. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  15. Desenvolvimento de material de referência para microbiologia de alimentos contendo estafilococos coagulase positiva em matriz queijo Development of reference material for the microbiology of foods containing coagulase-positive Staphylococcus in a cheese matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luiz Lima Brandão

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de materiais de referência (MR é uma das principais ferramentas utilizadas para garantia e controle da qualidade de laboratórios de microbiologia de alimentos. No Brasil, a RDC n.º 12/01 da Anvisa prevê como um dos parâmetros para a avaliação da qualidade de queijos a enumeração de estafilococos coagulase positiva (ECP. O grande desafio na produção de MR destinados a ensaios microbiológicos é a instabilidade natural dos micro-organismos, o que dificulta o desenvolvimento e a manutenção desses MR. O objetivo deste estudo foi produzir um MR quantitativo destinado ao ensaio de enumeração de ECP em matriz queijo. Uma amostra de queijo ultrafiltrado com contagem de ECP The use of reference materials (RM is one of the principal tools used for assurance and quality control in food microbiology laboratories. In Brazil, Anvisa RDC nº 12/01 specifies the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococcus (CPS as one of the parameters for evaluating cheese quality. The main challenge in the production of RM destined for microbiological assays is the natural instability of the microorganisms, which makes it difficult to develop and maintain them. This study aimed to produce a quantitative RM for use in enumeration assays of CPS in cheese matrixes. A sample of an ultra-filtered cheese with a CPS count of <10 CFU/g and a total nº of viable aerobes of 1.2 × 10³ CFU/g was used as the matrix to produce the RM. The matrix was distributed in flasks, contaminated with specific concentrations of the target bacteria and submitted to freeze-drying. Sucrose was used as the cryo-protector. The RM produced was considered homogeneous and stable at < -70ºC during the entire study period (10 months. The material was shown to be stable at 4, 25, 30 and 35 ºC for 4 days, although the results indicated a decrease in cell concentration at 35 ºC. At -20 ºC the RM was stable for 48 days. It was concluded that the material showed all the necessary

  16. O DIREITO FUNDAMENTAL AO DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Jeferson Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo jurídico trata do direito fundamental do ser humano ter um desenvolvimento sustentável, e tem como objetivo identificar o desenvolvimento sustentável como sendo um direito fundamental consagrado universalmente. Em sua elaboração foi utilizado o seguinte material: textos doutrinários, legislação nacional pertinente e documentos internacionais. A conclusão indica que: o desenvolvimento sustentável é um direito fundamental do homem e que devemos manter equilibrada a relação ambiente ...

  17. Cryoinsulation Material Development to Mitigate Obsolescence Risk for Global Warming Potential Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Alison; Bruyns, Roland; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Cryoinsulation foams currently being qualified for the Space Launch System (SLS) core stage are nonozone- depleting substances (ODP) and are compliant with current environmental regulations. However, these materials contain the blowing agent HFC-245fa, a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), which is a Global Warming Potential (GWP) substance. In August 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a policy change to reduce or eliminate certain HFCs, including HFC-245fa, in end-use categories including foam blowing agents beginning in 2017. The policy proposes a limited exception to allow continued use of HFC and HFC-blend foam blowing agents for military or space- and aeronautics-related applications, including rigid polyurethane spray foams, but only until 2022.

  18. Advances in Magnetically Separable Photocatalysts: Smart, Recyclable Materials for Water Pollution Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gcina Mamba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic compounds utilised at different stages of various industrial processes are lost into effluent water and eventually find their way into fresh water sources where they cause devastating effects on the ecosystem due to their stability, toxicity, and non-biodegradable nature. Semiconductor photocatalysis has been highlighted as a promising technology for the treatment of water laden with organic, inorganic, and microbial pollutants. However, these semiconductor photocatalysts are applied in powdered form, which makes separation and recycling after treatment extremely difficult. This not only leads to loss of the photocatalyst but also to secondary pollution by the photocatalyst particles. The introduction of various magnetic nanoparticles such as magnetite, maghemite, ferrites, etc. into the photocatalyst matrix has recently become an area of intense research because it allows for the easy separation of the photocatalyst from the treated water using an external magnetic field. Herein, we discuss the recent developments in terms of synthesis and photocatalytic properties of magnetically separable nanocomposites towards water treatment. The influence of the magnetic nanoparticles in the optical properties, charge transfer mechanism, and overall photocatalytic activity is deliberated based on selected results. We conclude the review by providing summary remarks on the successes of magnetic photocatalysts and present some of the future challenges regarding the exploitation of these materials in water treatment.

  19. Composite film fabricated on biomedical material with corona streamer plasma processing to mitigate bacterial adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamarneh, Ibrahim; Pedrow, Patrick; Eskhan, Asma; Abu-Lail, Nehal

    2011-10-01

    Composite films might control bacterial adhesion and concomitant biofouling that afflicts biomedical materials. Different size molecules of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with nominal molecular weights 600, 2000, and 20000 g/mol were used to synthesize composite films with plasma processing and dip-coating procedures on surgical-grade 316L stainless steel. Before dip-coating, the substrate was pre-coated with plasma-polymerized di(ethylene glycol) vinyl ether (pp-EO2V) in an atmospheric pressure corona streamer plasma reactor. The PEG dip-coating step followed immediately in the same chamber due to the finite lifetime of radicals associated with freshly deposited pp-EO2V. Morphology of the composite film was investigated with an ESEM. FTIR confirmed incorporation of pp-EO2V and PEG species into the composite film. More investigations on the composite film were conducted by XPS measurements. Adhesion of the composite film was evaluated with a standard peel-off test. Stability of the composite film in buffer solution was evaluated by AFM. AFM was also used to measure the film roughness and thickness. Polar and non-polar contact angle measurements were included.

  20. ICE911 Research: Floating Safe Inert Materials to Preserve Ice and Conserve Water in Order to Mitigate Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, L. A.; Manzara, A.; Chetty, S.; Venkatesh, S.; Scholtz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Ice911 Research has conducted years of field testing to develop and test localized reversible engineering techniques to mitigate the negative impacts of polar ice melt. The technology uses environmentally safe materials to reflect energy in carefully selected, limited areas from summertime polar sun. The technology is now being adapted to help with California's drought. We have tested the albedo modification technique on a small scale over seven Winter/Spring seasons at sites including California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, a Canadian lake, and a small artificial pond in Minnesota about 100 ft in diameter and 6 ft deep at the center, using various materials and an evolving array of instrumentation. On the pond in Minnesota, this year's test results for ice preservation, using hollow glass spheres deployed over our largest test areas yet, showed that glass bubbles can provide an effective material for increasing albedo, significantly reducing the melting rate of ice. This year Ice911 also undertook its first small Arctic field test in Barrow, Alaska on a lake in Barrow's BEO area, and results are still coming in. The technology that Ice911 has been developing for ice preservation has also been shown to keep small test areas of water cooler, in various small-scale tests spanning years. We believe that with some adaptations of the technology, the materials can be applied to reservoirs and lakes to help stretch these precious resources further in California's ongoing drought. There are several distinct advantages for this method over alternatives such as large reverse osmosis projects or building new reservoirs, which could possibly allow a drought-stricken state to build fewer of these more-costly alternatives. First, applying an ecologically benign surface treatment of Ice911's materials can be accomplished within a season, at a lower cost, with far less secondary environmental impact, than such capital-and-time-intensive infrastructure projects. Second, keeping

  1. Investigation of erosion mechanisms and erosion products in divertor armour materials under conditions relevant to elms and mitigated disruptions in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.M.; Arkhipov, N.I.; Klimov, N.S.; Kovalenko, D.V.; Moskaleva, A.A.; Podkovyrov, V.L.; Toporkov, D.A.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.; Landman, I.S.; Poznyak, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten were irradiated by intense plasma streams at plasma gun facilities MK-200UG and QSPA-T. The targets were tested by plasma loads relevant to Edge Localised Modes (ELM) and mitigated disruptions in ITER. Onset condition of material erosion and properties of erosion products have been studied

  2. Nacionalismo e desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nogueira Batista Jr.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este texto discute o nacionalismo, tomando emprestadas algumas proposições de um filósofo declarada e radicalmente antinacionalista, Friedrich Nietzsche. Procura-se argumentar que, ressalvados os raros casos de integração regional profunda, o nacionalismo é, na prática, o único caminho para o desenvolvimento econômico e a melhoria das condições de vida das populações na periferia da economia internacional.This paper discusses nationalism, borrowing some propositions from a philosopher who was openly and radically antinationalist, Friedrich Nietzsche. It argues that, with the exception of the rare cases of deep regional integration, nationalism is, in practice, the only route to economic development and the improvement of the standards of living of populations in the periphery of the international economy.

  3. Mitigation of Ground Vibration due to Collapse of a Large-Scale Cooling Tower with Novel Application of Materials as Cushions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground vibration induced by the collapse of large-scale cooling towers in nuclear power plants (NPPs has recently been realized as a potential secondary disaster to adjacent nuclear-related facilities with demands for vibration mitigation. The previous concept to design cooling towers and nuclear-related facilities operating in a containment as isolated components in NPPs is inappropriate in a limited site which is the cases for inland NPPs in China. This paper presents a numerical study on the mitigation of ground vibration in a “cooling tower-soil-containment” system via a novel application of two materials acting as cushions underneath cooling towers, that is, foamed concrete and a “tube assembly.” Comprehensive “cooling tower-cushion-soil” models were built with reasonable cushion material models. Computational cases were performed to demonstrate the effect of vibration mitigation using seven earthquake waves. Results found that collapse-induced ground vibrations at a point with a distance of 300 m were reduced in average by 91%, 79%, and 92% in radial, tangential, and vertical directions when foamed concrete was used, and the vibrations at the same point were reduced by 53%, 32%, and 59% when the “tube assembly” was applied, respectively. Therefore, remarkable vibration mitigation was achieved in both cases to enhance the resilience of the “cooling tower-soil-containment” system against the secondary disaster.

  4. The development of the first set of Brazilian reference materials for the petroleum sector; O desenvolvimento dos primeiros materiais de referencia nacionais para o setor de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchini, Ricardo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Agrupamento de Materiais de Referencia

    2004-07-01

    The petroleum sector uses a number of standardized tests to characterize raw materials and products. The development of in-company programs for assurance of measurement quality, the increasing need to demonstrate proficiency by means of certification schemes or by widely accepted metrological practices, have been promoting a more intensive use of certified reference materials, in calibration as well as in validation of measurement methods and also in order to show the qualification of the laboratories. In this paper it is presented the preparation, performed by IPT's Reference Materials Group, of the first set of reference materials specially developed considering the needs of the petroleum community. Briefly, are presented the identification of the demands from the users, selection of matrices, homogeneity tests and stability studies, and the certification of the new reference materials, which are four diesel fuel oils with certified sulfur contents and one material with flash point certified by TAG and Pensky-Martens methods. It is presented a summary of the certification process, performed by means of a combined effort of several professionals that are now working at laboratories of research institutions, refineries and other industries, universities, fuel monitoring facilities and in National Petroleum Agency. (author)

  5. Amenidades ambientais e desenvolvimento rural

    OpenAIRE

    Dentinho, Tomaz; Rodrigues, Orlando

    2007-01-01

    Este texto sobre amenidades ambientais e desenvolvimento rural trata, fundamentalmente, da incerteza resultante da reacção das pessoas e das instituições face aos recursos naturais que exploram e quanto ao efeito das políticas que são implementadas.

  6. Mitigation technologies for damage induced by pressure waves in high-power mercury spallation neutron sources (1). Material surface improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Wakui, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Shoubu, Takahisa; Takeuchi, Hirotsugu; Kawai, Masayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Liquid-mercury target systems for MW-class spallation neutron sources are being developed in the world. Proton beams will be used to induce the spallation reaction. At the moment the proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in the mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall. Localized impacts by microjets and/or shock waves that are caused by cavitation bubble collapse impose pitting damage on the vessel wall. Bubble collapse behavior was observed by using a high-speed video camera, as well as simulated numerically. Localized impact due to cavitation bubble collapse was quantitatively estimated through comparison between numerical simulation and experiment. A novel surface treatment technique that consists of carburizing and nitriding processes was developed and the treatment condition was optimized to mitigate the pitting damage due to localized impacts. (author)

  7. Saúde e desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza D'Ávila Viana

    Full Text Available Considerando que os modernos sistemas de saúde são o resultado da complexa interação de processos econômicos, políticos e sociais, o objetivo do trabalho é discutir a relação entre saúde e desenvolvimento no Brasil, mostrando que o esgotamento do modelo liberal de política econômica abre nova perspectiva para a retomada do desenvolvimento, entendido como combinação entre crescimento da economia, mudanças na estrutura produtiva e melhora das condições de vida da população. O complexo produtivo da saúde joga papel decisivo nesse processo, pois constitui um campo em que inovação tecnológica e acumulação de capital geram oportunidades de investimento, trabalho e renda, além de produzir avanços importantes para melhorar o estado de saúde das pessoas. A recente adoção de políticas públicas voltadas para articular, de forma positiva, aspectos da política econômica e da política social revela que a questão do desenvolvimento nacional ganhou nova centralidade na agenda governamental, o que abre a perspectiva de maior integração entre a lógica econômica e a lógica sanitária. Entretanto, é preciso reconhecer que o Brasil ainda não logrou alcançar uma associação virtuosa entre saúde e desenvolvimento.

  8. Integrated Prediction and Mitigation Methods of Materials Damage and Lifetime Assessment during Plasma Operation and Various Instabilities in Fusion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, Ahmed [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    This report describes implementation of comprehensive and integrated models to evaluate plasma material interactions during normal and abnormal plasma operations. The models in full3D simulations represent state-of-the art worldwide development with numerous benchmarking of various tokamak devices and plasma simulators. In addition, significant number of experimental work has been performed in our center for materials under extreme environment (CMUXE) at Purdue to benchmark the effect of intense particle and heat fluxes on plasma-facing components. This represents one-year worth of work and resulted in more than 23 Journal Publications and numerous conferences presentations. The funding has helped several students to obtain their M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees and many of them are now faculty members in US and around the world teaching and conducting fusion research. Our work has also been recognized through many awards.

  9. Integrated Prediction and Mitigation Methods of Materials Damage and Lifetime Assessment during Plasma Operation and Various Instabilities in Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This report describes implementation of comprehensive and integrated models to evaluate plasma material interactions during normal and abnormal plasma operations. The models in full3D simulations represent state-of-the art worldwide development with numerous benchmarking of various tokamak devices and plasma simulators. In addition, significant number of experimental work has been performed in our center for materials under extreme environment (CMUXE) at Purdue to benchmark the effect of intense particle and heat fluxes on plasma-facing components. This represents one-year worth of work and resulted in more than 23 Journal Publications and numerous conferences presentations. The funding has helped several students to obtain their M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees and many of them are now faculty members in US and around the world teaching and conducting fusion research. Our work has also been recognized through many awards.

  10. Mitigating the risk of Zika virus contamination of raw materials and cell lines in the manufacture of biologicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmurko, Joanna; Vasey, Douglas B; Donald, Claire L; Armstrong, Alison A; McKee, Marian L; Kohl, Alain; Clayton, Reginald F

    2018-02-01

    Ensuring the virological safety of biologicals is challenging due to the risk of viral contamination of raw materials and cell banks, and exposure during in-process handling to known and/or emerging viral pathogens. Viruses may contaminate raw materials and biologicals intended for human or veterinary use and remain undetected until appropriate testing measures are employed. The outbreak and expansive spread of the mosquito-borne flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) poses challenges to screening human- and animal -derived products used in the manufacture of biologicals. Here, we report the results of an in vitro study where detector cell lines were challenged with African and Asian lineages of ZIKV. We demonstrate that this pathogen is robustly detectable by in vitro assay, thereby providing assurance of detection of ZIKV, and in turn underpinning the robustness of in vitro virology assays in safety testing of biologicals.

  11. Desenvolvimento de um novo conceito de plantas de lavagem e classificação para reciclagem de material contaminado Development of new washing and classifying plants for contaminated material

    OpenAIRE

    James José Varela

    2010-01-01

    As tecnologias para a reciclagem de materiais, especialmente para a indústria de eletrônicos e de construção civil, têm experimentado um enorme crescimento nos últimos anos. A lavagem, britagem e a classificação são operações unitárias que integram as plantas de lavagem utilizadas para o processamento de muitos materiais, como, por exemplo, na indústria de agregados. Nesse contexto, um inovador sistema de lavagem e classificação foi desenvolvido para processar material contaminado em matéria-...

  12. Irradiation embrittlement mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torronen, K.; Pelli, R.; Planman, T.; Valo, M.

    1993-01-01

    Mitigation methods for reducing the irradiation damage on pressure vessel materials are reviewed: load leakage loading schemes are commonly used in PWRs to mitigate reactor pressure vessel embrittlement; dummy assemblies have been applied in WWER 440-type and in some old western power plants, when exceptional fast embrittlement has been encountered; shielding of the pressure vessel has been developed, but is not in common use; pre-stressing the pressure vessel has been proposed for preventing PTS failures, but its applicability is not yet demonstrated. The large number of successful annealing treatments performed in WWER 440 type reactors as well as research on the effects of annealing treatments suggest applications for western PWRs. The emergency core cooling systems have been modified in WWER 440-type reactors in connection with other mitigation measures. (authors). 37 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Irradiation embrittlement mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torronen, K; Pelli, R; Planman, T; Valo, M [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Combustion and Thermal Engineering Lab.

    1994-12-31

    Mitigation methods for reducing the irradiation damage on pressure vessel materials are reviewed: load leakage loading schemes are commonly used in PWRs to mitigate reactor pressure vessel embrittlement; dummy assemblies have been applied in WWER 440-type and in some old western power plants, when exceptional fast embrittlement has been encountered; shielding of the pressure vessel has been developed, but is not in common use; pre-stressing the pressure vessel has been proposed for preventing PTS failures, but its applicability is not yet demonstrated. The large number of successful annealing treatments performed in WWER 440 type reactors as well as research on the effects of annealing treatments suggest applications for western PWRs. The emergency core cooling systems have been modified in WWER 440-type reactors in connection with other mitigation measures. (authors). 37 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Gender involvement in manual material handling (mmh) tasks in agriculture and technology intervention to mitigate the resulting musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suman; Sinwal, Neelima; Rathore, Hemu

    2012-01-01

    The lifting and carrying of loads in agriculture on small landholdings are unavoidable. Rural communities often lack access to appropriate technologies which may result in various health hazards. The objective was to study gender participation in agricultural activities involving manual material handling tasks, to assess MSDs experienced in various MMH tasks and to evaluate traditional method and designed technology. The study was conducted on 100 agricultural workers. Data on gender participation in MMH tasks in household, animal husbandry and agriculture and resulting MSDs was gathered. Pre and post assessment of technology intervention was done for NIOSH Lifting Index, QEC, and RPE. The results revealed greater susceptibility of females to musculoskeletal problems in most of the household and animal husbandry tasks. The hand trucks designed were pushing type with power grasp handle. The respondents were advised to carry 5 kg of weight per lift instead of lifting more weight in one lift/minute while filling the hand truck. By decreasing the weight and increasing the number of lifts per minute the respondents were seen falling in green zone indicating significant reduction in NIOSH lifting index. QEC scores concluded that for filling the hand truck 5 kg of weight should be carried to keep the exposure level low.

  15. Development of a polymeric matrix for composite material produced by the filament winding technique; Desenvolvimento de matriz polimerica visando a producao de material composito atraves da tecnica de enrolamento filamentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Ledjane Lima; Ferreira, Marisilvia; Bastian, Fernando Luiz [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2005-07-01

    The study of the resin for composite materials to be produced by the filament winding technique is very important, since the good applicability of the technique is in part function of the characteristics of the resin. The objective of this work is the development of a polymeric matrix using vinyl ester resin for composite to be produced by the filament winding technique. Therefore, vinyl ester resin systems developed from Derakane 411-350 by varying the percentage of cure agent and activator. The system which presented the best behavior in tension (Yong's modulus 2,42 GPa, tensile strength = 47,67 MPa, elongation = 7,31 % and fracture toughness 2,67 J), adequate gel time and exothermic peak for the manufacture process was submitted to hygrothermal aging by immersion in water at 60 deg C for a maximum period of 64 days. (author)

  16. Engaging degradation mechanisms of materials in a tourney. An investigation into the philosophy of material selection as a mitigating measure and strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimhavarman, Arasilangkumari

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore Technology The aim of this project is to compare some important factors such as safety and environmental aspects, life cycle costing, reliability, availability and fabrication for selecting materials for flowlines for comparative study between carbon steel as a current practice with respect to various corrosion resistance alloys as an alternatives. In order to do that it is necessary to address all possible degradation mechanisms and the conditions that intensif...

  17. A novel approach to mitigating sulphur dioxide emissions and producing a mercury sorbent material using oil-sands fluid coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.; Jia, C.Q.; Tong, S.

    2008-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical smelting operations are a major source of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) which is a precursor to acid rain and increased levels of UV-B penetration in boreal lakes. Mercury is also released in copper smelter off-gas, which can bioaccumulate and cause neurological disorders and death in humans. Fluid coke is produced in massive quantities as a by-product of bitumen upgrading at Syncrude Canada's facility in Fort McMurray, Alberta. Oilsands fluid coke can be used to reduce SO 2 and produce elemental sulphur as a co-product. This process was dubbed SOactive. The reaction physically activates the fluid coke to produce a sulphur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) which is known as ECOcarbon. Some studies have indicated that SIAC is well suited for the removal of vapour phase mercury, mainly due to the formation of stable mercuric sulphide species. This paper discussed the findings made to date in relation to the SOactive process and the characterization of ECOcarbons. The paper discussed the use of fluid coke for reducing SO 2 emissions while producing elemental sulphur as well as coke-SO 2 -oxygen (O 2 ) and coke-SO 2 -water (H 2 O) systems. The paper also examined the production of SIAC products for use in capturing vapour phase mercury. The paper presented the materials and methodology, including an illustration of the apparatus used in reduction of SO 2 and activation of fluid coke. It was concluded that more work is still needed to analyse the effect of O 2 and SO 2 reduction and SIAC properties under smelter flue gas conditions. 10 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  18. Development of method for quantification of 222Rn exhalation ratio at radioactive waste dam and soil study as mitigator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian uranium mining company (INB) processed 2.32 10 6 tons of uranium ore in its ore treatment unit (UTM - Caldas), located in the Pocos de Caldas plateau. During 16 years of operation, this unit discarded 2.39 10 6 tons of solid waste in a tailing dam, with an average activity concentration of 226 Ra of 7311 ± 184 Bq kg -1 . Most of the atoms of 222 Rn generated from the radioactive waste of the tailing dam remain bounded to the mineral structure. However, a fraction of these atoms can be released from the mineral structure and then emanate. Reaching the porous space of the waste piles, the 222 Rn moves towards the interface waste-atmosphere, exhaling into the atmosphere. The featuring properties of the 222 Rn transport and the biological damage caused by its progeny transform this small chain of radionuclides into a scourge of nature. Because of that, the dry area of the tailing dam was the scope of this work. A methodology was developed for quantifying the exhalation rate of 222 Rn. Moreover, the soil from its surroundings was experimentally evaluated as a cover material to reduce the exhalation of 222 Rn. A collector of 222 Rn was developed, being denominated 607. This collector was proved to be exact and precise after laboratory tests, when a standard for 222 Rn exhalation was prepared with caldasite, an uranium ore with high concentration of 226 Ra (26611 ± 581 Bq kg -1 ), crushed to the granulometric interval from 1.168 mm to 0.589 mm. The results of 222 Rn exhalation rate using the collector 607 were not influenced by the adsorption of water steam, considering sampling periods lower than 5 days and mass of water steam lower than 7 g. Sampling for measuring 222 Rn exhalation rates in the dry area of the tailing dam was carried out using the collector 607, following the experimental design established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The average exhalation rate in the west part of the tailing dam was 1.30 ± 1.24 Bq m

  19. ESTRATÉGIA DO DESENVOLVIMENTO URBANO COMO FATOR DETERMINANTE PARA O DESENVOLVIMENTO INDUSTRIAL SUSTENTÁVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Tânia Welter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo identificar a estratégia do desenvolvimento urbano como fator do desenvolvimento industrial sustentável. Para alcançar este objetivo, foi realizada uma pesquisa documental e uma revisão histórico-bibliográfica de uma cidade, neste caso, a cidade de Joinville-SC. Foi realizado, também, um estudo sobre a evolução dos acontecimentos históricos da cidade pesquisada, como forma de estabelecer que estratégias adotadas interferiram neste processo de desenvolvimento. Como resultado, foram identificados os fatores estratégicos inerentes ou determinantes para o desenvolvimento industrial da cidade. Palavras-chave: Desenvolvimento urbano. Desenvolvimento industrial. Fatores estratégicos.

  20. Self: um conceito em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Suzana Rocha de Macedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversas definições de self coexistem nas teorias e práticas psicológicas. Essa variedade é resultante de bases epistemológicas a partir das quais se adotam estratégias diferentes para abordar e demarcar os limites do objeto em questão e descrevê-lo. Este estudo teve como objetivo oferecer uma revisão dos conceitos de self e uma reflexão sobre como esse conceito se articula nas diferentes abordagens teóricas da psicologia. Destaca-se que dilemas centrais à psicologia do desenvolvimento atravessam o conceito de self. Por essa razão, apresenta-se a tese de que, ao analisar cada definição de self, deve-se buscar responder como cada teoria colocou-se diante das dicotomias estabilidade versus transformação, específico versus universal e mundo interno versus mundo externo.

  1. A teoria do “desenvolvimento fragmentador”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Scholz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O pensamento desenvolvimentista do passado era dominado pela ideia de que o subdesenvolvimento do Terceiro Mundo poderia ser superado mediante ajuda técnica, financeira e pessoal dos países do Norte. A meta era alcançar o nível de desenvolvimento dos países ocidentais industrializados por meio de um desenvolvimento retardatário. Na base dessa ideia estava, por um lado, o consenso de valores ocidental-humanitários, que, o mais tardar desde a época do Esclarecimento, determinou o pensar e o devir social. Por outro lado, a ideia baseou-se na responsabilidade histórica (surgida das condições da Guerra Fria, aceita política e socialmente do "Ocidente" para com os chamados países em desenvolvimento, na sua maioria ex-colônias. Argumenta-se, neste artigo, que a ideia de um desenvolvimento retardatário deve, na era da globalização, ser substituída pelo fato de um desenvolvimento fragmentador.

  2. Biogas from landfills embankments: the Brazilian contribution for the management of urban solid residues and the greenhouse effect mitigation through the mechanisms for clean development; Biogas de aterros: a contribuicao do Brasil na gestao de residuos solidos urbanos e na mitigacao do efeito estufa atraves dos mecanismos de desenvolvimento limpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Gleide B.M.; Guimaraes, Hoji Y' a Henda da R.; Andrade, Euridice S. Mamede de; Teixeira, Gisele Pereira; Freitas, Marcos A.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    This paper studies the clean development mechanism (CDM) for sanitary sewage in Brazil, as instruments for flexibilization and mitigation of the effects of climate changes coming from the global heating. This research presents the assessments of the CDM projects for sanitary sewage in Brazil, considering the Project Conception Documents (PCD) approved until November 2007. The paper presents some methodologies for studying of energy generation potential from the biogas originated in sanitary sewage. The paper also contributes to projects of carbon credit commercialization, and relevance of the CDM instrument for the adequate management expansion of the residence solid residues as well, and advances in the implantation of sanitary embankments in Brazil.

  3. CONHECIMENTO: UM FATOR DE DESENVOLVIMENTO ORGANIZACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson dos Santos Morais

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cada vez mais, criar conhecimento útil para atuar em uma posição de vantagem competitiva, orientado para o desenvolvimento organizacional e valorizando o capital humano tem-se demonstrato uma estratégia eficaz. O presente artigo busca apresentar a importância do conhecimento para o desenvolvimento das organizações em âmbito geral com destaque para as comunidades de prática. Esse conhecimento é derivado das interações desenvolvidas em processos de aprendizagem que ocorrem no ambiente organizacional. Para este, realizou-se um estudo teórico, descritivo, que tem como procedimento a pesquisa bibliográfica. Deste modo, apresenta como resultado deste trabalho a evidência de que existem poucos resultados divulgados sobre retorno financeiro e os benefícios dos investimentos realizados no capital intelectual humano pelas organizações. Porém, o conhecimento agrega valor à organização aumentando o valor do capital intelectual e as literaturas sobre o conhecimento e desenvolvimento organizacional consideram o capital intelectual o fator chave para a melhoria nos sistemas estratégicos. Destaca-se que esta contribuição poderá instigar cada vez mais a criação de conhecimento como fator de reconhecimento humano e de desenvolvimento das organizações.

  4. Characterization of solid wastes from kraft pulp industry for ceramic materials development purposes; Caracterizacao de residuos solidos da industria de celulose tipo kraft visando sua aplicacao no desenvolvimento de materiais ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, L.R.; Francisco, M.A.C.O.; Sagrillo, V.P.D.; Louzada, D.M.; Entringer, J.M.S. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The Kraft pulp industry generates a large amount of solid wastes. Due this large quantity, the target of this study is characterize inorganic solid wastes, dregs, grits and lime mud, from the step of reagents recovery of Kraft process, aiming evaluate the potentiality of their use as alternative raw material on development of ceramic materials. Initially, the wastes were dried and ground, then they were subjected to the following characterization techniques: pH analysis, particle size analysis, X ray fluorescence, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, it may be concluded that these wastes could be used as raw material in production of red ceramic and luting materials. (author)

  5. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program BWR High-Fluence Material Project: Assessment of the Role of High-Fluence on the Efficiency of HWC Mitigation on SCC Crack Growth Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastien Teysseyre

    2014-04-01

    As nuclear power plants age, the increasing neutron fluence experienced by stainless steels components affects the materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking and fracture toughness. The purpose of this report is to identify any new issues that are expected to rise as boiling water reactor power plants reach the end of their initial life and to propose a path forward to study such issues. It has been identified that the efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry mitigation technology may decrease as fluence increases for high-stress intensity factors. This report summarizes the data available to support this hypothesis and describes a program plan to determine the efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry as a function of the stress intensity factor applied and fluence. This program plan includes acquisition of irradiated materials, generation of material via irradiation in a test reactor, and description of the test plan. This plan offers three approaches, each with an estimated timetable and budget.

  6. Researches, development and characterization of dosimetric materials for monitoring in irradiation processes with high doses; Pesquisa, desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de materiais dosimetricos para monitoramento em processos de irradiacao com doses altas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galante, Ana Maria Sisti

    2003-07-01

    Dosimetric materials that can be produced in Brazil with material acquired in the national market to replace the imported dosimeters used in radiation processing were developed in this work. Mixtures of potassium nitrate and sensitizers compounds as manganese dioxide, barium nitrate and potassium bromide were prepared in the pellet form. Dosimetric characteristics such as dose-response useful range, sensitivity, environmental conditions and dose rate influences were evaluated in {sup 60}Co gamma radiation fields. Dyed polymethylmethacrylate detectors were also produced and its dosimetric characteristics were evaluated. The main characteristics evaluated in this case were: dose response useful range sensitivity, environmental conditions, dose rate influences and radiation energy dependence in gamma radiation fields and accelerated electrons beam of 0.8 to 1.5 MeV. The applied analytic technique was spectrophotometry. The calibration was performed in the irradiation facilities belonging to IPEN and certified by the International Atomic Energy Agency by means of the program IDAS (International Dose Assurance Service ) using the Fricke dosimeter. The mixture of potassium nitrate and manganese dioxide presented the best results and a wide dose range between 200 and 600 kGy. The response of the developed polymethylmethacrylate detectors are similar to the imported detectors and the dose range is characteristic to each detector and depends on the dye added in its formulation. (author)

  7. Development of a methodology for doss assessment viewing the use of NORM on building materials; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para avaliacao de doses visando o uso de NORM em materiais de construcao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Antonio Fernando Costa de

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for estimating the radiological impact on man of the residues of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) that potentially can be used for the construction of homes and roads. Residues of this type, which are being produced in great quantities by the Brazilian mining industry, are typically deposited in non-appropriated conditions such that they may have a long-time adverse impact on the environment, and hence on man. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the doses resulting from the use of NORM residues, thus allowing a preliminary analysis of the possibility to recycle the residues. The model was used to evaluate the external dose due gamma radiation, the dose to skin caused by beta radiation, and the internal dose due to inhalation of radon and its decay products. The model was verified by comparisons with results of other studies about doses due to gamma and beta radiation from finite and infinite radioactive sources, with relatively good agreement. In order to validate the proposed methodology, a comparison was made against experimental results for a house constructed in accordance with CNEN regulations using building materials containing NORM residues. Comparisons were made of the dose due to gamma radiation and the radon concentration in the internal environment. Finally, the methodology was used also to estimate the dose caused by gamma radiation from a road constructed in the state of Rondonia, Brazil, which made use of another NORM residue. (author)

  8. Desenvolvimento econômico, desigualdade e saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata Pedro Reginaldo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor se refere a dimensão socioeconômica, individual e coletiva do fenômeno saúde-doença. Refere-se também ao fato das populações estarem sobre a influência desigual de fatores de risco e de proteção à saúde. Discute as desigualdades no desenvolvimento e a relação entre desenvolvimento, riqueza, saúde e justiça social. Questiona as teorias de desenvolvimento econômico, diferenciando desenvolvimento de crescimento. Cunha os conceitos de armadilha do desenvolvimento e refugiados sociais. Define uma comunidade saudável. Propõe a necessidade de mudança no modelo de desenvolvimento. Baliza o papel e as limitações do setor saúde no que diz respeito a iniqüidade social.

  9. Development of materials for use in solid oxid fuel cells anodes using renewable fuels in direct operation; Desenvolvimento de materiais ceramicos aplicados em anodos de celulas a combustivel de oxidos solidos para operacao direta com combustiveis renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, D.B.P.L. de [Instituto Federal do Parana (IFPR), PR (Brazil); Florio, D.Z. de; Bezerra, M.E.O., E-mail: daniela.bianchi@ifpr.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Fuel cells produce electrical current from the electrochemical combustion of a gas or liquid (H2, CH4, C2H5OH, CH3OH, etc.) inserted into the anode cell. An important class of fuel cells is the SOFC (Solid Oxide Cell Fuel). It has a ceramic electrolyte that transports protons (H +) or O-2 ions and operating at high temperatures (500-1000 °C) and mixed conductive electrodes (ionic and electronic) ceramics or cermets. This work aims to develop anodes for fuel cells of solid oxide (SOFC) in order to direct operations with renewable fuels and strategic for the country (such as bioethanol and biogas). In this context, it becomes important to study in relation to the ceramic materials, especially those that must be used in high temperatures. Some types of double perovskites such as Sr2MgMoO6 (or simply SMMO) have been used as anodes in SOFC. In this study were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method, analyzed and characterized different ceramic samples of families SMMO, doped with Nb, this is: Sr2 (MgMo)1-xNbxO6 with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2. The materials produced were characterized by various techniques such as, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and electrical properties determined by dc and ac measurements in a wide range of temperature, frequency and partial pressure of oxygen. The results of this work will contribute to a better understanding of advanced ceramic properties with mixed driving (electronic and ionic) and contribute to the advancement of SOFC technology operating directly with renewable fuels. (author)

  10. Development and implementation of a new pneumatic transfer system for materials irradiation at IEA-R1 reactor; Desenvolvimento e implementacao de um novo sistema pneumatico de transferencia para irradiacao de materiais no reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Alberto de Jesus

    2011-07-01

    Pneumatic Transfer Systems (PTS) are classified as mechanical equipment largely operated all over the world for transport of a huge sort of objects, samples and materials located at nearly terminals or even at separated ones. System applicability is often recognized in many activities, such as medicine (hospital settings, clinical analysis labs), industry (steel, automobiles, mining, chemical, food, construction), trading (gas station, movies, supermarkets, banks, e-commerce) and federal agencies (post services, federal courts, public enterprises). In the nuclear settings, PTS shows also a vast array of applications, being a part of radioisotope production, as well as short-lived radiopharmaceuticals, including 67 Ga, 201 Tl, 18 F and 123 I-ultra pure. Besides, PTS are also used at radioactive waste management plants and research institutes that apply neutron activation analysis (NAA). This work was directed toward the design and operation of a new PTS for the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor settled at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) for NAA application. With this aim, it was calculated the charge of reactor core grid plate and sample transport testing. Neutron flux at irradiating position was determined as 3,70 {+-} 0,26 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. (author)

  11. Mitigation of Critical Single Point Failure (SPF) Material - Laminac 4116 Binder Replacement Program for Parachute and Cluster Stars Illuminant Compositions for Hand Held Signals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lakshminarayanan, G. R; Chen, Gary; Ames, Richard; Lee, Wai T; Wejsa, James L

    2006-01-01

    Laminac 4116 binder has been identified as a single point failure (SPF) material since it is being produced by only one company and there is a possibility that the company may discontinue production due to low product demand...

  12. QFD na garantia da qualidade do produto durante seu desenvolvimento: caso em uma empresa de materiais QFD for quality assurance during product development: a case in a materials industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Del Rey de Melo Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma aplicação do método QFD em uma empresa de materiais. A intervenção foi para garantia da qualidade de um produto durante seu redesenvolvimento, em atendimento ao desejo do cliente único de ter uma característica do produto aumentada, sem prejuízo a outras. Foram efetuados dois desdobramentos associados: qualidade positiva e tecnologia do processo. A estratégia de pesquisa adotada foi a de pesquisa-ação. Utilizou-se também um guia para intervenção do QFD. O desdobramento da tecnologia mostrou como alterações na tecnologia de fabricação afetam os índices de controle do processo (foco cliente interno; enquanto o desdobramento da qualidade revelou como essas mesmas alterações afetam a qualidade do produto final (foco cliente externo. A técnica de planejamento e análise de experimentos auxiliou na definição das intervenções no processo e na definição de correlações. Foram levantados alguns aspectos não contemplados pelo guia de intervenção do QFD, bem como tópicos para pesquisas futuras.The article presents an application of QFD method in a materials industry. The intervention aimed at quality assurance of a product during its redevelopment, in order to respond to the desire of product client of having a quality characteristic enhanced without jeopardizing others. Two deployments were carried out in association: positive quality and process technology. This study was conducted by means of action-research. It also employed an intervention guide for QFD studies. The technology deployment showed how alterations in process technology affect process control parameters (a focus on internal client; whereas, the quality deployment revealed how these same alterations affect the final product quality (a focus on external client. Planning and Analysis of Experiments showed to be helpful in defining interventions in the process and in establishing correlations. The article ends by pointing out some

  13. Effect of organic additives on the mitigation of volatility of 1-nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ): Next generation powerful melt cast able high energy material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talawar, M.B.; Singh, Alok; Naik, N.H.; Polke, B.G.; Gore, G.M.; Asthana, S.N.; Gandhe, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    1-Nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ) was synthesized based on the lines of reported method. Thermolysis studies on synthesized and characterized TNAZ using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hyphenated TG-FT-IR techniques were undertaken to generate data on decomposition pattern. FT-IR of decomposition products of TNAZ revealed the evolution of oxides of nitrogen and HCN containing species suggesting the cleavage of C/N-NO 2 bond accompanied with the collapse of ring structure. The effect of incorporation of 15% additives namely, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT), carbohydrazide (CHZ), 5,7-dinitrobenzofuroxan (DNBF), bis (2,2-dinitropropyl) succinate (BNPS), triaminoguanidinium nitrate (TAGN), 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (TNBA) and nitroguanidine (NQ) on the volatility of TNAZ was investigated by undertaking thermogravimetric analysis. The TG pattern brings out the potential of BNPS and TAGN as additives to mitigate the volatility of TNAZ. The influence of additives on thermal decomposition of pattern of TNAZ was also investigated by DSC. The DSC results indicated that the additives did not have appreciable effect on the melting point of TNAZ. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies were carried out to investigate the effect of additives on morphology of TNAZ. This paper also discusses the possible mechanism involved in between the TNAZ and TAGN and BNPS. It appears that the formation of charge transfer complex formation between the TNAZ and TAGN/BNPS. The effect of addition of high explosives such as CL-20, HMX and RDX on thermo-physical characteristics of TNAZ is also reported in this paper

  14. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  15. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Craig, A.B.; Leovic, K.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1987, more than 40 schools in Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina were visited by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). School characteristics that potentially influence radon entry and impact mitigation system design and performance were identified. Mitigation systems that had proven successful in house mitigation were then installed in several of these schools. Many of the systems were installed by school personnel with some assistance from EPA and an experienced radon diagnostician. This article presents the diagnostic measurements made in the schools and it discusses in detail the specific mitigation systems that were installed in four Maryland schools by the EPA

  16. Charles Darwin: um observador do desenvolvimento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Helena Rubello Valler Celeri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores traduzem, pela primeira vez para o português, o artigo de Charles Darwin "A Biographical Sketch of an Infant", publicado no periódico Mind em julho de 1877. Utilizando anotações de observações do desenvolvimento de seus filhos, especialmente de seu filho mais velho William Erasmus (Doddy, Darwin descreve e estuda, a partir de seu enfoque naturalista, o filhote humano, narrando os primeiros indicativos comportamentais de emoções tais como raiva e medo, curiosidade e senso moral, o brincar e o prazer envolvido nesta atividade, a capacidade de imitação e os primeiros indícios daquilo que hoje conhecemos como "teoria da mente". Colocando-se questões sobre as capacidades do bebê, como eles aprendem e como se comunicam e levantando hipóteses sobre possíveis significados de certos comportamentos, questões ainda hoje fundamentais para o estudo do desenvolvimento humano, Darwin mostra-se também um pioneiro no estudo do bebê e da criança pequena, numa época na qual as capacidades dos bebês eram extremamente subestimadas e desconsideradas.

  17. Desenvolvimento puberal em meninas tratadas de LLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro I.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento puberal após o tratamento de leucemia linfóide aguda (LLA na infância, foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, em meninas tratadas de janeiro de 1980 a janeiro de 1991, no Centro de Investigações Hematológicas "Dr. Domingos A. Boldrini", em Campinas-SP. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas 42 meninas, tratadas antes da puberdade com quimioterapia sistêmica e intratecal e radioterapia cranial, utilizando doses de 18 ou 24 Grays (Gy. RESULTADOS: As idades médias da telarca, pubarca e menarca foram inferiores às do grupo-controle, embora com significância estatística apenas para a idade da telarca. Não houve diferenças entre os grupos tratados com 18 ou 24Gy. As meninas tratadas antes dos cinco anos de idade apresentaram idade média da menarca estatisticamente inferior àquelas tratadas após cinco anos e em relação ao grupo-controle. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram que o desenvolvimento puberal em meninas tratadas de LLA na infância foi mais precoce que o de meninas saudáveis.

  18. Irradiation embrittlement and mitigation. V. 1. Working material. Proceedings of a specialists meeting held in Espoo, Finland 23-26 October 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for discussion on recent results in research and utility experience on radiation damage and its surveillance, annealing and re-embrittlement of PWR, WWER and BWR reactor pressure vessel materials. The scope included: mechanism of radiation damage; effects of operating parameters (flux, temperature, time, etc.); results from surveillance programmes and their analysis; fracture mechanics testing and evaluation; annealing and optimization of the process; re-embrittlement after annealing. Presentations were aimed at better understanding of radiation damage, annealing and re-irradiation behaviour of reactor pressure vessels materials, at providing guidance and recommendations for optimization of annealing and surveillance programmes and directions for further investigations. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Irradiation embrittlement and mitigation. V. 1. Working material. Proceedings of a specialists meeting held in Espoo, Finland 23-26 October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for discussion on recent results in research and utility experience on radiation damage and its surveillance, annealing and re-embrittlement of PWR, WWER and BWR reactor pressure vessel materials. The scope included: mechanism of radiation damage; effects of operating parameters (flux, temperature, time, etc.); results from surveillance programmes and their analysis; fracture mechanics testing and evaluation; annealing and optimization of the process; re-embrittlement after annealing; Presentations were aimed at better understanding of radiation damage, annealing and re-irradiation behaviour of reactor pressure vessels materials, at providing guidance and recommendations for optimization of annealing and surveillance programmes and directions for further investigations. Refs, figs and tabs.

  20. Space Debris & its Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant

    2012-07-01

    : In this technique we will use the nano tubes. We will create a mesh that will act as a touch panel of the touch screen cell phone. When any small or tiny particle will come on this mesh and touch it then the mesh will act as a touch panel and so that the corresponding processor or sensor will come to know the co-ordinates of it then further by using Destructive laser beam we can destroy that particle. B. Use of the Nano tubes and Nano Bots for the collection of the Space Debris: In this method also we will use a nano mesh which is made up of the nano tubes and the corresponding arrangement will be done so that that mesh will act as a touch panel same as that of the touch screen phones. So when tiny particles will dash on the nano mesh then the Nano Bots which will be at the specific co-ordinates collect the particles and store them into the garbage storage. C. Further the space Debris can be use for the other purposes too:- As we know that the space debris can be any tiny particle in the space. So instead of decomposing that particles or destroying it we can use those particles for the purpose of energy production by using the fuel cells, but for this the one condition is that the particle material should be capable of forming the ionize liquid or solution which can be successfully use in the fuel cell for energy production. But this is useful for only the big projects where in smallest amount of energy has also the great demand or value. D. RECYCLING OF SPACE DEBRIS The general idea of making space structures by recycling space debris is to capture the aluminum of the upper stages, melt it, and form it into new aluminum structures, perhaps by coating the inside of inflatable balloons, to make very large structures of thin aluminum shells. CONCLUSION Space debris has become the topic of great concern in recent years. Space debris creation can't be stopped completely but it can be minimized by adopting some measures. Many methods of space debris mitigation have been

  1. The electrochemistry of IGSCC mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.

    2002-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the electrochemical mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in watercooled reactor heat transport circuit structural materials. Electrochemical control and mitigation is possible because of the existence of a critical potential for intergranular stress corrosion cracking and due to the feasibility of modifying the environment to displace the corrosion potential to a value that is more negative than the critical value. However, even in cases where the corrosion potential cannot be displaced sufficiently in the negative direction to become more negative than the critical potential, considerable advantage is accrued, because of the roughly exponential dependence of the crack growth rate on potential. The most important parameters in affecting electrochemical control over the corrosion potential and crack growth rate are the kinetic parameters (exchange current densities and Tafel constants) for the redox reactions involving the principal radiolysis products of water (O 2 , H 2 H 2 O 2 ), external solution composition (concentrations of O 2 , H 2 O 2 , and H 2 ), flow velocity, and the conductivity of the bulk environment. The kinetic parameters for the redox reactions essentially determine the charge transfer impedance of the steel surface, which is shown to be one of the key parameters in affecting the magnitude of the coupling current and hence the crack growth rate. The exchange current densities, in particular, are amenable to control by catalysis or inhibition, with the result that surface modification techniques are highly effective in controlling and mitigating intergranular stress corrosion cracking in reactor coolant circuit materials. (orig.)

