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Sample records for mis te indyga

  1. Mis te Indyga teete?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  2. Electrical properties of MIS devices on CdZnTe/HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Seok; Jeoung, Y. T.; Kim, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Jae Mook; Song, Jinhan; Ann, S. Y.; Lee, Ji Y.; Kim, Young Hun; Kim, Sun-Ung; Park, Mann-Jang; Lee, S. D.; Suh, Sang-Hee

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, we report the capacitance-voltage (C-V) properties of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices on CdTe/HgCdTe by the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and CdZnTe/HgCdTe by thermal evaporation. In MOCVD, CdTe layers are directly grown on HgCdTe using the metal organic sources of DMCd and DiPTe. HgCdTe layers are converted to n-type and the carrier concentration, ND is low 1015 cm-3 after Hg-vacancy annealing at 260 degrees Celsius. In thermal evaporation, CdZnTe passivation layers were deposited on HgCdTe surfaces after the surfaces were etched with 0.5 - 2.0% bromine in methanol solution. To investigate the electrical properties of the MIS devices, the C-V measurement is conducted at 80 K and 1 MHz. C-V curve of MIS devices on CdTe/HgCdTe by MOCVD has shown nearly flat band condition and large hysteresis, which is inferred to result from many defects in CdTe layer induced during Hg-vacancy annealing process. A negative flat band voltage (VFB approximately equals -2 V) and a small hysteresis have been observed for MIS devices on CdZnTe/HgCdTe by thermal evaporation. It is inferred that the negative flat band voltage results from residual Te4+ on the surface after etching with bromine in methanol solution.

  3. Admittance of MIS-Structures Based on HgCdTe with a Double-Layer CdTe/Al2O3 Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadukh, S. M.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Sidorov, G. Yu.; Varavin, V. S.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Yakushev, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    Admittance of MIS structures based on n( p)- Hg1-xCdxTe (at x from 0.22 to 0.40) with SiO2/Si3N4, Al2O3, and CdTe/Al2O3 insulators is studied experimentally at 77 K. Growth of an intermediate CdTe layer during epitaxy results in the almost complete disappearance of the hysteresis of electrophysical characteristics of MIS structures based on graded-gap n-HgCdTe for a small range of the voltage variation. For a wide range of the voltage variation, the hysteresis of the capacitance-voltage characteristics appears for MIS structures based on n-HgCdTe with the CdTe/Al2O3 insulator. However, the hysteresis mechanism differs from that in case of a single-layer Al2O3 insulator. For MIS structures based on p-HgCdTe, introduction of an additional CdTe layer does not lead to a significant decrease of the hysteresis phenomena, which may be due to the degradation of the interface properties when mercury leaves the film as a result of low-temperature annealing changing the conductivity type of the semiconductor.

  4. Interface properties of MIS structures based on hetero-epitaxial graded-gap Hg1-xCdxTe with CdTe interlayer created in situ during MBE growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, Alexander V.; Nesmelov, Sergey N.; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M.; Varavin, Vasily S.; Dvoretsky, Sergey A.; Mikhailov, Nikolay N.; Yakushev, Maksim V.; Sidorov, Georgy Yu.

    2017-11-01

    Heterostructures based on n-Hg1-xCdxTe (x = 0.23-0.40) with near-surface graded-gap layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si (013) substrates. At 77 K, the admittance of the In/Al2O3/Hg1-xCdxTe metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures with grown in situ CdTe intermediate layer and without such a layer was investigated. It has been established that MIS structures of In/Al2O3/Hg1-xCdxTe with an interlayer of in situ grown CdTe are characterized by the electrical strength of the dielectric and the qualitative interface. The hysteresis of the capacitive characteristics is practically absent within a small range of variation in the bias voltage. The density of fast surface states at the minimum does not exceed 2.2 × 1010 eV-1 cm-2. MIS structures of In/Al2O3/Hg1-xCdxTe without an intermediate layer of CdTe have significantly higher densities of fast and slow surface states, as well as lower values of the differential resistance of the space-charge region in the regime of strong inversion.

  5. Properties of MIS structures based on graded-gap HgCdTe grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadookh, S. M.; Varavin, V. S.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Sidorov, Yu. G.; Vasiliev, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of near-surface graded-gap layers on the electrical characteristics of MIS structures fabricated based on heteroepitaxial Hg 1-x Cd x Te films grown by molecular beam epitaxy with a two-layer SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 insulator and anodic oxide film is studied experimentally. It is shown that a larger modulation of capacitance (depth and width of the valley) is observed compared with the structures without the graded-gap layer. The field dependences of photovoltage of MIS structures with the graded-gap layers had a classical form and were characterized by a drop only in the enrichment region. For the structures without the graded-gap layer with x = 0.22, a drop in the voltage dependence of the photocurrent is observed in the region of pronounced inversion. This drop is governed by limitation of the space charge region by processes of tunneling generation via deep levels. The properties of the HgCdTe-insulator interfaces are studied.

  6. Temperature Dependences of the Product of the Differential Resistance by the Area in MIS-Structures Based on Cd x Hg1- x Te Grown by Molecularbeam Epitaxy on Alternative Si and GaAs Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.; Varavin, V. S.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Yakushev, M. V.; Sidorov, G. Yu.

    2017-06-01

    In a temperature range of 9-200 K, temperature dependences of the differential resistance of space-charge region in the strong inversion mode are experimentally studied for MIS structures based on CdxHg1-xTe (x = 0.22-0.40) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The effect of various parameters of structures: the working layer composition, the type of a substrate, the type of insulator coating, and the presence of a near-surface graded-gap layer on the value of the product of differential resistance by the area is studied. It is shown that the values of the product RSCRA for MIS structures based on n-CdHgTe grown on a Si(013) substrate are smaller than those for structures based on the material grown on a GaAs(013) substrate. The values of the product RSCRA for MIS structures based on p-CdHgTe grown on a Si(013) substrate are comparable with the value of the analogous parameter for MIS structures based on p-CdHgTe grown on a GaAs(013) substrate.

  7. Surface passivation of HgCdTe by CdZnTe and its characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. S.; Choi, K. K.; Jeoung, Y. T.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Chang, J. M.; Song, W. S.; Kim, S. U.; Park, M. J.; Lee, S. D.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper, we report the results of capacitance-voltage measurements conducted on several metal-insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitors in which HgCdTe surfaces are treated with various surface etching and oxidation processes. CdZnTe passivation layers were deposited on HgCdTe surfaces by thermal evaporation after the surfaces were etched with 0.5-2.0% bromine in methanol solution, or thin oxide layers (tox ˜ few ten Å) were grown on the surfaces, in order to investigate effects of the surface treatments on the electrical properties of the surfaces, as determined from capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements at 80K and 1 MHz. A negative flat band voltage has been observed for MIS capacitors fabricated after etching of HgCdTe surfaces with bromine in methanol solutions, which is reported to make the surface Te-rich. It is inferred that residual Te on the surface is a positive charge, Te4+. C-V characteristics for MIS capacitors fabricated on oxide surfaces grown by air-exposure and electrolytic process have shown large hysteresis effects, from which it is inferred that imperfect and electrically active oxide compounds and HgTe particles near the surface become slow interface states.

  8. Electrical characterizations of MIS structures based on variable-gap n(p)-HgCdTe grown by MBE on Si(0 1 3) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.; Varavin, V. S.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Yakushev, M. V.; Sidorov, G. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures based on n(p)-Hg1-xCdxTe (x = 0.22-0.40) with near-surface variable-gap layers were grown by the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique on the Si (0 1 3) substrates. Electrical properties of MIS structures were investigated experimentally at various temperatures (9-77 K) and directions of voltage sweep. The ;narrow swing; technique was used to determine the spectra of fast surface states with the exception of hysteresis effects. It is established that the density of fast surface states at the MCT/Al2O3 interface at a minimum does not exceed 3 × 1010 eV-1 × cm-2. For MIS structures based on n-MCT/Si(0 1 3), the differential resistance of the space-charge region in strong inversion mode in the temperature range 50-90 K is limited by the Shockley-Read-Hall generation in the space-charge region.

  9. El maltrato de género en «Te doy mis ojos» (2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosendo BUGARÍN GONZÁLEZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En nuestro país son escasas y de muy reciente aparición las películas que tratan sobre la violencia de género desde una óptica de rechazo y denuncia. Probablemente la más representativa sea Te doy mis ojos. Su visionado pretende contribuir a concienciar y a hacer reflexionar al espectador sobre la grave dad de esta lacra en nuestra sociedad. No cabe duda de que para llevar a cabo este proyecto, sus respon sables tuvieron que emprender una muy seria y rigurosa labor de investigación. En efecto, este film es un auténtico manual (o incluso tratado sobre maltrato de género. En él se recoge prácticamente “todo” lo relacionado con este problema de salud: el círculo de la violencia, el plan de huída, las consultas sanitarias que no detectaron el problema, el sufrimiento de la víctima, su necesidad de apoyo y acompañamiento así como el contexto del maltratador.

  10. X-ray diffraction study of epitaxial heterostructures of II-VI CdTe and ZnTe semiconductors; Etude par diffraction de rayons X d`heterostructures epitaxiees a base des semi-conducteurs II-VI CdTe et ZnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet-Boudet, N.

    1996-10-07

    This work deals with the structural study of II-VI semiconductor (CdTe and ZnTe) heterostructures by X-ray diffraction and reflectivity. These heterostructures have a high lattice parameter misfit and are grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Two main subjects are developed: the characterization of ZnTe wires, grown by step propagation on a CdTe (001) vicinal surface, and the study of the vertical correlations in Cd{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Te / CdTe superlattices and superlattices made of ZnTe fractional layers spaced by CdTe. The growth of organised system is up to date; its aim is to realize quantum boxes (or wires) superlattices which are laterally and vertically ordered. The deformation along the growth axis induced by a ZnTe fractional layer inserted in a CdTe matrix is modelled, in the kinematical approximation, to reproduce the reflectivity measured around the substrate (004) Bragg peak. The lateral periodicity of the wires, deposited on a vicinal surface is a new and difficult subject. Some results are obtained on a vertical superlattice grown on a 1 deg. mis-cut surface. The in-plane and out-of-plane correlation lengths of a Cd{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Te / CdTe superlattice are deduced from the diffused scattered intensity measured at grazing incidence. The calculations are made within the `distorted Wave Born Approximation`. The vertical correlation in ZnTe boxes (or wines) superlattices can be measured around Bragg peaks. It is twice bigger in a superlattice grown on a 2 deg. mis-cut substrate than a nominal one. (author). 74 refs.

  11. Cuadros en movimiento: la pintura en el cine: Relaciones intermediales en La hora de los valientes [Mercero 1998] y Te doy mis ojos [Bollaín 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Gimeno Ugalde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to study the relationship between cinema and painting from an intermedial perspective by analysing two Spanish films: La hora de los valientes (Antonio Mercero 1998 and Te doy mis ojos (Icíar Bollaín 2003. We intend to compare how the respective directors use painting to construct and enrich the cinematographic story and to analyse what narrative and artistic role the paintings play in the filmic text. The study of the two films will serve to illustrate our initial hypothesis, that painting is used not only for artistic and narrative purposes, but also to make the spectator a witness of a twofold drama: the individual and the collective. The exchange of looks which permeates the diegesis places painting to the forefront, whilst determining the interpretation of the filmic textBasándonos en un enfoque teórico intermedial, el presente artículo tiene como objeto estudiar las relaciones entre cine y pintura a partir de dos películas españolas: La hora de los valientes [Antonio Mercero 1998] y Te doy mis ojos [Icíar Bollaín 2003]. Nos proponemos cotejar cómo los respectivos directores introducen la pintura para construir y enriquecer el relato cinematográfico y analizar qué función narrativa y estética cumplen los cuadros en el texto fílmico. El estudio de ambos filmes nos servirá para demostrar nuestra hipótesis inicial: la pintura se emplea no solo con fines estéticos y narrativos, sino también para convertir al espectador en testigo de un doble drama, el individual y el colectivo. El juego de miradas que atraviesa la diégesis sitúa a la pintura en un primer plano, a la vez que determina la lectura del texto fílmico

  12. Measurement of the Mis-identification Probability of τ Leptons from Hadronic Jets and from Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the mis-identification probability of QCD jets and electrons as hadronically decaying τ leptons using tag-and-probe methods are described. The analyses are based on 35pb−1 of proton-proton collision data, taken by the ATLAS experiment at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. The mis-identification probabilities range between 10% and 0.1% for QCD jets, and about (1 − 2)% for electrons. They depend on the identification algorithm chosen, the pT and the number of prongs of the τ candidate, and on the amount of pile up present in the event.

  13. Mis\\`ere Games and Mis\\`ere Quotients

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Aaron N.

    2006-01-01

    These lecture notes are based on a short course on mis\\`ere quotients offered at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, in November 2006. They include an introduction to impartial games, starting from the beginning; the basic mis\\`ere quotient construction; a proof of the Guy--Smith--Plambeck Periodicity Theorem; and statements of some recent results and open problems in the subject.

  14. Justice et miséricorde

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, René

    2012-01-01

    On n’imagine pas de justice sans possibilité de faire miséricorde ; inversement, une miséricorde qui ne tiendrait pas compte de la justice ne serait plus la miséricorde. Les deux notions sont liées, mais sur un socle inégal : car la justice inspirée par la loi naturelle déborde la justice positive, de même que la misère des miséreux ne se laisse pas ramener au mal commis par le misérable. En découlent des variations où l’on peut voir se profiler trois moments : 1. La loi coutumière est bouscu...

  15. Sensitivity of the Greenland Ice Sheet to Interglacial Climate Forcing: MIS 5e Versus MIS 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmayani, Rima; Prange, Matthias; Lunt, Daniel J.; Stone, Emma J.; Schulz, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is thought to have contributed substantially to high global sea levels during the interglacials of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e and 11. Geological evidence suggests that the mass loss of the GrIS was greater during the peak interglacial of MIS 11 than MIS 5e, despite a weaker boreal summer insolation. We address this conundrum by using the three-dimensional thermomechanical ice sheet model Glimmer forced by Community Climate System Model version 3 output for MIS 5e and MIS 11 interglacial time slices. Our results suggest a stronger sensitivity of the GrIS to MIS 11 climate forcing than to MIS 5e forcing. Besides stronger greenhouse gas radiative forcing, the greater MIS 11 GrIS mass loss relative to MIS 5e is attributed to a larger oceanic heat transport toward high latitudes by a stronger Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. The vigorous MIS 11 ocean overturning, in turn, is related to a stronger wind-driven salt transport from low to high latitudes promoting North Atlantic Deep Water formation. The orbital insolation forcing, which causes the ocean current anomalies, is discussed.

  16. The readout system for the ArTeMis camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumayrou, E.; Lortholary, M.; Dumaye, L.; Hamon, G.

    2014-07-01

    During ArTeMiS observations at the APEX telescope (Chajnantor, Chile), 5760 bolometric pixels from 20 arrays at 300mK, corresponding to 3 submillimeter focal planes at 450μm, 350μm and 200μm, have to be read out simultaneously at 40Hz. The read out system, made of electronics and software, is the full chain from the cryostat to the telescope. The readout electronics consists of cryogenic buffers at 4K (NABU), based on CMOS technology, and of warm electronic acquisition systems called BOLERO. The bolometric signal given by each pixel has to be amplified, sampled, converted, time stamped and formatted in data packets by the BOLERO electronics. The time stamping is obtained by the decoding of an IRIG-B signal given by APEX and is key to ensure the synchronization of the data with the telescope. Specifically developed for ArTeMiS, BOLERO is an assembly of analogue and digital FPGA boards connected directly on the top of the cryostat. Two detectors arrays (18*16 pixels), one NABU and one BOLERO interconnected by ribbon cables constitute the unit of the electronic architecture of ArTeMiS. In total, the 20 detectors for the tree focal planes are read by 10 BOLEROs. The software is working on a Linux operating system, it runs on 2 back-end computers (called BEAR) which are small and robust PCs with solid state disks. They gather the 10 BOLEROs data fluxes, and reconstruct the focal planes images. When the telescope scans the sky, the acquisitions are triggered thanks to a specific network protocol. This interface with APEX enables to synchronize the acquisition with the observations on sky: the time stamped data packets are sent during the scans to the APEX software that builds the observation FITS files. A graphical user interface enables the setting of the camera and the real time display of the focal plane images, which is essential in laboratory and commissioning phases. The software is a set of C++, Labview and Python, the qualities of which are respectively used

  17. Jaen Teär: Minu unistus oli teenida sõjaväes / Jaen Teär ; intervjueerinud Rita Loel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teär, Jaen

    2009-01-01

    Viimast kuud Eesti õhuväes teeniv leitnant Jaen Teär, kes on tegev ka Kaitseliidus ja noorte kotkaste rühmajuhina, vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Kaitseliidu Saaremaa maleva taastamist 1990. aastal, Saaremaale esimese kotkarühma loomist, sõjaväelase karjääri, lapsi ja lapselapsi ning edasisi plaane

  18. Thermal stability of atomic layer deposition Al2O3 film on HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Sun, C. H.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, X.; He, K.; Chen, Y. Y.; Ye, Z. H.

    2015-06-01

    Thermal stability of Atomic Layer Deposition Al2O3 film on HgCdTe was investigated by Al2O3 film post-deposition annealing treatment and Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor device low-temperature baking treatment. The effectiveness of Al2O3 film was evaluated by measuring the minority carrier lifetime and capacitance versus voltage characteristics. After annealing treatment, the minority carrier lifetime of the HgCdTe sample presented a slight decrease. Furthermore, the fixed charge density and the slow charge density decreased significantly in the annealed MIS device. After baking treatment, the fixed charge density and the slow charge density of the unannealed and annealed MIS devices decreased and increased, respectively.

  19. Climate changes in south western Iberia and Mediterranean Outflow variations during two contrasting cycles of the last 1 Myrs: MIS 31-MIS 30 and MIS 12-MIS 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Goñi, M. F.; Llave, E.; Oliveira, D.; Naughton, F.; Desprat, S.; Ducassou, E.; Hodell, D. A.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Grain size analysis and physical properties of Sites U1388, U1389 and U1390 collected in the Contourite Depositional System of the Gulf of Cádiz during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 "Mediterranean Outflow" reveal relative changes in bottom current strength, a tracer of the dynamics of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW), before and after the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT). The comparison of MOW behavior with climate changes identified by the pollen analysis and δ18O benthic foraminifera measurements of Site U1385, the Shackleton Site, collected in the south western Iberian margin shows that the interval MIS 31-MIS 30, ~ 1.1-1.05 million years ago (Ma), before the MPT, was marked by wetter climate and weaker bottom current than the interval MIS 12-MIS 11 (0.47-0.39 Ma), after the MPT. Similarly, the increase in fine particles from these glacials to interglacials and in coarse fraction from interglacials to glacials was coeval with forest and semi-desert expansions, respectively, indicating the lowering/enhancement of MOW strength during periods of regional increase/decrease of moisture. While these findings may not necessarily apply to all glacial/interglacial cycles, they nonetheless serve as excellent supporting examples of the hypothesis that aridification can serve as a good tracer for MOW intensity. The strongest regional aridity during MIS 12 coincides with a remarkable increase of coarse grain size deposition and distribution that we interpret as a maximum in MOW strength. This MOW intensification may have pre-conditioned the North Atlantic by increasing salinity, thereby triggering the strong resumption of the Meridional Overturning Circulation that could contribute to the great warmth that characterizes the MIS 11c super-interglacial.

  20. How Are MIS-5e And MIS-11 Different From Other Interglacials And the Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Q.; Berger, A.

    2017-12-01

    MIS-5e and MIS-11 appear in many proxy records as the warmest interglacials of the last million years although their astronomical configurations are very different. To investigate how they are different from other interglacials and between themselves, the climate of nine interglacials of the past 800,000 years has been simulated using both snapshot and transient experiments. These simulations allow to investigate the relative contributions of insolation and CO2 to the intensity and duration of each interglacial as well as the differences and similarities between the interglacials. The transient simulations which cover a large range of precession, obliquity and eccentricity allow to investigate the response of different climate variables and different regions to the three astronomical parameters. My presentation will focus on the characteristics of the climate forcing and response of MIS-5e and MIS-11 in comparison with the other intergalcials. Their duration and intensity at global and regional scales will be shown and the causes will be discussed. Unique features in astronomical forcing as well as in regional climate response are found in MIS-5e and MIS-11, which might help to understand why they appear to be among the warmest interglacials. The model results also show that the warm interval of MIS-11 is the longest, confirming its long duration as found in many proxy records. The long duration of MIS-11 is related to a particular combination of eccentricity, obliquity and precession as well as to its long-lasting high CO2 concentration. The differences between the seasonal behaviour of the past interglacials highlight the importance of seasonal climate reconstruction and therefore the necessity to obtain seasonal proxies. The simulated climate of MIS-5e and MIS-11 will also be compared with the climate of today and of the future to investigate the differences and similarities between the past warm conditions and the projected future warming. Part of the results

  1. The MIS 11 – MIS 1 analogy, southern European vegetation, atmospheric methane and the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Tzedakis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 11 has been considered a potential analogue for the Holocene and its future evolution. However, a dichotomy has emerged over the precise chronological alignment of the two intervals, with one solution favouring a synchronization of the precession signal and another of the obliquity signal. The two schemes lead to different implications over the natural length of the current interglacial and the underlying causes of the evolution of greenhouse gas concentrations. Here, the close coupling observed between changes in southern European tree populations and atmospheric methane concentrations in previous interglacials is used to evaluate the natural vs. anthropogenic contribution to Holocene methane emissions and assess the two alignment schemes. Comparison of the vegetation trends in MIS 1 and MIS 11 favours a precessional alignment, which would suggest that the Holocene is nearing the end of its natural course. This, combined with the divergence between methane concentrations and temperate tree populations after 5 kyr BP, provides some support for the notion that the Holocene methane trend may be anomalous compared to previous interglacials. In contrast, comparison of MIS 1 with MIS 19, which may represent a closer astronomical analogue than MIS 11, leads to substantially different conclusions on the projected natural duration of the current interglacial and the extent of the anthropogenic contribution to the Holocene methane budget. As answers vary with the choice of analogue, resolution of these issues using past interglacials remains elusive.

  2. Soil and climate modelling to explain soil differences in MIS5e and MIS13 on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, P. A.; Yu, Y.; Yin, Q.; Bernardini, N. J.

    2016-12-01

    Objective Proxy records indicate that MIS5 (about 120 ka ago) was warmer than MIS13 (about 500 ka ago). Nevertheless, MIS13-soils in the Chinese loess plateau (105 -115°E and 30-40°N) are stronger developed than MIS5-soils. This has been attributed to a stronger East Asian summer monsoon. Other differences are interglacial lengths and loess deposition rates. We aimed to find explanations for soil development differences by using a soil formation model (SoilGen) with climatic inputs obtained from an earth system model (LOVECLIM). Material and Methods The LOVECLIM model is driven by time-varying insolation and greenhouse gas concentrations and was run to give monthly values for temperature, precipitation and evaporation as well the dominant vegetation type. Model results for were corrected for systematic differences between present-day observation data and simulation. Reconstructions were made for both interglacials of the amount of inblown loess, and the mineralogy and grain size distribution of the initial loess as well as the dust. These data were fed into the SoilGen model, which was used to calculate various soil parameters with depth and over time. Results Simulations show a stronger developed MIS13 soil, in terms of weathering (loss of anorthite), and redistribution of calcite, gypsum and clay. This corresponds to observed paleosoils. MIS13-soils are more leached. As simulated temperatures and annual precipitation between MIS5 and MIS13 did not vary strongly, the greater length of MIS13 seemed the main explanation for the stronger leaching and weathering. Closer analysis however showed a larger number of months in MIS13 with a precipitation surplus, even when only considering the first 22 ka. Only in such months significant leaching can occur. Conclusion Using simulation models it was demonstrated that the stronger soil expression in MIS13 than in MIS5 is likely caused by more months with a precipitation surplus, in combination with a longer duration of MIS

  3. Quantitative reconstruction of precipitation and runoff during MIS 5a, MIS 3a, and Holocene, arid China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Marine oxygen isotope stage 5a (MIS 5a), MIS 3a, and Holocene were highlighted periods in paleoclimate studies. Many scientists have published a great number of studies in this regard, but they paid more attention to qualitative research, and there was often a lack of quantitative data. In this paper, based on chronological evidence from a paleolake in arid China, MIS 5a, MIS 3a, and Holocene lake area, the precipitation of the drainage area and the runoff of the inflowing rivers of the lake were reconstructed with ArcGIS spatial analysis software and the improved water and energy balance model which was calibrated by modern meteorological and hydrological data in the Shiyang River drainage basin. The results showed that the paleolake areas were 1824, 1124, and 628 km2 for MIS 5a, MIS 3a, and Holocene; meanwhile, the paleoprecipitation and runoff were 293.992-297.433, 271.105-274.294, and 249.431-252.373 mm and 29.103 × 108-29.496 × 108, 18.810 × 108-18.959 × 108, and 10.637 × 108-10.777 × 108 mm, respectively. The quantitative data can help us not only strengthen the understanding of paleoclimatic characteristics but also recognize the complexity and diversity of the climate system.

  4. Meeldis. Mõjus. Mis edasi? / Mati Unt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unt, Mati, 1944-2005

    2004-01-01

    Artiklis räägitakse peamiselt Evald Hermaküla lavastusest "Tuul Olümposelt tuhka tõi" (Eesti Draamateater, 1986), mis pakkus Mati Undile toona viimase aja suurima teatrielamuse, aga ka sellest, et teatrisemiootikud pole senini saavutanud üksmeelt, mis on ikkagi etenduse segment

  5. Mis on Eesti hariduse eesmärk? / Enn Vatter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vatter, Enn

    2003-01-01

    Autori arvates ei suudeta valimiseelsetes vaidlustes kokku leppida eelistusis hariduselus. Autor küsib, mis kooli- ja haridustemaatikas peaeesmärk ning mis on alameesmärgid, mis enne peaeesmärgi saavutamist on vaja kätte saada

  6. Influence of the Compositional Grading on Concentration of Majority Charge Carriers in Near-Surface Layers of n(p)-HgCdTe Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    The capacitive characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures based on the compositionally graded Hg1-xCdxTe created by molecular beam epitaxy have been experimentally investigated in a wide temperature range (8-77 K). A program has been developed for numerical simulation of ideal capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics in the low-frequency and high-frequency approximations. The concentrations of the majority carriers in the near-surface semiconductor layer are determined from the values of the capacitances in the minima of low-frequency C-V curves. For MIS structures based on p-Hg1-xCdxTe, the effect of the presence of the compositionally graded layer on the hole concentration in the near-surface semiconductor layer, determined from capacitive measurements, has not been established. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the concentration of holes in the near-surface layer largely depends on the type of dielectric coating and the regimes of its application. For MIS structures based on n-Hg1-x Cd x Te (x = 0.22-0.23) without a graded-gap layer, the electron concentration determined by the proposed method is close to the average concentration determined by the Hall measurements. The electron concentration in the near-surface semiconductor layer of the compositionally graded n-Hg1-x Cd x Te (x = 0.22-0.23) found from the minimum capacitance value is much higher than the average electron concentration determined by the Hall measurements. The results are qualitatively explained by the creation of additional intrinsic donor-type defects in the near-surface compositionally graded layer of n-Hg1-x Cd x Te.

  7. A MIS 9/MIS 8 speleothem record of hydrological variability from Macedonia (F.Y.R.O.M.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regattieri, Eleonora; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Isola, Ilaria; Bajo, Petra; Perchiazzi, Natale; Drysdale, Russell N.; Boschi, Chiara; Hellstrom, John C.; Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd

    2018-03-01

    The period corresponding to Marine Isotope Stages 9 (MIS 9) offers the opportunity to study orbital and sub-orbital scale climate variability under boundary conditions different from those of better studied intervals such as the Holocene and the Last Interglacial. Yet, it is poorly represented in independently-dated continental archives around the Mediterranean Region. Here, we present a speleothem stable isotope record (δ18O and δ13C) from the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (F.Y.R.O.M., southern Balkans), which consists of two periods of growth broadly covering the ca. 332 to 292 ka and the ca. 264 to 248 ka intervals (MIS 9e-b and late MIS 8). We interpret the speleothem δ18O as mostly related to regional hydrology, with variations that can be interpreted as due to changes in rainfall amount, with higher/lower values associated to drier/wetter condition. This interpretation is corroborated by a change in mineralogical composition between aragonite and calcite at ca. 328 ka, which marks increasing precipitation at the onset of MIS 9 and occurs within a trend of decreasing δ18O values. Also the comparison with the multiproxy climate record available from the nearby Lake Ohrid seems to support the proposed interpretation. The MIS 9e interglacial appears to be characterized by wettest conditions between ca. 326 and 321 ka, i.e. lasting ca. 5 kyr. Decreasing precipitation and enhanced millennial scale variability matches the glacial inception (MIS9 d to b), with drier events at ca. 319 ka (ca. 2 kyr long) and 310 ka (ca. 1 kyr long), and a major rainfall reduction between 306 and 298 ka. The latter is followed by a prominent wetter period between 298 and 295 ka, for which carbon data values suggest high infiltration rate. Rainfall decreases again after 295 ka, and remain low until the growth interruption at ca. 292 ka. Resumption of the growth and progressive soil development, expressed by the carbon isotope record, occurred during the late part of MIS 8

  8. Different nature of glacial CaCO3 constituents between MIS 2 and MIS 12 in the East Sea/Japan Sea and its paleoceanographic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, Boo-Keun; Tada, Ryuji; Itaki, Takuya

    2014-05-01

    Two piston cores (PC-05 and PC-08) were collected on the Yamato Rise in the East Sea/Japan Sea during the KR07-12 cruise. A composite core was achieved with the successful replacement of almost half of the upper part of core PC-05 by the entirety of core PC-08 based on the co-equivalence of L* values and the dark layers, because an interval (170 cm to 410 cm) of core PC-05 was considerably disturbed due to fluidization during the core execution. Chronostratigraphy of the composite core was constructed by the direct comparison of L* values to the well-dated core MD01-2407 that was obtained in the Oki Ridge. The lower-bottom of the composite core reached back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 14, based on the age estimate by LR04 stacks. Downcore opal variation of the composite core exhibited the distinct orbital-scale cyclic changes; high during the interglacial and low during the glacial periods. However, downcore CaCO3 variation showed no corresponding orbital-scale cyclic change between glacial and interglacial periods. Some intervals of both periods were high in CaCO3 content. Frequent and large fluctuations in CaCO3 content seemed to be more related to the presence of dark layers containing thin lamination (TL) within the glacial and interglacial intervals. It is worthy to note that MIS 2 and MIS 12 are characterized by distinctly high CaCO3 content, showing up to 18% and 73%, respectively, among the glacial periods. Furthermore, in terms of lithology, MIS 2 was characterized by a thick dark layer (low L* values) with TL, whereas MIS 12 preserved the distinctly light layer (high L* values) with parallel laminations. Another remarkable dissimilarity between MIS 2 and MIS 12 was the nature of their CaCO3 constituent; the CaCO3 constituent of MIS 2 consisted of mostly planktonic foraminifera, whereas that of MIS 12 was mostly dump of coccolithophorids, regardless the presence of planktonic foraminifera. The distinctness of the CaCO3 constituents between MIS 2 and MIS

  9. An MIS 5a/b to MIS 3 bog sequence from Henderson Bay, northern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Costa, D.; Wallis, I.

    2011-01-01

    A discontinuous Late Pleistocene pollen record from an eroding coastal cliff section at Henderson Bay on the east coast of Northland, New Zealand, reveals changes in vegetation composition and associated palaeosol development under both stadial and interstadial climatic conditions ascribed to the last interglacial-glacial cycle, probably MIS (Marine Isotope Stage) 5a/b to early MIS 3. An increase in charcoal towards the top of the sequence is believed to be due to natural rather than anthropogenic ignition sources which resulted in the development of scrub rather than forest vegetation. The sequence is capped by gravel previously inferred to have been emplaced by tsunami event(s) some time after early MIS 3. A lack of Agathis pollen in our sequence despite unequivocal evidence for the parent trees (gum) strengthens a call for caution when inferring climatic conditions from the abundance of Agathis pollen in New Zealand pollen records. (author). 32 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Müüte tervishoiu rahast ja arstide-õdede palkadest / Katrin Rehemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rehemaa, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 13. jaan. 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 13. jaan. 2007, lk. 2; Oma Saar, 16. jaan. 2007, lk. 4; Koit, 16. jaan. 2007, lk. 6; Võrumaa Teataja, 16. jaan. 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 16. jaan. 2007, lk. 2; Vali Uudised, 17. jaan. 2007, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 18. jaan. 2007, lk. 2. Eesti Arstide Liidu peasekretär selgitab kriisiolukorraga sündinud müüte, mis on tekkinud tervishoiu rahastamisega seoses

  11. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Reed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS and Software Engineering (SE majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic performance, and increased satisfaction for their participants. In this paper, pair programming is studied with Management Information Systems (MIS majors, who (unlike CS and SE majors taking several programming courses typically take only one programming course and often struggle to develop advanced programming skills within that single course. The researchers conducted two pair programming experiments in an introductory software development course for MIS majors over three semesters to determine if pair programming could enhance learning for MIS students. The program results, researchers’ direct observations, and participants’ responses to a survey questionnaire were analyzed after each experiment. The results indicate that pair programming appears to be beneficial to MIS students’ technical productivity and program design quality, specifically the ability to create programs using high-level concepts. Additionally, results confirmed increased student satisfaction and reduced frustration, as the pairs worked collaboratively to produce a program while actively communicating and enjoying the process.

  12. (Mis)perceptions of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Oliver P; Norton, Michael I

    2017-12-01

    Laypeople's beliefs about the current distribution of outcomes such as income and wealth in their country influence their attitudes toward issues ranging from taxation to healthcare - but how accurate are these beliefs? We review the burgeoning literature on (mis)perceptions of inequality. First, we show that people on average misperceive current levels of inequality, typically underestimating the extent of inequality in their country. Second, we delineate potential causes of these misperceptions, including people's overreliance on cues from their local environment, leading to their erroneous beliefs about both the overall distributions of wealth and income and their place in those distributions. Third, we document that these (mis)perceptions of inequality - but not actual levels of inequality - drive behavior and preferences for redistribution. More promisingly, we review research suggesting that correcting misperceptions influences preferences and policy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. BatMis: a fast algorithm for k-mismatch mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Chandana; Purbojati, Rikky W; Sung, Wing-Kin

    2012-08-15

    Second-generation sequencing (SGS) generates millions of reads that need to be aligned to a reference genome allowing errors. Although current aligners can efficiently map reads allowing a small number of mismatches, they are not well suited for handling a large number of mismatches. The efficiency of aligners can be improved using various heuristics, but the sensitivity and accuracy of the alignments are sacrificed. In this article, we introduce Basic Alignment tool for Mismatches (BatMis)--an efficient method to align short reads to a reference allowing k mismatches. BatMis is a Burrows-Wheeler transformation based aligner that uses a seed and extend approach, and it is an exact method. Benchmark tests show that BatMis performs better than competing aligners in solving the k-mismatch problem. Furthermore, it can compete favorably even when compared with the heuristic modes of the other aligners. BatMis is a useful alternative for applications where fast k-mismatch mappings, unique mappings or multiple mappings of SGS data are required. BatMis is written in C/C++ and is freely available from http://code.google.com/p/batmis/

  14. Fertilisation minérale du cacaoyer ( Theobroma cacao L.) en Côte d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En Côte d'Ivoire, le cacaoyer (Theobroma cacao L.) est traditionnellement cultivé selon un système extensif et itinérant, utilisant du matériel végétal peu performant. Les rendements en cacao sont donc faible (260 à 600 kg·ha-1·an-1). Pour améliorer la productivité des cacaoyères, les chercheurs ivoiriens ont mis au point ...

  15. A multi-proxy record of MIS 11-12 deglaciation and glacial MIS 12 instability from the Sulmona basin (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regattieri, Eleonora; Giaccio, Biagio; Galli, Paolo; Nomade, Sebastien; Peronace, Edoardo; Messina, Paolo; Sposato, Andrea; Boschi, Chiara; Gemelli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    A multi-proxy record (lithology, XRF, CaCO3 content, carbonate δ18O and δ13C) was acquired from a sediment core drilled in the intermountain Sulmona basin (central Italy). Tephrostratigraphic analyses of three volcanic ash layers ascribe the investigated succession to the MIS 12-MIS 11 period, spanning the interval ca. 500-410 ka. Litho-pedo facies assemblage indicates predominant lacustrine deposition, interrupted by a minor sub-aerial and lake low stand episode. Variations in major and minor elements concentrations are related to changes in the clastic input to the lake. The oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate (δ18Oc) intervals is interpreted mainly as a proxy for the amount of precipitation in the high-altitude catchment of the karst recharge system. The record shows pronounced hydrological variability at orbital and millennial time-scales, which appears closely related to the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation pattern and replicates North Atlantic and west Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) fluctuations. The MIS 12 glacial inception is marked by an abrupt reduction of precipitation, lowering of the lake level and enhanced catchment erosion. A well-defined and isotopically prominent interstadial with increased precipitation maybe related to insolation maxima-precession minima at ca. 465 ka. This interstadial ends abruptly at ca. 457 ka and it is followed by a phase of strong short-term instability. Drastic lake-level lowering and enhanced clastic flux characterized the MIS 12 glacial maximum. Lacustrine deposition restarted about 440 ka ago. The MIS 12-MIS 11 transition is characterized by a rapid increase in the precipitation, lake-level rise and reduction in the clastic input, interrupted by a short and abrupt return to drier conditions. Comparison with marine records from the Iberian margin and western Mediterranean suggests that major events of ice rafted debris deposition, related to southward migrations of the polar front, match the

  16. MISCO: A Conceptual Model for MIS Implementation in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Bali

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology ('IT' has made a prolific impact, both in sociological and commercial terms. In the business world, the pursuit of new technology and working practices has often been at the expense of equal regard for the correct methods to manage the new technology. Contemporary IT techniques and methods include Management Information Systems ('MIS' which are normally implemented on a company-wide basis. However, MIS implementation has major cultural and organisational implications which will form the main focus of this paper. A conceptual model is proposed for successful MIS implementation which combines established research findings with ethnographically-informed data from a small, UK-based, business.

  17. Phase diagrams of ZnTe-HgTe-Te and ZnTe-CdTe-HgTe-Te systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrukhiv, A.M.; Litvak, A.M.; Mironov, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    ZnTe-HgTe-Te system liquidus surface is investigated and solid solution layers are produced in this system by the method of liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE). The theoretical analysis of experimental and theoretical data allows to calculate the diagram of ZnTe-CdTe-HgTe-Te system fusibility. A significant effect of elastic stresses of the epitaxial layer, grown on CdTe substrate, on the process of LPE of solid solutions is established

  18. Space Station Furnace Facility Management Information System (SSFF-MIS) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    Thios report summarizes the chronology, results, and lessons learned from the development of the SSFF-MIS. This system has been nearly two years in development and has yielded some valuable insights into specialized MIS development. Attachment A contains additions, corrections, and deletions by the COTR.

  19. SAGES's advanced GI/MIS fellowship curriculum pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Joshua J; Goldblatt, Matthew; Pryor, Aurora; Dunkin, Brian J; Brunt, L Michael; Jones, Daniel B; Scott, Daniel J

    2018-06-01

    The American health care system faces deficits in quality and quantity of surgeons. SAGES is a major stakeholder in surgical fellowship training and is responsible for defining the curriculum for the Advanced GI/MIS fellowship. SAGES leadership is actively adapting this curriculum. The process of reform began in 2014 through a series of iterative meetings and discussions. A working group within the Resident and Fellow Training Committee reviewed case log data from 2012 to 2015. These data were used to propose new criteria designed to provide adequate exposure to core content. The working group also proposed using video assessment of an MIS case to provide objective assessment of competency. Case log data were available for 326 fellows with a total of 85,154 cases logged (median 227 per fellow). The working group proposed new criteria starting with minimum case volumes for five defined categories including foregut (20), bariatrics (25), inguinal hernia (10), ventral hernia (10), and solid organ/colon/thoracic (10). Fellows are expected to perform an additional 75 complex MIS cases of any category for a total of 150 required cases overall. The proposal also included a minimum volume of flexible endoscopy (50) and submission of an MIS foregut case for video assessment. The new criteria more clearly defined which surgeon roles count for major credit within individual categories. Fourteen fellowships volunteered to pilot these new criteria for the 2017-2018 academic year. The new SAGES Advanced GI/MIS fellowship has been crafted to better define the core content that should be contained in these fellowships, while still allowing sufficient heterogeneity so that individual learners can tailor their training to specific areas of interest. The criteria also introduce innovative, evidence-based methods for assessing competency. Pending the results of the pilot program, SAGES will consider broad implementation of the new fellowship criteria.

  20. Perceived Requirements of MIS Curriculum Implementation in Bilingual Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeil, Magdy M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses additional requirements associated with implementing a standard curriculum of Management Information Systems (MIS) in bilingual developing countries where both students and workplace users speak English as a second language. In such countries, MIS graduates are required to develop bilingual computer applications and to…

  1. INVESTIGATION OF MIS ITEM 011589A AND 3013 CONTAINERS HAVING SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G

    2006-08-23

    Recent testing has identified the presence of hydrogen and oxygen in MIS Item 011589A. This isolated observation has effectuated concern regarding the potential for flammable gas mixtures in containers in the storage inventory. This study examines the known physicochemical characteristics of MIS Item 011589A and queries the ISP Database for items that are most similar or potentially similar. Items identified as most similar are believed to have the highest probability of being chemically and structurally identical to MIS Item 011589A. Items identified as potentially like MIS Item 011589A have some attributes in common, have the potential to generate gases, but have a lower probability of having similar gas generating characteristics. MIS Item 011589A is an oxide that was generated prior to 1990 at Rocky Flats in Building 707. It was associated with foundry processing and had an actinide assay of approximately 77%. Prompt gamma analysis of MIS Item 011589A indicated the presence of chloride, fluorine, magnesium, sodium, and aluminum. Queries based on MIS representation classification and process of origin were applied to the ISP Database. Evaluation criteria included binning classification (i.e., innocuous, pressure, or pressure and corrosion), availability of prompt gamma analyses, presence of chlorine and magnesium, percentage of chlorine by weight, peak ratios (i.e., Na:Cl and Mg:Na), moisture, and percent assay. These queries identified 15 items that were most similar and 106 items that were potentially like MIS Item 011589A. Although these queries identified containers that could potentially generate flammable gases, verification and confirmation can only be accomplished by destructive evaluation and testing of containers from the storage inventory.

  2. Sales controlling comes into view. MIS (management information system) Deutschland GmbH fits energy suppliers; Vertriebscontrolling in Sicht. MIS Deutschland GmbH macht Energieversorger fit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-03-01

    MIS has integrated Microsoft-Excel efficiently, so appliers must not change other systems, can utilize advantages and know how and further functionalities like optimization of planning processes, automation of data processing, generation of a data base with structured information of energy data are available for customers.(GL) [German] Die MIS Deutschland GmbH wurde 1988 gegruendet. Die Gruender waren Studenten der Universitaet Darmstadt. Einer von ihnen ist noch heute Vorstandsvorsitzender der MIS AG. Schon damals hatte man die Vision, Manager oder die Entscheidungstraeger in Unternehmen mit Informationen zu versorgen und in die Lage zu versetzen, diese auch nach ihren Beduerfnissen auswerten, analysieren und reporten zu koennen. Dadurch entstand 1988 in Zusammenarbeit mit Microsoft die erste Microsoft-Excel-Konferenz in Deutschland. MIS hat Microsoft-Excel leistungsfaehig integriert, sodass der Anwender nicht auf ein anderes System umlernen muss, sondern die Vorteile und das Know-how Weiterverwenden kann und zusaetzlich weitere Funktionalitaeten zur Verfuegung gestellt bekommt. (orig.)

  3. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  4. Mis on rahuks vaja? / Harri Mõtsnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mõtsnik, Harri, 1928-2013

    1984-01-01

    Sisu : Mis on patt?; Ainult armust; Ainult usust;Vabadus ja tõde; Eesti rahva armukatsumisaeg; Ustavus ja valvsus; Jumal ja mammona; Eesti isesesvusele mõeldes; Elu matkatee; Elagem rahus; Õiglus ja kohus; Piiblist

  5. C-V characterization of Schottky- and MIS-gate SiGe/Si HEMT structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onojima, Norio; Kasamatsu, Akihumi; Hirose, Nobumitsu; Mimura, Takashi; Matsui, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Electrical properties of Schottky- and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS)-gate SiGe/Si high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were investigated with capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The MIS-gate HEMT structure was fabricated using a SiN gate insulator formed by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD). The Cat-CVD SiN thin film (5 nm) was found to be an effective gate insulator with good gate controllability and dielectric properties. We previously investigated device characteristics of sub-100-nm-gate-length Schottky- and MIS-gate HEMTs, and reported that the MIS-gate device had larger maximum drain current density and transconductance (g m ) than the Schottky-gate device. The radio frequency (RF) measurement of the MIS-gate device, however, showed a relatively lower current gain cutoff frequency f T compared with that of the Schottky-gate device. In this study, C-V characterization of the MIS-gate HEMT structure demonstrated that two electron transport channels existed, one at the SiGe/Si buried channel and the other at the SiN/Si surface channel

  6. C-V characterization of Schottky- and MIS-gate SiGe/Si HEMT structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onojima, Norio [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)], E-mail: nonojima@nict.go.jp; Kasamatsu, Akihumi; Hirose, Nobumitsu [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Mimura, Takashi [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0197 (Japan); Matsui, Toshiaki [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2008-07-30

    Electrical properties of Schottky- and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS)-gate SiGe/Si high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were investigated with capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The MIS-gate HEMT structure was fabricated using a SiN gate insulator formed by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD). The Cat-CVD SiN thin film (5 nm) was found to be an effective gate insulator with good gate controllability and dielectric properties. We previously investigated device characteristics of sub-100-nm-gate-length Schottky- and MIS-gate HEMTs, and reported that the MIS-gate device had larger maximum drain current density and transconductance (g{sub m}) than the Schottky-gate device. The radio frequency (RF) measurement of the MIS-gate device, however, showed a relatively lower current gain cutoff frequency f{sub T} compared with that of the Schottky-gate device. In this study, C-V characterization of the MIS-gate HEMT structure demonstrated that two electron transport channels existed, one at the SiGe/Si buried channel and the other at the SiN/Si surface channel.

  7. Depositional and sea-level history from MIS 6 (Termination II) to MIS 3 on the southern continental shelf of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthra, H. C.; Jacobs, Z.; Compton, J. S.; Fisher, E. C.; Karkanas, P.; Marean, C. W.

    2018-02-01

    Pleistocene shoreline deposits comprised of calcified shallow marine (palaeobeach) and aeolian (palaeodune) facies found along mid-latitude coastlines can be useful indicators of past sea levels. Here, we describe a succession of such deposits that are presently exposed both above (subaerial) and below (submerged) mean sea level along the southern Cape coast of South Africa, 18 km east of the town of Mossel Bay. The submerged units provide a window on Late Pleistocene coastal processes, as palaeoshoreline deposits in this study extend to water depths of up to 55 m on the mid-shelf. Five sedimentary facies were identified in the strata and were compared to modern depositional environments of the local littoral zone, which include aeolian dune, upper shoreface, foreshore, intertidal swash and back-barrier settings. Twenty-two geological units were observed and mapped. Some of these units were directly dated with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. OSL ages were obtained for ten samples from the subaerial and twelve samples from the submerged deposits. Those geological units not directly dated were interpreted based on sedimentology and field/stratigraphic relationships to dated units. The stratigraphy and chronology of the succession indicates a record of initial deposition during Termination II (T-II) meltwater events, preceding and leading to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e. Indicators for multiple sea-level fluctuations between MIS 5d and MIS 4, and sediment deposition at the end of MIS 4 and start of MIS 3 are also found. Both regressive and transgressive depositional cycles are well-preserved in the succession. We propose that palaeodune and palaeobeach deposits along the South Coast of South Africa have no clear preference for deposition during sea-level transgressions or regressions. Sediment deposition more closely mirrors the rate of sea level change, with deposition and preservation either during times of rapid sea-level movement, or oscillation

  8. Mis on mustad kirjutised? / Maie Tuulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuulik, Maie, 1941-

    2011-01-01

    Mustad kirjutised on Cambridge'i ja Oxfordi kirjandusteadlaste kriitilised kirjutised sõjajärgsetel aastatel Inglismaal poolehoidu pälvinud informaalse kooli ohtudest. Eesti praegustest kasvatusseisukohtadest ja haridusteooriatest, milles domineerib lapsekesksus, mis paraku ei vii soovitud eesmärkideni

  9. Photic zone changes in the north-west Pacific Ocean from MIS 4–5e

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. A. Swann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to other sectors of the marine system, the palaeoceanography of the subarctic North Pacific Ocean is poorly constrained. New diatom isotope records of δ13C, δ18O, δ30Si (δ13Cdiatom, δ18Odiatom, and δ30Sidiatom are presented alongside existing geochemical and isotope records to document changes in photic zone conditions, including nutrient supply and the efficiency of the soft-tissue biological pump, between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 4 and MIS 5e. Peaks in opal productivity in MIS 5b/c and MIS 5e are both associated with the breakdown of the regional halocline stratification and increased nutrient supply to the photic zone. Whereas the MIS 5e peak is associated with low rates of nutrient utilisation, the MIS 5b/c peak is associated with significantly higher rates of nutrient utilisation. Both peaks, together with other smaller increases in productivity in MIS 4 and 5a, culminate with a significant increase in freshwater input which strengthens/re-establishes the halocline and limits further upwelling of sub-surface waters to the photic zone. Whilst δ30Sidiatom and previously published records of diatom δ15N (δ15Ndiatom (Brunelle et al., 2007, 2010 show similar trends until the latter half of MIS 5a, the records become anti-correlated after this juncture and into MIS 4, suggesting a possible change in photic zone state such as may occur with a shift to iron or silicon limitation.

  10. Mis on filosoofia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrek Reiland

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Minu eesmärgiks antud artiklis on pakkuda üht vaadet filosoofia olemuse, eesmärgi ja rolli kohta kaasaja maailmas. Artikli esimeses osas kirjeldan lühidalt nelja tänapäeva filosoofiat oluliselt mõjutanud filosoofiakontseptsiooni: ideaalkeele traditsiooni filosoofiamõistmist, tavakeele filosoofia arusaamu, Wittgensteini terapeutilis-deflatsionalistlikku kontseptsiooni ning kaasaegse filosoofilise naturalismi metafilosoofiat. Teises osas visandan Wilfrid Sellarsist inspireerituna filosoofiamõistmise, mis võimaldab meil näha kõiki eelnevalt käsitletud filosoofiakontseptsioone täitmas ühe ja sama projekti erinevaid osi ning mõista keskset osa kaasaja filosoofiast.

  11. MIS-11 duration key to disappearance of the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alexander; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Calov, Reinhard; Ganopolski, Andrey; Montoya, Marisa

    2017-07-01

    Palaeo data suggest that Greenland must have been largely ice free during Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS-11). However, regional summer insolation anomalies were modest during this time compared to MIS-5e, when the Greenland ice sheet likely lost less volume. Thus it remains unclear how such conditions led to an almost complete disappearance of the ice sheet. Here we use transient climate-ice sheet simulations to simultaneously constrain estimates of regional temperature anomalies and Greenland's contribution to the MIS-11 sea-level highstand. We find that Greenland contributed 6.1 m (3.9-7.0 m, 95% credible interval) to sea level, ~7 kyr after the peak in regional summer temperature anomalies of 2.8 °C (2.1-3.4 °C). The moderate warming produced a mean rate of mass loss in sea-level equivalent of only around 0.4 m per kyr, which means the long duration of MIS-11 interglacial conditions around Greenland was a necessary condition for the ice sheet to disappear almost completely.

  12. Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) Approaches to Thoracolumbar Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Ian David; Passias, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques offer promising improvements in the management of thoracolumbar trauma. Recent advances in MIS techniques and instrumentation for degenerative conditions have heralded a growing interest in employing these techniques for thoracolumbar trauma. Specifically, surgeons have applied these techniques to help manage flexion- and extension-distraction injuries, neurologically intact burst fractures, and cases of damage control. Minimally invasive surgical techniques offer a means to decrease blood loss, shorten operative time, reduce infection risk, and shorten hospital stays. Herein, we review thoracolumbar minimally invasive surgery with an emphasis on thoracolumbar trauma classification, minimally invasive spinal stabilization, surgical indications, patient outcomes, technical considerations, and potential complications.

  13. Mis tunne on elada rikutud kuulmisega?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Tööohutuse ja Töötervishoiu Agentuur kutsub internetilehekülel http://ew2005.osha.eu.int/ kuulama erinevaid helifaile teada saamiseks, mis tunne on võiks olla, kui inimene kaotab oma kuulmise. Euroopas peetakse 24.-28. okt. müravastast nädalat

  14. Hokimatsh, mis muutis maailma / Paul Goble

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goble, Paul Alan, 1949-

    2005-01-01

    Mart Laari koostatud PÖFFi filmiprogrammist "külma sõja" ajal läänes loodud filmidest, mis kõige teravamalt näitavad nõukogude süsteemi inimvaenulikkust - "Kõige keelatumad". Teemaga seoses lähemalt Gavin O'Connori filmist "Ime" ("Miracle") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2004

  15. Investigation of MIS-sensor sensitivity to vapor of unsymmetrical dimethylgydrazine in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipchuk, D. V.; Litvinov, A. V.; Etrekova, M. O.; Nozdrya, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    The sensitivity of MIS-sensor to the products of thermal decomposition of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine was investigated. It is shown that MIS sensor is able to detect the concentrations of the test substance by the means of the certain products of its thermal decomposition (ammonia and nitric dioxide).

  16. Three-year postoperative outcomes between MIS and conventional TLIF in1-segment lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, You; Chen, Jingyang; Chen, Jinchuan; Wu, Yuling; Chen, Xiangyang; Liu, Yi; Chu, Zhaoming; Sheng, Luxin; Qin, Rujie; Chen, Ming

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes between minimally invasive (MIS) and conventional transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in treating one-segment lumbar disc herniation (LDH). One-hundred and six patients treated by MIS-TLIF (50 cases) or conventional TLIF (56 cases) were included. Perioperative results were evaluated. Clinical outcomes were compared preoperatively and postoperatively. Radiologic parameters were based on a comparison of preoperative and three-year postoperative lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, sacral slope, the cross-sectional area of the paraspinal muscle and fusion rates. MIS TILF had significantly less blood, shorter operation time, mean return to work time and lower intramuscular pressure compared with the conventional group during the operation. VAS scores for lower back pain and ODI in MIS-TLIF were significantly decreased. The mean cross-sectional area of the paraspinal muscle was significantly decreased after surgery in the conventional TLIF group and no significant intragroup differences were established in the MIS-TLIF group. No significant differences were found in fusion rate, lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis and sacral slope. Both MIS and conventional TLIF were beneficial for patients with LDH. However, MIS-TLIF manifests a great improvement in perioperative outcomes, low back pain, disability and preventing paraspinal muscle atrophy during the follow-up period observation.

  17. High Performance Enhancement-Mode AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT with Selective Fluorine Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel enhancement-mode (E-mode Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor- (MIS- HEMT with selective fluorine ion (F− treatment is proposed and its mechanism is investigated. The HEMT features the Selective F− treatment both in the AlGaN channel region and in the thick passivation layer between the gate and drain (SFCP-MIS-HEMT. First, the F− in the passivation layer not only extends the depletion region and thus enhances the average electric field (E-field between the gate and drain by the assisted depletion effect but also reduces the E-field peak at the gate end, leading to a higher breakdown voltage (BV. Second, in the AlGaN channel region, the F− region realizes the E-mode and the region without F− maintains a high drain current (ID. Third, MIS structure suppresses the gate leakage current, increasing the gate swing voltage and the BV. Compared with a MIS-HEMT with F− treatment in whole channel (FC-MIS-HEMT, SFCP-MIS-HEMT increases the BV by 46% and the saturation drain current (ID,sat by 28%.

  18. Mis-diode as a low-energy X- and γ-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konova, A.

    1980-01-01

    Considered are main peculiarities of apparata called MIS-diods having metal-thin isolating semiconductor structure and used as detectors of low-energy gamma and X-ray radiation. Discussed are advantages of tunnel MIS-diods based on non-primitive carriers. Presented are results of experimental measurements carried out using system of metal-silion oxide-silicon with the oxide layer width of 10-25 A (silicon with acceptor concentration of 10 19 m -3 ). Data presented show that MIS-diods can be considered as diods with p-n - transition in which n + - region is an inversion layer near the semiconductor surface, and further a leant region is situated. When voltage is applied only the depth of the leant region changes. In case of high quality diods the leakage currents are very small. Results of the investigation performed show that MIS-diods with oxide film wiolth of 10-22 A (the film covering p-silicon with high specific resistance) can be used as spectrometers of low-energy photons having particularly high energetic solution at room temperature. An advantage of new diods is the reverse current significantly lower in comparison with that of usual detectors with the Schottky barrier

  19. DESIGNING UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM FOR MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS EDUCATION: A COMPARISON OF THE MIS PROGRAMS OF TURKISH UNIVERSITIES WITH THOSE OF GLOBAL UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp AKÇETİN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Competition in the global environment takes place among multinational corporations, which is directly linked to human resources and the quality of training and education they have. The competitive advantage of the businesses is associated with the excellence of human resources, which is measured by the education quality of the employees. Information systems have become an essential requirement for the businesses of today’s digital age. Therefore, with this study, curricula of 90 universities’ Management Information Systems (MIS Undergraduate Programs, 57 of which are foreign and 33 are Turkish, were compared. The study methods include data mining approaches namely random clustering and making a text mining analysis. As the number and importance of the MIS programs are rapidly increasing, it is aimed with these approaches to contribute developing a world-class curriculum model to improve the quality of education of them. On that ground, the main purpose of this study is creating a framework that defines a world-class MIS curriculum model by presenting the current situation in Turkey.

  20. Designing Undergraduate Curriculum for Management Information Systems (MIS Education: A Comparison of the MIS Programs of Turkish Universities with those of Global Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp AKÇETİN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Competition in the global environment takes place among multinational corporations, which is directly linked to human resources and the quality of training and education they have. The competitive advantage of the businesses is associated with the excellence of human resources, which is measured by the education quality of the employees. Information systems have become an essential requirement for the businesses of today’s digital age. Therefore, with this study, curricula of 90 universities’ Management Information Systems (MIS Undergraduate Programs, 57 of which are foreign and 33 are Turkish, were compared. The study methods include data mining approaches namely random clustering and making a text mining analysis. As the number and importance of the MIS programs are rapidly increasing, it is aimed with these approaches to contribute developing a world-class curriculum model to improve the quality of education of them. On that ground, the main purpose of this study is creating a framework that defines a world-class MIS curriculum model by presenting the current situation in Turkey.

  1. Pharyngeal mis-sequencing in dysphagia: characteristics, rehabilitative response, and etiological speculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; Lamvik, Kristin; Jones, Richard

    2014-08-15

    Clinical data are submitted as documentation of a pathophysiologic feature of dysphagia termed pharyngeal mis-sequencing and to encourage clinicians and researchers to adopt more critical approaches to diagnosis and treatment planning. Recent clinical experience has identified a cohort of patients who present with an atypical dysphagia not specifically described in the literature: mis-sequenced constriction of the pharynx when swallowing. As a result, they are unable to coordinate streamlined bolus transfer from the pharynx into the esophagus. This mis-sequencing contributes to nasal redirection, aspiration, and, for some, the inability to safely tolerate an oral diet. Sixteen patients (8 females, 8 males), with a mean age of 44 years (range=25-78), had an average time post-onset of 23 months (range=2-72) at initiation of intensive rehabilitation. A 3-channel manometric catheter was used to measure pharyngeal pressure. The average peak-to-peak latency between nadir pressures at sensor-1 and sensor-2 was 15 ms (95% CI, -2 to 33 ms), compared to normative mean latency of 239 ms (95% CI, 215 to 263 ms). Rehabilitative responses are summarized, along with a single detailed case report. It is unclear from these data if pharyngeal mis-sequencing is (i) a pathological feature of impaired motor planning from brainstem damage or (ii) a maladaptive compensation developed in response to chronic dysphagia. Future investigation is needed to provide a full report of pharyngeal mis-sequencing, and the implications on our understanding of underlying neural control of swallowing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Zn influence on the plasticity of Cdo{0.96}Zn{0.04}Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, D.; Zozime, A.; Triboulet, R.

    1991-11-01

    Compression tests were performed on CdTe and Cd{0.96}Zn{0.04}Te to elucidate the mechanism through which Zn inhibits dislocation formation and motion during CdTe crystal growth, thus leading to a decreasing of the dislocation density. Uniaxial deformation experiments performed with CdTe and CdZnTe at constant strain rate within a wide temperature range (0. 14;T_m le T le 0.87;T_m,;T_m = 1 365; K), have revealed a strong hardening effect of Zn within the whole temperature range. They also showed in CdZnTe a Portevin Le Chatelier effect between 770 K and 920 K confirmed by static strain aging experiments. Critical resolved shear stress (C.R.S.S.) values at T = 195; K and static strain aging results with CdZnTe point to size effect as the dominant interaction between Zn and dislocations. Thermal activation parameters were estimated in both materials. La déformation plastique a été utilisée comme approche des mécanismes par lesquels le zinc entrave le mouvement des dislocations au cours du processus de croissance cristalline de CdTe massif, réduisant ainsi la densité de dislocations. Les expériences de compression uniaxiale à vitesse constante, réalisées dans CdTe et CdZnTe entre 0,14 T_f et 0,87 T_f ont montré que le zinc est responsable d'un fort durcissement sur tout le domaine de températures étudié. Les expériences de déformation dans CdZnTe ont mis en évidence un phénomène du type Portevin Le Chatelier entre 770 K et 920 K, confirmé par des expériences de vieillissement statique. Les valeurs de scission critique tau_c à 195 K et les résultats des expériences de vieillissement statique dans CdZnTe sont compatibles avec un effet de taille dominant pour les interactions Zndislocations. Les paramètres d'activation thermique ont été estimés dans les deux matériaux.

  3. Pre-mRNA mis-splicing of sarcomeric genes in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaoqun; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is an important biological process that allows production of multiple proteins from a single gene in the genome, and mainly contributes to protein diversity in eukaryotic organisms. Alternative splicing is commonly governed by RNA binding proteins to meet the ever-changing demands of the cell. However, the mis-splicing may lead to human diseases. In the heart of human, mis-regulation of alternative splicing has been associated with heart failure. In this short review, we focus on alternative splicing of sarcomeric genes and review mis-splicing related heart failure with relatively well studied Sarcomeric genes and splicing mechanisms with identified regulatory factors. The perspective of alternative splicing based therapeutic strategies in heart failure has also been discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) Augments IFN-gamma Mediated Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cell Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Vandana

    2004-01-01

    Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a member of the TGFB family regulates growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in many cell types In the male embryo, MIS causes regression of the Mullerian duct...

  5. Synthèse bibliographique sur le comportement de recherche de l’hôte chez la punaise de lit (Cimex lectularius) et applications dans le cadre de la lutte intégrée

    OpenAIRE

    Legrand, Pauline; Verheggen, François; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Cette étude analyse le comportement de recherche de l’hôte chez la punaise de lit, Cimex lectularius, en portant une attention particulière sur les stimuli émis par l’Homme et impliqués dans ce processus d’orientation. Elle met également en évidence les applications possibles en matière de lutte intégrée. La punaise de lit est un ectoparasite exclusivement hématophage étroitement lié à l’Homme depuis des millénaires. Lors de sa recherche alimentaire, cet insecte utilise des stimuli émis pa...

  6. Integrated geochronology of Acheulian sites from the southern Latium (central Italy): Insights on human-environment interaction and the technological innovations during the MIS 11-MIS 10 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alison; Nomade, Sébastien; Moncel, Marie-Hélène; Voinchet, Pierre; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Biddittu, Italo; Falguères, Christophe; Giaccio, Biagio; Manzi, Giorgio; Parenti, Fabio; Scardia, Giancarlo; Scao, Vincent; Sottili, Gianluca; Vietti, Amina

    2018-05-01

    We have explored the multimethod approach combining 40Ar/39Ar on single crystal, ESR on bleached quartz, and ESR/U-series on teeth to improve the age of four neighbours "Acheulian" sites of the Frosinone Province (Latium, Italy): Fontana Ranuccio, Cava Pompi (Pofi), Isoletta, and Lademagne. Ages obtained by the three methods are in mutual agreement and confirm the potential of dating with confidence Middle Pleistocene sites of Italy using these methods. At Fontana Ranuccio, the 40Ar/39Ar age (408 ± 10 ka, full external error at 2σ) obtained for the archaeological level (unit FR4) and geochemical analyses of glass shards performed on the Unit FR2a layer allow us to attribute the studied volcanic material to the Pozzolane Nere volcanic series, a well-known caldera-forming event originated from the Colli Albani volcanic district. These new data ascribe the Fontana Ranuccio site, as well as the eponym faunal unit, to the climatic optimum of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11. Ages obtained for the Cava Pompi, Isoletta, and Lademagne sites cover a relatively short period of time between 408 ka and 375 ka, spanning MIS 11 climatic optimum to the MIS 11-10 transition. Analysis of small collections of lithic industries, bifacial tools, and small cores technologies from Isoletta, Lademagne, and the neighbour site of Ceprano-Campogrande shows common technical strategies for the period comprised between MIS 11 and MIS 9 (410-325 ka), such as the elaboration of flaked elephant bone industries found over the whole Latium region. However, some features found only in the Frosinone province area, like large-sized bifaces, suggest particular regional behaviours. The presence of one Levallois core in the oldest layer of Lademagne (i.e. > 405 ± 9 ka) suggests a punctual practice of this technology, also proposed as early as MIS 10/11 in the neighbour site of Guado San Nicola (Molise) in central Italy.

  7. Ecosystem change during MIS4 and early MIS 3: Evidence from Middle Stone Age sites in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Several Middle Stone Age (MSA) site in southern Africa present evidence of environmental changes during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 4 and 3 between 70ka and 50ka. Of these, Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, has yielded a detailed record of how globalscale...

  8. Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from coastal sites in Essex, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Helen M.; Coope, G. Russell; Devoy, Robert J. N.; Harrison, Colin J. O.; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.; Preece, Richard C.; Schreve, Danielle C.

    2009-11-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important site on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 °C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian site at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both sites have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type site of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the sites can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus, appears

  9. Kümme kohtuotsust, mis on kõige enam mõjutanud Eesti majandust / Risto Vahimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahimets, Risto, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Sissejuhatus artikliseeriasse, mis annab ülevaate kümnest Eesti kohtuotsusest, mis on kõige enam mõjutanud Eesti majandust. Vt. samas: Luiga, Piret. Suurfirmad peavad maksma. // Director 2007 nr 1, lk. 47

  10. MIS approach for diverticula of the esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Diverticula of the esophagus represent a rare pathological entity. Distinct classifications of the disease imply different surgical concepts. Surgery should be reserved for symptomatic patients only. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for treatment of esophageal diverticula encompasses rigid and flexible intraluminal endoscopy, thoracoscopy and laparoscopy. We here give an overview on the pathogenesis of esophageal diverticula, the minimally invasive surgical techniques for treatment and the recent literature. Additionally, we present our own experience with MIS for midthoracic diverticula. Methods We analyzed the cases of patients who underwent MIS for midthoracic diverticula with regard to preoperative symptoms, perioperative and follow-up data. Results Three patients (two female, one male, age 79, 78 and 59 years) received thoracoscopic surgery for midthoracic diverticula. All patients reported of dysphagia and regurgitation. In two patients pH-investigation showed pathological reflux but manometry was normal in all patients. Operating time was 205, 135 and 141 minutes. We performed intraoperative intraluminal endoscopy in all patients. There were no intraoperative complications and although no surgical complications occured postoperatively one patient developed pneumonia which advanced to sepsis and lethal multi organ failure. Upon follow-up the two patients did not have recurrent diverticula or a recurrence of previous symptoms. Conclusions Surgery for diverticular disease of the esophagus has been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Despite the lethal non-surgical complication we encountered, with regard to recent publications minimally invasive apporaches to treat patients with symptomatic esophageal diverticula entail lower rates of complications with better long term results in comparison to open surgery. PMID:20952348

  11. Mis tuleb

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Pärnu Uue Kunsti Muuseumis Uno Roosvaldi maalide ja graafika näitus "Mõttes Kihnus", Heino Lillepuu kollaazhide näitus "Kõik naised on inglid". Tartu Mänguasjamuuseumis jõuluehete näitus. Rahvusraamatukogu fuajees Andy Horneri näitus "Terra Borealis". Eesti Rahva Muuseumis näitus "Põhjamaine tunnetus", mis tutvustab Sleipneri stipendiumi saanud noorte kunstnike valiktöid. Iisaku muuseumis jõulupostkaartide näitus. Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis näitus "Klaashelmed maailma rahvaste kultuuris" (suur osa helmeist ja helmetikandeist on Torben Sode kogust). Rottermanni soolalaos näitus "Kodu, kallis kodu". Viljandi muuseumis on väljas EKA nahakunsti osakonna tööd aastaist 1917-2004 "Mälu ja mäng", Eesti lapitööseltsi näitus, Viljandi maagümnaasiumi kunstistuudio näitus "Jõulusokk". Eesti Meremuuseumis näitus"Klaas, fajanss ja portselan uppunud laevadelt"

  12. Thick epitaxial CdTe films grown by close space sublimation on Ge substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q; Haliday, D P; Tanner, B K; Brinkman, A W [Department of Physics, University of Durham. Science Site, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Cantwell, B J; Mullins, J T; Basu, A [Durham Scientific Crystals Ltd., NetPark, Thomas Wright Way, Sedgefield, County Durham, TS21 3FD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Q.Z.Jiang@durham.ac.uk

    2009-01-07

    This paper reports, for the first time, the successful growth of 200 {mu}m thick CdTe films on mis-oriented Ge(1 0 0) substrates by a cost-effective optimized close space sublimation method. It is found that, as the thickness increases to a few hundred micrometres, subgrains are formed probably as a result of the large density of dislocations and strain within the initial interfacial layers. The films are of high quality (x-ray rocking curve width {approx}100 arcsec) and high resistance ({approx}10{sup 9} {omega} cm), and are thus candidates for x-ray and {gamma}-ray detectors. (fast track communication)

  13. Mis on parem - Zaporozhets või Mercedes? / Andres Langemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Langemets, Andres, 1948-

    2007-01-01

    Vastukaja Mikko Lagerspetzi artiklile 5. dets. Postimehes, mis oli omakorda vastukaja Jaak Aaviksoo artiklile 19. nov. Postimehes. Sotsioloogiast, sotsiaalteadlastest ja sotsioloogilistest küsitlustest

  14. Mullerian Inhibiting Substances (MIS) Augments IFN-gamma Mediated Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cell Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Vandana

    2006-01-01

    MIS is a member of the TGF family. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that MIS and IFN-gamma might be more effective in the inhibition of breast cancer cell growth than either agent alone...

  15. Recruitment of Hispanic Students into MIS Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHaney, Roger; Martin, Dawne

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides several suggestions Hispanic student recruitment and retention in MIS or other business curricula. Cultural considerations like allocentrism and familialism are discussed along with the situation at K-State. It is believed that the recruitment and retention of Hispanic students can be influenced positively by considering…

  16. Sea level ~400 000 years ago (MIS 11: analogue for present and future sea-level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Bowen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of the sea-level today with that of 400 000 years ago (MIS 11, when the Earth's orbital characteristics were similar may provide, under conditions of natural variability, indications of future sea-level during the present interglacial. Then, as now, orbital eccentricity was low and precession dampened. Evidence for MIS 11 sea-level occurs on uplifting coastlines where shorelines with geochronological ages have been preserved. The sea-level term and the uplift term may be separated with an "uplift correction" formula. This discovers the original sea-level at which the now uplifted shoreline was fashioned. Estimates are based on average uplift rates of the "last interglacial" sea-level (MIS 5.5 using a range of estimates for sea-level and age at that time at different locations. These, with varying secular tectonic regimes in different ocean basins, provide a band of estimates for the MIS 11 sea-level. They do not support the hypothesis of an MIS 11 sea-level at ~20 m, and instead show that it was closer to its present level.

  17. Mis on mee sees? / Liisa Puusepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusepp, Liisa, 1980-

    2017-01-01

    Õietolmuanalüüsi kasutuselevõtust meetodina möödub tänavu 100 aastat. Õietolmuanalüüsiga saab kindlaks määrata, mis taimede õietolmuterad mees leiduvad ning korjeala. Tallinna Ülikooli ökoloogia keskuses rakendatakse õietolmuanalüüsi eelkõige mineviku taimkatte struktuuri, maakasutuse muutuse ja maastiku avatuse rekonstrueerimiseks, lisaks tehakse ka mee õietolmuanalüüsi

  18. Toward optimal implementation of cancer prevention and control programs in public health: a study protocol on mis-implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padek, Margaret; Allen, Peg; Erwin, Paul C; Franco, Melissa; Hammond, Ross A; Heuberger, Benjamin; Kasman, Matt; Luke, Doug A; Mazzucca, Stephanie; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-03-23

    Much of the cancer burden in the USA is preventable, through application of existing knowledge. State-level funders and public health practitioners are in ideal positions to affect programs and policies related to cancer control. Mis-implementation refers to ending effective programs and policies prematurely or continuing ineffective ones. Greater attention to mis-implementation should lead to use of effective interventions and more efficient expenditure of resources, which in the long term, will lead to more positive cancer outcomes. This is a three-phase study that takes a comprehensive approach, leading to the elucidation of tactics for addressing mis-implementation. Phase 1: We assess the extent to which mis-implementation is occurring among state cancer control programs in public health. This initial phase will involve a survey of 800 practitioners representing all states. The programs represented will span the full continuum of cancer control, from primary prevention to survivorship. Phase 2: Using data from phase 1 to identify organizations in which mis-implementation is particularly high or low, the team will conduct eight comparative case studies to get a richer understanding of mis-implementation and to understand contextual differences. These case studies will highlight lessons learned about mis-implementation and identify hypothesized drivers. Phase 3: Agent-based modeling will be used to identify dynamic interactions between individual capacity, organizational capacity, use of evidence, funding, and external factors driving mis-implementation. The team will then translate and disseminate findings from phases 1 to 3 to practitioners and practice-related stakeholders to support the reduction of mis-implementation. This study is innovative and significant because it will (1) be the first to refine and further develop reliable and valid measures of mis-implementation of public health programs; (2) bring together a strong, transdisciplinary team with

  19. FATCA - mis see on? / Steve Austwick ; intervjueerinud Joel Zernask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Austwick, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide seaduseelnõust, mis mõjutab enamikku finantsteenuseid pakkuvaid ettevõtteid üle maailma, sealhulgas ka Balti riikides. Lisatud FATCA ajakava. FATCA = Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act

  20. A data driven method to measure electron charge mis-identification rate

    CERN Document Server

    Bakhshiansohi, Hamed

    2009-01-01

    Electron charge mis-measurement is an important challenge in analyses which depend on the charge of electron. To estimate the probability of {\\it electron charge mis-measurement} a data driven method is introduced and a good agreement with MC based methods is achieved.\\\\ The third moment of $\\phi$ distribution of hits in electron SuperCluster is studied. The correlation between this variable and the electron charge is also investigated. Using this `new' variable and some other variables the electron charge measurement is improved by two different approaches.

  1. Victor Hugo, ‚Les Misérables´ (1862)

    OpenAIRE

    Krauss, Henning

    1999-01-01

    Victor Hugo, ‚Les Misérables´ (1862). - In: 19. Jahrhundert - Roman / Friedrich Wolfzettel (Hrsg.). - Tübingen : Stauffenburg-Verl., 1999. - S. 185-218. - (Stauffenburg Interpretation : Französische Literatur)

  2. Comparative Study of the Difference of Perioperative Complication and Radiologic Results: MIS-DLIF (Minimally Invasive Direct Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion) Versus MIS-OLIF (Minimally Invasive Oblique Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jie; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Hur, Jung-Woo; Seong, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Jin-Sung; Cho, Hyun-Jin

    2018-02-01

    Retrospective observatory analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of perioperative complication, difference of cage location, and sagittal alignment between minimally invasive oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-OLIF) and MIS-direct lateral lumbar interbody fusion (DLIF) in the cases of single-level surgery at L4-L5. MIS-DLIF using tubular retractor has been used for the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases; however, blunt transpsoas dissection poses a risk of injury to the lumbar plexus. As an alternative, MIS-OLIF uses a window between the prevertebral venous structures and psoas muscle. A total of 43 consecutive patients who underwent MIS-DLIF or MIS-OLIF for various L4/L5 level pathologies between November 2011 and April 2014 by a single surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. A complication classification based on the relation to surgical procedure and effect duration was used. Perioperative complications until 3-month postoperatively were reviewed for the patients. Radiologic results including the cage location and sagittal alignment were also assessed with plain radiography. There were no significant statistical differences in perioperative parameters and early clinical outcome between 2 groups. Overall, there were 13 (59.1%) approach-related complications in the DLIF group and 3 (14.3%) in the OLIF group. In the DLIF group, 3 (45.6%) were classified as persistent, however, there was no persistent complication in the OLIF group. In the OLIF group, cage is located mostly in the middle 1/3 of vertebral body, significantly increasing posterior disk space height and foraminal height compared with the DLIF group. Global and segmental lumbar lordosis was greater in the DLIF group due to anterior cage position without statistical significance. In our report of L4/L5 level diseases, the OLIF technique may decrease approach-related perioperative morbidities by eliminating the risk of unwanted muscle and nerve manipulations. Using

  3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Oxide Material Representation in the Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Program, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, D C; Dodson, K

    2004-06-30

    The Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program was established within the 94-1 R&D Program to confirm the suitability of plutonium-bearing materials for stabilization, packaging, and long-term storage under DOE-STD-3013-2000. Oxide materials from different sites were chemically and physically characterized. The adequacy of the stabilization process parameters of temperature and duration at temperature (950 C and 2 hours) for eliminating chemical reactivity and reducing the moisture content to less than 0.5 weight percent were validated. Studies also include surveillance monitoring to determine the behavior of the oxides and packaging materials under storage conditions. Materials selected for this program were assumed to be representative of the overall inventory for DOE sites. The Quality Assurance section of the DOE-STD-3013-2000 required that each site be responsible for assuring that oxides packaged according to this standard are represented by items in the MIS characterization program. The purpose of this document is to define the path for determining if an individual item is ''represented'' in the MIS Program and to show that oxides being packaged at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are considered represented in the MIS program. The methodology outlined in the MIS Representation Document (LA-14016-MS) for demonstrating representation requires concurrence of the MIS working Group (MIS-WG). The signature page on this document provides for the MIS-WG concurrence.