  2. Mitigation Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  3. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  4. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA)....

  5. Mitigation Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) (September 1992) for the Proposed Renewal of the Contract between the United States Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the Operation and Management of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory identifies the environmental impacts associated with renewing the contract and specifies a series of measures designed to mitigate adverse impacts to the environment. This Mitigation Monitoring Plan describes the procedures the University will use to implement the mitigation measures adopted in connection with the approval of the Contract.

  6. DIREITOS HUMANOS, DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL E SUSTENTABILIDADE

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Sonia Aparecida de; Silva, Denival Francisco da; Adolfo, Luiz Gonzaga Silva

    2015-01-01

    Este artigo trata da relação intrínseca entre os direitos humanos, o desenvolvimento sustentável e a sustentabilidade. Seu objetivo geral consiste em analisar o modelo de desenvolvimento implementado e a necessária proteção e preservação do meio ambiente ligado à defesa dos direitos humanos. Os objetivos específicos pretendem investigar a distinção dos termos sustentabilidade e desenvolvimento sustentável, como a concretização do direito à sustentabilidade, os critérios e as dimensões da sust...

  7. Meios e fins do desenvolvimento para Celso Furtado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Antonio de Campos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo é expor o conceito de desenvolvimento para Celso Furtado. Para tanto, nos interessa apresentar o desenvolvimento nacional como um fim em sua abordagem sobre a formação social brasileira Para atingir tal estágio, os meios para o autor seriam assegurados por um típico desenvolvimento capitalista. Dentro dessa problemática, mostraremos também o alcance e os limites dessa concepção para o caráter dependente e subdesenvolvido do capitalismo brasileiro.

  8. O desafio político do desenvolvimento sustentado

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães,Roberto P.

    1995-01-01

    A unanimidade que hoje parece haver em favor do desenvolvimento sustentado contrasta com a ausência de iniciativas políticas significativas para transformar as instituições econômicas, sociais e políticas que estão comprometidas com o estilo vigente de desenvolvimento. Em particular, há uma patente contradição entre o discurso antiestatista hegemônico e as exigências do desenvolvimento sustentado, que incluem um Estado ainda mais forte, em suas capacidades reguladoras e de planificação, que o...

  9. CERVEJA ARTESANAL E DESENVOLVIMENTO REGIONAL EM SANTA CATARINA (BRASIL)

    OpenAIRE

    Valdinho Pellin; Oklinger Mantovaneli Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Discussões relacionadas ao fortalecimento do desenvolvimento regional tem estimulado um debate em relação a contribuições que Indicações Geográficas (IGs) podem oferecer ao desenvolvimento. IGs se constituem em elemento de identificação de produtos ou serviços com seus territórios e podem oferecer contribuições importantes para o desenvolvimento regional, agregando valor aos produtos, facilitando o acesso a novos mercados e valorizando tradições locais. Este artigo procura discutir a importân...

  10. Mitigation win-win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

  11. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.; Saum, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on radon mitigation in school buildings. Subslab depressurization (SSD) has been the most successful and widely used radon reduction method in houses. Thus far, it has also substantially reduced radon levels in a number of schools. Schools often have interior footings or thickened slabs that may create barriers for subslab air flow if a SSD system is the mitigation option. Review of foundation plans and subslab air flow testing will help to determine the presence and effect of such barriers. HVAC systems in schools vary considerable and tend to have a greater influence on pressure differentials (and consequently radon levels) than do heating and air-conditioning systems encountered in the radon mitigation of houses. As part of any radon mitigation method, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 should be consulted to determine if the installed HVAC system is designed and operated to achieve minimum ventilation standards for indoor air quality

  12. Appalachian Stream Mitigation Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 5 day workshop in 2011 developed for state and federal regulatory and resource agencies, who review, comment on and/or approve compensatory mitigation plans for surface coal mining projects in Appalachia

  13. Mitigation Banking Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404

  14. Rede de Protagonismo Local para o Desenvolvimento Global

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ángela; Hermann, Roberto Rivas

    Este artigo pretende fazer uma reflexão sobre metodologia a ser desenvolvida e utilizada num projeto de desenvolvimento local, através das ações protagonizadas pela própria comunidade. Para isso parte de uma discussão sobre o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável, e a seguir propõe a busca de f...

  15. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Biotecnologia e desenvolvimento sustentável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Guerrini Schenberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia pode desempenhar um papel importante para atingir as metas da sustentabilidade. No presente trabalho, são descritos diferentes exemplos bem-sucedidos de micro-organismos especialmente desenhados para otimizar a produção de etanol, a produção de plásticos biodegradáveis a partir de recursos renováveis e a biorremediação de metais tóxicos. Esses processos biotecnológicos contribuem significantemente para promover o desenvolvimento sustentável, embora possam, por enquanto, não ser ainda competitivos em relação às tecnologias convencionais.Biotechnology can play an important role to reach the goals of sustainability. In the present work, we describe successful examples of microorganisms especially designed for optimizing ethanol production, biodegradable plastics production from renewable resources, and toxic metals bioremediation. These biotechnological processes significantly contribute to promote sustainable development, although they may, at present, not be competitive with the conventional technologies.

  17. Disaster mitigation: initial response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, George; Richards, Michael; Chicarelli, Michael; Ernst, Amy; Harrell, Andrew; Stites, Danniel

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to stimulate the reader's considerations for developing community disaster mitigation. Disaster mitigation begins long before impact and is defined as the actions taken by a community to eliminate or minimize the impact of a disaster. The assessment of vulnerabilities, the development of infrastructure, memoranda of understanding, and planning for a sustainable response and recovery are parts of the process. Empowering leadership and citizens with knowledge of available resources through the planning and development of a disaster response can strengthen a community's resilience, which can only add to the viability and quality of life enjoyed by the entire community.

  18. O desenvolvimento motor em escolares dos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Lidijane dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introdu????o: segundo Rosa Neto (2002), motricidade ?? a intera????o de v??rias fun????es motoras (perceptivo motor, neuromotora, psicomotora) e cita os seguintes elementos da motricidade humana: Motricidade global, Motricidade fina, Equil??brio, Esquema corporal, Organiza????o Espacial, Organiza????o Temporal e Lateralidade. Objetivo: avaliar o desenvolvimento motor, em especifico os aspectos da motricidade fina e equil??brio. Material e M??todos: a amostra foi de 38 crian??as de ambos os se...

  19. Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of national and international space debris mitigation guides is to promote the preservation of near-Earth space for applications and exploration missions far into the future. To accomplish this objective, the accumulation of objects, particularly in long-lived orbits, must be eliminated or curtailed.

  20. Gerenciamento de Projetos em Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Maia Laruccia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo estudar o gerenciamento de projetos na área de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, em um cenário onde os avanços da tecnologia têm influenciado nas mais diversas áreas do conhecimento humano e passaram a exigir abordagens diferenciadas na forma de planejar, executar e controlar os projetos, para assegurar os resultados almejados pelas organizações. Avaliar as formas de conhecimento aplicadas ao gerenciamento de projetos e as interações de suas disciplinas apresenta-se como uma condição oportuna para compreensão e melhoria do processo de gerenciamento de projetos. Considerando que a interdisciplinaridade destaca-se na crítica e na busca de respostas aos limites do conhecimento e que rompe com o paradigma disciplinar de produção do conhecimento particionado, a análise da forma de conhecimento do gerenciamento de projetos pode contribuir para desvelar oportunidades e engendrar melhorias neste processo. Verifica-se que o gerenciamento de projeto tem evoluído continuamente e congrega diversas disciplinas do conhecimento nos modelos praticados. Atualmente, um dos modelos mais consagrados de gerenciamento de projetos é o Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, publicado pelo Project Management Institute (PMI, que é utilizado em mais de 185 países. Vale ressaltar, que a simples comunicação entre as disciplinas do gerenciamento de projetos não significa que estejamos aplicando necessariamente uma abordagem interdisciplinar. Analisar o gerenciamento de projetos na ótica da interdisciplinaridade pode contribuir para o aperfeiçoamento dos modelos de gerenciamento de projetos e consequentemente para a geração de melhores resultados para as organizações.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i3.82

  1. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  2. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  3. Mitigation of structureborne noise nuisance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wing P.

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents a noise complaint case which was solved by me a few years ago in Hong Kong. A newlywed couple in the residential unit complained to the Government that the noise emitted from the pump room directly beneath their unit was very annoying, especially in the night-time period. The owner of the building was then required by the Government to mitigate the noise to the night-time statutory noise requirement within 30 days, otherwise he would be prosecuted. Ideally, the structureborne noise from the pump room could be effectively mitigated by installation of floating slab and vibration isolators under the pumps. Also, the water tanks and water pipes were required to be isolated from the walls and floor. However, this work was impossible to be completed within 30 days to stop the prosecution. Water supply to the above residents would be seriously interrupted during the construction period. As the only noise parameter of the statutory requirement was 30 minute A-weighted Leq, the most effective and practical way in this exigent situation was to reduce the pump operation time within any 30 minute period to decrease the Leq values. In addition, the water pipes and pumps were also required to be isolated from the walls and floor with resilient materials to break the vibration channels. These noise mitigation measures were successfully applied to the pump room before the end of the 30 days. Finally, the noise levels inside the complainant's unit were found to meet the statutory requirement. The noise complaint case was then closed by the Government.

  4. Smart disaster mitigation in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimmanee, S.; Ekkawatpanit, C.; Asanuma, H.

    2016-04-01

    Thailand is notoriously exposed to several natural disasters, from heavy thunder storms to earthquakes and tsunamis, since it is located in the tropical area and has tectonic cracks underneath the ground. Besides these hazards flooding, despite being less severe, occurs frequently, stays longer than the other disasters, and affects a large part of the national territory. Recently in 2011 have also been recorded the devastating effects of major flooding causing the economic damages and losses around 50 billion dollars. Since Thailand is particularly exposed to such hazards, research institutions are involved in campaigns about monitoring, prevention and mitigation of the effects of such phenomena, with the aim to secure and protect human lives, and secondly, the remarkable cultural heritage. The present paper will first make a brief excursus on the main Thailand projects aimed at the mitigation of natural disasters, referring to projects of national and international relevance, being implemented, such as the ESCAP1999 (flow regime regulation and water conservation). Adaptable devices such as foldable flood barriers and hydrodynamically supported temporary banks have been utilized when flooding. In the second part of the paper, will be described some new ideas concerning the use of smart and biomimicking column structures capable of high-velocity water interception and velocity detection in the case of tsunami. The pole configuration is composite cylindrical shell structure embedded with piezoceramic sensor. The vortex shedding of the flow around the pole induces the vibration and periodically strains the piezoelectric element, which in turn generates the electrical sensorial signal. The internal space of the shell is filled with elastic foam to enhance the load carrying capability due to hydrodynamic application. This more rigid outer shell inserted with soft core material resemble lotus stem in nature in order to prolong local buckling and ovalization of column

  5. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, T.; Chen, X.; Mohan, P.; Lao, B. Q.

    2017-09-01

    The observational facilities of radio astronomy keep constant upgrades and developments to achieve better capabilities including increasing the time of the data recording and frequency resolutions, and increasing the receiving and recording bandwidth. However in contrast, only a limited spectrum resource has been allocated to radio astronomy by the International Telecommunication Union, resulting in that the radio observational instrumentations are inevitably exposed to undesirable radio frequency interference (RFI) signals which originate mainly from the terrestrial human activity and are becoming stronger with time. RFIs degrade the quality of data and even lead to invalid data. The impact of RFIs on scientific outcome becomes more and more serious. In this article, the requirement for RFI mitigation is motivated, and the RFI characteristics, mitigation techniques, and strategies are reviewed. The mitigation strategies adopted at some representative observatories, telescopes, and arrays are also introduced. The advantages and shortcomings of the four classes of RFI mitigation strategies are discussed and presented, applicable at the connected causal stages: preventive, pre-detection, pre-correlation, and post-correlation. The proper identification and flagging of RFI is the key to the reduction of data loss and improvement in data quality, and is also the ultimate goal of developing RFI mitigation technique. This can be achieved through a strategy involving a combination of the discussed techniques in stages. The recent advances in the high speed digital signal processing and high performance computing allow for performing RFI excision of the large data volumes generated from large telescopes or arrays in both real time and offline modes, aiding the proposed strategy.

  6. Value/impact analysis for evaluating alternative mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Catton, I.; Castle, J.N.; Dooley, J.L.; Hammond, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Methods are developed for assessing the cost effectiveness of proposed systems and strategies for mitigating the consequences of severe nuclear accidents. Such mitigation systems consist mostly of devices for improving the ability of a reactor containment to survive such an accident and retain all radioactive materials. Value/impact analysis is applied to the system with and without mitigation, using the population dose averted by mitigation as the value of benefit, and the dollar cost of the containment improvements as the impact. Other considerations affecting such analyses include ways of monetizing public health risk, economic discounting, and the effect of interdiction policy and other post-accident recovery costs

  7. Os eventos programados, como alternativo do desenvolvimento do turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Pinassi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Turismo e lazer são vistos como uma alternativa para o desenvolvimento econômico, social e cultural de uma comunidade. Ambas práticas de lazer são consolidadas como processos sócio-espaciais que podem trazer muitos impactos benéficos para os moradores de uma determinada localidade. Assim, a dinâmica de eventos programados em aldeias visa proporcionar uma alternativa oportunidades de desenvolvimento local para comunidades carentes. Nesse contexto, a pesquisa desenvolvida, em seguida, analisa o desenvolvimento de um festival especial, realizada na Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Este festival, iniciado a partir da esfera pública municipal, mostrou benefícios económicos significativos e definir um entretenimento alternativa valiosa para a população local e da área de influência.

  8. Preparando um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pires de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve as etapas para a criação de um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma Android. O artigo foi dividido em quatro partes: Primeiro uma introdução sobre o assunto. Na segunda seção são mostrados os passos necessários para a configuração do ambiente de desenvolvimento. Na terceira seção, é demonstrado como criar uma aplicação para dispositivo Android que calculo Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC. A quarta seção apresenta as considerações finais. A solução abordada tem como base a IDE Eclipse e o SDK do Android, bem como o Kit de Desenvolvimento Java da Oracle (JDK.

  9. Preparando um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pires de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve as etapas para a criação de um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma Android. O artigo foi dividido em quatro partes: Primeiro uma introdução sobre o assunto. Na segunda seção são mostrados os passos necessários para a configuração do ambiente de desenvolvimento. Na terceira seção, é demonstrado como criar uma aplicação para dispositivo Android que calculo Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC. A quarta seção apresenta as considerações finais. A solução abordada tem como base a IDE Eclipse e o SDK do Android, bem como o Kit de Desenvolvimento Java da Oracle (JDK.

  10. Severe accident mitigation through containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent US Department of Energy plans to construct a Heavy Water Reactor for the production of defense nuclear materials have created a unique opportunity to explore ways to mitigate severe accident concerns in the design stage. Drawing on an extensive background in USNRC-sponsored severe accident work, Sandia National Laboratories has been exploring a number of Heavy Water New Production Reactor (HW-NPR) containment design strategies that might mitigate the consequences of a core-melt accident without greatly impacting construction cost or reactor operations. Severe accident specialists have undertaken these assessments with the intent of providing the plant designers with some of the phenomenological advantages and disadvantages of various mitigation strategies. This paper will highlight some of the more interesting concepts and summarize the results obtained. 9 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Severe accident mitigation through containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent U.S. Department of Energy plans to construct a Heavy Water Reactor for the production of defense nuclear materials have created a unique opportunity to explore ways to mitigate severe accident concerns in the design stage. Drawing on an extensive background in US-NRC-sponsored severe accident work, Sandia National Laboratories has been exploring a number of Heavy Water New Production Reactor (HW-NPR) containment design strategies that might mitigate the consequences of a core-melt accident without greatly impacting construction cost or reactor operations. Severe accident specialists have undertaken these assessments with the intent of providing the plant designers with some of the phenomenological advantages and disadvantages of various mitigation strategies. This paper will highlight some of the more interesting concepts and summarize the results obtained. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Mitigation by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Mitigation or 'the act of bringing together' is not to be confused with applied architectural or landscape cosmetics to render development which has been predesigned in terms of engineering parameters to be more 'seemly' or 'attractive'. It is more profoundly an exercise in simultaneous engineering and environmental analysis in which the level of synthesis between the elements of construction and the elements of the physical environment is fundamental to the ultimate design success of projects. This text, having looked firstly at the nature of design and the characteristics of design processes and procedures, considers the linkages and interaction between design and the statutory land use planning system through which major development projects in Scotland are authorised. A case study of the development of the oil handling terminal at Flotta, Orkney, is included to demonstrate the implications of certain problems related to mitigation by design. (author)

  13. Impact mitigation in EIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Alan; Cashmore, Matthew; Cobb, Dick; Tinker, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    This study analysed 40 planning applications in the East of England to investigate the practice of translating paper recommendations in the environmental statement (ES) into legal conditions and obligations. A high proportion (50%) of suggested mitigation measures were not translated into planning conditions or obligations. However, a significant number of additional conditions or obligations, not directly based on the ES, were imposed on developers. The research su...

  14. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  15. Desenvolvimento de um monitor de apneia pediátrico

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira, Gonçalo José Martins

    2009-01-01

    O trabalho apresentado tem por base o desenvolvimento de um monitor de apneia do sono pediátrico. Aborda questões ao nível da fisiologia respiratória e da mecânica pulmonar de um indivíduo. Apresenta uma proposta de desenvolvimento de um monitor de aquisição e identificação de sinais respiratórios, a fim de efectuar a detecção da apneia do sono.

  16. O capital humano e o desenvolvimento econômico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Maria Witkowski

    2007-07-01

    -se como sendo o desenvolvimento de riqueza material dos países ou regiões, prevendo ajustes fiscais, institucionais e jurídicos, assim como a necessidade de incentivos voltados a investimentos e inovações como meio de condições propícias de um sistema eficiente para a população, no que se refere à produção e distribuição de bens e serviços.

  17. Mitigating flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; McLean, Andrew; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Rosen, Alexa; Kelly, Fiona; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Youngs Jr, Georgia A; Jensen, Jessica; Bernal, Oscar; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2011, following heavy winter snowfall, two cities bordering two rivers in North Dakota, USA faced major flood threats. Flooding was foreseeable and predictable although the extent of risk was uncertain. One community, Fargo, situated in a shallow river basin, successfully mitigated and prevented flooding. For the other community, Minot, located in a deep river valley, prevention was not possible and downtown businesses and one-quarter of the homes were inundated, in the city’s worst flood on record. We aimed at contrasting the respective hazards, vulnerabilities, stressors, psychological risk factors, psychosocial consequences, and disaster risk reduction strategies under conditions where flood prevention was, and was not, possible. Methods. We applied the “trauma signature analysis” (TSIG) approach to compare the hazard profiles, identify salient disaster stressors, document the key components of disaster risk reduction response, and examine indicators of community resilience. Results. Two demographically-comparable communities, Fargo and Minot, faced challenging river flood threats and exhibited effective coordination across community sectors. We examined the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in situations where coordinated citizen action was able to prevent disaster impact (hazard avoidance) compared to the more common scenario when unpreventable disaster strikes, causing destruction, harm, and distress. Across a range of indicators, it is clear that successful mitigation diminishes both physical and psychological impact, thereby reducing the trauma signature of the event. Conclusion. In contrast to experience of historic flooding in Minot, the city of Fargo succeeded in reducing the trauma signature by way of reducing risk through mitigation. PMID:28228985

  18. Mitigating leaks in membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, Rohit N.; Bose, Suman; Boutilier, Michael S.H.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Jain, Tarun Kumar; O' Hern, Sean C.; Laoui, Tahar; Atieh, Muataz A.; Jang, Doojoon

    2018-02-27

    Two-dimensional material based filters, their method of manufacture, and their use are disclosed. In one embodiment, a membrane may include an active layer including a plurality of defects and a deposited material associated with the plurality of defects may reduce flow therethrough. Additionally, a majority of the active layer may be free from the material. In another embodiment, a membrane may include a porous substrate and an atomic layer deposited material disposed on a surface of the porous substrate. The atomic layer deposited material may be less hydrophilic than the porous substrate and an atomically thin active layer may be disposed on the atomic layer deposited material.

  19. Primary system temperature limits and transient mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, G.S.; Bost, D.S.

    1978-10-03

    Results of a study to determine the limiting temperature conditions in a large reactor system are presented. The study considers a sodium-cooled breeder reactor system having a loop-type primary system configuration. A temperature range of 930 to 1050/sup 0/F in reactor outlet temperature is covered. Significant findings were that the use of the materials for the 930/sup 0/F reference design, i.e., a core material of 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel, a primary piping material of 316SS, and a steam generator material of unstabilized 2-1/4 Cr - 1 Mo resulted in limiting conditions in component performance at the higher temperatures. Means to circumvent these limits through the use of alternate materials, mitigation of thermal transients, and/or design changes are presented. The economic incentive to make some materials changes is also presented.

  20. Emerging Radiation Health-Risk Mitigation Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Schimmerling, W.

    2004-01-01

    Past space missions beyond the confines of the Earth's protective magnetic field have been of short duration and protection from the effects of solar particle events was of primary concern. The extension of operational infrastructure beyond low-Earth orbit to enable routine access to more interesting regions of space will require protection from the hazards of the accumulated exposures of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). There are significant challenges in providing protection from the long-duration exposure to GCR: the human risks to the exposures are highly uncertain and safety requirements places unreasonable demands in supplying sufficient shielding materials in the design. A vigorous approach to future radiation health-risk mitigation requires a triage of techniques (using biological and technical factors) and reduction of the uncertainty in radiation risk models. The present paper discusses the triage of factors for risk mitigation with associated materials issues and engineering design methods

  1. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  2. O texto teatral no desenvolvimento da oralidade em língua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islia Cristina Vaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O seguinte trabalho, efetuado com o auxílio do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, tem como objetivo principal investigar a eficácia da utilização do texto teatral em sala de aula, auxiliando no desenvolvimento da oralidade em língua estrangeira. A principal motivação para que a presente pesquisa fosse realizada foi a percepção que se teve de um aparente medo de falar dos alunos que chegam ao nível intermediário do curso de francês. Como metodologia, foi utilizada a Pesquisa-Ação (BARBIER, 2007, juntamente com o auxílio das reflexões teóricas de Courtillon (2003, Schneuwly e Dolz (2010 e Reis (2008. Como material de pesquisa, foram feitas análises qualitativas dos diários de bordo recebidos dos alunos da Prática do Francês Oral e Escrito 4 (PFOE 4, na Universidade de Brasília (UnB, turma em que a experiência foi realizada.

  3. Radon mitigation experience in difficult-to-mitigate schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Initial radon mitigation experience in schools has shown sub-slab depressurization (SSD) to be generally effective in reducing elevated levels of radon in schools that have a continuous layer of clean, coarse aggregate underneath the slab. However, mitigation experience is limited in schools without sub-slab aggregate and in schools with characteristics such as return-air ductwork underneath the slab or unducted return-air plenums in the drop ceiling that are open to the sub-slab area (via open tops of block walls). Mitigation of schools with utility tunnels and of schools constructed over crawl spaces is also limited. Three Maryland schools exhibiting some of the above characteristics are being researched to help understand the mechanisms that control radon entry and mitigation in schools where standard SSD systems are not effective. This paper discusses specific characteristics of potentially difficult-to-mitigate schools and, where applicable, details examples from the three Maryland schools

  4. Apparatus and Methods for Mitigating Electromagnetic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M. (Inventor); Niedra, Janis M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Apparatus, methods, and other embodiments associated with mitigation of magnetic fields are described herein. In an embodiment, a method for mitigating an electromagnetic field includes positioning a mitigating coil around a linear alternator of linear motor so that the mitigating coil is coaxially located with an alternator coil; arranging the mitigating coil to generate a field to mitigate an electromagnetic field generated by the alternator coil; and passing an induced current from the alternator coil through the mitigating coil.

  5. Exploração e desenvolvimento vocacional de jovens

    OpenAIRE

    Taveira, Maria do Céu

    2000-01-01

    Livro que apresenta de modo reduzido o trabalho de dissertação de Doutoramento em Psicologia da Educação, realizado pela autora em 1997, sob o titulo: Exploração e Desenvolvimento Vocacional de Jovens: Estudo sobre as relações entre a Exploração, a Identidade e a Indecisão Vocacional Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

  6. Desenvolvimento humano: contribuições da psicologia moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves de La Taille

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Procuramos avaliar as contribuições do conhecimento acumulado pela Psicologia Moral para a compreensão do desenvolvimento humano, para sustentar a tese segundo a qual a fonte energética do dever moral precisa ser procurada não só em sentimentos exclusivamente morais, mas também em sentimentos que desempenham um papel para o próprio desenvolvimento humano no seu conjunto. Três são os passos da análise deste artigo. Em primeiro lugar, verifi car se há possibilidade de articulação entre teorias psicológicas que enfatizam a dimensão afetiva da moralidade (Freud e Durkheim e outras que enfatizam a dimensão intelectual (Piaget e Kohlberg. Em segundo lugar, uma vez constatada a impossibilidade dessa articulação, sustentar que o sentimento de vergonha, presente na moralidade mas também em outras dimensões do desenvolvimento humano, é condição necessária ao sentimento de obrigatoriedade. Finalmente, analisar se tal sentimento é passível de ser evocado como fonte energética essencial nas abordagens que enfatizam a dimensão intelectual da moralidade.

  7. Nutrição e desenvolvimento Nutrition and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma K. G. de Arruda

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available As discussões sobre desenvolvimento e nutrição freqüentemente se realizam sob um duplo enfoque: aqueles que consideram o estado nutricional como reflexo do desenvolvimento, e os que admitem que a nutrição influencia fortemente no nível e ritmo desse desenvolvimento. Os autores focalizam o tema visualizando a nutrição como um fator decisivo para um bom desenvolvimento social e econômico, particularizando o fato de que as intervenções nutricionais podem contribuir para melhorias significativas nos resultados escolares, na produtividade do trabalho e na resistência às infecções. Assim, os reflexos da desnutrição na economia seriam evidentes: quer pelas limitações na expectativa de renda, quer pelo aumento dos custos dos compromissos que a população assume para proteger-se, quer pelos avultados custos ocultos de origem social - absenteísmo, acidentes do trabalho e rotatividade de pessoal. Em face dos propósitos de modernização e competitividade da economia, é inquestionável a necessidade da nutrição figurar bem alto na lista de prioridades nacionais. Com isso, promover-se-ia o desenvolvimento dos recursos humanos e a preservação desse capital, que é o ideário de uma economia socialmente responsável.Discussions on development and nutrition frequently have a double focus: one that considers nutritional status as a reflection of development, and another that admits that nutrition strongly influences the level and rhythm of development. The authors view nutrition as a decisive factor for adequate social and economic development, specifying the fact that nutritional interventions might contribute to significant improvements in individual classroom performance, productivity at the workplace, and resistance to infections. The implications of malnutrition for the economy are thus evident: either by limitations in income expectations, increased costs deriving from burdens assumed by the population to protect themselves, or

  8. CERVEJA ARTESANAL E DESENVOLVIMENTO REGIONAL EM SANTA CATARINA (BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinho Pellin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussões relacionadas ao fortalecimento do desenvolvimento regional tem estimulado um debate em relação a contribuições que Indicações Geográficas (IGs podem oferecer ao desenvolvimento. IGs se constituem em elemento de identificação de produtos ou serviços com seus territórios e podem oferecer contribuições importantes para o desenvolvimento regional, agregando valor aos produtos, facilitando o acesso a novos mercados e valorizando tradições locais. Este artigo procura discutir a importância da cerveja artesanal no contexto do desenvolvimento regional em Santa Catarina. Para tanto explora como objetivos específicos: (i caracterizar as discussões que estão ocorrendo em torno do reconhecimento da IG para chope e cerveja artesanal na região de Blumenau (SC; (ii identificar contribuições e desafios para o Desenvolvimento Regional de um possível reconhecimento da IG; e (iii caracterizar limites e potencialidades sinalizados pela iniciativa em curso. Metodologicamente trata-se de pesquisa analítica e descritiva baseada em estudo de caso de natureza exploratória. Como instrumento de coleta de dados se realizou entrevistas semiestruturadas com gestores de micro cervejarias artesanais da região e atores públicos e privados envolvidos diretamente nas discussões. Além destas fontes primárias o estudo fundamentou-se em fontes consubstanciadas pelos documentos produzidos nas reuniões de trabalho realizadas até o presente. Os principais resultados de análise destacam que um possível reconhecimento da IG poderia contribuir para o fortalecimento do setor, aumentando a competitividade, além de fortalecer a atividade turística na região. Entretanto para isso, alguns conflitos, surgidos no âmbito das discussões, precisam ser assumidos, superados ou mitigados

  9. Os limites do desenvolvimento e do turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Teixeira Coriolano, Luzia Neide

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a historical analysis of the background and evolution of the concept of development and the limits to development, supported by links with economic science, thus pervading all social sciences. The assumptions of developmentalist theories, the so-called modernization theories, are shown and identified as traditional, conservative and consensual, thus differing from critical theories which adopt the assumptions of historical materialism. The paper examines those aspects of globalization which pertain to new approaches to development, whereby tourism becomes a link between the local and the global. The study explains how and why development is an unequal and joint process. Underdevelopment is a result of the structural adjustments which determine concentration of wealth and income, generating poverty as the ultimate expression of social inequality. It is shown that development only takes place when people benefit, when a human scale is reached, that tourism can both connect with concentrated economic growth and promote social development, otherwise known as local development

  10. Regional climate change mitigation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, Ian H [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, and Univ. of Waterloo (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the key methodological issues that arise from an analysis of regional climate change mitigation options. The rationale for any analysis of regional mitigation activities, emphasising both the theoretical attractiveness and the existing political encouragement and the methodology that has been developed are reviewed. The differences arising from the fact that mitigation analyses have been taken from the level of the national - where the majority of the work has been completed to date - to the level of the international - that is, the `regional` - will be especially highlighted. (EG)

  11. Regional climate change mitigation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, Ian H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the key methodological issues that arise from an analysis of regional climate change mitigation options. The rationale for any analysis of regional mitigation activities, emphasising both the theoretical attractiveness and the existing political encouragement and the methodology that has been developed are reviewed. The differences arising from the fact that mitigation analyses have been taken from the level of the national - where the majority of the work has been completed to date - to the level of the international - that is, the 'regional' - will be especially highlighted. (EG)

  12. Desenvolvimento de membranas compósitas à base de nanocelulose para pilhas de combustível

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ana Patrícia Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    A presente dissertação tem como objetivo o desenvolvimento de membranas polieletrólitas baseadas em celulose bacteriana (CB) para aplicação em pilhas de combustível de condução protónica, que se espera ser uma solução ambientalmente sustentável. A CB é um material celulósico, com uma estrutura nanofibrilar tridimensional, biossintetizada por algumas estirpes de bactérias não patogénicas como é o caso da Gluconacetobacter sacchari. Devido a algumas das suas propriedades, nomeadamente a sua ele...

  13. Model-based mitigation of availability risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambon, E.; Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, S.; Salvato, M.

    2007-01-01

    The assessment and mitigation of risks related to the availability of the IT infrastructure is becoming increasingly important in modern organizations. Unfortunately, present standards for risk assessment and mitigation show limitations when evaluating and mitigating availability risks. This is due

  14. Model-Based Mitigation of Availability Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambon, Emmanuele; Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, Sandro; Salvato, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The assessment and mitigation of risks related to the availability of the IT infrastructure is becoming increasingly important in modern organizations. Unfortunately, present standards for Risk Assessment and Mitigation show limitations when evaluating and mitigating availability risks. This is due

  15. Mitigation: Decarbonization unique to cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nadine

    2017-10-01

    Strategies that reduce fossil-fuel use can achieve both global carbon mitigation and local health-protection goals. Now research shows the dual benefits of compact urban design and circular economy policies in Chinese cities.

  16. Tarague Interpretive Trail Mitigation Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welch, David

    2001-01-01

    ...), International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (lARfI) has prepared a mitigation plan for development of an interpretive trail at Tarague Beach, located on the north coast of the island of Guam (Fig. 1...

  17. Desenvolvimento do tomateiro e modificações nas propriedades químicas do solo em função da aplicação de resíduos orgânicos, sob cultivo protegido Development of tomato and changes in soil properties with organic materials application in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone C. Mello

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido de fevereiro a agosto de 1997 no município de Piracicaba (SP, a fim de avaliar os efeitos de doses e resíduos orgânicos no desenvolvimento do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cultivado em estufa e nos atributos químicos de um solo Podzólico vermelho-amarelo abrupto, A moderado, textura arenosa/média. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, sendo usados três resíduos orgânicos [composto de lodo de cervejaria e cavaco de eucalipto (CLC, composto de lixo (CL e cama de frango (CF] e quatro doses equivalentes a 0; 100; 150 e 200 kg ha-1 de N, com quatro repetições. A produção de frutos de tomate não aumentou com a adição dos materiais orgânicos. A aplicação de CF reduziu o pH e o teor de Mg no solo. As doses do CLC elevaram o conteúdo de matéria orgânica, o teor de cálcio trocável e a capacidade de troca de cátions do solo. O CL, por sua vez, não alterou as propriedades químicas do solo.An experiment was carried out between February and August/97 to evaluate the effects of different organic wastes on the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill plants and on the chemical properties of an Ultisol soil. The experimental design was of complete randomized blocks with four replicates and treatments disposed in a factorial 3x4: three organic wastes [malt residue and eucalyptus chip compost (CLC, urban solid waste compost (CL and chicken litter (CF] and four rates equivalent to 0; 100; 150 and 200 kg ha-1 of N. The fruit yield did not increase with organic waste additions. CF application decreased the pH and exchange Mg of soil. CLC addition increased the organic matter; exchange Ca and cation exchange capacity of soil. However, CL did not change the soil chemical properties.

  18. Methods of Mitigating Double Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of existing methods of mitigating double taxation of corporate income within a standard cost of capital model. Two of the most well-known and most utilized methods, the imputation and the split rate systems, do not mitigate double taxation in corporations where the marginal investment is financed with retained earnings. However, all methods are effective when the marginal investment is financed with new share issues. The corporate tax rate, fiscal ...

  19. Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycosis in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Trenton W. J.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Muths, Erin L.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Weldon, Che; Fisher, Matthew C.; Bosch, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians across the planet face the threat of population decline and extirpation caused by the disease chytridiomycosis. Despite consensus that the fungal pathogens responsible for the disease are conservation issues, strategies to mitigate their impacts in the natural world are, at best, nascent. Reducing risk associated with the movement of amphibians, non-amphibian vectors and other sources of infection remains the first line of defence and a primary objective when mitigating the threat of disease in wildlife. Amphibian-associated chytridiomycete fungi and chytridiomycosis are already widespread, though, and we therefore focus on discussing options for mitigating the threats once disease emergence has occurred in wild amphibian populations. All strategies have shortcomings that need to be overcome before implementation, including stronger efforts towards understanding and addressing ethical and legal considerations. Even if these issues can be dealt with, all currently available approaches, or those under discussion, are unlikely to yield the desired conservation outcome of disease mitigation. The decision process for establishing mitigation strategies requires integrated thinking that assesses disease mitigation options critically and embeds them within more comprehensive strategies for the conservation of amphibian populations, communities and ecosystems.

  20. Biblioteca Digital do Supremo Tribunal Federal: uma proposta em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Machado Teles Walter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As t e c n o l o g i as d e i nf o rm a ç ã o e d e c om u n i c a ç ã o revolucionaram as formas de organização e de mediação de informação em todas as instituições prestadoras de serviço, sejam elas bibliotecas ou centros de documentação. Seu desenvolvimento passou a ser uma questão estratégica de planejamento para as instituições que desejem manter-se em consonância com demandas cada vez mais especializadas e atender usuários que têm modelos mentais e conhecimentos de uso de informação em ambientes digitais. Reconhecendo esse cenário, foi elaborado, pela Coordenadoria de Biblioteca do Supremo Tribunal Federal, o projeto de desenvolvimento de sua Biblioteca Digital, cuja definição foi a de se tratava de um ambiente em meio eletrônico, para prestação de serviços e oferta de produtos, que incluem textos integrais e que independem da presença física dos usuários. O histórico desse projeto é apresentado incluindo as etapas e os perfis profissionais que atuaram no desenvolvimento do trabalho. Em função das características das propostas, todo o projeto foi modularizado visando facilitar sua implantação, de forma que independesse de mudanças na alta gestão do órgão. Alguns resultados dessa proposição são relacionados ao final.

  1. Desenvolvimento territorial rural no Brasil: limites e potencialidades dos CONSADs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio César Ortega

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A motivação principal desse trabalho é avaliar a capacidade da abordagem territorial em contribuir com o enfrentamento da pobreza e das desigualdades sociais brasileiras, representando uma alternativa de geração de emprego e renda em territórios rurais deprimidos. Por meio dos Consórcios de Segurança Alimentar e Desenvolvimento Local (CONSADs analisa-se as potencialidades e as dificuldades que essa estratégia vem enfrentando para estabelecer a cooperação entre o poder público e a sociedade civil voltada para o fomento, o apoio logístico e a canalização de recursos para as iniciativas territoriais, projetos e ações estruturantes que visam a geração de emprego e renda, com a garantia de segurança alimentar e do desenvolvimento local.This paper aims at evaluating the capacity of the territorial approach to contribute to poverty issues and Brazilian social inequalities, representing an alternative of employment and income generation in depressed rural territories. Through Consórcios de Segurança Alimentar e Desenvolvimento Local-CONSADs (Food Safety Consortia and Local Development we analyzed the potentialities and difficulties the strategy is facing to establish the cooperation between public power and civil society regarding fomentation, logistic support and canalization of resources for territorial initiatives, projects and structuring actions that seek employment and income generation with food safety warranty and local development.

  2. Perfil do desenvolvimento motor em escolares com excesso de peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Moura Alves da Cruz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Diferenças relacionadas ao peso e as habilidades motoras em crianças em idade escolar ainda apresentam controversias. Objetivo: Analisar a relação entre desenvolvimento motor e nível de atividade física com o índice de massa corporal (IMC de escolares com excesso de peso. Métodos: Foram avaliados 85 escolares de ambos os sexos, de 6 a 10 anos, de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil. Os instrumentos utilizados foram a classificação do IMC/idade, a Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor e o Questionário do Nível de Atividade Física Modificado e Adaptado. A amostra foi dividida em dois grupos: grupo com excesso de peso (GEP, com 50 escolares com diagnostico nutricional de sobrepeso e obesidade; e grupo com normopeso (GNP, com 35 escolares eutroficos. Para analise dos dados obtidos foram utilizados: Shapiro Wilk (normalidade, teste t de Student não pareado ou Mann Whitney (amostras independentes, teste de Spearman (correlação e teste do χ2 (proporção, com nível de significância p<0,05. Resultados: O GEP apresentou resultados inferiores significantes no desenvolvimento motor geral (91,32±10,68 versus 97,14±9,06; p=0,010, nas áreas de motricidade fina – QM1 (93,21±21,59 versus 103,1±13,12; p=0,0138 e motricidade global – QM2 (90,31±23,54 versus 112,6±16,07; p<0,0001. Observou-se correlação positiva significativa entre o nível de atividade física e o desenvolvimento motor no GEP, nas áreas de equilibrio – QM3 (0,35080; p=0,0125 e organização espacial – QM5 (0,41820; p=0,0025. Conclusão: O GEP, quando comparado com o GNP, demonstrou resultados inferiores no quociente motor geral (QMG, QM1 e QM2.

  3. Lazer como pratica educativa : as possibilidades para o desenvolvimento humano

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Ivone Lombardi

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Os objetivos principais deste trabalho consistem em conhecer as inter-relações existentes entre lazer, educação, animação sociocultural e desenvolvimento humano integral e quais as possibilidades de se contribuir para a emancipação do indivíduo na sociedade, utilizando o lazer como prática educativa. Já os objetivos mais específicos são fundamentais à proposição de que o lazer como prática educativa, com base nos seis conteúdos culturais do lazer, pode contribuir para a formação de um...

  4. Albeni Falls wildlife mitigation project: annual report of mitigation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra-Burns, Mary

    2002-01-01

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group was actively engaged in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in 2001. The Work Group met quarterly to discuss management and budget issues affecting the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program. Work Group members protected 851 acres of wetland habitat in 2001. Wildlife habitat protected to date for the Albeni Falls project is approximately 5,248.31 acres (∼4,037.48 Habitat Units). Approximately 14% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Administrative activities increased as funding was more evenly distributed among Work Group members and protection opportunities became more time consuming. In 2001, Work Group members focused on development and implementation of the monitoring and evaluation program as well as completion of site-specific management plans. With the implementation of the monitoring and evaluation program, and as management plans are reviewed and executed, on the ground management activities are expected to increase in 2002

  5. PATRIMÔNIO CULTURAL ARQUEOLÓGICO: INSTRUMENTO DE DESENVOLVIMENTO TURÍSTICO

    OpenAIRE

    Rossano Bastos

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho trata das perspectivas de aproveitamento do Patrimônio Cultural Arqueológico como instrumento de desenvolvimento turístico.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Arqueologia; Turismo;Desenvolvimento.ABSTRACT: This work considers some improvement perspectives ofthe archaeological cultural heritage as an instrument of tourism development.KEY-WORDS: Archaeology; Tourism; Development. 

  6. Desenvolvimento Policêntrico na Europa : Uma reflexao critica sobre um conceito de politicas normativas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, E.J.

    Durante a última década, o desenvolvimento policêntrico tornou-se um conceito-chave no desenvolvimento territorial europeu. Em muitos aspectos, é um conceito difuso que significa diferentes coisas para diferentes pessoas em diferentes escalas espaciais. Neste artigo, analisamos as variadas

  7. Desenvolvimento regional sob o enfoque pós-keynesiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Elisabete Barden

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo fazer uma revisão bibliográfica acerca de estudosque analisam o desenvolvimento regional sob a perspectiva da teoria pós-keynesiana. Osresultados destes demonstram que o sistema financeiro, em especial os bancos,influenciam no grau de desenvolvimento das regiões, sobretudo, porque o comportamentodestes agentes segue um conceito importante utilizado pela teoria, a preferência pelaliquidez. Assim, a disponibilidade de crédito para investimento no sistema produtivosofrerá impactos importantes conforme a preferência pela liquidez dos bancos.Abstract This paper has as objective to bring a bibliographical review about the studies thatanalyze the regional development on the Post-Keynesian theory perspective. The resultsobtained show that the financial system especially the banks, however these agentsbehavior follow an important concept used by the theory, the preference to the liquidity.Yet, the credit responsibility for the investment in the productive system will sufferimportant impacts due to the preference for the liquidity from the banks.

  8. Investimentos diretos estrangeiros e políticas de desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Corrêa de Lacerda

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute alternativas para a inserção internacional da economia brasileira, especialmente no que se refere ao papel dos investimentos diretos estrangeiros, da geração de valor agregado local e do desempenho das exportações, a partir do cenário da globalização e suas transformações. Na primeira parte analisa-se a competitividade dos países em desenvolvimento e, na segunda parte, discutem-se estratégias de política econômica para uma inserção internacional mais ativa na economia brasileira. Palavras-chave: investimentos diretos estrangeiros; globalização; inserção externa; políticas de desenvolvimento. Abstract The article discusses alternatives for the international insertion of Brazilian economy especially considering the role of foreign direct investments, the creation of local aggregated value and the exportations performance from the scene of the globalization and its transformations. In the first part, the competitiveness of developing countries is analyzed and in the second part, strategies of economic policy for a more active international of Brazilian economy are discussed. Keywords: foreign direct investments, globalization, international insertion, development policies.

  9. COPA DO MUNDO 2014: TURISMO, DESENVOLVIMENTO E SUSTENTABILIDADE NA CONTEMPORANEIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hoppe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade turística é um dos fenômenos mais significativos da contemporaneidade e cada vez mais tem se tornado objeto de pesquisas e estudos tanto no âmbito das ciências sociais aplicadas quanto das ciências humanas. Atenção essa que ganha vulto em função da complexa estrutura de serviços que envolve e, também, em razão do impacto que o turismo tem no cotidiano daquelas populações que habitam as cidades receptoras. Neste sentido, um dos modos pelos quais o turismo toma forma é aquele ligado aos eventos, em especial aos denominados megaeventos. Diante disso, este estudo busca refletir sobre a Copa do Mundo de 2014 realizada no Brasil no sentido de colaborar com a discussão acadêmica sobre megaeventos, seus impactos e desdobramentos no âmbito de uma perspectiva sinérgica entre desenvolvimento e sustentabilidade. Assim, defende-se no texto o argumento de que muitas são as formas como o turismo impacta na vida das pessoas e no interior das relações cotidianas daqueles que vivem nas cidades receptoras ganhando, assim, tangibilidade e concretude. Palavras-chave: Turismo. Desenvolvimento. Sustentabilidade. Megaevento. Copa do Mundo.

  10. Industry initiatives in impact mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    The author concludes that mitigation is the focus of conflicting opinions regarding responsibility, strategy, and effort. There are no hard, fast, or tried and true rules for company involvement in mitigation efforts. Each mitigation effort must be tailored and negotiated to match the unique characteristics of individual projects and circumstances of specific locales. Companies must assume financial responsibility for the temporary impacts and area needs created by their projects. They must also offer financial and technical assistance to impact areas, not just the host political jurisdiction, when local, state, federal, and special fund sources of revenue or technical assistance are not available or insufficient. But, local, state, and federal governments must also recognize their responsibilities and make adjustments in tax jurisdiction boundaries and disbursement formulas so that impacted areas are properly defined and receive an adequate share of lease, royalty, severance tax, permit fee, special use and service charges, and sales tax payments. Laws need to allow innovative uses of tax pre-payments, housing mortgage bonds, changeable debt and bounding limits, industrial loans with delayed prepayment, and revised revenue assistance formulas. Enabling legislation is required in most states to allow impact areas to negotiate the mitigation efforts. A review of 7 types of mitigation effort is presented: transportation; housing; public utilities; health, public safety and recreation; miscellaneous; and company-community interaction. (PBS)

  11. 3D Printed Shock Mitigating Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda; Elston, Edwin; Dennis, Mitzi; Metroke, Tammy; Chen, Chenggang; Patton, Steven; Ganguli, Sabyasachi; Roy, Ajit

    Here we explore the durability, and shock mitigating potential, of solid and cellular 3D printed polymers and conductive inks under high strain rate, compressive shock wave and high g acceleration conditions. Our initial designs include a simple circuit with 4 resistors embedded into circular discs and a complex cylindrical gyroid shape. A novel ink consisting of silver-coated carbon black nanoparticles in a thermoplastic polyurethane was used as the trace material. One version of the disc structural design has the advantage of allowing disassembly after testing for direct failure analysis. After increasing impacts, printed and traditionally potted circuits were examined for functionality. Additionally, in the open disc design, trace cracking and delamination of resistors were able to be observed. In a parallel study, we examined the shock mitigating behavior of 3D printed cellular gyroid structures on a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB). We explored alterations to the classic SHPB setup for testing the low impedance, cellular samples to most accurately reflect the stress state inside the sample (strain rates from 700 to 1750 s-1). We discovered that the gyroid can effectively absorb the impact of the test resulting in crushing the structure. Future studies aim to tailor the unit cell dimensions for certain frequencies, increase print accuracy and optimize material compositions for conductivity and adhesion to manufacture more durable devices.