  4. Vale, mis ei taha surra / Urmas Kiil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiil, Urmas

    2005-01-01

    Juuditar Hadassa Ben-Itto raamatu "Vale, mis ei taha surra" (The Lie That Wouldn't Die: the Protocols of the Elders of Zion) sünniloost. Autor, kes oli Iisraelis kõrge kohtunik, loobus oma karjäärist, et tuua avalikkuse ette tõde XX sajandil palju surma külvanud plagiaadist "Siioni tarkade protokollid"

  5. Mis siis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega? / Õie Orav

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orav, Õie

    2011-01-01

    Režissöör Grigori Kromanovi filmist "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" (Tallinnfilm, 1965). Osades: Einari Koppel, Ita Ever, Heino Mandri, Kaljo Kiisk, Uno Loit, Ada Lundver jt. Lühidalt filmi kohta ilmunud arvustustest. Filmi näeb ETV2-s sarjas "Unustatud filmid"

  6. Mis ikkagi teeb Eestist Uganda? / Marja-Liisa Alop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alop, Marja-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Eesti üliõpilaskondade liidu juhatuse aseesimees M.-L. Alop kirjutab vastuse M. Heidmetsa artiklile 6. jaan. Eesti Päevalehes "Eestis nagu Ugandas", kus tõstatati Eestis üldise õppemaksu kehtestamise vajadus, mis vähendab vähem kindlustatute võimalusi kõrgharidust omandada

  7. MIS hot electron devices for enhancement of surface reactivity by hot electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar

    A Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) based device is developed for investigation of hot electron enhanced chemistry. A model of the device is presented explaining the key concepts of the functionality and the character- istics. The MIS hot electron emitter is fabricated using cleanroom technology...... and the process sequence is described. An Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) setup is modified to facilitate experiments with electron emission from the MIS hot electron emitters and hot electron chemistry. Simulations show the importance of keeping tunnel barrier roughness to an absolute minimum. The tunnel oxide...... to be an important energy loss center for the electrons tunneling through the oxide lowering the emission e±ciency of a factor of 10 for a 1 nm Ti layer thickness. Electron emission is observed under ambient pressure conditions and in up to 2 bars of Ar. 2 bar Ar decrease the emission current by an order...

  8. De la literatura misógina medieval a la igualdad de oportunidades entre hombres y mujeres. Descripción de una unidad didáctica para 3º de la ESO

    OpenAIRE

    Bataller Català, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Se explica y comenta los contenidos y secuenciación de una unidad didáctica que contiene como tema transversal la igualdad de oportunidades entre homes y mujeres, preparada para la asignatura de "Valencià. Llengua i literatura" para el curso de 3º de la ESO (que hemos publicado dentro de un proyecto editorial, Ediciones SM, 2007). Los contenidos literarios, tanto teóricos como prácticos, tratan tanto de la obra más celebrada de temática misógina del siglo XV, la novela en verso l'Spill, escri...

  9. The Graduate MIS Security Course: Objectives and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bradley K.; Guynes, Carl S.; Nyaboga, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Given the magnitude of real and potential losses, both private and public employers increasingly expect graduates of management information systems (MIS) programs to understand information security concepts. The infrastructure requirements for the course includes setting up a secure laboratory environment to accommodate the development of viruses…

  10. Al-Qaiada's (Mis)Adventures in the Horn of Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... Its private deliberations during this period are revealed by a trove of documents captured in the course of operations supporting the Global War on Terror and maintained in the Department of Defense's Harmony Database. Al-Qaida's (Mis...

  11. MILREM extends THeMIS mission set / Huw Williams

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Williams, Huw

    2016-01-01

    Eesti kaitsetehnika ettevõte MILREM OÜ täiendab oma relvasüsteemi THeMIS ja teeb selleks koostööd mitmete firmadega. Tulevikus soovitakse lisaks Eesti kaitseväele teha koostööd ka Läti kaitseväega ja kasutada sõjatehnikat sealsetel õppustel

  12. SST and ice sheet impacts on the MIS-13 climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muri, Helene; Berger, Andre; Yin, Qiuzhen; Sundaram, Suchithra [Universite catholique de Louvain, Georges Lemaitre Centre for Earth and Climate Research (TECLIM), Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Louvain la Neuve (Belgium); Voldoire, Aurore; Melia, David Salas Y. [CNRM-GAME Meteo-France/CNRS, Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    As a first qualitative assessment tool, LOVECLIM has been used to investigate the interactions between insolation, ice sheets and the East Asian Monsoon at the Marine Isotopic Stage 13 (MIS-13) in work by Yin et al. (Clim Past 4:79-90, 2008, Clim Past 5:229-243, 2009). The results are in need of validation with a more sophisticated model, which is done in this work with the ARPEGE atmospheric general circulation model. As in the Earth system Model of Intermediate Complexity, LOVECLIM, ARPEGE shows that the northern hemispheric high insolation in summer leads to strong MIS-13 monsoon precipitation. Data from the Chinese Loess Plateau indicate that MIS-13 was locally a warm and humid period (Guo et al. in Clim Past 5:21-31, 2009; Yin and Guo in Chin Sci Bull 51(2):213-220, 2006). This is confirmed by these General Circulation Model (GCM) results, where the MIS-13 climate is found to be hotter and more humid both in the presence and absence of any added ice sheets. LOVECLIM found that the combined effects of the ice sheets and their accompanying SSTs contribute to more precipitation in eastern China, whilst in ARPEGE the impact is significant in northeastern China. Nonetheless the results of ARPEGE confirm the counter-intuitive results of LOVECLIM where ice sheets contribute to enhance monsoon precipitation. This happens through a topography induced wave propagating through Eurasia with an ascending branch over northeastern China. A feature which is also seen in LOVECLIM. The SST forcing in ARPEGE results in a strong zonal temperature gradient between the North Atlantic and east Eurasia, which in turn triggers an atmospheric gravity wave. This wave induces a blocking Okhotskian high, preventing the northwards penetration of the Meiyu monsoon front. The synergism between the ice sheets and SST is found through the factor separation method, yielding an increase in the Meiyu precipitation, though a reduction of the Changma precipitation. The synergism between the ice

  13. MIS 5e relative sea-level changes in the Mediterranean Sea: Contribution of isostatic disequilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocchi, Paolo; Vacchi, Matteo; Lorscheid, Thomas; de Boer, Bas; Simms, Alexander R.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Vermeersen, Bert L. A.; Pappalardo, Marta; Rovere, Alessio

    2018-04-01

    Sea-level indicators dated to the Last Interglacial, or Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e, have a twofold value. First, they can be used to constrain the melting of Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets in response to global warming scenarios. Second, they can be used to calculate the vertical crustal rates at active margins. For both applications, the contribution of glacio- and hydro-isostatic adjustment (GIA) to vertical displacement of sea-level indicators must be calculated. In this paper, we re-assess MIS 5e sea-level indicators at 11 Mediterranean sites that have been generally considered tectonically stable or affected by mild tectonics. These are found within a range of elevations of 2-10 m above modern mean sea level. Four sites are characterized by two separate sea-level stands, which suggest a two-step sea-level highstand during MIS 5e. Comparing field data with numerical modeling we show that (i) GIA is an important contributor to the spatial and temporal variability of the sea-level highstand during MIS 5e, (ii) the isostatic imbalance from the melting of the MIS 6 ice sheet can produce a >2.0 m sea-level highstand, and (iii) a two-step melting phase for the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets reduces the differences between observations and predictions. Our results show that assumptions of tectonic stability on the basis of the MIS 5e records carry intrinsically large uncertainties, stemming either from uncertainties in field data and GIA models. The latter are propagated to either Holocene or Pleistocene sea-level reconstructions if tectonic rates are considered linear through time.

  14. Vegetation dynamics of the Guatemalan lowlands from MIS7 to MIS5: Evidence from Lake Petén-Itzá

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Silva, E.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Bush, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Reconstructing vegetation patterns of past warm climatic stages is critical for understanding modern processes that affect diversity and climate. Tropical lowlands are of special interest because of the high biodiversity they foster and the risks they face under a scenario of rapid climate change. With a basal age of more that 191,000 years, core PI-1 from Lake Petén-Itzá, Guatemalan lowlands, offer an exceptional opportunity to investigate the dynamics of the vegetation of the area during climatic stages that might be analogous to today. Pollen analysis of the lower part of this sedimentary record shows a sequence of five different climatic stages of alternating warm and cold conditions. According to our interpretation, tropical forests extended in the area during MIS7 and MIS5, with the former characterized by drier conditions than the latter. Apparently forest dynamics closely followed global climatic changes that were recorded in the Antarctic and the Marine Stack records. Our results confirm that vegetation of the Peninsula, although highly resilient, has been very sensitive to global climatic changes.

  15. Investigation of the sensitivity of MIS-sensor to thermal decomposition products of cables insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipchuk, D. V.; Litvinov, A. V.; Etrekova, M. O.; Nozdrya, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Sensitivity of the MIS-sensor to products of thermal decomposition of insulation and jacket of the most common types of cables is investigated. It is shown that hydrogen is evolved under heating the insulation to temperatures not exceeding 250 °C. Registration of the evolved hydrogen by the MIS-sensor can be used for detection of fires at an early stage.

  16. The effect of sociodemographic (mis)match between interviewers and respondents on unit and item nonresponse in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruyssen, Anina; Wuyts, Celine; Loosveldt, Geert

    2017-09-01

    Interviewer characteristics affect nonresponse and measurement errors in face-to-face surveys. Some studies have shown that mismatched sociodemographic characteristics - for example gender - affect people's behavior when interacting with an interviewer at the door and during the survey interview, resulting in more nonresponse. We investigate the effect of sociodemographic (mis)matching on nonresponse in two successive rounds of the European Social Survey in Belgium. As such, we replicate the analyses of the effect of (mis)matching gender and age on unit nonresponse on the one hand, and of gender, age and education level (mis)matching on item nonresponse on the other hand. Recurring effects of sociodemographic (mis)match are found for both unit and item nonresponse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Foraminifera eco-biostratigraphy of the southern Evoikos outer shelf, central Aegean Sea, during MIS 5 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Tsourou, Theodora; Kontakiotis, George; Psychogiou, Maria; Anastasakis, George

    2016-09-01

    The South Evoikos Basin is a marginal basin in the Aegean Sea which receives little terrigenous supply and its sedimentation is dominated by hemipelagic processes. Late Quaternary benthic and planktonic foraminifera from core PAG-155 are investigated in order to understand their response to the glacial-interglacial cycles in this region. The quantitative analysis of planktonic foraminifera, coupled with accelerator mass spectrometry (14C-AMS) radiocarbon date measurements, provide an integrated chrono-stratigraphic time framework over the last 90 ka (time interval between late Marine Isotopic Stages 5 and 1; MIS5-MIS1). The temporary appearance and disappearance as well as several abundance peaks in the quantitative distribution of selected climate-sensitive planktonic species allowed the identification of several eco-bioevents, useful to accurately mark the boundaries of the eco-biozones widely recognized in the Mediterranean records and used for large-scale correlations. The established bio-ecozonation scheme allows a detailed palaecological reconstruction for the late Pleistocene archive in the central Aegean, and furthermore provides a notable contribution for palaeoclimatic studies, facilitating intercorrelations between various oceanographic basins. The quantitative analyses of benthic foraminifera identify four distinct assemblages, namely Biofacies: Elphidium spp., Haynesina spp. Biofacies, characterized by neritic species, dominated during the transition from MIS 5 to MIS 4; Cassidulina laevigata/carinata Biofacies dominated till 42 ka (transgressive trend from MIS 4 to MIS 3); Bulimina gibba Biofacies dominated from 42 ka to 9.5 ka (extensive regression MIS 3,2 through lowstand and early transgression; beginning of MIS 1); Bulimina marginata, Uvigerina spp. Biofacies dominated from 9.5 ka to the present (late transgression through early highstand; MIS 1)., This study showed that the South Evoikos Basin which is characterized by its critical depths and

  18. ON CODE REFACTORING OF THE DIALOG SUBSYSTEM OF CDSS PLATFORM FOR THE OPEN-SOURCE MIS OPENMRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Semenets

    2016-08-01

    The open-source MIS OpenMRS developer tools and software API are reviewed. The results of code refactoring of the dialog subsystem of the CDSS platform which is made as module for the open-source MIS OpenMRS are presented. The structure of information model of database of the CDSS dialog subsystem was updated according with MIS OpenMRS requirements. The Model-View-Controller (MVC based approach to the CDSS dialog subsystem architecture was re-implemented with Java programming language using Spring and Hibernate frameworks. The MIS OpenMRS Encounter portlet form for the CDSS dialog subsystem integration is developed as an extension. The administrative module of the CDSS platform is recreated. The data exchanging formats and methods for interaction of OpenMRS CDSS dialog subsystem module and DecisionTree GAE service are re-implemented with help of AJAX technology via jQuery library

  19. Relative sea-level changes and glacio-isostatic adjustment on the Magdalen Islands archipelago (Atlantic Canada) from MIS 5 to the late Holocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rémillard, Audrey M.; St-Onge, Guillaume; Bernatchez, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    has risen at least 3 m during the last two millennia. Sediments dated to the MIS 5 and the interval between the late MIS 4 and the MIS 3 illustrate that the GIA following the LGM also occurred for the MIS 5 interglacial and the MIS 3 interstadial. Finally, recent GIA models are discussed in light...

  20. The Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle (MIS 5-2) re-examined based on long proxy records from central and northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmens, Karin F.

    2014-02-01

    Current multi-proxy studies on a long sediment sequence preserved at Sokli (N Finland), i.e. in the central area of Fennoscandian glaciations, are drastically changing classic ideas of glaciations, vegetation and climate in northern Europe during the Late Pleistocene. The sediments in the Sokli basin have escaped major glacial erosion due to non-typical bedrock conditions. In this review, the Sokli record is compared in great detail with other long proxy records from central, temperate and northern, boreal Europe. These comprise the classic records of La Grande Pile (E France) and Oerel (N Germany) and more recently obtained records from Horoszki Duże (E Poland) and Lake Yamozero (NW Russia). The focus of the review is on pollen, lithology and macrofossil- and insect-based temperature inferences. The long records are further compared with recent proxy data from nearby terrestrial sites as well as with the rapidly accumulating high-resolution proxy data from the ocean realm. The comparison allows a re-examination of the environmental history and climate evolution of the Last Interglacial-Glacial (LI-G) cycle (MIS 5-2). It shows that environmental and climate conditions during MIS 5 (ca 130-70 ka BP) were distinctly different from those during MIS 4-2 (ca 70-15 ka BP). MIS 5 is characterized by three long forested intervals (broadly corresponding to MIS 5e, 5c, 5a), both in temperate and northern boreal Europe. These mild periods were interrupted by two short, relatively cold and dry intervals (MIS 5d and 5b) with mountain-centered glaciation in Fennoscandia. Millennial scale climate events were superimposed upon these longer lasting climate fluctuations. The time interval encompassing MIS 4-2 shows open vegetation. It is characterized by two glacial maxima (MIS 4 and 2) with sub-continental scale glaciation over northern Europe and dry conditions in strongly continental eastern European settings. High amplitude climate oscillations of millennial duration

  1. Partial enthalpies of Bi and Te in Bi-Te melts and of In and Te in In-Te melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, Abeer; Amzil, Abdelhamid; Castanet, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Full text.Calorimetric measurement are reported which allow the enthalpic behaviour of Bi-Te melts to be established. Further work is required, however, to supplement results obtained for In-Te melts. The partial enthalpies of bismuth and tellurium in the Bi-Te melts at 755K and those of indium and tellurium in the In-Te melts at 1010 and 987K were measured at high dilution by direct reaction calorimetry (drop method) with the help of a Tian-Calvet calorimeter. The limiting partial enthalpies of the components were deduced by extrapolation at infinite dilution: Δh f,∞ B i(755K)/KJ.mol -1 = -34.0 and Δh f,∞ Te(755K) /KJ·mol -1 = -24.1 in the Bi-Te melts Δh f,∞ In(1010K) /KJ·mol -1 = -75.9 and Δh f,∞ Te(1010K) /KJ·mol -1 = -47.8 in the In-Te melts Δh f,∞ In(987K) /KJ·mol -1 = -75.2 and Δh f,∞ Te(987K) /KJ·mol -1 = -48.0 in the In-Te melts

  2. Super-plus - karpi pandud äike, mis tervistab / Tõnu Kalvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalvet, Tõnu

    1999-01-01

    Venemaal toodetud õhupuhastist. Õhupuhasti ei piirdu mitte ainult õhu puhastamisega, vaid küllastab õhku ka osooniga ning eluks ülioluliste negatiivsete ioonidega, mis suurendavad organismi immuunsust ja likvideerivad alalise kurnatuse sündroomi

  3. A voz da desigualdade e da miséria: reflexos discursivos no léxico da canção O meu guri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Mattedi Tomazi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste estudo é analisar as ideologias e as representações mentais que se materializam na prática discursiva social da canção O meu guri, de Chico Buarque, com base na proposta teórica sociocognitiva de van Dijk (1999, 2010, 2011, 2012. Para tanto, elegemos o léxico como categoria principal de análise. Os resultados iniciais indicam que as escolhas lexicais utilizadas para compor a canção desvelam uma vida de miséria e desigualdade social vivida por uma mãe e um adolescente em conflito com a lei. Este estudo espera contribuir com uma proposta de leitura crítica que problematize questões significativas para a sociedade que, são materializadas na linguagem pelo discurso como prática social.

  4. Effect of substrate mis-orientation on GaN thin films grown by MOCVD under different carrier gas condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong-Woo; Suzuki, Toshimasa [Nippon Institute of Technology, 4-1 Gakuendai, Miyashiro, Saitama, 345-8501 (Japan); Aida, Hideo [NAMIKI Precision Jewel Co. Ltd., 3-8-22 Shinden, Adachi-ku, Tokyo, 123-8511 (Japan)

    2005-05-01

    We have studied the effect of a slight mis-orientation angle on surface and crystal quality of GaN thin films grown under different carrier gas conditions. Two types of carrier gas conditions were applied to the growth. One was pure H{sub 2} and the other was mixed N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}. As the result, we found dependence of surface and crystal quality of GaN thin films on the substrate mis-orientation angle, and they indicated almost the same tendency under both growth conditions. Therefore, it was confirmed that mis-orientation angle of sapphire substrate was one of the most critical factors for GaN thin films. Then, the effect of the additional N{sub 2} into the conventional H{sub 2} carrier gas was studied, and we found that the conversion of carrier gas from the conventional H{sub 2} to N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixture was effective against degradation of GaN crystallinity at any mis-orientation angle. Considering that the crystal quality of GaN thin films became insensitive to mis-orientation angle as the condition became more suitable for GaN growth, the optimal substrate mis-orientation angle was consequently decided to be approximately 0.15 from the morphological aspect. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. A climate model study of an intense Asian Monsoon in a La Niña-like climate of MIS-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, M. P.; Berger, A.; Herold, N.; Yin, Q. Z.

    2012-04-01

    Studying the paleo-monsoon during past interglacials is a valuable approach to improve our understanding of the monsoon system in present-day and future climates. We focus on Marine Isotopic stage 13 (MIS-13; ~0.5 Ma) which was a relatively cool interglacial, but with a paradoxically intense monsoonal precipitation over eastern and southern Asia. Our main goal is to understand the physics-based mechanism driving the intense monsoon, specifically the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), during MIS-13. We applied both an intermediate complexity model (LOVECLIM) as well as fully coupled general circulation models (HadCM3 and CCSM3) to simulate pre-industrial and MIS-13 climates. The boundary conditions for MIS-13 were chosen for 506 ka with Northern-Hemisphere (NH) summer at perihelion and a CO2 concentration of 240 ppm. For pre-industrial, NH-winter occurring at perihelion and a CO2 concentration of 280 ppm were prescribed. Preliminary analysis of the model results shows different atmospheric and oceanic features in MIS-13 compared to the pre-industrial which could affect the EASM. The Northern Pacific Subtropical High (NPSH), which is an important factor in controlling the EASM, strengthened and extended to the northwest in MIS-13 partially due to cooling of the central Pacific Ocean. This in turn brought more moisture from the Central Pacific to the EASM-region and caused a northwestward shift and bending of the low-level jet along East Asia. The change in the low-level jet subsequently increased the meridional wind velocity at 850 mbar in the EASM-region providing more moisture from the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. In addition, higher sea-surface temperature in the Indian Ocean during MIS-13 further increased the source of moisture for the EASM. The Asian low, which is another component of the EASM-system, also shifted eastward moving the rain band northward. Moreover, it was found that MIS-13 had a dominant La Niña condition in the tropical Pacific. La Ni

  6. Comparison of the results of MIS-TLIF and open TLIF techniques in laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel De Abreu Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare clinical outcomes in laborers who have undergone open transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF and minimally invasive transforaminal interbody fusion (MIS TLIF. Methods: 78 patients were submitted to lumbar arthrodesis by the same two spine surgeons partners from January 2008 to December 2012. Forty-one were submitted to traditional open arthrodesis and 37 to the minimally invasive procedure. Three patients were not included because they had already retired from work. The analyzed variables were length of hospitalization, length of follow-up, type of access (TILF or MIS TLIF, need for blood transfusion, percentage of improvement or worsening after surgery, pre- and postoperative VAS scale, time off work, pre-and postoperative Oswestry disability index, and general aspects of the laborers such as age, education, profession, working time, amount of daily weight carried at work, and use or not of personal protective equipment. Results: Time off work was longer in the TLIF group (average of 9.84 months compared with the MIS TLIF group (average of 3.20 months. Significant improvement in postoperative VAS and Oswestry was achieved in both groups. Average length of hospitalization was 5.73 days for the TLIF group and 2.76 days for the MIS TLIF group. Conclusions: Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion presents similar results when compared to open TLIF, but has the benefits of less postoperative morbidity, shorter hospitalization times, and faster rehabilitation in laborer patients.

  7. Mis on papa Jannseni hind ? / Sven Sildnik ; interv. Grete Naaber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildnik, Sven, 1964-

    2006-01-01

    Sven Kivisildnik kirjutas Pärnu linnavalitsuse tellimusel Jannseni sünniaastapäeva peoks näidendi "Johann Woldemar Jannsen ehk Rahvavaenlase hind", mis kantakse ette Koidula muuseumi klassitoas 16. mail. Intervjuu näidendi autori ja esitajaga

  8. Neural circuitry governing anxious individuals' mis-allocation of working memory to threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Daniel M; Shackman, Alexander J; Pedersen, Walker S; Miskovich, Tara A; Larson, Christine L

    2017-08-18

    Dispositional anxiety is a trait-like phenotype that confers increased risk for a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Like many patients with anxiety disorders, individuals with elevated levels of dispositional anxiety are prone to intrusive and distressing thoughts in the absence of immediate threat. Recent electrophysiological research suggests that these symptoms are rooted in the mis-allocation of working memory (WM) resources to threat-related information. Here, functional MRI was used to identify the network of brain regions that support WM for faces and to quantify the allocation of neural resources to threat-related distracters in 81 young adults. Results revealed widespread evidence of mis-allocation. This was evident in both face-selective regions of the fusiform cortex and domain-general regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. This bias was exaggerated among individuals with a more anxious disposition. Mediation analyses provided compelling evidence that anxious individuals' tendency to mis-allocate WM resources to threat-related distracters is statistically explained by heightened amygdala reactivity. Collectively, these results provide a neurocognitive framework for understanding the pathways linking anxious phenotypes to the development of internalizing psychopathology and set the stage for developing improved intervention strategies.

  9. Electrical properties of MBE grown Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-cubic GaN MIS structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zado, A.; Lischka, K.; As, D.J. [University of Paderborn, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    In this work we report on the electrical characterization of non-polar cubic GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layers were deposited in-situ on top of cubic GaN grown on 3C-SiC (001) substrates. The electric characteristics of the MIS structures are measured by capacitance and admittance spectroscopy techniques. From the hysteresis in the capacitance-voltage curves and the peak height of the conductance G{sub p} -{omega} frequency curves the interface state densities are calculated. We find interface traps about 0.3 eV below the conduction band. The density of these traps is D{sub it} = 2.5x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1}. This is one order of magnitude lower than in MIS structures with a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} insulator produced by plasma enhanced vapour deposition and two orders of magnitude lower than in MIS structures on c-GaN with SiO{sub 2} as insulator (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Mis see jumal meid on loonud? / Rein Veidemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veidemann, Rein, 1946-

    2017-01-01

    Eesti teatriuuenduse 1969 aastal lavastas Evald Hermaküla Paul-Eerik Rummo näidendi "Tuhkatriinumäng", Jaan Tooming August Kitzbergi "Laseb käele suud anda". Jaak Alliku arvustus Jaan Toominga lavastusele ilmus ajakirjas Noorus 1970. aasta märtsinumbris pealkirjaga "Mis see jumal meid on loonud?". Sama küsimuse esitab artikli autor. Elumõttest, elu eesmärgist ja tähendusest

  11. ProMIS Augmented Reality Training of Laparoscopic Procedures Face Validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botden, Sanne M. B. I.; Buzink, Sonja N.; Schijven, Marlies P.; Jakimowicz, Jack J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Conventional video trainers lack the ability to assess the trainee objectively, but offer modalities that are often missing in virtual reality simulation, such as realistic haptic feedback. The ProMIS augmented reality laparoscopic simulator retains the benefit of a traditional box

  12. ProMIS augmented reality training of laparoscopic procedures face validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botden, Sanne M. B. I.; Buzink, Sonja N.; Schijven, Marlies P.; Jakimowicz, Jack J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conventional video trainers lack the ability to assess the trainee objectively, but offer modalities that are often missing in virtual reality simulation, such as realistic haptic feedback. The ProMIS augmented reality laparoscopic simulator retains the benefit of a traditional box

  13. Light-quark and gluon jet discrimination in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivarsson, Jenny; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-08-21

    A likelihood-based discriminant for the identification of quark- and gluon-initiated jets is built and validated using 4.7 fb$^{-1}$ of proton--proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.  Data samples with enriched quark or gluon content are used in the construction and validation of templates of jet properties that are the input to the likelihood-based discriminant.  The discriminating power of the jet tagger is established in both data and Monte Carlo samples within a systematic uncertainty of $\\approx$ 10-20%. In data, light-quark jets can be tagged with an efficiency of $\\approx$ 50% while achieving a gluon-jet mis-tag rate of $\\approx$ 25% in a $p_{\\rm T}$ range between 40 GeV and 360 GeV for jets in the acceptance of the tracker. The rejection of gluon-jets found in the data is significantly below what is attainable using a PYTHIA 6 Monte Carlo simulation, where gluon-jet mis-tag rates of 10% can be reached for a 50% selection efficiency of light-q...

  14. Contrasting pollen histories of MIS 5e and the Holocene from Lake Titicaca (Bolivia/Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Jennifer A.; Gosling, William D.; Paduano, Gina M.; Bush, Mark B.

    2005-10-01

    Two long sediment records (cores LTO1-2B and LT01-3B) from Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru, are compared with a previously analysed Holocene record from this lake (core NE98-1PC). The Holocene records of LT01-2B and NE98-1PC are similar. There are striking differences, however, between the MIS 5e sections of the long cores and the Holocene records. In these records, temperature is probably the dominant parameter that determines the total fossil pollen concentration and is used to time the onset and termination of deglaciation. In contrast, the relative and absolute abundance of specific taxa (e.g. Polylepis/Acaena, Chenopodiaceae) are indicators of relative moisture availability. Although the Holocene contains a period of aridity between ca. 8000 cal. yr BP and 4300 cal. yr BP, it is a minor event compared with the more extreme aridity of MIS 5e. Core LT01-3B showed similar trends during MIS 5e when compared to LT01-2B, as did NE98-1PC when comparing Holocene records. MIS 5e and the Holocene are markedly different interglacials, depicted by shifts in pollen concentration and taxa representation over time.

  15. Memory effects in MIS structures based on silicon and polymethylmethacrylate with nanoparticle charge-storage elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabrook, M.F. [School of Engineering and Centre for Molecular and Nanoscale Electronics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.f.mabrook@durham.ac.uk; Jombert, A.S. [School of Engineering and Centre for Molecular and Nanoscale Electronics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Machin, S.E.; Pearson, C.; Kolb, D. [School of Engineering and Centre for Molecular and Nanoscale Electronics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Coleman, K.S. [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Zeze, D.A.; Petty, M.C. [School of Engineering and Centre for Molecular and Nanoscale Electronics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    We report on the electrical behaviour of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures fabricated on p-type silicon substrates and using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as the dielectric. Gold nanoparticles, single-wall carbon nanotubes and C{sub 60}, deposited at room temperature, were used as charge-storage elements. In all cases, the MIS devices containing the nanoparticles exhibited hysteresis in their capacitance versus voltage characteristics, with a memory window depending on the range of the voltage sweep. This hysteresis was attributed to the charging and discharging of the nanoparticles from the gate electrode. A relatively large memory window of about 2.2 V was achieved by scanning the applied voltage of an Al/PMMA/C{sub 60}/SiO{sub 2}/Si structure between 4 and -4 V. Gold nanoparticle-based memory devices produced the best charge retention behaviour compared to the other MIS structures investigated.

  16. Growth And Characterization Of LPE CdHgTe/CdZnTe/CdZnTe Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliciari, B.; Chamonal, J. P.; Destefanis, G. L.; Dicioccio, L.

    1988-05-01

    The liquid phase epitaxial technique is used to grow Hgl_x Cdx Te (x = .23) from a Te - rich solution onto a Cdl_y ZnyTe (y = .04) buffer layer grown from a Te-rich solution onto a Cdi_yZnyTe bulk substrate in an open tube multibin horizontal slider apparatus.Growth conditions and physical characterizations of both the buffer layer and the CdHgTe layer are given ; electrical properties of the CdHgTe layer are also presen-ted. PV detectors were successfully obtained on such a structure using an ion-implanted technology and their characteristics at 77 K for a 10.1 ,um cut-off wavelength are given.

  17. Mis keelt räägib kuldsõdur? / Kristina Norman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Norman, Kristina, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Kunstnik Kristina Norman oma Tõnismäe pronkssõduri monumenti käsitlevast kunstiprojektist "After-War", mis esindab Eestit 53. Veneetsia biennaalil, oma kunstnikupositsioonist, 9. mail kunstiprojekti osana toimunud aktsiooni, mil kunstnik viis Tallinnas Tõnismäele pronkssõduriga sarnase kuldse skulptuuri, eesmärgist

  18. Consequences of mis-loading and the power distribution in bowed fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Magnus

    2002-04-01

    The thesis is divided in two parts. The first part will investigate consequences of a mis-loaded fuel assembly in Ringhals 3, which is a pressurised water reactor (PWR). The aim of this work is to show that there are no or very small benefits from making an additional flux map at 30 % power in order to detect anomalies. Out of the 17 simulations, there exists only one type of mis-loading, which leads to problems. The case, which leads to problems, is when a Gd fitted assembly changes place with a non Gd. This leads to a too high power peaking factor and increased quadrant power tilt. The gain of a flux map at 30% power is small

  19. Consequences of mis-loading and the power distribution in bowed fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Magnus

    2002-04-01

    The thesis is divided in two parts. The first part will investigate consequences of a mis-loaded fuel assembly in Ringhals 3, which is a pressurised water reactor (PWR). The aim of this work is to show that there are no or very small benefits from making an additional flux map at 30 % power in order to detect anomalies. Out of the 17 simulations, there exists only one type of mis-loading, which leads to problems. The case, which leads to problems, is when a Gd fitted assembly changes place with a non Gd. This leads to a too high power peaking factor and increased quadrant power tilt. The gain of a flux map at 30% power is small.

  20. Stipendiumiprogramm, mis suunatud stimuleerima noorte arengut / Viire Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Viire, 1955-

    2014-01-01

    Programmist, mis väärtustab reaalainete olümpiaade, kui võimekate noorte arengu üht olulist stiimulit. Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli üliõpilase Mette Purde, Harvardi ülikooli üliõpilase Erik Tamre, Cambridge'i ülikooli üliõpilase Jaan Tootsi ning Tartu Ülikooli üliõpilaste Janno Veeorg, Lona Liisa Sutt, Madis Ollikainen ja Jaagup Repän arvamused olümpiaadide olulisusest

  1. Nuclear criticality safety: general. 4. The CASTOR X/32S Method of Covering mis-loading Concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, Dale B.; Rombough, Charles T.; Diersch, Rudolf; Spilker, Harry

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, most cask licenses do not directly consider mis-loading. If the enrichment limit for a shipping cask is high and the reactivity control is inherent in the cask, the reactivity effect of a mis-load is small. However, in large-capacity casks, such as the CASTOR X/32S, the effect can be much larger. The U.S. Department of Energy Topical Report on Actinide- Only Burnup Credit takes the position that a fuel assembly mis-load does need to be analyzed since there are multiple independent checks, and thus, the double-contingency principle is met. Unfortunately, 11 assemblies were mis-loaded at Palisades. This event has caused the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to ask for more detail on prevention of mis-loading. In the summer of 1999, Palisades loaded 11 assemblies, which did not comply with the loading requirements for their VSC-24 cask. The cask requires 5 yr of cooling, and these 11 assemblies had just a little more than 4 yr of cooling. The mis-loading did not result in an unsafe condition but in an un-reviewed condition. This mis-loading was not identified until November 2000 during a review related to an NRC information notice. The loading plan for the cask was incorrect. The engineering review of the loading plan missed the error. The operators had loaded the cask consistent with the loading plan. The cask loading was then confirmed by comparing to the loading plan. The loading plan was in error since the engineer assumed that the entire region of fuel was discharged at the same time. The 11 assemblies of concern were reinserted in the reactor, and the engineer and the reviewer did not check for this. The reactor records for all the assemblies were correct but apparently were not checked by the engineer who created the loading plan. To prevent a mis-load criticality event, the following steps will be required for the CASTOR X/32S storage and transport cask: 1. A loading plan will be prepared for each cask loaded. This plan will be

  2. Pinning-free GaAs MIS structures with Si interface control layers formed on (4 x 6) reconstructed (0 0 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantathanasarn, Sanguan; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2003-06-30

    (0 0 1)-Oriented GaAs metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures having a silicon interface control layer (Si ICL) were fabricated on surfaces having Ga-rich (4x6) reconstructions. Si ICL was grown by molecular beam epitaxy. MIS structures were fabricated by partially converting Si ICL to SiN{sub x} by direct nitridation, and further depositing a thick SiO{sub 2} layer on top as the main passivation dielectric by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and MIS capacitance-voltage (C-V) techniques were used for characterization. The initial surface reconstruction was found to have a surprisingly strong effect on the degree of Fermi level pinning at the MIS interface. In contrast to the standard As-rich (2x4) surface, which results in strongly pinned MIS interfaces, the novel SiO{sub 2}/SiN{sub x}/Si ICL/GaAs MIS structures formed on ''genuine'' (4x6) surface realized complete unpinning of Fermi level over the entire band gap with a minimum interface state density of 4x10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1} range.

  3. A comparative study between matched and mis-matched projection/back projection pairs used with ASIRT reconstruction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedouar, R.; Zarrad, B.

    2010-01-01

    For algebraic reconstruction techniques both forward and back projection operators are needed. The ability to perform accurate reconstruction relies fundamentally on the forward projection and back projection methods which are usually, the transpose of each other. Even though the mis-matched pairs may introduce additional errors during the iterative process, the usefulness of mis-matched projector/back projector pairs has been proved in image reconstruction. This work investigates the performance of matched and mis-matched reconstruction pairs using popular forward projectors and their transposes when used in reconstruction tasks with additive simultaneous iterative reconstruction techniques (ASIRT) in a parallel beam approach. Simulated noiseless phantoms are used to compare the performance of the investigated pairs in terms of the root mean squared errors (RMSE) which are calculated between reconstructed slices and the reference in different regions. Results show that mis-matched projection/back projection pairs can promise more accuracy of reconstructed images than matched ones. The forward projection operator performance seems independent of the choice of the back projection operator and vice versa.

  4. A comparative study between matched and mis-matched projection/back projection pairs used with ASIRT reconstruction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedouar, R., E-mail: raja_guedouar@yahoo.f [Higher School of Health Sciences and Techniques of Monastir, Av. Avicenne, 5060 Monastir, B.P. 128 (Tunisia); Zarrad, B., E-mail: boubakerzarrad@yahoo.f [Higher School of Health Sciences and Techniques of Monastir, Av. Avicenne, 5060 Monastir, B.P. 128 (Tunisia)

    2010-07-21

    For algebraic reconstruction techniques both forward and back projection operators are needed. The ability to perform accurate reconstruction relies fundamentally on the forward projection and back projection methods which are usually, the transpose of each other. Even though the mis-matched pairs may introduce additional errors during the iterative process, the usefulness of mis-matched projector/back projector pairs has been proved in image reconstruction. This work investigates the performance of matched and mis-matched reconstruction pairs using popular forward projectors and their transposes when used in reconstruction tasks with additive simultaneous iterative reconstruction techniques (ASIRT) in a parallel beam approach. Simulated noiseless phantoms are used to compare the performance of the investigated pairs in terms of the root mean squared errors (RMSE) which are calculated between reconstructed slices and the reference in different regions. Results show that mis-matched projection/back projection pairs can promise more accuracy of reconstructed images than matched ones. The forward projection operator performance seems independent of the choice of the back projection operator and vice versa.

  5. Thermochemical properties of silver tellurides including empressite (AgTe) and phase diagrams for Ag-Te and Ag-Te-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Mikhail V.; Osadchii, Evgeniy G.; Brichkina, Ekaterina A.

    2017-10-01

    This study compiles original experimental and literature data on the thermodynamic properties (ΔfG°, S°, ΔfH°) of silver tellurides (α-Ag2Te, β-Ag2Te, Ag1.9Te, Ag5Te3, AgTe) obtained by the method of solid-state galvanic cell with the RbAg4I5 and AgI solid electrolytes. The thermodynamic data for empressite (AgTe, pure fraction from Empress Josephine Mine, Colorado USA) have been obtained for the first time by the electrochemical experiment with the virtual reaction Ag + Te = AgTe. The Ag-Te phase diagrams in the T - x and log fTe2 (gas) - 1/ T coordinates have been refined, and the ternary Ag-Te-O diagrams with Ag-Te-TeO2 (paratellurite) composition range have been calculated.

  6. Insights into North Atlantic deep water formation during the peak interglacial interval of Marine Isotope Stage 9 (MIS 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokeddem, Zohra; McManus, Jerry F.

    2017-11-01

    Foraminifera abundance and stable isotope records from ODP Site 984 (61.25°N, 24.04°W, 1648 m) in the North Atlantic are used to reconstruct surface circulation variations and the relative strength of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation over the period spanning the peak warmth of Marine Interglacial Stage (MIS) 9e ( 324-336 ka). This interval includes the preceding deglaciation, Termination 4 (T4), and the subsequent glacial inception of MIS 9d. The records indicate a greatly reduced contribution of NADW during T4, as observed in more recent deglaciations. In contrast with the most recent deglaciation, the lack of a significant NADW signal extended from T4 well into the peak interglacial MIS 9e and persisted nearly until the transition to the subsequent glacial stage MIS 9d. Although NADW formation resumed during MIS 9e, only depths greater than 2000 m appear to have been ventilated. The poorly ventilated intermediate depth of Site 984 (<2000 m) may have resulted on one hand from a general reduction of deep water ventilation by NADW during the study interval or, on the other hand, from different pathways of the spread of newly formed NADW that bypassed the study location. The intermediate depths may have also been invaded by southern-sourced waters as the formation of intermediate depth NADW weakened. The absence of any significant NADW signal at the water depth of Site 984 during the climatic optimum contrasts sharply with subsequent interglacial peaks (MIS 5e and the Holocene). Despite the perturbed intermediate depth circulation, oceanic heat transport northeastward was not interrupted and may have contributed to the relatively mild interglacial conditions of MIS 9e.

  7. CdTe as a passivating layer in CdTe/HgCdTe heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virt, I. S.; Kurilo, I. V.; Rudyi, I. A.; Sizov, F. F.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Smirnov, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    CdTe/Hg 1-x Cd x Te heterostructures are studied. In the structures, CdTe is used as a passivating layer deposited as a polycrystal or single crystal on a single-crystal Hg 1-x Cd x Te film. The film and a passivating layer were obtained in a single technological process of molecular beam epitaxy. The structure of passivating layers was studied by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and the effect of the structure of the passivating layer on the properties of the active layer was studied by X-ray diffractometry. Mechanical properties of heterostructures were studied by the microhardness method. Electrical and photoelectrical parameters of the Hg 1-x Cd x Te films are reported.

  8. 1.0 MeV irradiation of OHMIC, MS, MIS contacts to InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, C.E.; Wagner, B.F.; Anderson, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation effects of 1.0 MeV electrons with a dose of 10/sup 15/cm/sup -2/ to MS and MIS Schottky diodes on InP have been compared to the radiation effects of MIS diodes on GaAs and Si. The radiation effects to ohmic contacts were also investigated. The metal for the diodes on the InP was gold. Au/Ti/Al was used for the GaAs diodes and Cr for the silicon diodes. Oxide layers on InP were grown by anodization in 0.1 N KOH. Oxides to GaAs and Si were grown thermally. Ohmic contacts to InP were formed using AuGe/Ni and AuSn alloys, followed by annealing in N/sub 2//H/sub 2/ (85%/15%). Metal Semiconductor diodes on InP were found to be at least sensitive to the irradiation. The InP MS and MIS diodes showed only small changes in the current voltage (I-V) characteristic, whereas the GaAs and Si devices showed a decrease in reverse current after irradiation. The ohmic contact resistance was increased by a factor of 2 to 5 after irradiation

  9. Mis oli ja mida ei olnud : lisandusi kahele kirjutisele / Tiiu Erelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Tiiu, 1942-

    2008-01-01

    Lisandusi artiklitele: Koppel, Margit-Mariann. Mahalaskmine pärast surma //Eesti Ekspress, 23. aug. 2007, mis käsitleb Elmar Muugi saatust, ning: Raag, Raimo. Valter Tauli elust ja keelelisest tegevusest // Keel ja Kirjandus, (2007/Nov), nr. 11

  10. The role of {sup 60}Co gamma-ray irradiation on the interface states and series resistance in MIS structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tascioglu, Ilke [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Tataroglu, Adem, E-mail: ademt@gazi.edu.t [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Ozbay, Akif; Altindal, Semsettin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gamma-ray exposure on the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures has been investigated using the electrical characteristics at room temperature. The MIS structures are irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma-ray source. The energy distribution of interface states was determined from the forward bias I-V characteristics by taking into account the bias dependence of the effective barrier height and ideality factor. The value of series resistance decreases with increasing dose. Experimental results confirmed that gamma-ray irradiation have a significant effect on electrical characteristics of MIS structures.

  11. Film, mis mõjub / Anne Applebaum ; tõlk. Kaarel Tarand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Applebaum, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Ajalehes The New York Review of Books (14. II) ilmunud artikkel poola režissööri Andrzej Wajda filmist "Katõn", mis räägib Katõni massimõrvast. Andrzej Wajda pälvis sel aastal Eesti presidendilt Maarjamaa Risti III klassi teenetemärgi

  12. Te/C nanocomposites for Li-Te Secondary Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Uk; Seong, Gun-Kyu; Park, Cheol-Min

    2015-01-01

    New battery systems having high energy density are actively being researched in order to satisfy the rapidly developing market for longer-lasting mobile electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here, we report a new Li-Te secondary battery system with a redox potential of ~1.7 V (vs. Li+/Li) adapted on a Li metal anode and an advanced Te/C nanocomposite cathode. Using a simple concept of transforming TeO2 into nanocrystalline Te by mechanical reduction, we designed an advanced, mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite electrode material with high energy density (initial discharge/charge: 1088/740 mA h cm-3), excellent cyclability (ca. 705 mA h cm-3 over 100 cycles), and fast rate capability (ca. 550 mA h cm-3 at 5C rate). The mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite electrodes were found to be suitable for use as either the cathode in Li-Te secondary batteries or a high-potential anode in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. We firmly believe that the mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite constitutes a breakthrough for the realization and mass production of excellent energy storage systems.

  13. The quadrupole interaction of 125Te and 129I in polycrystalline Te and in Te single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langouche, G.; Rossum, M. van; Schmidt, K.P.; Coussement, R.

    1975-01-01

    Single crystals as hosts for Te and I sources were used in a study of Te. The Moessbauer spectra of 125 Te and 129 I in polycrystalline Te at liquid He temperature are given. Also presented are the Moessbauer spectra of 125 Te in a Te single crystal for the gamma ray parallel to the c-axis and perpendicular to the c-axis of the crystal at liquid He temperature. (Z.S.)

  14. Research into the electrical property variation of undoped CdTe and ZnTe crystals grown under Te-rich conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yadong, E-mail: xyd220@nwpu.edu.cn; Liu, Hang; He, Yihui; Yang, Rui; Luo, Lin; Jie, Wanqi

    2014-11-05

    Highlights: • Conductivity type and resistivity of undoped Te-rich ZnTe and CdTe are different. • Te{sub i} and V{sub Zn} as the dominant defects account for the p-type low resistivity ZnTe. • Te{sub Cd} as the principle defect leading to the light n-type high resistivity CdTe. • DAP and eA peaks dominate the luminescence with their intensities anti-correlated. - Abstract: Both undoped ZnTe and CdTe bulk single crystals are grown under Te-saturated conditions from the solution and melt, respectively. To give an insight into the variation of the electrical properties, the defects structures in both tellurides are discussed. According to the actual growth velocities and the entire cooling history, tellurium interstitials (Te{sub i}) and Zinc vacancies (V{sub Zn}) are proposed as the dominant grown-in defects, account for the low resistivity of p-type ZnTe. However, relatively high pulling rates and slow cooling-down processes result in tellurium anti-sites (Te{sub Cd}) as the principle grown-in defects, leading to the high resistivity of light n-type CdTe. Further low-temperature (8.6 K) photoluminescence spectra of both tellurides are obtained. The donor–acceptor pair (DAP) and recombination of free electron to neutral acceptor (eA) dominate the luminescence, however, with their intensities are anti-correlated. eA is superior to DAP in undoped Te-rich ZnTe, suggests a high concentration of Te{sub i} or V{sub Zn}. On the contrary, DAP is the principal emission for undoped Te-rich CdTe. In addition, V-line is clearly identified in undoped Te-rich ZnTe, which possibly associated with V{sub Zn} or close Frenkel pair V{sub Zn}–Zn{sub i}.

  15. A thermodynamic stability of bulk and epitaxial CdHgTe, ZnHgTe and MnHgTe solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejbuk, V.G.; Dremlyuzhenko, S.G.; Ostapov, S.Eh.

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamics of Cd 1-x Hg x Te, Zn x Hg 1-x Te and Mg x Hg 1-x Te alloys has been investigated for a delta-lattice parameter model. The phase diagrams obtained show the stability of Cd 1-x Hg x Te, Zn x Hg 1-x Te in the whole range of compositions, alongside with a miscibility gap for Mn x Hg 1-x Te being of 0.35 x Hg 1-x Te/CdTe and Mn x Hg 1-x Te/Cd 0.96 Zn 0.04 Te epitaxial films result in lowering critical temperatures and narrowing the miscibility gap [ru

  16. Mis-specified cells die by an active gene-directed process, and inhibition of this death results in cell fate transformation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werz, Christian; Lee, Tom V.; Lee, Peter L.; Lackey, Melinda; Bolduc, Clare; Stein, David S.; Bergmann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Summary Incorrectly specified or mis-specified cells often undergo cell death or are transformed to adopt a different cell fate during development. The underlying cause for this distinction is largely unknown. In many developmental mutants in Drosophila, large numbers of mis-specified cells die synchronously, providing a convenient model for analysis of this phenomenon. The maternal mutant bicoid is particularly useful model with which to address this issue because its mutant phenotype is a combination of both transformation of tissue (acron to telson) and cell death in the presumptive head and thorax regions. We show that a subset of these mis-specified cells die through an active gene-directed process involving transcriptional upregulation of the cell death inducer hid. Upregulation of hid also occurs in oskar mutants and other segmentation mutants. In hid bicoid double mutants, mis-specified cells in the presumptive head and thorax survive and continue to develop, but they are transformed to adopt a different cell fate. We provide evidence that the terminal torso signaling pathway protects the mis-specified telson tissue in bicoid mutants from hid-induced cell death, whereas mis-specified cells in the head and thorax die, presumably because equivalent survival signals are lacking. These data support a model whereby mis-specification can be tolerated if a survival pathway is provided, resulting in cellular transformation. PMID:16280349

  17. A Perspective on a Management Information Systems (MIS) Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Bee K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights relevant curriculum issues that were identified in a Management Information Systems (MIS) program review undertaken by a group of business faculty in a small regional university. The program review was initiated to improve job marketability of graduates and student enrollment. The review process is described as a collective…

  18. Indian Summer Monsoon dynamics during Termination II and MIS 5e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Matthias; Erhardt, Andrea M.; Hartland, Adam; Kwiecien, Ola; Cheng, Hai; Immenhauser, Adrian; Turchyn, Alexandra; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.

    2017-04-01

    The interpretation of speleothem oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) as proxy for Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) dynamics is ambiguous, due to multiple influencing factors. Here we combine δ18O and calcium isotope δ44Ca analyses with elemental data to delineate regional shifts in moisture source, local rainfall amount, and changes in ISM intensity and length during Termination II and MIS 5e. Oxygen isotope ratios reflect a mixed signal of moisture source dynamics and rainfall amount; δ44Ca and Mg/Ca ratios are interpreted as proxies for local effective moisture and prior calcite precipitation (PCP) in the epikarst. The age of stalagmite MAW-3 from Mawmluh Cave, NE India, is constraint by six U-series dates. 108 samples, obtained at 0.4 mm resolution from the 70 mm long speleothem sample, have been analysed for δ18O, δ44Ca and Mg/Ca. Oxygen isotope ratios were measured on a ThermoFisher Scientific MAT 253 at Ruhr-University Bochum. Elemental ratios were measured on a quadrupole ICP-MS at Waikato University. Calcium isotope ratios were analyzed on a ThermoFisher Scientific Triton at University of Cambridge. MAW-3 grew from 136 kyrs BP to 96 kyrs BP, covering Termination II and MIS 5e. Oxygen isotope values are high (ca. +0.91 ‰) during Termination II, reach a minimum during MIS 5e (-3.5 ‰), and rise again to -0.2 ‰ at the end of MIS 5e. Calcium isotope ratios range from -0.32 ‰ to -0.70 ‰ and show a positive correlation (R2= 0.7) with δ18O. High δ18O values during Termination II reflect reduced atmospheric circulation and/or a proximal moisture source (Bay of Bengal), implying lowered ISM intensity. A positive correlation of δ18O with δ44Ca suggests concurrent changes of moisture source location and local rainfall amount, with a proximal moisture source and reduced effective rainfall during periods of weak ISM. Elevated Mg/Ca ratios at such intervals corroborate PCP occurrence, which reflects dry conditions. The beginning of MIS 5e (ca. 132 kyrs BP) is

  19. Refining the timing of the MIS 5e signal, West Caicos, Bristish West Indies:implications for paleoclimatic interpretation of the stratigraphic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerans, C.; Zahm, C.; Bachtel, S.; Hearty, P.; Cheng, H.

    2017-12-01

    The progressive refinement of the Last Interglacial (LIG) tropical carbonate record has focused attention on the dramatically abrupt and episodic nature of this critical approximate 12 ka time window. From initial carbonate platform flooding at 133 ka to rapid sea level fall and exposure at 118 ka, the majority of present-day Bahamian and Caribbean strata were produced in a remarkably similar pattern extending from Bermuda and the Bahamas through the Cayman Islands, Yucatan, and south to the Dominican Republic. The position of coral reefs and oolitic sands of the LIG to a first order fit the global insolation-driven climate warming signal. Less well accepted/resolved is the existence of two distinct SL peaks with an intervening sea level fall implying a non-orbitally forced climate shift during this broader highstand. West Caicos, a 10 x 5 km leeward island on the Caicos Platform is an excellent example of LIG carbonate stratigraphic complexity. We collected sub-meter-resolution whole-island airborn LIDAR and decimeter-resolution UAV-constructed DEM's of the western and southern coastal outcrops to serve as a base for decimeter-scale mapping of the MIS 11, 7?, 5e, and Holocene units of the island, with particular focus on the continuous 8.4 km west coast outcrop of the MIS 5e. Seventy-five AAR relative age assignments from ooid separates, pinned by 16 U/Th dates from corals coming from MIS stage 11, lower MIS 5e, and upper MIS 5e reefs helped establish the age model for the Pleistocene-Holocene stratigraphy. The lower MIS 5e reef system averages 128 ka with an onset age of 133 ka. Upper MIS 5e corals ranges from 123 ka to 116 ka, bracketing the intra-MIS 5e sea-level fall between to approximately 125 ka. The intra-MIS 5e fall is a distinct erosional unconformity across 5 km of continuous outcrop, truncating the upper 2.5 m of lower 5e reef. The complexity of MIS 5e record on West Caicos and in the Northern Atlantic and Caribbean platforms regionally provides

  20. Near-infrared emission bands of TeH and TeD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, E. H.; Setzer, K. D.; Ramsay, D. A.; Vervloet, M.

    1989-11-01

    High-resolution emission spectra of TeH and TeD have been obtained in the region 4200 to 3600 cm -1 using a Bomem DA3.002 Fourier transform spectrometer. Analyses are given for the 0-0 and 1-1 bands of the X 22Π{1}/{2}-X 12Π{3}/{2} system of TeH and for the 0-0 band of TeD. In addition the 2-0 vibrational overtone bands of 130TeH, 128TeH, and 126TeH are observed and analyzed. Accurate molecular constants are given for the first time.

  1. Electrical characteristics of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiated MIS Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tataroglu, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: ademt@gazi.edu.tr; Altindal, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-11-15

    In order to interpret the effect of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiation dose on the electrical characteristics of MIS Schottky diodes, they were stressed with a zero bias at 1 MHz in dark and room temperature during {gamma}-ray irradiation and the total dose range was 0-450 kGy. The effect of {gamma}-ray exposure on the electrical characteristics of MIS Schottky diodes has been investigated using C-V and G/{omega}-V measurements at room temperature. Experimental results show that {gamma}-ray irradiation induces a decrease in the barrier height {phi} {sub B} and series resistance R {sub s}, decreasing with increasing dose rate. Also, the acceptor concentration N {sub A} increases with increasing radiation dose. The C-V characteristics prove that there is a reaction for extra recombination centers in case of MIS Schottky diodes exposed to {gamma}-ray radiation. Furthermore, the density of interface states N {sub ss} by Hill-Coleman method increases with increasing radiation dose. Experimental results indicate that the interface-trap formation at high irradiation dose is reduced due to positive charge build-up in the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface (due to the trapping of holes) that reduces the flow rate of subsequent holes and protons from the bulk of the insulator to the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface.

  2. Luminance compensation for AMOLED displays using integrated MIS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vygranenko, Yuri; Fernandes, Miguel; Louro, Paula; Vieira, Manuela

    2017-05-01

    Active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs) are ideal for future TV applications due to their ability to faithfully reproduce real images. However, pixel luminance can be affected by instability of driver TFTs and aging effect in OLEDs. This paper reports on a pixel driver utilizing a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) sensor for luminance control of the OLED element. In the proposed pixel architecture for bottom-emission AMOLEDs, the embedded MIS sensor shares the same layer stack with back-channel etched a Si:H TFTs to maintain the fabrication simplicity. The pixel design for a large-area HD display is presented. The external electronics performs image processing to modify incoming video using correction parameters for each pixel in the backplane, and also sensor data processing to update the correction parameters. The luminance adjusting algorithm is based on realistic models for pixel circuit elements to predict the relation between the programming voltage and OLED luminance. SPICE modeling of the sensing part of the backplane is performed to demonstrate its feasibility. Details on the pixel circuit functionality including the sensing and programming operations are also discussed.

  3. Von Krahli akadeemikud küsivad, mis tuleb pärast kapitalismi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Oktoobris Von Krahli Akadeemias toimuvast neljaosalisest loengusarjast, mis otsib vastust küsimusele - kas on elu pärast kapitalismi. Küsivad ja vastavad näitlejad, kirjanikud, kunstnikud, filmitegijad Eestist ja mujalt

  4. PbTe mechanosynthesis from PbO and Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Chavez, Hugo; Diaz-de la Torre, Sebastian; Jaramillo-Vigueras, David; Plascencia, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Experimental results concerning the mechanosynthesis (MSY), of PbTe from the PbO-Te powder system, at room temperature an atmospheric conditions are reported. XRD results for samples milled for and after 5.4 ks only show PbTe diffraction peaks; neither Te nor PbO or any other solid phase were detected. Particle size and morphology, was followed by SEM observations. Phase evolution and quantification was monitored by Rietveld refinements of the X-ray diffraction data. It was found that the use of lead oxide as a component of the mechanosynthesis system reduces milling time with respect to the Pb-Te metallic system with mechanical alloying.

  5. Mis teoksil, härrad saadikud? / Igor Gräzin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gräzin, Igor, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    Parlamendiliige meenutab, et hetkel, kui Riigikogu oli valmis arutama riigile üliolulist küsimust Eesti merepiiri õigest kulgemisest, tõstatati parlamendis saadikute kuluhüvitiste teema. Igor Gräzin kinnitab, et Riigikogu teeb ka edaspidi neid otsuseid, mis ei otsi lühiajalist populaarsust, vaid seisavad Eesti riikluse ja vabaduse kaitsel

  6. n-(CdMgTe/CdTe)/(p-(CdTe/ZnCdTe/ZnTe)/p-GaAs heterostructure diode for photosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; AlFaify, S.; Abutalib, M. M.; Chusnutdinow, S.; Wojtowicz, T.; Karczewski, G.; Yakuphanoglu, F.; Al-Bassam, A.; El-Naggar, A. M.; El-Bashir, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    High quality n-(CdMgTe:I/n-CdTe:I)/(p-CdTe:N/p-ZnCdTe:N/p-ZnTe:N)/p-GaAs heterojunction diodes have been fabricated by molecular beam epitaxial growth. The illumination effect on the complex impedance and conductivity of heterostructure diode was investigated. The illumination intensities were taken up to the 200 mW/cm2 with frequency range of 42 Hz to 1 MHz. The observed real and imaginary parts of the complex impedance were strongly dependent on the illumination frequency. The inverse relation was observed between the illumination intensity and the complex impedance. The relaxation mechanism of the diode was analyzed by the Cole-Cole plots. The radius of the Cole-Cole curve decreases with increasing illumination intensity. This suggests a mechanism of illumination dependent on the relaxation process. It is also found that the conductivity increases linearly with increasing the illumination intensity. We can conclude that the new design heterostructure diode in our work is a good candidate in photodetector and optoelectronic applications.

  7. Strong asymmetry of hemispheric climates during MIS-13 inferred from correlating China loess and Antarctica ice records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Guo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We correlate the China loess and Antarctica ice records to address the inter-hemispheric climate link over the past 800 ka. The results show a broad coupling between Asian and Antarctic climates at the glacial-interglacial scale. However, a number of decoupled aspects are revealed, among which marine isotope stage (MIS 13 exhibits a strong anomaly compared with the other interglacials. It is characterized by unusually positive benthic oxygen (δ18O and carbon isotope (δ13C values in the world oceans, cooler Antarctic temperature, lower summer sea surface temperature in the South Atlantic, lower CO2 and CH4 concentrations, but by extremely strong Asian, Indian and African summer monsoons, weakest Asian winter monsoon, and lowest Asian dust and iron fluxes. Pervasive warm conditions were also evidenced by the records from northern high-latitude regions. These consistently indicate a warmer Northern Hemisphere and a cooler Southern Hemisphere, and hence a strong asymmetry of hemispheric climates during MIS-13. Similar anomalies of lesser extents also occurred during MIS-11 and MIS-5e. Thus, MIS-13 provides a case that the Northern Hemisphere experienced a substantial warming under relatively low concentrations of greenhouse gases. It suggests that the global climate system possesses a natural variability that is not predictable from the simple response of northern summer insolation and atmospheric CO2 changes. During MIS-13, both hemispheres responded in different ways leading to anomalous continental, marine and atmospheric conditions at the global scale. The correlations also suggest that the marine δ18O record is not always a reliable indicator of the northern ice-volume changes, and that the asymmetry of hemispheric climates is one of the prominent factors controlling the strength of Asian, Indian and African monsoon circulations, most likely through modulating the position of

  8. MIS gas sensors based on porous silicon with Pd and WO{sub 3}/Pd electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solntsev, V.S. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Gorbanyuk, T.I., E-mail: tatyanagor@mail.r [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Litovchenko, V.G.; Evtukh, A.A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2009-09-30

    Pd and WO{sub 3}/Pd gate metal-oxide-semiconductor (MIS) gas sensitive structures based on porous silicon layers are studied by the high frequency C(V) method. The chemical compositions of composite WO{sub 3}/Pd electrodes are characterized by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for morphologic studies of WO{sub 3}/Pd films. As shown in the experiments, WO{sub 3}/Pd structures are more sensitive and selective to the adsorption of hydrogen sulphide compared to Pd gate. The analyses of kinetic characteristics allow us to determine the response and characteristic times for these structures. The response time of MIS-structures with thin composite WO{sub 3}/Pd electrodes (the thickness of Pd is about 50 nm with WO{sub 3} clusters on its surface) is slower compared to the structures with Pd electrodes. Slower sensor responses of WO{sub 3}-based gas sensors may be associated with different mechanism of gas sensitivity of given structures. The enhanced sensitivity and selectivity to H{sub 2}S action of WO{sub 3}/Pd MIS-structures can also be explained by the chemical reaction that occurs at the catalytic active surface of gate electrodes. The possible mechanisms of enhanced sensitivity and selectivity to H{sub 2}S adsorption of MIS gas sensors with WO{sub 3}/Pd composite gate electrodes compared to pure Pd have been analyzed.

  9. MIS photodetectors on intrinsic semiconductors for thermal infrared imagery - A design aid for focal plane matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, J.

    1980-12-01

    The physical mechanisms determining the operational behavior of an MIS photodetector for thermal infrared imagery based on a two-dimensional matrix of intrinsic semiconductors constituting a charge injection device are examined. The general principles of a thermal infrared imagery system composed of radiation source, atmosphere, sensor system with entrance optics, detector and environment, and data processing means are introduced, and the parameters of the system as a whole influencing detector characteristics are indicated. The properties of an ideal and a real MIS photodetector are discussed, with attention given to the physical properties of narrow bandgap materials such as InSb, operational properties in the dynamic regime, the carrier tunneling component and experimentally observed instability phenomena. The matrix organization of MIS photodetectors is then considered, with particular attention given to a simple model of charge transfer between two electrodes and the two principal reading mechanisms: charge injection and the floating potential method.

  10. Partial Pressures of Te2 and Thermodynamic Properties of Ga-Te System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with Ga(1-x)Te(x) samples were measured by optical absorption technique from 450 to 1100 C for compositions, x, between 0.333 and 0.612. To establish the relationship between the partial pressure of Te, and the measured optical absorbance, the calibration runs of a pure Te sample were also conducted to determine the Beer's Law constants. The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with the GaTe(s) and Ga2Te3(s)compounds, or the so-called three-phase curves, were established. These partial pressure data imply the existence of the Ga3Te4(s) compound. From the partial pressures of Te2 over the Ga-Te melts, partial molar enthalpy and entropy of mixing for Te were derived and they agree reasonable well with the published data. The activities of Te in the Ga-Te melts were also derived from the measured partial pressures of Te2. These data agree well with most of the previous results. The possible reason for the high activity of Te measured for x less than 0.60 is discussed.

  11. Speleothem records of changes in the South American Summer Monsoon during MIS stages 5 and 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. J.; Kanner, L.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

    2011-12-01

    Little information exists about the behavior of the South American Summer Monsoon prior to the Last Glacial Period. Speleothems from the Peruvian Altiplano are one possible archive of SASM intensity because oxygen isotopes of rainfall on the Altiplano are primarily controlled by the intensity of rainfall in upstream moisture source region, the Amazon Basin. Here, we present results from a two speleothems collected from Gruta de Huagapo, a cave in the central Peruvian Altiplano (12°S, 76°W, ~3800m elevation). The samples grew from approximately 115-125 ky BP and from 136-168 ky BP, spanning time periods equivalent to much of MIS stage 5e and the transition into MIS 5d and MIS 6. Chronologies were determined by U-Th dating techniques and the dates are in stratigraphic with analytical errors Titicaca (Fritz et al, 2007). At present we have isotopic data from only the youngest 10 ky of the older sample. The values are generally more depleted, with most between -16% and -17%, suggesting an intensified SASM during MIS 6 as compared to 5e. A rapid increase in δ18O occurs at ~136 ky BP. Overall the trends in the data parallel major changes in δD from EPICA, but appear to lead the Antarctic time series by ~2 ky.

  12. Näitus, mis paneb külastajad minestama / Tiina Ansip

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ansip, Tiina

    2007-01-01

    Vt. ka Linnaleht : Pärnu, Linnaleht : Tartu 3. aug., lk. B4, Linnaleht : na russkom jazõke 15. aug., lk. 11. Tallinna Matkamajas nähtav vahakabineti Panoptikon anatoomianäitus pole mõeldud nõrganärvilistele - liigagi tõetruud vahakujud, mis kujutavad eri eas looteid, aborti ning suguhaigustest kahjustatud genitaale, on Eestiski inimesi minestama pannud

  13. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary...

  14. Muon Identification performance: hadron mis-Id measurements and RPC Muon selections

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Pion, kaon, proton mis-identification probabilities as muons have been measured for different Muon ID algorithms. Results from two independent analyses are presented. The performance of a new muon ID algorithm based on matching of inner tracks with hits in muon RPC chambers is also presented.

  15. PC operated acoustic transient spectroscopy of deep levels in MIS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bury, P.; Jamnicky, I.

    1996-01-01

    A new version of acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy is presented to study the traps at the insulator-semiconductor interface. The acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy uses an acoustoelectric response signal produced by the MIS structure interface when a longitudinal acoustic wave propagates through a structure. The acoustoelectric response signal is extremely sensitive to external conditions of the structure and reflects any changes in the charge distribution, connected also with charged traps. In comparison with previous version of acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy that closely coincides with the principle of the original deep-level transient spectroscopy technique, the present technique is based on the computer-evaluated isothermal transients and represents an improved, more efficient and time saving technique. Many tests on the software used for calculation as well as on experimental setup have been performed. The improved acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy method has been applied for the Si(p) MIS structures. The deep-level parameters as activation energy and capture cross-section have been determined. (authors)

  16. Infrared and near infrared emission spectra of TeH and TeD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Shayesteh, Alireza; Fu, Dejian; Bernath, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    The vibration-rotation emission spectra for the X2Π ground state and the near infrared emission spectra of the X2Π 1/2- X2Π 3/2 system of the TeH and TeD free radicals have been measured at high resolution using a Fourier transform spectrometer. TeH and TeD were generated in a tube furnace with a DC discharge of a flowing mixture of argon, hydrogen (or deuterium), and tellurium vapor. In the infrared region, for the X2Π 3/2 spin component we observed the 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 vibrational bands for most of the eight isotopologues of TeH and the 1-0 and 2-1 bands for three isotopologues of TeD. For the X2Π 1/2- X2Π 3/2 transition, we observed the 0-0 and 1-1 bands for TeH and the 0-0, 1-1, and 2-2 bands for TeD. Except for a few lines, the tellurium isotopic shift was not resolved for the X2Π 1/2- X2Π 3/2 transitions of TeH and TeD. Local perturbations with Δ v = 2 between the two spin components of the X2Π state of TeH were found: X2Π 1/2, v = 0 with X2Π 3/2, v = 2; X2Π 1/2, v = 1 with X2Π 3/2, v = 3. The new data were combined with the previous data from the literature and two kinds of fits (Hund's case (a) and Hund's case (c)) were carried out for each of the 10 observed isotopologues: 130TeD, 128TeD, 126TeD, 130TeH, 128TeH, 126TeH, 125TeH, 124TeH, 123TeH, and 122TeH.

  17. MIS416 Enhances Therapeutic Functions of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Against Experimental Colitis by Modulating Systemic Immune Milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Chul Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human adult stem cells, including umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs, have recently been considered a promising alternative treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD due to their unique immunomodulatory properties and ability to promote tissue regeneration. However, despite many years of research and pre-clinical studies, results from clinical trials using these cells have been diverse and conflicting. This discrepancy is caused by several factors, such as poor engraftment, low survival rate, and donor-dependent variation of the cells. Enhancement of consistency and efficacy of MSCs remains a challenge for the feasibility of cell-based therapy. In this study, we investigated whether administration of MIS416, a novel microparticle that activates NOD2 and TLR9 signaling, could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of hUCB-MSCs against Crohn’s disease, using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis model. Colitis was experimentally induced in mice by using 3% DSS, and mice were administered a retro-orbital injection of MIS416 and subsequent intraperitoneal injection of hUCB-MSCs. Mice were examined grossly, and blood, spleen, and colon tissues were subsequently collected for further ex vivo analyses. To explore the effects of MIS416 on the therapeutic process, hUCB-MSCs and primary isolated immune cells were cultured with MIS416, and in vitro assays were performed. Compared to the single administration of hUCB-MSCs, co-administration with MIS416 improved the therapeutic efficiency of the stem cells by significantly alleviating the symptoms of IBD. Interestingly, MIS416 did not exert any direct effect on the immunomodulatory capacity of hUCB-MSCs. Instead, systemically injected MIS416 altered the immune milieu in the colon which caused hUCB-MSCs to be more readily recruited toward the lesion site and to suppress inflammation more efficiently. In addition, considerable numbers of regulatory immune cells were stimulated

  18. The analysis of Last Interglacial (MIS 5e) relative sea-level indicators: Reconstructing sea-level in a warmer world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, A.; Raymo, M.E.; Vacchi, M.; Lorscheid, T; Stocchi, P.; Gómez-Pujolf, L.; Harris, D.L.; Casella, E.; O'Leary, M.J.; Hearty, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    The Last Interglacial (MIS 5e, 128–116 ka) is among the most studied past periods in Earth's history. The climate at that time was warmer than today, primarily due to different orbital conditions, with smaller ice sheets and higher sea-level. Field evidence for MIS 5e sea-level was reported from

  19. Mid-depth South Atlantic Ocean circulation and chemical stratification during MIS-10 to 12: implications for atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Maslin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed record of benthic foraminifera carbon isotopes from the intermediate-depth South East Atlantic margin shows little glacial-interglacial variability between MIS-12 to MIS-10, suggesting that Northern Atlantic deepwaters consistently penetrated to at least 30° S. Millennial-scale increases in either the mass or flux of northern-sourced deepwaters over the core site occurred alongside reductions in Lower North Atlantic Deep Water recorded in North Atlantic sediment cores and show that the lower and intermediate limb of the Atlantic deepwater convective cell oscillated in anti-phase during previous glacial periods. In addition, a 500 yr resolution record of the Cape Basin intermediate-deep δ13C gradient shows that a reduction in deep Southern Ocean ventilation at the end of MIS-11 was consistent with a modelled CO2 drawdown of ~21–30 ppm. Further increases in the Southern Ocean chemical divide during the transition into MIS-10 were completed before minimum CO2 levels were reached, suggesting that other mechanisms such as alkalinity changes were responsible for the remaining ~45 ppm drawdown.

  20. Noise characterization of enhancement-mode AlGaN graded barrier MIS-HEMT devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanbabu, A.; Saravana Kumar, R.; Mohankumar, N.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports a systematic theoretical study on the microwave noise performance of graded AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator semiconductor high-electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) built on an Al2O3 substrate. The HfAlOx/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT devices designed for this study show an outstanding small signal analog/RF and noise performance. The results on 1 μm gate length device show an enhancement mode operation with threshold voltage, VT = + 5.3 V, low drain leakage current, Ids,LL in the order of 1 × 10-9 A/mm along with high current gain cut-off frequency, fT of 17 GHz and maximum oscillation frequency fmax of 47 GHz at Vds = 10 V. The device Isbnd V and low-frequency noise estimation of the gate and drain noise spectral density and their correlation are evaluated using a Green's function method under different biasing conditions. The devices show a minimum noise figure (NFmin) of 1.053 dB in combination with equivalent noise resistance (Rn) of 23 Ω at 17 GHz, at Vgs = 6 V and Vds = 5 V which is relatively low and is suitable for broad-band low-noise amplifiers. This study shows that the graded AlGaN MIS-HEMT with HfAlOX gate insulator is appropriate for application requiring high-power and low-noise.

  1. Unexpected weak seasonal climate in the western Mediterranean region during MIS 31, a high-insolation forced interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dulce; Sánchez Goñi, Maria Fernanda; Naughton, Filipa; Polanco-Martínez, J. M.; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Grimalt, Joan O.; Martrat, Belen; Voelker, Antje H. L.; Trigo, Ricardo; Hodell, David; Abrantes, Fátima; Desprat, Stéphanie

    2017-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 31 (MIS 31) is an important analogue for ongoing and projected global warming, yet key questions remain about the regional signature of its extreme orbital forcing and intra-interglacial variability. Based on a new direct land-sea comparison in SW Iberian margin IODP Site U1385 we examine the climatic variability between 1100 and 1050 ka including the ;super interglacial; MIS 31, a period dominated by the 41-ky obliquity periodicity. Pollen and biomarker analyses at centennial-scale-resolution provide new insights into the regional vegetation, precipitation regime and atmospheric and oceanic temperature variability on orbital and suborbital timescales. Our study reveals that atmospheric and SST warmth during MIS 31 was not exceptional in this region highly sensitive to precession. Unexpectedly, this warm stage stands out as a prolonged interval of a temperate and humid climate regime with reduced seasonality, despite the high insolation (precession minima values) forcing. We find that the dominant forcing on the long-term temperate forest development was obliquity, which may have induced a decrease in summer dryness and associated reduction in seasonal precipitation contrast. Moreover, this study provides the first evidence for persistent atmospheric millennial-scale variability during this interval with multiple forest decline events reflecting repeated cooling and drying episodes in SW Iberia. Our direct land-sea comparison shows that the expression of the suborbital cooling events on SW Iberian ecosystems is modulated by the predominance of high or low-latitude forcing depending on the glacial/interglacial baseline climate states. Severe dryness and air-sea cooling is detected under the larger ice volume during glacial MIS 32 and MIS 30. The extreme episodes, which in their climatic imprint are similar to the Heinrich events, are likely related to northern latitude ice-sheet instability and a disruption of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning

  2. Relative sea-level changes and glacio-isostatic adjustment on the Magdalen Islands archipelago (Atlantic Canada) from MIS 5 to the late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémillard, Audrey M.; St-Onge, Guillaume; Bernatchez, Pascal; Hétu, Bernard; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.; Lajeunesse, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    The Magdalen Islands (Québec, Canada) in the centre of the Gulf of St. Lawrence are located in a strategic position for providing an overview of the relative sea-level (RSL) history of the Maritime Provinces of eastern Canada. Although data are available for the coastal terrestrial areas of the Maritimes, data from the Gulf are very scarce and both the RSL and glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) models extrapolate for this central region. This study provides new stratigraphic and chronological data from four outcrops and two coring sites on the Magdalen Islands. In addition to the five samples used mainly for age control purposes, nine new luminescence ages are presented. With these new data added to the available literature, a new RSL curve is reconstructed for the LGM to the late Holocene period and a partial curve is proposed for the interval between the late MIS 4 to the MIS 3. Data also indicate a few insights for the MIS 5 period. Results reveal that for the LGM to the late Holocene, the curve corresponds to the J-shaped curve scenario recognized in the literature. The RSL changes during this period are the result of glacio-isostatic rebound, migration and collapse of the peripheral forebulge, and eustatic sea-level changes. For the LGM to the early Holocene, glacio-isostatic depression curves displaying a few local differences are also proposed. For the late Holocene, the data constrain the curve between two types of indicators, i.e. marine and terrestrial, and indicate that the RSL has risen at least 3 m during the last two millennia. Sediments dated to the MIS 5 and the interval between the late MIS 4 and the MIS 3 illustrate that the GIA following the LGM also occurred for the MIS 5 interglacial and the MIS 3 interstadial. Finally, recent GIA models are discussed in light of the results of this paper.