  12. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  13. Costs of radon diagnostics and mitigation in school building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Rector, H.; Nagda, N.

    1992-01-01

    To determine the costs of radon diagnostics and active soil depressurization (ASD) system installation in schools, seven radon mitigators with extensive experience in school buildings were surveyed. The cost data were determined by providing the mitigators with two scenarios of open-quotes typicalclose quotes school buildings with elevated radon levels. The questionnaire in schools: (1) Review Construction Plans, (2) Conduct Diagnostic Measurements, (3) Design Mitigation System, (4) Purchase ASD Material, and (5) Install and Checkout ASD System. Based on the results of this survey, it is estimated that the average cost of ASD diagnostics and mitigation in a typical school would be roughly $0.50 per ft 2 . However, these costs would be higher in schools with extensive subslab walls, very poor PFE, and lower in simple schools with very good PFE and no subslab barriers to communication. The variations in costs provided by the mitigators are primarily due to the influences of (1) experience and practices of the mitigation companies, (2) ASD system requirements as perceived by the respondents, and (3) the degree of involvement by the school system in the process

  14. Bioenergy as a Mitigation Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, P.; Brovkin, V.; Müller, C.; Cramer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bioenergy, being one of the renewable energies with the lowest costs, is expected to play an important role in the near future as climate change mitigation measure. Current practices of converting crop products such as carbohydrates or plant oils to ethanol or biodiesel have limited capabilities to curb emission. Moreover, they compete with food production for the most fertile lands. Thus, second generation bioenergy technologies are being developed to process lignocellulosic plant materials from fast growing tree and grass species. A number of deforestation experiments using Earth System models have shown that in the mid- to high latitudes, deforested surface albedo strongly increases in presence of snow. This biophysical effect causes cooling, which could dominate over the biogeochemical warming effect because of the carbon emissions due to deforestation. In order to find out the global bioenergy potential of extensive plantations in the mid- to high latitudes, and the resultant savings in carbon emissions, we use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL run at a high spatial resolution of 0.5°. It represents both natural and managed ecosystems, including the cultivation of cellulosic energy crops. LPJmL is run with 21st century projections of climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration based on the IPCC-SRES business as usual or A2 scenario. Latitudes above 45° in both hemispheres are deforested and planted with crops having the highest bioenergy return for the respective pixels of the model. The rest of the Earth has natural vegetation. The agricultural management intensity values are used such that it results in the best approximation for 1999 - 2003 national yields of wheat and maize as reported by FAOSTAT 2009. Four different scenarios of land management are used ranging from an idealistic or best case scenario, where all limitations of soil and terrain properties are managed to the worst case scenario where none of these

  15. Mitigating climate change by minimising the carbon footprint and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis determines that lower scaled, spatially economical structures using low embodied energy materials will positively contribute to reduced carbon footprints and thus climate change mitigation strategies. The outcomes of the article also set a benchmark for prospective life-cycle assessments (LCA) and establish ...

  16. Studies on Arsenic Release and its Mitigation from Tailings Dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on Arsenic Release and its Mitigation from Tailings Dam Using Nanomagnetite Particles. ... Ghana Mining Journal ... Abstract. Knowledge of the geochemistry of As in tailings material after beneficiation of gold-bearing sulphidic ores is necessary to comprehend the nature, stability and mobilization of As into the ...

  17. O desenvolvimento corporal na educação infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pacheco da Silva Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é resultado de um estudo realizado em uma creche pública pertencente à rede municipal de educação de Sinop - MT. Objetivamos compreender o movimento corporal das crianças como parte do desenvolvimento integral das crianças. E também entender como os profissionais trabalham a especificidade do corpo infantil, dos movimentos das crianças durante a rotina da instituição de uma turma de crianças de dois a três anos de idade. Optamos em focalizar a pesquisa na área da Educação Infantil por entender que as crianças desta faixa etária apresentam características importantes no desenvolvimento corporal, visto que muitas vezes na educação infantil o movimento é considerado como ‘indisciplina’, fazendo com que a criança, na maioria das vezes permanece quietas e sentadas em suas cadeiras. Diante de tal propósito, buscamos uma metodologia que nos possibilitasse apreender o movimento corporal da criança e encontramos na pesquisa qualitativa, através da ‘observação participante’, trilhas que nos conduziram à construção de conhecimentos. Como pesquisadora, permanecemos na instituição investigada por quase três meses, em horários intercalados, utilizando o caderno de campo, no qual registramos as observações realizadas, bem como as entrevistas com as professoras da referida turma. Os principais referenciais utilizados para o estudo foram: Vygotsky, Piaget, Vitor Fonseca e Henri Wallon. De acordo com o observado em campo e leituras teóricas, ressaltamos com este estudo a importância do movimento para as crianças e sua contribuição no desenvolvimento infantil pleno.Palavras-chave: educação; educação infantil; maternal II; movimento; sociointeracionismo.

  18. CARTOGRAFIAS DO PIAUÍ: RELACIONANDO INFRAESTRUTURA E DESENVOLVIMENTO SOCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Barbosa Júnior

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Durante as décadas de 50 a 90, o Piauí foi o Estado mais pobre do Brasil. Recentemente, o Piauí tem apresentado acelerado crescimento econômico, devido em parte ao fortalecimento dos setores de comércio e construção, e a implantação da agricultura moderna na porção do Cerrado piauiense da região MAPITOBA. Apesar do recente incremento econômico, percebe-se que no Piauí, assim como em outros estados do Brasil, o desenvolvimento se dá de forma irregular com relação aos aspectos sociais e seus padrões de distribuição no território. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho busca mostrar que no Piauí a concentração de bens e pessoas está em parte condicionada a infraestrutura de transporte, com exceção da mesorregião Sudoeste Piauiense, onde o modelo de desenvolvimento adotado é essencialmente diferente do modelo das demais regiões. Desta forma, a baixa integração regional no Piauí tem contribuído para o surgimento de duas porções territoriais distintas e isoladas: uma ao norte, com características predominantemente urbanas e relativa concentração de bens e pessoas; e outra ao sul, onde se estabeleceu a última fronteira agrícola do país, com a implantação da agricultura moderna em áreas de vazios demográficos e baixos índices de desenvolvimento social. Assim, partindo-se da demanda por estudos que melhor descrevam as especificidades do território e que contribuam para a elaboração de políticas públicas adjetivadas ao local, o trabalho faz uso da Cartografia Temática e da Análise Espacial para descrever a situação atual do estado do Piauí com relação a Renda e Educação.

  19. Space debris mitigation - engineering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E.; Hammond, M.

    The problem of space debris pollution is acknowledged to be of growing concern by space agencies, leading to recent activities in the field of space debris mitigation. A review of the current (and near-future) mitigation guidelines, handbooks, standards and licensing procedures has identified a number of areas where further work is required. In order for space debris mitigation to be implemented in spacecraft manufacture and operation, the authors suggest that debris-related criteria need to become design parameters (following the same process as applied to reliability and radiation). To meet these parameters, spacecraft manufacturers and operators will need processes (supported by design tools and databases and implementation standards). A particular aspect of debris mitigation, as compared with conventional requirements (e.g. radiation and reliability) is the current and near-future national and international regulatory framework and associated liability aspects. A framework for these implementation standards is presented, in addition to results of in-house research and development on design tools and databases (including collision avoidance in GTO and SSTO and evaluation of failure criteria on composite and aluminium structures).

  20. Mitigation - how to buy time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekera, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: There is growing consensus in the global scientific community that human induced greenhouse gas emissions have increased the atmospheric concentration of these gases which has led, and will continue to lead to changes in regional and global climate. Climate change is projected to impact on Australian and global economic, biophysical, social and environmental systems. The impacts of climate change can be reduced by implementing a range of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The optimal policy response will depend on the relative costs and benefits of climate change impacts, and mitigation and adaptation responses. The focus in this presentation is to identify the key determinants that can reduce the cost of international mitigation responses. It is important to recognise that since cumulative emissions are the primary driver of atmospheric concentrations, mitigation policies should be assessed against their capacity to reduce cumulative emissions overtime, rather than at given time points only. If global greenhouse gas abatement costs are to be minimised, it is desirable that the coverage of countries, emission sources and technologies that are a part of any multilateral effort be as wide as possible. In this context the development and diffusion of clean technologies globally can play a key role in the future reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, according to scenarios analysed by ABARE. Furthermore, technology 'push' (for example, research and development policies) and 'pull' (for example, emission trading) policies will be required to achieve such an outcome

  1. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  2. Comparison of turbulence mitigation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacik, Stephen T.; Paolini, Aaron; Sherman, Ariel; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-07-01

    When capturing imagery over long distances, atmospheric turbulence often degrades the data, especially when observation paths are close to the ground or in hot environments. These issues manifest as time-varying scintillation and warping effects that decrease the effective resolution of the sensor and reduce actionable intelligence. In recent years, several image processing approaches to turbulence mitigation have shown promise. Each of these algorithms has different computational requirements, usability demands, and degrees of independence from camera sensors. They also produce different degrees of enhancement when applied to turbulent imagery. Additionally, some of these algorithms are applicable to real-time operational scenarios while others may only be suitable for postprocessing workflows. EM Photonics has been developing image-processing-based turbulence mitigation technology since 2005. We will compare techniques from the literature with our commercially available, real-time, GPU-accelerated turbulence mitigation software. These comparisons will be made using real (not synthetic), experimentally obtained data for a variety of conditions, including varying optical hardware, imaging range, subjects, and turbulence conditions. Comparison metrics will include image quality, video latency, computational complexity, and potential for real-time operation. Additionally, we will present a technique for quantitatively comparing turbulence mitigation algorithms using real images of radial resolution targets.

  3. Saúde e desenvolvimento Healthcare and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza D'Ávila Viana

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que os modernos sistemas de saúde são o resultado da complexa interação de processos econômicos, políticos e sociais, o objetivo do trabalho é discutir a relação entre saúde e desenvolvimento no Brasil, mostrando que o esgotamento do modelo liberal de política econômica abre nova perspectiva para a retomada do desenvolvimento, entendido como combinação entre crescimento da economia, mudanças na estrutura produtiva e melhora das condições de vida da população. O complexo produtivo da saúde joga papel decisivo nesse processo, pois constitui um campo em que inovação tecnológica e acumulação de capital geram oportunidades de investimento, trabalho e renda, além de produzir avanços importantes para melhorar o estado de saúde das pessoas. A recente adoção de políticas públicas voltadas para articular, de forma positiva, aspectos da política econômica e da política social revela que a questão do desenvolvimento nacional ganhou nova centralidade na agenda governamental, o que abre a perspectiva de maior integração entre a lógica econômica e a lógica sanitária. Entretanto, é preciso reconhecer que o Brasil ainda não logrou alcançar uma associação virtuosa entre saúde e desenvolvimento.As modern healthcare systems are the outcome of complex interactions among economic, political and social processes, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the links between health and development in Brazil, showing that the depletion of the liberal economic policy model paves the way for a return to development, understood as a blend of economic growth, changes in the production structure and better living standards. The healthcare production complex plays a crucial role in this process, as a field where technological innovation and capital build-up generate opportunities for investment, work and income, in addition to spurring major steps forward in terms of upgrading individual health. The recent adoption of

  4. UMA METODOLOGIA VOLTADA PARA O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE LÍDERES

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Leila de Moura

    2003-01-01

    Este trabalho aborda uma metodologia voltada para o desenvolvimento do grupo de líderes da Divisão Logística de uma empresa do setor de varejo. Em uma pesquisa realizada pela empresa, detectou-se uma deficiência no estilo de supervisão atual adotada pelo grupo de líderes e as conseqüências negativas geradas para a organização. A proposta deste trabalho é promover a educação e o treinamento do grupo de líderes para uma mudança de estilo de supervisão. Para isso, propõe-se a utilizar como base ...

  5. Perspectivas de desenvolvimento e meio ambiente: o caso do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Fernando Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Introdução Nos últimos dez anos o desenvolvimento econômico do Brasil é frequentemente apontado como um caso êxito de industrialização e de mudança social ocorrido na periferia do sistema capitalista internacional. Não terá sido este o único caso. México, Argentina, Africa do Sul, Singapura, Coréia, índia etc, em graus variáveis e com padrões diversos de integração na economia mundial, são outros tantos exemplos. É certo que existe, nesta matéria, muitos equívocos. Mesmo considerando-se que e...

  6. Desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor de lactentes desnutridos Neuropsychomotor development of malnourished babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Mansur

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor de lactentes com desnutrição leve e caracterizar seu perfil nutricional. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi do tipo transversal, numa população de 374 lactentes e amostra de 31 desnutridos leve, entre 7 e 24 meses de idade, matriculados em creches municipais. O estado nutricional foi identificado pelo critério de Gómez e caracterizado por um questionário. Para a avaliação neuropsicomotora utilizou-se a Escala de Desenvolvimento Psicomotor da Primeira Infância de Brunet e Lézine. RESULTADOS: Os principais resultados do questionário mostraram: infecções respiratórias (48,4%; diarréias (71,0%; pais em união estável (61,3%; pais com ensino fundamental incompleto (74,2% das mães, 83,8% dos pais; renda familiar de 1 a 3 salários-mínimos (80,6%; aleitamento materno satisfatório (67,7%; reação adversa a algum alimento (41,9%. Entre os dados neuropsicomotores, as médias das Idades de Desenvolvimento da Linguagem (14,45 meses e da Sociabilidade (14,74 meses foram as que obtiveram os valores mais abaixo da média da Idade Cronológica (16,41 meses. Todas as áreas avaliadas obtiveram Quocientes de Desenvolvimento dentro da normalidade, porém, as áreas da Linguagem e da Sociabilidade foram classificadas em nível "normal baixo" e as outras em nível "normal médio". CONCLUSÕES: A avaliação neuropsicomotora é instrumento fundamental na assistência ao lactente desnutrido, que tende a apresentar deficiências nas áreas da Linguagem e Sociabilidade, fornecendo subsídios para observar sua atuação exploratória, efeito de seu pensamento, e planejar o trabalho intervencionista.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the neuropsychomotor development of babies with slight malnutrition and to characterize their nutritional profile. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional survey on a population of 374 babies and a sample of 31 babies with slight

  7. Leptospirose animal: estudos para o desenvolvimento de vacinas recombinantes

    OpenAIRE

    Felix, Samuel Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    A leptospirose é uma doença causada por espiroquetas do gênero Leptospira. É uma zoonose de ampla distribuição geográfica, sendo um problema de saúde pública e veterinária, principalmente em países subdesenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento de clima tropical e subtropical. Em medicina veterinária, a leptospirose é uma doença importante tanto para a clínica quanto para a produção, devido ao risco à saúde pública, perdas reprodutivas e óbitos. A vacinação animal é realizada como medida de prevenção ...

  8. As sementes geneticamente modificadas e o direito ao desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Barbosa Melo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta como objeto de investigação a ligação entre os direitos da propriedade intelectual no contexto dos organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM´S. Objetivou-se, especificamente, responder inquietações acerca dos danos reais para os consumidores, bem como o lucro para as empresas multinacionais, sem desconsiderar, ainda, os efetivos danos ao meio ambiente e à saúde. Utilizou metodologia pautada em pesquisa bibliográfica e documental a partir do método hermenêutico fazendo uso da interpretação judicial-histórica. Conclui pela relevância da temática para efetivação do direito ao desenvolvimento, bem como pela urgência de uma regulamentação da biossegurança, de forma a permitir melhor sustentação aos OGM´s.

  9. EU mitigation potential of harvested wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Roberto; Fiorese, Giulia; Grassi, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The new rules for the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector under the Kyoto Protocol recognized the importance of Harvested Wood Products (HWP) in climate change mitigation. We used the Tier 2 method proposed in the 2013 IPCC KP Supplement to estimate emissions and removals from HWP from 1990 to 2030 in EU-28 countries with three future harvest scenarios (constant historical average, and +/-20% in 2030). For the historical period (2000-2012) our results are consistent with other studies, indicating a HWP sink equal on average to -44.0 Mt CO 2 yr -1 (about 10% of the sink by forest pools). Assuming a constant historical harvest scenario and future distribution of the total harvest among each commodity, the HWP sink decreases to -22.9 Mt CO 2 yr -1 in 2030. The increasing and decreasing harvest scenarios produced a HWP sink of -43.2 and -9.0 Mt CO 2 yr -1 in 2030, respectively. Other factors may play an important role on HWP sink, including: (i) the relative share of different wood products, and (ii) the combined effect of production, import and export on the domestic production of each commodity. Maintaining a constant historical harvest, the HWP sink will slowly tend to saturate, i.e. to approach zero in the long term. The current HWP sink will be maintained only by further increasing the current harvest; however, this will tend to reduce the current sink in forest biomass, at least in the short term. Overall, our results suggest that: (i) there is limited potential for additional HWP sink in the EU; (ii) the HWP mitigation potential should be analyzed in conjunction with other mitigation components (e.g. sink in forest biomass, energy and material substitution by wood).

  10. Desenvolvimento, globalização e trabalho decente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Baltar

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é discutir alguns desafios para o projeto brasileiro de desenvolvimento, baseado no consumo de massas dos três últimos Planos Plurianuais, que consiste na busca de equacionamento entre a ampliação da renda nacional através do trabalho, com aumento da empregabilidade e eliminação da precarização do trabalho. A pesquisa procura avaliar e comparar alguns indicadores sobre qualidade no emprego formal, tal como definido pela proposta da Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT para a Agenda do Trabalho Decente, em conjunto com dados que mostram a trajetória de inserção do Brasil no comércio internacional. O estudo levanta questões sobre as possibilidades de se garantir uma política de maior inserção no processo de globalização e, ao mesmo tempo, rever as consequências diretas da internacionalização da produção e do comércio sobre a qualidade do trabalho e a geração de renda. O texto conclui apontando que a formação de uma política de desenvolvimento centrada na ampliação do mercado interno, com propostas de expansão do consumo de massas, requer a definição de metas, não apenas de empregabilidade, mas voltadas à formação de empregos que atendam aos direitos fundamentais dos trabalhadores, seguindo os parâmetros da Agenda do Trabalho Decente.

  11. O desenvolvimento das competências coletivas no terceiro setor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Tello‐Gamarra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dentro da abordagem de competências que se focam na gestão de recursos humanos, a abordagem de competências coletivas é uma área de pesquisa emergente. O objetivo da presente pesquisa é compreender as competências coletivas em um projeto voluntário do terceiro setor. O método utilizado foi o estudo de caso, tendo como objeto de estudo o terceiro setor, mais especificamente um projeto social. Para isto, se fez a escolha da Organização Não Governamental Parceiros Voluntários (PV com o projeto «Desenvolvimento de Princípios de Transparência e Prestação de Contas em Organizações da Sociedade Civil». Entre os resultados teóricos se identificaram 7 dimensões das competências coletivas. No que tange aos resultados empíricos referidos ao entendimento das competências coletivas no projeto voluntário do terceiro setor, observaram‐se 4 resultados: (1 todas as dimensões das competências coletivas foram comprovadas no projeto; (2 essas dimensões conseguiram ser determinantes para o desempenho do projeto, (3 as 7 dimensões influenciaram também o desempenho de toda a ONG, (4 as dimensões das competências coletivas do projeto contribuíram para que as organizações sociais pratiquem os princípios da transparência e da prestação de contas em suas atividades. Finalmente, o fato da confirmação das dimensões das competências coletivas como elemento‐chave do desenvolvimento abre a possiblidade de avançar na operacionalização deste construto.

  12. Desenvolvimento e sociologia: uma aproximação necessária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro André Leme

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO debate acerca do desenvolvimento na América Latina e no Brasil em particular revelou-se como um dos temas proeminentes do pensamento sociopolítico e econômico brasileiro. As interpretações do Brasil a partir da temática do desenvolvimento ganham força a partir da década de 1930, porém, será após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, com a intensificação da industrialização e a modernização da sociedade capitalista brasileira, que o tema adquire centralidade na sociologia/ciência política. Por outro lado, as discussões acerca do Estado e do desenvolvimento estão intimamente ligadas ao desenvolvimento do capitalismo brasileiro, ou seja, configura uma tríade que simultaneamente evidencia tanto um tipo historicamente determinado de Estado como um tipo particular de desenvolvimento econômico e social do país. O desenvolvimento do Brasil caracteriza-se por um embate entre o mercado e o Estado, sendo a influência desse último fundante para o padrão de desenvolvimento pretendido no país. Propomos a análise do processo de desenvolvimento como forma de revisitar o debate teórico e conceitual produzido sobre a temática no país, assim como investigar o movimento histórico, econômico e político adotado pelo Brasil como estratégia para o desenvolvimento nos anos 1990.

  13. Tutorial para o Desenvolvimento de Jogos 2D usando a Linguagem Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Teixeira Barbosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente é grande o estudo e desenvolvimento de jogos eletrônicos tanto no meio acadêmico como fora dele. Entretanto o desenvolvimento do mesmo não é uma tarefa trivial. Este artigo mostra o desenvolvimento de um jogo computacional através de uma versão do conhecido jogo de arcade Space Invaders. O artigo proposto tem como objetivo mostrar os passos básicos para a construção de um jogo computacional em duas dimensões utilizando a linguagem de programação Java.

  14. POSSIBILIDADES DO DESENVOLVIMENTO DO TURISMO ÉTNICO NAS COMUNIDADES QUILOMBOLAS DE DIAMANTINA/MG: OPORTUNIDADES E DESAFIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcione Luciana da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O conceito do turismo étnico vem se desenvolvendo nas últimas décadas e envolve a valorização cultural e possibilidade de promover diversas experiências e inter-relações entre visitantes e comunidades quilombolas. Este artigo versa sobre as comunidades quilombolas (Mata dos Crioulos, Vargem do Inhaí e Quartel de Indaiá – Diamantina/MG, que vêm sofrendo conflitos e pressões de ordem territorial, o que dificulta ainda mais a manutenção da cultura local. O objetivo desta pesquisa é sugerir o desenvolvimento do turismo étnico nas mesmas como forma de desenvolvimento local e valorização do patrimônio cultural material e imaterial. Para alcançar o resultado da pesquisa foram utilizadas referências bibliográficas e documentais. Palavra-chaves: Turismo étnico; comunidades quilombolas; conflitos ambientais e territoriais.

  15. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  16. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  17. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  18. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  19. IMS Mitigation Target Areas - 2010 [ds673

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Mitigation Target Areas (MTA) were developed by the California Department of Fish and Game for the Interim Mitigation Strategy (IMS). The MTAs are an identification...

  20. Development of soil-cement blocks with three interventions: natural soil, soil corrected with sand and soil more phase change materials (PCMs); Desenvolvimento de blocos solo-cimento com tres intervencoes: solo natural, solo corrigido com areia e solo mais materiais de mudanca de fase (MMFs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Valter Bezerra; Gomes, Uilame Umbelino; Reis, Edmilson Pedreira; Valcacer, Samara Melo; Silva, A.S., E-mail: valter.fisic@hotmail.com, E-mail: umbelino@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: pedreira.reis@ig.com.br, E-mail: gmarinho@ct.ufrn.br, E-mail: samaravalcacer@hotamil.com, E-mail: ariadness2@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the results of characterization tests of soil samples collected in Mossoro-RN, UFERSA-RN Campus, located approximately 20 meters high, and {sup 5} ° 12'34.68 south latitude and 37 ° 19'5.74 {sup w}est longitude, with the purpose of producing soil-cement for the manufacture of pressed blocks with good resistance to compression and thermal stability. The following tests were performed: granulometry, plasticity limit, liquidity limit, particle size correction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence. In this soil, based on the results of the granulometric analysis, 10% of medium sand with 3% and 5% of eicosane paraffin and 10% of medium sand with 3% and 5% of paraffin 120 / 125F were added, forming analysis compositions, standard soil-cement block and natural soil-cement block with addition of 10% medium sand and 0% paraffin. Paraffins are referred to as PCMs (Phase Change Material). The contrasting effect between the different dosages on the compressive strength values of the soil-cement blocks was observed. The objective is to create new materials that give the block quality equal to or higher than the recommendations of ABNT norms, and that offer greater thermal comfort in the constructions. Soil particles of different sizes were added to 8% (by weight) of cement, and about 9.20% of water added to the mixture.

  1. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After ...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  2. Mitigating hyperventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolla, Dhimitri; Lewandowski, Tyler; Carlson, Jestin

    2016-03-01

    Although multiple airway management and ventilation strategies have been proposed during cardiac arrest, the ideal strategy is unknown. Current strategies call for advanced airways, such as endotracheal intubation and supraglottic airways. These may facilitate hyperventilation which is known to adversely affect cardiopulmonary physiology. We provide a summary of conceptual models linking hyperventilation to patient outcomes and identify methods for mitigating hyperventilation during cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Climate change mitigation in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, G A; Turkson, J K; Davidson, O R [eds.

    1998-10-01

    The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on `Climate Change Mitigation in Africa` between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)

  4. Climate change mitigation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, G.A.; Turkson, J.K.; Davidson, O.R.

    1998-10-01

    The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on 'Climate Change Mitigation in Africa' between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)

  5. DANÇA E O DESENVOLVIMENTO MOTOR DE PORTADORES DE NECESSIDADES EDUCATIVAS ESPECIAIS - PNEEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane de Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou verificar as modificações nos padrões de desenvolvimento motor de PNEEs mediante prática da dança. Participaram 14 PNEEs do CIEP/Cruz Alta. O instrumento foi a Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor (Rosa Neto, 1996. Utilizou-se a estatística descritiva e teste “t” para análise dos dados. Observou-se diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p<0,05 entre pré e pós-testes nas variáveis idade cronológica, motora geral, motricidade ampla e equilíbrio. Concluiu-se que o programa de dança contribuiu significativamente para o desenvolvimento motor de PNEEs. Palavras chave: dança, motor, desenvolvimento, especial, educação.

  6. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.935 What additional preventive and mitigative...

  7. Mitigation of wildfire risk by homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah Brenkert; Patricia Champ; Nicholas Flores

    2005-01-01

    In-depth interviews conducted with homeowners in Larimer County's Wildland-Urban Interface revealed that homeowners face difficult decisions regarding the implementation of wildfire mitigation measures. Perceptions of wildfire mitigation options may be as important as perceptions of wildfire risk in determining likelihood of implementation. These mitigation...

  8. Gestões do desenvolvimento e desenvolvimentos da gestão: da unilateralidade reificada à dialogicidade da simbiose homem/natureza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Justen

    Full Text Available Este artigo, ao situar culturalmente os fenômenos da gestão e do desenvolvimento, em sua concepção tradicional, no projeto da modernidade e ao identificar o predomínio da unilateralidade reificada na interface entre gestão e desenvolvimento - a primeira vista como instrumento técnico submisso à via clássica do segundo - almeja evidenciar as potencialidades da compreensão e da construção de alternativas, tanto para a gestão como para o desenvolvimento, a partir da ressignificação dessa interface. Para tanto, o esforço foi direcionado ao resgate do que é comum aos fenômenos da gestão e do desenvolvimento - os substratos antropológico e ecológico -, nucleados nos princípios da reciprocidade dialógica, concretizadora da condição antropológica, e da finitude, caracterizadora da condição ecológica. Ao final, são apresentadas oito potenciais contribuições advindas da exploração renovada da interface entre a gestão e o desenvolvimento. Propôs-se, ainda, a substituição da lógica instrumental da eficiência financeira, comum à concepção tradicional dos fenômenos estudados, pela lógica da simbiose dialógica homem/natureza, uma vez que, como fenômenos sociais, desenvolvimento e gestão, mediados pelo meio, também são ecológicos em sua essência.

  9. A COMPLEXIDADE ECONÔMICA DOS DIREITOS HUMANOS: UMA DIMENSÃO ESCONDIDA DO DESENVOLVIMENTO HUMANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Serratine Grubba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objeto a complexidade econômica dos direitos humanos, mais precisamente, a investigação da relação entre a complexidade econômica e o desenvolvimento humano. Nesse sentido, objetivou demonstrar a intrínseca relação e dependência do desenvolvimento humano à complexidade econômica dos direitos humanos, que influi na positivação dos direitos, assim como na luta pelo acesso aos bens necessários a uma vida digna. Por meio do método dedutivo, o artigo problematizou a relação entre o ser humano e seu contexto econômico-social para o desenvolvimento da vida em dignidade. Diante disso, em primeiro lugar, foi apresentada a noção de complexidade dos direitos humanos, isto é, as suas múltiplas dimensões. No segundo momento, foi analisada a questão econômica do desenvolvimento humano, ou seja, a relação entre o desenvolvimento da vida digna e a dimensão econômica da sociedade, e, finalmente, foi apresentada a complexidade econômica dos direitos humanos. O desenvolvimento humano não está apenas vinculado à dimensão econômica, mas compreende todas as dimensões (complexidade que perfazem uma vida digna de ser vivida. A vida se desenvolve em dignidade mediante o acesso aos bens materiais e imateriais. As políticas do desenvolvimento humano, nesse sentido, devem se integrar a uma estrutura que apoie um crescimento com equidade e sustentabilidade. Palavras-chave: Pensamento complexo. Complexidade econômica. Direitos humanos. Desenvolvimento humano. Dignidade humana.

  10. Climate change mitigation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bo

    2012-07-01

    China has been experiencing great economic development and fast urbanisation since its reforms and opening-up policy in 1978. However, these changes are reliant on consumption of primary energy, especially coal, characterised by high pollution and low efficiency. China's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) being the most significant contributor, have also been increasing rapidly in the past three decades. Responding to both domestic challenges and international pressure regarding energy, climate change and environment, the Chinese government has made a point of addressing climate change since the early 2000s. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of China's CO{sub 2} emissions and policy instruments for mitigating climate change. In the analysis, China's CO{sub 2} emissions in recent decades were reviewed and the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis examined. Using the mostly frequently studied macroeconomic factors and time-series data for the period of 1980-2008, the existence of an EKC relationship between CO{sub 2} per capita and GDP per capita was verified. However, China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow over coming decades and the turning point in overall CO{sub 2} emissions will appear in 2078 according to a crude projection. More importantly, CO{sub 2} emissions will not spontaneously decrease if China continues to develop its economy without mitigating climate change. On the other hand, CO{sub 2} emissions could start to decrease if substantial efforts are made. China's present mitigation target, i.e. to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45 % by 2020 compared with the 2005 level, was then evaluated. Three business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios were developed and compared with the level of emissions according to the mitigation target. The calculations indicated that decreasing the CO{sub 2} intensity of GDP by 40-45 % by 2020 is a challenging but hopeful target. To

  11. Desenvolvimento de um ambiente virtual de ensino em histologia para estudantes da saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available As tecnologias da informação e da comunicação (TICs têm sido amplamente utilizadas no ensino da saúde. As plataformas usadas para o desenvolvimento do ambiente virtual de ensino (AVE geralmente apresentam uma linguagem de informática complexa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um AVE em Histologia voltado para estudantes da área da saúde, disponibilizado na internet com o uso de uma plataforma de uso gratuito e livre. O material elaborado utilizou diferentes TICs, como: animações, vídeos, atlas virtual, aulas virtuais, simulados online e chat. Foi desenvolvido um AVE com uso da plataforma online wordpress.org, que apresentou as seguintes vantagens: fácil manipulação, gerenciamento e atualização do site; interface simples; ampla quantidade de plugins disponíveis, que supriram as necessidades primárias do AVE; e utilização gratuita e livre. Embora esse recurso possa facilitar o aprendizado em Histologia, é preciso avaliar sua efetividade.

  12. PROPOSTA TEÓRICO-CONCEITUAL DE DESENVOLVIMENTO EM ARRANJOS PRODUTIVOS LOCAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Valélia Saraceni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo central deste trabalho foi evidenciar algumas ferramentas para o desenvolvimento da inovação e verificar a relação com a configuração do desenvolvimento em Arranjos Produtivos Locais (APLs. Esta pesquisa pode ser considerada como exploratória e descritiva, pois envolve levantamento bibliográfico e análise de exemplos que estimulem a compreensão. Estudos sobre ferramentas de inovação tecnológica e referencias do desenvolvimento de ecossistemas industriais, foram utilizados buscando demonstrar uma proposta teórico-conceitual de integração das ferramentas. Por meio do resultado obtido com a aplicação da metodologia e do referencial teórico, verificou-se que aplicação das ferramentas de inovação tecnológica e a operacionalização com a implantação de métodos e ações cooperadas, tende a fortalecer o desempenho do processo de inovação do arranjo produtivo. A aplicação do conceito de ecologia industrial no desenvolvimento ambientalmente sustentável do aglomerado tende a fortalecer não só o desenvolvimento do APL, como também o desenvolvimento econômico e regional.

  13. Desenvolvimento de um equipamento para a caracterização não-destrutiva dos módulos elásticos de materiais cerâmicos Development of equipment for non-destructive characterization of elastic moduli of ceramic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. A Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um equipamento para a caracterização não-destrutiva dos módulos elásticos aplicável a cerâmicas, concretos e materiais frágeis baseado na norma ASTM E 1875-00. Pode-se medir com exatidão, praticidade e simultaneidade o módulo de Young, de cisalhamento e a razão de Poisson. O equipamento obtém, via espectroscopia de ressonância sônica, as freqüências naturais de vibração flexurais e torcionais do corpo de prova e calcula os módulos. O equipamento foi desenvolvido em três partes: suporte do corpo de prova, eletrônica e software. O suporte aplica as condições de contorno mecânicas e a excitação necessária, a eletrônica gera e capta os sinais e o software executa os cálculos. A validação foi realizada com ensaios inter-técnicas e inter-laboratoriais de materiais refratários e de referência. Os resultados mostraram que o equipamento é mais versátil do que as opções atuais para a medida simultânea das três propriedades elásticas apresentadas acima.In this work was developed an equipment for non-destructive characterization of elastic moduli applicable to ceramics, concretes, and brittle materials based on ASTM E 1875-00 standard. The Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio can be simultaneously and easily measured with accuracy applying the new equipment. The natural torsional and flexural vibration frequencies of the sample are measured through sonic resonance spectroscopy. This permits the calculation of the elastic moduli. The system was developed in three parts: the sample holder, the electronics and the software. The sample holder applies the mechanical boundary conditions and excitation. The electronics captures and generates the signals. Finally, the software performs the calculations. The validation was carried out with inter-laboratory and inter-technique tests of refractories and reference materials. The results showed that the equipment is more versatile than the current

  14. A physical tool for severe accident mitigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, N., E-mail: nathalie.marie@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DER, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Bachrata, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Seiler, J.M. [CEA, DEN, DTN, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Barjot, F. [EDF R& D, SINETICS, F-93141 Clamart (France); Marrel, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Gossé, S. [CEA, DEN, DPC, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Bertrand, F. [CEA, DEN, DER, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Physical tool for mitigation studies devoted to SFR safety. • Physical models to describe the material discharge from core. • Comparison to SIMMER III results. • Studies for ASTRID safety assessment and support to core design. - Abstract: Within the framework of the Generation IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) R&D program of CEA, the core behavior in case of severe accidents is being assessed. Such transients are usually simulated with mechanistic codes (such as SIMMER-III). As a complement to this code, which gives reference accidental transient, a physico-statistical approach is currently followed; its final objective being to derive the variability of the main results of interest for the safety. This approach involves a fast-running simulation of extended accident sequences coupling low-dimensional physical models to advanced statistical analysis techniques. In this context, this paper presents such a low-dimensional physical tool (models and simulation results) dedicated to molten core materials discharge. This 0D tool handles heat transfers from molten (possibly boiling) pools, fuel crust evolution, phase separation/mixing of fuel/steel pools, radial thermal erosion of mitigation tubes, discharge of core materials and associated axial thermal erosion of mitigation tubes. All modules are coupled with a global neutronic evolution model of the degraded core. This physical tool is used to study and to define mitigation features (function of tubes devoted to mitigation inside the core, impact of absorbers falling into the degraded core…) to avoid energetic core recriticality during a secondary phase of a potential severe accident. In the future, this physical tool, associated to statistical treatments of the effect of uncertainties would enable sensitivity analysis studies. This physical tool is described before presenting its comparison against SIMMER-III code results, including a space-and energy-dependent neutron transport kinetic

  15. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE REPOLHO EM DIFERENTES TIPOS SUBSTRATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebyson Bissaco Guidinelle

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento vegetativo de mudas de repolho, em diferentes tipos de substrato orgânicos. O experimento foi conduzido em uma casa de vegetação utilizando três substratos, S1 - Comercial; S2 - Vermicomposto; S3 - Serapilheira. Os parâmetros morfoagronômicos avaliados foram o comprimento das mudas, sendo: altura parte aérea (APA, comprimento da maior raiz (CMR e altura total das plântulas (AT que é o somatório da APA e CMR. Os substratos apresentaram diferenças significativas entre si, sendo que a Serapilheira apresentou os melhores resultados de desenvolvimento vegetativo juntamente com o vermicomposto. Concluindo-se que a produção de mudas de repolho pode ser feita a partir de substratos orgânicos alternativos, recomendando a substituição total dos substratos comerciais, visando menor custo na produção das mudas, garantindo boa produtividade e qualidade das mudas de repolho das cultivares estudadas.

  16. ROBÓTICA: DESENVOLVIMENTO E APLICAÇÕES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Silveira Junior

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A robótica é um campo de interesse que a cada dia possui mais adeptos devido principalmente a gama de possibilidades de aplicações vistas atualmente: robôs que orientam pessoas cegas em aeroportos, robôs que aspiram sujeira em casa, robôs que desbravam marte. No entanto tem-se a idéia de que o desenvolvimento de robôs é difícil, seja pelos custos envolvidos, seja pela complexidade de programação. Essa palestra tem como objetivo apresentar como é possível desenvolver robótica por conta própria através do uso de componentes de baixo custo aliados ao uso de controladores de codificação de alto nível. Além disso, serão apresentadas formas de programar a autonomia e inteligência em robôs para realização de tarefas sem interferência externa. Ao final serão apresentados alguns robôs possíveis de serem desenvolvidos para uso em ambiente de pesquisa e competição no meio acadêmico e robôs que estão sendo desenvolvidos no Instituto.

  17. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE ROBÔ DE SUMÔ MICROCONTROLADO POR MSP430

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Melo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a pesquisa e definição dos componentes necessários ao desenvolvimento de um robô autônomo a ser utilizado em competição de sumô de robôs. Este tipo de equipamento, também conhecido como robô segue faixa, será desenvolvido com o objetivo de introdução à robótica, bem como do estudo do funcionamento e aplicabilidade do microcontrolador MSP430, o qual será o componente responsável pela automação deste robô. Assim, a partir desta definição, faz-se necessária a especificação dos demais componentes integrantes do equipamento (chassi, meio de locomoção, motores, sensores e alimentação de tal forma que o robô possa desempenhar adequadamente as tarefas para os quais o mesmo foi idealizado.

  18. LEVEL UP! DESENVOLVIMENTO COGNITIVO, APRENDIZAGEM ENATIVA E VIDEOGAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Baum

    Full Text Available Resumo Os videogames são frequentemente acusados de serem prejudiciais à saúde. Sua operatividade colocaria o jogador em uma série de rotinas irracionais, muito próximas a uma relação estímulo-resposta. Sugerimos que tal posição limita as possibilidades de relação entre o videogame e a aprendizagem e está baseada em uma imagem teleológica do desenvolvimento da cognição que toma o aprender como uma caminhada em direção à racionalidade lógica. O presente artigo parte da descrição do aprendizado de um dos autores analisada a partir da retórica procedural com um jogo eletrônico para propor um modo de compreender a ação com o videogame, que convoca a uma constante recomposição do sujeito que joga e do jogo. A teoria da enação, por sua vez, apresenta proposições que sustentam uma modalidade de conhecimento operativo e incorporado, mais próximo da experiência com os videogames.

  19. Detecting and mitigating inverter aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.E.; Taylor, J.H.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants use inverters to supply power to safety-related equipment, instrumentation, and controls. They convert direct current (dc) to alternating current (ac) power, thereby making low voltage ac power available even under a station blackout condition. As part of the U.S. NRC's nuclear plant aging research (NPAR) program, the operating experience of this equipment has been analyzed to determine the dominant failure modes and causes. This paper summarizes that data, and then describes methods which can be employed to detect inverter degradation prior to failure, as well as methods to minimize the failure effects. In both cases, the mitigation of inverter aging is emphasized

  20. Determinantes do desenvolvimento do setor agropecuário nos municípios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César de Medeiros Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dada a importância do setor agropecuário para a economia brasileira, é fundamental conhecer os fatores determinantes do desenvolvimento agropecuário em seus municípios. Sob a luz de referencial teórico que aborda questões relacionadas aos fatores determinantes do desenvolvimento agropecuário e do desenvolvimento econômico local, neste estudo fez-se uso das metodologias de análise multivariada conhecidas como análise fatorial e análise de cluster. Utilizou-se o estado de Minas Gerais como recorte analítico. Foram selecionadas 22 variáveis para cada município, representando diferentes dimensões do desenvolvimento, visando verificar quais os fatores determinantes do desenvolvimento agropecuário. Após a análise fatorial, optou-se pela extração de seis fatores com raiz característica maior do que um e que respondem, em conjunto, por 62,25% da variância total dos dados: desenvolvimento econômico, investimento público, qualidade de vida, condições da atividade agropecuária, condições de meio ambiente e consumo, e condições de financiamento. Pela análise de cluster, foram criados cinco grupos, de acordo com o desempenho dos membros nos fatores. Os resultados corroboram os apontamentos literários em quase sua totalidade e, além disso, destaca-se e discute-se a existência de um ciclo positivo gerado pelo incremento dos fatores determinantes do desenvolvimento agropecuário e pelas vantagens competitivas. Neste estudo, aponta-se a importância do investimento público na promoção do desenvolvimento, reforçando o proposto por trabalhos anteriores de que o Estado desempenha papel fundamental para garantir condições que propiciem o desenvolvimento do setor agropecuário. Outra constatação factível é a de que fatores isolados, tais como as boas condições da agricultura e do meio ambiente, não são capazes de propiciar desenvolvimento para o setor nos municípios mineiros.

  1. Systematic effects in radon mitigation by sump/pump remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Woolridge, A.C.; Woolridge, A.C.; Phillips, P.S.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Tornberg, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sump/Pump remediation is widely used in the United Kingdom to mitigate indoor radon gas levels in residential properties. To quantify the effectiveness of this technology, a study was made of radon concentration data from a set of 173 homes situated in radon Affected Areas in and around Northamptonshire, U.K., re-mediated using conventional sump/pump technology. This approach is characterised by a high incidence of satisfactory mitigation outcomes, with more than 75% of the sample exhibiting mitigation factors (defined as the ratio of radon concentrations following and prior to remediation) of 0.2 or better. There is evidence of a systematic trend, where houses with higher initial radon concentrations have higher mitigation factors, suggesting that the total indoor radon concentration within a dwelling can be represented by two components, one susceptible to mitigation by sump/pump remediation, the other remaining essentially unaffected by these remediation strategies. The first component can be identified with ground-radon emanating from the subsoil and bedrock geologies, percolating through the foundations of the dwelling as a component of the soil-gas, potentially capable of being attenuated by sump/pump or radon-barrier remediation. The second contribution is attributed to radon emanating from materials used in the construction of the dwelling, principally concrete and gypsum plaster-board, with a further small contribution from the natural background level, and is essentially unaffected by ground-level remediation strategies. Modelling of such a two-component radon dependency using realistic ground-radon attenuation factors in conjunction with typical structural-radon levels yields behaviour in good agreement with the observed inverse-power dependence of mitigation factor on initial radon concentration. (authors)

  2. Desenvolvimento e Gestão Pública: das ideias às práticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Amantino de Andrade

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo tratar dos modelos de desenvolvimento no contexto brasileiro e introduzir uma discussão sobre políticas de desenvolvimento e sua gestão. Para tanto, faz-se necessário resgatar a discussão sobre desenvolvimento tanto em suas bases desenvolvimentistas como a atual proposição de desenvolvimento endógeno. Entende-se que o desenvolvimento depende de uma capacidade organizacional na articulação de vários fatores, tangíveis e intangíveis, quantitativos e qualitativos e envolve várias dimensões: econômica, social, cultural, ambiental e físico-territorial, político-institucional e científico-tecnológica e é construído através de estratégias processuais potencializadas por coletivos. A primeira parte apresenta uma discussão conceitual sobre o desenvolvimento e os processos de organizacionais e de gestão neles implicados. A segunda parte apresenta um estudo empírico de caráter exploratório de modo a ampliar a discussão sobre modelos de desenvolvimento a partir da relação entre teoria e prática. Finalmente, são tecidas algumas considerações sobre o por vir, principalmente, quando se considera que nesses tempos de globalização e de acirramento das desigualdades urge encontrar alternativas justas e solidárias para as sociedades.

  3. Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, A.; Greene, B.; Dussich, J.; Sorkin, A.; Olsen, W.

    2017-01-01

    The Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) Principal Center and its predecessor organization the Acquisition Pollution Prevention Program (AP2) supported the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in identifying technology solutions to risks and costs to NASA programs driven by environmental regulations and requirements. TEERM researched the commercial and government marketplace to locate viable and available technologies that met NASAs needs. TEERM focused on addressing environmentally-driven risks of direct concern to NASA programs and facilities, including hazardous materials in NASA operations and materials that became obsolescent because of environmental regulations. TEERM projects aimed to reduce cost; ensure the health and safety of people, assets, and the environment; promote efficiency; and minimize duplication. Major TEERM and AP2 projects focused on waste minimization and hazardous waste treatment, recycling, corrosion prevention and control, solvent and ozone depleting substances substitution, and aqueous based cleaners. In 2017, NASA made the decision to terminate the TEERM Principal Center. This Compendium Report documents TEERM and AP2 project successes. The Compendium Report traces the evolution of TEERM based on evolving risks and requirements for NASA and its relationship to the Space Shuttle Program, the United States Department of Defense, the European Space Agency, and other public and private stakeholders. This Compendium Report also documents project details from Project Summaries and Joint Test Plans and describes project stakeholders and collaborative effort results.