  3. Superconducting transition in TlBiTe/sub 2/ and TlTe compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantser, V G; Popovich, N S; Sidorenko, A S

    1985-10-01

    On the basis of zone structure calculation for TlBiTe/sub 2/ and TlTe it is found that TlBiTe/sub 2/ is a narrow-gap semiconductor and TlTe is a p-metal. At Tsub(c)=0.19 K TlTe is found to experience the superconducting transition. In TlBiTe/sub 2/ superconductivity is not observed to occur up to 0.05 K, since there is a possibility of occupying the high density of states zones because they are remote from actual ones. The earlier discovered superconducting transition in TlBiTe/sub 2/ is inherent in the alien phase of TlTe.

  4. Probabilistic model of random uncertainties in structural dynamics for mis-tuned bladed disks; Modele probabiliste des incertitudes en dynamique des structures pour le desaccordage des roues aubagees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capiez-Lernout, E.; Soize, Ch. [Universite de Marne la Vallee, Lab. de Mecanique, 77 (France)

    2003-10-01

    The mis-tuning of blades is frequently the cause of spatial localizations for the dynamic forced response in turbomachinery industry. The random character of mis-tuning requires the construction of probabilistic models of random uncertainties. A usual parametric probabilistic description considers the mis-tuning through the Young modulus of each blade. This model consists in mis-tuning blade eigenfrequencies, assuming the blade modal shapes unchanged. Recently a new approach known as a non-parametric model of random uncertainties has been introduced for modelling random uncertainties in elasto-dynamics. This paper proposes the construction of a non-parametric model which is coherent with all the uncertainties which characterize mis-tuning. As mis-tuning is a phenomenon which is independent from one blade to another one, the structure is considered as an assemblage of substructures. The mean reduced matrix model required by the non-parametric approach is thus constructed by dynamic sub-structuring. A comparative approach is also needed to study the influence of the non-parametric approach for a usual parametric model adapted to mis-tuning. A numerical example is presented. (authors)

  5. S and Te inter-diffusion in CdTe/CdS hetero junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez, J. Pantoja [Cuerpo Academico-Energia y Sustentabilidad, Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, Eduardo J. Selvas S/N, Col. Magisterial, Tuxtla Gutierrez 29010, Chiapas (Mexico); Gomez Barojas, E. [CIDS-ICUAP, Apdo. Postal 1651, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Silva Gonzalez, R.; Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2007-09-22

    Effects of post formation thermal annealing of the CdTe-CdS device on the inter-diffusion of S and Te at the junction in a substrate configuration device have been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. While the migration of S and Te atoms increases with annealing temperature, the extent of S diffusion is always higher than the diffusion of Te atoms. Inter-diffusion of S and Te causes the formation of CdTe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} ternary compound at the CdTe-CdS interface. (author)

  6. Thermodynamic characterization of Ni3TeO6, Ni2Te3O8 and NiTe2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawar, Rimpi; Babu, R.; Ananthasivan, K.; Anthonysamy, S.

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of vapour pressure of TeO2(g) over the biphasic mixture Ni3TeO6 (s) + NiO(s) in the temperature range 1143-1272 K was carried out using transpiration-thermogravimetric technique (TTG). Gibbs energy of formation of Ni3TeO6 was obtained from the temperature dependence of vapour pressure of TeO2 (g) generated by the incongruent vapourisation reaction, Ni3TeO6 (s) → NiO(s) + TeO2 (g) + 1/2 O2 in the temperature range 1143-1272 K. An isoperibol type drop calorimeter was used to measure the enthalpy increments of Ni3TeO6, Ni2Te3O8 and NiTe2O5. Thermodynamic functions viz., heat capacity, entropy and Gibbs energy functions of these compounds were derived from the experimentally measured enthalpy increment values. Third-law analysis was carried out to ascertain absence of temperature dependent systematic errors in the measurement of vapour pressure of TeO2 (g). A value of -1265.1 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Δ Hf,298K o (Ni3TeO6) using third-law analysis.

  7. Highest-order optical phonon-mediated relaxation in CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, Yasuaki; Nomura, Mitsuhiro; Okuno, Tsuyoshi; Terai, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Shinji; Takita, K.

    2003-01-01

    The highest 19th-order longitudinal optical (LO) phonon-mediated relaxation was observed in photoluminescence excitation spectra of CdTe self-assembled quantum dots grown in ZnTe. Hot excitons photoexcited highly in the ZnTe barrier layer are relaxed into the wetting-layer state by emitting multiple LO phonons of the barrier layer successively. Below the wetting-layer state, the LO phonons involved in the relaxation are transformed to those of interfacial Zn x Cd 1-x Te surrounding CdTe quantum dots. The ZnTe-like and CdTe-like LO phonons of Zn x Cd 1-x Te and lastly acoustic phonons are emitted in the relaxation into the CdTe dots. The observed main relaxation is the fast relaxation directly into CdTe quantum dots and is not the relaxation through either the wetting-layer quantum well or the band bottom of the ZnTe barrier layer. This observation shows very efficient optical phonon-mediated relaxation of hot excitons excited highly in the ZnTe conduction band through not only the ZnTe extended state but also localized state in the CdTe quantum dots reflecting strong exciton-LO phonon interaction of telluride compounds

  8. Designing Diameter-Modulated Heterostructure Nanowires of PbTe/Te by Controlled Dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abinash; Kundu, Subhajit; Samantaray, Debadarshini; Kundu, Paromita; Zanaga, Daniele; Bals, Sara; Ravishankar, N

    2017-12-13

    Heterostructures consisting of semiconductors with controlled morphology and interfaces find applications in many fields. A range of axial, radial, and diameter-modulated nanostructures have been synthesized primarily using vapor phase methods. Here, we present a simple wet chemical routine to synthesize heterostructures of PbTe/Te using Te nanowires as templates. A morphology evolution study for the formation of these heterostructures has been performed. On the basis of these control experiments, a pathway for the formation of these nanostructures is proposed. Reduction of a Pb precursor to Pb on Te nanowire templates followed by interdiffusion of Pb/Te leads to the formation of a thin shell of PbTe on the Te wires. Controlled dewetting of the thin shell leads to the formation of cube-shaped PbTe that is periodically arranged on the Te wires. Using control experiments, we show that different reactions parameters like rate of addition of the reducing agent, concentration of Pb precursor and thickness of initial Te nanowire play a critical role in controlling the spacing between the PbTe cubes on the Te wires. Using simple surface energy arguments, we propose a mechanism for the formation of the hybrid. The principles presented are general and can be exploited for the synthesis of other nanoscale heterostructures.

  9. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  10. Climate and hydrology of the last interglaciation (MIS 5) in Owens Basin, California: Isotopic and geochemical evidence from core OL-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.-C.; Bischoff, J.L.; Ku, T.-L.; Zhu, Z.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    ??18O, ??13C, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, and acid-leachable Li, Mg and Sr concentrations on 443 samples from 32 to 83 m depth in Owens Lake core OL-92 were analyzed to study the climatic and hydrological conditions between 60 and 155 ka with a resolution of ???200 a. The multi-proxy data show that Owens Lake overflowed during wet/cold conditions of marine isotope stages (MIS) 4, 5b and 6, and was closed during the dry/warm conditions of MIS 5a, c and e. The lake partially overflowed during MIS 5d. Our age model places the MIS 4/5 boundary at ca 72.5 ka and the MIS 5/6 boundary (Termination II) at ca 140 ka, agreeing with the Devils Hole chronology. The diametrical precipitation intensities between the Great Basin (cold/wet) and eastern China (cold/dry) on Milankovitch time scales imply a climatic teleconnection across the Pacific. It also probably reflects the effect of high-latitude ice sheets on the southward shifts of both the summer monsoon frontal zone in eastern Asia and the polar jet stream in western North America during glacial periods. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MIS 5e sea levels and `superstorms': what the integration of field data and modelling can tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, A.; Raymo, M. E.; O'Leary, M.; Stocchi, P.; Vacchi, M.; Lorscheid, T.; Harris, D. L.; Casella, E.; Nandasena, N. A. K.; Sandstrom, R. M.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Dyer, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Last Interglacial (MIS 5e, 128-116 ka) is among the most studied past periods in Earth's history. The climate at that time was warmer than today, primarily due to different orbital conditions, with smaller ice sheets and higher sea level. Understanding the climate system, and in particular sea level, during MIS 5e is essential to understand the behavior of ice sheets in a warmer world. Two questions in particular remain unsolved: was there a meltwater pulse towards the end of the interglacial? Was the same period characterized by superstorms? Thousands of studies spanning more than a century report information on MIS 5e RSL indicators. Despite the large quantity of field data available, the two questions formulated above remain unanswered. This is due to different reasons. In first instance, relative sea-level (RSL) indicators and field interpretations may carry large uncertainties. Second, processes such as tectonics are difficult to isolate and quantify independently. In this presentation, we will describe the strategies that can be adopted to minimize the uncertainties associated with paleo RSL calculations, and we show the limits of `tectonic stability' assumptions based on the position of MIS 5e shorelines. We then show that the combination of high-resolution topographic methods (e.g. GPS, photogrammetry from UAVs and detailed bathymetry) with scenarios dictated by GIA and coastal hydrodynamic models is essential to gather insights not only on the indicative meaning of RSL indicators, but also on the hypothesis that the last period of MIS 5e was characterized by `superstorms' (as defined by Hansen, J. et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 15, 2015).

  12. Coping with unobservable and mis-classified states in capture-recapture studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multistate mark-recapture methods provide an excellent conceptual framework for considering estimation in studies of marked animals. Traditional methods include the assumptions that (1 each state an animal occupies is observable, and (2 state is assigned correctly at each point in time. Failure of either of these assumptions can lead to biased estimates of demographic parameters. I review design and analysis options for minimizing or eliminating these biases. Unobservable states can be adjusted for by including them in the state space of the statistical model, with zero capture probability, and incorporating the robust design, or observing animals in the unobservable state through telemetry, tag recoveries, or incidental observations. Mis¿classification can be adjusted for by auxiliary data or incorporating the robust design, in order to estimate the probability of detecting the state an animal occupies. For both unobservable and mis-classified states, the key feature of the robust design is the assumption that the state of the animal is static for at least two sampling occasions

  13. Comprehensive thermodynamic description of the quasiternary system PbTe-GeTe-SnTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashina, Lada V.; Leute, Volkmar; Shtanov, Vladimir I.; Schmidtke, Heinrich M.; Neudachina, Vera S.

    2006-01-01

    The equilibrium phase diagram of the quasiternary system PbTe-GeTe-SnTe was studied experimentally in the ranges of spinodal demixing and (solid + liquid) equilibrium by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). A model description of the phase diagram was done on the base of composition dependent interaction parameters, which were determined for the solid and the liquid phases. The interaction parameters for the quasibinary systems were recalculated in order to reach better correlation between all experimental data. It was shown that the quasiternary phase diagram can be principally described using the interaction parameters for the quasibinary subsystems, but an additional ternary interaction parameter has also to be considered. The local structure of the quasiternary solid solution is described by a four-particle cluster model. Due to the tendency of the solid solution to demix, the probability of the (GeGeGe)Te cluster was found to be higher and that of the (PbGeGe)Te cluster to be lower than it is expected for the purely statistical distribution of the clusters

  14. Desorption of Te capping layer from ZnTe (100): Auger spectroscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... configurations of tellurium Te (c (2x2)) and Te (c (2x1)) are confirmed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Such a study reveals a phase transition from a rich-Te to a poor-Te surface as the annealing temperature increases. Keywords: Zinc Tellure; solar cells; structural properties; optoelectronics; semiconductors.

  15. Fabrication of three-dimensional MIS nano-capacitor based on nano-imprinted single crystal silicon nanowire arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zhai, Yujia

    2012-11-26

    We report fabrication of single crystalline silicon nanowire based-three-dimensional MIS nano-capacitors for potential analog and mixed signal applications. The array of nanowires is patterned by Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL). Deep silicon etching (DSE) is used to form the nanowires with high aspect ratio, increase the electrode area and thus significantly enhance the capacitance. High-! dielectric is deposited by highly conformal atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al2O3 over the Si nanowires, and sputtered metal TaN serves as the electrode. Electrical measurements of fabricated capacitors show the expected increase of capacitance with greater nanowire height and decreasing dielectric thickness, consistent with calculations. Leakage current and time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) are also measured and compared with planar MIS capacitors. In view of greater interest in 3D transistor architectures, such as FinFETs, 3D high density MIS capacitors offer an attractive device technology for analog and mixed signal applications. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/105099/article#sthash.EzeJxk6j.dpuf

  16. Fabrication of three-dimensional MIS nano-capacitor based on nano-imprinted single crystal silicon nanowire arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zhai, Yujia; Palard, Marylene; Mathew, Leo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Willson, Grant Grant; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We report fabrication of single crystalline silicon nanowire based-three-dimensional MIS nano-capacitors for potential analog and mixed signal applications. The array of nanowires is patterned by Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL). Deep silicon etching (DSE) is used to form the nanowires with high aspect ratio, increase the electrode area and thus significantly enhance the capacitance. High-! dielectric is deposited by highly conformal atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al2O3 over the Si nanowires, and sputtered metal TaN serves as the electrode. Electrical measurements of fabricated capacitors show the expected increase of capacitance with greater nanowire height and decreasing dielectric thickness, consistent with calculations. Leakage current and time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) are also measured and compared with planar MIS capacitors. In view of greater interest in 3D transistor architectures, such as FinFETs, 3D high density MIS capacitors offer an attractive device technology for analog and mixed signal applications. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/105099/article#sthash.EzeJxk6j.dpuf

  17. First clinical results of minimally invasive vector lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-VLIF) in spondylodiscitis and concomitant osteoporosis: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Bernhard; Jiang, Hongzhen; Ruess, Daniel; Reinshagen, Clemens; Molcanyi, Marek; Zivcak, Jozef; Tong, Huaiyu; Schackert, Gabriele

    2017-12-01

    First description of MIS-VLIF, a minimally invasive lumbar stabilization, to evaluate its safety and feasibility in patients suffering from weak bony conditions (lumbar spondylodiscitis and/or osteoporosis). After informed consent, 12 patients suffering from lumbar spondylodiscitis underwent single level MIS-VLIF. Eight of them had a manifest osteoporosis, either. Pre- and postoperative clinical status was documented using numeric rating scale (NRS) for leg and back pain. In all cases, the optimal height for the cage was preoperatively determined using software-based range of motion and sagittal balance analysis. CT scans were obtained to evaluate correct placement of the construct and to verify fusion after 6 months. Since 2013, 12 patients with lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis underwent MIS-VLIF. Mean surgery time was 169 ± 28 min and average blood loss was less than 400 ml. Postoperative CT scans showed correct placement of the implants. Eleven patients showed considerable postoperative improvement in clinical scores. In one patient, we observed screw loosening. After documented bony fusion in the CT scan, the fixation system was removed in two cases to achieve lower material load. The load-bearing trajectories (vectors) of MIS-VLIF are different from those of conventional coaxial pedicle screw implantation. The dorsally converging construct combines the heads of the dorsoventral pedicle screws with laminar pedicle screws following cortical bone structures within a small approach. In case of lumbar spondylodiscitis and/or osteoporosis, MIS-VLIF relies on cortical bony structures for all screw vectors and the construct does not depend on conventional coaxial pedicle screws in the presence of inflamed, weak, cancellous or osteoporotic bone. MIS-VLIF allows full 360° lumbar fusion including cage implantation via a small, unilateral dorsal midline approach.

  18. MIS in the management of colon and rectal cancer: consensus meeting of the Colorectal Cancer Association of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlachta, Christopher M; Ashamalla, Shady; Smith, Andy

    2013-11-01

    A consensus conference on the role of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in the management of colon and rectal cancer was convened by the Colorectal Cancer Association of Canada in Toronto on April 18, 2012. This is a report of the consensus of an invited group of Canadian experts in MIS and surgery of the colon and rectum that addresses the role this technology should play in treatment and also considers advocacy and resources.

  19. Study of Te Inclusions in CdMnTe Crystals for Nuclear Detector Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babalola, O.S.; Bolotnikov, A.; Groza, M.; Hossain, A.; Egarievwe, S.; James, R.; Burger, A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentration, size and spatial distribution of Te inclusions in the bulk of CdMnTe crystals mined from two batches of ingots were studied. An isolated planar layer decorated with Te inclusions was identified in CdMnTe crystals from the second ingot. The internal electric field of a CMT crystal was probed by infrared (IR) imaging employing Pockels electro-optic effect. The effect of an isolated plane of Te inclusions on the internal electric-field distribution within the CdMnTe crystal was studied. Space charge accumulation around the plane of Te inclusions was observed, which was found to be higher when the detector was reverse-biased. The effects of the plane of Te inclusions on the electric-field distribution within the CdMnTe crystal, and the quality of CdMnTe crystals for nuclear detector applications are discussed.

  20. Capacitance-voltage characterization of Al/Al2O3/PVA-PbSe MIS diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawri, Isha; Sharma, Mamta; Jindal, Silky; Singh, Harpreet; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    The present paper reports the capacitance-voltage characterization of Al/Al2O3/PVA-PbSe MIS diode using chemical bath deposition method. Here anodic alumina layer prepared using electrolytic deposition method on Al substrate is used as insulating material. Using the capacitance-voltage variation at a fixed frequency, the different parameters such as Depletion layer width, Barrier height, Built-in voltage and Carrier concentration has been calculated at room temperature as well as at temperature range from 123 K to 323 K. With the increase in temperature the barrier height and depletion layer width follow a decreasing trend. Therefore, the capacitance-voltage characterization at different temperatures characterization provides strong evidence that the properties of MIS diode are primarily affected by diode parameters.

  1. GapMis: a tool for pairwise sequence alignment with a single gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Tomás; Frousios, Kimon; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Park, Kunsoo; Pissis, Solon P; Tischler, German

    2013-08-01

    Pairwise sequence alignment has received a new motivation due to the advent of recent patents in next-generation sequencing technologies, particularly so for the application of re-sequencing---the assembly of a genome directed by a reference sequence. After the fast alignment between a factor of the reference sequence and a high-quality fragment of a short read by a short-read alignment programme, an important problem is to find the alignment between a relatively short succeeding factor of the reference sequence and the remaining low-quality part of the read allowing a number of mismatches and the insertion of a single gap in the alignment. We present GapMis, a tool for pairwise sequence alignment with a single gap. It is based on a simple algorithm, which computes a different version of the traditional dynamic programming matrix. The presented experimental results demonstrate that GapMis is more suitable and efficient than most popular tools for this task.

  2. 1680 : Päikesekuningas asutas riikliku teatri, mis praegu on maailmas vanim / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2006-01-01

    21. oktoobril 1680 kirjutas Louis XIV Versailles's alla korraldusele, millega ühendati Moliere'i näitetrupp teise Pariisi näitetrupiga. Sündis La Comedie-Francaise, mis on tänapäevalgi ainus riiklik teater Prantsusmaal

  3. Solution Grown Se/Te Nanowires: Nucleation, Evolution, and The Role of Triganol Te seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Xudong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have studied the nucleation and growth of Se–Te nanowires (NWs, with different morphologies, grown by a chemical solution process. Through systematic characterization of the Se–Te NW morphology as a function of the Te nanocrystallines (NCs precursor, the relative ratio between Se and Te, and the growth time, a number of significant insights into Se–Te NW growth by chemical solution processes have been developed. Specifically, we have found that: (i the growth of Se–Te NWs can be initiated from either long or short triganol Te nanorods, (ii the frequency of proximal interactions between nanorod tips and the competition between Se and Te at the end of short Te nanorods results in V-shaped structures of Se–Te NWs, the ratio between Se and Te having great effect on the morphology of Se–Te NWs, (iii by using long Te nanorods as seeds, Se–Te NWs with straight morphology were obtained. Many of these findings on Se–Te NW growth can be further generalized and provide very useful information for the rational synthesis of group VI based semiconductor NW compounds.

  4. The effect of a slight mis-orientation angle of c-plane sapphire substrate on surface and crystal quality of MOCVD grown GaN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong-Woo; Suzuki, Toshimasa [Nippon Institute of Technology, 4-1 Gakuendai, Miyashiro, Saitama, 345-8501 (Japan); Aida, Hideo [NAMIKI Precision Jewel Co. Ltd., 3-8-22 Shinden, Adachi-ku, Tokyo, 123-8511 (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    The effect of a slight mis-orientation of c-plane sapphire substrate on the surface morphology and crystal quality of GaN thin films grown by MOCVD has been investigated. The mis-orientation angle of vicinal c-plane sapphire substrate was changed within the range of 0.00(zero)-1.00(one) degree, and the experimental results were compared with those on just angle (zero degree) c-plane sapphire substrate. The surface morphology and crystal quality were found to be very sensitive to mis-orientation angle. Consequently, the mis-orientation angle was optimized to be 0.15 . (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. X-Files kohtub Indy'ga / Rivo Sarapik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  6. Management Information System (MIS: Tool for Monitoring the Waste Management Health Service (RSS and Cost of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Elisabete Schneider

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of solid waste management has been improve and deploy systems that perform monitoring and control of management processes of health service’s waste (HSW. This study aims to evaluate the total cost per category of HSW/day and active bed/day with the handling of HSW in a teaching hospital in northeastern area of Brazil`s Rio Grande do Sul state and identify contributions of a management information system (MIS in the management process, especially considering the generation and segregation of waste. Utilized methodology was developed in two stages: data collection about the management of the HSW and proposition, implementation and feed of a MIS for recording and processing of data related to waste characterization. Results show that whether the management system of the hospital in this study were 100% right, the monthly savings for the treatment of infectious waste would be 18.4% of the costs and 5.83% of costs of chemical waste. The implementation of MIS becomes an essential tool in the evaluation of the management process of HSW since it makes possible to raise issues of fundamental importance to the implementation and evaluation of strategies contained in the HSW management plan. The MIS also represents a tool of easy reference and of great importance to evaluate generation of HSW as it helps to promote the surveillance, identification of sectors that have the biggest problems with segregation, as well as ways to minimize costs and impacts.

  7. Temperature-Dependent Electrical Characteristics of Au/Si3N4/4H n-SiC MIS Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigiterol, F.; Güllü, H. H.; Bayraklı, Ö.; Yıldız, D. E.

    2018-03-01

    Electrical characteristics of the Au/Si3N4/4H n-SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diode were investigated under the temperature, T , interval of 160-400 K using current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage ( C {-} V ) and conductance-voltage ( G/ω {-} V ) measurements. Firstly, the Schottky diode parameters as zero-bias barrier height ( Φ_{B0} ) and ideality factor ( n ) were calculated according to the thermionic emission (TE) from forward bias I-V analysis in the whole working T . Experimental results showed that the values of Φ_{B0} were in increasing behavior with increasing T while n values decreased with inverse proportionality in n versus Φ_{{{{B}}0}} plot. Therefore, the non-ideal I-V behavior with inhomogeneous barrier height (BH) formation has been discussed under the assumption of Gaussian distribution (GD). From the GD of BHs, the mean BH was found to be about 1.40 eV with 0.1697 standard deviation and the modified Richardson constant A^{*} of this diode was obtained as 141.65 A/cm2 K2 in good agreement with the literature (the theoretical value of A^{*} is 137.21 A/cm2 K2). The relationship between Φ_{B0} and n showed an abnormal I-V behavior depending on T , and it was modeled by TE theory with GD of BH due to the effect in inhomogeneous BH at the interface. Secondly, according to Cheung's model, series resistance, R_{{S}} values were calculated in the T range of 160-400 K and these values were found to decrease with increasing T . Finally, the density of interface states, D_{{it}} was calculated and the T dependence of energy distribution of D_{{it}} profiles determined the forward I {-} V measurements by taking into account the bias dependence of the effective BH, Φ_{{e}} and n . D_{{it}} were also calculated according to the Hill-Coleman method from C {-} V and G/ω {-} V analysis. Furthermore, the variation of D_{{it}} as a function of frequency, f and T were determined.

  8. CuGaTe2-CuAlTe2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodnar', I.V.

    2003-01-01

    The results of studies on the chemical interaction in the CuGaTe 2 -CuAlTe 2 as well as on the thermal and optical properties of the formed solid solutions are presented. It is shown, that continuous number of solid solutions are formed in the CuGaTe 2 -CuAlTe 2 system, which crystallize in the chalcopyrite structure. The diagram of state of this system is plotted. The thermal expansion of these materials is studied through the dilatometric method. The linear dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient on the composition is established. The concentration dependences of the forbidden zone width diverge from the linearity [ru

  9. Variations of the paleo-productivity in benthic foraminifera records in MIS 3 from western South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Y.; Du, J.; Huang, B.; Chen, M.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding climate change of last glacial age as the background information of climate forecasting is particularly important in climate research. Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 61-24 ka B.P.) is a relative warm and unstable period in the last glacial. Millennium scale abrupt climate changes, such as Heinrich events and Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles, are identified in this period. Research topic on the variations of monsoon during the glacial cycles, especially in MIS 3, is critical for understanding low latitude climatic change and the global paleo-environment as a whole. Fortunately, high resolution sedimentary records in western South China Sea provide us valuable materials to uncover how East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM) system acts in a highly fluctuating climate ambient like MIS 3. Core 17954 is located in the modern summer upwelling area off the Vietnam coast in western South China Sea (SCS), its sediments record the variations of upwelling generated by EASM. In this work, we carry out paleo-ecological analyses on planktonic ( Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globigerina bulloides) and benthic foraminifera (Bulimina aculeate, Uvigerina peregrina, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, ect.) sampled from Core 17954 to investigate paleo-productivity and nutrition change of western SCS and its relation to EASM. The results show that benthic and planktonic foraminifera have similar responses to nutrition change. Various indicators of productivity on the basis of benthic foraminiferal analyses reflect an overall three stage change trend: productivity gradually increases from the beginning of MIS 3 (60-40 ka) to its maximum during 35-30 ka, and finally declines after 30 ka. There is also another important discovery, if we observe the climate change in MIS 3 as a whole, we can also find western SCS and Northern Hemisphere High latitude have strong correspondences in such changes: Heinrich events coincided with high productivity events in the western SCS. Further, the result of

  10. Oceanic response to changes in the WAIS and astronomical forcing during the MIS31 superinterglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Justino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine Isotope Stage 31 (MIS31, between 1085 and 1055 ka was characterized by higher extratropical air temperatures and a substantial recession of polar glaciers compared to today. Paleoreconstructions and model simulations have increased the understanding of the MIS31 interval, but questions remain regarding the role of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans in modifying the climate associated with the variations in Earth's orbital parameters. Multi-century coupled climate simulations, with the astronomical configuration of the MIS31 and modified West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS topography, show an increase in the thermohaline flux and northward oceanic heat transport (OHT in the Pacific Ocean. These oceanic changes are driven by anomalous atmospheric circulation and increased surface salinity in concert with a stronger meridional overturning circulation (MOC. The intensified northward OHT is responsible for up to 85 % of the global OHT anomalies and contributes to the overall reduction in sea ice in the Northern Hemisphere (NH due to Earth's astronomical configuration. The relative contributions of the Atlantic Ocean to global OHT and MOC anomalies are minor compared to those of the Pacific. However, sea ice changes are remarkable, highlighted by decreased (increased cover in the Ross (Weddell Sea but widespread reductions in sea ice across the NH.

  11. Study of Te Inclusion and Related Point Defects in THM-Growth CdMnTe Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yifei; Zhang, Jijun; Min, Jiahua; Liang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jian; Tang, Ke; Ling, Liwen; Li, Ming; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Linjun

    2018-02-01

    This study establishes a model for describing the interaction between Te inclusions, dislocations and point defects in CdMnTe crystals. The role of the complex environment surrounding the formation of Te inclusions was analyzed. Images of Te inclusions captured by scanning electron microscope and infrared microscope were used to observe the morphology of Te inclusions. The morphology of Te inclusions is discussed in light of crystallography, from the crystal growth temperature at 900°C to the melting temperature of Te inclusions using the traveling heater method. The dislocation nets around Te inclusions were calculated by counting lattice mismatches between the Te inclusions and the bulk CdMnTe at 470°C. The point defects of Te antisites were found to be gathered around Te inclusions, with dislocation climb during the cooling phase of crystal growth from 470°C to room temperature. The Te inclusions, dislocation nets and surrounding point defects are considered to be an entirety for evaluating the effect of Te inclusions on CdMnTe detector performance, and an effective mobility-lifetime product (μτ) was obtained.

  12. Ühe minuti loeng: videoformaat, mis tuli ja võitis / Airi Ilisson-Cruz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson-Cruz, Airi, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli "Ühe Minuti Loengu" videoklippide sarjast, mis võitis Suhtekorralduse Auhind 2013 hariduse eripreemia. Igas klipis arutleb teadlane lihtsas ja loogilises sõnastuses ühe konkreetse, sageli üllatusmomendiga fakti üle. Videoklippide sari kui sisuturunduse näide

  13. Castigo, gestão do risco e da miséria: Novos discursos da prisão na contemporaneidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Albuquerque Figueiró

    Full Text Available Resumo Com a falência do discurso ressocializador que marcou a modernidade, a contemporaneidade traz à tona outros discursos em torno do encarceramento, produzindo mudanças nos sistemas jurídico-penais. Nesse sentido, e partindo do referencial teórico-metodológico da análise institucional, o presente artigo realiza uma análise das funções ocupadas pela prisão na contemporaneidade com relação ao público alvo desses equipamentos. Assim, a partir de nossa inserção em uma unidade prisional do sistema prisional do Rio Grande do Norte, realizamos uma observação participante da rotina de trabalho dos agentes penitenciários. Como resultados, apresentamos três analisadores para pensar a prisão: os híbridos prisão-abrigo, prisão-albergue e prisão-masmorra. Tais analisadores revelam que a prisão na contemporaneidade adquire um caráter de equipamento híbrido, ao articular as funções de punição, detenção provisória e gestão da miséria, colocando em xeque qualquer intenção reabilitadora.

  14. Pulsar TeV Halos Explain the Diffuse TeV Excess Observed by Milagro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Tim; Buckman, Benjamin J

    2018-03-23

    Milagro observations have found bright, diffuse TeV emission concentrated along the galactic plane of the Milky Way. The intensity and spectrum of this emission is difficult to explain with current models of hadronic γ-ray production, and has been named the "TeV excess." We show that TeV emission from pulsars naturally explains this excess. Recent observations have detected "TeV halos" surrounding pulsars that are either nearby or particularly luminous. Extrapolating this emission to the full population of Milky Way pulsars indicates that the ensemble of "subthreshold" sources necessarily produces bright TeV emission diffusively along the Milky Way plane. Models indicate that the TeV halo γ-ray flux exceeds that from hadronic γ rays above an energy of ∼500  GeV. Moreover, the spectrum and intensity of TeV halo emission naturally matches the TeV excess. Finally, we show that upcoming HAWC observations will resolve a significant fraction of the TeV excess into individual TeV halos, conclusively confirming, or ruling out, this model.

  15. RHEED studies of MBE growth mechanisms of CdTe and CdMnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waag, A.; Behr, T.; Litz, T.; Kuhn-Heinrich, B.; Hommel, D.; Landwehr, G. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany))

    1993-01-30

    We report on reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) studies of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of CdTe and CdMnTe on (100) oriented CdTe substrates. RHEED oscillations were measured for both the growth and desorption of CdTe and CdMnTe as a function of flux and temperature. For the first time, the influence of laser and electron irradiation on the growth rate, as well as desorption, of CdTe is studied in detail using RHEED oscillations. We found a very small effect on the growth rate as well as on the CdTe desorption rate. The growth rate of CdTe was determined for different temperatures and CdTe flux ratios. The obtained experimental results are compared with a kinetic growth model to get information on the underlying growth processes, taking into account the influence of a precursor by including surface diffusion. From the comparison between model and experimental results the sticking coefficients of Cd and Te are determined. The growth rate of CdMnTe increases with Mn flux. This dependence can be used to calibrate the Mn content during growth by comparing the growth rate of CdTe with the growth rate of CdMnTe. The change in growth rate has been correlated with Mn content via photoluminescence measurements. In addition, the sticking coefficient of Mn is derived by comparing experimental results with a kinetic growth model. For high manganese content a transition to three-dimensional growth occurs. (orig.).

  16. Evaluation of SiN films for AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs on Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, Y.; Lecotonnec, A.; Chenot, S. [CRHEA-CNRS, Valbonne (France); Baron, N. [CRHEA-CNRS, Valbonne (France); PICOGIGA International, Courtaboeuf (France); Nacer, F.; Goullet, A.; Besland, M.P. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel IMN, Universite de Nantes (France); Lhermite, H. [Institut d' Electronique et de Telecommunications de Rennes (IETR), Universite de Rennes 1 (France); El Kazzi, M.; Regreny, P.; Hollinger, G. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR CNRS, Ecully (France)

    2009-06-15

    In this work, AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown on Si(111) substrates were covered with SiN{sub x} dielectric films, in order to realize MIS-HEMT devices. The dielectric films have been deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using deposition conditions previously optimized for InP based devices. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to control the interface formation and characterize the deposited films. Capacitance-voltage, Hall effect and current-voltage measurements were carried out on the MIS-HEMTs and HEMT reference devices and correlated with the dielectric layer quality. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Film, ruum ja narratiiv : "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" ning "Viini postmark" / Eva Näripea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Näripea, Eva, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Analüüsitakse narratiivi aegruumi loomise viise juhtumi analüüsi vormis, vaadeldes kaht eesti mängufilmi : G. Kromanovi "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" (Tallinnfilm, 1966) ja Veljo Käsperi "Viini postmark" (Tallinnfilm, 1967)

  18. Film, ruum ja narratiiv : "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" ning "Viini postmark" / Eva Näripea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Näripea, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Analüüsitakse narratiivi aegruumi loomise viise juhtumi analüüsi vormis, vaadeldes kaht eesti mängufilmi : G. Kromanovi "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" (Tallinnfilm, 1966) ja Veljo Käsperi "Viini postmark" (Tallinnfilm, 1967)

  19. CPP2-p16MIS treatment–induced colon carcinoma cell death in vitro and prolonged lifespan of tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lifeng; Chen, Haijin; Yu, Jinlong; Lin, Xiaohua; Qi, Jia; Cui, Chunhui; Xie, Lang; Huang, Shuxin

    2016-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a research hotspot due to their noninvasive delivery ability. Among the identified CPPs, the TAT and R8 peptides have been preferentially applied to transduction into different cells. However, this process is nonselective among various cells. Recent research suggested that CPP2 could selectively penetrate human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Using in vitro experiments, the mean fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate–labeled CPPs (CPPs-FITC) incubated with different cell lines was compared to corroborate the colon tumor targeting ability of CPP2. The targeting ability of CPP2 was determined in the same way in tumor-bearing mice. We synthesized antitumor peptides by fusing CPP2 to the minimal inhibitory sequence of p16 (p16MIS), which had the ability to restore the function of lost p16, the expression of which was absent in tumor cell lines of various origins. The antitumor effect of the combined peptide was tested in both CRC cell lines and tumor-bearing mice. In each CRC cell line, the mean fluorescence intensity of CPP2-FITC was higher than that of the TAT-FITC (p < 0.001) and R8-FITC (p < 0.001) groups. CPP2-p16MIS, the targeting carrier, showed a higher antitumor response in the in vitro cell research. CPP2-p16MIS showed a prolonged mean lifespan of tumor-bearing mice, further characterizing its role in specific tumor-targeting ability in vivo. Survival analysis showed that the mice treated with CPP2-p16MIS had significantly longer survival than the mice treated with phosphate-buffered saline (p < 0.05) or those treated with control peptides, including the CPP2 (p < 0.05) and p16MIS (p < 0.05) groups. CPP2 could more selectively penetrate CRC cells than TAT or R8 as well as effectively deliver the p16MIS to the tumor

  20. Precipitation of Ag2Te in the thermoelectric material AgSbTe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar, Joshua D.; Medlin, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure of AgSbTe 2 , prepared by solidification, is investigated using electron microscopy. During solidification and thermal treatment, the material separates into a two-phase mixture of a rocksalt phase, which is Ag 22 Sb 28 Te 50 , and silver telluride, Ag 2 Te. Ag 2 Te formation results either from eutectic solidification (large lamellar structures), or by solid-state precipitation (fine-scale particles). The crystal structure of the AgSbTe 2 phase determined by electron diffraction is consistent with a rocksalt structure that has a disordered cation sublattice. A preferred crystallographic orientation relationship at the interface between the matrix and the low-temperature monoclinic Ag 2 Te phase is defined and discussed. This orientation relationship is observed for both second-phase morphologies. In both cases, the orientation relationship originates from a topotactic (cube-on-cube) alignment of the Te sublattices in the initially cubic Ag 2 Te and the matrix at elevated temperature. This Te sublattice alignment is retained as the Ag 2 Te undergoes a cubic-to-monoclinic transformation during cooling. This orientation relationship is observed for both second-phase morphologies.

  1. Analysis of CdS/CdTe devices incorporating a ZnTe:Cu/Ti Contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessert, T.A.; Asher, S.; Johnston, S.; Young, M.; Dippo, P.; Corwine, C.

    2007-01-01

    High-performance CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices can be produced using a ZnTe:Cu/Ti back contact deposited onto the CdTe layer. We observe that prolonged exposure of the ZnTe:Cu and Ti sputtering targets to an oxygen-containing plasma significantly reduces device open-circuit voltage and fill factor. High-resolution compositional analysis of these devices reveals that Cu concentration in the CdTe and CdS layers is lower for devices with poor performance. Capacitance-voltage analysis and related numerical simulations indicate that the net acceptor concentration in the CdTe is also lower for devices with poor performance. Photoluminescence analyses of the junction region reveal that the intensity of a luminescent peak associated with a defect complex involving interstitial Cu (Cu i ) and oxygen on Te (O Te ) is reduced in devices with poor performance. Combined with thermodynamic considerations, these results suggest that oxygen incorporation into the ZnTe:Cu sputtering target reduces the ability of sputtered ZnTe:Cu film to diffuse Cu into the CdTe

  2. Mis on meie huvid Euroopa Liidus? / Villu Känd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Känd, Villu

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa, 4. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 5. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Nädaline, 5. juuli 2007, lk. 5; Põhjarannik, 7. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 10. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 10. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 12. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 18. juuli 2007, lk. 11; Oma saar, 18. juuli 2007, lk. 5; Sakala, 19. juuli 2007, lk. 2. Valminud on versioon olulisest poliitikadokumendist, mis võtab kokku Eesti eesmärgid Euroopa Liidus järgnevatel aastatel

  3. Liquidus surface of the triple reciprocal system PbTe+CdS↔PbS+CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashik, Z.F.; Tomashik, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    Using differential-thermal and microstructural analyses and mathematical design interaction in PbTe-CdS system is studied. Liquidus surface of the triple reciprocal system PbTe+CdS↔PbS+CdTe is plotted. It is shown that PbTe-CdS system phase diagram is of eutectic type. Maximal solubility of CdS in PbTe attains 13 mol%, and of PbTe in CdS is not over 1 mol%. Projection of liquidus surface of the PbTe+CdS↔PbS+CdTe triple reciprocal system consists of two primary crystallization fields: CdTe x S 1-x and PbTe x S 1-x solid solutions separated by eutectic line

  4. Phase diagram of SnTe-CdSe cross-section of SnTe+CdSe reversible SnSe+CdTe ternary reciprocal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovin, I.V.; Budennaya, L.D.; Mizetskaya, I.B.; Sharkina, Eh.V.