  4. Second DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This conference has been organized into ten presentation sessions which include an overview of the DOE Natural Phenomena Guidelines, Seismic Analysis, Seismic Design, Modifying Existing Facilities, DOE Orders, Codes, and Standards (2 sessions), Seismic Hazard (2 sessions), and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (2 sessions). Two poster sessions were also included in the program to provide a different forum for communication of ideas. Over the past fourteen years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear Systems Safety Program, has been working with the US Department of Energy, Office of Safety Appraisals and their predecessors in the area of natural phenomena hazards. During this time we have developed seismic, extreme wind/tornado, and flood hazard models for DOE sites in the United States. Guidelines for designing and evaluating DOE facilities for natural phenomena have been developed and are in interim use throughout the DOE community. A series of state-of-the practice manuals have also been developed to aid the designers. All of this material is listed in the Natural Phenomena Hazards Bibliography included in these proceedings. This conference provides a mechanism to disseminate current information on natural phenomena hazards and their mitigation. It provides an opportunity to bring together members of the DOE community to discuss current projects, to share information, and to hear practicing members of the structural engineering community discuss their experiences from past natural phenomena, future trends, and any changes to building codes. Each paper or poster presented is included in these proceedings. We have also included material related to the luncheon and dinner talks

  5. Downhole corrosion mechanisms and mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, D. [Baker Hughes Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Pipeline corrosion refers to its deterioration because of a reaction with its environment. Although the physical condition of the metal at the anode initiates the corrosion process, it is the chemistry and composition of the electrolyte that controls the rate of the corrosion reaction and the severity of the corrosion. This presentation described the role of corrosion rate accelerators, with particular reference to dissolved gases such as oxygen, hydrogen sulfides and carbon dioxide, as well as pH levels, salinity, flow rate, temperature and presence of solids such as iron sulfides and sulfur. The effects of these accelerators were shown to be additive. Mitigation strategies include using materials such as resistant metal alloys or fiberglass, and applying coatings and chemical inhibitors. The importance of corrosion monitoring was also emphasized, with particular reference to the value of examining the number of corrosion related failures that have occurred over a fixed period of time. It was concluded that the ability to analyze samples of failed materials results in a better understanding of the cause of the failure, and is an integral part of designing any successful corrosion control program. tabs., figs.

  6. PWSCC Mitigation of alloy 182: Testing of various mitigation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curieres, I. de; Calonne, O.; Crooker, P.

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid nineties, Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 182 welds has occurred. This affects different components, even ones that are considered to have 'low-susceptibility' due to a low operating temperature such as the 'low operating temperature' reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads in the global PWR fleet and bottom-mounted instrumentation nozzles, a location where currently there is no ready-to-deploy repair or replacement solution. Hence, there is an incentive to identify effective remedial measures to delay or prevent PWSCC initiation, even at 'low temperature' RPV heads in order to avoid wholesale replacement in the future. Working with EPRI, Areva has assessed the efficiency of various technological processes including brushing, polishing or compressive stress methods to mitigate PWSCC in Alloy 182. A first phase of the program is completed and the results will be presented. The emphasis will be put on the program's different testing phases and the different mitigation processes that were tested. Efficiency of 'chemical' surface treatments is not yet proved. EPRI stabilized chromium had a deleterious effect on crack initiation that should be reproduced and understood before drawing a definitive conclusion. The electropolishing process considered does not seem to be sufficiently reliable on Alloy 182 surfaces but longer exposures are required for a more definitive evaluation of this treatment. All tested 'mechanical' surface treatments i.e. -) GE-RENEW brushing, -) Fiber laser peening (Toshiba), -) Water Jet Peening (Mitsubishi), -) Water Jet Peening (Hitachi), -) Combination of GE-RENEW and Hitachi WJP have successfully inhibited crack initiation even though the surface compressive stresses induced on U-ends are lower than those expected on massive components. Past experience shows that crack initiation occurs in less than 250 h on U-bends with 'heavily ground' reference surfaces. Thus, it can be deduced that the present results show

  7. Desenvolvimento marsupial e pós-marsupial de Janaira Gracilis (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota Marsupial and postmarsupial development of Janaira gracilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Setubal Pires

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo são descritos os estádios de desenvolvimento de Janaira gracilis e discutidos vários aspectos de seu crescimento. Coletou-se o material mensalmente, de janeiro de 1972 a janeiro de 1973, junto ao trapiche da Base Norte do Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo, Ubatuba, Estado de Sao Paulo. Janaira gracilis apresenta 4 estádios de desenvolvimento marsupial, 9 de desenvolvimento pós-marsupial para as fêmeas, e 10 para os machos. Os estádios pós-marsupiais podem ser bem determinados através do número de artículos do flagelo da antena 1, pereópodo I e VII, pleópodos 1 e 2 masculino e desenvolvimento de oostégitos na fêmea. As transformações decorrentes do desenvolvimento pós-marsupial são mais marcantes nos machos, pois as fêmeas conservam uma morfologia juvenil e uniforme durante toda a sua vida. O crescimento médio dos machos suplanta o das fêmeas a partir do estádio 7. Nestas, a diminuição de crescimento observada deve-se, provavelmente, à utilização crescente de energia disponível, para fins reprodutivos. Os machos alcançam a maturidade sexual precocemente às fêmeas.The development and growth of Janaira gracilis are described and discussed. The sampling was carried out once a month from January 1972 to January 1973 at the pier of Base Norte, Instituto Oceanográfico USP, Ubatuba, State of São Paulo. Four distinct marsupial stages were disclosed in the development of Janaira gracilis as well as 9 distinct postmarsupial stages for the females and 10 for the males. Every postmarsupial instar can be distinguished by morphological features, such as first antennae articles, first and seventh pereopod, first and second pair of pleopods and the oostegites. During the course of development females undergo less morphological changes than males. Considering the final stages, in average males are larger than females. It is suggested that the decrease in growth of females may be related to

  8. Modelo de desenvolvimento local na Amazônia Pré-Colonial: complexidade cultural e modernidade em sociedades pré-coloniais da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinaldo Pinheiro Nunes Filho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este artigo retrata a cultura material das sociedades complexas pré-coloniais que existiram nos estados do Pará e Amapá e destaca a importância do trabalho interdisciplinar como meio para que as evidências arqueológicas colaborem a se repensar a relação entre as populações humanas e o meio ambiente na Amazônia pré-colonial.  Assim, o artigo trabalha a complexidade cultural como conseqüência de desenvolvimento sustentável.

  9. Desenvolvimento produtivo de colmeias de abelhas Melipona scutellaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Evangelista Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n1p59 A criação de espécies nativas de abelhas, também conhecidas como abelhas sem ferrão, têm despertado interesse geral na área, em função da facilidade de manejo e da qualidade dos produtos. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre sua produção e sua biologia e por isto o presente trabalho acompanhou o desenvolvimento de colmeias de Melipona scutellaris, avaliando os seus parâmetros produtivos em ambiente de criação. Como o crescimento de uma colmeia tem como parâmetro o armazenamento de alimento, e como no caso da abelha M.scutellaris este armazenamento é feito em potes construídos com cera, foram feitas contagens dos potes nas colmeias classificando-os como: potes abertos, potes fechados e potes vazios, separando-os de acordo com o conteúdo (mel ou pólen. Foram medidas as suas dimensões e anotadas para posterior avaliação dos dados. Com os resultados pôde-se averiguar que as colmeias apresentam quantidades de potes diferentes, variando em função do número de indivíduos que colaboram para este fator. Confirmou-se que, quando o alimento é escasso no pasto apícola, as abelhas usam o alimento armazenado nos potes, em função da diminuição de matéria-prima na entressafra.

  10. Desenvolvimento de modelo experimental de endometriose em ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Ferreira do Amaral

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo de endometriose experimental em ratas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 30 ratas adultas da linhagem Wistar. A técnica cirúrgica consistiu em laparotomia mediana com identificação do útero bicorno e ressecção de um segmento de 2 cm do corno uterino direito. Um retalho de 0,25 cm² foi retirado dessa estrutura e suturado na parede abdominal com a face endometrial voltada para a cavidade peritoneal. As ratas foram divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de acordo com o tempo para a reoperação: grupo 1 (n=15, reoperado em 30 dias, e grupo 2 (n=15, em 60 dias. No momento da segunda laparotomia os implantes foram avaliados macroscopicamente, ressecados e encaminhados para análise microscópica com coloração hematoxilina-eosina e imunohistoquímica (HEMA, AE1 e AE2. RESULTADOS: Os implantes se desenvolveram em 83,3 % do Grupo 1 e 71,4% no Grupo 2. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o peso dos animals dos dois grupos. Também não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa no tamanho da área das lesões induzidas: no Grupo 1 a média foi 0,37 cm² e no Grupo 2, de 0,25 cm². Segundo a classificação histológica semi-quantitativa de Keenan (de acordo com a preservação da camada epitelial de endométrio, o Grupo 1 teve média de 1,9 e o Grupo 2, de 2,4. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica utilizada para o desenvolvimento de endometriose em ratas foi satisfatória.

  11. Estratégia de desenvolvimento e combate à pobreza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, partindo-se de concepção do desenvolvimento como processo global (econômico, social e político, propõe-se formular modelos de intervenção pública em situações de pobreza, com o objetivo de superar o que se considera um dos maiores desafios para a modernização dos países menos avançados. Os modelos propostos são concebidos a partir da análise e interpretação detalhadas de três diferenciadas situações de pobreza no Brasil: o Nordeste rural (área considerada de baixa renda, ou subdesenvolvida, o Sudeste metropolitano (de nível médio-alto de desenvolvimento e o Nordeste urbano (nível médio-baixo. Pretendem, porém, ter validade mais geral como enquadramentos a partir dos quais programas de combate à pobreza específicos, inseridos em estratégias de desenvolvimento, podem ser formulados e executados. O núcleo dos modelos é integrado por três variáveis básicas, às quais correspondem três ações estratégicas: o crescimento, com a indentificação dos mecanismos pelos quais os pobres podem dele se beneficiar; o conhecimento, representado pelo capital humano, de que decorre esforço de educação básica e de qualificação da pobreza; e o trabalho, considerado como variável-enlace entre o crescimento e o conhecimento, pelo qual se dá a inserção produtiva dos pobres e sua autopromoção social. São consideradas ainda ações complementares, envolvendo a extensão aos pobres das políticas sociais públicas; o planejamento familiar; a intensificação do uso do trabalho como forma de suplementação de renda; a assistência aos pobres considerados mais vulneráveis; e a extensão, a eles, dos direitos da cidadania, assegurados pela presença do Estado nas áreas de concentração de pobreza.The paper initially considers development a global process (at the same time an economic, social and political phenomenon and discusses its implications for the modernization paths adopted by the less

  12. Relatório brasileiro sobre desenvolvimento social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Lampreia

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available O relatório nacional brasileiro, elaborado como parte do processo de preparação da participação brasileira na Cúpula Mundial para o Desenvolvimento Social, busca traçar um quadro da situação do Brasil em relação aos três temas centrais do evento: alívio e redução da pobreza, expansão do emprego produtivo e integração social. Com o objetivo de qualificar a peculiaridade dos desafios sociais com os quais o Brasil se defronta, a primeira parte consiste de um quadro abrangente, onde estão expostos os dados gerais mais relevantes. A segunda parte, de caráter conceituai, explora a relação à dicotomia desenvolvimento econômico/desenvolvimento social, políticas econômicas/políticas sociais. Passa-se, então, à parte do relatório mais diretamente ligada aos temas centrais da Cúpula. O capítulo sobre pobreza busca sistematizar algumas das principais características desse fenômeno no Brasil; em "Emprego e mercado de trabalho" examinam-se questões como a baixa taxa de desemprego aberto do mercado brasileiro e sua relação com a má qualidade dos postos de trabalho existentes; finalmente, "Integração social e políticas sociais" salienta a necessidade de novas formas de solidariedade social, o que implicaria a reformulação da lógica de financiamento das políticas sociais e sua integração num conjunto coeso, ao lado de novas parcerias do Estado com a sociedade e do setor público com o setor privado. À guisa de conclusão, alinham-se as principais diretrizes do Governo Federal para o período 1995-1999. Depois de enfatizar a necessidade de que quatro condições prévias - fortalecimento da democracia, manutenção da estabilidade econômica, recuperação do crescimento sustentado e reforma do Estado - sejam alcançadas, identificam-se cinco metas prioritárias na área social: agricultura, educação, emprego, saúde e segurança. O relatório termina com breve esboço da estrutura do Programa Comunidade Solid

  13. Coal mine subsidence: effects of mitigation on crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmody, R.G.; Hetzler, R.T.; Simmons, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Subsidence from longwall underground coal mining adversely impacts agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas. While most subsided areas show little impact, some localized places, usually less than 1.5 ha in size, may experience total crop failure. Coal companies mitigate subsidence damaged cropland by installing drainage waterways or by adding fill material to raise the grade. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring corn and soybean yields to pre-mined levels. Fourteen sites in southern Illinois were selected for study. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields from mitigated and nearby undisturbed areas were compared for four years. Results varied due to differing weather and site conditions. Mean corn yields overall, however were significantly (α0.05) lower on mitigated areas. There was no significant difference in overall mean soybean yields. Soil fertility levels were similar and did not account for yield differences. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  14. Wildlife mitigation and monitoring report Gunnison, Colorado, site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); its purpose is to cleanup uranium mill tailings and other contaminated material at 24 UMTRA Project sites in 10 states. This report summarizes the wildlife mitigation and monitoring program under way at the Gunnison UMTRA Project, Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action at the Gunnison site was completed in December 1995 and is described in detail in the Gunnison completion report. The impacts of this activity were analyzed in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA). These impacts included two important game species: the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americans) and sage grouse (Wentrocerus urophasianus). Haul truck traffic was predicted to limit antelope access to water sources north of the Tenderfoot Mountain haul road and that truck traffic along this and other haul roads could result in antelope road kills. Clearing land at the disposal cell, haul road and borrow site activities, and the associated human activities also were predicted to negatively impact (directly and indirectly) sage grouse breeding, nesting, loafing, and wintering habitat. As a result, an extensive mitigation and monitoring plan began in 1992. Most of the monitoring studies are complete and the results of these studies, written by different authors, appear in numerous reports. This report will: (1) Analyze existing impacts and compare them to predicted impacts. (2) Summarize mitigation measures. (3) Summarize all existing monitoring data in one report. (4) Analyze the effectiveness of the mitigation measures

  15. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    OpenAIRE

    A. Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possi...

  16. A família e a escola como contextos de desenvolvimento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Dessen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Escola e família constituem dois contextos de desenvolvimento fundamentais para a trajetória de vida das pessoas. Neste artigo, são destacadas as contribuições destes contextos para a promoção do desenvolvimento humano, enfatizando suas implicações nos processos evolutivos. Questões sobre configurações, vínculos familiares e a importância da rede social de apoio para o desenvolvimento da família são discutidas. Focalizam-se as funções da escola, considerando sua influência nas pessoas em desenvolvimento. Apontam-se algumas considerações sobre a necessidade de compreender as inter-relações entre escola e família, visando facilitar a aprendizagem e desenvolvimento humano. A integração entre esses dois contextos é destacada como desafio para a prática profissional e pesquisa empírica.

  17. Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Seiner, John; Suzuki, Toshio; Lackner, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    There is a mounting consensus that human behavior is changing the global climate and its consequence could be catastrophic. Reducing the 24 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions from stationary and mobile sources is a gigantic task involving both technological challenges and monumental financial and societal costs. The pursuit of sustainable energy resources, environment, and economy has become a complex issue of global scale that affects the daily life of every citizen of the world. The present mitigation activities range from energy conservation, carbon-neutral energy conversions, carbon advanced combustion process that produce no greenhouse gases and that enable carbon capture and sequestion, to other advanced technologies. From its causes and impacts to its solutions, the issues surrounding climate change involve multidisciplinary science and technology. This handbook will provide a single source of this information. The book will be divided into the following sections: Scientific Evidence of Cl...

  18. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was

  19. Error Mitigation in Computational Design of Sustainable Energy Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune

    by individual C=O bonds. Energy corrections applied to C=O bonds significantly reduce systematic errors and can be extended to adsorbates. A similar study is performed for intermediates in the oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction reactions. An identified systematic error on peroxide bonds is found to also...... be present in the OOH* adsorbate. However, the systematic error will almost be canceled by inclusion of van der Waals energy. The energy difference between key adsorbates is thus similar to that previously found. Finally, a method is developed for error estimation in computationally inexpensive neural...

  20. Role of inhibitors and biodegradable material in mitigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loss of N, occurring mainly through NH3 volatilization, biological denitrification, and NO3 - leaching, has both economic and environmental implications. Therefore, the economic benefits of reduced environmental pollution and future damage to our environment as a result of the use of urease inhibitors are of higher ...

  1. An investigation of radon mitigation in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that Radon mitigation contractors were contacted to obtain information on the progress of radon mitigation in Pennsylvania. Information was obtained on the beginning and ending radon concentrations, the cost of the job, the mitigation method used, and the location by zip code. Most radon mitigations achieved reductions below 90 percent, and most achieved 4 pCi/1. 65 percent achieved 2 pCi/1. There was little relationship between the cost of the job and either the percent reduction or the beginning radon. Percent reduction was strongly related to beginning radon, with lower percent reductions associated with low starting radon

  2. Prevention and mitigation of groundwater contamination from radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This document gives basic information on potential pathways and mechanisms, by which radioactive materials from releases can reach man, and on modelling considerations to predict the behaviour of radioactive materials in the ground. The main objective is to present an overview of existing techniques for preventing the offsite releases of contaminants into the groundwater systems and techniques for mitigation of effects of such releases should they occur. The recommended techniques are fully applicable to any hazardous materials, such as organic liquids, and toxic materials or otherwise dangerous materials, the presence of which in the accessible biosphere can represent health risks as well as economic losses to the general public. 11 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  3. Elaboração e avaliação de um website sobre o desenvolvimento da linguagem infantil: portal dos bebês - desenvolvimento da linguagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: criar e desenvolver um website na área de fonoaudiologia com enfoque no desenvolvimento da linguagem de bebês de 0 a 48 meses, além de avaliar a qualidade do conteúdo apresentado e os recursos tecnológicos utilizados. MÉTODOS: na primeira fase do projeto foi realizado um levantamento de dados por meio de revisão de literatura sobre o desenvolvimento e aquisição da linguagem infantil. Em seguida esse conteúdo foi inserido no website e avaliado por 20 pais e/ou cuidadores. RESULTADO: o website Portal dos Bebês - Desenvolvimento da Linguagem foi desenvolvido com linguagem voltada a pais e/ou cuidadores, e seu conteúdo foi dividido em três temas: "Desenvolvimento da Linguagem", "Fala e Linguagem" e "Linguagem e o Ambiente". No que se refere à qualidade do conteúdo e da apresentação, o website foi avaliado como "excelente" por todos os participantes da amostra. Quanto à avaliação sobre o vocabulário utilizado e a forma de apresentação do conteúdo, 70% e 75% respectivamente, consideraram o website como "excelente". Em relação à apresentação visual, 85% dos participantes classificaram como "excelentes", já o tipo de navegação foi classificado como "satisfatório" por 50% dos participantes. Quanto à importância que os pais e/ou cuidadores julgam sobre o site a maioria classificou como "excelente" o auxilio que o mesmo dá no desenvolvimento da linguagem da criança. CONCLUSÃO: o website Portal dos Bebês - Desenvolvimento da Linguagem pode ser acessado pelo endereço online http://portaldosbebes.fob.usp.br, e seu conteúdo e recursos tecnológicos utilizados foram avaliados como satisfatório a excelente pelos pais e/ou cuidadores participantes.

  4. O conceito histórico de desenvolvimento econômico

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Luiz C. Bresser

    2006-01-01

    Uma Análise do Conceito de Desenvolvimento Econômico. o Crescimento Econômico, ou Desenvolvimento Econômico, é Visto como um Fenômeno Histórico como Resultado da Revolução Capitalista, E, Consequentemente, da Revolução Comercial, da Industrial E, no Meio Delas, da Revolução Nacional. Assim, é Necessário um Conceito Histórico de Crescimento Econômico, e não um Conceito Normativo. Visto sob este Aspecto, o Desenvolvimento Econômico é Intrinsecamente Relacionado ao Surgimento do Estado-Nação M...

  5. Desenvolvimento e Sustentabilidade na América Latina: Velha História, Novos Caminhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayso Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento, considerado durante muito tempo um valor universalmente aceito, e meta de toda sociedade moderna, hoje é questionado, inclusive sobre a forma como é produzido. É demonstrada a importância do desenvolvimento sustentável em direção à conquista de melhores condições de vida. Determinou-se como objetivo principal deste estudo apresentar insights para a maximização da sustentabilidade enquanto dinamizadora da trajetória de desenvolvimento na América Latina. Foram considerados o Painel Intergovernamental sobre Mudanças Climáticas, a Organização das Nações Unidas, o Protocolo de Quioto, entre outros estudos de validade e aceitabilidade internacional para propor parâmetros estratégicos aos negócios da AL. DOI:10.5585/riae.v13i2.2095

  6. Promessa e desafios do desenvolvimento Promises and challenges of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Gereffi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A economia global tem mudado rapidamente. China, Índia e México representam casos particularmente interessantes por seus distintos modelos de desenvolvimento. O processo de consolidação global ampliou-se na década passada na esteira do rápido crescimento da China nos setores de manufatura para exportação e da entrada em cena da Índia na exportação de serviços no ramo da tecnologia de informação. A indústria do vestuário também ilustra tal tendência à consolidação, dadas as mudanças na regulação internacional com a gradual retração, a partir de 2005, do sistema de quotas estabelecido pelo Acordo Multifibras. As trajetórias de aprimoramento industrial manifestadas pela China e México são comparadas neste texto; com base em dados do comércio internacional, faz-se uma análise mais detida da composição das suas exportações destinadas ao mercado norte-americano no que respeita a ramos e produtos-chave. A experiência chinesa das chamadas "cidades-cadeias-de-suprimento" é também analisada; trata-se de uma nova forma de organização econômica, voltada a integrar geograficamente a produção para exportação e outros segmentos de alto valor agregado das cadeias globais de valor.The global economy is changing rapidly, and China, India, and Mexico represent particularly interesting cases because of their divergent development models. Global consolidation is increasing in the past decade because of the rapid growth of China in manufacturing export industries, and India's surge in the offshoring of information technology services. The apparel industry also illustrates the consolidation trend because of a shift in international regulation with the phase out in 2005 of the quotas associated with the Multi-Fiber Arrangement. Industrial upgrading trajectories in China and Mexico are compared, using international trade data to look closely at export profiles in key industries and products destined for the U.S. market. China

  7. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE BALAS MASTIGÁVEIS ADICIONADAS DE INULINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEX AUGUSTO GONÇALVES

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O segmento de confeitos em geral, onde se destacam as balas, está muito presente no cenário brasileiro e mundial. As indústrias vêm constantemente aprimorando seus produtos com a incorporação de novos ingredientes e tecnologias, para atender principalmente as necessidades exigidas pelos consumidores, que estão cada vez mais exigentes em relação à qualidade do produto a ser consumido. Com base nesta premissa e vislumbrando atender esta nova tendência de mercado a proposta deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de uma bala mastigável adicionada de inulina. A inulina é um carboidrato (frutano que não é digerido no trato gastro-intestinal superior do ser humano, e exerce efeito bifidogênico, estimulando o crescimento e/ou a atividade das bactérias benéficas do cólon, ajudando na manutenção da fl ora intestinal e prevenção do câncer (prebiótico. Foram desenvolvidas duas formulações de balas mastigáveis, com e sem inulina na composição. Realizaram- se análises microbiológicas, físico-químicas e análise sensorial. As amostras analisadas adequaram-se à legislação brasileira nos parâmetros físico-químicos e microbiológicos avaliados e, quanto à análise sensorial, observou-se boa aceitação do produto. A adição de inulina à formulação trouxe uma variação significativa no atributo textura, tendo um aumento na maciez do produto final.

  8. Profundidade de semeadura no desenvolvimento inicial de pseudocereais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da profundidade de semeadura na emergência de plântulas de sementes de  amaranto e quinoa. Foram avaliados os efeitos das profundidades de 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,5 cm para amaranto e de 0; 1,5; 2,5; 3,5; e 4,5 cm para quinoa, obtidas por meio de anéis de pvc, com espessura equivalente a estes valores, que foram imersos no substrato para simular as profundidades de semeadura. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey com 5% de probabilidade de erro. Foram realizados os testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, emergência de plântulas em bandejas, massa de matéria seca e peso de mil sementes. A profundidade de semeadura para o melhor desenvolvimento inicial indicada para amaranto é de até 1,5 cm, e para quinoa até 2,5 cm.Seeding depth in the initial development of pseudocerealsAbstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of sowing depth on emergence of amaranth and quinoa seeds seedlings. The effects of the depths of 0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.5 cm and amaranth 0; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5; quinoa and 4.5 cm, obtained from PVC rings with a thickness equivalent to these values, which were immersed in the substrate to simulate the sowing depths. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability of error. The germination tests were carried out, first count, seedling emergence on trays, dry mass and weight of a thousand seeds. The seeding depth for the initial development best suited for Amaranthus is up to 1.5 cm, and quinoa to 2.5 cm.  

  9. Desenvolvimento econômico, desigualdade e saúde Economic development, inequality, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Reginaldo Prata

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor se refere a dimensão socioeconômica, individual e coletiva do fenômeno saúde-doença. Refere-se também ao fato das populações estarem sobre a influência desigual de fatores de risco e de proteção à saúde. Discute as desigualdades no desenvolvimento e a relação entre desenvolvimento, riqueza, saúde e justiça social. Questiona as teorias de desenvolvimento econômico, diferenciando desenvolvimento de crescimento. Cunha os conceitos de armadilha do desenvolvimento e refugiados sociais. Define uma comunidade saudável. Propõe a necessidade de mudança no modelo de desenvolvimento. Baliza o papel e as limitações do setor saúde no que diz respeito a iniqüidade social.The author refers to the social, economic, individual, and collective dimensions of the relationship between health and disease. He considers that individuals and populations are not equally exposed to protective and risk factors. He highlights the uneven development between nations and Brazilian regions, and communities, as well as discussing the relationship between development, wealth, health, and social justice. The article analyzes development theories and makes a distinction between economic development and growth. The concepts of development trap and social refugees are coined. The author defines a healthy community, points to the need for a shift in the current development model, and delineates the health sector's role and limitations in dealing with social inequality.

  10. The electrochemistry of IGSCC mitigation in BWR coolant circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.

    2002-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the electrochemical mitigation of IGSCC in water-cooled reactor heat transport circuit structural materials. Electrochemical control and mitigation is possible, because of the existence of a critical potential for IGSCC and by the feasibility of modifying the environment to displace the corrosion potential (ECP) to a value that is more negative than the critical value. However, even in cases where the ECP cannot be displaced sufficiently in the negative direction to become more negative than the critical potential, considerable advantage is accrued, because of the roughly exponential dependence of crack growth rate on potential. The most important parameters in affecting electrochemical control over the ECP and crack growth rate are the kinetic parameters (exchange current densities and Tafel constants) for the redox reactions involving the principal radiolysis products of water (O 2 , H 2 , H 2 O 2 ), external solution composition (concentrations of O 2 , H 2 O 2 , and H 2 ), flow velocity, and the conductivity of the bulk environment. The kinetic parameters for the redox reactions essentially determine the charge transfer impedance of the steel surface, which is shown to be one of the key parameters in affecting the magnitude of the coupling current and hence the crack growth rate. The exchange current densities, in particular, are amenable to control by catalysis or inhibition, with the result that surface modification techniques are highly effective in controlling and mitigating IGSCC in reactor coolant circuit materials. (authors)

  11. Strategies for mitigation of global warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed.......The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed....

  12. Mitigation assessment results and priorities in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zongxin; Wei Zhihong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper energy related CO2 emission projections of China by 2030 are given. CO2 mitigation potential and technology options in main fields of energy conservation and energy substitution are analyzed. CO2 reduction costs of main mitigation technologies are estimated and the AHP approach is used for helping assessment of priority technologies.

  13. 18 CFR 35.38 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mitigation. 35.38 Section 35.38 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.38 Mitigation. (a...

  14. 23 CFR 710.513 - Environmental mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental mitigation. 710.513 Section 710.513 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.513 Environmental mitigation. (a) The...

  15. 32 CFR 989.22 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EPF informed of the mitigation status. The EPF reports its status, through the MAJCOM, to HQ USAF/A7CI when requested. Upon request, the EPF must also provide the results of relevant mitigation monitoring... forwarded, through the MAJCOM EPF to HQ USAF/A7CI for review within 90 days from the date of signature of...

  16. TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS: PROMOVENDO O DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL PARA O JOVEM DO CAMPO

    OpenAIRE

    Zarpelon, Mirian Cátia; Kolcenti, Cassiane; Balestrin, Deisi; Tortelli, Luana; Blazszack, Vinicíus; Guedes, Anibal Lopes

    2015-01-01

    O desenvolvimento sustentável é hoje em dia, um dos principais desafios a ser enfrentado na atualidade. Inclui-se neste universo a agricultura, através da consolidação das atividades produtivas a fim de desenvolver de forma sustentável, a gestão da propriedade rural, bem como sua condição ambiental e social, sem degradar o capital natural e mantendo o bem estar da sociedade. Dentro desse processo, as novas tecnologias proporcionam o desenvolvimento de soluções criativas simples que visam melh...

  17. The development and treatment of impulsivity = O desenvolvimento e tratamento da impulsividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Neto, Roque do Carmo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsividade é um fator presente em várias desordens psicológicas, incluindo ADHD, drogadição, comportamentos agressivos e automutiladores, e obesidade infantil. Impulsividade também é um fator de risco para o abandono de tratamento. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar as raízes da impulsividade do ponto de vista biológico, sociológico e do desenvolvimento humano, bem como as formas de tratamento mais comuns para pessoas com extrema impulsividade. Aqui também se inclui pesquisas das áreas de desenvolvimento neuronal e regulação emocional

  18. Hackers e sua relação com o surgimento e desenvolvimento da chipmusic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Schäfer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo relacionar as características da microcultura hacker com o surgimento e desenvolvimento da cena musical chipmusic. Para isso, utilizam-se dados divulgados amplamente sobre a cena chipmusic internacional, além de entrevistas com um grupo de músicos brasileiros. Por fim, conclui-se que, tanto a microcultura hacker, como o desenvolvimento da tecnocultura atual, têm criado nas pessoas um desejo de explorar os limites de hardwares e softwares, que, por sua vez, acaba dando origem a cenas como a chipmusic, objeto deste trabalho. 

  19. Desenvolvimento do feijoeiro sob o uso de biofertilizante e adubação mineral.

    OpenAIRE

    Galbiatti, João A.; Silva, Flávia G. da; Franco, Claudenir F.; Caramelo, Anaira D.

    2011-01-01

    A produção intensiva de alimentos exige manejo adequado do solo para garantir a produtividade e a sustentabilidade ambiental. Uma das alternativas é a utilização de resíduos orgânicos no desenvolvimento das culturas, diminuindo a dependência de adubos minerais. Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento da cultura de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), utilizando biofertilizante e adubação mineral, conduziu-se o experimento com seis tratamentos dispostos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial, em quatro ...

  20. O coaching enquanto prática de desenvolvimento de recursos humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Luciana Rocha

    2013-01-01

    A presente investigação visa identificar os benefícios do coaching para o desenvolvimento de recursos humanos, procurando entender como esta prática contribui para o desenvolvimento de competências, para a melhoria de desempenhos e resultados organizacionais. Sendo uma pesquisa de natureza qualitativa, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas a 10 coaches profissionais, as quais foram submetidas a análise de conteúdo. Não representativos da população, os resultados obti...

  1. Resistindo ao desenvolvimento neocolonial: a luta do povo de Andalgalá contra projetos megamineiros

    OpenAIRE

    Misoczky,Maria Ceci; Böhm,Steffen

    2013-01-01

    A América Latina vem experimentando uma nova era de declarada fé dos governos no mito do desenvolvimento, em articulação com a expansão de políticas extrativistas exportadoras em um contexto de renovada dependência. A face mais dramática do extrativismo na região tem sido a crescente presença de corporações mineiras transnacionais apoiadas por governos nacionais e regionais e por instituições internacionais financeiras e de apoio ao desenvolvimento, e intensamente resistidas por movimentos so...

  2. Estudo longitudinal do desenvolvimento da comunicação em diversas economias mundiais

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda Filho, Emílio José Montero

    2012-01-01

    O desenvolvimento do setor de comunicação de um país possui relações com o seu desenvolvimento econômico e é possível demonstrar essa conexão estatisticamente, como tem sido feito por pesquisadores de instituições como a ITU (International Telecommunications Union). Como esses dados estão apenas apresentados na forma simples e não levam em conta fatores de interconexão, é importante desenvolver pesquisas que avaliem a conexão entre variáveis relevantes no campo. Este trabalho visa analisar o...

  3. Um metodo para modelagem de exceções em desenvolvimento baseado em componentes

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Henrique da Silva Brito

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Devido a grande popularização do Desenvolvimento Baseado em Componentes (DBC), ele vem sendo empregado inclusive no desenvolvimento de sistemas computacionais críticos. O emprego do DBC na construção de sistemas confiáveis evidencia a necessidade de se desenvolver componentes de software que sejam robustos e que possuam uma garantia maior do seu funcionamento correto. Tratamento de exceções é uma técnica bastante conhecida para a verificação e tratamento de erros em sistemas de softwa...

  4. Estilos parentais e personalidade: competências sociais e o desenvolvimento do processo resiliente

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Sara Patrícia Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Psicologia Clínica De acordo com a literatura, as vivências afetivas e relacionais experienciadas no seio familiar, nomeadamente na relação entre pais-filhos, têm um papel privilegiado no desenvolvimento dos jovens. Nesta medida, postula-se que um estilo parental baseado na assertividade e responsividade assuma um papel significativo e protetor face ao desenvolvimento de características e competências adaptativas dos adolescentes e jovens adultos. A presente inve...

  5. Experimental research of the effects of different shields on power frequency electric field mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahman Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experimental research on the effects of different shields on power frequency electric field mitigation. This research was performed in order to determine those materials that may be used for electric field mitigation in cases where the reference level is exceeded. Using measured results, the value of the shielding factor has been calculated for all tested shields and the most efficient shields were determined.

  6. Hydrogen-Bonding Surfaces for Ice Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Hadley, Kevin R.; McDougall, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Ice formation on aircraft, either on the ground or in-flight, is a major safety issue. While ground icing events occur predominantly during the winter months, in-flight icing can happen anytime during the year. The latter is more problematic since it could result in increased drag and loss of lift. Under a Phase I ARMD NARI Seedling Activity, coated aluminum surfaces possessing hydrogen-bonding groups were under investigation for mitigating ice formation. Hydroxyl and methyl terminated dimethylethoxysilanes were prepared via known chemistries and characterized by spectroscopic methods. These materials were subsequently used to coat aluminum surfaces. Surface compositions were based on pure hydroxyl and methyl terminated species as well as mixtures of the two. Coated surfaces were characterized by contact angle goniometry. Receding water contact angle data suggested several potential surfaces that may exhibit reduced ice adhesion. Qualitative icing experiments performed under representative environmental temperatures using supercooled distilled water delivered via spray coating were inconclusive. Molecular modeling studies suggested that chain mobility affected the interface between ice and the surface more than terminal group chemical composition. Chain mobility resulted from the creation of "pockets" of increased free volume for longer chains to occupy.

  7. O desenvolvimento do conhecimento na Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento e o registro através de patentes no Brasil – uma experiência profissional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Helena Soares Bouças Teixeira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo fornecer um detalhamento sobre o processo de busca do conhecimento, partindo de uma ferramenta básica que é a informação. No contexto que envolve Pesquisa & Desenvolvimento, o conhecimento pode ser estruturado para o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias, produtos ou processos, em que o registro do conhecimento pode ocorrer  através das patentes. Dado que é preciso conhecer a legislação do país de depósito,trataremos mais especificamente do sistema de registro de patentes brasileiro denominado Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Intelectual – INPI. As reflexões apresentadas são provenientes de uma experiência profissional.

  8. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramaratne, Rupa

    1998-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  9. From insulation contracting to radon mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    As the definition of house doctor has evolved over the past ten years and the field of energy services has grown more sophisticated, many contractors have expanded the services they offer their clients. This paper presents the story of one insulation contractor who has found a niche in radon testing and mitigation. The EPA now has a national program for the radon mitigator called the Radon Contractor Proficiency Program. The requirements include attending the Radon Technology for Mitigators course, passing an exam, and taking continuing education. In the Midwest, the most popular mitigation technique is the subslab depressurization system. To draw suction from under the slab, the system can take advantage of an existing sump crock or can penetrate the slab. Interior drain tiles collect water to empty into the crock, providing an excellent pathway to draw from. This mitigation process is explained

  10. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  11. Evaluating the efficacy of wood shreds for mitigating erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Randy B; Copeland, Natalie S

    2009-02-01

    An erosion control product made by shredding on-site woody materials was evaluated for mitigating erosion through a series of rainfall simulations. Tests were conducted on bare soil and soil with 30, 50, and 70% cover on a coarse and a fine-grained soil. Results indicated that the wood product known as wood shreds reduced runoff and soil loss from both soil types. Erosion mitigation ranged from 60 to nearly 100% depending on the soil type and amount of concentrated flow and wood shred cover. Wood shreds appear to be a viable alternative to agricultural straw. A wood shred cover of 50% appears optimal, but the appropriate coverage rate will depend on the amount of expected concentrated flow and soil type.

  12. Operational measures for the mitigation of MIC [microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    Although entitled Operational Measure, this section of the workshop encompasses aspects of mitigating MIC by controlling the hydraulic characteristics of a system. In order for operational considerations outside of the chemical treatment program to be effective, the system must be designed, constructed or modified, and maintained with MIC in mind. Since other papers in these proceedings discuss in detail the proper selection of materials, chemical treatments and detection of monitoring techniques, this paper is limited to quidelines for mitigating MIC and its effects by the mechanical design, maintenance and operation of the system. The key concept behind this philosophy is the synergistic relationships among microbes and among microbes and larger biofouling organisms. If the slime formers or other marine organisms can be prevented from attaching to the components, conducive environments for attack by other species is avoided

  13. Disruption mitigation on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Sourd, F.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Bucalossi, J.; Eriksson, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    During disruptions, the plasma energy is lost on the first wall within 1 ms, forces up to hundred tons are applied to the structures and kA of electrons are accelerated up to 50 MeV (runaway electrons). Already sources of concern in present day tokamaks, extrapolation to ITER shows the necessity of mitigation procedures, to avoid serious damages to in-vessel components. Massive gas injection was proposed, and encouraging tests have been done on Textor and DIII-D. Similar experiments where performed on Tore Supra, with the goal to validate their effect on runaway electrons, observed during the majority of disruptions. 0.1 mole of helium was injected within 5 ms in ohmic plasmas, up to 1.2 MA, either stable, or in a pre-disruptive phase (argon puffing). Beneficial effects where obtained: reduction of the current fall rate and eddy currents, total disappearance of runaway electrons and easy recovery for the next pulse, without noticeable helium pollution of following plasmas. Analysis of the 4 ms period between injection and disruption indicates that to reach these goals, one need to inject enough helium to keep it only partially ionised. It correspond to 0.1 g for Tore Supra, and extrapolate to hundred's of grams for ITER. (author)

  14. Disruption mitigation on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Sourd, F.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Bucalossi, J.; Eriksson, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    During disruptions, the plasma energy is lost on the first wall within 1 ms, forces up to hundred tons are applied to the structures and kA of electrons are accelerated up to 50 MeV (runaway electrons). Already sources of concern in present day tokamaks, extrapolation to ITER shows the necessity of mitigation procedures, to avoid serious damages to in-vessel components. Massive gas injection was proposed, and encouraging tests have been done on Textor and DIII-D. Similar experiments where performed on Tore Supra, with the goal to validate their effect on runaway electrons, observed during the majority of disruptions. 0.1 mole of helium was injected within 5 ms in ohmic plasmas, up to 1.2 MA, either stable, or in a pre-disruptive phase (argon puffing). Beneficial effects where obtained: reduction of the current fall rate and eddy currents, total disappearance of runaway electrons and easy recovery for the next pulse, without noticeable helium pollution of following plasmas. Analysis of the 4 ms period between injection and disruption indicates that to reach these goals, one need to inject enough helium to keep it only partially ionised. It corresponds to 0.1 g for Tore Supra, and extrapolate to hundreds of grams for ITER. (authors)

  15. Gas Mitigation in Paper Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, AS; Bittencourt, C.

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian paper industry has competitive advantages offered by the favorable climate, which favors an increase in the yield of forest restoration, and consequently, in the productive process. On the other hand, following the greenhouse gases (GHG), we can see our constantly changing sun, causing the solar storms, allowing their prevention or mitigating measures. The objective of this work is to contribute to the construction of the understanding necessary for the reduction of GHG emission from a preliminary analysis of the pulp and paper sector. As a secondary objective, the text preliminarily analyzes a company’s behavior against the backdrop of the Paris Accord, which strengthens the global response to the threat of climate change and strengthens the capacity of countries to deal with the impacts of such changes. The identification of best practices in the pulp and paper industry is understood, focusing on environmental sustainability, such as the adoption of reforestation, obtaining significant results. In the case of the paper industry, the management of public forests for sustainable production, within the structure of the Ministry of the Environment, establishes the promotion of public awareness about the importance of conservation, recovery and sustainable management of forest resources.

  16. Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnad, Kiran G

    2005-01-01

    This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...

  17. Desenvolvimento de coleções em bibliotecas universitárias Collection development in university libraries p. 1-19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Carvalho de Miranda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aborda o gerenciamento da política de desenvolvimento de materiais informacionais nas bibliotecas universitárias. Enfatiza a necessidade de as instituições estabelecerem normas e padrões que orientem o processo decisório, a fim de determinar a conveniência de se adquirir, manter e descartar coleções. Finaliza relacionando os critérios de seleção para formação ideal de um acervo, que atenda às reais necessidades da comunidade acadêmica. Palavras-chave Biblioteca universitária. Desenvolvimento de coleções. Política de seleção. Materiais informacionais – gerenciamento. Abstract Studies the management related to the development of informative material in university libraries. Emphasizes the need that institutions have to establish norms and patterns to guide the decision making process, in order to determine the convenience to acquire, maintain and discard collections. Finalizes relating the ideal selection criteria to organize an asset, which provides the real necessities of the academic community. Key words University library. Collection Development. Selection Politics. Informative Materials – Management

  18. Pre-heating mitigates composite degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jessika Calixto da; Rogério Vieira, Reges; Rege, Inara Carneiro Costa; Cruz, Carlos Alberto dos Santos; Vaz, Luís Geraldo; Estrela, Carlos; Castro, Fabrício Luscino Alves de

    2015-01-01

    Dental composites cured at high temperatures show improved properties and higher degrees of conversion; however, there is no information available about the effect of pre-heating on material degradation. Objectives This study evaluated the effect of pre-heating on the degradation of composites, based on the analysis of radiopacity and silver penetration using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Material and Methods Thirty specimens were fabricated using a metallic matrix (2x8 mm) and the composites Durafill VS (Heraeus Kulzer), Z-250 (3M/ESPE), and Z-350 (3M/ESPE), cured at 25°C (no pre-heating) or 60°C (pre-heating). Specimens were stored sequentially in the following solutions: 1) water for 7 days (60°C), plus 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for 14 days (60°C); 2) 50% silver nitrate (AgNO3) for 10 days (60°C). Specimens were radiographed at baseline and after each storage time, and the images were evaluated in gray scale. After the storage protocol, samples were analyzed using SEM/EDS to check the depth of silver penetration. Radiopacity and silver penetration data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=5%). Results Radiopacity levels were as follows: Durafill VSZ-350>Z-250 (pheated specimens presented higher radiopacity values than non-pre-heated specimens (pheated specimens (pheating at 60°C mitigated the degradation of composites based on analysis of radiopacity and silver penetration depth.

  19. CDM (Clean development mechanism) like instrument for sustainable development?; MDL (mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo) como instrumento para o desenvolvimento sustentavel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Kamyla Borges da; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar Silva; Varella, Fabiana Karla de Oliveira; Streb, Cleci Schalemberger [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Curso de Pos-Graduaco em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], e-mail: kamyla@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The intensification of the greenhouse effect, caused mainly by the anthropogenic activities, such as the intensive use of fossil fuels, reveals itself as a challenge to governments and international organizations. The institution of an international legal framework, resulted from the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, is allowing the development of some mitigation instruments, such as the clean development mechanism (CDM). The article's purpose is to assess the social and economic aspects that are leading to the climate change process and to analyze the instruments foreseen in the international legal system to face this global concern, in special, the CDM as a tool to achieve sustainable development practices. In this way, the authors aims to demonstrate the connection and interdependence between those instruments and the sustainable development. (author)

  20. CDM (Clean development mechanism) like instrument for sustainable development?; MDL (mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo) como instrumento para o desenvolvimento sustentavel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Kamyla Borges da; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar Silva; Varella, Fabiana Karla de Oliveira; Streb, Cleci Schalemberger [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Curso de Pos-Graduaco em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], e-mail: kamyla@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The intensification of the greenhouse effect, caused mainly by the anthropogenic activities, such as the intensive use of fossil fuels, reveals itself as a challenge to governments and international organizations. The institution of an international legal framework, resulted from the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, is allowing the development of some mitigation instruments, such as the clean development mechanism (CDM). The article's purpose is to assess the social and economic aspects that are leading to the climate change process and to analyze the instruments foreseen in the international legal system to face this global concern, in special, the CDM as a tool to achieve sustainable development practices. In this way, the authors aims to demonstrate the connection and interdependence between those instruments and the sustainable development. (author)

  1. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A Flood Mitigation Plan will articulate a...

  2. Landslides risk mitigation along lifelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capparelli, G.; Versace, P.; Artese, G.; Costanzo, S.; Corsonello, P.; Di Massa, G.; Mendicino, G.; Maletta, D.; Leone, S.; Muto, F.; Senatore, A.; Troncone, A.; Conte, E.; Galletta, D.

    2012-04-01

    The paper describes an integrated, innovative and efficient solution to manage risk issues associated to landslides interfering with infrastructures. The research project was submitted for financial support in the framework of the Multi -regional Operational Programme 2007-13: Research and Competitiveness funded by the Ministry of Research (MIUR) and co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project is aimed to developing and demonstrating an integrated system of monitoring, early warning and mitigation of landslides risk. The final goal is to timely identify potentially dangerous landslides, and to activate all needed impact mitigation measures, including the information delivery. The essential components of the system include monitoring arrays, telecommunication networks and scenario simulation models, assisted by a data acquisition and processing centre, and a traffic control centres. Upon integration, the system will be experimentally validated and demonstrated over ca. 200 km of three highway sections, crossing the regions of Campania, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily. Progress in the state of art is represented by the developments in the field of environmental monitoring and in the mathematical modeling of landslides and by the development of services for traffic management. The approach to the problem corresponds to a "systemic logics" where each developed component foresees different interchangeable technological solutions to maximize the operational flexibility. The final system may be configured as a simple to complex structure, including different configurations to deal with different scenarios. Specifically, six different monitoring systems will be realized: three "point" systems, made up of a network of locally measuring sensors, and three "area" systems to remotely measure the displacements of large areas. Each network will be fully integrated and connected to a unique data transmission system. Standardized and shared procedures for the

  3. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  4. Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2004-12-01

    Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

  5. A aplicação do QFD no desenvolvimento de software: um estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antônio Sonda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar a aplicação do QFD como ferramenta de suporte para o planejamento e desenvolvimento de um software de custos, visando um melhor atendimento das características demandadas pelo cliente, bem como a determinação de indicadores para controlar o processo de desenvolvimento do produto. O trabalho foi desenvolvido a partir de uma pesquisa de mercado realizada com usuários de softwares de custos e demais pessoas envolvidas com o gerenciamento de custos. Com a aplicação do QFD, observou-se que a definição antecipada das características principais do sistema é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de um software. O QFD vem se somar as demais ferramentas de análise de sistemas proporcionando, simultaneamente, um desenvolvimento mais rápido e mais qualificado.This paper presents an application of QFD for planning and development of a cost software. The QFD was chosen aiming a better assessment of the user desires as well as the indication of the parameters for process control. The work was initiated from a market survey conducted on users of cost software and other people involved in cost management. The use of the QFD shows that the early definition of the key characteristics of the system is essential in software development. The QFD complements the use of other system analysis techniques and contributes for a faster and more qualified software development.

  6. A mesoeconomia do desenvolvimento econômico: o papel das instituições

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huáscar Pessali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento econômico depende das instituições e as instituições, ao mesmo tempo, são uma medida do desenvolvimento econômico. Assim, correlação e causalidade se confundem num processo cumulativo e circular - uma espiral de mudanças que condiciona a ampliação das liberdades dos indivíduos. A contribuição pretendida por este ensaio é reunir e propor uma organização de várias idéias dispersas no tema "instituições e desenvolvimento econômico". Nossa releitura adiciona um breve exemplo da relação entre mercados, firmas e estado no âmbito do desenvolvimento. Isto permite defender o retorno a uma análise econômica que não se limite às falhas de mercado, mas que encare a responsabilidade de lidar com um emaranhado mais complexo de interações.

  7. Planos diretores: o caminho para o desenvolvimento sustentável das cidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro da Miranda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Os Planos Diretores efetivam a existência de uma legislação geral estabelecendo as normas necessárias à implementação de políticas urbanas, previstas na Constituição Federal e no Estatuto da Cidade (Lei Federal 10.257/2001 e que em seu foco principal está o desenvolvimento e a expansão urbana.  Assim, o presente artigo aborda uma breve discussão teórica do tema, suas problemáticas e contextualizações na perspectiva de fundamentá-las à luz das teorias existentes. Três principais diretrizes devem ser destacadas: o desenvolvimento sustentável, a gestão democrática da cidade e o planejamento do desenvolvimento das cidades, onde os municípios, devem, portanto, utilizar as diretrizes e instrumentos do Estatuto da Cidade com o objetivo de estabelecer as regras que propiciem o pleno desenvolvimento econômico, social, ambiental e sustentável, com vistas a garantir o direito à cidade para todos os que nela vivem.

  8. Desenvolvimento da Coordenação Motora Fina: Sugestões Estratégicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Crestana Guardia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo de sugerir atividades para a fase inicial da aprendizagem da escrita, partindo de uma visão geral dos aspectos que o desenvolvimento da coordenção motora fina apresenta na prática pedagógica.

  9. Avaliação do crescimento e desenvolvimento de crianças institucionalizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Magna Pessoa Chaves

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar o crescimento e desenvolvimento de crianças de 0 a 6 anos institucionalizadas. Abordagem descritiva, transversal e de natureza quantitativa. Foi realizado em um abrigo da Secretaria do Trabalho e Desenvolvimento Social do Governo do Estado do Ceará, nos meses de março e abril de 2011. A amostra foi composta por 44 crianças. Prevaleceram crianças de sexo masculino (59,1%; faixa etária entre 24 a 72 meses (56,8%, e tempo de abrigamento superior a um ano (72,7%. Verificou-se que as crianças estavam na faixa de normalidade nutricional. Porém, 65,9% das crianças não alcançaram pelo menos um dos marcos do desenvolvimento propostos pelo Ministério da Saúde. O estudo possibilitou uma reflexão sobre como as crianças residentes em abrigos estão sendo assistidas pela equipe de saúde, tornando-se necessário realizar o acompanhamento de seu crescimento e desenvolvimento, a fim de intervir sobre as alterações encontradas.

  10. Biopolítica e Desenvolvimento? Foucault e Agamben sobre Estado, Governo e Violência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme F. W. Radomsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as relações entre biopolítica e desenvolvimento sob o ângulo das noções de Estado, governo e violência. O objetivo consiste em examinar elementos analíticos que gravitam em torno de perspectivas críticas do desenvolvimento buscando um eixo interpretativo sobre a ambivalência das ações do Estado a partir de duas possibilidades teóricas que convergem no pensamento de Giorgio Agamben: a análise do biopoder e do governo em Foucault e as articulações entre violência e lei que remetem a Walter Benjamin. A reflexão sobre os argumentos teóricos é realizada examinando-se dados oriundos de pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa sobre políticas para a agricultura ecológica no sul do Brasil. As conclusões mostram que o desenvolvimento e seus benefícios podem ser problematizados pelo olhar do biopoder e da violência, que reconfiguram o que seja desenvolvimento, menos como expansão do bem-estar e mais como impulso modernizante de mudança que se ampara em administrar a vida.

  11. O uso de múltiplas escalas geográficas no planejamento do desenvolvimento regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Costa Brito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de múltiplas escalas geográficas aplicadas ao planejamento de políticas públicas de desenvolvimento regional é recente no Brasil. Remete à criação da Política Nacional de Desenvolvimento Regional (PNDR em 2003. A ênfase dada na categoria socioespacial reflete uma abordagem de caráter territorialista, que se contrapõe ao planejamento com enfoque estritamente macrorregional e com viés econômico. Este artigo analisa a conformação de estruturação e implementação desse arranjo multiescalar, para compreender a dimensão do planejamento na PNDR I e II. Como eixo central de articulação da política tem-se a relação intergovernamental e extragovernamental com inserção de todos os setores, abarcando estratégias de ação multiescalares. A abordagem multiescalar precisa avançar sobre a questão do ritmo e direção do desenvolvimento. As ferramentas da transversalidade e da intersetorialidade devem refletir em mudança social. Sem isso, o desenvolvimento regional torna-se contraditório, longe de representar uma oportunidade para regiões deprimidas tanto econômica quanto socialmente.

  12. Mitigating for nature in Danish infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    his paper presents results of a Danish study of mitigation efforts directed at nature protection in EIA of Danish infrastructure projects. The projects included in the study comprise road, rail, bridges, tunnels cables and oil- and gas-pipes. The study is based on a document analysis of EIA reports......, a workshop held with EIA professionals, a study of two cases and a survey among EIA professionals. The study reveals whether and how the mitigation hierarchy has been adhered to and what types of mitigation measures have been suggested. The study digs a bit deeper in discussing the dynamics in which...

  13. IAEA Regional Workshop on Development and Validation of EOP/AMG for Effective Prevention/Mitigation of Severe Core Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Materials of the IAEA Regional Workshop contain 24 presented lectures. Authors deal with development and validation of emergency operating procedures as well as with accident management guidelines (EOP/AMG) for effective prevention and mitigation of severe core damage

  14. O TRABALHO COMO ATIVIDADE PRINCIPAL NO DESENVOLVIMENTO PSÍQUICO DO INDIVÍDUO ADULTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Fernanda Moro Rios

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa analisar, por meio da revisão teórica de autores clássicos e contemporâneos da psicologia histórico-cultural, o trabalho como atividade principal na vida adulta, isto é, como a atividade que orienta as principais mudanças no psiquismo humano e na personalidade nessa idade. Para tanto, abstrai e generaliza elementos constantes nos estudos sobre periodização do desenvolvimento psíquico humano. Por um lado, identifica os conteúdos e processos psicológicos que, produzidos pelo trabalho, evidenciam sua relevância para o desenvolvimento do indivíduo adulto. Por outro, aborda os processos de alienação inerentes à sociedade capitalista, que alienam o trabalho como atividade principal. Assim, o trabalho se apresenta, dialeticamente, como atividade humanizadora e alienada. Entende-se que este estudo contribui para o avanço teórico-metodológico da psicologia histórico-cultural por abordar a questão do trabalho como atividade principal, uma discussão que se encontra ainda incipiente e pouco sistematizada. Além disso, supera o enfoque dos estudos sobre o desenvolvimento centrados na infância e reitera o rompimento com a perspectiva maturacionista de que a vida adulta é um período de estagnação do desenvolvimento. Pela análise do trabalho como atividade principal conclui-se que o desenvolvimento psicológico, produzido na vida adulta, se expressa, principalmente, por uma série de aquisições de habilidades e capacidades, pelo exercício da criatividade, por uma complexa reestruturação da esfera afetivo-motivacional da personalidade, pelo desenvolvimento da autoconsciência e pelo movimento dialético da consciência de classe, que tensiona a contradição entre o polo humanizador e o polo alienado/alienante do trabalho numa sociedade que limita e empobrece esse mesmo desenvolvimento.

  15. 2009 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano; R. D. Teel

    2009-09-30

    This document details the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2009, including 25 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and three bat mitigation projects.

  16. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 651 - Mitigation and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The identification and evaluation of mitigations involves the use of experts familiar with the... role in the mitigation. The lead agency must determine and agree upon how the mitigation measures will...

  17. Turbine lubrication fluid varnish mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Khalid [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Varnish deposits on internal surfaces in turbine lube systems result in a number of adverse operational issues, especially the restriction and sticking of the moving parts of servo- or directional control valves, resulting in their malfunction. The lubrication fluid has limited solvency for the varnish-forming material, hence a typical turbine will have the majority of this material as deposits and a relatively small portion as suspension in the fluid phase, in quasi-equilibrium with the deposits. The lube system needs to be cleaned by removing the suspended varnish-forming material from the fluid phase, which allows the deposits to re-entrain into the fluid phase, until the majority of the transferable deposits are removed and the fluid carries no significant amount of the material to have any adverse effect. The methods used for the removal of varnish from turbine lube systems include chemical cleaning/flushing, electrostatic charge induced agglomeration/retention, and the adsorption of the varnish suspended in the oil on an adsorbent medium. The paper discusses an absorption-based removal method that utilizes a fibrous medium that has pronounced affinity for the removal and retention of the varnish-forming material from the fluid as well as the deposits from surfaces that are in quasi-equilibrium with the varnish precursors in the fluid. The filtration medium is a composite, made with cellulose bonded by specially formulated, temperature-cured resins. The absorptive medium exhibits high structural and chemical integrity and has been thoroughly tested on operating turbines, showing reduction in varnish levels from the critical range to below normal range in a relatively short time. The experience with the utilization of the absorptive medium in laboratory tests and in two operating turbines is presented. (orig.)

  18. Voluntary climate change mitigation actions of young adults: a classification of mitigators through latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkala, Essi A E; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%). Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%), the Semi-active (63%) and the Active (11%) and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72%) and the Active (28%). The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €≥16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns.

  19. Voluntary climate change mitigation actions of young adults: a classification of mitigators through latent class analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essi A E Korkala

    Full Text Available Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%. Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%, the Semi-active (63% and the Active (11% and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72% and the Active (28%. The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €≥16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns.

  20. Beam-Material Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high- intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target , and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and envir onment in challenging current and future application

  1. Beam-Material Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Cerutti, F. [CERN

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high-intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target, and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and environment in challenging current and future applications.

  2. Space Transportation System Liftoff Debris Mitigation Process Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Liftoff debris is a top risk to the Space Shuttle Vehicle. To manage the Liftoff debris risk, the Space Shuttle Program created a team with in the Propulsion Systems Engineering & Integration Office. The Shutt le Liftoff Debris Team harnesses the Systems Engineering process to i dentify, assess, mitigate, and communicate the Liftoff debris risk. T he Liftoff Debris Team leverages off the technical knowledge and expe rtise of engineering groups across multiple NASA centers to integrate total system solutions. These solutions connect the hardware and ana lyses to identify and characterize debris sources and zones contribut ing to the Liftoff debris risk. The solutions incorporate analyses sp anning: the definition and modeling of natural and induced environmen ts; material characterizations; statistical trending analyses, imager y based trajectory analyses; debris transport analyses, and risk asse ssments. The verification and validation of these analyses are bound by conservative assumptions and anchored by testing and flight data. The Liftoff debris risk mitigation is managed through vigilant collab orative work between the Liftoff Debris Team and Launch Pad Operation s personnel and through the management of requirements, interfaces, r isk documentation, configurations, and technical data. Furthermore, o n day of launch, decision analysis is used to apply the wealth of ana lyses to case specific identified risks. This presentation describes how the Liftoff Debris Team applies Systems Engineering in their proce sses to mitigate risk and improve the safety of the Space Shuttle Veh icle.

  3. Stress wave propagation and mitigation in two polymeric foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradel, Pierre; Malaise, Frederic; Cadilhon, Baptiste; Quessada, Jean-Hugues; de Resseguier, Thibaut; Delhomme, Catherine; Le Blanc, Gael

    2017-06-01

    Polymeric foams are widely used in industry for thermal insulation or shock mitigation. This paper investigates the ability of a syntactic epoxy foam and an expanded polyurethane foam to mitigate intense (several GPa) and short duration (<10-6 s) stress pulses. Plate impact and electron beam irradiation experiments have been conducted to study the dynamic mechanical responses of both foams. Interferometer Doppler Laser method is used to record the target rear surface velocity. A two-wave structure associated with the propagation of an elastic precursor followed by the compaction of the pores has been observed. The compaction stress level deduced from the velocity measurement is a good indicator of mitigation capability of the foams. Quasi-static tests and dynamic soft recovery experiments have also been performed to determine the compaction mechanisms. In the polyurethane foam, the pores are closed by elastic buckling of the matrix and damage of the structure. In the epoxy foam, the compaction is due to the crushing of glass microspheres. Two porous material models successfully represent the macroscopic response of these polymeric foams.

  4. Blast Mitigation Using Water - A Status Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kailasanath, K

    2002-01-01

    ..., and aggressive research and development', this report reviews the current knowledge base on blast mitigation using water and identifies the key issues that need to be resolved in order to develop...

  5. Wildlife Mitigation Program. Record of Decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to adopt a set of Descriptions (goals, strategies, and procedural requirements) that apply to future BPA-funded wildlife mitigation projects. Various. sources-including Indian tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, or other Federal agencies-propose wildlife mitigation projects to the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) for BPA funding. Following independent scientific and public reviews, Council then selects projects to recommend for BPA funding. BPA adopts this set of prescriptions to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects. This decision is based on consideration of potential environmental impacts evaluated in BPA's Wildlife Mitigation Program Final Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0246) published March, 20, 1997, and filed with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the week of March 24, 1997 (EPA Notice of Availability Published April 4, 1997, 62 FR 65, 16154). BPA will distribute this Record of Decision to all known interested and affected persons, groups, tribes, and agencies

  6. Approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 gave FDA the authority to require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) from manufacturers to...

  7. OEM Emergency Prevention and Mitigation Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management maintains information relevant to preventing emergencies before they occur, and/or mitigating the effects of emergency when they...

  8. Core Flight Executive Software Radiation Mitigation Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reliability of SmallSat / CubeSat missions may be increased by using software radiation mitigation for single event upsets (SEUs). Implementing protection in...

  9. 50 CFR 218.4 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... species mitigation measures. (B) Commanding Officers shall make use of marine species detection cues and... entire target area shall take place with “Big Eyes” and the naked eye during the retrieval of the IMPASS...

  10. 50 CFR 218.183 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... within the command structure in order to facilitate implementation of mitigation measures if marine... attention to the things on the outer edges of their field of vision. (viii) Marine observers shall be...

  11. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grant Program - Property Acquisitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HMGP provides grants to states and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures after a major disaster declaration. The HMGP is one of three...

  12. Surface System Dust Mitigation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will perform a detailed examination of dust mitigation and tolerance strategies for connections and mechanisms to be employed on the lunar...

  13. L-Reactor Habitat Mitigation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The L-Reactor Fish and Wildlife Resource Mitigation Study was conducted to quantify the effects on habitat of the L-Reactor restart and to identify the appropriate mitigation for these impacts. The completed project evaluated in this study includes construction of a 1000 acre reactor cooling reservoir formed by damming Steel Creek. Habitat impacts identified include a loss of approximately 3,700 average annual habitat units. This report presents a mitigation plan, Plan A, to offset these habitat losses. Plan A will offset losses for all species studied, except whitetailed deer. The South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department strongly recommends creation of a game management area to provide realistic mitigation for loss of deer habitats. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - Agriculture Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uprety, D.C.; Dhar, Subash; Hongmin, Dong

    This guidebook describes crop and livestock management technologies and practices that contribute to climate change mitigation while improving crop productivity, reducing reliance on synthetic fertilizers, and lowering water consumption. It is co-authored by internationally recognised experts...

  15. Nanotube Electrodes for Dust Mitigation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dust mitigation is critical to the survivability of vehicle and infrastructure components and systems and to the safety of astronauts during EVAs and planetary...

  16. Mitigation and monitoring plan for impacted wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project site, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The UMTRA Project is the result of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act(UMTRA) which was passed in response to the public's concern over the potential public health hazards related to uranium mill tailings and associated contaminated material at abandoned or otherwise uncontrolled inactive processing sites throughout the United States. The Gunnison, Colorado abandoned uranium mill site is one of the sites slated for cleanup by the DOE under authority of UMTRA. The contaminated material at this site will be transported to a disposal site on US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land east of Gunnison. Remedial action activities will temporarily disturb 0.8 acre and permanently eliminate 5.1 acres of wetlands. This report describes the proposed mitigation plan for the 5.9 acres of impacted wetlands. In conjunction with the mitigation of the permanently impacted wetlands through the enhancement of wetland and adjacent riparian areas, impacts to wildlife as a result of this project will also be mitigated. However, wildlife mitigation is not the focus of this document and is covered in relevant BLM permits for this project. This plan proposes the enhancement of a 3:1 ratio of impacted wetlands in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines, plus the enhancement of riparian areas for wildlife mitigation. Included in this mitigation plan is a monitoring plan to ensure that the proposed measures are working and being maintained

  17. National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper compares model estimates of national and sectoral GHG mitigation potential across six key OECD GHG-emitting economies: Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, Mexico and the US. It examines the implications of model structure, baseline and policy assumptions, and assesses GHG mitigation potential estimates across a variety of models, including models that are used to inform climate policy-makers in each of these economies.

  18. Mitigating Double Taxation in an Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of various methods of mitigating economic and international double taxation of corporate source income is studied within a standard neoclassical model of firm behavior. The main purpose is to determine to what extent methods effective in mitigating economic double taxation in a closed economy remain useful in an open economy where the firm's marginal investor is a foreigner. While a cut in the statutory corporate tax rate invariably reduces the cost of capital, the impact of t...

  19. Fade Mitigation Techniques at Ka-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Asoka (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Rain fading is the dominant propagation impairment affecting Ka-band satellite links and rain fade mitigation is a key element in the design of Ka-band satellite networks. Some of the common fade mitigation techniques include: power control, diversity, adaptive coding, and resource sharing. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) provides an excellent opportunity to develop and test Ka-band rain impairment amelioration techniques. Up-link power control and diversity are discussed in this paper.

  20. Bio-inspired heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyu; Wang, Lifeng

    2015-12-08

    Structural biological materials have developed heterogeneous and hierarchical architectures that are responsible for the outstanding performance to provide protection against environmental threats including static and dynamic loading. Inspired by this observation, this research aims to develop new material and structural concepts for broadband vibration mitigation. The proposed composite materials possess a two-layered heterogeneous architecture where both layers consist of high-volume platelet-shape reinforcements and low-volume matrix, similar to the well-known "brick and mortar" microstructure of biological composites. Using finite element method, we numerically demonstrated that broadband wave attenuation zones can be achieved by tailoring the geometric features of the heterogeneous architecture. We reveal that the resulting broadband attenuation zones are gained by directly superimposing the attenuation zones in each constituent layer. This mechanism is further confirmed by the investigation into the phonon dispersion relation of each layer. Importantly, the broadband wave attenuation capability will be maintained when the mineral platelet orientation is locally manipulated, yet a contrast between the mineral platelet concentrations of the two constituent layers is essential. The findings of this work will provide new opportunities to design heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation and impact resistance under mechanically challenging environmental conditions.

  1. Strategies for successful mitigation of socioeconomic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The successful mitigation of socioeconomic impacts requires careful planning for project inception through project completion. Although mitigation of socioeconomic impacts imposes additional responsibilities on project sponsors, benefits derived through increased productivity of the work force can offset costs involved. Cost effective impact mitigation plans can be developed which are flexible to respond to changing circumstances and which focus on prevention of adverse effects. Mitigation plans must, by necessity, begin with proper project planning. Project location and the schedule for various construction activities can have significant effect on impacts. Particular attention should be given to labor requirements, contracting procedures and hiring practices. The effects of layoffs at project completion should also be considered. Accurate forecasts of revenues available to local governments are essential to the development of fair mitigation programs. Increased revenues created as a result of proposed projects should be the basis for mitigation planning. Housing and worker transportation issues should be considered jointly. Depending upon the proximity of a proposed site to different communities, impacts can be radically different given different housing and transportation plans. Housing requirements should be considered by type and location. Per diem and other allowances can be utilized to influence the housing choices made by workers

  2. OS MODELOS DE CRESCIMENTO E DE DESENVOLVIMENTO ECONÔMICO E SUA APLICABILIDADE NAS ECONOMIAS REGIONAIS NÃO DESENVOLVIDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Adelmo M. França

    2012-01-01

    Neste artigo serão apresentadas as definições de crescimento e desenvolvimento econômico e as algumas discussões propostas pelos principais modelos econômicos voltados ao crescimento e desenvolvimento econômicos, questionando o fato deles terem suas origens nas economias desenvolvidas e, portanto, distantes das realidades sociais, políticas e econômicas dos países e das regiões pobres ou em fase de desenvolvimento. As abordagens sobre o tema estarão focadas na realidade econômica brasileira d...

  3. Método Ágil aplicado ao desenvolvimento de software confiável baseado em componentes

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Braz

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Os Métodos Ágeis, ou Desenvolvimento Ágil de Software (DAS), tem se popularizado, na última década, por meio de métodos como Extreme Programming (XP) e Scrum e isso fez com que fossem aplicadas no desenvolvimento de sistemas computacionais de diversos tamanhos, complexidades técnica e de domínio, e de rigor quanto à confiabilidade. Esse fato evidencia a necessidade de processos de desenvolvimento de software que sejam mais rigorosos e que possuam uma quantidade adequada de modelagem e...

  4. O papel das Forças Armadas na I&D da Defesa como vector de desenvolvimento nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Luís

    2010-01-01

    A humanidade sempre se preocupou com o seu bem-estar, de alguma forma. Neste âmbito, o desenvolvimento económico tem vindo a desempenhar um papel fundamental. Após a revolução industrial, mas particularmente depois da II Guerra Mundial, os Estados têm-se preocupado com o respectivo desenvolvimento económico sustentável, entre outras questões, como garante de bem-estar das suas populações. A investigação e desenvolvimento (I&D), no seu conjunto, têm sido apontados como um possível vector de de...

  5. Da revolução verde ao discurso do PRONAF: a representação do desenvolvimento nas políticas públicas de desenvolvimento rural no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michell Leonard Duarte de Lima Tolentino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura refletir acerca das várias representações de desenvolvimento que embasam algumas das políticas públicas de desenvolvimento rural no Brasil, partindo das representações de desenvolvimento subjacentes à Revolução Verde e focando, posteriormente, no discurso do Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (PRONAF. O trabalho se embasa em uma ampla pesquisa bibliográfica e documental. De início abordamos o discurso do desenvolvimento de forma crítica, para logo depois atentarmos para a maneira como este coloca o espaço rural. Para tanto utilizamos autores como Esteva (2000, Escobar (2000, Santos (1979 e Montenegro Gómez (2006. Posteriormente analisamos a Revolução Verde “brasileira” compreendendo o fordismo enquanto seu principal modelo de desenvolvimento. Em seguida, partimos para uma reflexão mais profunda sobre o PRONAF. O PRONAF assume fundamental importância nesse trabalho, pois o entendemos enquanto uma política de extrema relevância para se ler esse momento de inflexão das políticas públicas para o campo, de mudança nas representações sobre o espaço rural e o desenvolvimento rural brasileiro. Ao nos determos no PRONAF, discutimos a mudança de um modelo de desenvolvimento fordista para um modelo de desenvolvimento flexível.

  6. Estudos de algumas correlações dos ovários com os corpos lúteos e o desenvolvimento fetal em fêmeas de bovinos nelore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Barbieri Trevisan

    2012-01-01

    Foram avaliados os ovários direito e esquerdo de 30 vacas prenhes da raça Nelore, cujo aparelhos reprodutores foram coletados em frigoríficos da região de Oeste do Estado de São Paulo. Este material foi conduzidos ao Laboratório de Anatomia Animal do campus da Unesp de Araçatuba, para serem analisados o tamanho do feto, por meio de medida occipito-sacral, sua altura e peso. Também foi obtido dos ovários e corpos lúteos o comprimento, largura e espessura por meio de paquímetro, destas gônadas foram analisados também o seu peso e volume. Estas informações relativas aos ovários e aos corpos lúteos foram correlacionadas com o desenvolvimento fetal, utilizando o programa SAS para analisar o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, além de ajustado um modelo de Regressão Linear Simples. Verificou-se que houve correlação significativa entre as variáveis ovários direito e desenvolvimento fetal, positiva para largura e negativa para espessura. Já entre o corpo lúteo e desenvolvimento do feto houve correlação significativa negativa para o volume.

  7. Destructive Interactions Between Mitigation Strategies and the Causes of Unexpected Failures in Natural Hazard Mitigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S. J.; Fearnley, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large investments in the mitigation of natural hazards, using a variety of technology-based mitigation strategies, have proven to be surprisingly ineffective in some recent natural disasters. These failures reveal a need for a systematic classification of mitigation strategies; an understanding of the scientific uncertainties that affect the effectiveness of such strategies; and an understanding of how the different types of strategy within an overall mitigation system interact destructively to reduce the effectiveness of the overall mitigation system. We classify mitigation strategies into permanent, responsive and anticipatory. Permanent mitigation strategies such as flood and tsunami defenses or land use restrictions, are both costly and 'brittle': when they malfunction they can increase mortality. Such strategies critically depend on the accuracy of the estimates of expected hazard intensity in the hazard assessments that underpin their design. Responsive mitigation strategies such as tsunami and lahar warning systems rely on capacities to detect and quantify the hazard source events and to transmit warnings fast enough to enable at risk populations to decide and act effectively. Self-warning and voluntary evacuation is also usually a responsive mitigation strategy. Uncertainty in the nature and magnitude of the detected hazard source event is often the key scientific obstacle to responsive mitigation; public understanding of both the hazard and the warnings, to enable decision making, can also be a critical obstacle. Anticipatory mitigation strategies use interpretation of precursors to hazard source events and are used widely in mitigation of volcanic hazards. Their critical limitations are due to uncertainties in time, space and magnitude relationships between precursors and hazard events. Examples of destructive interaction between different mitigation strategies are provided by the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami; recent earthquakes that have impacted

  8. Granular metamaterials for vibration mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantzounis, G.; Serra-Garcia, M.; Homma, K.; Mendoza, J. M.; Daraio, C.

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic metamaterials that allow low-frequency band gaps are interesting for many practical engineering applications, where vibration control and sound insulation are necessary. In most prior studies, the mechanical response of these structures has been described using linear continuum approximations. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically address the formation of low-frequency band gaps in locally resonant granular crystals, where the dynamics of the system is governed by discrete equations. We investigate the quasi-linear behavior of such structures. The analysis shows that a stopband can be introduced at about one octave lower frequency than in materials without local resonances. Broadband and multi-frequency stopband characteristics can also be achieved by strategically tailoring the non-uniform local resonance parameters.

  9. Sherlock Project - Investigate to mitigate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allouch, B.; Lorthios, J.; Boccanfuso, M.; Thebault, Y.; Praud, M.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the understanding of ageing mechanisms and to support the asset management of steam generators (SGs), EDF in collaboration with the Materials Ageing Institute (MAI) is undertaking a major project to investigate two retired steam generators. The two selected SGs, one from Cruas unit 4 and the other from Paluel unit 2, are recirculating AREVA designs with thermally treated alloy 600 tube bundles and presenting about 30 years of operation. Topics of interest concern wear mechanisms, vibration fatigue, secondary side corrosion of tubes, denting, clogging, fouling, alloy 690 tube plugs, SG internals, tube ends, secondary side chemistry, zinc injection and NDT (non-destructive testing) probes developments by reliability studies. For each topic, the paper will describe the broad guidelines of the destructive examinations program. Most of these examinations will be performed in the new hot laboratory of EDF called LIDEC

  10. Resiliência e Justiça Organizacional como Antecedentes da Percepção de Desenvolvimento Profissional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Monteiro

    Full Text Available RESUMO O mercado competitivo da atualidade tem exigido mais qualificação dos trabalhadores, o que aumenta a relevância do construto desenvolvimento profissional. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar um modelo de predição da percepção do desenvolvimento profissional. Participaram da pesquisa 320 trabalhadores de diferentes categorias profissionais de organizações públicas e privadas. O questionário continha três escalas, todas com bons indicadores psicométricos. Os resultados apontados a partir da regressão múltipla confirmaram que percepção de justiça organizacional e resiliência predizem positivamente a percepção de desenvolvimento profissional, sendo que esta demonstra maior poder preditivo. Os resultados foram discutidos de acordo com a teoria do desenvolvimento profissional.

  11. The radiological safety in the use of nuclear technique -activities developed by Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, T.; Pereira, E.G.; Hirayama, T.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN supporting the users of nuclear techniques are described. The methodology used and future plans for the group are shown. (E.G.)

  12. Desenvolvimento moral: considerações teóricas a partir de uma abordagem sociocultural construtivista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Lincoln Coimbra

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da análise de trabalhos tradicionalmente realizados na área de desenvolvimento moral, o artigo sinaliza a necessidade de desenvolver uma abordagem teórica que trate o tema dentro de um enfoque que considere os aspectos socioculturais, cognitivos e afetivos. A questão central reside em abordar de forma sistêmica e integrada a dinâmica do desenvolvimento moral do indivíduo, resgatando a dimensão interativa e contextual envolvida na resolução dos conflitos morais e no desenvolvimento de crenças e valores. O trabalho parte dos pressupostos da perspectiva histórica socio-cultural construtivista do desenvolvimento humano, explicitando as exigências metodológicas implicadas na adoção dos conceitos e categorias utilizados no âmbito de tal perspectiva.

  13. Desenvolvimento moral: considerações teóricas a partir de uma abordagem sociocultural construtivista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Coimbra Martins

    Full Text Available Partindo da análise de trabalhos tradicionalmente realizados na área de desenvolvimento moral, o artigo sinaliza a necessidade de desenvolver uma abordagem teórica que trate o tema dentro de um enfoque que considere os aspectos socioculturais, cognitivos e afetivos. A questão central reside em abordar de forma sistêmica e integrada a dinâmica do desenvolvimento moral do indivíduo, resgatando a dimensão interativa e contextual envolvida na resolução dos conflitos morais e no desenvolvimento de crenças e valores. O trabalho parte dos pressupostos da perspectiva histórica socio-cultural construtivista do desenvolvimento humano, explicitando as exigências metodológicas implicadas na adoção dos conceitos e categorias utilizados no âmbito de tal perspectiva.

  14. The electrochemistry of IGSCC mitigation in BWR coolant circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, D.D. [Center for Electrochemical Science and Technology, The Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    A brief review is presented of the electrochemical mitigation of IGSCC in water-cooled reactor heat transport circuit structural materials. Electrochemical control and mitigation is possible, because of the existence of a critical potential for IGSCC and by the feasibility of modifying the environment to displace the corrosion potential (ECP) to a value that is more negative than the critical value. However, even in cases where the ECP cannot be displaced sufficiently in the negative direction to become more negative than the critical potential, considerable advantage is accrued, because of the roughly exponential dependence of crack growth rate on potential. The most important parameters in affecting electrochemical control over the ECP and crack growth rate are the kinetic parameters (exchange current densities and Tafel constants) for the redox reactions involving the principal radiolysis products of water (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), external solution composition (concentrations of O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}), flow velocity, and the conductivity of the bulk environment. The kinetic parameters for the redox reactions essentially determine the charge transfer impedance of the steel surface, which is shown to be one of the key parameters in affecting the magnitude of the coupling current and hence the crack growth rate. The exchange current densities, in particular, are amenable to control by catalysis or inhibition, with the result that surface modification techniques are highly effective in controlling and mitigating IGSCC in reactor coolant circuit materials. (authors)

  15. Playing against nature: improving earthquake hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Stein, J.

    2012-12-01

    The great 2011 Tohoku earthquake dramatically demonstrated the need to improve earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation policies. The earthquake was much larger than predicted by hazard models, and the resulting tsunami overtopped coastal defenses, causing more than 15,000 deaths and $210 billion damage. Hence if and how such defenses should be rebuilt is a challenging question, because the defences fared poorly and building ones to withstand tsunamis as large as March's is too expensive,. A similar issue arises along the Nankai Trough to the south, where new estimates warning of tsunamis 2-5 times higher than in previous models raise the question of what to do, given that the timescale on which such events may occur is unknown. Thus in the words of economist H. Hori, "What should we do in face of uncertainty? Some say we should spend our resources on present problems instead of wasting them on things whose results are uncertain. Others say we should prepare for future unknown disasters precisely because they are uncertain". Thus society needs strategies to mitigate earthquake and tsunami hazards that make economic and societal sense, given that our ability to assess these hazards is poor, as illustrated by highly destructive earthquakes that often occur in areas predicted by hazard maps to be relatively safe. Conceptually, we are playing a game against nature "of which we still don't know all the rules" (Lomnitz, 1989). Nature chooses tsunami heights or ground shaking, and society selects the strategy to minimize the total costs of damage plus mitigation costs. As in any game of chance, we maximize our expectation value by selecting the best strategy, given our limited ability to estimate the occurrence and effects of future events. We thus outline a framework to find the optimal level of mitigation by balancing its cost against the expected damages, recognizing the uncertainties in the hazard estimates. This framework illustrates the role of the

  16. Wildlife mitigation program. Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information

  17. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

  18. Wildlife mitigation program final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and improvement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative, i.e., not to establish program-wide standards. Five standardizing (action) alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information

  19. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The State POC will forward all Flood...

  20. Desenvolvimento de hardware reconfigurável de criptografia assimétrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Souza Martins Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o resultado parcial do desenvolvimento de uma interface de hardware reconfigurável para criptografia assimétrica que permite a troca segura de dados. Hardwares reconfiguráveis permitem o desenvolvimento deste tipo de dispositivo com segurança e flexibilidade e possibilitam a mudança de características no projeto com baixo custo e de forma rápida.Palavras-chave: Criptografia. Hardware. ElGamal. FPGA. Segurança. Development of an asymmetric cryptography reconfigurable harwadre ABSTRACTThis paper presents some conclusions and choices about the development of an asymmetric cryptography reconfigurable hardware interface to allow a safe data communication. Reconfigurable hardwares allows the development of this kind of device with safety and flexibility, and offer the possibility to change some features with low cost and in a fast way.Keywords: Cryptography. Hardware. ElGamal. FPGAs. Security.

  1. Relação entre saúde e saneamento na perspectiva do desenvolvimento

    OpenAIRE

    Heller,Léo

    1998-01-01

    Discute-se a relação entre saúde e saneamento, situando-a no contexto do processo de desenvolvimento social. É defendida inicialmente a inserção dessa relação no atual enfoque saúde e ambiente, reconhecendo que esta nova área não elimina a pertinência da abordagem saúde-saneamento, na verdade sua precursora. Apresenta-se a conceituação de saneamento e sua atual situação no país, além dos marcos conceituais da relação saúde-saneamento. Indicadores de desenvolvimento dos países, enfatizando os ...

  2. Disponibilidades e auto-implicação: desenvolvimento profissional e plurilinguismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, Maria de Lurdes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A crescente importância e o relevo que o plurilinguismo vem adquirindo, alargou o âmbito do trabalho dos docentes de línguas. Assim, a educação plurilingue e intelectual constitui um importante desafio para o crescimento profissional de um educador em línguas, sendo os programas de formação, enquanto mecanismos de desenvolvimento profissional, uma condição necessária para responder a esse desafio. Este texto apresenta um programa de formação para o desenvolvimento do plurilinguismo e analisa as disponibilidades e auto-implicação que esta proposta de formação encontrou no seio do grupo de professores de línguas de uma escola secundária em Portugal

  3. A organização confessional e o desenvolvimento humano frente à pedagogia Montessori

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhon, Edite Maria Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Os fenômenos associados ao contexto das organizações e sua relação com o desenvolvimento humano dos profissionais nela envolvidos têm sido alvo de várias pesquisas e reflexões. Embora muito se fale em mudanças organizacionais, com ênfase na inclusão total e no desenvolvimento do ser humano, de concreto, muito pouco se tem praticado. Num cenário em que...

  4. Rastreio do desenvolvimento psicomotor: influência dos fatores de risco e contributo da psicomotricidade

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Carla Sandra Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências do Desporto O desenvolvimento psicomotor é um processo dinâmico e contínuo que resulta das transformações que vão ocorrendo no ser humano ao longo da sua vida, e que depende da inter-relação entre os fatores genéticos e ambientais. Para se proceder à verificação e avaliação do desenvolvimento, é necessária a utilização de testes válidos, práticos e precisos que nos permitam obter resultados fidedignos, essenciais para que a criança cumpra em ...

  5. O desenvolvimento econômico da Venezuela, 1950/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Romina Batista de Lucena de Souza

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo desta tese é avaliar a contribuição do petróleo no desenvolvimento econômico da Venezuela, entre 1950/2006. Investiga-se por que uma economia rica em petróleo ainda não conseguiu industrializar-se. Seguindo os diferentes períodos governamentais, examinam-se a contribuição das políticas macroeconômicas sobre o desenvolvimento e a questão da doença holandesa e do capitalismo rentístico. Segundo a teoria da base econômica, as regiões crescem em torno de uma base exportadora, exercendo...

  6. A Importância da Criatividade no Desenvolvimento do Indivíduo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Construído com o propósito de enfatizar a importância da criatividade para o desenvolvimento do indivíduo, este trabalho reflete sobre os diversos ambientes criativos (casa, escola e trabalho e sobre as influências dos seus intervenientes. Assim, é abordada neste estudo a criatividade, enquanto definição e conceito, o papel da família e da sua influência no percurso educativo e o ambiente criativo na escola e no mundo profissional. Posteriormente são apresentados estudos sobre a importância da criatividade na educação, e sobre o papel das disciplinas artísticas para o desenvolvimento criativo do indivíduo. Por último, são apresentados alguns casos de sucesso e empreendedorismo, que fundamentam a importância deste tema para o percurso profissional.

  7. A PERCEPÇÃO DO DESENVOLVIMENTO REGIONAL NA GRANDE FRONTEIRA DO MERCOSUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandir Ferrera de Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a percepção do desenvolvimento regional na opinião das lideranças do Fórum da região Grande Fronteira do Mercosul (GFM no Sul do Brasil. A região GFM enfrenta dificuldades em manter seu dinamismo econômico frente ao contexto de globalização, da competitividade dos mercados, das dificuldades das pequenas propriedades rurais e as precárias condições sociais de parcela significativa da sua população. Para as lideranças do Fórum da GFM, o desenvolvimento regional implica na melhoria dos indicadores econômicos e sociais e na ação coordenada da sociedade civil organizada através dos órgãos de governança local.

  8. Diretrizes para o desenvolvimento e a avaliação de blogs de biblioteca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Akie Saito Inafuko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Os blogs se popularizam pela facilidade de uso e publicação, influenciando no aumento de ambientes informacionais digitais. Considera-se necessário estudos que otimizem a organização das informações contidas em blogs, para contribuir no seu desenvolvimento. A partir de observação direta não-participativa, analisou-se em 6 blogs de bibliotecas universitárias elementos de AI (MORVILLE; ROSENFELD, 2006 e diretrizes de Usabilidade (NIELSEN, 2005, identificando-se os elementos fundamentais e opcionais para o desenvolvimento estrutural de um blog. Além disso, foram elaboradas diretrizes de planejamento, um modelo de avaliação, e foram propostos elementos de AI específicos para blogs, contribuindo para os estudos da AI Digital.

  9. Desenvolvimento floral de Sinningia leucotricha (Hohne Moore, Gesneriaceae (rainha-do-abismo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Iuchi

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Flores de rainha-do-abismo, Sinni'ngi'a leucotricha (Hoehne Moore, em vários estádios de desenvolvimento, foram utilizadas para medição, descrição e documentação fotográfica, com o objetivo de estudar o desenvolvimento floral e verificar como ocorre naturalmente a polinização dessa espécie. Em trabalhos de cruzamentos, as flores de Rainha-do-abismo devem ser emasculadas com 3 cm de comprimento (estádio 3, quando as anteras ainda se encontram fechadas, para não correr o risco de uma autofecundação. As flores dessa espécie apresentaram uma dicogamia protândrica numa extensão tal que dificultou a autofecundação, mas não a impediu totalmente.

  10. Metodologia de avaliação e desenvolvimento de grupos de alto desempenho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Carneiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a fundamentação teórica do Projeto de Avaliação e Desenvolvimento de Grupos de Alto Desempenho, concebido com base na metodologia da Meta-aprendizagem, e no Modelo Evolutivo, estendido à luz da Teoria da Complexidade. Visa ao desenvolvimento e aplicação de uma metodologia de avaliação/constituição de grupos de alto desempenho no ambiente de pesquisa e pós-graduação. A metodologia proposta validada empiricamente teve base no aproveitamento das virtudes e potencialidades das teorias que lhe deram origem. É destinado aos docentes e pesquisadores de vários campos do conhecimento, bem como aos dirigentes de instituições de educação superior e de pesquisa.

  11. Aprimorando a Gerência e o Desenvolvimento de Software com Metodologias Ágeis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Andreazza Sganderla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a melhoria da gerência e construção de software utilizando as metodologias ágeis eXtreme Programming e Scrum. São aplicadas as melhores práticas de ambas as metodologias em uma equipe de desenvolvimento de software, em um ambiente em que não havia nenhum processo bem definido de desenvolvimento de software. A escolha pelo uso das metodologias ágeis foi definida, pois atende ao dinamismo do cenário atual, requisitos voláteis, ambiente mais colaborativo e menos burocrático, tendo como objetivo principal o software em funcionamento e que realmente traga retorno ao cliente.

  12. Desenvolvimento de plântulas de limoeiro 'cravo' relacionado a posição de semeadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Robles Walter Geremias

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um ensaio em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de relacionar a posição da semente e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de limoeiro `Cravo'. Foram semeadas nas três prováveis posições que a semente tomaria ao ser lançada ao solo ou substrato: 1 deitada; 2 ápice para cima e 3 ápice para baixo. Este experimento foi realizado em bandejas de poliestireno expandido com 128 células, utilizando-se como substrato a mistura de vermiculita expandida e material orgânico vegetal. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com 4 repetições e 40 sementes por parcela (1 semente/célula. Aos 75 dias após à semeadura, observou-se maior quantidade de plântulas com raízes normais quando colocadas as sementes nas posições deitada e ápice para baixo. A posição ápice para cima apresentou maior quantidade de plântulas com raízes tortas e enoveladas. O comprimento do sistema radicular foi aproximadamente o dobro da parte aérea, independente da posição da semente, ocorrendo o inverso em relação à massa da matéria seca.

  13. Economia e Desenvolvimento Social: A Possibilidade da Utilização de Indicadores Sociais na Avaliação do Desenvolvimento Paranaense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vitor Vicente

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho pretende analisar a progressão de indicadores sociais no Paraná a partir dos anos 1990, utilizando como base de dados os indicadores sociais de Educação, Emprego e Renda, Saúde e Saneamento, disponibilizados pelo Instituto Paranaense de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social - IPARDES. Para o desdobramento de tal reflexão, será resgatado brevemente o desenvolvimento econômico Brasileiro, cujo projeto de Estado está embasado no que se conhece por novo desenvolvimentismo. Do mesmo modo, também será abordada a possibilidade de serem utilizados indicadores sociais públicos e gratuitos, a fim de que os mesmos auxiliem nos procedimentos de análise e problematização de questões sociais que interessam às Ciências Sociais, utilizando-se como exemplo os dados que serão apresentados.

  14. Ação coletiva e coprodução para o desenvolvimento rural: um estudo de caso do Colegiado de Desenvolvimento Territorial da Serra Catarinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coimbra Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a ação coletiva promovida pelo Colegiado de Desenvolvimento Territorial (Codeter da Serra Catarinense, buscando verificar se essa ação colaborou para mobilizar um processo de coprodução do bem público no planejamento e gestão do desenvolvimento rural no território. Foi empregada uma estratégia de investigação de estudo de caso que combinou a utilização de diversas técnicas qualitativas de coleta de dados, análise e interpretação dos resultados. Diferentes paradigmas que tratam da ação coletiva foram considerados, no intuito de examinar a ação concertada promovida no Codeter e suas características principais. Com base no conceito de coprodução e suas variáveis, verificamos que essa ação coletiva engendrou um novo tipo de ação pública, ampliando a participação e a colaboração entre os atores sociais na coconstrução de soluções para os problemas públicos do território.

  15. A CRISE DO PLANEJAMENTO DE TRANSPORTES NOS PAÍSES EM DESENVOLVIMENTO: REAVALIANDO PRESSUPOSTOS E ALTERNATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Vasconcellos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo faz inicialmente uma sistematização dos problemas verificados nos países em desenvolvimento, como contribuição ao entendimento da crise urbana e seus efeitos sobre as condições de transporte, são sugeridos novos pressupostos e novos objetivos de orientação do processo de planejamento de transportes.

  16. Desenvolvimento vegetativo de pinhão-manso em diferentes arranjos de plantio em sistemas agrossilvipastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dias Müller

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes arranjos de plantio no desenvolvimento vegetativo de plantas de pinhão-manso estabelecidas em dois tipos de consórcio agrossilvipastoril. O experimento foi realizado no Município de Coronel Pacheco, MG, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo de parcelas subdivididas. A parcela foi representada por cinco espaçamentos: 6x3 m (555 plantas por hectare, 12x(2x2 m (714 plantas por hectare, 10x(2x2 m (833 plantas por hectare, 8x(2x2 m (1.000 plantas por hectare e 6x1,5 m (1.111 plantas por hectare; e a subparcela, por dois tipos de consórcio: agrossilvipastoril (integração lavoura-pecuária-pinhão-manso e silvipastoril (integração pecuária-pinhão-manso. As avalições foram realizadas nas safras 2010/2011 e 2011/2012. O espaçamento de plantio de 6x3 m proporcionou maior desenvolvimento em diâmetro de copa e número de brotações das plantas de pinhão-manso, na safra 2010/2011. Na safra 2011/2012, foi observado maior desenvolvimento em altura com o espaçamento de plantio de 8x(2x2 m. O consórcio de pinhão-manso x milho x pastagem proporciona maior desenvolvimento das plantas de pinhão-manso para todas as variáveis estudadas nas duas safras.