    1986-01-01

    Phase equilibrium diagram of SnTe-CdSe cross-section of Sn, Cd long Te, Se ternary reciprocal system is investigated using the methods of differential thermal, X-ray phase, and microstructural analyses. Maximum length of solid solutions on the base of SnTe corresponds to approximately 14 mol.% at 1050 K and approximately 3 mol.% of CdSe at 670 K. Region of solid solutions on the base of CdSe corresponds to less than 1 mol.% of SnTe at room temperature. SnTe-CdSe cross-section is not a quasibinar one. Equilibrium is shifted to the left in the SnTe+CdSe reversible SnSe+CdTe reciprocal system

  5. Reshould I Take More MIS Courses? Implications from Interviews with Business Recruiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Guo, Yi Maggie

    2015-01-01

    It is important for MIS educators to have a good understanding of what IT knowledge and skills are required in business. In this study, 103 open job positions in the Midwestern United States were investigated via semi-structured interviews with hiring companies. The interviews with key business recruiters suggest that IT knowledge and skills are…

  6. Aardkastanje, onopvallend en te weinig om te eten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, T.

    2010-01-01

    Hij staat vanaf half juni volop in bloei, maar wordt door weinigen gezien. Hoewel een zoektocht op Google anders doet vermoeden, wordt hij niet meer gegeten. De Aardkastanje is daarvoor te onopvallend en te zeldzaam in Nederland. Toch is het een bijzondere schermbloem.

  7. Final Validation of the ProMisE Molecular Classifier for Endometrial Carcinoma in a Large Population-based Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommoss, S; McConechy, M K; Kommoss, F; Leung, S; Bunz, A; Magrill, J; Britton, H; Kommoss, F; Grevenkamp, F; Karnezis, A; Yang, W; Lum, A; Krämer, B; Taran, F; Staebler, A; Lax, S; Brucker, S Y; Huntsman, D G; Gilks, C B; McAlpine, J N; Talhouk, A

    2018-02-07

    Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas, we previously developed and confirmed a pragmatic molecular classifier for endometrial cancers; ProMisE (Proactive Molecular Risk Classifier for Endometrial Cancer). ProMisE identifies four prognostically distinct molecular subtypes, and can be applied to diagnostic specimens (biopsy/curettings), enabling earlier informed decision-making. We have strictly adhered to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for the development of genomic biomarkers, and herein present the final validation step of a locked-down classifier prior to clinical application. We assessed a retrospective cohort of women from the Tübingen University Women's Hospital treated for endometrial carcinoma between 2003-13. Primary outcomes of overall, disease-specific and progression-free survival were evaluated for clinical, pathological, and molecular features. Complete clinical and molecular data were evaluable from 452 women. Patient age ranged from 29 - 93 (median 65) years, and 87.8% cases were endometrioid histotype. Grade distribution included 282 (62.4%) G1, 75 (16.6%) G2, and 95 (21.0%) G3 tumors. 276 (61.1%) patients had stage IA disease, with the remaining stage IB (89 (19.7%)), stage II (26 (5.8%)), and stage III/IV (61 (13.5%)). ProMisE molecular classification yielded 127 (28.1%) MMR-D, 42 (9.3%) POLE, 55 (12.2%) p53abn, and 228 (50.4%) p53wt. ProMisE was a prognostic marker for progression-free (P=0.001) and disease-specific (P=0.03) survival even after adjusting for known risk factors. Concordance between diagnostic and surgical specimens was highly favorable; accuracy 0.91, kappa 0.88. We have developed, confirmed and now validated a pragmatic molecular classification tool (ProMisE) that provides consistent categorization of tumors and identifies four distinct prognostic molecular subtypes. ProMisE can be applied to diagnostic samples and thus could be used to inform surgical procedure(s) and/or need for adjuvant therapy. Based on the IOM

  8. The complexity of millennial-scale variability in southwestern Europe during MIS 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dulce; Desprat, Stéphanie; Rodrigues, Teresa; Naughton, Filipa; Hodell, David; Trigo, Ricardo; Rufino, Marta; Lopes, Cristina; Abrantes, Fátima; Sánchez Goñi, Maria Fernanda

    2016-11-01

    Climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 is examined using a new high-resolution direct land-sea comparison from the SW Iberian margin Site U1385. This study, based on pollen and biomarker analyses, documents regional vegetation, terrestrial climate and sea surface temperature (SST) variability. Suborbital climate variability is revealed by a series of forest decline events suggesting repeated cooling and drying episodes in SW Iberia throughout MIS 11. Only the most severe events on land are coeval with SST decreases, under larger ice volume conditions. Our study shows that the diverse expression (magnitude, character and duration) of the millennial-scale cooling events in SW Europe relies on atmospheric and oceanic processes whose predominant role likely depends on baseline climate states. Repeated atmospheric shifts recalling the positive North Atlantic Oscillation mode, inducing dryness in SW Iberia without systematical SST changes, would prevail during low ice volume conditions. In contrast, disruption of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), related to iceberg discharges, colder SST and increased hydrological regime, would be responsible for the coldest and driest episodes of prolonged duration in SW Europe.

  9. Sea-level highstands during the Last interglacial (MIS 5e) in Mallorca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorscheid, T.; Stocchi, P.; Rovere, A.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Mann, T.; Fornos, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Last Intergalcial in the island of Mallorca (NW Mediterranean) have been the subject of research since the early 60's (Butzer & Cuerda 1960). Despite both the location and stratigraphy of MIS 5e outcrops in the island are well known, the elevation of relative sea level (RSL) markers around the island has never been measured with high-accuracy topographic techniques (e.g. DGPS) and the interpretation of the paleo RSL has never been carried out using standardized definition of the indicative meaning of each RSL marker. In this study we present the results of two field trips aimed at measuring last interglacial deposits in Mallorca with high-accuracy GPS and at establishing, surveying modern shorelines as analogs, indicative ranges and reference water level values for RSL markers across the island. Using an earth-ice coupled GIA-model we performed several model-runs for investigating isostatic adjustment since MIS 5e in the island. These results are compared with the elevation of our deposits in the field and discussed in terms of tectonics and eustasy.

  10. Fully solution processed Al-TiO2-Si (MIS) structured photo-detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sandip; Kumar, Arvind

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a high performance photo detector by fully solution processed technique. The detector is fabricated with photo sensitive, low temperature (200˚C) and sol-gel processed titanium dioxide (TiO2) dielectric material on silicon substrate in the form of MIS structure with top aluminum gate. The optical detection experiment is performed on Al—TiO2—Si (MIS) device by measuring the capacitance—voltage (CV at 100 kHz) curve within the visible region of light (365 — 700 nm). The presence of light shift the flat band voltage (VFB) from 290 mV to 360 mV due to the generation of photo activated charge carriers by UV (365 nm) and white light, respectively. Moreover, the generation of the charge carrier increases drastically by the combination of UV and white, which resulting as a very large shift (600 mV) in the VFB. The entire experiment was performed in normal lab conditions with open air environment, without any clean room facility.

  11. Optimization of MIS/IL solar cells parameters using genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, K.A.; Mohamed, E.A.; Alaa, S.H. [Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria Univ. (Egypt); Motaz, M.S. [Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria Univ. (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a genetic algorithm optimization for MIS/IL solar cell parameters including doping concentration NA, metal work function {phi}m, oxide thickness d{sub ox}, mobile charge density N{sub m}, fixed oxide charge density N{sub ox} and the external back bias applied to the inversion grid V. The optimization results are compared with theoretical optimization and shows that the genetic algorithm can be used for determining the optimum parameters of the cell. (orig.)

  12. Particle mis-identification rate algorithm for the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nardulli, J

    2011-01-01

    This note describes the algorithm presently used to determine the particle mis- identification rate and gives results for single particles for the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detector concepts as prepared for the CLIC Conceptual Design Report.

  13. Kust tuleb koolirõõm, mis paneb õpetaja silma särama? / Kirsti Rumma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rumma, Kirsti

    2017-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli haridusinnovatsiooni keskuse poolt Eesti kooliõpilaste ja õpetajate seas läbi viidud uuringust, kus muuhulgas otsiti vastuseid küsimustele, kust tuleb õpilaste koolirõõm ja mis mõjutab õpetajate silmasära

  14. Optical phonons in PbTe/CdTe multilayer heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikova, N. N.; Yakovlev, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Spectroscopy (Russian Federation); Kucherenko, I. V., E-mail: kucheren@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Karczewski, G. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Poland); Aleshchenko, Yu. A.; Muratov, A. V.; Zavaritskaya, T. N.; Melnik, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    The infrared reflection spectra of PbTe/CdTe multilayer nanostructures grown by molecular-beam epitaxy are measured in the frequency range of 20–5000 cm{sup −1} at room temperature. The thicknesses and high-frequency dielectric constants of the PbTe and CdTe layers and the frequencies of the transverse optical (TO) phonons in these structures are determined from dispersion analysis of the spectra. It is found that the samples under study are characterized by two TO phonon frequencies, equal to 28 and 47 cm{sup −1}. The first frequency is close to that of TO phonons in bulk PbTe, and the second is assigned to the optical mode in structurally distorted interface layers. The Raman-scattering spectra upon excitation with the radiation of an Ar{sup +} laser at 514.5 nm are measured at room and liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The weak line at 106 cm{sup −1} observed in these spectra is attributed to longitudinal optical phonons in the interface layers.

  15. Links between Patagonian Ice Sheet fluctuations and Antarctic dust variability during the last glacial period (MIS 4-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jérôme; Lamy, Frank

    2010-06-01

    Antarctic and Greenland ice-core records reveal large fluctuations of dust input on both orbital and millennial time-scales with potential global climate implications. At least during glacial periods, the Antarctic dust fluctuations appear to be largely controlled by environmental changes in southern South America. We compare dust flux records from two Antarctic ice-cores to variations in the composition of the terrigenous supply at ODP Site 1233 located off southern Chile and known to record fluctuations in the extent of the northern part of the Patagonian ice-sheet (NPIS) during the last glacial period (Marine Isotope Stage, MIS, 4 to 2). Within age uncertainties, millennial-scale glacial advances (retreats) of the NPIS correlate to Antarctic dust maxima (minima). In turn, NPIS fluctuations were closely related to offshore sea surface temperature (SST) changes. This pattern suggests a causal link involving changes in temperature, in rock flour availability, in latitudinal extensions of the westerly winds and in foehn winds in the southern Pampas and Patagonia. We further suggest that the long-term trend of dust accumulation is partly linked to the sea-level related changes in the size if the Patagonian source area due to the particular morphology of the Argentine shelf. We suggest that sea-level drops at the beginning of MIS 4 and MIS 2 were important for long-term dust increases, while changes in the Patagonian dust source regions primarily control the early dust decrease during the MIS 4/3 transition and Termination 1.

  16. Search for high mass resonances decaying into electron-positron pairs in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeringer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics was developed to describe the fundamental particles, which form matter, and their interactions via the strong, electromagnetic and weak force. Although most measurements are described with high accuracy, some observations indicate that the Standard Model is incomplete. Numerous extensions were developed to solve these limitations. Several of these extensions predict heavy resonances, so-called Z' bosons, that can decay into an electron positron pair. The particle accelerator Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland was built to collide protons at unprecedented center-of-mass energies, namely 7 TeV in 2011. With the data set recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector, a large multi-purpose detector located at the LHC, the electron positron pair mass spectrum was measured up to high masses in the TeV range. The properties of electrons and the probability that other particles are mis-identified as electrons were studied in detail. Using the obtained information, a sophisticated Standard Model expectation was derived with data-driven methods and Monte Carlo simulations. In the comparison of the measurement with the expectation, no significant deviations from the Standard Model expectations were observed. Therefore exclusion limits for several Standard Model extensions were calculated. For example, Sequential Standard Model (SSM) Z' bosons with masses below 2.10 TeV were excluded with 95% Confidence Level (C.L.).

  17. Search for high mass resonances decaying into electron-positron pairs in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeringer, Christian

    2013-04-25

    The Standard Model of particle physics was developed to describe the fundamental particles, which form matter, and their interactions via the strong, electromagnetic and weak force. Although most measurements are described with high accuracy, some observations indicate that the Standard Model is incomplete. Numerous extensions were developed to solve these limitations. Several of these extensions predict heavy resonances, so-called Z' bosons, that can decay into an electron positron pair. The particle accelerator Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland was built to collide protons at unprecedented center-of-mass energies, namely 7 TeV in 2011. With the data set recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector, a large multi-purpose detector located at the LHC, the electron positron pair mass spectrum was measured up to high masses in the TeV range. The properties of electrons and the probability that other particles are mis-identified as electrons were studied in detail. Using the obtained information, a sophisticated Standard Model expectation was derived with data-driven methods and Monte Carlo simulations. In the comparison of the measurement with the expectation, no significant deviations from the Standard Model expectations were observed. Therefore exclusion limits for several Standard Model extensions were calculated. For example, Sequential Standard Model (SSM) Z' bosons with masses below 2.10 TeV were excluded with 95% Confidence Level (C.L.).

  18. Kosovo - doominokivi, mis kohutab Venemaad ja teisi veriseid võime / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Autor analüüsib probleeme, mis on seotud Kosovo iseseisvumisega. Uue riigi teke 21. sajandi alguse Euroopas ei tohiks olla midagi erakordset, sest viimase poole sajandi jooksul on nähtud kümnete riikide sündi, arvab ta. Lisad: Doominokivid; Iseseisvunud riikide arv 1958-2006; Järjekorras ootavad; Millal algas uute riikide iseseisvumise doomino?

  19. Evaluation and Reliability Assessment of GaN-on-Si MIS-HEMT for Power Switching Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chien Chou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an extensive analysis of the physical mechanisms responsible for the failure of GaN-based metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs. When stressed under high applied electric fields, the traps at the dielectric/III-N barrier interface and inside the III-N barrier cause an increase in dynamic on-resistance and a shift of threshold voltage, which might affect the long term stability of these devices. More detailed investigations are needed to identify epitaxy- or process-related degradation mechanisms and to understand their impact on electrical properties. The present paper proposes a suitable methodology to characterize the degradation and failure mechanisms of GaN MIS-HEMTs subjected to stress under various off-state conditions. There are three major stress conditions that include: VDS = 0 V, off, and off (cascode-connection states. Changes of direct current (DC figures of merit in voltage step-stress experiments are measured, statistics are studied, and correlations are investigated. Hot electron stress produces permanent change which can be attributed to charge trapping phenomena and the generation of deep levels or interface states. The simultaneous generation of interface (and/or bulk and buffer traps can account for the observed degradation modes and mechanisms. These findings provide several critical characteristics to evaluate the electrical reliability of GaN MIS-HEMTs which are borne out by step-stress experiments.

  20. High mobility 2D electron gas in CdTe/CdMgTe heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczewski, G.; Jaroszynski, J.; Kurowski, M.; Barcz, A.; Wojtowicz, T.; Kossut, J.

    1997-01-01

    We report on iodine doping of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown Cd(Mn)Te quasi-bulk films and modulation-doped CdTe/Cd 1-y Mg y Te two-dimensional (2D) single quantum well structures. Modulation doping with iodine of CdTe/Cd 1-y Mg y Te structures resulted in fabrication of a 2D electron gas with mobility exceeding 10 5 cm 2 /(Vs). This is the highest mobility reported in wide-gap II-VI materials

  1. 48 CFR 226.370-8 - Goals and incentives for subcontracting with HBCU/MIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Goals and incentives for subcontracting with HBCU/MIs. 226.370-8 Section 226.370-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Historically Black Colleges and...

  2. Cumulative effects of Te precipitates in CdZnTe radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Carini, G.A.; Cui, Y.; Li, L.; James, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    High-quality radiation detector-grade CdZnTe material is free from large-scale defects, such as grain boundaries, twins, and large Te or Cd inclusions (>50 μm), although it usually contains high concentrations of uniformly distributed Te inclusions and precipitates, typically of ∼20-μm-diameter size or smaller. We address the effects of the small-size Te precipitates on charge collection in CZT detectors, the significance of which is not yet well characterized. The strong correlation that we earlier found between the high-resolution X-ray maps and IR images proved that even small Te precipitates can trap substantial fractions of charge from the electron cloud. In this work, we modeled the transport of an electron cloud across idealized CZT devices containing Te precipitates to demonstrate that their cumulative effect can explain the degradation of energy resolution and the detection efficiency losses observed in actual CZT devices. Due to lack of experimental data on how the Te precipitates interact with an electron cloud, we developed a simplified (phenomenological) model based on the geometrical aspects of the problem. Despite its simplicity, the model correctly reproduced many experimental facts and gave quantitative predictions on the extent to which the presence of Te precipitates and inclusions can be tolerated. The broadening of the electron cloud due to repulsion and diffusion is at the core of the problem, making even low concentrations of small precipitates important in the device's performance

  3. Automated software development tools in the MIS (Management Information Systems) environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowood, L.F.; Emrich, M.L.

    1987-09-11

    Quantitative and qualitative benefits can be obtained through the use of automated software development tools. Such tools are best utilized when they complement existing procedures and standards. They can assist systems analysts and programmers with project specification, design, implementation, testing, and documentation. Commercial products have been evaluated to determine their efficacy. User comments have been included to illustrate actual benefits derived from introducing these tools into MIS organizations.

  4. Electronic structures and stability of Ni/Bi2Te3 and Co/Bi2Te3 interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Ka; Wang Weichao; Alshareef, Husam N; Gupta, Rahul P; Gnade, Bruce E; Cho, Kyeongjae; White, John B

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structures and stability for Ni/Bi 2 Te 3 , NiTe/Bi 2 Te 3 , Co/Bi 2 Te 3 and CoTe 2 /Bi 2 Te 3 interfaces by first-principles calculations. It is found that the surface termination strongly affects the band alignment. Ni and Co are found to form Ohmic contacts to Bi 2 Te 3 . The interface formation energy for Co/Bi 2 Te 3 interfaces is much lower than that of Ni/Bi 2 Te 3 interfaces. Furthermore, we found that NiTe on Bi 2 Te 3 is more stable than Ni, while the formation energies for Co and CoTe 2 on Bi 2 Te 3 are comparable.

  5. Response of the North Atlantic surface and intermediate ocean structure to climate warming of MIS 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiano, Evgenia S; van der Meer, Marcel T J; Schouten, Stefan; Fahl, Kirsten; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Bauch, Henning A

    2017-04-10

    Investigating past interglacial climates not only help to understand how the climate system operates in general, it also forms a vital basis for climate predictions. We reconstructed vertical stratification changes in temperature and salinity in the North Atlantic for a period some 400 ka ago (MIS11), an interglacial time analogue of a future climate. As inferred from a unique set of biogeochemical, geochemical, and faunal data, the internal upper ocean stratification across MIS 11 shows distinct depth-dependent dynamical changes related to vertical as well as lateral shifts in the upper Atlantic meridional circulation system. Importantly, transient cold events are recognized near the end of the long phase of postglacial warming at surface, subsurface, mid, and deeper water layers. These data demonstrate that MIS 11 coolings over the North Atlantic were initially triggered by freshwater input at the surface and expansion of cold polar waters into the Subpolar Gyre. The cooling signal was then transmitted downwards into mid-water depths. Since the cold events occurred after the main deglacial phase we suggest that their cause might be related to continuous melting of the Greenland ice sheet, a mechanism that might also be relevant for the present and upcoming climate.

  6. Ga-Bi-Te system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustamov, P.G.; Seidova, N.A.; Shakhbazov, M.G.; AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku. Inst. Neorganicheskoj i Fizicheskoj Khimii)

    1976-01-01

    To elucidate the nature of interaction in the system Ga-Bi-Te, a study has been made of sections GaTe-Bi 2 Te 3 , Ga 2 Te 3 -Bi, GaTe-Bi and Bi 2 Te 3 -Ga. The alloys have been prepared by direct melting of the components or their alloys with subsequent homogenizin.o annealing at 400 deg C. The study has been made by the methods of differential thermal, microstructural analysis and by microhardness measurements. On the basis of literature data and data obtained a projection of the liquidus surface of the phase diagram for the system Ga-Bi-Te has been constructed. In the ternary system there are 17 curves of monovariant equilibrium dividing the liquidus into 10 fields of primary crystallization of phases, 9 points of non-variant equilibrium of which 4 points are triple eutectics and 5 points are triple peritectics

  7. Density of interface states, excess capacitance and series resistance in the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altindal, Semsettin; Tataroglu, Adem; Dokme, Ilbilge [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Physics Department, Gazi University, 06500, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-01-31

    Dark and illuminated current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Al/SiO{sub x}/p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) solar cells were measured at room temperature. In addition to capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V), characteristics are studied at a wide frequency range of 1kHz-10MHz. The dark I-V characteristics showed non-ideal behavior with an ideal factor of 3.2. The density of interface states distribution profiles as a function of (E{sub ss}-E{sub v}) deduced from the I-V measurements at room temperature for the MIS solar cells on the order of 10{sup 13}cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1}. These interface states were responsible for the non-ideal behavior of I-V, C-V and G-V characteristics. Frequency dispersion in capacitance for MIS solar cells can be interpreted only in terms of interface states. The interface states can follow the a.c. signal and yield an excess capacitance, which depends on the relaxation time of interface states and the frequency of the a.c. signal. It was observed that the excess capacitance C{sub o} caused by an interface state decreases with an increase of frequency. The capacitances characteristics of MIS solar cells are affected not only in interface states but also series resistance. Analysis of this data indicated that the high interface states and series resistance leads to lower values of open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and fill factor. Experimental results show that the location of interface states and series resistance have a significant effect on I-V, C-V and G-V characteristics.

  8. Reconstructing dust fluxes and paleoproductivity at the southern Agulhas Plateau since MIS-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, M. M.; Anderson, R. F.; Winckler, G.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying glacial-interglacial cycles requires characterizing the role of oceanic feedbacks in climatic changes. For example, increased aeolian iron fluxes to Fe-limited regions of the ocean and corresponding changes in marine productivity could have improved biological pump efficiency and resulted in CO2 drawdown. Here we explore these feedbacks using marine sediment core MDO2-2588 collected from the southern Agulhas Plateau (SAP; 41°S, 26°E), located beneath the modern subtropical front. Today, diatom productivity in this region is Si-limited because high Si utilization south of the polar front (PF) means that water advected northward to our study site is Si-depleted. However, previous work has suggested that extended sea ice cover during glacial periods may have limited diatom productivity south of the PF while frontal systems shifted northward, allowing more Si to reach thermocline of the SAP. Meanwhile, increased glacial dust flux to the SAP may have simultaneously supplied more Fe, contributing to higher glacial productivity. This hypothesis has been supported by observations of higher LGM and MIS-6 productivity at MD02-2588 using bulk biogenic content and diatom assemblages (Romero et al., Paleoceanography, 30 (2015) 118-132). Gradients in d13C between benthic and planktic foraminifera have also been used to support Fe fertilization at this site on millennial timescales (Ziegler et al., Nature Geoscience, 6 (2013) 457-461). Yet, studies have yet to produce coordinated records of dust flux and export production for the SAP. Here, we present records of dust, based on 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes, and export production using 230Th-normalized excess-Ba and opal fluxes and authigenic U through MIS-6. Preliminary results show that lithogenic fluxes to MD02-2588 were approximately twice as high during MIS-6 as MIS-5e and were concurrent with a two-fold increase in excess-Ba flux. However, this relative increase in lithogenic flux

  9. Electronic structures and stability of Ni/Bi2Te3 and Co/Bi2Te3 interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Ka; Wang, Weichao; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gupta, Rahul P.; White, John B.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structures and stability for Ni/Bi 2Te3, NiTe/Bi2Te3, Co/Bi 2Te3 and CoTe2/Bi2Te3 interfaces by first-principles calculations. It is found that the surface termination strongly affects the band alignment. Ni and Co are found to form Ohmic contacts to Bi2Te3. The interface formation energy for Co/Bi2Te3 interfaces is much lower than that of Ni/Bi2Te3 interfaces. Furthermore, we found that NiTe on Bi2Te3 is more stable than Ni, while the formation energies for Co and CoTe2 on Bi2Te3 are comparable. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Electronic structures and stability of Ni/Bi2Te3 and Co/Bi2Te3 interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Ka

    2010-03-04

    We investigate the electronic structures and stability for Ni/Bi 2Te3, NiTe/Bi2Te3, Co/Bi 2Te3 and CoTe2/Bi2Te3 interfaces by first-principles calculations. It is found that the surface termination strongly affects the band alignment. Ni and Co are found to form Ohmic contacts to Bi2Te3. The interface formation energy for Co/Bi2Te3 interfaces is much lower than that of Ni/Bi2Te3 interfaces. Furthermore, we found that NiTe on Bi2Te3 is more stable than Ni, while the formation energies for Co and CoTe2 on Bi2Te3 are comparable. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. A coccolithophore based view on paleoenvironmental changes in the open ocean mid-latitude North Atlantic between 130 and 48ka BP with special emphasis on MIS 5e

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwab, C.; Kinkel, Hanno; Weinelt, M.

    2013-01-01

    in coccolithophore assemblages and changes in the abundance of siliceous plankton (diatoms) indicate a southward shift of the Azores Front (AzF), and hence a southward retreat of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, as well as an increased productivity, during glacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4, Termination II...... and during cold substages of MIS 5. Furthermore we hypothesize that the ecological changes led to distinct evolutionary patterns of coccolithophores, resulting e.g. in a dominance of Gephyrocapsa ornata between 76 and 105ka BP. Additionally, high-resolution analysis of MIS 5e indicate a short reversal...... towards cool conditions during MIS 5e, corresponding to a basin-wide cooling event. Full interglacial conditions are reached only late in the Azores region. During MIS 5e an increased advection of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW), and/or the possibility to occupy new habitats after glacial conditions...

  12. Measurement of the suppression and elliptic anisotropy of heavy flavor muons in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} =2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS has measured the production of heavy flavor muons over $|\\eta| {<} 1$ in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV Pb+Pb collisions and $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV $pp$ collisions at the LHC. The measurements are performed over the transverse momentum range $4 {<} p_T {<} 14$ GeV and for five Pb+Pb centrality intervals. Backgrounds arising from in-flight pion and kaon decays, hadronic showers, and mis-reconstructed muons are statistically removed using a template fitting procedure. The heavy flavor muon differential cross-sections and per-event yields are measured in $pp$ and Pb+Pb collisions, respectively. The nuclear modification factor, $R_{AA}$, is observed to be in- dependent of $p_T$ within uncertainties and to be less than unity, which indicates suppressed production of heavy flavor muons in Pb+Pb collisions. For the most central interval measured (0–10%), $R_{AA} {\\sim} 0.4$. The heavy flavor muon yield is measured as a function of the azimuthal angle difference, $\\phi − \\Psi_2$, where the experimental ...

  13. Tõhus ja õiglane menetlus õigusakti põhiseadusvastasuse nõude lahendamisel / Tim Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Põhiseaduse § 15 lõike 1 teine lause sätestab igaühe õiguse nõuda oma kohtuasja läbivaatamisel mis tahes asjassepuutuva seaduse, muu õigusakti või toimingu põhiseadusvastaseks tunnistamist. Kohustustest, mis see säte paneb kohtunikele ning kuidas erinevates kohtumenetlustes seda õigust kasutada ja kohustusi täita

  14. Piezoelectric effect in CdTe/CdMnTe and CdTe/CdZnTe quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Regis

    1994-01-01

    Materials with zinc-blende type structure are piezoelectric: any strain along a polar axis generates an electrical polarisation. Strained quantum wells of cubic II-VI or III-V semiconductors, grown along [111] or [112] axis, exhibit a strong built-in piezo-electric field (100 kV/cm for 1% strains). Such structures are very promising for applications to optical modulation, but it is necessary to study first the physical properties of piezoelectric heterostructures before they can be used in optical devices. For this purpose, we have performed an optical study of strained CdTe/CdMnTe or CdTe/CdZnTe quantum wells coherently grown by molecular beam epitaxy on [111] or [112] oriented substrates. Effects of piezoelectric field on optical and electronic properties of quantum wells have been analyzed in terms of the envelop function model, taking into account the effects of biaxial strains for [hhk] growth axis. Moreover, we have proposed an original way of measuring piezoelectric field in strained quantum wells, and we have used this method to show that CdTe exhibits strong non-linearities for piezoelectric field versus strain. This effect has never been mentioned before. We have also performed measurements of the piezoelectric coefficient e14 under high hydrostatic pressure inducing strains up to 2%, which shows that part of the non-linear effect is a volume effect. We have also studied the effects of the piezoelectric field on excitons in quantum wells. The binding energy decreases slightly when the electric field increases, but the oscillator strength, for the fundamental transition, decreases dramatically with the overlap of the envelope wavefunctions of electrons and holes. We have performed a modelization of an exciton in a piezoelectric quantum well using two variational parameters. This model provides an accurate calculation of excitonic absorption. Our experimental and theoretical results are in very good agreement, without any fitting parameters, for a large

  15. Growth and optical properties of CdTe quantum dots in ZnTe nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojnar, Piotr; Janik, Elzbieta; Baczewski, Lech T.; Kret, Slawomir; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, Tomasz [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Goryca, Mateusz; Kazimierczuk, Tomasz; Kossacki, Piotr [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-09-12

    We report on the formation of optically active CdTe quantum dots in ZnTe nanowires. The CdTe/ZnTe nanostructures have been grown by a gold nanocatalyst assisted molecular beam epitaxy in a vapor-liquid solid growth process. The presence of CdTe insertions in ZnTe nanowire results in the appearance of a strong photoluminescence band in the 2.0 eV-2.25 eV energy range. Spatially resolved photoluminescence measurements reveal that this broad emission consists of several sharp lines with the spectral width of about 2 meV. The large degree of linear polarization of these individual emission lines confirms their nanowire origin, whereas the zero-dimensional confinement is proved by photon correlation spectroscopy.

  16. Electrical and optical properties of SnEuTe and SnSrTe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Akihiro; Tsuchiya, Takuro; Yamada, Tomohiro; Cao, Daoshe; Takaoka, Sadao; Rahim, Mohamed; Felder, Ferdinand; Zogg, Hans

    2010-06-01

    The SnTe, Sn1-xEuxTe and Sn1-xSrxTe (x<0.06) films were prepared by hot wall epitaxy. The ternary alloy films prepared in cation rich condition had hole concentration around 1×1019 cm-3 with high mobility exceeding 2000 cm2/V s at room temperature. Optical transmission spectra were also measured in the temperature range from 100 to 400 K and compared with theoretical calculations. Optical transmission spectra of the SnTe were simulated successfully assuming bumped band edge structures. A band inversion model was proposed for the Sn1-xEuxTe and Sn1-xSrxTe systems, and the optical transmission spectra were also simulated successfully assuming the band inversion model.

  17. Properties of Hg1-xCdxTe epitaxial films grown on (211)CdTe and (211)CdZnTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, M.C.; Gilabert, U.; Heredia, E.; Trigubo, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Hg 1-x Cd x Te (MCT) epitaxial films have been grown employing single crystalline substrates of CdTe and Cd 0.96 Zn 0.04 Te with (211)Cd and (211)Te crystalline orientations. The Isothermal Vapor Phase Epitaxy (ISOVPE) technique without Hg overpressure has been used for the epitaxial growth. Substrates and films were characterized by optical microscopy, chemical etching and X ray diffraction (Laue technique). The electrical properties were determined by Hall effect measurements. The characterization results allowed to evaluate the crystalline quality of MCT films. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. The Use of Facebook in an Introductory MIS Course: Social Constructivist Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ractham, Peter; Kaewkitipong, Laddawan; Firpo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The major objective of this article is to evaluate via a Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) the implementation of a Social Constructivist learning framework for an introductory Management Information System (MIS) course. Facebook was used as a learning artifact to build and foster a learning environment, and a series of features and…

  19. Basic mechanisms study for MIS solar cell structures on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonash, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The solar cell structure examined is the MIS configuration on (n) GaAs. The metal room temperature oxide/(n) GaAs materials system was studied. Metals with electronegativities varying from 2.4 (Au) to 1.5 (Al) were used as the upper electrode. The thinnest metallization that did not interfere with the measurement techniques (by introducing essentially transmission line series resistance problems across a device) was used. Photovoltaic response was not optimized.

  20. Performance and Metastability of CdTe Solar Cells with a Te Back-Contact Buffer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew

    Thin-film CdTe photovoltaics are quickly maturing into a viable clean-energy solution through demonstration of competitive costs and performance stability with existing energy sources. Over the last half decade, CdTe solar technology has achieved major gains in performance; however, there are still aspects that can be improved to progress toward their theoretical maximum efficiency. Perhaps equally valuable as high photovoltaic efficiency and a low levelized cost of energy, is device reliability. Understanding the root causes for changes in performance is essential for accomplishing long-term stability. One area for potential performance enhancement is the back contact of the CdTe device. This research incorporated a thin-film Te-buffer layer into the contact structure, between the CdTe and contact metal. The device performance and characteristics of many different back contact configurations were rigorously studied. CdTe solar cells fabricated with the Te-buffer contact showed short-circuit current densities and open-circuit voltages that were on par with the traditional back-contacts used at CSU. However, the Te-buffer contact typically produced 2% larger fill-factors on average, leading to greater conversation efficiency. Furthermore, using the Te buffer allowed for incorporation of 50% less Cu, which is used for p-type doping but is also known to decrease lifetime and stability. This resulted in an additional 3% fill-factor gain with no change in other parameters compared to the standard-Cu treated device. In order to better understand the physical mechanisms of the Te-buffer contact, electrical and material properties of the Te layer were extracted and used to construct a simple energy band diagram. The Te layer was found to be highly p-type (>1018 cm-3) and possess a positive valence-band offset of 0.35-0.40 eV with CdTe. An existing simulation model incorporating the Te-layer properties was implemented and validated by comparing simulated results of CdTe

  1. Duodenal Atresia: Open versus MIS Repair—Analysis of Our Experience over the Last 12 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Fabio Chiarenza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Duodenal atresia (DA routinely has been corrected by laparotomy and duodenoduodenostomy with excellent long-term results. We revisited the patients with DA treated in the last 12 years (2004–2016 comparing the open and the minimally invasive surgical (MIS approach. Methods. We divided our cohort of patients into two groups. Group 1 included 10 patients with CDO (2004–09 treated with open procedure: 5, DA; 3, duodenal web; 2, extrinsic obstruction. Three presented with Down’s syndrome while 3 presented with concomitant malformations. Group 2 included 8 patients (2009–16: 1, web; 5, DA; 2, extrinsic obstruction. Seven were treated by MIS; 1 was treated by Endoscopy. Three presented with Down’s syndrome; 3 presented with concomitant malformations. Results. Average operating time was 120 minutes in Group 1 and 190 minutes in Group 2. In MIS Group the visualization was excellent. We recorded no intraoperative complications, conversions, or anastomotic leakage. Feedings started on 3–7 postoperative days. Follow-up showed no evidence of stricture or obstruction. In Group 1 feedings started within 10–22 days and we have 1 postoperative obstruction. Conclusions. Laparoscopic repair of DA is one of the most challenging procedures among pediatric laparoscopic procedures. These patients had a shorter length of hospitalization and more rapid advancement to full feeding compared to patients undergoing the open approach. Laparoscopic repair of DA could be the preferred technique, safe, and efficacious, in the hands of experienced surgeons.

  2. Chironomid-based reconstructions of summer air temperature from lake deposits in Lyndon Stream, New Zealand spanning the MIS 3/2 transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C. A.; Shulmeister, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present chironomid-based temperature reconstructions from lake sediments deposited between ca 26,600 cal yr BP and 24,500 cal yr BP from Lyndon Stream, South Island, New Zealand. Summer (February mean) temperatures averaged 1 °C cooler, with a maximum inferred cooling of 3.7 °C. These estimates corroborate macrofossil and beetle-based temperature inferences from the same site and suggest climate amelioration (an interstadial) at this time. Other records from the New Zealand region also show a large degree of variability during the late Otiran glacial sequence (34,000-18,000 cal yr BP) including a phase of warming at the MIS 2/3 transition and a maximum cooling that did not occur until the global LGM (ca 20,000 cal yr BP). The very moderate cooling identified here at the MIS 2/3 transition confirms and enhances the long-standing discrepancy in New Zealand records between pollen and other proxies. Low abundances (<20%) of canopy tree pollen in records from late MIS 3 to the end of MIS 2 cannot be explained by the minor (<5 °C) cooling inferred from this and other studies unless other environmental parameters are considered. Further work is required to address this critical issue.

  3. The Valle di Manche section (Calabria, Southern Italy): A high resolution record of the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition (MIS 21-MIS 19) in the Central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Luca; Ferretti, Patrizia; Macrì, Patrizia; Scarponi, Daniele; Tateo, Fabio; Fornaciari, Eliana; Bellini, Giulia; Dalan, Giorgia

    2017-06-01

    The on-land marine Valle di Manche section (Crotone Basin, Calabria, Southern Italy), one of the candidates to host the GSSP of the Middle Pleistocene (;Ionian;) Stage, preserves a manifold record of independent chronological, paleoclimatic and stratigraphic proxies that permit a straightforward correlation with marine and terrestrial reference records at the global scale. In particular, the section holds an excellent record of the Matuyama-Brunhes magnetic reversal, which occurs in the midst of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19. We report on a complete revision of the section that improves dramatically the available dataset, especially in the stratigraphic interval straddling the Lower-Middle Pleistocene boundary. Our benthic δ18O record provides evidence that the Matuyama-Brunhes transition, the stratigraphic position of which is marked by a prominent tephra (the ;Pitagora ash;), occurred during full MIS 19, in agreement with many records worldwide. We obtained an age of 786.9 ± 5 ka for the Matuyama-Brunhes magnetic reversal and pinpointed the paleomagnetic transition of to a 3 cm-thick interval, indicating that the event was very fast. Since the section fulfills all the requirements to host the GSSP of the Ionian Stage, we propose that the boundary should be placed at the base of the ;Pitagora ash;, ca. 12.5 cm below the midpoint of the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal.

  4. On the mean square displacements (MSD) of Hg and Te in HgTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, Y.; Ramachandran, K.