  17. A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DO GERENCIAMENTO DE PROJETOS NO PROCESSO DE DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PRODUTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Pinto Barcellos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Em um ambiente complexo, caracterizado por uma demanda crescente de produtos customizados e personalizados, a diminuição do tempo de ciclo para o lançamento de novos produtos torna-se um ponto importante para obtenção de um maior retorno do investimento nos projetos de desenvolvimento. Assim, o objetivo proposto neste artigo foi investigar a contribuição das metodologias de gerenciamento de projetos para a diminuição do tempo de desenvolvimento de produtos. Para a realização deste estudo, e tendo em vista o objetivo proposto, foi utilizada metodologia qualitativa bibliográfica. As análises, realizadas no sentido de entender qual o tipo de processo de gerenciamento de projetos pode melhor contribuir para o desenvolvimento de produtos, trouxeram resultados contraditórios no sentido da utilização de métodos prescritivos e adaptativos. Este fato levou a reflexão de que a contribuição apresentada pelas práticas de gerenciamento de projetos para o desenvolvimento de produtos se dá com a verificação do cenário e o grau de inovação do projeto de produto que está sendo desenvolvido e com a utilização de metodologias adaptativas para projetos inovadores em ambientes complexos e metodologias prescritivas para projetos de concepção de rotina em ambientes simples.

  18. Resistindo ao desenvolvimento neocolonial: a luta do povo de Andalgalá contra projetos megamineiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ceci Misoczky

    Full Text Available A América Latina vem experimentando uma nova era de declarada fé dos governos no mito do desenvolvimento, em articulação com a expansão de políticas extrativistas exportadoras em um contexto de renovada dependência. A face mais dramática do extrativismo na região tem sido a crescente presença de corporações mineiras transnacionais apoiadas por governos nacionais e regionais e por instituições internacionais financeiras e de apoio ao desenvolvimento, e intensamente resistidas por movimentos sociais populares. Neste artigo apresentamos o caso de Andalgalá (uma pequena cidade na Província de Catamarca, na Argentina e as lutas do povo contra corporações mineiras transnacionais e seus aliados. Na tradição da Filosofia da Libertação e do método ana-dialético de Dussel, nos engajamos com o que tem sido denominado "comunidades argentinas do NÃO", expressando sua oposição a formas neocoloniais de desenvolvimento e gestão. Neste artigo estamos especificamente interessados em compreender como dois dispositivos gerencialistas usados pelas corporações mineiras, responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC e pactos de governança, impactam a luta do povo. Acima de tudo, este artigo oferece instantâneos de batalhas na linha de frente do extrativismo. Esperamos ter dado voz àquelas pessoas que normalmente não são ouvidas, criando um espaço para suas visões sobre um tipo diferente de desenvolvimento.

  19. Desenvolvimento da linguagem na clínica fonoaudiológica em uma perspectiva multimodal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonaldo Leidson Barbosa Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A aquisição da linguagem contempla um processo dialógico contínuo de desenvolvimento mútuo da fala, dos gestos, do olhar que se (interrelacionam e constituem um único conjunto de produção e de significação. Essa concepção de linguagem multimodal começa a penetrar, atualmente, na prática fonoaudiológica, que busca promover atenção à saúde da comunicação humana. Desse modo, este trabalho buscou analisar o desenvolvimento linguístico, em uma perspectiva multimodal, de uma criança com atraso nesse processo de apropriação da linguagem. Para isso, foram realizadas filmagens de três encontros terapêuticos entre uma díade criança-fonoaudiólogo e foi analisada uma atividade comum nessas sessões: uma brincadeira com um jogo de animais. Constatou-se que há uma integração entre o uso de gestos e da fala, principalmente em partes que atraem mais a atenção da criança. Além disso, houve um desenvolvimento das produções verbais característica da trajetória infantil: na avaliação fonoaudiológica, foi observado que o menino só balbuciava, mais, durante o processo terapêutico, verificou-se o surgimento do uso de jargões e das primeiras palavras reconhecíveis e interpretáveis pelo adulto. Acredita-se que esse desenvolvimento tenha sido favorecido pela terapia fonoaudiológica em parceria à estimulação familiar.

  20. O ensino da escrita e o desenvolvimento das pessoas com deficiência intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Marques Rossato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe uma reflexão teórica acerca do desenvolvimento das crianças com deficiência intelectual no que tange à importância e à necessidade de aprender a linguagem escrita, do ponto de vista da Teoria Histórico-Cultural. Para essa abordagem, o curso de desenvolvimento de uma criança, considerada deficiente ou não, ocorrerá conforme as condições culturais e sociais em que ela estiver inserida. Assim, no tocante à criança com deficiência intelectual, a sua condição cultural, em relação dinâmica com os entraves colocados por sua condição especial, será a fonte de seu desenvolvimento. Se o desenvolvimento das funções psicológicas superiores se realiza mediante o uso de ferramentas e se as pessoas com deficiência intelectual apresentam inaptidão para o uso dessas ferramentas, será necessário criar meios auxiliares para elas poderem aprender a utilizá-las, como meio de formar e desenvolver as suas funções psíquicas. Nesse processo, o ensino e a apropriação da linguagem escrita são vias fundamentais de acesso ao mundo cultural, numa mais ampla significação da comunicação, do mundo e de si mesmo. Em suma, os educadores compreenderem a relevância do ensino intencional da linguagem escrita e do processo histórico que a constitui representa uma contribuição fundamental para o processo de humanização das crianças com deficiência.

  1. A politica nuclear da Argentina e do Brasil : Desenvolvimento, nao-proliferacao e democratizacao

    OpenAIRE

    澤田, 眞治

    1994-01-01

    Este artigo e uma tentativa de analisar o desenvolvimento da politica da energia nuclear da Argentina e do Brasil, com relacao ao regime internacional de naoproliferacao das armas nucleares. Dado o fato de que ambos os paises da America do Sul recusaram a assinatura do TNP(Tratad0 sobre Nao-Proliferacao das Armas Nucleares), em razao do carater discriminatorio de inspecao, a Argentina e o Brasil estavam sendo considerado os estados duvidossos que potencialmente teriam a bomba atomica. A despe...

  2. Nonzero-Sum Relationships in Mitigating Urban Carbon Emissions: A Dynamic Network Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin; Su, Meirong

    2015-10-06

    The "stove-pipe" way of thinking has been mostly used in mitigating carbon emissions and managing socioeconomics because of its convenience of implementation. However, systems-oriented approaches become imperative in pursuit of an efficient regulation of carbon emissions from systems as complicated as urban systems. The aim of this paper is to establish a dynamic network approach that is capable of assessing the effectiveness of carbon emissions mitigation in a more holistic way. A carbon metabolic network is constructed by modeling the carbon flows between economic sectors and environment. With the network shocked by interventions to the sectoral carbon flows, indirect emissions from the city are accounted for under certain carbon mitigation strategies. The nonzero-sum relationships between sectors and environmental components are identified based on utility analysis, which synthesize the nature of direct and indirect network interactions. The results of the case study of Beijing suggest that the stove-pipe mitigation strategies targeted the economic sectors might be not as efficient as they were expected. A direct cutting in material or energy import to the sectors may result in a rebound in indirect emissions and thus fails to achieve the carbon mitigation goal of the city as a whole. A promising way of foreseeing the dynamic mechanism of emissions is to analyze the nonzero-sum relationships between important urban components. Thinking cities as systems of interactions, the network approach is potentially a strong tool for appraising and filtering mitigation strategies of carbon emissions.

  3. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Kappel, Jannik

    and their results are introduced as well. To provide an overview of current trends, related scientific projects and other analyses on climate change mitigation and transport are given in the report. The references used in this report can also serve as a source of data and inspiration for the reader. This report......This report presents the Danish national policies on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reducing Denmark’s dependency on fossil fuels in the transport sector, as well as some of the results of the policies. Systematic focus on efficient transport and climate mitigation started in 2008...... challenges for the transport sectors, which has not yet been systematically analysed from any Governmental body. In this report we list projects which have done so. The first chapter describes policies and initiatives of international relevance within climate mitigation. The following chapters explain...

  4. Soft error mechanisms, modeling and mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sayil, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to various radiation soft-error mechanisms such as soft delays, radiation induced clock jitter and pulses, and single event (SE) coupling induced effects. In addition to discussing various radiation hardening techniques for combinational logic, the author also describes new mitigation strategies targeting commercial designs. Coverage includes novel soft error mitigation techniques such as the Dynamic Threshold Technique and Soft Error Filtering based on Transmission gate with varied gate and body bias. The discussion also includes modeling of SE crosstalk noise, delay and speed-up effects. Various mitigation strategies to eliminate SE coupling effects are also introduced. Coverage also includes the reliability of low power energy-efficient designs and the impact of leakage power consumption optimizations on soft error robustness. The author presents an analysis of various power optimization techniques, enabling readers to make design choices that reduce static power consumption an...

  5. Silk industry and carbon footprint mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, A. M.; Garcia, J. B., Jr.; Zonatti, W. F.; Silva-Santos, M. C.; Laktim, M. C.; Baruque-Ramos, J.

    2017-10-01

    Currently there is a concern with issues related to sustainability and more conscious consumption habits. The carbon footprint measures the total amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced directly and indirectly by human activities and is usually expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents. The present study takes into account data collected in scientific literature regarding the carbon footprint, garments produced with silk fiber and the role of mulberry as a CO2 mitigation tool. There is an indication of a positive correlation between silk garments and carbon footprint mitigation when computed the cultivation of mulberry trees in this calculation. A field of them mitigates CO2 equivalents in a proportion of 735 times the weight of the produced silk fiber by the mulberry cultivated area. At the same time, additional researches are needed in order to identify and evaluate methods to advertise this positive correlation in order to contribute to a more sustainable fashion industry.

  6. A Global Mitigation Hierarchy for Nature Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph W; Addison, Prue F E; Burgass, Michael J; Gianuca, Dimas; Gorham, Taylor M; Jacob, Céline; Watson, James E M; Wilcox, Chris; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Efforts to conserve biodiversity comprise a patchwork of international goals, national-level plans, and local interventions that, overall, are failing. We discuss the potential utility of applying the mitigation hierarchy, widely used during economic development activities, to all negative human impacts on biodiversity. Evaluating all biodiversity losses and gains through the mitigation hierarchy could help prioritize consideration of conservation goals and drive the empirical evaluation of conservation investments through the explicit consideration of counterfactual trends and ecosystem dynamics across scales. We explore the challenges in using this framework to achieve global conservation goals, including operationalization and monitoring and compliance, and we discuss solutions and research priorities. The mitigation hierarchy's conceptual power and ability to clarify thinking could provide the step change needed to integrate the multiple elements of conservation goals and interventions in order to achieve successful biodiversity outcomes. PMID:29731513

  7. Disruption mitigation studies in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Evans, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the discharge behavior, thermal loads, halo currents, and runaway electrons have been obtained in disruptions on the DIII-D tokamak. These experiments have also evaluated techniques to mitigate the disruptions while minimizing runaway electron production. Experiments injecting cryogenic impurity killer pellets of neon and argon and massive amounts of helium gas have successfully reduced these disruption effects. The halo current generation, scaling, and mitigation are understood and are in good agreement with predictions of a semianalytic model. Results from killer pellet injection have been used to benchmark theoretical models of the pellet ablation and energy loss. Runaway electrons are often generated by the pellets and new runaway generation mechanisms, modifications of the standard Dreicer process, have been found to explain the runaways. Experiments with the massive helium gas puff have also effectively mitigated disruptions without the formation of runaway electrons that can occur with killer pellets

  8. Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Christensen, Tove

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evidence for a positive correlation between increased consumption of organic products and potential climate change mitigation via decreased consumption of meat and it is discussed to what extent organic consumption is motivated by climate...... and household heating are perceived as more important strategies. Research limitations/implications – Other food-related mitigation strategies could be investigated. The climate effect of different diets – and how to motivate consumers to pursue them – could be investigated. Individual as opposed to household...... consumers. As some consumers believe that climate change can be mitigated by consuming organic food, the authors propose that this is taken into account in the development of organic farming. Originality/value – The authors propose a shift from analysing the climate-friendliness of production to addressing...

  9. How well do radon mitigation strategies work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matson, N.

    1992-01-01

    Naturally occurring radon in homes can't be completely avoided, but it can be minimized. Indoor air quality researchers compared results of six popular ways to mitigate radon in houses in the Spokane River Valley and New Jersey. Over the course of the past decade, Americans have become aware of the health hazards from radon, a naturally occurring gas that can enter a home through a variety of pathways from the surrounding terrain. Recent research carried out at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and elsewhere suggests that radon mitigation is feasible but requires long-term monitoring to ensure lasting effectiveness. These studies compare the selection, installation, and performance evaluations of several common radon mitigation strategies

  10. Mitigating tin whisker risks theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Handwerker, Carol A; Bath, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks. This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described.

  11. Disruption Mitigation System Developments and Design for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, Larry R. [ORNL; Barbier, Charlotte N. [ORNL; Bull, Nora D. [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Fisher, Paul W. [ORNL; Kiss, Gabor [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Wilgen, John B. [ORNL; Maruyama, So [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Meitner, Steven J. [ORNL; Lyttle, Mark S. [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A. [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R. [ORNL; Smith, Stephen Fulton [ORNL

    2015-09-01

    A disruption mitigation system (DMS) is under design for ITER to inject sufficient material deeply into the plasma for rapid plasma thermal shutdown and collisional suppression of any resulting runaway electrons. Progress on the development and design of both a shattered pellet injector (SPI) that produces large solid cryogenic pellets to provide reliable deep penetration of material and a fast opening high flow rate gas valve for massive gas injection (MGI) is presented. Cryogenic pellets of deuterium and neon up to 25 mm in size have been formed and accelerated with a prototype injector and a full scale prototype MGI valve is now in testing. Implications of the design with respect to response time and reliability at the proposed injector locations on ITER are discussed.

  12. Sensibilizar professores para o desenvolvimento de carreira dos alunos: relato de uma experiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íris M. Oliveira

    Full Text Available A literatura destaca a importância de realizar sessões de sensibilização dos professores para promover a sua influência positiva e intencional, enquanto docentes, nas trajetórias de carreira dos alunos. Este artigo relata uma experiência de realização de uma sessão de sensibilização junto a professores da educação básica de um agrupamento de escolas no noroeste de Portugal. Procurou-se esclarecer o conceito de desenvolvimento de carreira junto dos professores, conscientizá-los para o papel da escola no desenvolvimento de carreira dos alunos e estimular a dinamização de atividades promotoras desse processo. Apresenta-se a estrutura da sessão, as estratégias adotadas para alcançar os objetivos propostos e as reflexões partilhadas e debatidas pelos professores. As apreciações dos intervenientes quanto à sessão de sensibilização mostraram-se favoráveis. Esta experiência ilustra a importância de realizar sessões de sensibilização dos professores nesse domínio, as quais podem sustentar a promoção do desenvolvimento de carreira dos alunos, ao longo da escolaridade.

  13. AGROECOLOGIA: UMA ALTERNATIVA DE DESENVOLVIMENTO RURAL SUSTENTÁVEL PARA OS ASSENTAMENTOS RURAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivea Massaretto Verges

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, observa-se o aumento das discussões, dentro das dimensões acadêmica, econômica, política e social, em relação à agricultura do país e do mundo, dentre as discussões está a questão do desenvolvimento rural sustentável, que existe em documentos, porém está ausente na prática. Um exemplo da ausência do desenvolvimento rural sustentável pode ser encontrado nas famílias de produtores assentadas que, em meio a muitas pressões, acabam se rendendo ao capital, deixando de produzir e desenvolver em seus lotes. Diante disso, este trabalho buscou analisar as características dos assentamentos rurais do Pontal do Paranapanema, identificando seus potenciais e impasses a fim de apresentar as práticas agroecológicas como alternativa para o desenvolvimento rural sustentável dos assentamentos, destacando alguns esboços para um projeto a fim de proporcionar embasamento para que o processo de integração econômica e social dos assentados seja efetivado de forma autônoma pelos mesmos. Para a realização desse trabalho foi utilizado levantamentos bibliográficos e dados obtidos junto ao IBGE e DATALUTA.

  14. Mesorregião Grande Fronteira do Mercosul: perfil locacional do desenvolvimento regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandir Ferrera de Lima

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o perfil das desigualdades regionais na área de abrangência na região Grande Fronteira do Mercosul (GFM, através da mensuração do coeficiente de desenvolvimento regional e do padrão de localização do emprego formal. No âmbito dessa análise ficaram demonstrados dois fenômenos espaciais: um processo de reestruturação espacial e a forte desigualdade das mesorregiões Sudoeste PR, Noroeste RS e Fronteira Oeste RS em relação às outras mesorregiões do Sul do Brasil. Esse resultado fortalece a identificação de particularidades espaciais capazes de esclarecer um padrão de desenvolvimento econômico regional diferenciado nas fronteiras, em particular na Região Sul do Brasil. Os resultados deste estudo forneceram elementos para a intervenção regional, pois é possível, via políticas públicas adequadas, buscar a retomada do dinamismo econômico e o desenvolvimento socioeconômico na GFM.

  15. POLITIZAÇÃO, AMBIENTALIZAÇÃO E DESENVOLVIMENTO TERRITORIAL EM RESERVAS EXTRATIVISTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José da S. A. Teisserenc

    Full Text Available Esse artigo, resultante de pesquisas no contexto de duas Resex marinhas do estado do Pará, Mãe Grande do Curuçá e São João da Ponta, trata de mudanças que vêm ocorrendo no poder local, relacionadas à criação de áreas protegidas na Amazônia brasileira. Observa-se, então, uma politização dos desafios locais, manifesta como resultado do trabalho realizado nos Conselhos Deliberativos, nos quais a mobilização das comunidades e o engajamento de seus representantes possibilitam debates que dizem respeito ao desenvolvimento de seu território conforme exigências ambientais. Trata-se de uma dinâmica significativa de um desenvolvimento territorial que se beneficia de uma ambientalização geral gerada com a criação das Reservas e do valor deliberativo dos compromissos de membros conselheiros como uma instância política. Essa situação constitui interessante oportunidade de análise das relações entre práticas de democracia local de tipo deliberativo e uma orientação de desenvolvimento que inspira o engajamento dos atores locais em instituições novas, como os Conselhos Deliberativos.

  16. ATIVIDADES CORPORAIS AQUÁTICAS EM ESPECIAL O MERGULHO E O DESENVOLVIMENTO DO PSIQUISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celi Taffarel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo situa-se entre os que investigam o desenvolvimento do psiquismo ressaltando o papel da educação escolar e o acesso ao conhecimento clássico sobre as atividades corporais aquáticas, e dentre elas o mergulho, no desenvolvimento dos processos funcionais, através do ensino e da aprendizagem de conteúdos nucleares na escola. Objetivo:Analisar o desenvolvimento do psiquismo à luz da psicologia histórico-cultural e propor o trato com o conhecimento clássico sobre atividades aquáticas, em especial o mergulho, a luz da pedagogia histórico-critica, defendendo este conhecimento como nuclear no currículo escolar, nos estudos sobre a relação “ser humano-água”, para a elevação da capacidade teórica dos estudantes, através da metodologia do ensino critico-suparadora.

  17. Inglês como língua franca: desenvolvimentos recentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Gimenez

    Full Text Available Em face da atual posição do inglês como uma língua franca global, este artigo tem como principal objetivo discutir os desenvolvimentos recentes dessa área, tomando como base os trabalhos apresentados durante a 7th International Conference on English as a Lingua Franca, realizada em Atenas, Grécia, em setembro de 2014. As reflexões, aprofundadas nos tópicos i Teorizações sobre ILF; ii ILF e formação de professores; iii Desenvolvimentos futuros, trazem um olhar analítico sobre os temas discutidos no evento. Espera-se que as informações e reflexões aqui contempladas possam contribuir para o desenvolvimento de uma "curiosidade acadêmica" a respeito do paradigma ILF (inglês como língua franca e para o engajamento com suas questões e implicações.

  18. Considerações sobre o desenvolvimento de jogos por meio do framework Scrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Hamada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Os jogos (games se configuram como a contemporânea maneira das pessoas se relacionarem com as soluções tecnológicas e com os aplicativos. As expansões nas vendas dos dispositivos, dos aplicativos e os números de usuários, ano a ano, aumentam em proporções interessantes em termos de negócios e de consolidação de tendências nos hábitos. Desta forma, o desenvolvimento rápido, eficaz e de qualidade para os jogos se torna essencial para as empresas e para os parceiros que participam das suas elaborações, comercialização, suporte e disseminação. Utilizam-se metodologias diversas para esse desenvolvimento, tendo as metodologias ágeis as maiores possibilidades de sucesso. Este artigo trata do desenvolvimento dos jogos, as metodologias aplicadas e, em particular, do framework Scrum. Conclui-se que o Scrum é efetivamente uma boa opção para a construção de jogos, em função de suas características próprias.

  19. Alinhando objetivos estratégicos e processo de desenvolvimento em empresas de software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leme Fleury

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas de software são atualmente responsáveis por parte significativa das inovações tecnológicas viabilizadas em produtos e serviços. A história do software é recente, assim como são recentes as pesquisas sobre o tema, que tem como foco principal o aprimoramento dos seus processos de desenvolvimento. Apesar das contribuições trazidas por essas teorias, a questão do alinhamento entre objetivos estratégicos e o processo de desenvolvimento nas empresas de software considerando as suas principais capacidades produtivas permanece um tema inexplorado. Como consequência, técnicas da engenharia de software são aplicadas sem incorporar considerações de valor nos processos de análise e na tomada de decisões. Este artigo analisa e apresenta soluções para duas questões: como diferenciar as empresas de software de acordo com seus processos produtivos mais relevantes e como garantir que esses processos de desenvolvimento encontram-se alinhados com os objetivos do negócio. A abordagem resultante inclui um referencial para classificação de empresas de software e uma técnica de planejamento tecnológico para essas empresas. O projeto de pesquisa incluiu a realização de surveys, pesquisa-ação e estudos de caso.

  20. O desafio político do desenvolvimento sustentado The political challenge of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto P. Guimarães

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A unanimidade que hoje parece haver em favor do desenvolvimento sustentado contrasta com a ausência de iniciativas políticas significativas para transformar as instituições econômicas, sociais e políticas que estão comprometidas com o estilo vigente de desenvolvimento. Em particular, há uma patente contradição entre o discurso antiestatista hegemônico e as exigências do desenvolvimento sustentado, que incluem um Estado ainda mais forte, em suas capacidades reguladoras e de planificação, que o Estado intervencionista do passado.The seeming unanimity in favour of sustainable development stands in contrast to the absence of meaningful political initiatives in order to change the economic, social and political intitutions linked to the ongoing style of development In particular there is a patent contradiction between the hegemonic antistatist discourse and the requirements for sustainable development, including a state with even more regulatory and planning powers than the interventionist state of the past.

  1. Desdobramento da qualidade no desenvolvimento de filmes flexíveis para embalagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Paulo A. Cauchick

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos métodos atuais importantes para o desenvolvimento de produtos é o QFD (Quality Function Deployment ou Desdobramento da Função Qualidade. O QFD consiste em um processo sistemático para traduzir a opinião do cliente em requisitos técnicos e operacionais, mostrando e documentando as informações na forma de matrizes. O método objetiva enfocar os itens mais importantes, proporcionando um mecanismo para alcançar vantagens competitivas no processo de desenvolvimento. Este trabalho destaca o conceito do QFD, citando uma aplicação em uma empresa que produz filmes flexíveis de polipropileno (BOPP. O trabalho apresenta alguns aspectos da introdução do método na empresa, apontando as dificuldades encontradas, resultados e benefícios decorrentes da implantação. Dentre os benefícios gerados, destacam-se a importância do papel do QFD como um método para sistematizar o processo de desenvolvimento, bem como outros benefícios para a equipe, tais como melhoria nas habilidades de planejamento, disseminação do conhecimento e melhoria de comunicação entre as áreas funcionais.

  2. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  3. Using periodicity to mitigate ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of trenches, barriers and wave impeding blocks on the transmission path between a source and receiver can be used for mitigation of ground vibration. However, to be effective a barrier must have a depth of about one wavelength of the waves to be mitigated. Hence, while great reductions......: A soil with periodic stiffening (ground improvement) and a ground with periodic changes in the surface elevation obtained by artificial landscaping. By means of a two-dimensional finite-element model, the stiffness and mass matrices are determined for a single cell of the ground with horizonal...

  4. Materials, critical materials and clean-energy technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggert R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern engineered materials, components and systems depend on raw materials whose properties provide essential functionality to these technologies. Some of these raw materials are subject to supply-chain risks, and such materials are known as critical materials. This paper reviews corporate, national and world perspectives on material criticality. It then narrows its focus to studies that assess “what is critical” to clean-energy technologies. The focus on supply-chain risks is not meant to be alarmist but rather to encourage attention to monitoring these risks and pursuing technological innovation to mitigate the risks.

  5. Materials, critical materials and clean-energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, R.

    2017-07-01

    Modern engineered materials, components and systems depend on raw materials whose properties provide essential functionality to these technologies. Some of these raw materials are subject to supply-chain risks, and such materials are known as critical materials. This paper reviews corporate, national and world perspectives on material criticality. It then narrows its focus to studies that assess "what is critical" to clean-energy technologies. The focus on supply-chain risks is not meant to be alarmist but rather to encourage attention to monitoring these risks and pursuing technological innovation to mitigate the risks.

  6. Two strategies for the development of mitochondrion-targeted small molecule radiation damage mitigators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Beck, Barbara; Wang, Wei; Doemling, Alexander; Epperly, Michael W.; Shields, Donna; Goff, Julie P.; Franicola, Darcy; Dixon, Tracy; Frantz, Marie-Céline; Wipf, Peter; Tyurina, Yulia; Kagan, Valerian E.; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation of acute ionizing radiation damage by mitochondrion-targeted small molecules. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the ability of nitroxide-linked alkene peptide isostere JP4-039, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-linked alkene peptide esostere

  7. Fatores prognósticos para o desenvolvimento cognitivo de prematuros de muito baixo peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dalva Barbosa Baker Méio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Crianças prematuras, de muito baixo peso, podem apresentar alterações em seu desenvolvimento cognitivo. No Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre a evolução dessas crianças na idade pré-escolar. O objetivo do estudo foi descrever o desenvolvimento cognitivo de uma população de recém-nascidos prematuros de muito baixo peso e verificar possíveis fatores prognósticos para desenvolvimento cognitivo anormal. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de coorte foi realizado com uma população de crianças pré-escolares, nascidas prematuras, de muito baixo peso, entre janeiro de 1991 e setembro de 1993. O desenvolvimento cognitivo foi avaliado por meio do teste WPPSI-R (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Intelligence Scales aplicado por psicólogas, utilizando dois pontos de corte para definição de anormalidade: escores abaixo de 1 e 2, desvios padrões da média (DP. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 79 crianças de quatro a cinco anos de idade. A média do escore total do teste WIPPSI-R foi de 75,6 (±11,9. A incidência de escore total anormal foi de 77,2% e de 32,9% (1DP e 2 DP, respectivamente. Após o ajuste por "tipo de parto", ser pequeno para a idade gestacional (OR=6,19; IC95% 1,60-23,86, ultra-som transfontanela anormal (OR=5,90; IC95% 1,04-9,83 e ser do sexo masculino (OR=3,20; IC 95% 1,32-26,35 foram os fatores que predisseram escore total <70 (2 DP. CONCLUSÃO: Houve maior comprometimento do desenvolvimento cognitivo nas crianças estudadas do que o descrito na literatura. Ser pequeno para idade gestacional, ultra-som transfontanela anormal e sexo masculino foram fatores prognósticos de pior evolução.

  8. DESENVOLVIMENTO LOCAL E MANEJO DA CAATINGA NO ASSENTAMENTO HIPÓLITO, EM MOSSORÓ/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. G. Pereira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas tem havido uma preocupação muito grande com o tipo de desenvolvimento que vem sendo implementado pelos governos. A partir daí, criou-se a noção de desenvolvimento sustentável, o qual se baseia em um crescimento econômico que seja acompanhado por eqüidade social e prudência ecológica. Em muitos projetos de assentamentos têm sido desenvolvidos pesquisas com o objetivo de analisar como vem se processando tais experiências. Nossa investigação teve como meta verificar os impactos sócio-ambientais trazidos a partir do uso da caatinga no assentamento Hipólito, no município de Mossoró, no Oeste do RN. Preocupou-nos saber se naquele projeto de assentamento tem ocorrido um desenvolvimento local, baseado em critérios de sustentabilidade. A metodologia empregada foi a realização de entrevistas com 29 assentados, o que corresponde a 20% da população total do assentamento, além de leituras de outros trabalhos e artigos de jornais. O trabalho está em fase de conclusão, porém a partir de estudos de campo, realizados no mês de agosto de 2004, podemos apresentar os seguintes resultados: quanto ao aspecto sócio-econômico, os assentados têm na agricultura de sequeiro a atividade econômica principal; a produtividade é baixa e a renda é complementada com “bicos”, aposentadorias e/ou com o dinheiro advindo dos planos de assistência social do Governo Federal; a agricultura é realizada sem os devidos cuidados com o meio ambiente, e o desmatamento desordenado tem agravado ainda mais os problemas presentes no bioma caatinga, tais como salinização, a desertificação e o desaparecimento de espécies da fauna e da flora. Face ao exposto, podemos concluir que a realidade observada no assentamento aponta para a insustentabilidade sócio-econômica e ambiental naquela área. Palavras-chave: sustentabilidade; caatinga; assentamento; desenvolvimento rural; desenvolvimento local.

  9. A taxa de câmbio no centro da teoria do desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta as principais ideias da macroeconomia estruturalista do desenvolvimento - a teoria por trás de novo-desenvolvimentismo. Seu foco é a taxa de câmbio que é pela primeira vez colocada no centro da economia do desenvolvimento. A teoria econômica geralmente vê a taxa de câmbio como um problema de curto prazo a ser discutido na macroeconomia. A macroeconomia estruturalista do desenvolvimento mostra que há, nos países em desenvolvimento, a tendência à sobreapreciação cíclica da taxa de câmbio causada pela falta de neutralização da doença holandesa e por entradas de capital excessivas. Em consequência, considera a taxa de câmbio cronicamente sobreapreciada e, por isso, um grande obstáculo ao crescimento econômico. No processo de desenvolvimento, a taxa de câmbio tem a função de um interruptor de luz que conecta ou desconecta as empresas nacionais que utilizam a tecnologia no estado da arte mundial dos mercados mundiais.This paper presents the main ideas of structuralist development macroeconomics - the theory behind new developmentalism. Its focus is on the exchange rate that is positioned for the first time in the core of development economics. Economic theory usually views the exchange rate as a short term problem to be discussed in open macroeconomics. Structuralist development macroeconomics argues that there is in developing countries a tendency to the cyclical overvaluation of the exchange rate caused by the lack of neutralization of the Dutch disease and by excessive capital inflows. In consequence it views the exchange rate as chronically overvalued, and, for that reason, a major obstacle to economic growth. In the development process, the exchange rate has the role of light switch that connects or disconnects the national business enterprises utilizing technology in the world state of the art from world markets.

  10. Desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de Butia odorata (Barb. Rodr. Noblick cultivadas em recipientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudimar Sidnei Fior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Butia odorata (Barb.Rodr. Noblick (butiazeiro é uma palmeira nativa do sul do Brasil, com grande demanda para usos ornamental e agroindustrial. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de butiazeiro, em recipientes com diferentes composições de substratos. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação sem controle de temperatura e umidade. Foram utilizadas mudas com 60 dias após a germinação, e avaliados os substratos, em cinco proporções, dos componentes casca de arroz carbonizada e casca de pinus. Em etapa posterior, monitorou-se o efeito do pH do substrato no desenvolvimento das mudas mantidas nos mesmos recipientes e tratamentos. Para tanto, as plantas foram distribuídas em igual número e representação dos tratamentos, em quatro grupos, com quatro níveis de pH do substrato (4,0; 4,9; 5,8 e 6,7. Noventa dias após o início da primeira etapa, e 161 dias após o início da segunda, foram avaliados o desenvolvimento das plantas, a condutividade elétrica e o pH dos substratos. Na primeira etapa, constatou-se diferença entre os tratamentos somente para altura das plantas e pH do substrato, ambas relacionadas diretamente com a proporção de casca de pinus na formulação. Na segunda etapa, a composição do substrato foi determinante para o maior desenvolvimento das mudas. Somente o número de folhas não apresentou diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Contudo, para todas as variáveis, a presença de casca de pinus, mesmo em baixa proporção, foi suficiente para favorecer o desenvolvimento vegetativo.

  11. Estudo longitudinal do desenvolvimento da comunicação em diversas economias mundiais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio José Montero Arruda Filho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento do setor de comunicação de um país possui relações com o seu desenvolvimento econômico e é possível demonstrar essa conexão estatisticamente, como tem sido feito por pesquisadores de instituições como a ITU (International Telecommunications Union. Como esses dados estão apenas apresentados na forma simples e não levam em conta fatores de interconexão, é importante desenvolver pesquisas que avaliem a conexão entre variáveis relevantes no campo. Este trabalho visa analisar os fatores de desenvolvimento tecnológico de comunicação que melhor descrevem o posicionamento econômico de um país, integrando a usabilidade dos serviços de comunicação com o status econômico. Foram utilizados dados de 56 países, escolhidos aleatoriamente. Uma pesquisa na forma de datamining foi realizada, a qual analisou os dados existentes já previamente coletados por instituições de pesquisa tais como ITU, World Bank, e outras. Cada fator de usabilidade, preferência e serviço analisado é apontado como um reflexo de outros serviços e usos anteriormente desenvolvidos. Parte da literatura sobre esse tópico (ARRUDA FILHO; CASSIA; MARINO, 2008; CHERRY, 2007; DAVIES; HARDT; KELLY, 2004 argument que o desenvolvimento econômico de certos países existe como resultado de um aumento do desenvolvimento tecnológico, porém outras demonstram ou informam o contrário. Este artigo apresenta essas relações em certos países, escolhidos pela quantidade de informação disponível considerando sua posição de desenvolvimento global, relacionando diretamente o comportamento de crescimento ou redução no uso das tecnologias, tais como telefone e internet. Este trabalho coletou dados de duas fontes mundiais de informação dos setores mencionados: a International Telecommunications Union (ITU e o World Bank. Utilizaram-se as técnicas estatísticas de regressão e análise de variância para a análise de dados de 56 países ao longo de

  12. Making the decision to mitigate risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid M. Martin; Holly Wise Bender; Carol Raish

    2007-01-01

    Why individuals choose to mitigate, downplay, or ignore risk has been a topic of much research over the past 25 years for natural- and human-created risks, such as earthquakes, flooding, smoking, contraceptive use, and alcohol consumption. Wildfire has been a relatively recent focus in the natural hazard literature, perhaps a result of several years of catastrophic...

  13. Designing Cyberbullying Prevention and Mitigation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashktorab, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    While cyberbullying is prevalent among adolescents, attempts by researchers to evaluate mechanisms for its prevention and mitigation have been largely non-existent. In this dissertation, I argue that the complex nature of cyberbullying, made more challenging by the affordances of diverse social media, cannot be solved through strictly algorithmic…

  14. Towards exascale real-time RFI mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwpoort, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an extremely scalable real-time RFI mitigation method, based on the offline AOFlagger. All algorithms scale linearly in the number of samples. We describe how we implemented the flagger in the LOFAR real-time pipeline, on both CPUs and GPUs. Additionally,

  15. Mitigation of global warming through renewable biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, R.S.; Wuehlisch, George von

    2013-01-01

    Rising level of atmospheric CO 2 and consequent global warming is evident. Global surface temperature have already increased by 0.8 °C over the 20th century and is projected to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during the twenty-first century. The global warming will continue till atmospheric concentrations of the major greenhouse gases are stabilized. Among them, CO 2 is mainly responsible and is expected to account for about 60% of the warming over the next century. This study reviews advances on causes and consequences of global climate change and its impact on nature and society. Renewable biomass has tremendous potential to mitigate the global warming. Renewable biomass is expected to play a multifunctional role including food production, source of energy and fodder, biodiversity conservation, yield of goods and services to the society as well as mitigation of the impact of climate change. The review highlights the different management and research strategies in forestry, agriculture, agroforestry and grasslands to mitigate the global warming. -- Highlights: ► Rising level of atmospheric CO 2 and consequent global warming is evident. ► CO 2 is mainly responsible for global warming. ► Global temperature is predicted to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during 21st century. ► Renewable biomass has great potential to mitigate the global warming

  16. 50 CFR 218.104 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Mitigation. (a) When conducting training and utilizing the sound sources or explosives identified in § 218... Handbook (Naval Education and Training Command [NAVEDTRA] 12968-D). (iii) Lookout training shall include on... Lookout Training Handbook (NAVEDTRA 12968-D). (vi) After sunset and prior to sunrise, lookouts shall...

  17. Mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Ellis, J. L.; de Klein, C. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Models are widely used to simulate the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). They help to identify knowledge gaps, estimate total emissions for inventories, develop mitigation options and policies, raise awareness and encourage adoption. These models vary in scale, scope and methodological approach...

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation with scarce land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E; Prochnow, A

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural lands have been identified to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions primarily by production of energy crops and substituting fossil energy resources and through carbon sequestration in soils. Increased fertilizer input resulting in increased yields may reduce the area needed for crop...

  19. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boer, IJM; Cederberg, C; Eady, S

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG...

  20. 50 CFR 216.216 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.216 Mitigation. (a) The...

  1. 50 CFR 216.184 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mitigation. 216.184 Section 216.184 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the coast from 47°07′ N. to 48°30′ N. latitude December January, March and May. (9) Flower Garden...

  2. Cryogenic Filters for RFI Mitigation in Radioastronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Tuccari, G.; Caddemi, A.; Barbarino, S.; Nicotra, G.; Consoli, F.; Schilliro, F.; Catalfamo, F.

    2005-01-01

    RFI mitigation in Radioastronomy can be achieved adopting cryogenic filters in appropriate typologies. A study has been conducted in L, C and X band with the evaluation of the filter architecture in copper, with theoretical estimation, computer simulations, prototypes realization, laboratory measurements. Such work has been preliminary to the realization of HTS samples with the purpose of a similar complete characterization approach.

  3. Collaborative Attack Mitigation and Response: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberger, Jessica; Sperotto, Anna; Baier, Harald; Pras, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, network-based attacks have become to one of the top causes of network infrastructure and service outages. To counteract a network-based attack, an approach is to move mitigation from the target network to the networks of Internet Service Providers (ISP). However, it remains

  4. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation : Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra-Berns, Mary

    2003-01-01

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group continued to actively engage in implementing wildlife mitigation actions in 2002. Regular Work Group meetings were held to discuss budget concerns affecting the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program, to present potential acquisition projects, and to discuss and evaluate other issues affecting the Work Group and Project. Work Group members protected 1,386.29 acres of wildlife habitat in 2002. To date, the Albeni Falls project has protected approximately 5,914.31 acres of wildlife habitat. About 21% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Administrative activities have increased as more properties are purchased and continue to center on restoration, operation and maintenance, and monitoring. In 2001, Work Group members focused on development of a monitoring and evaluation program as well as completion of site-specific management plans. This year the Work Group began implementation of the monitoring and evaluation program performing population and plant surveys, data evaluation and storage, and map development as well as developing management plans. Assuming that the current BPA budget restrictions will be lifted in the near future, the Work Group expects to increase mitigation properties this coming year with several potential projects.

  5. Alternative entrepreneurial options: a policy mitigation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on alternative entrepreneurial options as a mitigation strategy against climate change among part-time farmers in Abia state Nigeria. Some farmers abandoned farming in the face of reoccurring adverse weather conditions to other livelihood sustaining activities. The objectives were to examine the ...

  6. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action: Understanding NAMA Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Sudhir; Desgain, Denis DR

    There is no internationally defined or agreed Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action(NAMA) cycle, as was the case, for example, with the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) project cycle. However, there are some common steps that NAMA identification, formulation, and implementation will all go...

  7. Extended blackout mitigation strategy for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prošek, Andrej; Volkanovski, Andrija

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Equipment for mitigation of the extended blackout is investigated. • Analysis is done with deterministic safety analysis methods. • Strategy to prevent core heatup and not overfill steam generator is proposed. • Six types of reactor coolant system loss scenarios are investigated. • Pump flowrates and available start time to feed steam generators is determined. - Abstract: The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant demonstrated the vulnerability of the plants on the loss of electrical power and loss of the ultimate heat sink events. A set of measures are proposed and currently implemented in response of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Those measures include diverse and flexible mitigation strategies that increase the defence-in-depth for beyond-design-basis scenarios. Mitigation strategies are based on the utilization of the portable equipment to provide power and water to the nuclear power plants in order to maintain or restore key safety functions. The verification of the proposed measures with the plant specific safety analyses is endorsed in the mitigation strategies. This paper investigates utilization of the turbine driven auxiliary feedwater pump (TD-AFW) or portable water injection pump for the mitigation of the event of loss of all alternate current sources and batteries (extended station blackout). Methodology for assessment of the required pump injection flow rate with the application of the standard deterministic safety analysis code is developed and presented. The required injection rate to the steam generators is calculated from the cumulative water mass injected by the turbine driven auxiliary feedwater pump in the analysed scenarios, when desired normal level is maintained automatically. The developed methodology allows assessment of the required injections rates of pump, TD-AFW or portable, for different plant configurations and number of flow rate changes. The methodology is applied

  8. Extended blackout mitigation strategy for PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prošek, Andrej, E-mail: andrej.prosek@ijs.si; Volkanovski, Andrija, E-mail: andrija.volkanovski@ijs.si

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Equipment for mitigation of the extended blackout is investigated. • Analysis is done with deterministic safety analysis methods. • Strategy to prevent core heatup and not overfill steam generator is proposed. • Six types of reactor coolant system loss scenarios are investigated. • Pump flowrates and available start time to feed steam generators is determined. - Abstract: The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant demonstrated the vulnerability of the plants on the loss of electrical power and loss of the ultimate heat sink events. A set of measures are proposed and currently implemented in response of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Those measures include diverse and flexible mitigation strategies that increase the defence-in-depth for beyond-design-basis scenarios. Mitigation strategies are based on the utilization of the portable equipment to provide power and water to the nuclear power plants in order to maintain or restore key safety functions. The verification of the proposed measures with the plant specific safety analyses is endorsed in the mitigation strategies. This paper investigates utilization of the turbine driven auxiliary feedwater pump (TD-AFW) or portable water injection pump for the mitigation of the event of loss of all alternate current sources and batteries (extended station blackout). Methodology for assessment of the required pump injection flow rate with the application of the standard deterministic safety analysis code is developed and presented. The required injection rate to the steam generators is calculated from the cumulative water mass injected by the turbine driven auxiliary feedwater pump in the analysed scenarios, when desired normal level is maintained automatically. The developed methodology allows assessment of the required injections rates of pump, TD-AFW or portable, for different plant configurations and number of flow rate changes. The methodology is applied

  9. Mitigating IASCC of Reactor Core Internals by Post-Irradiation Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, Gary [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-06-02

    This final report summarizes research performed during the period between September 2012 and December 2016, with the objective of establishing the effectiveness of post-irradiation annealing (PIA) as an advanced mitigation strategy for irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). This was completed by using irradiated 304SS control blade material to conduct crack initiation and crack growth rate (CGR) experiments in simulated BWR environment. The mechanism by which PIA affects IASCC susceptibility will also be verified. The success of this project will provide a foundation for the use of PIA as a mitigation strategy for core internal components in commercial reactors.

  10. Mitigating IASCC of Reactor Core Internals by Post-Irradiation Annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Was, Gary

    2017-01-01

    This final report summarizes research performed during the period between September 2012 and December 2016, with the objective of establishing the effectiveness of post-irradiation annealing (PIA) as an advanced mitigation strategy for irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). This was completed by using irradiated 304SS control blade material to conduct crack initiation and crack growth rate (CGR) experiments in simulated BWR environment. The mechanism by which PIA affects IASCC susceptibility will also be verified. The success of this project will provide a foundation for the use of PIA as a mitigation strategy for core internal components in commercial reactors.

  11. Stress Concentration and Its Mitigation Techniques in Flat Plate with Singularities - A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhashish Sanyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of analytical, numerical & experimental techniques are available for the reduction of stress concentration factor around discontinuities. Using various techniques the SCF around different discontinuities in a rectangular plate made up of different materials under different loading conditions have been reported in literature. Mitigation of stress concentration around different types of discontinuity is also reported in literature. This paper is to present an analysis and overview of emerging techniques developed for analysis as well as mitigation of stress concentration. The proposed methods in literature are compared.

  12. A Cooperação Triangular e as Transformações da Cooperação Internacional para o Desenvolvimento

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Ayllón Pino

    2013-01-01

    Nas últimas décadas, a Cooperação Internacional para o Desenvolvimento (CID) tem experimentado modalidades alternativas de execução, integrando países desenvolvidos, países em desenvolvimento e organismos multilaterais em formatos triangulares. Em um contexto de crise econômica, as limitações da CID para promover o desenvolvimento, somadas às dúvidas sobre o cumprimento dos compromissos financeiros dos doadores da Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico (OCDE), propiciaram o...

  13. Percepção e convenção : o desenvolvimento do conceito de representação pictórica em Gombrich, Goodman e Wollheim

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Sebben de Souza

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho trata do tema da representação pictórica no contexto da representação artística e se concentra sobre as teses desenvolvidas sobre o tema nas teorias de Ernst Gombrich, Nelson Goodman, e Richard Wollheim. Procura evidenciar que, no panorama conceitual desses autores, é possível encontrar subsídios para o desenvolvimento de uma teoria da representação pictórica que suponha a dualidade entre a consciência da forma material e a consciência do conteúdo da representação de modo ...

  14. State of the art of mitigation and relation mitigation/adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Van Doorn, J.; Verheggen, B.; Sahan, E.; Boersma, A.R. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    This study has the main purpose to make useful information available for the programming of the Knowledge for Climate (KfC) program. The emphasis has been laid on a broad overview of mitigation options and relations, complemented with more detailed information on new or less known options and insights. The mitigation option biomass gets special attention in this study. The production of biomass has many (positive and negative) relations with other elements of the KfC program like space use and adaptation. Recently a global discussion on biomass usage for biofuels has started (food or fuel). Therefore a separate chapter will be dedicated to the sustainability aspects of biomass. An overview of technical mitigation measures with emphasis on the energy supply side is presented. This overview shows the large number of available and innovative options and the vast potential for reduction of the emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) of these mitigation measures. The effectiveness of many mitigation options is strongly dependent on local conditions and implementation issues. A number of innovative mitigation measures such as aquatic biomass and biomass in combination with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are described in more detail. Biomass for energy has many different forms and applications. It is one of the mitigation options with a high potential, but at the same time it can have negative environmental impacts and might compete with other forms of land use including food production. This makes bio-energy a promising but complex option, which makes careful evaluation necessary. Several examples of multifunctional land use show that by combining functions, synergy can be achieved. This could lead to a reduction of potentially negative impacts and thus easier implementation. Furthermore, novel technologies for reducing or offsetting climate change such as air capture and artificial cooling might have a high potential as mitigation option, but need to be examined before

  15. Mitigating the Urban Heat Island Effect in Megacity Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Sodoudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities demonstrate higher nocturnal temperatures than surrounding rural areas, which is called “urban heat island” (UHI effect. Climate change projections also indicate increase in the frequency and intensity of heat waves, which will intensify the UHI effect. As megacity Tehran is affected by severe heatwaves in summer, this study investigates its UHI characteristics and suggests some feasible mitigation strategies in order to reduce the air temperature and save energy. Temperature monitoring in Tehran shows clear evidence of the occurrence of the UHI effect, with a peak in July, where the urban area is circa 6 K warmer than the surrounding areas. The mobile measurements show a park cool island of 6-7 K in 2 central parks, which is also confirmed by satellite images. The effectiveness of three UHI mitigation strategies high albedo material (HAM, greenery on the surface and on the roofs (VEG, and a combination of them (HYBRID has been studied using simulation with the microscale model ENVI-met. All three strategies show higher cooling effect in the daytime. The average nocturnal cooling effect of VEG and HYBRID (0.92, 1.10 K is much higher than HAM (0.16 K, although high-density trees show a negative effect on nocturnal cooling.

  16. Corrosion fatigue of biomedical metallic alloys: mechanisms and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Renato Altobelli; de Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes

    2012-03-01

    Cyclic stresses are often related to the premature mechanical failure of metallic biomaterials. The complex interaction between fatigue and corrosion in the physiological environment has been subject of many investigations. In this context, microstructure, heat treatments, plastic deformation, surface finishing and coatings have decisive influence on the mechanisms of fatigue crack nucleation and growth. Furthermore, wear is frequently present and contributes to the process. However, despite all the effort at elucidating the mechanisms that govern corrosion fatigue of biomedical alloys, failures continue to occur. This work reviews the literature on corrosion-fatigue-related phenomena of Ti alloys, surgical stainless steels, Co-Cr-Mo and Mg alloys. The aim was to discuss the correlation between structural and surface aspects of these materials and the onset of fatigue in the highly saline environment of the human body. By understanding such correlation, mitigation of corrosion fatigue failure may be achieved in a reliable scientific-based manner. Different mitigation methods are also reviewed and discussed throughout the text. It is intended that the information condensed in this article should be a valuable tool in the development of increasingly successful designs against the corrosion fatigue of metallic implants. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomimetic Hydrogel Composites for Soil Stabilization and Contaminant Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi; Hamdan, Nasser; Shen, Li; Nan, Hanqing; Almajed, Abdullah; Kavazanjian, Edward; He, Ximin

    2016-11-15

    We have developed a novel method to synthesize a hyper-branched biomimetic hydrogel network across a soil matrix to improve the mechanical strength of the loose soil and simultaneously mitigate potential contamination due to excessive ammonium. This method successfully yielded a hierarchical structure that possesses the water retention, ion absorption, and soil aggregation capabilities of plant root systems in a chemically controllable manner. Inspired by the robust organic-inorganic composites found in many living organisms, we have combined this hydrogel network with a calcite biomineralization process to stabilize soil. Our experiments demonstrate that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) can work synergistically with enzyme-induced carbonate precipitation (EICP) to render a versatile, high-performance soil stabilization method. PAA-enhanced EICP provides multiple benefits including lengthening of water supply time, localization of cementation reactions, reduction of harmful byproduct ammonium, and achievement of ultrahigh soil strength. Soil crusts we have obtained can sustain up to 4.8 × 10 3 kPa pressure, a level comparable to cementitious materials. An ammonium removal rate of 96% has also been achieved. These results demonstrate the potential for hydrogel-assisted EICP to provide effective soil improvement and ammonium mitigation for wind erosion control and other applications.

  18. Mitigation of Power frequency Magnetic Fields. Using Scale Invariant and Shape Optimization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, Ener; Yueqiang Liu; Daalder, Jaap; Cruz, Pedro; Antunez de Souza, Paulo Roberto Jr; Atalaya, Juan Carlos; Paula Marciano, Fabianna de; Eskinasy, Alexandre

    2006-10-15

    The present report describes the development and application of two novel methods for implementing mitigation techniques of magnetic fields at power frequencies. The first method makes use of scaling rules for electromagnetic quantities, while the second one applies a 2D shape optimization algorithm based on gradient methods. Before this project, the first method had already been successfully applied (by some of the authors of this report) to electromagnetic designs involving pure conductive Material (e.g. copper, aluminium) which implied a linear formulation. Here we went beyond this approach and tried to develop a formulation involving ferromagnetic (i.e. non-linear) Materials. Surprisingly, we obtained good equivalent replacement for test-transformers by varying the input current. In spite of the validity of this equivalence constrained to regions not too close to the source, the results can still be considered useful, as most field mitigation techniques are precisely developed for reducing the magnetic field in regions relatively far from the sources. The shape optimization method was applied in this project to calculate the optimal geometry of a pure conductive plate to mitigate the magnetic field originated from underground cables. The objective function was a weighted combination of magnetic energy at the region of interest and dissipated heat at the shielding Material. To our surprise, shapes of complex structure, difficult to interpret (and probably even harder to anticipate) were the results of the applied process. However, the practical implementation (using some approximation of these shapes) gave excellent experimental mitigation factors.

  19. Experimental investigation of blast mitigation and particle-blast interaction during the explosive dispersal of particles and liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontalier, Q.; Loiseau, J.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    The attenuation of a blast wave from a high-explosive charge surrounded by a layer of inert material is investigated experimentally in a spherical geometry for a wide range of materials. The blast wave pressure is inferred from extracting the blast wave velocity with high-speed video as well as direct measurements with pressure transducers. The mitigant consists of either a packed bed of particles, a particle bed saturated with water, or a homogeneous liquid. The reduction in peak blast wave overpressure is primarily dependent on the mitigant to explosive mass ratio, M/ C, with the mitigant material properties playing a secondary role. Relative peak pressure mitigation reduces with distance and for low values of M/ C (compaction, deformation, and fracture of the powders plays an important role. The difference in scaled arrival time of the blast and material fronts increases with M/ C and scaled distance, with solid particles giving the largest separation between the blast wave and cloud of particles. Surrounding a high-explosive charge with a layer of particles reduces the positive-phase blast impulse, whereas a liquid layer has no influence on the impulse in the far field. Taking the total impulse due to the blast wave and material impact into account implies that the damage to a nearby structure may actually be augmented for a range of distances. These results should be taken into consideration in the design of explosive mitigant systems.

  20. Development and characterization of composites PEAD recycled / gravel powder; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de compositos PEAD reciclado/po de brita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, P.V.B de; Goncalves, A.P.B.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Miranda, C.S.; Neto, J.L.M.S.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: patybritosousa@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica

    2014-07-01

    The polymeric composites are heterogeneous materials multiphase, formed by at least one continuous phase and a discontinuous. The matrix used was recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and the load used was the residue of crushed stone dust generated by the process of crushing rocks, stocked in the quarries, no final destination, which changes the landscape and provides many environmental problems. With the aim of adding value to a new commercial waste and mitigate the environmental impact work proposes to develop polymeric composites for application in construction. Were prepared of recycled HDPE composites reinforced with three compositions 5,10 and 20% of powder aggregates with two different granulometries. The samples were prepared by pressing and characterized by FTIR analysis, DRX, DSC and TG. It has been observed that increasing the content of grit powder showed significant improvements in thermal and structural properties of the material. (author)

  1. Restoration as mitigation: analysis of stream mitigation for coal mining impacts in southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Margaret A; Hondula, Kelly L

    2014-09-16

    Compensatory mitigation is commonly used to replace aquatic natural resources being lost or degraded but little is known about the success of stream mitigation. This article presents a synthesis of information about 434 stream mitigation projects from 117 permits for surface mining in Appalachia. Data from annual monitoring reports indicate that the ratio of lengths of stream impacted to lengths of stream mitigation projects were <1 for many projects, and most mitigation was implemented on perennial streams while most impacts were to ephemeral and intermittent streams. Regulatory requirements for assessing project outcome were minimal; visual assessments were the most common and 97% of the projects reported suboptimal or marginal habitat even after 5 years of monitoring. Less than a third of the projects provided biotic or chemical data; most of these were impaired with biotic indices below state standards and stream conductivity exceeding federal water quality criteria. Levels of selenium known to impair aquatic life were reported in 7 of the 11 projects that provided Se data. Overall, the data show that mitigation efforts being implemented in southern Appalachia for coal mining are not meeting the objectives of the Clean Water Act to replace lost or degraded streams ecosystems and their functions.

  2. Development of an ITER prototype disruption mitigation valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czymek, G., E-mail: g.czymek@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D52425 Jülich (Germany); Giesen, B., E-mail: ingenieurbuero.giesen@gmx.de [IBG, Sibertstr. 22, D-52525 Heinsberg (Germany); Charl, A.; Panin, A.; Hiller, A.; Nicolai, D.; Neubauer, O.; Koslowski, H.R.; Sandri, N. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • An ITER-DMV prototype for 100 bar, D = 80 mm, opening time 3.5 ms, is ready for fabrication. • The vacuum part is sealed against the working gas by stainless steel bellows for 110 bar. • The conical Laval gas outlet allows maximal mass flow rate. • The eddy current drive turn ratio was optimized for low tilting moment. • Polyimide is used for the head sealing, the decelerator and for the bearing of the guide tube. - Abstract: Disruptions in tokamaks seem to be unavoidable. Consequences of disruptions are (i) high heat loads on plasma-facing components, (ii) large forces on the vacuum vessel, and (iii) the generation of runaway electron beams. In ITER, the thermal energy of the plasma needs to be evenly distributed on the first wall in order to prevent melting, forces from vertical displacement events have to be minimized, and the generation of runaway electrons suppressed. Massive gas injection using fast valves is a concept for disruption mitigation which is presently being explored in many tokamaks. Fast disruption mitigation valves based on an electromagnetic eddy current drive have been developed in Jülich since the 1990s and models of various sizes have been built and are in operation in the TEXTOR, MAST, and JET tokamaks. A disruption mitigation valve for ITER is of necessity larger with an estimated injected gas volume of ∼20 kPa m{sup 3}[7] for runaway electron suppression and all materials used have to be resistant to much higher levels of neutron and gamma radiation than in existing tokamaks. During the last 5 years, the concept for an ITER prototype disruption mitigation valve has been developed up to the stage that a fully functional valve could be built and tested. Special emphasis was given to the development and functional testing of some critical items: (i) the injection chamber seal, (ii) the piston seal, (iii) the eddy current drive, and (iv) a braking mechanism to avoid too fast closure of the valve, which could damage

  3. Meio ambiente, saúde e desenvolvimento sustentável Environment, health and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Rattner

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os problemas do meio ambiente e seus impactos na saúde e bem-estar das populações, sobretudo dos mais carentes e excluídos do acesso a bens materiais e simbólicos proporcionados apenas a uma minoria privilegiada, devem ser analisados no contexto da crise econômica e financeira que varre o sistema capitalista, com seus desdobramentos na queda da produção, do emprego e de renda e a perda de inúmeros ativos fixos e de poupanças populares.A crise do paradigma capitalista evidencia a natureza predatória do sistema, levando a humanidade à beira de uma catástrofe, cujos impactos são sentidos em nível local, nacional e global. O ensaio aponta os principais aspectos da deterioração ambiental - o efeito estufa, a poluição de rios, lagos e águas costeiras, a contaminação dos solos por agrotóxicos e pesticidas; a erosão de solos e a desertificação pelo desmatamento de florestas; a ausência de saneamento básico nas regiões metropolitanas, onde se concentra uma parcela crescente da população carente e deserdada.Ao discutir as disfunções e paradoxos da acumulação e concentração do capital, o ensaio aponta para a necessidade de construir um novo paradigma de desenvolvimento, baseado na cooperação e solidariedade, na distribuição equitativa do produto social e na reformulação do sistema político, superando os padrões autoritários, através da construção de um modelo participativo e de cogestão.Environmental problems and their impact on health and welfare of the population, mainly the most deprived and excluded, from access to material and symbolic goods, provided only to a privileged minority, must be analyzed within the context of the global economic and financial crisis which swept the whole world since 2008. The collapse of the capitalist system and its negative impacts on production, income and employment provide evidence to the predatory nature of the underlying social and political relations which lead

  4. Application of Nano PAC on Mitigating Membrane Fouling by Surface Properties Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Hairong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane material has been widely accepted owing to the ability in water treatment, but the membrane fouling problem in using process is seriously restricted the promotion of membrane technology. So in this research nano PAC flocculant is added into the raw water to reach the goals of strengthening treatment efficiency and mitigating membrane fouling. According to the TMP change, it results that the PAC dosage of 45mg/L can realize the purpose to mitigate membrane fouling best. Compared with MBR, the MCBR is 16 days tardiness at the change of TMP, 1/3 gel layer filtration resistance less and 3.5% C element content fewer. The sum of C, O and N elements content, in addition, in the gel layer pollutants is more than 95%. That means membrane pollution is mainly caused by organic matter and nano PAC has the effect on surface properties optimization and membrane fouling mitigating.

  5. Figura ambígua e dislexia do desenvolvimento Ambiguous figure and developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Braga Alonso

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o processamento visual de figuras ambíguas em indivíduos disléxicos e compará-lo a um grupo controle leitor normal. MÉTODOS: Survey comparativo onde foram selecionados aleatoriamente 39 escolares cursando entre a primeira e a quarta série do ensino fundamental. Deste total, 26 não apresentavam dificuldade de leitura ou mau rendimento escolar e constituíram o grupo controle. As outras 13 crianças (grupo de estudo eram portadoras de Dislexia do desenvolvimento. Foram apresentadas, pela ordem, uma figura de Boring, uma figura com vasos de Rubin e uma figura pato/coelho de Jastrow. RESULTADOS: Os resultados obtidos mostram que as crianças com diagnóstico de Dislexia do desenvolvimento perceberam número menor de figuras em relação às do grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: O exame do processamento visual de crianças com Dislexia do desenvolvimento para figuras ambíguas é alterado quando comparado ao de crianças leitoras normais.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the visual response of children with developmental dyslexia when ambiguous figure was presented in comparison with normal readers children. METHODS: 39 children from basic school was randomly chosen. 26 were normal readers. 13 were diagnosed developmental dyslexia.Were presented the Boring figure, Rubin vessels figure and Jastrow figure. RESULTS: Participants in the clinical group with dyslexia performed marginally less well than those in the control group. CONCLUSION: The visual response of children with developmental dyslexia when ambiguous figure was presented is less well in comparison with normal readers children.

  6. Curso de Pedagogia, desenvolvimento profissional e a profissionalização docente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Sousa Franc-Lane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo discutimos sobre as dificuldades provenientes da formação inicial em vista do desenvolvimento profissional e às possibilidades do curso de Pedagogia formar o professor na perspectiva do ensinar-aprender para trabalhar na Educação Infantil e anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Partimos do seguinte problema de pesquisa: como o curso de Pedagogia está formando o professor para o ensinar-aprender tendo em vista a profissionalização docente. Como objetivo: analisar o processo formativo do curso de Pedagogia sobre a aprendizagem da docência evidenciando as percepções dos futuros professores sobre a sua profissão. Nesta pesquisa qualitativa, utilizamos como técnica a observação e como instrumento o questionário para os estudantes. Fundamentamo-nos em teóricos como: Marcelo Garcia (1999; Nóvoa (1995; Brandão e Dias (2014; Imbernón (2001; Libâneo (2004; Ramalho, Nuñez e Gauthier (2004; Nascimento (2015; entre outros. Os resultados da pesquisa apontam que o curso de Pedagogia está deixando a desejar na perspectiva da construção de saberes ou a consolidação do ensinar-aprender, relativos ao desenvolvimento profissional para a profissionalização docente. Entendemos que educação de qualidade exige a participação de um professor bem formado com as competências necessárias para transformar o discurso pedagógico em práxis. Sugerimos maior reflexão sobre a formação inicial, desenvolvimento profissional e o ensinar-aprender que colaboram com a profissionalização docente.

  7. O desenvolvimento político em Huntington e Fukuyama Huntington and Fukuyama on political development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Nóbrega de Mello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo contrasta as teses de Huntington e Fukuyama sobre desenvolvimento político. As obras analisadas, Ordem política nas sociedades em mudança e O fim da história, inscrevem-se entre duas conjunturas decisivas - 1968 e 1989. Huntington desmontou a equivalência entre desenvolvimento político e modernização e Fukuyama reafirmou a democracia como o destino de todos os países e, desse modo, como o fim da história. Nesta comparação, dois eixos se sobressaem: o contexto de produção das obras e a alternância entre os polos teóricos da democracia e da estabilidade. Procura-se demonstrar como, apesar de reinserir a democracia no desenvolvimento político, a instabilidade continua a ser um foco privilegiado de análise no pensamento de Fukuyama.The article contrasts the theories of Huntington and Fukuyama on political development. The analyzed works, Political order in changing societies and The end of history, fall between two decisive historical moments - in 1968 and 1989. Huntington disassembled the equivalence between political development and modernization; Fukuyama reaffirmed democracy as the destiny of all countries and, as such, it is the end of history. In this comparison, two axes call our attention: the production context of these works and the alternation between the theoreticals poles of democracy and stability. The article shows how, although reenters democracy in the political development theory, instablility remains a prime focus of analysis in Fukuyama's thought.

  8. Autismo e doenças invasivas de desenvolvimento Autism and pervasive developmental disorders

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    Carlos A. Gadia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos neurobiológicos do autismo e das doenças invasivas de desenvolvimento. Oferecer ao pediatra informações atualizadas sobre diagnóstico e tratamento. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão bibliográfica, abordando o tema por meio do sistema MEDLINE e procura direta. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Conforme dados da literatura, o autismo é a terceira mais comum desordem no desenvolvimento, ocorrendo em 40 a 130 casos por 100.000. O diagnóstico é clínico, baseado nos critérios do DSM-IV. Os exames de neuroimagem e neurofetologia e os estudos genéticos contribuem para o melhor entendimento da neurobiologia do autismo. CONCLUSÃO: O pediatra é o primeiro médico a entrar em contato com o paciente autista e deve estar apto para reconhecer os desvios do desenvolvimento e orientar a investigação e o tratamento multidisciplinar.OBJECTIVE: To review the current knowledge on neurobiological aspects of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, as well as to provide pediatricians with up to date information on diagnosis and treatment of autism. SOURCES OF DATA: Review of MEDLINE and Internet. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Autism is the 3rd developmental disorder, with an incidence of 40 to 130/100,000 individuals. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, following DSM IV criteria. Neuroimaging, investigation of fetal neurological status, and genetic investigation contribute towards a better understanding of the neurobiology of autism. CONCLUSION: Pediatricians are the first health professional to come in contact with patients with autism. Thus, they should be able to diagnose and to coordinate the multidisciplinary treatment of these patients.

  9. Cinza vegetal na germinação e no desenvolvimento da alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alves Terra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da cinza vegetal na germinação e no desenvolvimento da alface da variedade Lucy Brown, tipo americana. O tipo escolhido foi semeado em bandejas de isopor com cento e vinte oito células. As bandejas continham os seguintes substratos: cinza vegetal, esterco bovino, casca arroz crua, casca de arroz carbonizada, serragem, misturados com solo na proporção de 1:1, além de substrato comercial, solo com adubação de NPK e solo sem adubação. Após o início da germinação, as plântulas foram contadas de três em três dias. Mudas de alface da mesma variedade com três folhas verdadeiras foram transplantadas para caixas de leite com os mesmos substratos. Trinta e três dias após o transplante, a alface foi colhida, as folhas foram contadas, a biomassa verde e a biomassa seca foram determinadas e os caules e as raízes foram contados. O substrato que proporcionou a maior germinação foi a mistura de solo com esterco. Depois, vieram o substrato comercial, o solo com casca de arroz carbonizada, o solo puro, o solo com casca de arroz crua, o solo com NPK, o solo com serragem e o solo com cinza vegetal. Neste último, germinaram apenas de 7,83% das sementes. No momento da colheita, verificou-se, para todos os parâmetros avaliados, com exceção do peso seco da raiz, que o substrato que proporcionou o melhor desenvolvimento foi o solo com esterco bovino, que se diferenciou estatisticamente dos demais substratos avaliados. A cinza vegetal influenciou negativamente tanto na germinação quanto no desenvolvimento das plantas de alface.

  10. Desenvolvimento inicial de Erythrina velutina sob restrição hídrica

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    Mychelle Karla Teixeira de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd. é uma espécie arbórea, nativa do nordeste brasileiro, utilizada como ornamental e empregada em programas de reflorestamento. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi obter informações sobre o desenvolvimento de E. velutina sob restrição hídrica. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados dois manejos de irrigação (sem e com estresse hídrico. Aos 56 dias após o transplantio, as mudas foram submetidas por 14 dias completos de restrição hídrica. Ao longo do experimento foram realizadas cinco coletas de mudas a serem avaliadas aos 28, 42, 56, 70 e 84 dias após o transplantio. As mudas foram analisadas quanto ao comprimento da parte aérea, número de folhas, diâmetro do coleto, área foliar e massa seca do caule, das folhas, das raízes, da parte aérea, da massa seca total e da relação entre a massa seca da parte aérea e das raízes. As mudas de E. velutina possuem potencial de desenvolvimento de características xeromórficas para o uso conservador de água por meio de diferentes adaptações morfológicas, como desfolha e maior desenvolvimento de raízes. As mudas de E. velutina devem ser produzidas sem restrição hídrica.

  11. Transtorno do Desenvolvimento da Coordenação: uma Revisão de Literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner PULZI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO movimento possui relação direta com a aprendizagem e com as relações sociais. Crianças que apresentam dificuldades de movimento podem possuir o transtorno do desenvolvimento da coordenação (TDC. O presente artigo trata-se de uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o assunto e teve por objetivo discutir o que foi publicado sobre o TDC entre os anos de 2002 e 2012, apresentando um panorama quanto ao histórico, prevalência, influências na vida cotidiana, acadêmica e social e possibilidades de intervenção. O termo TDC é usado para se referir às dificuldades nas habilidades motoras e que não é devido deficiências de ordem intelectual, sensorial primária ou neurológica. Esse problema afeta a vida das crianças no seu cotidiano, nas atividades de lazer, na escola e na vida social. Na escola, esse transtorno acarreta em baixo rendimento acadêmico, dificuldades de escrita e compreensão de conceitos matemáticos. Na vida social, pode ocorrer o isolamento e a dificuldade de pertencer a um grupo. Tanto os pais como os professores podem auxiliar no desenvolvimento global e social dessas crianças através de estratégias diferenciadas. Atualmente, destaca-se a necessidade de desenvolvimento de propostas que visem desenvolver e potencializar as habilidades dos escolares com dificuldades motoras.

  12. Deficiência Visual, Interação e Desenvolvimento da Linguagem

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    Fabiana Kaodoinski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho pretende refletir sobre a importância da interação de crianças cegas congênitas com os objetos de conhecimento, com o espaço e com o outro para a promoção da aprendizagem e para o desenvolvimento do pensamento e da linguagem do indivíduo com essa deficiência. Nesse estudo teórico, entende-se a relação intersubjetiva como constitutiva do eu, conforme postulados benvenistianos. Além disso, considerando a premissa de Leonhardt (1992 de que a visão é responsável por integrar e organizar a experiência proveniente dos outros sentidos, destaca-se que o cego, por não dispor da percepção visual, pode ter dificuldades de formar conceitos – segundo pressupostos de Vygotski. Diante disso, busca-se explicitar, com base em estudos de Autor, a complexidade inerente à configuração da relação enunciativa “eu-tu” no processo de formação de conceitos em crianças com cegueira congênita, destacando-se a necessidade da constante mediação do cuidador para a promoção do desenvolvimento da cognição e da linguagem. A partir deste estudo, foi possível perceber que há um processo sistêmico no desenvolvimento do cego congênito, ou seja, linguagem, pensamento, cognição e interação estão interligados e são indissociáveis.

  13. O desenvolvimento sustentável: uma palavra e as coisas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf-Dietrich SAHR

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A discussão sobre o desenvolvimento sustentável é um exercício interessante para se entender as novas formas do relacionamento entre a ciência e a política que surgiram durante os trinta anos passados. Originalmente vindo do âmbito da economia e modificado por abordagens ecológicas, o conceito se transformou, durante os anos 80, em palavra-chave nas discussões internacionais e interdisciplinares sobre o desenvolvimento em sua relação com a natureza. Percebe-se que várias qualidades clássicas da metodologia científica, como exatidão das definições e termos técnicos, epistemologias disciplinares e rígidas formulações de teorias, perderam gradativamente sua relevância durante esse processo. Isso colocou os limites da própria ciência acadêmica em questão. Através de uma crítica do economicismo ecológico, que até hoje domina no discurso, abre-se um espaço para a incorporação de abordagens epistemológicas diferentes da ciência pura como atividades sociais, métodos psico-analíticos e até mesmo atividades da arte e da religião. O discurso do desenvolvimento sustentável apresenta-se, deste modo, como uma modificação cultural do próprio meio académico nas condições da pós-modernidade.

  14. Relato de caso sobre o aprendizado em desenvolvimento de sistemas baseado no Framework Lavarel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva De Bona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho pretende compartilhar a vivência do desenvolvimento de um sistema com a finalidade de realizar as inscrições de um evento de ensino - Semana Acadêmica Integrada no IFRS – Campus Osório, e gerar as listas de presença para cada atividade da programação. Tal foi realizado por quatro estudantes do curso superior - Tecnologia em Análise e Desenvolvimento de Sistemas e baseado no Framework Laravel. O objetivo do relato de caso, alicerçado à experiência do evento, é de refletir sobre a aprendizagem de como se desenvolveu a construção e o quão complexa é a relação de quem solicita a criação de um sistema, o usuário, e o desenvolvedor, pois existem imprevistos, erros e prazos a serem cumpridos, além da escolha da ferramenta para a criação. A base teórica é a compreensão construtivista segundo a Teoria de Piaget do processo de aprendizagem desenvolvido por esses estudantes para a construção do sistema. Aponta-se um resultado do trabalho, além do sistema desenvolvido, as reflexões da comissão organizadora do quanto antes é preciso organizar as etapas de desenvolvimento de um sistema para que se minimizem os erros. A vivência dos estudantes formandos sobre como seria uma relação com o cliente também é apresentada.

  15. Incubadoras de empresas e o desenvolvimento de capacidades em empresas incubadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Storopoli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2013v15n35p36   No Brasil, as incubadoras de empresa vêm-se consolidando ao longo dos anos com contribuições importantes para o processo de desenvolvimento de ideias que se transformam em negócios e também de empreendedores que se tornam empresários. As incubadoras permitem que as capacidades e recursos disponíveis deem suporte ao desenvolvimento das potencialidades empreendedoras de seus associados. Este trabalho analisa a contribuição desse processo para o desenvolvimento das empresas nos diferentes estágios de incubação. O método de pesquisa foi o estudo de casos múltiplos, com o gerente do CIETEC e quatro empresas em estágios distintos de incubação. A análise dos dados seguiu as técnicas de agrupamento e de cluster. Os principais resultados indicam que: a as capacidades possuem suas raízes em experiências profissionais ou acadêmicas dos empreendedores; b o papel da incubadora na formação dessas capacidades é passivo; c a capacitação de empreendedores para a elaboração de um plano de negócios é um fator positivo para o estabelecimento do negócio; d o networking proporcionado pela incubadora mostrou-se fundamental para todas as empresas; e a infraestrutura é importante para os estágios inicias de incubação, porém perde importância na medida em que as empresas avançam em seus estágios de incubação.

  16. Desenvolvimento de coleções: origem dos fundamentos contemporâneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone da Rocha Weitzel

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta o resultado de uma pesquisa cujo objetivo foi identificar as correspondências entre os fundamentos da área hoje denominada de desenvolvimento de coleções e aqueles estabelecidos no século XIX, a fim de reconstruir os principais conceitos, métodos e práticas da área. Propõe um estudo exploratório para viabilizar essa correspondência a partir de oito obras escolhidas de autores europeus do século XIX, a maioria bibliófilos reconhecidos, a saber: Peignot (1823, Namur (1834, Hesse (1841, Rouveyre (1878, Richard (1883, Gräsel (1893, Petzholdt (1894 e Maire (1896. Essas obras serão analisadas a partir de três categorias contemporâneas da área: desenvolvimento de coleções, seleção e aquisição, por meio do método de revisão de literatura. Conclui-se, por fim, que o fenômeno da explosão da informação afeta o processo de desenvolvimento de coleções como um todo desde o século XVIII. Os autores do século XIX selecionados para o estudo apresentaram várias soluções - as quais fortaleceram o que hoje é denominado de abordagem baseada no acesso à informação - para lidar com a complexidade gerada pelo fenômeno da explosão da informação.

  17. Cost effectiveness of radon mitigation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, E.G.; Krewski, D.; Zielinski, J.M.; McGregor, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the cost effectiveness of comprehensive strategies for reducing exposure to radon gas in indoor air in Canadian homes. The analysis is conducted within the context of a general framework for risk management programme evaluation which includes well-known evaluation techniques such as cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses as special cases. Based on this analysis, it is clear that any comprehensive programme to reduce exposure to environmental radon will be extremely expensive, and may not be justifiable in terms of health impact, particularly when considered in relation to other public health programmes. Testing of homes at the point of sale and installing sub-slab suction equipment to reduce exposure to indoor radon where necessary appears to be a relatively cost-effective radon mitigation strategy. In general, radon mitigation was found to be most cost effective in cities with relatively high levels of radon. (author)

  18. Under the radar: mitigating enigmatic ecological impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiter, Keren G; Possingham, Hugh P; Prober, Suzanne M; Hobbs, Richard J

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the deleterious ecological effects of developments, such as roads, mining, and urban expansion, is essential for informing development decisions and identifying appropriate mitigation actions. However, there are many types of ecological impacts that slip 'under the radar' of conventional impact evaluations and undermine the potential for successful impact mitigation (including offsets). These 'enigmatic' impacts include those that are small but act cumulatively; those outside of the area directly considered in the evaluation; those not detectable with the methods, paradigms, or spatiotemporal scales used to detect them; those facilitated, but not directly caused, by development; and synergistic impact interactions. Here, we propose a framework for conceptualising enigmatic impacts and discuss ways to address them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mitigation measures and programs in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    In Hungary there are four main governmental programs, which may result in a decrease of emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) National program of energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation, (2) Afforestation program, (3) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission reduction program, and (4) Program to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances. These ambitious programs were launched in the beginning of the 90`s, but they have been slowed down because of budgetary problems. The comprehensive action plan for mitigation of GHG emissions should be based on these ongoing programs. These programs should be expanded by further measures and programs in order to fulfill the requirements of the FCCC. In the next sections the results and prospects of the above mentioned programs will be summarized. Also the results of the mitigation study supported by the U.S. Country Studies Program are included.

  20. Mitigation: cross-sectoral and other issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemans, R. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands). Coordination Center for Effects

    1996-12-31

    Measures, methodologies and technologies to reduce emissions and enhance sinks of greenhouse gases (GHG) are assessed in this paper, together with other options for limiting anthropogenic climatic change and consequences. This chapter of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group II`s 1996 report discusses the cross-sectorial potential for reducing emissions between areas discussed specifically in other chapters namely energy supply, industry, transportation, human settlements, agriculture and forestry, aiming to provide an integrated analysis of mitigation options with cross-cutting themes. Energy supply and demand issues within a low GHG emissions scenario are discussed as are issues relating to land use and land cover. Broadly-based concepts for counterbalancing climatic change are described and their mitigation potential assessed. (UK)

  1. Fish habitat mitigation measures for hydrotechnical projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhail, G.D.; MacMillan, D.B.; Katopodis, C.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the identification and mitigation of environmental impacts of hydrotechnical projects, particularly on fish and fish habitats, have become a major component of project planning and design. Potential impacts to fish and fish habitat may include increased fish mortality, decreased species diversity, and loss or decreases in fish production due to loss of habitat or alteration of its suitability. These impacts arise from flooding of riverine habitat, alteration of flow quantity and distribution, changes in morphology, and alteration of water quality, including suspended sediments, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and mercury. The results of a study for the Canadian Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans Central and Arctic Region, examining fish habitat mitigation techniques for their applicability to hydrotechnical projects in Canada are summarized. The requirements for achievement and verification of the no net loss policy for a project are discussed. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  2. On civil engineering disasters and their mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lili; Qu, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Civil engineering works such as buildings and infrastructure are the carriers of human civilization. They are, however, also the origins of various types of disasters, which are referred to in this paper as civil engineering disasters. This paper presents the concept of civil engineering disasters, their characteristics, classification, causes, and mitigation technologies. Civil engineering disasters are caused primarily by civil engineering defects, which are usually attributed to improper selection of construction site, hazard assessment, design and construction, occupancy, and maintenance. From this viewpoint, many so-called natural disasters such as earthquakes, strong winds, floods, landslides, and debris flows are substantially due to civil engineering defects rather than the actual natural hazards. Civil engineering disasters occur frequently and globally and are the most closely related to human beings among all disasters. This paper emphasizes that such disasters can be mitigated mainly through civil engineering measures, and outlines the related objectives and scientific and technological challenges.

  3. Integrated disruption avoidance and mitigation in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jayhyun; Woo, M.H.; Han, H.; In, Y.; Bak, J.G.; Eidietis, N.W.

    2014-01-01

    The final target of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) aims advanced tokamak operation at plasma current 2 MA and toroidal field 3.5 T. In order to safely achieve the target, disruption counter-measures are unavoidable when considering the disruption risks, inevitably accompanied with high performance discharges, such as electro-magnetic load on conducting structures, collisional damage by run-away electrons, and thermal load on plasma facing components (PFCs). In this reason, the establishment of integrated disruption mitigation system (DMS) has been started for routine mega-ampere class operations of KSTAR since 2013 campaign. The DMS mainly consists of the disruption prediction and its avoidance/mitigation in company with logical/technical integration of them. We present the details of KSTAR DMS and the related experimental results in this article. (author)

  4. Developments in SCC Mitigation by Electrocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Peter L.; Kim, Young J.

    SCC is strongly influenced by water chemistry parameters, especially when crack chemistry can be concentrated from differential aeration or thermal gradients or boiling. Mitigation of the effects of the high corrosion potential associated with oxidants is markedly and efficiently accomplished by electrocatalysis, which requires that there be a stoichiometric excess of reductants over oxidants. Mechanisms and criteria for effective SCC mitigation are summarized, with particular focus on the critical location for the catalyst in a crack and experimental support for these concepts. Optimization of electrocatalysis by OnLine NobleChem- is described, for example where Pt is injected at levels of 0.002 to 0.05 ppb in the reactor water.

  5. Ausência de fluxo aéreo nasal e desenvolvimento dos seios maxilares Absence of nasal air flow and maxillary sinus development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Eustáquio dos Santos Guimarães

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento dos seios paranasais ainda são pouco conhecidos, o fluxo aéreo nasal segundo uma das teorias propostas seria fundamental ao crescimento e desenvolvimento saudável dos seios paranasais. OBJETIVO: Estudar comparativamente o desenvolvimento dos seios maxilares e a presença de sinusopatia, em um mesmo modelo, na ausência e presença de fluxo aéreo nasal posterior. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo transversal de uma série de casos; os exames tomográficos pré-operatórios de 7 pacientes com atresia coanal unilateral, idade média 16.28 anos (± 5,024. Este estudo realizado em um hospital terciário, com pacientes que passaram neste serviço entre os anos de 1994 e 2004. A área dos seios maxilares foi medida com auxílio do programa Auto-Cad. Utilizou-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Nesse estudo observou-se seios maxilares simétricos e até mesmo maiores no lado da atresia coanal em 85,71% dos casos, não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os dois lados comparados. Não se observou sinais de tomográficos de sinusopatia neste grupo de pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados aqui apresentados contrariam a teoria difusamente aceita sobre o papel do fluxo aéreo nasal na saúde e no desenvolvimento das cavidades paranasais.Paranasal sinuses development mechanisms are not well known. Nasal air flow, according to one of the proposed theories, would be fundamental to the growth and healthy development of paranasal sinuses. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the maxillary sinus growth and health in the presence and absence of postnasal air flow through a unique model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of a series of cases; preoperative CT scans of 7 patients with unilateral choanal atresia, average age was 16.28 years (± 5.024. This study was done in a tertiary hospital, with patients treated between 1994 and 2004. The area of

  6. Blue Creek Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities are analyzed: Habitat protection; Habitat enhancement; Operation and maintenance; and Monitoring and evaluation. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir

  7. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  8. Hanford Site Biological Resources Mitigation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    The Biological Resources Mitigation Strategy (BRMiS), as part of a broader biological resource policy, is designed to aid the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) in balancing its primary missions of waste cleanup, technology development, and economic diversification with its stewardship responsibilities for the biological resources it administers. This strategy will be applied to all DOE-RL programs as well as all contractor and subcontractor activities

  9. Do Markets Mitigate Misperceptions of Feedback?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Christian Erik; Sterman, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies of dynamic decisionmaking generally showpoor performance.Most, however, lack market mechanisms, specifically price setting, while economic theory suggests markets should mitigate individual decision errors. We develop experimental markets to explore whether different price...... rules for each actor; results reject the hypothesis of rationality at the individual level but support behavioral decision rules consistent with bounded rationality. Simulations using the estimated decision rules reproduce key features of market dynamics. Decision timing data and verbal protocols show...

  10. Fading and interference mitigation in wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Panic, Stefan; Anastasov, Jelena; Spalevic, Petar

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advancement of various wireless communication system services has created the need to analyze the possibility of their performance improvement. Introducing the basic principles of digital communications performance analysis and its mathematical formalization, Fading and Interference Mitigation in Wireless Communications will help you stay up to date with recent developments in the performance analysis of space diversity reception over fading channels in the presence of cochannel interference.The book presents a unified method for computing the performance of digital communication sys

  11. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y−1), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y−1. Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y−1 could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient—measured in “total abatement calorie cost”—than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes. PMID:24567375

  12. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor.

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, H.N. de; PRATISSOLI, D.; PEDRUZZI, E.P.; ESPINDULA, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  13. Uso da técnica da radiohormese para aumento no desenvolvimento de plantas de alho

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Cristina Aparecida Santos Silva; Marcia Nalesso Costa Harder; Valter Arthur

    2014-01-01

    O alho tem se destacado não só como uma das principais fontes de temperos dentro da gastronomia, como também um importante vetor de estudo agronômico tanto pela sua peculiar característica de cultivo como pela aplicação das propriedades na quebra de dormência em cultivares como maçã e pera. Este trabalho teve como objetivo aplicar a técnica da radiohormese em bulbos de alho para avaliação do potencial desenvolvimento de suas mudas. Foi desenvolvido no laboratório de Radiobiologia e Ambiente –...

  14. Acessibilidade no desenvolvimento de sistemas web: um estudo sobre o cenário brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    André Pimenta Freire

    2008-01-01

    A universalização do acesso ao conteúdo disponibilizado em sistemas Web tem se tornado crucial para que todas as pessoas, independente de deficiências ou de outras restrições possam ter acesso a ele. Diversos estudos indicam que, apesar da instituição de leis federais sobre acessibilidade para conteúdo Web em diversos países, muitos sítios ainda apresentam problemas. A falta de conscientização das pessoas envolvidas em projetos de desenvolvimento Web sobre a acessibilidade e a não utilização ...

  15. TRAJETÓRIAS DE DESENVOLVIMENTO LOCAL E CAPITAL SOCIAL NA CIDADE PINTADAS – BAHIA - BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos Filho, Antonio Muniz

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo discorrer acerca do papel do “Projeto Rede Pintadas” no fomento ao Desenvolvimento Local e a articulação comunitária do município de Pintadas – Bahia, com vista ao adensamento do Capital Social. Essas proposições são viabilizadas através da organização da sociedade civil institucionalizada no referido “Projeto”. Tomamos como parâmetro para análise, a adoção das estratégias organizacionais para o empoderamento, a gestão participativa e, consequentemente, o adensam...

  16. TRAJETÓRIAS DE DESENVOLVIMENTO LOCAL E CAPITAL SOCIAL NA CIDADE PINTADAS – BAHIA - BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos Filho, Antonio Muniz; Rios, Reuelio Marques

    2012-01-01

      Este artigo tem como objetivo discorrer acerca do papel do “Projeto Rede Pintadas” no fomento ao Desenvolvimento Local e a articulação comunitária do município de Pintadas – Bahia, com vista ao adensamento do Capital Social. Essas proposições são viabilizadas através da organização da sociedade civil institucionalizada no referido “Projeto”. Tomamos como parâmetro para análise, a adoção das estratégias organizacionais para o empoderamento, a gestão participativa e, consequentemente, o adens...

  17. Análise comparativa de programas de desenvolvimento de líderes

    OpenAIRE

    Esper, Aulina Judith Folle

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia e Gestão do Conhecimento, Florianópolis, 2015. Diferentemente dos estudos da liderança, as pesquisas sobre o desenvolvimento de líderes são bastante recentes. Diversos fatores contribuíram para esse fato, sendo bastante relevante a predominância, durante longo tempo, das abordagens dos traços, que considerava que uma pessoa já nasce líder, não sendo necessário desenv...

  18. Uma abordagem arquitetural para o desenvolvimento rigoroso de sistemas confiáveis baseados em componentes

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Henrique da Silva Brito

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: A incorporação de tolerância a falhas em sistemas de software normalmente acarreta em um aumento da complexidade, o que consequentemente torna a sua análise mais difícil. Além disso, o uso de mecanismos de tratamento de exceções de uma maneira não-sistemática pode acarretar na adição de novas falhas ao sistema. Esta tese apresenta uma abordagem rigorosa e centrada na arquitetura para o desenvolvimento de sistemas de software tolerantes a falhas. Dependendo do modelo de falhas e da dis...

  19. Desenvolvimento de um sistema de informações geográficas aplicado à maricultura.

    OpenAIRE

    Paes, João Vicente; Universidade do Vale do Itajaí; Bittencourt, Rogério Gonçalves; Universidade do Vale do Itajaí

    2004-01-01

    Este artigo tem como finalidade apresentar o desenvolvimento de um Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG) aplicado a Maricultura, onde servirá aos órgãos e pesquisadores que atuam junto a área de maricultura, como uma ferramenta de gerenciamento das informações relacionadas ao cultivo de mariscos, aliando-se uma referência espacial. O local escolhido para aplicar o Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG), em especial o SPRING (Sistema de Processamento de Informações Georeferenciadas), foi ...

  20. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM SISTEMA DE MAPEAMENTO DE ESTRADAS UTILIZANDO TÉCNOLOGIA MOVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Vagner Savegnago Schaefer

    2012-01-01

    Esse trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver um aplicativo móbile para facilitar a pesquisa de campo objetivando a simplicidade e a facilidade de utilização. Com o desenvolvimento desse aplicativo o usuário não terá necessidade de coletar os dados em um aparelho especifico de GPS e depois descarregá-los em um desktop para fazer o processamento dos mesmos, pois os dados serão coletados por meio do Smartphone o qual possui função do GPS, sendo os dados enviados diretamente a um servidor onde fic...

  1. Desenvolvimento do sistema tegumentar em bovinos com idades gestacionais estimadas de 20 a 140 dias

    OpenAIRE

    Tommasi Junior, Horácio Luis; Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Rodrigues, Rosângela Felipe; Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-01-01

    A pele representa parte importante do sistema tegumentar, pois desempenha funções como a proteção contra desidratação, lesões e infecções, além de apresentar alto poder de renovação. Histologicamente, a pele consiste de duas camadas funcionais, morfologicamente distintas, a epiderme e a derme. As glândulas mamárias, capsula ungueal e cornos também fazem parte deste sistema. Devido à escassez de dados na literatura sobre o desenvolvimento da pele e dos anexos de natureza córnea em bovinos, o o...

  2. Desenvolvimento de um sistema de aquecimento solar compacto utilizando termossifões bifásicos

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Samuel Luna de

    2003-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica. O presente trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um sistema de aquecimento solar compacto, que utiliza tubos de calor para transportar o calor absorvido na placa coletora para o reservatório térmico. A configuração proposta difere das concepções existentes de sistemas com tubos de calor porque o condensador é brasado à parede do reservatório térmico em vez de s...

  3. Desenvolvimento, complexo industrial da saúde e política industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadelha Carlos Augusto Grabois

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo situa a questão da saúde no contexto do desenvolvimento nacional e da política industrial. Tomou-se a idéia de corte estruturalista, marxista e schumpeteriano, onde a indústria e as inovações constituem os elementos determinantes do dinamismo das economias capitalistas e de sua posição relativa na economia mundial. Todos os países que se desenvolveram e passaram a competir em melhores condições com os países avançados associaram uma indústria forte com uma base endógena de conhecimento, de aprendizado e de inovação. Todavia, na área da saúde essa visão é problemática, uma vez que os interesses empresariais se movem pela lógica econômica do lucro e não para o atendimento das necessidades da saúde. A noção de complexo industrial da saúde constitui uma tentativa e fornecer um referencial teórico que permita articular duas lógicas distintas: a sanitária e a do desenvolvimento econômico. O trabalho procurou mostrar, com base em dados de comércio exterior, como a desconsideração da lógica do desenvolvimento nas políticas de saúde levou a uma situação de vulnerabilidade econômica do setor que pode limitar os objetivos de universalidade, eqüidade e integralidade. Nesse contexto, propõe-se uma ruptura cognitiva e política com as visões antagônicas que colocam, de um lado, as necessidades da saúde e, de outro, da indústria. Um país que pretende chegar a uma condição de desenvolvimento e de independência requer, ao mesmo tempo, indústrias fortes e inovadoras, e um sistema de saúde inclusivo e universal.

  4. Desenvolvimento, complexo industrial da saúde e política industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Grabois Gadelha

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo situa a questão da saúde no contexto do desenvolvimento nacional e da política industrial. Tomou-se a idéia de corte estruturalista, marxista e schumpeteriano, onde a indústria e as inovações constituem os elementos determinantes do dinamismo das economias capitalistas e de sua posição relativa na economia mundial. Todos os países que se desenvolveram e passaram a competir em melhores condições com os países avançados associaram uma indústria forte com uma base endógena de conhecimento, de aprendizado e de inovação. Todavia, na área da saúde essa visão é problemática, uma vez que os interesses empresariais se movem pela lógica econômica do lucro e não para o atendimento das necessidades da saúde. A noção de complexo industrial da saúde constitui uma tentativa e fornecer um referencial teórico que permita articular duas lógicas distintas: a sanitária e a do desenvolvimento econômico. O trabalho procurou mostrar, com base em dados de comércio exterior, como a desconsideração da lógica do desenvolvimento nas políticas de saúde levou a uma situação de vulnerabilidade econômica do setor que pode limitar os objetivos de universalidade, eqüidade e integralidade. Nesse contexto, propõe-se uma ruptura cognitiva e política com as visões antagônicas que colocam, de um lado, as necessidades da saúde e, de outro, da indústria. Um país que pretende chegar a uma condição de desenvolvimento e de independência requer, ao mesmo tempo, indústrias fortes e inovadoras, e um sistema de saúde inclusivo e universal.