    1989-01-01

    The mean square displacements (MSD) of Hg and Te in the perfect system of HgTe are worked out in the modified rigid ion model of Plumelle and Vandevyver. Also the MSD of Hg and Te neighbours around anion and cation vacancies in HgTe are worked out giving an active role for the vacancy following the theory of Maradudin et al. The results are compared with experimental values. (author)

  5. M rate at TE. Monitoring at TeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Gonzalez, Magdalena; Alfaro, Ruben [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Tovmassian, Gagik [Instituto de Astronomia Sede Ensenada (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    A dedicated long-term monitoring programm at TeV energies has been started by the FACT project about four years ago. Being limited to one site, gaps due to the rotation of the Earth remain in the measured light curves. This makes it difficult to study typical variability time scales of few hours to one day. To allow for systematic studies of continuous observations over up to 12 hours, a second telescope is being installed at a site in about six hours distance in longitude. For the M rate at TE (Monitoring at TeV energies) telescope, a mount from a previous experiment is being refurbished and will be equipped with a new camera. Using silicon based photo sensors like in FACT, an excellent and stable performance will be achieved. M rate at TE is a joint project of German and Mexican universities which aims at extending the blazar monitoring to so far unexplored time ranges. In the presentation, the status of this emerging project is reported.

  6. Precipitation of Ag{sub 2}Te in the thermoelectric material AgSbTe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugar, Joshua D. [Materials Physics Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)], E-mail: jdsugar@sandia.gov; Medlin, Douglas L. [Materials Physics Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-06-10

    The microstructure of AgSbTe{sub 2}, prepared by solidification, is investigated using electron microscopy. During solidification and thermal treatment, the material separates into a two-phase mixture of a rocksalt phase, which is Ag{sub 22}Sb{sub 28}Te{sub 50}, and silver telluride, Ag{sub 2}Te. Ag{sub 2}Te formation results either from eutectic solidification (large lamellar structures), or by solid-state precipitation (fine-scale particles). The crystal structure of the AgSbTe{sub 2} phase determined by electron diffraction is consistent with a rocksalt structure that has a disordered cation sublattice. A preferred crystallographic orientation relationship at the interface between the matrix and the low-temperature monoclinic Ag{sub 2}Te phase is defined and discussed. This orientation relationship is observed for both second-phase morphologies. In both cases, the orientation relationship originates from a topotactic (cube-on-cube) alignment of the Te sublattices in the initially cubic Ag{sub 2}Te and the matrix at elevated temperature. This Te sublattice alignment is retained as the Ag{sub 2}Te undergoes a cubic-to-monoclinic transformation during cooling. This orientation relationship is observed for both second-phase morphologies.

  7. Selenium Se and tellurium Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Tiptsova, V.G.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic methods for determining selenium and tellurium in various objects are presented. The bichromatometric determination of Te in cadmium, zinc and mercury tellurides is based on oxidation of Te(4) to (6) in H 2 SO 4 with potassium bichromate. In steels, Te is determined photometrically with the aid of KI. The determination is hindered by Fe(3), Cu(2), Bi(3) and Se(4) ions, which must be separated. The extraction-photometric determination of Te in native sulfur is carried out with the aid of 5-mercapto-3-(naphthyl-2)-1,3,4-thiadiazolthione-2 (pH=4.8-5.0). The dyed complex is readily extracted with chloroform and benzene. The spectrophotometric determination of Te in selenium is performed with the aid of 3,5-diphenylpyrazoline-1-dithiocarbamate of sodium. Te is determined in commercial indium, arsenic and their semiconductor compounds photometrically with the aid of copper diethyldithiocarbamate. The method permits determining 5x10 -5 % Te in a weighed amount of 0.5 g. The chloride complex of Te(4) with diantipyriodolpropylmethane is quantitatively extracted with dichloroethane from hydrochloric acid solutions. Thus, any amounts of Te can be separated from Se and determined photometrically. The extraction-photometric determination of Te in commercial lead and bismuth is carried out with the aid of pyrazolone derivatives, in commercial copper with the aid of diantipyridolpropylmethane, and in ores (more than 0.01% Te) with the aid of bismuthol 2. Also described is the extraction-polarographic determination of Te in sulfide ores

  8. "Mis on see luuletaja luule..." : [luuletused] / Juhan Viiding

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viiding, Juhan, 1948-1995

    2001-01-01

    Tekst eesti ja inglise k. J. Viidingu lühibiograafia eesti ja inglise k. lk. 151. Sisu: "Mis on see luuletaja luule..." = "So what is a poet's poetry then..." ; Eluküsimus = A question of life ; "sügisemees..." = "the autumn man..." ; "Lamades, seistes ja istudes..." = "Lying, standing or sitting..." ; "öö käest pannakse päeva käele..." = "from the hand of night to the hand of day..." ; "sa karjatad pikalt ja valuga..." = "you scream long and hard..." ; Tee = The road ; "tuisk on kolmandat päeva..." = "its's day three of the blizzard..." ; Latern = Street lamp ; "Eluaeg olen tahtnud õue..." = "All my life, I've wanted out..." ; "su südamepuuris on vaikus..." = "In the cage of your heart there is silence..."

  9. Challenges of DHS and MIS to capture the entire pattern of malaria parasite risk and intervention effects in countries with different ecological zones: the case of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoda Tonye, Salomon G; Kouambeng, Celestin; Wounang, Romain; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2018-04-06

    In 2011, the demographic and health survey (DHS) in Cameroon was combined with the multiple indicator cluster survey. Malaria parasitological data were collected, but the survey period did not overlap with the high malaria transmission season. A malaria indicator survey (MIS) was also conducted during the same year, within the malaria peak transmission season. This study compares estimates of the geographical distribution of malaria parasite risk and of the effects of interventions obtained from the DHS and MIS survey data. Bayesian geostatistical models were applied on DHS and MIS data to obtain georeferenced estimates of the malaria parasite prevalence and to assess the effects of interventions. Climatic predictors were retrieved from satellite sources. Geostatistical variable selection was used to identify the most important climatic predictors and indicators of malaria interventions. The overall observed malaria parasite risk among children was 33 and 30% in the DHS and MIS data, respectively. Both datasets identified the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the altitude as important predictors of the geographical distribution of the disease. However, MIS selected additional climatic factors as important disease predictors. The magnitude of the estimated malaria parasite risk at national level was similar in both surveys. Nevertheless, DHS estimates lower risk in the North and Coastal areas. MIS did not find any important intervention effects, although DHS revealed that the proportion of population with an insecticide-treated nets access in their household was statistically important. An important negative relationship between malaria parasitaemia and socioeconomic factors, such as the level of mother's education, place of residence and the household welfare were captured by both surveys. Timing of the malaria survey influences estimates of the geographical distribution of disease risk, especially in settings with seasonal transmission. In countries with

  10. Neuroimaging in tremor and functional motor disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Marja

    2017-01-01

    In dit proefschrift worden twee verschillende aandoeningen behandeld die beide met beweging te maken hebben. Wat beide aandoeningen gemeen hebben is dat er iets mis is in het motorische systeem, vaak veroorzaakt door veranderingen in hersenfunctie. Bij de eerste aandoening is er sprake van te veel

  11. Breast MRI at very short TE (minTE). Image analysis of minTE sequences on non-fat-saturated, subtracted T1-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenkel, Evelyn; Janka, Rolf; Kaemmerer, Nadine; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias; Brand, Michael [Univ. Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Geppert, Christian [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Hartmann, Arndt [Univ. Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pathology

    2017-02-15

    The aim was to evaluate a minimum echo time (minTE) protocol for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with breast lesions compared to a standard TE (nTE) time protocol. Breasts of 144 women were examined with a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Additionally to the standard gradient-echo sequence with nTE (4.8 ms), a variant with minimum TE (1.2 ms) was used in an interleaved fashion which leads to a better temporal resolution and should reduce the scan time by approximately 50%. Lesion sizes were measured and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective confidence was evaluated using a 3-point scale before looking at the nTE sequences (1 = very sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 2 = quite sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 3 = definitely want to see nTE for final assessment) and the subjective image quality of all examinations was evaluated using a four-grade scale (1 = sharp, 2 = slight blur, 3 = moderate blur and 4 = severe blur/not evaluable) for lesion and skin sharpness. Lesion morphology and contrast enhancement were also evaluated. With minTE sequences, no lesion was rated with ''definitely want to see nTE sequences for final assessment''. The difference of the longitudinal and transverse diameter did not differ significantly (p>0.05). With minTE, lesions and skin were rated to be significantly more blurry (p<0.01 for lesions and p<0.05 for skin). There was no difference between both sequences with respect to SNR, CNR, lesion morphology, contrast enhancement and detection of multifocal disease. Dynamic breast MRI with a minTE protocol is feasible without a major loss of information (SNR, CNR, lesion morphology, contrast enhancement and lesion sizes) and the temporal resolution can be increased by a factor of 2 using minTE sequences.

  12. Breast MRI at very short TE (minTE). Image analysis of minTE sequences on non-fat-saturated, subtracted T1-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenkel, Evelyn; Janka, Rolf; Kaemmerer, Nadine; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias; Brand, Michael; Hartmann, Arndt

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate a minimum echo time (minTE) protocol for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with breast lesions compared to a standard TE (nTE) time protocol. Breasts of 144 women were examined with a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Additionally to the standard gradient-echo sequence with nTE (4.8 ms), a variant with minimum TE (1.2 ms) was used in an interleaved fashion which leads to a better temporal resolution and should reduce the scan time by approximately 50%. Lesion sizes were measured and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective confidence was evaluated using a 3-point scale before looking at the nTE sequences (1 = very sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 2 = quite sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 3 = definitely want to see nTE for final assessment) and the subjective image quality of all examinations was evaluated using a four-grade scale (1 = sharp, 2 = slight blur, 3 = moderate blur and 4 = severe blur/not evaluable) for lesion and skin sharpness. Lesion morphology and contrast enhancement were also evaluated. With minTE sequences, no lesion was rated with ''definitely want to see nTE sequences for final assessment''. The difference of the longitudinal and transverse diameter did not differ significantly (p>0.05). With minTE, lesions and skin were rated to be significantly more blurry (p<0.01 for lesions and p<0.05 for skin). There was no difference between both sequences with respect to SNR, CNR, lesion morphology, contrast enhancement and detection of multifocal disease. Dynamic breast MRI with a minTE protocol is feasible without a major loss of information (SNR, CNR, lesion morphology, contrast enhancement and lesion sizes) and the temporal resolution can be increased by a factor of 2 using minTE sequences.

  13. Detection and correction of false segmental duplications caused by genome mis-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Diploid genomes with divergent chromosomes present special problems for assembly software as two copies of especially polymorphic regions may be mistakenly constructed, creating the appearance of a recent segmental duplication. We developed a method for identifying such false duplications and applied it to four vertebrate genomes. For each genome, we corrected mis-assemblies, improved estimates of the amount of duplicated sequence, and recovered polymorphisms between the sequenced chromosomes. PMID:20219098

  14. The fingerprint of Te-rich and stoichiometric Bi2Te3 nanowires by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Carlos; Manzano, Cristina V.; Romero, Aldo H.; Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol; Morais de Lima, Mauricio, Jr.; Cantarero, Andrés

    2016-02-01

    We unambiguously show that the signature of Te-rich bismuth telluride is the appearance of three new peaks in the Raman spectra of Bi2Te3, located at 88, 117 and 137 cm-1. For this purpose, we have grown stoichiometric Bi2Te3 nanowires as well as Te-rich nanowires. The absence of these peaks in stoichiometric nanowires, even in those with the smallest diameter, shows that they are not related to confinement effects or the lack of inversion symmetry, as stated in the literature, but to the existence of Te clusters. These Te clusters have been found in non-stoichiometric samples by high resolution electron microscopy, while they are absent in stoichiometric samples. The Raman spectra of the latter corresponds to the one for bulk Bi2Te3. The intensity of these Raman peaks are clearly correlated to the Te content. In order to ensure statistically meaningful results, we have investigated several regions from every sample.

  15. AsTeRICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drajsajtl, Tomáš; Struk, Petr; Bednárová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    AsTeRICS - "The Assistive Technology Rapid Integration & Construction Set" is a construction set for assistive technologies which can be adapted to the motor abilities of end-users. AsTeRICS allows access to different devices such as PCs, cell phones and smart home devices, with all of them integrated in a platform adapted as much as possible to each user. People with motor disabilities in the upper limbs, with no cognitive impairment, no perceptual limitations (neither visual nor auditory) and with basic skills in using technologies such as PCs, cell phones, electronic agendas, etc. have available a flexible and adaptable technology which enables them to access the Human-Machine-Interfaces (HMI) on the standard desktop and beyond. AsTeRICS provides graphical model design tools, a middleware and hardware support for the creation of tailored AT-solutions involving bioelectric signal acquisition, Brain-/Neural Computer Interfaces, Computer-Vision techniques and standardized actuator and device controls and allows combining several off-the-shelf AT-devices in every desired combination. Novel, end-user ready solutions can be created and adapted via a graphical editor without additional programming efforts. The AsTeRICS open-source framework provides resources for utilization and extension of the system to developers and researches. AsTeRICS was developed by the AsTeRICS project and was partially funded by EC.

  16. Local atomic interdiffusion in CdTe/HgCdTe multilayered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Ourmazd, A.; Feldman, R.D.; Rentschler, J.A.; Taylor, D.W.; Austin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors combine chemical lattice imaging with digital pattern recognition to study atomic interdiffusion at individual CdTe/HgCdTe interfaces in multi-quantum well structures. In this way they obtain quantitative composition profiles for as grown samples, and investigate their development as a function of annealing temperature. The authors' results indicate that interdiffusion depends on the position of the quantum well with respect to the surface, beginning first at quantum wells close to the surface, and proceeding towards the substrate. The authors' approach allows the quantification of interdiffusion as a function of time, temperature, and distance from the surface. The implications of these results for the stability of CdTe/HgCdTe structures, and the interpretation of X-ray data are discussed

  17. Simple one-pot aqueous synthesis of CdHgTe nanocrystals using sodium tellurite as the Te source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhitao; Luo, Chunhua; Huang, Rong; Wang, Yiting; Peng, Hui; Travas-sejdic, Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we systematically investigated the one-pot aqueous synthesis conditions of CdHgTe nanocrystals (NCs) using sodium tellurite (Na 2 TeO 3 ) as the Te source, and found that the added content of Hg 2+ and the initial pH value of reaction solutions significantly affected the photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) of alloyed CdHgTe NCs. When the concentration of Cd was 1.0 mmol L −1 , the mole ratio of Cd/Te/Hg/MPA was 1:0.5:0.05:2.4, and the initial pH value of the reaction solution was about 8.78, the PL QY of as-prepared CdHgTe NCs was up to 45%. Characterization by HRTEM and XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of CdHgTe NCs. Compared to other synthetic approaches of CdHgTe NCs, our experimental results indicate that Na 2 TeO 3 could be an attractive alternative Te source to directly synthesize CdHgTe NCs in aqueous media. - Highlights: • A one-pot method was developed for the synthesis of highly luminescent CdHgTe nanocrystals (NCs). • Sodium tellurite was used as the Te source. • The quantum yield reached up to 45%. • The experimental conditions were optimized and the prepared CdHgTe NCs were characterized

  18. PharmTeX: a LaTeX-Based Open-Source Platform for Automated Reporting Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Smith, Mike K; Ito, Kaori; Sundararajan, Vijayakumar; Magnusson, Mats O; Niclas Jonsson, E; Fostvedt, Luke; Burger, Paula; McFadyen, Lynn; Tensfeldt, Thomas G; Nicholas, Timothy

    2018-03-16

    Every year, the pharmaceutical industry generates a large number of scientific reports related to drug research, development, and regulatory submissions. Many of these reports are created using text processing tools such as Microsoft Word. Given the large number of figures, tables, references, and other elements, this is often a tedious task involving hours of copying and pasting and substantial efforts in quality control (QC). In the present article, we present the LaTeX-based open-source reporting platform, PharmTeX, a community-based effort to make reporting simple, reproducible, and user-friendly. The PharmTeX creators put a substantial effort into simplifying the sometimes complex elements of LaTeX into user-friendly functions that rely on advanced LaTeX and Perl code running in the background. Using this setup makes LaTeX much more accessible for users with no prior LaTeX experience. A software collection was compiled for users not wanting to manually install the required software components. The PharmTeX templates allow for inclusion of tables directly from mathematical software output as well and figures from several formats. Code listings can be included directly from source. No previous experience and only a few hours of training are required to start writing reports using PharmTeX. PharmTeX significantly reduces the time required for creating a scientific report fully compliant with regulatory and industry expectations. QC is made much simpler, since there is a direct link between analysis output and report input. PharmTeX makes available to report authors the strengths of LaTeX document processing without the need for extensive training. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  19. Climate and vegetation since the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e) in a putative glacial refugium, northern Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Erin M.; Gavin, Daniel G.

    2015-06-01

    There are very few terrestrial sediment records from North America that contain a nearly continuous sequence spanning from the Last Interglacial period to the present. We present stratigraphic records of pollen and several other proxies from a Carex-dominated wetland, Star Meadows, located 140 km south of the maximum extent of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and near the current southern extent of interior mesic forests in northern Idaho. Many species in this region are disjunct by 160 km of arid steppe and dry forest from their more extensive distribution along the Pacific Northwest coast and may have survived in an interior refugium. The chronology for the upper 251 cm was determined by six radiocarbon dates and one tephra deposit, and the age of the remainder of the core (251-809 cm) was estimated by correlation with SPECMAP δ18O. Fluctuating water levels were inferred from alternating peat, biogenic silica, and aquatic pollen types. During MIS 5e the region was warmer and drier than today and was dominated by Pinus (likely Pinus contorta) mixed conifer forest surrounding a Carex meadow. A cool-moist climate (MIS 5b-5d) soon developed, and the site was inundated with deep water. Pollen indicated wetland vegetation (Betula glandulosa, Typhaceae, and Salix) developed around a lake with a Pseudotsuga/Larix and Picea forest on the surrounding slopes. During MIS 5a, a warmer climate supported a Pseudotsuga/Larix, Abies, and Picea forest on the surrounding hillsides and a Carex-dominated environment within a dry meadow. From MIS 4 to MIS 3, a cool and wet Pinus and Picea forest predominated. Water levels rose, enabling Nuphar to persist within a perennial lake while a sedge fen established along the lake margin. As climate transitioned into MIS 2, a cooler and drier climate supported a Pinus and Picea subalpine parkland, though water levels remained high enough to support Nuphar. During the Last Glacial Maximum the sediment was mainly silt and clay with high Artemisia and

  20. Excitons in tunnel coupled CdTe and (Cd,Mn)Te quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terletskii, Oleg; Ryabchenko, Sergiy; Tereshchenko, Oleksandr [Institute of Physics NASU, pr. Nauki 46, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Sugakov, Volodymyr; Vertsimakha, Ganna [Institute for Nuclear Research NASU, pr. Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Karczewski, Grzegorz [Institute of Physics PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-05-15

    The photoluminescence (PL) from structures containing Cd{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}Te and CdTe quantum wells (QWs) separated by a narrow (1.94 nm) barrier was studied. The PL lines of comparable intensities from several possible exciton states were observed simultaneously at energy distances substantially exceeding kT. This means that the energy transfer in the studied systems is slower than the radiative recombination of the confined excitons. For the CdTe QW width of about 8.7-9 nm, indirect excitons with the electron and heavy hole chiefly localized in the CdTe and Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te QWs, respectively, were detected in the magnetic field. These indirect excitons have PL energy of about 10-20 meV above the PL line of the direct excitons in the CdTe QW. The observation of the PL from the indirect excitons which are not the lowest excitations in the structure is a distinctive feature of the system. Photoluminescence intensity dependence on the energy and the magnetic field. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. ERP ehk tarkvara, mis teab ja teeb kõike / Kadri Põdra, Randel Uibo, Heiti Kender

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põdra, Kadri

    2006-01-01

    ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) on majandustarkvara, mis võimaldab hallata ühtses süsteemis ettevõtte kõiki majandusandmeid ja äriprotsesse. Uuringufirma Faktum & Ariko poolt 2005. a. detsembris tehtud uuringust ERP-süsteemide kasutamise kohta Eesti suurettevõtetes. Lisatud statistilised diagrammid

  2. Tumor-specific chromosome mis-segregation controls cancer plasticity by maintaining tumor heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjie Hu

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy with chromosome instability is a cancer hallmark. We studied chromosome 7 (Chr7 copy number variation (CNV in gliomas and in primary cultures derived from them. We found tumor heterogeneity with cells having Chr7-CNV commonly occurs in gliomas, with a higher percentage of cells in high-grade gliomas carrying more than 2 copies of Chr7, as compared to low-grade gliomas. Interestingly, all Chr7-aneuploid cell types in the parental culture of established glioma cell lines reappeared in single-cell-derived subcultures. We then characterized the biology of three syngeneic glioma cultures dominated by different Chr7-aneuploid cell types. We found phenotypic divergence for cells following Chr7 mis-segregation, which benefited overall tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Mathematical modeling suggested the involvement of chromosome instability and interactions among cell subpopulations in restoring the optimal equilibrium of tumor cell types. Both our experimental data and mathematical modeling demonstrated that the complexity of tumor heterogeneity could be enhanced by the existence of chromosomes with structural abnormality, in addition to their mis-segregations. Overall, our findings show, for the first time, the involvement of chromosome instability in maintaining tumor heterogeneity, which underlies the enhanced growth, persistence and treatment resistance of cancers.

  3. Measurement of the suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of muons from heavy-flavor decays in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abhayasinghe, Deshan Kavishka; Abidi, Syed Haider; Abouzeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adiguzel, Aytul; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Afik, Yoav; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akilli, Ece; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Alderweireldt, Sara Caroline; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allaire, Corentin; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alvarez Piqueras, Damian; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Ambroz, Luca; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante Eric; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amoroso, Simone; Amrouche, Cherifa Sabrina; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anelli, Christopher Ryan; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anisenkov, Alexey; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Anthony, Matthew Thomas; Antonelli, Mario; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque Espinosa, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Araujo Pereira, Rodrigo; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Armstrong, Alexander Iii; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asimakopoulou, Eleni Myrto; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahmani, Marzieh; Baluch Bahrasemani, Sina; Bailey, Adam; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Bakalis, Christos; Baker, Keith; Bakker, Pepijn Johannes; Bakshi Gupta, Debottam; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Bandyopadhyay, Anjishnu; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barbe, William Mickael; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barkeloo, Jason Tylor Colt; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnea, Rotem; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batlamous, Souad; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bauer, Kevin Thomas; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Helge Christoph; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Ayda; Beddall, Andrew; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas Alfons; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behera, Arabinda; Behr, Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Bergsten, Laura Jean; Beringer, Juerg; Berlendis, Simon Paul; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Besjes, Geert-jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Betti, Alessandra; Bevan, Adrian John; Beyer, Julien-christopher; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Biswal, Jyoti Prakash; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolz, Arthur Eugen; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Bonilla, Johan Sebastian; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Bouaouda, Khalil; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozson, Adam James; Bracinik, Juraj; Brahimi, Nihal; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Braren, Frued; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Brickwedde, Bernard; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel Andreas; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Bruno, Salvatore; Brunt, Benjamin Hylton; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burch, Tyler James; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas; Buescher, Daniel; Buescher, Volker; Buschmann, Eric; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabras, Grazia; Cabrera Urban, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cai, Huacheng; Cairo, Valentina Maria; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Calvetti, Milene; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Cao, Yumeng; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carra, Sonia; Carrillo Montoya, German David; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casha, Albert Francis; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castillo, Florencia Luciana; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jue; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yu-heng; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Kingman; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, I-huan; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Yun Sang; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Michael Ryan; Clark, Philip James; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coimbra, Artur Cardoso; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Conde Muino, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Constantinescu, Serban; Conventi, Francesco; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Corradi, Massimo; Corrigan, Eric Edward; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Costa, Maria Jose; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Crane, Jonathan; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael Ann; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vincent; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto Gomez, Ana Rosario; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Curatolo, Maria; Cuth, Jakub; Czekierda, Sabina; Czodrowski, Patrick; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dahbi, Salah-eddine; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; D'amen, Gabriele; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Daneri, Maria Florencia; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dartsi, Olympia; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; D'Auria, Saverio; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davis, Douglas; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Demarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; D'eramo, Louis; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Devesa, Maria Roberta; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Bello, Francesco Armando; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Dias do vale, Tiago; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Dickinson, Jennet; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dittus, Fido; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobre, Monica; Dodsworth, David; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; D'onofrio, Adelina; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyer, Timo; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte Campderros, Jorge; Dubinin, Filipp; Dubreuil, Arnaud; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Duehrssen, Michael; Dulsen, Carsten; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duperrin, Arnaud; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Dueren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Duvnjak, Damir; Dyndal, Mateusz; Dysch, Samuel; Dziedzic, Bartosz Sebastian; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; El Kosseifi, Rima; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Epland, Matthew Berg; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Errede, Steven; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Estrada Pastor, Oscar; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Fabiani, Veronica; Facini, Gabriel John; Faisca Rodrigues Pereira, Rui Miguel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falke, Peter Johannes; Falke, Saskia; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; FARRELL, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Feickert, Matthew; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Minyu; Fenton, Michael James; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Cora; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy Mac Gregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores, Lucas Macrorie; Flores Castillo, Luis; Fomin, Nikolai; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Foerster, Fabian Alexander; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia Maria; Freund, Benjamin; Spolidoro Freund, Werner; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz Pawel; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadow, Paul Philipp; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram; Gamboa Goni, Rodrigo; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia Pascual, Juan Antonio; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gavrilyuk, Alexander; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Jannik; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Helene; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gessner, Gregor; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghasemi Bostanabad, Meisam; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiacomi, Nico; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gillberg, Dag Ingemar; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giulini, Maddalena; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos; Gkountoumis, Panagiotis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian Maximilian Volker; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Goncalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; Gonnella, Francesco; Gonski, Julia Lynne; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Goessling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gottardo, Carlo Alberto; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Goy, Corinne; Gozani, Eitan; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Graham, Emily Charlotte; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Chloe; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Jorn; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Grud, Christopher; Grummer, Aidan; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guerguichon, Antinea; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gugel, Ralf; Gui, Bin; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Guo, Ziyu; Gupta, Ruchi; Gurbuz, Saime; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutelman, Benjamin Jacque; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Han, Kunlin; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handl, David Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hankache, Robert; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Eva; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard; Hayden, Daniel; Hayes, Christopher; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Heath, Matthew Peter; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heer, Sebastian; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heilman, Jesse; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon Frank-thomas; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellesund, Simen; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernandez Jimenez, Yesenia; Herr, Holger; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higon-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hildebrand, Kevin; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hill, Kurt Keys; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hils, Maximilian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hlaluku, Dingane Reward; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Hohov, Dmytro; Holmes, Tova Ray; Holzbock, Michael; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Honle, Andreas; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horn, Philipp; Horton, Arthur James; Horyn, Lesya Anna; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hostiuc, Alexandru; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hrdinka, Julia; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huebner, Michael; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Huhtinen, Mika; Hunter, Robert Francis; Huo, Peng; Hupe, Andre Marc; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Hyneman, Rachel; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Igonkina, Olga; Iguchi, Ryunosuke; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Iltzsche Speiser, Franziska; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivina, Anna; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jacka, Petr; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jakel, Gunnar; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Goeran; Javadov, Namig; Javurek, Tomas; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeong, Jihyun; Jeske, Carl; Jezequel, Stephane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Morales, Fabricio Andres; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Junggeburth, Johannes Josef; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanjir, Luka; Kano, Yuya; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis Fawn; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John Stakely; Kellermann, Edgar; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kendrick, James Andrew; Kepka, Oldrich; Kersten, Susanne; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kiehn, Moritz; Kilby, Callum Robert; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitali, Vincent; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klitzner, Felix Fidelio; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith B F G; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Koehler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Natalia; Koeneke, Karsten; Koenig, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinides, Vasilis; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Konya, Balazs; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Konstantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krueger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kupfer, Tobias; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; La Ruffa, Francesco; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lack, David Philip John; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Joern Christian; Langenberg, Robert Johannes; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Tak Shun; Laudrain, Antoine; Law, Alexander Thomas; Laycock, Paul; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi Paul; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee JR, Lawrence; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Les, Robert; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Leveque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Quanyin; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liem Arvidsson, Sebastian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Chiao-ying; Lin, Kuan-yu; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-hua; Linck, Rebecca Anne; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Little, Jared David; Liu, Bo; Liu, Bingxuan; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Jesse Kar Kee; Liu, Kun; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Peilian; Liu, Yanwen; Liu, Yanlin; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loesle, Alena; Loew, Kevin Michael; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez Lopez, Jorge Andres; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Losel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, Xuanhong; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lozano Bahilo, Jose Julio; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Fred; Luise, Ilaria; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lutz, Margaret Susan; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyu, Feng; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, LianLiang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Madysa, Nico; Maeda, Jumpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magerl, Veronika; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amelia; Majersky, Oliver; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandic, Igor; Maneira, Jose; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mankinen, Katja Hannele; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Marceca, Gino; March Ruiz, Luis; Marchese, Luigi; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel Edison; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Ulf Fredrik Mikael; Marti i Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez Perez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mason, Lara Hannan; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Maettig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Macek, Bostjan; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie Iain; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Joshua Angus; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McKay, Madalyn Ann; McLean, Kayla Dawn; McMahon, Steve; Mcnamara, Peter Charles; Mcnicol, Christopher John; McPherson, Robert; Mdhluli, Joyful Elma; Meadows, Zachary Alden; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo Jean; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mellenthin, Johannes Donatus; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Melzer, Alexander; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Merlassino, Claudia; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuz, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Millar, Declan Andrew; Miller, David; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirto, Alessandro; Mistry, Khilesh Pradip; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjoernmark, Jan-Ulf; Mkrtchyan, Tigran; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Moenig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llacer, Maria; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, Alice Polyxeni; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paraschos; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey Andre; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murin, Pavel; Murray, Bill; Murrone, Alessia; Muskinja, Miha; Mwewa, Chilufya; Myagkov, Alexey; Myers, John; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanjo, Hajime; Napolitano, Fabrizio; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara Jean May; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Ng, Yan Wing; Nguyen, Hoang Dai Nghia; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nibigira, Emery; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nitsche, Isabel; Nitta, Tatsumi; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; BIN NORJOHARUDDEEN, Nurfikri; Novak, Tadej; Novgorodova, Olga; Novotny, Radek; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Abreu Juliao Ochoa De Castro, Maria Ines; Ochoa, Jean-pierre; O'Connor, Kelsey; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okazaki, Yuta; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver, Jason Lea; Olsson, Mats Joakim Robert; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; O'Neil, Dugan; Onofre, Antonio; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oppen, Henrik; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orgill, Emily Claire; Orlando, Nicola; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; O'Shea, Val; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacalt, Josef; Pacey, Holly Ann; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, Jose Guillermo; Pani, Priscilla; Panizzo, Giancarlo; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parida, Bibhuti; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pasuwan, Patrawan; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pathak, Atanu; Pauly, Thilo; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Diaz, Lucia; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Costa Batalha Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Sotto-Maior Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Pereira Peixoto, Ana Paula; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Peri, Francesco; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Reinhild; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettee, Mariel Nelson; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Pham, Thu; Phillips, Forrest Hays; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pitt, Michael; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Podberezko, Pavel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggi, Riccardo; Poggioli, Luc; Pogrebnyak, Ivan; Pohl, David-leon; Pokharel, Ishan; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Ponomarenko, Daniil; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Portillo Quintero, Dilia Maria; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potti, Harish; Poulsen, Trine; Poveda, Joaquin; Powell, Thomas Dennis; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proklova, Nadezda; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puri, Akshat; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Queitsch-maitland, Michaela; Qureshi, Anum; Rados, Petar Kevin; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rashid, Tasneem; Raspopov, Sergii; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel Mauricio; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravina, Baptiste; Ravinovich, Ilia; Rawling, Jacob Henry; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ripellino, Giulia; Ristic, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivera Vergara, Juan Cristobal; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocco, Elena; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Rodriguez Vera, Ana Maria; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Rohne, Ole; Roehrig, Rainer; Roland, Christophe Pol A; Roloff, Jennifer Kathryn; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-arne; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossini, Lorenzo; Rosten, Jonatan Hans; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Roy, Debarati; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Ruehr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Russell, Heather Lynn; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruttinger, Elias Michael; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Sabatini, Paolo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Sahu, Arunika; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakharov, Alexander; Salamani, Dalila; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sampsonidou, Despoina; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Christian Oliver; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval Usme, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sano, Yuta; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, Joao; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawada, Ryu; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Timothy Paul; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaefer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharmberg, Nicolas; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schenck, Ferdinand; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schildgen, Lara Katharina; Schillaci, Zachary Michael; Schioppa, Enrico Junior; Schioppa, Marco; Schleicher, Katharina; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scornajenghi, Matteo; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Scyboz, Ludovic Michel; Searcy, Jacob; Sebastiani, Cristiano David; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seiss, Todd; Seixas, Jose; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen Jacob; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Sen, Sourav; Senkin, Sergey; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shahinian, Jeffrey David; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Sharma, Abhishek; Sharma, Abhishek; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherafati, Nima; Sherman, Alexander David; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shipsey, Ian Peter Joseph; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, Jose Manuel; Silva, Manuel Jr; Silverstein, Samuel; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjoelin, Joergen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Nikita; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Soffa, Aaron Michael; Soffer, Abner; Sogaard, Andreas; Su, Daxian; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila- Serrano, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Weimin; Sopczak, Andre; Sopkova, Filomena; Sosa Corral, David Eduardo; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Sottocornola, Simone; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin Charles; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spano, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spiteri, Dwayne Patrick; Spousta, Martin; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapf, Birgit Sylvia; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon Holtsberg; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staerz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Stegler, Martin; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Thomas James; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara Kristina; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Stroehmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Struebig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Stupak, John; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultan, Dms; Sultanov, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian J; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sydorenko, Alexander; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc Bao; Tackmann, Kerstin; Kinghorn-taenzer, Joseph Peter; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Tahirovic, Elvedin; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takasugi, Eric Hayato; Takeda, Kosuke; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarek Abouelfadl Mohamed, Ahmed; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarna, Grigore; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Alan James; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Tee, Amy Selvi; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren Brian; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thais, Savannah Jennifer; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothee; Thiele, Fabian; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Stan; Thompson, Paul; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tian, Yun; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Todt, Stefanie; Tojo, Junji; Tokar, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomiwa, Kehinde Gbenga; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia; Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torro Pastor, Emma; Tosciri, Cecilia; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tresoldi, Fabio; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocme, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trovatelli, Monica; Trovato, Fabrizio; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsai, Fang-ying; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tzovara, Eftychia; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Uno, Kenta; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vadla, Knut Oddvar Hoie; Vaidya, Amal; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valente, Marco; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Vallance, Robert Adam; Vallier, Alexis Roger Louis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Daalen, Tal Roelof; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; Van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez Arenas, Gerardo Alexis; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Furelos, David; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Vecchio, Valentina; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Vergel Infante, Carlos Miguel; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Ambrosius Thomas; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Von Buddenbrock, Stefan Erich; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Sfiligoj, Tina; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Zenis, Tibor; Zivkovic, Lidija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner-kuhr, Jeannine; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakamiya, Kotaro; Walbrecht, Verena Maria; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Ann Miao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Peilong; Wang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Wang, Rongkun; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Weitao; Wang, Yufeng; Wang, Zirui; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Christian; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stephen Albert; Weber, Sebastian Mario; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weirich, Marcel; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Pippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Weston, Thomas Daniel; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Aaron; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Whitmore, Ben William; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Wilkins, Lewis Joseph; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkels, Emma; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Anton; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Vincent Wai Sum; Woods, Natasha Lee; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Hanlin; Xu, Lailin; Xu, Tairan; Xu, Wenhao; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yajima, Kazuki; Yallup, David Paul; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamane, Fumiya; Yamatani, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Siqi; Yang, Yi-lin; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yigitbasi, Efe; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Christopher John; Young, Charles; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yue, Xiaoguang; Yuen, Stephanie Pui Yan; Bin Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, George; Zaffaroni, Ettore; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; Zeissner, Sonja Verena; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zemaityte, Gabija; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Zerwas, Dirk; Zgubic, Miha; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, You; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Heling; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zhulanov, Vladimir; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zoch, Knut; Zorbas, Theodoros Georgio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS measurements of the production of muons from heavy-flavor decays in $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV Pb+Pb collisions and $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV $pp$ collisions at the LHC are presented. Integrated luminosities of 0.14 $\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$ and 570 $\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$ are used for the Pb+Pb and $pp$ measurements, respectively, which are performed over the muon transverse momentum range $4 < p_{\\mathrm{T}} < 14$ GeV and for five Pb+Pb centrality intervals. Backgrounds arising from in-flight pion and kaon decays, hadronic showers, and mis-reconstructed muons are statistically removed using a template-fitting procedure. The heavy-flavor muon differential cross-sections and per-event yields are measured in $pp$ and Pb+Pb collisions, respectively. The nuclear modification factor $R_{\\mathrm{AA}}$ obtained from these is observed to be independent of $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$, within uncertainties, and to be less than unity, which indicates suppressed production of heavy-flavor muons in Pb+Pb collisions. For the 1...

  4. Childhood (Mis)Fortune, Educational Attainment, and Adult Health: Contingent Benefits of a College Degree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…

  5. Investigations on the system Te/O/Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, H.; Kunze, G.; Wolf, E.; Titov, V.A.; Kokovin, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The melting point diagram of the system TeBr 4 -TeO 2 was obtained by total pressure measurements and DTA measurements. A congruent melting composition Te 6 O 11 Br 2 exists, the melting point is 570 0 C. The enthalpy of formation and the standard entropy of the species TeOBr 2 ,g was derived from measurements of the total pressure over Te 6 O 11 Br 2 /TeBr 4 and from the transport behaviour of the TeO 2 with Br 2 . From the decomposition-pressure measurements over Te 6 O 11 Br 2 /TeO 2 follow the partial pressures. The enthalpy of formation ΔH 0 (Te 6 O 11 Br 2 ,f,298) -453.5 kcal/Mol was obtained from the enthalpy of solution. The transport-behaviour of TeO 2 with HBr, TeBr 4 and Br 2 and that of Te 6 O 11 Br 2 is clear with the thermodynamic data of TeOBr 2 . (author)

  6. New chalcogenide glasses in the CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M. [Univ. Picardie Jules Verne, F-80000 Amiens (France); Le Coq, D., E-mail: david.lecoq@univ-littoral.fr [Univ. Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ULCO, LPCA, EA 4493, F-59140 Dunkerque (France); Boidin, R.; Bychkov, E. [Univ. Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ULCO, LPCA, EA 4493, F-59140 Dunkerque (France)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of macroscopic properties of the new CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of the total conductivity of CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between the selenide and telluride equivalent systems. -- Abstract: Chalcogenide glasses in the pseudo-ternary CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system were synthesized and the glass-forming range was determined. The maximum content of CdTe in this glass system was found to be equal to 15 mol.%. The macroscopic characterizations of samples have consisted in Differential Scanning Calorimetry, density, and X-ray diffraction measurements. The cadmium telluride addition does not generate any significant change in the glass transition temperature but the resistance of binary AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} glasses towards crystallisation is estimated to be decreasing on the base of {Delta}T = T{sub x} - T{sub g} parameter. The total electrical conductivity {sigma} was measured by complex impedance spectroscopy. First, the CdTe additions in the (AgI){sub 0.5}(As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub 0.5} host glass, (CdTe){sub x}(AgI){sub 0.5-x/2}(As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub 0.5-x/2} lead to a conductivity decrease at x {<=} 0.05. Then, the behaviour is reversed at 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.15. The obtained results are discussed by comparison with the equivalent selenide system.