  5. Desenvolvimento territorial : estudo de caso no Centro Sul Vale do Salgado

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda, Chrístian Dárlio Brito

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a política de territorialização do Centro Sul Vale do Salgado no Estado do Ceará, sob a ótica das dimensões do ecodesenvolvimento segundo Sachs (2002), considerando o Plano Territorial de Desenvolvimento Rural Sustentável (PTDRS). As dimensões do ecodesenvolvimento são social; econômica; ecológica; espacial; e cultural. Neste território foi constituído o Colegiado Territorial composto por 142 entidades, sendo, 94 integrantes da sociedade c...

  6. Desenvolvimento de mudas de catingueira em diferentes substratos e níveis de luminosidade

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes,Cimille Gabrielle Cardoso; Souza,Cíntia Luiza Mascarenhas de; Gomes,Hugo Leonardo Rodrigues; Souza,Jonaicon Vieira de; Barroso,Natália dos Santos; Castro,Renato Delmondez de; Pelacani,Claudinéia Regina

    2014-01-01

    Poincianella pyramidalis Tul. (catingueira) é uma leguminosa endêmica do semiárido nordestino que se enquadra bem no contexto de espécies florestais brasileiras que ainda carecem de estudos quanto às condições ideais para seu desenvolvimento e estabelecimento em campo. Dessa forma, objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas da referida espécie submetidas a diferentes substratos e níveis de luminosidade. Plântulas de catingueira foram cultivadas em três condições de lu...

  7. Policy of productive development and energy efficiency; Politica de desenvolvimento produtivo e eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Faculdade Politecnica de Jundiai (FPJ), SP (Brazil). Anhanguera Educacional

    2008-07-01

    The new industry policy in Brazil called PDP (Politica de Desenvolvimento Produtivo) and implications on Brazilian energy efficiency program are discussed. The PINTEC - Industrial Research for Technology Innovation (2003/05) indicates a low R and D and I investment of the Brazilian industries. It is expected that and energy efficiency project can be seen as an innovation project because this brings new equipment and a more advanced knowledge to industry, which helps to reduce electrical energy consumption, consumer' bills and production costs. (author)

  8. USO DE NATAMICINA NO CONTROLE DO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE FUNGOS EM SALAME TIPO ITALIANO

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Carlos Brustolin

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento da natamicina em diferentes concentrações e forma de aplicação no controle do desenvolvimento de bolores e leveduras em salames tipo italiano maturados em salas de maturação de madeira. O acompanhamento foi realizado através de contagem de bolores e leveduras com swabs e acompanhamento fotográfico semanal. Também foi avaliado o efeito da natamicina em relação a aspectos físico químicos como a atividade de água, umidade, gordura e pro...

  9. Ambiente institucional e compra de terras por estrangeiros em países em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Simões Pongeluppe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com o Banco Mundial, desde o final dos anos 2000 o movimento de aquisição de terras por estrangeiros tem se acentuado nos países em desenvolvimento, impulsionado pelo boom dos preços das commodities. Em termos teóricos, a abordagem da Nova Economia Institucional (NEI argumenta que as instituições são importantes para as estratégias dos agentes econômicos e seu desempenho. Neste estudo, apoiado na NEI, pretende-se responder como as instituições presentes em países periféricos refletem o processo de aquisições de terras por investidores estrangeiros. Para esse objetivo, foram utilizados dados secundários de organizações internacionais, como Food and Agriculture Organization, Banco Mundial, Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre Comércio e Desenvolvimento, Fundo Monetário Internacional, Organização para a Cooperação Econômica e Desenvolvimento Econômico, Wall Street Journal e agências nacionais. A hipótese principal é que a força ou a fraqueza presente no ambiente institucional em países em desenvolvimento tem influência relevante no nível de Investimento Estrangeiro Direto (IED. Para testar a hipótese, adota-se como metodologia a análise estatística, na qual se verifica a relação entre o nível de IED nos países receptores (variável dependente contra variáveis independentes: liberdade de investimento, direitos de propriedade e nível de corrupção. Espera-se?que os pa?ses com?ambientes institucionais independentes: liberdade de investimento, direitos de propriedade e nível de corrupção. Espera-se que os países com ambientes institucionais fracos, ou menos seguros, tendam a receber menores investimentos em compra de terras e arrendamentos do que outros países que têm estrutura institucional que garanta os direitos de propriedade.

  10. ANÁLISE E DESENVOLVIMENTO DE SORVETE A BASE DE PROTEÍNA

    OpenAIRE

    Reck, Isabela Maria; Universidade Estadual de Maringa; Gazeloto, Sarah Alves; Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM – Maringá/PR – Brasil; Souza Junior, Robson Camillo de; Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM – Maringá/PR – Brasil; Santos, Adriana Vieira dos; Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM – Maringá/PR – Brasil; Henschel, Marcela Tiemi Nakayama; Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM – Maringá/PR – Brasil; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM – Maringá/PR – Brasil

    2016-01-01

    A preocupação com a saúde elevou a demanda por produtos naturais e saudáveis, assim, elevando o rendimento físicos de atletas e não atletas, levou ao aumento do consumo de suplementos que potencializam esse efeito. O sorvete é um produto que agrada aos mais variados paladares e as proteínas contribuem para o desenvolvimento da estrutura do sorvete. As proteínas auxiliam na manutenção do músculo e outros tecidos e pode ser utilizada como substituto de gorduras na formulação. O trabalho teve co...

  11. Multifónicos no saxofone: para o desenvolvimento sonoro do aluno

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Bruno Pedro de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho de investigação pretende clarificar se a técnica contemporânea, multifónicos, ajuda ao desenvolvimento sonoro de alunos do ensino básico. Esta possibilidade foi estudada tendo como parâmetros avaliativos: a qualidade sonora, os legados, ataque (ou articulação) e homogeneidade de registo. Estes parâmetros foram avaliados por um júri externo que, através de registos áudio, avaliou dois momentos de observação divididos por uma intervenção, efetuada pelo investigador, através ...

  12. A Super Energy Mitigation Nanostructure at High Impact Speed Based on Buckyball System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Yibing; Xiang, Yong; Chen, Xi

    2013-01-01

    The energy mitigation properties of buckyballs are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A one dimensional buckyball long chain is employed as a unit cell of granular fullerene particles. Two types of buckyballs i.e. C60 and C720 with recoverable and non-recoverable behaviors are chosen respectively. For C60 whose deformation is relatively small, a dissipative contact model is proposed. Over 90% of the total impact energy is proven to be mitigated through interfacial reflection of wave propagation, the van der Waals interaction, covalent potential energy and atomistic kinetic energy evidenced by the decent force attenuation and elongation of transmitted impact. Further, the C720 system is found to outperform its C60 counterpart and is able to mitigate over 99% of the total kinetic energy by using a much shorter chain thanks to its non-recoverable deformation which enhances the four energy dissipation terms. Systematic studies are carried out to elucidate the effects of impactor speed and mass, as well as buckyball size and number on the system energy mitigation performance. This one dimensional buckyball system is especially helpful to deal with the impactor of high impact speed but small mass. The results may shed some lights on the research of high-efficiency energy mitigation material selections and structure designs. PMID:23724082

  13. A critical assessment of the ecological assumptions underpinning compensatory mitigation of salmon-derived nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Scott F.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  14. Crack Mitigation in Concrete: Superabsorbent Polymers as Key to Success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arn Mignon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cracking is a major concern in building applications. Cracks may arise from shrinkage, freeze/thawing and/or structural stresses, amongst others. Several solutions can be found but superabsorbent polymers (SAPs seem to be interesting to counteract these problems. At an early age, the absorbed water by the SAPs may be used to mitigate autogenous and plastic shrinkage. The formed macro pores may increase the freeze/thaw resistance. The swelling upon water ingress may seal a crack from intruding fluids and may regain the overall water-tightness. The latter water may promote autogenous healing. The use of superabsorbent polymers is thus very interesting. This review paper summarizes the current research and gives a critical note towards the use of superabsorbent polymers in cementitious materials.

  15. Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating and Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kenneth M.; Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed two unique coating formulations that will keep surfaces clean and sanitary and contain contaminants.The Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating, modeled after the self-cleaning, water-repellant lotus leaf, disallows buildup of dust, dirt, water, and more on surfaces. This coating, has been successfully tested on painted, aluminum, glass, silica, and some composite surfaces, could aid in keeping medical assets clean.The Molecular Adsorber Coating is a zeolite-based, sprayable molecular adsorber coating, designed to prevent outgassing in materials in vacuums. The coating works well to adsorb volatiles and contaminates in manufacturing and processing, such as in pharmaceutical production. The addition of a biocide would also aid in controlling bacteria levels.

  16. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Alfred [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Bromenshenk, Jerry [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO2 into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO2-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO2 leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  17. Crack Mitigation in Concrete: Superabsorbent Polymers as Key to Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, Arn; Snoeck, Didier; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; De Belie, Nele

    2017-02-28

    Cracking is a major concern in building applications. Cracks may arise from shrinkage, freeze/thawing and/or structural stresses, amongst others. Several solutions can be found but superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) seem to be interesting to counteract these problems. At an early age, the absorbed water by the SAPs may be used to mitigate autogenous and plastic shrinkage. The formed macro pores may increase the freeze/thaw resistance. The swelling upon water ingress may seal a crack from intruding fluids and may regain the overall water-tightness. The latter water may promote autogenous healing. The use of superabsorbent polymers is thus very interesting. This review paper summarizes the current research and gives a critical note towards the use of superabsorbent polymers in cementitious materials.

  18. Sustainable Biofuel Contributions to Carbon Mitigation and Energy Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Steele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in US biofuels has been motivated by two primary national policy goals, (1 to reduce carbon emissions and (2 to achieve energy independence. However, the current low cost of fossil fuels is a key barrier to investments in woody biofuel production capacity. The effectiveness of wood derived biofuels must consider not only the feedstock competition with low cost fossil fuels but also the wide range of wood products uses that displace different fossil intensive products. Alternative uses of wood result in substantially different unit processes and carbon impacts over product life cycles. We developed life cycle data for new bioprocessing and feedstock collection models in order to make life cycle comparisons of effectiveness when biofuels displace gasoline and wood products displace fossil intensive building materials. Wood products and biofuels can be joint products from the same forestland. Substantial differences in effectiveness measures are revealed as well as difficulties in valuing tradeoffs between carbon mitigation and energy independence.

  19. Mitigating Thermal Runaway Risk in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Russell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The JSC/NESC team has successfully demonstrated Thermal Runaway (TR) risk reduction in a lithium ion battery for human space flight by developing and implementing verifiable design features which interrupt energy transfer between adjacent electrochemical cells. Conventional lithium ion (li-Ion) batteries can fail catastrophically as a result of a single cell going into thermal runaway. Thermal runaway results when an internal component fails to separate electrode materials leading to localized heating and complete combustion of the lithium ion cell. Previously, the greatest control to minimize the probability of cell failure was individual cell screening. Combining thermal runaway propagation mitigation design features with a comprehensive screening program reduces both the probability, and the severity, of a single cell failure.

  20. Decision-support tools for climate change mitigation planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig, Daniel; Aparcana Robles, Sandra Roxana

    . For example, in the case of life-cycle analysis, the evaluation criterion entails that the impacts of interest are examined across the entire life-cycle of the product under study, from extraction of raw materials, to product disposal. Effectively, then, the choice of decision-support tool directs......This document describes three decision-support tools that can aid the process of planning climate change mitigation actions. The phrase ‘decision-support tools’ refers to science-based analytical procedures that facilitate the evaluation of planning options (individually or compared to alternative...... options) against a particular evaluation criterion or set of criteria. Most often decision-support tools are applied with the help of purpose-designed software packages and drawing on specialised databases.The evaluation criteria alluded to above define and characterise each decision-support tool...

  1. A New Strategy for Mitigating Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Y.; Akimoto, K./ Oda, J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy for mitigating climate change, both in short term and in long term. The basic character of the strategy is action oriented with multi-country collaboration, while the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and Kyoto protocol is numerical target oriented within United Nation Framework. The introductory part of the paper briefly describes deficits of FCCC and Kyoto protocol and the needs of a different strategy for mitigating climate change. Then the short term strategy is focused on energy conservation and its effectiveness for mitigating climate change is illustrated by estimating the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emission when intense collaboration is achieved for distributing main energy conservation measures in power generation and key industries among Asia Pacific Partnership countries. The long term strategy is developing novel types of renewables among countries. Geoheat and space solar power systems (SSPS) are candidates which may be developed among major developed countries. Necessity of international collaboration is stressed for R and D of these candidate renewables. (auth)

  2. Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    In a companion paper, we used a simulation model to explore secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures for typical conditions in residences. In the current paper, we extend this analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of physical mitigation approaches in reducing nonsmokers' exposure to airborne SHS particulate matter in a hypothetical 6-zone house. Measures investigated included closing doors or opening windows in response to smoking activity, modifying location patterns to segregate the nonsmoker and the active smoker, and operating particle filtration devices. We first performed 24 scripted simulation trials using hypothetical patterns of occupant location. We then performed cohort simulation trials across 25 mitigation scenarios using over 1000 pairs of nonsmoker and smoker time-location patterns that were selected from a survey of human activity patterns in US homes. We limited cohort pairs to cases where more than 10 cigarettes were smoked indoors at home each day and the nonsmoker was at home for more than two thirds of the day. We evaluated the effectiveness of each mitigation approach by examining its impact on the simulated frequency distribution of residential SHS particle exposure. The two most effective strategies were the isolation of the smoker in a closed room with an open window, and a ban on smoking whenever the nonsmoker was at home. The use of open windows to supply local or cross ventilation, or the operation of portable filtration devices in smoking rooms, provided moderate exposure reductions. Closed doors, by themselves, were not effective.

  3. Circuit card failures and industry mitigation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, U. [Candu Owners Group, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    In recent years the nuclear industry has experienced an increase in circuit card failures due to ageing of components, inadequate Preventive Maintenance (PM), lack of effective circuit card health monitoring, etc. Circuit card failures have caused loss of critical equipment, e.g., electro hydraulic governors, Safety Systems, resulting in loss of function and in some cases loss of generation. INPO completed a root cause analysis of 40 Reactor Trips/Scrams in US reactors and has recommended several actions to mitigate Circuit Card failures. Obsolescence of discrete components has posed many challenges in conducting effective preventative maintenance on circuit cards. In many cases, repairs have resulted in installation of components that compromise performance of the circuit cards. Improper termination and worn edge connectors have caused intermittent contacts contributing to circuit card failures. Traditionally, little attention is paid to relay functions and preventative maintenance of relay. Relays contribute significantly to circuit card failures and have dominated loss of generation across the power industry. The INPO study recommended a number of actions to mitigate circuit card failures, such as; identification of critical components and single point vulnerabilities; strategic preventative maintenance; protection of circuit boards against electrostatic discharge; limiting power cycles; performing an effective burn-in prior to commissioning of the circuit cards; monitoring performance of DC power supplies; limiting cabinet temperatures; managing of component aging/degradation mechanism, etc. A subcommittee has been set up under INPO sponsorship to understand the causes of circuit card failure and to develop an effective mitigation strategy. (author)

  4. Hydrogen mitigation systems - a Canadian regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosla, J.K.; Rizk, M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a discussion paper to examine the regulatory requirements that may be necessary for the design, operation and maintenance of the hydrogen mitigation systems. These systems (if deemed necessary to maintain the containment function), may be considered to be a part of the containment systems. Therefore, these requirements are derived mostly from the AECB Regulatory Document R-7, which specifies the requirements for containment systems for CANDU nuclear power plants. Some additional requirements, which are specific to these systems have also been included. These requirements relate to a systematic examination of the hazards of hydrogen, the design basis for the mitigation systems, their functional and design requirements, analytical support to justify their selection, and operating and testing requirements. The requirements for severe accident have not yet been developed. It is, however, anticipated that the design of the hydrogen mitigation system would be such that future requirement can be accommodated. These requirements are intended for application to the new reactors in Canada. For the existing reactors, their application will be subjected to practicability. (author)

  5. Diallyl sulfide as a radio-mitigator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoch, Omika; Agrawala, Paban K.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation or post irradiation radiation protection involves repair and recovery of critical organs such as the hematopoietic and gastrointestinal (GI) system besides others. The present study describes mitigating potential of diallyl sulfied (DAS), a constituent of garlic in mice hematopoietic and GI systems. 160 mg/kg body weight of DAS was administered intra-peritoneally after 2 hrs of radiation exposure. 160 mg/kg body weight of DAS administration resulted in 37% animal survival as opposed to 100% mortality in 9 Gy whole body irradiated group only. DAS also normalized the different parameters of blood in irradiated mice. This dose of DAS also decreased bone marrow apoptosis (TUNEL assay) in DAS + 5 Gy group as compared to irradiation group that resulted in increased cellularity of bone marrow as seen by Hematoxylin and Eosin in 5 um thick sections. Administration of DAS also alleviates the symptoms in GI system caused by radiation exposure. Administration of 160 mg/kg body weight of DAS in 11 Gy irradiated mice resulted in increased villi length and underlying stem cells count as compared to irradiation group only. Further experiments are needed to prove DAS as a potential radiation mitigator agent. (author)

  6. 2008 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2008 and includes 22 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and two bat habitat mitigation projects.

  7. 2007 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. A. Gano; C. T. Lindsey

    2007-09-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2007 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 3 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  8. A força-tarefa da psiquiatria do desenvolvimento The task-force of developmental psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Costa Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é uma análise do vídeo institucional do projeto do Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Psiquiatria do Desenvolvimento para a Infância e Adolescência (INPD - Brasil. O objetivo do artigo é ampliar o debate sobre a verdade científica e os métodos de prevenção de doença mental na infância e adolescência, por meio da análise do material midiático de divulgação do projeto. O trabalho para prevenir as doenças mentais e diagnosticar precocemente as psicopatologias já foi iniciado (2010 nas escolas particulares e pretende comprovar sua validade para a construção de políticas públicas. A partir de dados de pesquisas epidemiológicas internacionais, está sendo articulada a criação de uma subespecialidade psiquiátrica. Estamos diante de um superdimensionamento do poder de solução dos fatos da vida, por uma medicina psiquiátrica e sua verdade científica, que lança mão de diagnósticos de doenças não manifestadas, baseados em comportamentos, a serem contidos por psicofármacos e orientação de condutas. É um projeto em fase de implantação, que conta com amplo financiamento, público e privado, e credibilidade institucional para sua implantação. É uma medicalização do social e do psíquico, que serve mais à indústria da doença do que à saúde da população.This study analyzes the corporate video that presents the Project of the Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Psiquiatria do Desenvolvimento para a Infância e Adolescência, INPD (National Institute of Science and Technology of Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescents, Brazil. It aims to broaden the debate about scientific truth and methods to prevent mental illness in childhood and adolescence, through the analysis of the media material used to publicize the project. The work to prevent mental illness and early diagnosis of psychopathology has started in private schools (2010 and intends to prove its

  9. Desenvolvimento e validação de metodologia analítica para a determinação do teor de ácido glicólico na matéria-prima e em formulações dermocosméticas Development and validation of an analytical methodology for determination of glycolic acid acid in raw material and dermocosmetic formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Gonzalez Henriques

    2007-03-01

    methodology for the determination of the glycolic acid purity in the raw material and in the dermocosmetic formulations, the acid-base neutralization titration method was used, and the end point was determined with visual indicator as well as potenciometric. The analysis of glycolic acid in the raw material, and particularly, in the finished product is important to maintain the quality control and to guarantee the consumers security. Therefore, the raw material and the products, with glycolic acid, were analyzed in two days, as its purity in free and total glycolic acid was determined using sodium hydroxide 0,1 N and the hydrochloric acid 0,1 N solutions. The developed methodology was based on the reaction with the active substance and with the property characteristics of these formulations. It was demonstrated to be practical and efficient in quantify the glycolic acid.

  10. 40 CFR 51.860 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 51... Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.860 Mitigation of air quality impacts. Link... mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and the process for implementation and enforcement of such...

  11. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and..., the revised text is set forth as follows: § 93.160 Mitigation of air quality impacts. (e) When...

  12. 12 CFR 702.108 - Risk mitigation credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk mitigation credit. 702.108 Section 702.108... CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.108 Risk mitigation credit. (a) Who may apply. A credit union may apply for a risk mitigation credit if on any of the current or three preceding effective dates...

  13. 15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning... erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The management program must include a planning process for assessing the... planning process may be within the broader context of coastal hazard mitigation planning. (b) The basic...

  14. 44 CFR 201.6 - Local Mitigation Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., require a local mitigation plan for the Repetitive Flood Claims Program. A local government must have a... eligible for FMA project grants. However, these plans must be clearly identified as being flood mitigation... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Local Mitigation Plans. 201.6...

  15. 76 FR 61070 - Disaster Assistance; Hazard Mitigation Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...) to revise the categories of projects eligible for funding under the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP). The NPRM proposed to define eligible mitigation activities under the HMGP to include minor flood... FEMA-2011-0004] RIN 1660-AA02;Formerly 3067-AC69 Disaster Assistance; Hazard Mitigation Grant Program...

  16. Planejamento no estado brasileiro: dificuldades estruturais para a concretização constitucional do desenvolvimento regional

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Soldi

    2009-01-01

    A dissertação visa identificar os entraves para a construção e a articulação do planejamento de desenvolvimento nacional e regional no contexto das atribuições da União, como ente chave na construção do federalismo cooperativo. Parte da investigação da distinção das expressões crescimento e desenvolvimento, para compreender a noção de desenvolvimento nacional, como um dos fundamentos da República Federativa do Brasil. Delineia a noção de planejamento, de plano econômico e sua relação com o di...

  17. Aspectos biométricos do desenvolvimento testicular e corporal em cutias (Dasyprocta aguti criadas em cativeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Chaves de Assis-Neto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se os dados biométricos do desenvolvimento testicular e peso corporal de 31 cutias (Dasyprocta aguti desde o nascimento até os 14 meses de idade. As correlações entre o peso corporal, idade e parâmetros testiculares apresentaram-se altamente significativas. O peso testicular, o volume testicular, assim como os demais parâmetros biométricos testiculares (comprimento, diâmetro e perímetro, evoluíram lenta e gradualmente até os 8 meses de idade. A partir dos 9 meses, o crescimento foi mais rápido. O desenvolvimento biométrico do testículo pode ser dividido em duas fases, de 0 - 8 meses e de 9 - 14 meses de idade, sendo 9 meses considerado ponto de corte em se tratando de desenvolvimento testicular de cutias criadas em cativeiro.

  18. Indução e desenvolvimento de calos e embriões somáticos em mamoeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Eliane Pires de; Oliveira,Roberto Pedroso de; Dantas,Jorge Luis Loyola

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo estabelecer um protocolo para a indução e desenvolvimento de calos e embriões somáticos em mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Tainung n.1). Foram utilizados quatro tipos de explantes (hipocótilo com folhas cotiledonares, hipocótilo, folhas cotiledonares e epicótilo) e duas condições de cultivo (escuro e 16 horas de luz). A indução e o desenvolvimento de calos foram avaliados nos meios de cultura ½MS2, ½MS10 e HMH e a indução e o desenvolvimento de embriões somático...

  19. Insulina e glicose como moduladores do desenvolvimento de plântulas de milho doce (Su1)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Júnior, Luiz Fernando Ganassali; Bressan-Smith, Ricardo; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio de; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Silva, Luciana Belarmindo; Viana, Leandro Hespanhol; Vieira, Henrique Duarte

    2009-01-01

    Durante a germinação e o desenvolvimento pós-germinativo de milho, o fluxo metabólico é intenso, ocorrendo síntese e degradação de açúcares (glicose, frutose e sacarose) e hidrólise de amido, além da redução da concentração do ácido abscísico (ABA). Acredita-se que altas concentrações de glicose exógena, promovam acúmulo de ABA, proporcionando atraso na germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas. Concentrações menores, por outro lado, podem ocasionar estímulo na germinação e desenvolvimento. N...

  20. IMPLICAÇÕES DAS CONCEPÇÕES DE EMPREENDER PARA O DESENVOLVIMENTO DA COMPETÊNCIA EMPREENDEDORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens de Araujo Amaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo analisa como as diferentes concepções de empreender influenciam o desenvolvimento da competência empreendedora, tomando como referência o pressuposto fenomenográfico de que um mesmo fenômeno é experienciado de diferentes maneiras pelos indivíduos. Fundamentada em uma ontologia relacional, pouco presente em estudos da competência, essa pesquisa fenomenográfica foi realizada com um grupo de participantes de um programa de pré-incubação de uma universidade paulista. Os resultados apontam para a existência de três diferentes maneiras de experienciar o empreender, que resultam em formas distintas de desenvolvimento da competência empreendedora. Com base nessas evidências, apresenta-se um conjunto de reflexões sobre o que é a competência profissional e algumas implicações para o seu desenvolvimento.

  1. Urban Policies and Earthquake Risk Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarlo, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims at proposing some considerations about some recent experiences of research carried out on the theme of earthquake risk mitigation and combining policies and actions of mitigation with urban development strategies. The objective was to go beyond the classical methodological approach aiming at defining a 'technical' evaluation of the earthquake risk through a procedure which can correlate the three 'components' of danger, exposure and vulnerability. These researches experiment, in terms of methodology and application, with a new category of interpretation and strategy: the so-called Struttura Urbana Minima (Minimum urban structure).Actually, the introduction of the Struttura Urbana Minima establishes a different approach towards the theme of safety in the field of earthquake risk, since it leads to a wider viewpoint, combining the building aspect of the issue with the purely urban one, involving not only town planning, but also social and managerial implications.In this sense the constituent logic of these researches is strengthened by two fundamental issues:- The social awareness of earthquake;- The inclusion of mitigation policies in the ordinary strategies for town and territory management. Three main aspects of the first point, that is of the 'social awareness of earthquake', characterize this issue and demand to be considered within a prevention policy:- The central role of the risk as a social production,- The central role of the local community consent,- The central role of the local community capability to planTherefore, consent, considered not only as acceptance, but above all as participation in the elaboration and implementation of choices, plays a crucial role in the wider issue of prevention policies.As far as the second point is concerned, the inclusion of preventive mitigation policies in ordinary strategies for the town and territory management demands the identification of criteria of choice and priorities of intervention and, as a

  2. Integrating uncertainties for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; McCollum, David; Reisinger, Andy; Meinshausen, Malte; Riahi, Keywan

    2013-04-01

    The target of keeping global average temperature increase to below 2°C has emerged in the international climate debate more than a decade ago. In response, the scientific community has tried to estimate the costs of reaching such a target through modelling and scenario analysis. Producing such estimates remains a challenge, particularly because of relatively well-known, but ill-quantified uncertainties, and owing to limited integration of scientific knowledge across disciplines. The integrated assessment community, on one side, has extensively assessed the influence of technological and socio-economic uncertainties on low-carbon scenarios and associated costs. The climate modelling community, on the other side, has worked on achieving an increasingly better understanding of the geophysical response of the Earth system to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). This geophysical response remains a key uncertainty for the cost of mitigation scenarios but has only been integrated with assessments of other uncertainties in a rudimentary manner, i.e., for equilibrium conditions. To bridge this gap between the two research communities, we generate distributions of the costs associated with limiting transient global temperature increase to below specific temperature limits, taking into account uncertainties in multiple dimensions: geophysical, technological, social and political. In other words, uncertainties resulting from our incomplete knowledge about how the climate system precisely reacts to GHG emissions (geophysical uncertainties), about how society will develop (social uncertainties and choices), which technologies will be available (technological uncertainty and choices), when we choose to start acting globally on climate change (political choices), and how much money we are or are not willing to spend to achieve climate change mitigation. We find that political choices that delay mitigation have the largest effect on the cost-risk distribution, followed by

  3. Mitigation of methane emission from an old unlined landfill in Klintholm, Denmark using a passive biocover system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedersen, Rasmus Broe; Petersen, Per Haugsted; Jørgensen, Jørgen Henrik Bjerre; Ucendo, Inmaculada Maria Buendia; Mønster, Jacob G.; Samuelsson, Jerker; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative biocover system was constructed on a landfill cell to mitigate the methane emission. • The biocover system had a mitigation efficiently of typically 80%. • The system also worked efficiently at ambient temperatures below freezing. • A whole landfill emission measurement tool was required to document the biocover system efficiency. - Abstract: Methane generated at landfills contributes to global warming and can be mitigated by biocover systems relying on microbial methane oxidation. As part of a closure plan for an old unlined landfill without any gas management measures, an innovative biocover system was established. The system was designed based on a conceptual model of the gas emission patterns established through an initial baseline study. The study included construction of gas collection trenches along the slopes of the landfill where the majority of the methane emissions occurred. Local compost materials were tested as to their usefulness as bioactive methane oxidizing material and a suitable compost mixture was selected. Whole site methane emission quantifications based on combined tracer release and downwind measurements in combination with several local experimental activities (gas composition within biocover layers, flux chamber based emission measurements and logging of compost temperatures) proved that the biocover system had an average mitigation efficiency of approximately 80%. The study showed that the system also had a high efficiency during winter periods with temperatures below freezing. An economic analysis indicated that the mitigation costs of the biocover system were competitive to other existing greenhouse gas mitigation options

  4. Mitigation of methane emission from an old unlined landfill in Klintholm, Denmark using a passive biocover system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedersen, Rasmus Broe [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Per Haugsted [Ramboll Denmark A/S, DK-5100 Odense C (Denmark); Jørgensen, Jørgen Henrik Bjerre [Klintholm I/S, DK-5874 Hasselager (Denmark); Ucendo, Inmaculada Maria Buendia; Mønster, Jacob G. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Samuelsson, Jerker [FluxSense AB/Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Kjeldsen, Peter, E-mail: pekj@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • An innovative biocover system was constructed on a landfill cell to mitigate the methane emission. • The biocover system had a mitigation efficiently of typically 80%. • The system also worked efficiently at ambient temperatures below freezing. • A whole landfill emission measurement tool was required to document the biocover system efficiency. - Abstract: Methane generated at landfills contributes to global warming and can be mitigated by biocover systems relying on microbial methane oxidation. As part of a closure plan for an old unlined landfill without any gas management measures, an innovative biocover system was established. The system was designed based on a conceptual model of the gas emission patterns established through an initial baseline study. The study included construction of gas collection trenches along the slopes of the landfill where the majority of the methane emissions occurred. Local compost materials were tested as to their usefulness as bioactive methane oxidizing material and a suitable compost mixture was selected. Whole site methane emission quantifications based on combined tracer release and downwind measurements in combination with several local experimental activities (gas composition within biocover layers, flux chamber based emission measurements and logging of compost temperatures) proved that the biocover system had an average mitigation efficiency of approximately 80%. The study showed that the system also had a high efficiency during winter periods with temperatures below freezing. An economic analysis indicated that the mitigation costs of the biocover system were competitive to other existing greenhouse gas mitigation options.

  5. Retroreflective façades for urban heat island mitigation: Experimental investigation and energy evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Federico; Castellani, Beatrice; Presciutti, Andrea; Morini, Elena; Filipponi, Mirko; Nicolini, Andrea; Santamouris, Matheos

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Retro-reflective (RR) materials are an effective strategy for mitigating UHI. • Optical properties of RR materials are assessed by a new experimental facility. • Angular distribution of reflected radiation is assessed during daytime. • RR component is treated as a diffusely reflected radiation by a reduction factor. • An algorithm evaluates the cooling potential of RR materials in urban canyons. - Abstract: The optimization of optical properties of buildings’ envelope and urban paving represents an important research field for reducing the urban heat island effect. The overheating of a surface exposed to sunlight can be reduced by improving solar reflectance. In this sense, several studies have demonstrated the positive effect of cool materials on UHI mitigation. In addition to traditional cool materials, retroreflective (RR) materials have been recently proposed for this application. The present paper aims at the assessment of angular reflectance of RR films for several inclination angles of solar radiation. To reproduce variation of solar radiation’s inclination during the daytime, an ad hoc experimental setup was designed and used. Characterization of RR materials when hit by solar radiation with different inclinations allows to assess their behaviour on daytime if used as novel urban coatings for mitigation of the UHI phenomenon. Measurement results are used as input for an original algorithm which allows to quantify cooling potential of RR materials in terms of energy reflected and sent beyond the urban canyon. The experimental characterization and energy evaluations showed that RR materials could be effectively applied as coatings on urban paving and building envelope, in order to reduce the circulating energy into the canyon

  6. Abordagem grassroots e resistência: atualizando a concepção de desenvolvimento sustentável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Marcos Carvalho de Sena

    Full Text Available Resumo Em contrapartida às especificidades impositivas do modelo de produção capitalista - incluindo-se nesse modelo os meandros de arranjos produtivos que inserem o meio ambiente enquanto alinhado à versão tríplice da concepção tradicional de desenvolvimento sustentável -, tem surgido uma massa crítica de literatura focada na resistência ao modo de funcionamento do capitalismo ocidental. Em relação à teoria, economia solidária (pilar econômico, movimentos sociais (pilar social, ecologia política (pilar ambiental e raízes culturais (pilar cultural são aparatos importantes que não devem ficar à margem na estruturação de uma concepção alternativa do desenvolvimento sustentável. Tais aparatos são considerados elementos de resistência, visto terem fatores diferenciados quando comparados com as características tradicionais dos pilares da criticada concepção de desenvolvimento sustentável. Assim, o objetivo do presente ensaio teórico é conceber alternativas à concepção padrão do desenvolvimento sustentável, considerando aspectos da abordagem grassroots importantes para esse propósito. A contribuição é relevante tendo em vista a consideração de aspectos alternativos e complementares envolvidos na leitura da atualização conjecturada. Os prospectos do desenvolvimento grassroots têm sido usados como guia prático em ações de desenvolvimento local envolvendo comunidades menos desenvolvidas em várias partes do mundo, sem a conjectura que sinaliza para elementos conceituais que podem oferecer uma conformação alternativa à concepção do desenvolvimento sustentável. Conclui-se que a versão tradicional do desenvolvimento sustentável pode ser atualizada com elementos alternativos advindos da abordagem grassroots.

  7. Circulação de crianças: o olhar do cuidador sobre o desenvolvimento emocional

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, Lesly Guimarães Vicenzi de

    2012-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo compreender a forma como cuidadores, pais e/ou responsáveis, compreendem o desenvolvimento emocional no contexto de circulação de crianças. Para tanto, embasou-se na teoria psicodinâmica sobre o desenvolvimento emocional, cuidador (es) e circulação de crianças.Utilizou-se o método qualitativo, no intuito de capturar dados e informações sobre o fenômeno estudado em sua singularidade (MINAYO, 2010). A dimensão interdisciplinar do presente estudo,...

  8. Desenvolvimento de dispositivo de electroterapia para medicina física e reabilitação

    OpenAIRE

    Leitão, Cátia Sofia Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A electroterapia é uma das modalidades terapêuticas mais usadas em Medicina Física e Reabilitação. A presente dissertação assenta no desenvolvimento de um protótipo de dispositivo de aplicação de correntes eléctricas de baixa e média frequência. O objectivo principal é assim a recolha e especificação de requisitos técnicos e regulamentares para a concepção, desenvolvimento e prototipagem de equipamentos de electroterapia. A recolha de requisitos técnicos para desenvolver um dispositivo méd...

  9. O desenvolvimento da Competência Informacional nas crianças a partir da literatura infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Djuli Machado De Lucca; Clarice Fortkamp Caldin; João Primo Ramirez Righi

    2015-01-01

    Objetiva realizar uma reflexão acerca da prática de leitura de literatura infantil para o desenvolvimento da Competência Informacional nas crianças. A Competência Informacional é caracterizada por um movimento que estimula o uso crítico e reflexivo da informação. Trata da primeira fase de desenvolvimento da Competência Informacional, entendida, nesse artigo, como letramento informacional, que se constitui em um processo. É nessa fase que o indivíduo desenvolve habilidades básicas relacionadas...

  10. Processo de desenvolvimento das inovações na cadeia produtiva da maçã brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Marcia Rohr da

    2013-01-01

    A inovação exerce importância no negócio das empresas, compreende diferentes aspectos e contribui de formas diversas para o seu crescimento e desenvolvimento. Dentre os aspectos que podem ser levados em consideração para as inovações estão os aspectos internos relacionados com o contexto da organização e os aspectos externos que envolvem todo o ambiente em que a organização está inserida. Acredita-se que estes aspectos exercem influência tanto na decisão para o desenvolvimento das inovaçõ...

  11. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE ALFACE EM DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS E CONCENTRAÇÕES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Pechara Jaeggi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desempenho de diferentes substratos e concentrações, no desenvolvimento de cultivares de alface. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, localizada no setor de Agroecologia do Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo Campus de Alegre, ES. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados disposto em um esquema fatorial 4x3x2, sendo quatro tipos substratos (S1: Plantmax®; S2: composto orgânico; S3: húmus de minhoca; S4: borra de cana-de-açúcar, três concentrações (100%, 75% e 50% e duas cultivares de alface. As variáveis avaliadas foram: massa fresca da parte aérea, massa fresca toal e altura da parte aérea. As mudas foram avaliadas ao 21° dia após semeio. Os resultados demostraram que substratos orgânicos se mostraram eficazes para o desenvolvimento das cultivares de alface, os quais podem ser utilizados em diferentes concentrações em substituição ao substrato comercial.

  12. Elites técnicas, Estado e desenvolvimento regional em Minas Gerais na Era Vargas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henrique Diniz Barbosa

    Full Text Available Este texto aborda o processo de desenvolvimento regional encetado em Minas Gerais, com particular ênfase na participação do corpo técnico regional ao longo das décadas de 1930 e 1940. Trata-se de um período de relevantes transformações no âmbito do poder público, sobretudo no tocante ao papel desempenhado pela ideologia e prática do planejamento e intervencionismo do Estado na esfera econômica, o que permitiu, no caso mineiro, a ascensão da categoria profissional do engenheiro às arenas decisórias do Estado, com repercussão na elaboração e tentativa de implantação de projetos voltados para o desenvolvimento econômico regional, notadamente nas áreas de agricultura e siderurgia. Este texto priorizará, para tanto, dois grupos específicos dentre essa elite técnica mineira: os ex-alunos da Escola de Minas de Ouro Preto e os alunos e professores da Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinária, de Viçosa.

  13. INDICAÇÕES GEOGRÁFICAS (IGs: INSTRUMENTO DE DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvanda Silva Nunes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As Indicações Geográficas (IGs constituem uma forma de proteção intelectual voltada para a valorização dos conhecimentos tradicionais, sobretudo no meio rural. Tal proteção tem levado a diversas melhorias nos processos de obtenção de produtos e na prestação de serviços que guardam em si as características da região. Como a inserção social e a preservação ambiental estão fortemente associadas às IGs, estas podem ser consideradas fortes precursoras do desenvolvimento sustentável de uma região ou Comunidade. O presente trabalho objetivou demonstrar que as IGs podem ser responsáveis e facilitadoras do desenvolvimento econômico, financeiro e social de determinadas regiões. Assim, foram abordados aspectos conceituais e de legislação sobre IGs, os inúmeros benefícios econômicos, sociais e ambientais que trazem uma IG, a necessidade da organização no campo, e finalmente as demandas por políticas públicas que incentivem a criação de novas IGs brasileiras e desenvolvam as já existentes.

  14. Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento inicial de Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex. Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice de Cassia Conforto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se escolher os melhores tratamentos pré-germinativos para as sementes e tamanhos de recipiente para o desenvolvimento inicial de plantas de Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex. Benth. Dentre os tratamentos aplicados, a escarificação com ácido sulfúrico por 10 minutos e o corte com estilete na região oposta ao hilo resultaram, respectivamente, nos maiores resultados de porcentagem de germinação (82,8% e 82,1% e índices de velocidade de germinação (1,15 e 1,71. Não foram observados efeitos do tamanho do recipiente sobre a área foliar e a produção de massa seca das plantas. Aos 63 dias após a semeadura, embora com índice de qualidade de Dickson estatisticamente similares (média de 0,26, somente as plantas cultivadas nos recipientes pequenos e grandes atingiram o diâmetro de coleto próximo de 5 mm, valor mínimo recomendado para o plantio em campo. Assim, para o desenvolvimento inicial desta espécie, recomenda-se o pré-tratamento das sementes com ácido sulfúrico comercial, semeadura em sacos plásticos para mudas de 17 x 20 cm, e aguardo de 63 dias até o plantio em campo.

  15. EFEITO DA SALINIDADE NA GERMINAÇÃO E DESENVOLVIMENTO INICIAL DA LEUCENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgônio Maurício da Nóbrega Neto

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de NaCl na germinação e desenvolvimento inicial da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit.. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação, tendo-se utilizado NaCl para salinização artificial do solo, de modo a se obter as concentrações de 0,15; 0,30; 0,45 e 0,60% (CEesiguais a 6, 12, 18 e 24 dS m-1. Analisaram-se as seguintes variáveis: percentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, área foliar, altura de plantas e matéria seca. A análise dos dados demonstrou que o potencial de germinação da leucena foi afetado com o aumento da concentração de NaCl e que o desenvolvimento inicial da leucena sofreu efeito mais significativo a partir da concentração de 0,45%, mas as variáveis área foliar e matéria seca foram afetadas a partir de 0,15 e 0,30%, respectivamente.

  16. Microeconomia Dinâmica e Desenvolvimento Regional à Luz da Teoria Evolucionária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno de Melo Faria

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo procura lançar luzes sobre a discussão da Teoria Evolucionária, teoria esta que visa encontrar os determinantes do desenvolvimento econômico e social das nações. Discute também as estruturas de mercado em ambientes competitivos e suas relações com a geração de tecnologia. A partir dos fatos estilizados, esta matriz teórica explicita que as firmas são as unidades básicas de acumulação de capital, complexas e especializadas, que estão constantemente sendo selecionadas em função de seu comportamento e sua tecnologia. Conclui-se o artigo afirmando que a evolução tecnológica é a principal variável no processo seletivo das firmas e que, em última instância, será essa que irá determinar o grau de desenvolvimento regional.

  17. Desenvolvimento, escolarização e síndrome de Down: expectativas maternas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kolberg Lipp

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar as expectativas maternas em relação ao desenvolvimento e escolarização do filho com síndrome de Down, a partir de uma perspectiva psicanalítica. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, por meio de entrevistas, que foram gravadas, transcritas e posteriormente analisadas, a partir de análise qualitativa de conteúdo. Participaram do estudo 12 mães de pessoas com síndrome de Down, com idades entre dois meses e 23 anos. Os resultados revelaram que o diagnóstico de síndrome de Down gera impacto nas mães. Em decorrência disso, as mães apresentaram dificuldade de construir expectativas em relação ao desenvolvimento e escolarização. Ressalta-se a importância do apoio e acompanhamento da mãe, no que se refere ao exercício da maternidade, bem como de professores que acompanharão o aluno com síndrome de Down a partir da idade escolar.

  18. Desenvolvimento do trato digestivo de bezerros leiteiros criados em sistema de aleitamento fracionado

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    Rafael A. Azevedo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o efeito do sistema de aleitamento fracionado no desenvolvimento ruminal de bezerros leiteiros holandeses, foram utilizados 12 animais, com peso corporal inicial médio de 37,0 kg, alojados individualmente em baias. O tratamento convencional constituiu-se de quatro litros de leite diários durante 60 dias e o fracionado, de seis litros do 6º ao 25º dia; quatro litros dos dias 26 a 45 e dois litros de 46 a 59 dias de vida, além de concentrado, feno de Cynodon sp., água e suplemento mineral, oferecidos livremente. O consumo dos alimentos foi monitorado diariamente e os animais, pesados semanalmente, após o fornecimento da dieta líquida, pela manhã. Aos 60 dias de vida, os animais foram abatidos e realizaram-se pesagens do trato digestivo e medidas histológicas das papilas ruminais. O sistema de aleitamento não interferiu significativamente no consumo de concentrado, de feno, de matéria seca total e no peso corporal final vazio. O aleitamento fracionado resultou em maior peso corporal final, pesos absolutos do trato digestivo, do ruminorretículo, do omaso e dos intestinos, de pesos relativos do omaso e dos intestinos e maior índice mitótico das papilas ruminais. O sistema de aleitamento fracionado pode ser alternativa para melhorar o desenvolvimento ruminal e o desempenho de bezerros.

  19. Regiões, cidades e comunidades resilientes: novos princípios de desenvolvimento

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    Carlos Gonçalves

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Os efeitos da sucessão/sobreposição de crises ambientais, de insegurança, de governação, financeiras, econômicas e sociais diluíram-se no quotidiano de boa parte das regiões do planeta. Essa presença constante destrói a estabilidade e a previsibilidade associadas aos estádios mais avançados de progresso. A turbulência deixou de ser exceção e passou a ser regra. Neste artigo, discute-se o que vulnerabiliza os territórios e capacita as regiões, as cidades e as comunidades para recuperá-las, quando expostas a crises agudas e/ou prolongadas. Procuram-se justificações para o fato de alguns territórios falharem no esforço de retomar a trajetória pré-crise, enquanto outros cumprem ou superam esse objetivo, robustecendo-se no decurso dos episódios desestabilizadores. Neste artigo, observamos o desenvolvimento regional, urbano e local por meio do paradigma da resiliência evolutiva, identificando os gatilhos e as condições para a sustentabilidade do desenvolvimento, muito para além da lógica reativa de manter, distender ou tentar retomar hipotéticos equilíbrios vigentes pré-crise.

  20. Consequências sociais e emocionais da dislexia de desenvolvimento: um estudo de caso

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    Lénia Sofia de Almeida Carvalhais

    Full Text Available A dislexia de desenvolvimento é uma dificuldade específica de aprendizagem da leitura e escrita que condiciona a forma como o indivíduo se percepciona e como se relaciona com os seus pares nos mais diversos contextos desde educacionais até familiares. No sentido de avaliar as consequências emocionais e sociais decorrentes de um diagnóstico de dislexia de desenvolvimento, foram efectuados duas entrevistas, orientadas por inquéritos construídos para o efeito, a uma criança portuguesa e ao seu Encarregado de Educação, resultante de um estudo de caso, de carácter longitudinal. Os resultados comprovaram a necessidade de uma avaliação da dislexia efectuada precocemente, o que permite, por sua vez, uma intervenção adequada, no sentido de combater o insucesso escolar. Verifica-se ainda ser fundamental alertar professores e profissionais da educação para esta dificuldade de aprendizagem no sentido de evitar situações de discriminação, como as que identificamos neste estudo.