  7. Matrix-controlled morphology evolution of Te inclusions in CdZnTe single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yihui; Jie, Wanqi; Xu, Yadong; Wang, Tao; Zha, Gangqiang; Yu, Pengfei; Zheng, Xin; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Hang

    2012-01-01

    The fine morphologies of microscale Te inclusions in CdZnTe single crystal were investigated to reveal their shape evolution. Such inclusions from crystal ingots with different post-growth cooling rates were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy after surface treatment. A tetrakaidecahedron model embodying {1 0 0} and {1 1 1} matrix facets was developed to interpret the form of the Te inclusions. An entire shape evolution process was also proposed where the final configuration of the Te inclusions was a tetrahedron comprising {1 1 1}B facets.

  8. Evaluation of Tp-Te Interval and Tp-Te/QT Ratio in Patients with Coronary Slow Flow Tp-Te/QT Ratio and Coronary Slow Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Karaagac, Kemal; Yontar, Osman Can; Agca, Fahriye Vatansever; Ozluk, Ozlem Arican; Tutuncu, Ahmet; Arslan, Burhan; Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2015-06-01

    Coronary slow flow (CSF) phenomenon is described by angiographically normal coronary arteries with delayed opacification of the distal vasculature. Several studies have suggested that the interval from the peak to the end of the electrocardiographic T wave (Tp-Te) may correspond to the transmural dispersion of the repolarization and that increased Tp-Te interval and Tp-Te/QT ratio are associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ventricular repolarization by using Tp-Te interval and Tp-Te/QT ratio in patients with CSF. This study included 50 CSF patients (40 male, mean age 48.6±12.5 years) and 40 control individuals (23 male, mean age 47.8±12.5 years). Tp-Te interval and Tp-Te/QT ratio were measured from the 12-lead electrocardiogram. These parameters were compared in groups. Baseline characteristics of the study groups were comparable. In electrocardiographic parameters analysis, QT and corrected QT were similar in CSF patients compared to the controls (357±35.2 vs 362±38.0 milliseconds and 419±25.8 vs 430±44.2 milliseconds, all p value >0.05). Tp-Te interval, Tp-Te/QT and Tp-Te/QTc ratio were significantly higher in CSF patients (85±13.7 vs 74±9.9 milliseconds and 0.24±0.03 vs 0.20±0.02 and 0.20±0.03 vs 0.17±0.02 all p value ratio are prolonged in patients with CSF.

  9. Effects of Te inclusions on charge-carrier transport properties in CdZnTe radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yaxu; Rong, Caicai; Xu, Yadong; Shen, Hao; Zha, Gangqiang; Wang, Ning; Lv, Haoyan; Li, Xinyi; Wei, Dengke; Jie, Wanqi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work reveals the behaviors of Te inclusion in affecting charge-carrier transport properties in CdZnTe detectors for the first time and analysis the mechanism therein. • The results show that charge collection efficiencies in Te inclusion degraded regions experience fast ascent under low biases and slow descent at high applied biases, which deviates from the Hecht rule. • This phenomenon is attributed to the competitive influence of two mechanisms under different biases, namely charge carrier trapping due to uniformly distributed point defects and Te inclusion induced transient charge loss. • A modified Hecht equation is further proposed to explain the effects of high-density localized defects, say Te inclusions, on the charge collection efficiency. • We believe that this research has wide appeal to analyze the macroscopic defects and their influence on charge transport properties in semiconductor radiation detectors. - Abstract: The influence of tellurium (Te) inclusions on the charge collection efficiency in cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) detectors has been investigated using ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique. Combining the analysis of infrared transmittance image, most of the low charge collection areas in the IBIC images prove the existence of Te inclusions. To further clarify the role of Te inclusions on charge transport properties, bias dependent local IBIC scan was performed on Te inclusion related regions from 20 V to 500 V. The result shows that charge collection efficiencies in Te inclusion degraded regions experience fast ascent under low biases and slow descent at high applied biases, which deviates from Hecht rule. This behavior is attributed to the competitive influence of two mechanisms under different biases, namely charge carrier trapping due to uniformly distributed point defects and Te inclusion induced transient charge loss. A modified Hecht equation is further proposed to explain the effects of high

  10. Interest (mis)alignments in representative negotiations: Do pro-social agents fuel or reduce inter-group conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaldering, H.; Greer, L.L.; van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2013-01-01

    In representative negotiations, interests of the representative and the represented constituency are not always aligned. We investigated how interest (mis)alignment and representative’s social value orientation influence representative negotiations. Past theory and research on the principal-agent

  11. Structural and electric properties of AgGaTe{sub 2} layers prepared using mixed source of Ag{sub 2}Te and Ga{sub 2}Te{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uruno, Aya [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Kagami Memorial Research Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    AgGaTe{sub 2} layers were prepared on Si substrates by a closed space sublimation method using a mixed powder source of Ag{sub 2}Te and Ga{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. Ag{sub 2}Te buffer layer deposition was introduced to eliminate melt-back etching. The effect of the molar ratio of Ag{sub 2}Te and Ga{sub 2}Te{sub 3} in the mixed source on the crystallinity of the AgGaTe{sub 2} layer was investigated. The composition and the phase of the layer was found to change depending on the molar ratio in the deposits, which could be controlled by the source molar ratio along with the Ag{sub 2}Te buffer layer thickness. It was confirmed that (112) oriented uniform AgGaTe{sub 2} layer with an abrupt interface between AgGaTe{sub 2} and Si was formed after those parameters were tuned. The obtained layer exhibited the acceptor concentration of around 2.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. A solar cell was fabricated using the p-AgGaTe{sub 2}/n-Si heterojunction, and exhibited a conversion efficiency of 1.15%. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Correction of diagnostic x-ray spectra measured with CdTe and CdZnTe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Kanamori, H; Toragaito, T; Taniguchi, A

    1996-07-01

    We modified the formula of stripping procedure presented by E. Di. Castor et al. We added the Compton scattering and separated K{sub {alpha}} radiation of Cd and Te (23 and 27keV, respectively). Using the new stripping procedure diagnostic x-ray spectra (object 4mm-Al) of tube voltage 50kV to 100kV for CdTe and CdZnTe detectors are corrected with comparison of those spectra for the Ge detector. The corrected spectra for CdTe and CdZnTe detectors coincide with those for Ge detector at lower tube voltage than 70kV. But the corrected spectra at higher tube voltage than 70kV do not coincide with those for Ge detector. The reason is incomplete correction for full energy peak efficiencies of real CdTe and CdZnTe detectors. (J.P.N.)

  13. Timing of the onset of MIS 11 revealed by speleothem in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hsun-Ming; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Michel, Véronique; Kano, Akihiro

    2017-04-01

    The interglacial period, known as Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS 11, 428-397 thousand years ago), is often considered as a potential analogue for future climate projection because of the similar patterns of insolation variability. However, studies on mechanisms of the onset of MIS 11 (called Termination V, T-V) in response to insolation increase is still hampered by a lack of good dating materials in paleoclimate archives, despite a stack of East Asian monsoon records with precise U-Th dates has been proposed. Previous studies suggested the δ18O value registered in speleothems in Mediterranean realm can be a good bridge connecting the U-Th-based age model of speleothem to marine cores from Mediterranean sea, which opens a new possibility to detect ocean-atmosphere/internal-external forcing interaction beyond 14C dating limitation. Here we present a new speleothem δ18O record from northern Italy covering 500-300 thousand years ago. The results show a similar pattern with δ18O records of marine cores around Mediterranean. The age model of the speleothem hence provides an opportunity for tuning the marine cores, which could improve our understanding of relationship between global atmosphere and ocean circulations.

  14. A new type of one-dimensional compound: Structure of Nb4(Te2)4Te4I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Shuiquan; Zhuang Honghui; Lu Canzhong; Huang Jinshun; Huang Jingling

    1993-01-01

    The new infinite-chain niobium telluride iodide has been prepared by reaction of the elements at 893 K. Nb 4 (Te 2 ) 4 Te 4 I represents a new one-dimensional structure type. The structure consists of [Nb 4 (Te 2 ) 4 Te 4 I] ∞ chains which are formed by the four-nuclear butterfly cluster units 'Nb 4 (Te 2 ) 4 Te 4 ' with the I atoms bridging between different cluster units. (orig.)

  15. High thermoelectric potential of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} alloyed GeTe-rich phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madar, Naor; Givon, Tom; Mogilyansky, Dmitry; Gelbstein, Yaniv [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2016-07-21

    In an attempt to reduce our reliance on fossil fuels, associated with severe environmental effects, the current research is focused on the identification of the thermoelectric potential of p-type (GeTe){sub 1−x}(Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub x} alloys, with x values of up to 20%. Higher solubility limit of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} in GeTe, than previously reported, was identified around ∼9%, extending the doping potential of GeTe by the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} donor dopant, for an effective compensation of the high inherent hole concentration of GeTe toward thermoelectrically optimal values. Around the solubility limit of 9%, an electronic optimization resulted in an impressive maximal thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, of ∼1.55 at ∼410 °C, which is one of the highest ever reported for any p-type GeTe-rich alloys. Beyond the solubility limit, a Fermi Level Pinning effect of stabilizing the Seebeck coefficient was observed in the x = 12%–17% range, leading to stabilization of the maximal ZTs over an extended temperature range; an effect that was associated with the potential of the governed highly symmetric Ge{sub 8}Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 11} and Ge{sub 4}Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 7} phases to create high valence band degeneracy with several bands and multiple hole pockets on the Fermi surface. At this compositional range, co-doping with additional dopants, creating shallow impurity levels (in contrast to the deep lying level created by Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}), was suggested for further electronic optimization of the thermoelectric properties.

  16. Preparation and dielectric investigation of organic metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) structures with a ferroelectric polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbitz, Rene; Fruebing, Peter; Gerhard, Reimund [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam (Germany); Taylor, Martin [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Ferroelectric field effect transistors (FeFETs) offer the prospect of an organic-based memory device. Since the charge transport in the semiconductor is confined to the interface region between the insulator and the semiconductor, the focus of the present study was on the investigation of this region in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors using dielectric spectroscopy. Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) measurements at different frequencies as well as capacitance-frequency (C-f) measurements after applying different poling voltages were carried out. The C-V measurements yielded information about the frequency dependence of the depletion layer width as well as the number of charges stored at the semiconductor/ insulator interface. The results are compared to numerical calculations based on a model introduced by S. L. Miller (JAP, 72(12), 1992). The C-f measurements revealed three main relaxation processes. An equivalent circuit has been developed to model the frequency response of the MIS capacitor. With this model the origin of the three relaxations may be deduced.

  17. Analysis of frequency-dependent series resistance and interface states of In/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si (MIS) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkan Selcuk, A. [Department of Nuclear Electronics and Instrumentation, Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06983 Saray, Ankara (Turkey); Tugluoglu, N. [Department of Nuclear Electronics and Instrumentation, Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06983 Saray, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ntuglu@taek.gov.tr; Karadeniz, S.; Bilge Ocak, S. [Department of Nuclear Electronics and Instrumentation, Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06983 Saray, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-11-15

    In this work, the investigation of the interface state density and series resistance from capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/{omega}-V) characteristics in In/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures with thin interfacial insulator layer have been reported. The thickness of SiO{sub 2} film obtained from the measurement of the oxide capacitance corrected for series resistance in the strong accumulation region is 220 A. The forward and reverse bias C-V and G/{omega}-V characteristics of MIS structures have been studied at the frequency range 30 kHz-1 MHz at room temperature. The frequency dispersion in capacitance and conductance can be interpreted in terms of the series resistance (R{sub s}) and interface state density (D{sub it}) values. Both the series resistance R{sub s} and density of interface states D{sub it} are strongly frequency-dependent and decrease with increasing frequency. The distribution profile of R{sub s}-V gives a peak at low frequencies in the depletion region and disappears with increasing frequency. Experimental results show that the interfacial polarization contributes to the improvement of the dielectric properties of In/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si MIS structures. The interface state density value of In/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si MIS diode calculated at strong accumulation region is 1.11x10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at 1 MHz. It is found that the calculated value of D{sub it} ({approx}10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2}) is not high enough to pin the Fermi level of the Si substrate disrupting the device operation.

  18. Comparison of degree of postoperative muscle damage between MIS-TLIF- and PLIF treatment for single-level degenerative lumbar disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the postoperative muscle damage after either posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF or minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF with the aid of X-Tube system in patients with singlelevel degenerative lumbar spinal disease. Methods The clinical data of 52 patients (males 28, females 24, aged 54.3±7.8 years with single-level degenerative lumbar spinal disease undergoing MIS-TLIF assisted by the X-Tube system from Oct 2010 to Sep 2011 was analyzed retrospectively. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative drainage volume, postoperative bedtime, and serum creatine kinase (CK level 1 day before surgery and 1, 3 and 5 days after surgery were recorded and compared with those of 38 patients (males 20, females 18, aged 51.6±8.6 years with the same disease undergoing conventional open PLIF during the corresponding period. The back pain visual analogue score (VAS, Oswestry disability index (ODI score and imaging examination were performed before operation, after operation and during follow-up duration for each patient. Results There was no significant difference in the gender, age, clinical diagnosis, lesion location, preoperative CK level, VAS and ODI scores between the two groups (P>0.05. The operative time was longer in MIS-TLIF group than in PLIF group (P0.05. Radiological followup observation revealed good fusion 6 months after operation in all the patients. Conclusion The X-Tube-assisted MIS-TLIF has several advantages over conventional open PLIF, such as less intraoperative blood loss, milder muscle damage, and lighter back pain. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.04

  19. Low-temperature sintering and microwave dielectric properties of Al2TeO6–TeO2 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagomiya, Isao; Kodama, Yuichiro; Shimizu, Yukihiro; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi; Ohsato, Hitoshi; Miyauchi, Yasuharu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first study of dielectric properties of Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 sintered at 900 °C. • The sintering at 900 °C contributed to densification, but it causes TeO 2 evaporation. • The annealing at 750 °C was effective for the further densification. • The both ε r and Q · f in the Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 were improved with the annealing. - Abstract: We propose Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 ceramics as a candidate for use as low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC). We investigated microwave dielectric properties and low-temperature sintering conditions for Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 ceramics. The calcined Al 2 TeO 6 powders were sintered at 900 °C for 2–10 h with 30–50 wt% additive TeO 2 . X-ray powder diffraction patterns showed that the sintered samples were Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 composite with no other phase. The apparent density was improved with the additive TeO 2 content of up to 45 wt%. The dielectric constant (ε r ) increased by adding TeO 2 content from 35 to 45 wt%, although the quality factor (Q · f) decreased. During sintering at 900 °C, the ε r of the Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 decreased slightly, whereas the Q · f increased gradually. The observed microstructures showed that the longer sintering time makes fewer pores in Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 ceramics. Sintering at 900 °C for a long time contributes to densification, but it simultaneously causes TeO 2 evaporation. To prevent TeO 2 evaporation, we investigated the effects of annealing at 750 °C after sintering at 900 °C. Apparent densities or ε r for the annealed samples were higher than those of the non-annealed samples. The Q · f improved with increasing annealing duration time, suggesting that sintering proceeded well during annealing with slower TeO 2 evaporation at 750 °C. The results show that annealing at 750 °C is effective to facilitate sintering and to control TeO 2 evaporation

  20. Molecular beam epitaxy of iodine-doped CdTe and (CdMg)Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F.; Waag, A.; Litz, Th.; Scholl, S.; Schmitt, M.; Landwehr, G. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Bilger, G. (Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie und Wasserstofforschung, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1994-08-01

    The n-type doping of CdTe and (CdMg)Te by the use of the solid dopant source material ZnI[sub 2] is reported. Doping levels as high as 7x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] have been obtained in CdTe with carrier mobilities around 500 cm[sup 2]/V[center dot]s at room temperature. For a dopant incorporation higher than 1x10[sup 19] cm[sup -3] the free carrier concentration decreases, indicating the onset of a compensation mechanism, which is observed in the case of chlorine and bromine doping, too. Preliminary experiments show that with increasing Mg concentration the free carrier concentration decreases. Nevertheless, CdMgTe with a magnesium concentration x=0.37 (band gap 2.2 eV at room temperature) can be doped up to 2x10[sup 17] cm[sup -3]. The existence of deep donor levels in this CdTe based ternary is not supposed to be the only reason for the reduction of the free carrier concentration. For high Mg support during molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of wide gap (CdMg)Te layers, the ZnI[sub 2] incorporation is reduced, leading to low doping levels, too

  1. Determination of K shell fluorescence cross-section and Kβ/Kα intensity ratios for Fe, Se, Te, FeSe, FeTe and TeSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saydam, M.; Aksoy, C.; Cengiz, E.; Alaşalvar, C.; Tıraşoğlu, E.; Apaydın, G.

    2012-01-01

    The fluorescence cross-sections (σ Ki ) and the intensity ratios K β /K α for pure Fe, Se, Te elements and FeSe, FeTe, TeSe complexes have been investigated. The samples were excited by 59.5 keV γ-rays from 241 Am annular radioactive source and emitted X-rays. They were counted by an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. For pure elements results have been compared with the theoretical calculated values. According to our results band length and mutual interaction of atoms affected the results. We claimed that these effects would help researchers who study on superconductors, especially determining which compound can be show the superconductor properties. - Highlights: ► TeSe, FeSe and FeTe complexes have affected each other in terms of charge transfer. ► Fe excitement and enhancement have been made by Se and Te. ► Attractive interactions between electrons can help to becoming superconductivity.

  2. Fabrication of Te and Te-Au Nanowires-Based Carbon Fiber Fabrics for Antibacterial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Mao Chou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria that give rise to diseases every year remain a major health concern. In recent years, tellurium-based nanomaterials have been approved as new and efficient antibacterial agents. In this paper, we developed the approach to directly grow tellurium nanowires (Te NWs onto commercial carbon fiber fabrics and demonstrated their antibacterial activity. Those Te NWs can serve as templates and reducing agents for gold nanoparticles (Au NPs to deposit. Three different Te-Au NWs with varied concentration of Au NPs were synthesized and showed superior antibacterial activity and biocompability. These results indicate that the as-prepared carbon fiber fabrics with Te and Te-Au NWs can become antimicrobial clothing products in the near future.

  3. Delineation of phase fields at the Te-rich end of the Ru Te binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali (Basu), M.; Bharadwaj, S. R.; Das, D.

    2005-04-01

    The tellurium rich side of the ruthenium-tellurium binary system was studied by differential thermal analysis. To avoid reported problems of Te loss by evaporation and reactive interference of Te to the thermocouples of the thermal analyzer, the present study made use of specially designed sealed quartz capsules as DTA containers. The thermal analyses were carried out over the compositional range of 0.66 ⩽ xTe ⩽ 1.00 with the help of SETARAM TG/DTA and other indigenously built thermal analyzers available in this laboratory. The thermal data generated for fifteen different compositions were interpreted for the nature of phase transitions occurring at their characteristic temperatures. The Ru-Te binary system was found to have a eutectic transformation at 444 °C at a composition of xTe = 0.918 and a monotectic transformation at 447 °C at a composition of xTe = 0.700. Up to 6 at.% Ru is soluble in Te at about 440 °C.

  4. Delineation of phase fields at the Te-rich end of the Ru-Te binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Bharadwaj, S.R.; Das, D.

    2005-01-01

    The tellurium rich side of the ruthenium-tellurium binary system was studied by differential thermal analysis. To avoid reported problems of Te loss by evaporation and reactive interference of Te to the thermocouples of the thermal analyzer, the present study made use of specially designed sealed quartz capsules as DTA containers. The thermal analyses were carried out over the compositional range of 0.66 x Te 1.00 with the help of SETARAM TG/DTA and other indigenously built thermal analyzers available in this laboratory. The thermal data generated for fifteen different compositions were interpreted for the nature of phase transitions occurring at their characteristic temperatures. The Ru-Te binary system was found to have a eutectic transformation at 444 deg. C at a composition of x Te = 0.918 and a monotectic transformation at 447 deg. C at a composition of x Te = 0.700. Up to 6 at.% Ru is soluble in Te at about 440 deg. C

  5. Modelling silicon supply during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e) at Lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzo, V. N.; Swann, G. E. A.; Mackay, A. W.; Pashley, V.; Horstwood, M. S. A.

    2018-06-01

    Limnological reconstructions of primary productivity have demonstrated its response over Quaternary timescales to drivers such as climate change, landscape evolution and lake ontogeny. In particular, sediments from Lake Baikal, Siberia, provide a valuable uninterrupted and continuous sequence of biogenic silica (BSi) records, which document orbital and sub-orbital frequencies of regional climate change. We here extend these records via the application of stable isotope analysis of silica in diatom opal (δ30Sidiatom) from sediments covering the Last Interglacial cycle (Marine Isotope Stage [MIS] 5e; c. 130 to 115 ka BP) as a means to test the hypothesis that it was more productive than the Holocene. δ30Sidiatom data for the Last Interglacial range between +1.29 and +1.78‰, with highest values between c. 127 to 124 ka BP (+1.57 to +1.78‰). Results show that diatom dissolved silicon (DSi) utilisation, was significantly higher (p = 0.001) during MIS 5e than the current interglacial, which reflects increased diatom productivity over this time (concomitant with high diatom biovolume accumulation rates [BVAR] and warmer pollen-inferred vegetation reconstructions). Diatom BVAR are used, in tandem with δ30Sidiatom data, to model DSi supply to Lake Baikal surface waters, which shows that highest delivery was between c. 123 to 120 ka BP (reaching peak supply at c. 120 ka BP). When constrained by sedimentary mineralogical archives of catchment weathering indices (e.g. the Hydrolysis Index), data highlight the small degree of weathering intensity and therefore representation that catchment-weathering DSi sources had, over the duration of MIS 5e. Changes to DSi supply are therefore attributed to variations in within-lake conditions (e.g. turbulent mixing) over the period, where periods of both high productivity and modelled-DSi supply (e.g. strong convective mixing) account for the decreasing trend in δ30Sidiatom compositions (after c. 124 ka BP).

  6. Superstrengthening Bi2Te3 through Nanotwinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guodong; Aydemir, Umut; Morozov, Sergey I.; Wood, Max; An, Qi; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie; Goddard, William A.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2017-08-01

    Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3 ) based thermoelectric (TE) materials have been commercialized successfully as solid-state power generators, but their low mechanical strength suggests that these materials may not be reliable for long-term use in TE devices. Here we use density functional theory to show that the ideal shear strength of Bi2Te3 can be significantly enhanced up to 215% by imposing nanoscale twins. We reveal that the origin of the low strength in single crystalline Bi2Te3 is the weak van der Waals interaction between the Te1 coupling two Te 1 - Bi - Te 2 - Bi - Te 1 five-layer quint substructures. However, we demonstrate here a surprising result that forming twin boundaries between the Te1 atoms of adjacent quints greatly strengthens the interaction between them, leading to a tripling of the ideal shear strength in nanotwinned Bi2Te3 (0.6 GPa) compared to that in the single crystalline material (0.19 GPa). This grain boundary engineering strategy opens a new pathway for designing robust Bi2Te3 TE semiconductors for high-performance TE devices.

  7. A Modified Protocol with Improved Detection Rate for Mis-Matched Donor HLA from Low Quantities of DNA in Urine Samples from Kidney Graft Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Kwok

    Full Text Available Urine from kidney transplant recipient has proven to be a viable source for donor DNA. However, an optimized protocol would be required to determine mis-matched donor HLA specificities in view of the scarcity of DNA obtained in some cases.In this study, fresh early morning urine specimens were obtained from 155 kidney transplant recipients with known donor HLA phenotype. DNA was extracted and typing of HLA-A, B and DRB1 loci by polymerase chain reaction-specific sequence primers was performed using tailor-made condition according to the concentration of extracted DNA.HLA typing of DNA extracted from urine revealed both recipient and donor HLA phenotypes, allowing the deduction of the unknown donor HLA and hence the degree of HLA mis-match. By adopting the modified procedures, mis-matched donor HLA phenotypes were successfully deduced in all of 35 tested urine samples at DNA quantities spanning the range of 620-24,000 ng.This urine-based method offers a promising and reliable non-invasive means for the identification of mis-matched donor HLA antigens in kidney transplant recipients with unknown donor HLA phenotype or otherwise inadequate donor information.

  8. Montreal Cognitive Assessment Memory Index Score (MoCA-MIS) as a predictor of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julayanont, Parunyou; Brousseau, Mélanie; Chertkow, Howard; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S

    2014-04-01

    To assess the usefulness of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) total score (MoCA-TS) and Memory Index Score (MoCA-MIS) in predicting conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Retrospective chart review. Community-based memory clinic. Individuals meeting Petersen's MCI criteria (N = 165). Baseline MoCA scores at MCI diagnosis were collected from charts of eligible individuals with MCI, and MoCA-TS, MoCA-MIS, and a cognitive domain index score were calculated to assess their prognostic value in predicting conversion to AD. One hundred fourteen participants progressed to AD (MCI-AD), and 51 did not (nonconverters; MCI-NC); 90.5% of participants with MCI with a MoCA-TS less than 20/30 and a MoCA-MIS less than 7/15 at baseline converted to AD within the average follow-up period of 18 months, compared with 52.7% of participants with MCI above the cutoffs on both scores. Individuals with multiple-domain amnestic MCI had the highest AD conversion rates (73.9%). Identifying individuals with MCI at high risk of conversion to AD is important clinically and for selecting appropriate subjects for therapeutic trials. Individuals with MCI with a low MoCA-TS and a low newly devised memory index score (MoCA-MIS) are at greater risk of short-term conversion to AD. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Electronic structure of Fe1.08Te bulk crystals and epitaxial FeTe thin films on Bi2Te3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Fabian; Warmuth, Jonas; Michiardi, Matteo; Fikáček, Jan; Bianchi, Marco; Hu, Jin; Mao, Zhiqiang; Miwa, Jill; Singh, Udai Raj; Bremholm, Martin; Wiesendanger, Roland; Honolka, Jan; Wehling, Tim; Wiebe, Jens; Hofmann, Philip

    2018-02-01

    The electronic structure of thin films of FeTe grown on Bi2Te3 is investigated using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and first principles calculations. As a comparison, data from cleaved bulk Fe1.08Te taken under the same experimental conditions is also presented. Due to the substrate and thin film symmetry, FeTe thin films grow on Bi2Te3 in three domains, rotated by 0°, 120°, and 240°. This results in a superposition of photoemission intensity from the domains, complicating the analysis. However, by combining bulk and thin film data, it is possible to partly disentangle the contributions from three domains. We find a close similarity between thin film and bulk electronic structure and an overall good agreement with first principles calculations, assuming a p-doping shift of 65 meV for the bulk and a renormalization factor of around two. By tracking the change of substrate electronic structure upon film growth, we find indications of an electron transfer from the FeTe film to the substrate. No significant change of the film’s electronic structure or doping is observed when alkali atoms are dosed onto the surface. This is ascribed to the film’s high density of states at the Fermi energy. This behavior is also supported by the ab initio calculations.

  10. High performance p-i-n CdTe and CdZnTe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Khusainov, A K; Ilves, A G; Morozov, V F; Pustovoit, A K; Arlt, R D

    1999-01-01

    A breakthrough in the performance of p-i-n CdTe and CdZnTe detectors is reported. The detector stability has been significantly improved, allowing their use in precise gamma and XRF applications. Detectors with energy resolution close to Si and Ge were produced operating with only -30--35 deg. C cooling (by a Peltier cooler of 15x15x10 mm size and a consumed power less than 5 W). Presently detectors with volume of up to 300 mm sup 3 are available. In terms of photoelectric effect efficiency it corresponds to HPGe detectors with volumes of about 1.5 cm sup 3. The possibilities of further improvement of CdTe and CdZnTe detector characteristics are discussed in this paper.

  11. A Study of the Subject Categorization of the MIS-related Journals in the ISI Databases Using Topical Features in the Text Content and Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed and discussed that the MIS-related journals under the ISI subject category of IS&LS are simultaneously given with subject category Management, using methods of topic modeling, journal clustering and subject category prediction. In the experiment of journal clustering, all journals under subject category Management and other journals also having similar topical features can be gathered into a cluster, and “management” is their common and the most distinct topic. Because the journals belonged to this cluster are almost same to those in the MIS clusters generated by the previous studies, we considered it as the MIS cluster in this study. In the second experiment, we used the classification and regression tree (CART technique to predict assignment of subject category with that the journals in the original subject category Management and in the MIS cluster produced in this study as positive examples, respectively. The trees generated by the two tests both used the occurring probabilities of the topic “management” as the main classification rule. However, in the latter test, we did not only obtain a simpler classification tree but also had a result with less predicting errors. This means that if all journals in the MIS cluster could be given with subject category Management, the retrieval results can be more effective and complete.

  12. Measurement of the suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of muons from heavy-flavor decays in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abhayasinghe, Deshan Kavishka; Abidi, Syed Haider; Abouzeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adiguzel, Aytul; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Afik, Yoav; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akilli, Ece; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Alderweireldt, Sara Caroline; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allaire, Corentin; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alvarez Piqueras, Damian; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Ambroz, Luca; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante Eric; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amoroso, Simone; Amrouche, Cherifa Sabrina; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anelli, Christopher Ryan; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anisenkov, Alexey; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Anthony, Matthew Thomas; Antonelli, Mario; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque Espinosa, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Araujo Pereira, Rodrigo; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Armstrong, Alexander Iii; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asimakopoulou, Eleni Myrto; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahmani, Marzieh; Baluch Bahrasemani, Sina; Bailey, Adam; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Bakalis, Christos; Baker, Keith; Bakker, Pepijn Johannes; Bakshi Gupta, Debottam; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Bandyopadhyay, Anjishnu; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barbe, William Mickael; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barkeloo, Jason Tylor Colt; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnea, Rotem; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batlamous, Souad; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bauer, Kevin Thomas; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Helge Christoph; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Ayda; Beddall, Andrew; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas Alfons; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behera, Arabinda; Behr, Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Bergsten, Laura Jean; Beringer, Juerg; Berlendis, Simon Paul; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Besjes, Geert-jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Betti, Alessandra; Bevan, Adrian John; Beyer, Julien-christopher; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Biswal, Jyoti Prakash; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolz, Arthur Eugen; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Bonilla, Johan Sebastian; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Bouaouda, Khalil; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozson, Adam James; Bracinik, Juraj; Brahimi, Nihal; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Braren, Frued; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Brickwedde, Bernard; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel Andreas; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Bruno, Salvatore; Brunt, Benjamin Hylton; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burch, Tyler James; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas; Buescher, Daniel; Buescher, Volker; Buschmann, Eric; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabras, Grazia; Cabrera Urban, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cai, Huacheng; Cairo, Valentina Maria; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Calvetti, Milene; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Cao, Yumeng; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carra, Sonia; Carrillo Montoya, German David; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casha, Albert Francis; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castillo, Florencia Luciana; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jue; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yu-heng; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Kingman; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, I-huan; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Yun Sang; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Michael Ryan; Clark, Philip James; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coimbra, Artur Cardoso; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Conde Muino, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Constantinescu, Serban; Conventi, Francesco; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Corradi, Massimo; Corrigan, Eric Edward; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Costa, Maria Jose; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Crane, Jonathan; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael Ann; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vincent; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto Gomez, Ana Rosario; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Curatolo, Maria; Cuth, Jakub; Czekierda, Sabina; Czodrowski, Patrick; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dahbi, Salah-eddine; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; D'amen, Gabriele; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Daneri, Maria Florencia; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dartsi, Olympia; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; D'Auria, Saverio; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davis, Douglas; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Demarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; D'eramo, Louis; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Devesa, Maria Roberta; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Bello, Francesco Armando; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Dias do vale, Tiago; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Dickinson, Jennet; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dittus, Fido; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobre, Monica; Dodsworth, David; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; D'onofrio, Adelina; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyer, Timo; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte Campderros, Jorge; Dubinin, Filipp; Dubreuil, Arnaud; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Duehrssen, Michael; Dulsen, Carsten; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duperrin, Arnaud; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Dueren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Duvnjak, Damir; Dyndal, Mateusz; Dysch, Samuel; Dziedzic, Bartosz Sebastian; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; El Kosseifi, Rima; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Epland, Matthew Berg; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Errede, Steven; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Estrada Pastor, Oscar; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Fabiani, Veronica; Facini, Gabriel John; Faisca Rodrigues Pereira, Rui Miguel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falke, Peter Johannes; Falke, Saskia; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; FARRELL, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Feickert, Matthew; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Minyu; Fenton, Michael James; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Cora; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy Mac Gregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores, Lucas Macrorie; Flores Castillo, Luis; Fomin, Nikolai; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Foerster, Fabian Alexander; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia Maria; Freund, Benjamin; Spolidoro Freund, Werner; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz Pawel; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadow, Paul Philipp; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram; Gamboa Goni, Rodrigo; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia Pascual, Juan Antonio; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gavrilyuk, Alexander; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Jannik; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Helene; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gessner, Gregor; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghasemi Bostanabad, Meisam; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiacomi, Nico; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gillberg, Dag Ingemar; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giulini, Maddalena; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos; Gkountoumis, Panagiotis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian Maximilian Volker; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Goncalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; Gonnella, Francesco; Gonski, Julia Lynne; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Goessling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gottardo, Carlo Alberto; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Goy, Corinne; Gozani, Eitan; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Graham, Emily Charlotte; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Chloe; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Jorn; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Grud, Christopher; Grummer, Aidan; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guerguichon, Antinea; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gugel, Ralf; Gui, Bin; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Guo, Ziyu; Gupta, Ruchi; Gurbuz, Saime; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutelman, Benjamin Jacque; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Han, Kunlin; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handl, David Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hankache, Robert; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Eva; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard; Hayden, Daniel; Hayes, Christopher; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Heath, Matthew Peter; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heer, Sebastian; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heilman, Jesse; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon Frank-thomas; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellesund, Simen; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernandez Jimenez, Yesenia; Herr, Holger; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higon-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hildebrand, Kevin; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hill, Kurt Keys; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hils, Maximilian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hlaluku, Dingane Reward; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Hohov, Dmytro; Holmes, Tova Ray; Holzbock, Michael; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Honle, Andreas; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horn, Philipp; Horton, Arthur James; Horyn, Lesya Anna; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hostiuc, Alexandru; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hrdinka, Julia; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huebner, Michael; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Huhtinen, Mika; Hunter, Robert Francis; Huo, Peng; Hupe, Andre Marc; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Hyneman, Rachel; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Igonkina, Olga; Iguchi, Ryunosuke; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Iltzsche Speiser, Franziska; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivina, Anna; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jacka, Petr; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jakel, Gunnar; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Goeran; Javadov, Namig; Javurek, Tomas; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeong, Jihyun; Jeske, Carl; Jezequel, Stephane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Morales, Fabricio Andres; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Junggeburth, Johannes Josef; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanjir, Luka; Kano, Yuya; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis Fawn; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John Stakely; Kellermann, Edgar; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kendrick, James Andrew; Kepka, Oldrich; Kersten, Susanne; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kiehn, Moritz; Kilby, Callum Robert; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitali, Vincent; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klitzner, Felix Fidelio; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith B F G; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Koehler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Natalia; Koeneke, Karsten; Koenig, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinides, Vasilis; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Konya, Balazs; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Konstantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krueger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kupfer, Tobias; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; La Ruffa, Francesco; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lack, David Philip John; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Joern Christian; Langenberg, Robert Johannes; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Tak Shun; Laudrain, Antoine; Law, Alexander Thomas; Laycock, Paul; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi Paul; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee JR, Lawrence; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Les, Robert; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Leveque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Quanyin; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liem Arvidsson, Sebastian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Chiao-ying; Lin, Kuan-yu; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-hua; Linck, Rebecca Anne; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Little, Jared David; Liu, Bo; Liu, Bingxuan; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Jesse Kar Kee; Liu, Kun; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Peilian; Liu, Yanwen; Liu, Yanlin; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loesle, Alena; Loew, Kevin Michael; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez Lopez, Jorge Andres; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Losel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, Xuanhong; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lozano Bahilo, Jose Julio; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Fred; Luise, Ilaria; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lutz, Margaret Susan; Luzi, Pierre Marc; 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Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarek Abouelfadl Mohamed, Ahmed; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarna, Grigore; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Alan James; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Tee, Amy Selvi; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren Brian; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thais, Savannah Jennifer; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothee; Thiele, Fabian; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Stan; Thompson, Paul; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tian, Yun; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Todt, Stefanie; Tojo, Junji; Tokar, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomiwa, Kehinde Gbenga; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia; Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torro Pastor, Emma; Tosciri, Cecilia; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tresoldi, Fabio; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocme, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trovatelli, Monica; Trovato, Fabrizio; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsai, Fang-ying; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tzovara, Eftychia; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Uno, Kenta; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vadla, Knut Oddvar Hoie; Vaidya, Amal; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valente, Marco; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Vallance, Robert Adam; Vallier, Alexis Roger Louis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Daalen, Tal Roelof; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; Van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez Arenas, Gerardo Alexis; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Furelos, David; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Vecchio, Valentina; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Vergel Infante, Carlos Miguel; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Ambrosius Thomas; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Von Buddenbrock, Stefan Erich; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Sfiligoj, Tina; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Zenis, Tibor; Zivkovic, Lidija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner-kuhr, Jeannine; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakamiya, Kotaro; Walbrecht, Verena Maria; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Ann Miao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Peilong; Wang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Wang, Rongkun; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Weitao; Wang, Yufeng; Wang, Zirui; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Christian; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stephen Albert; Weber, Sebastian Mario; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weirich, Marcel; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Pippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Weston, Thomas Daniel; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Aaron; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Whitmore, Ben William; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Wilkins, Lewis Joseph; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkels, Emma; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Anton; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Vincent Wai Sum; Woods, Natasha Lee; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Hanlin; Xu, Lailin; Xu, Tairan; Xu, Wenhao; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yajima, Kazuki; Yallup, David Paul; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamane, Fumiya; Yamatani, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Siqi; Yang, Yi-lin; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yigitbasi, Efe; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Christopher John; Young, Charles; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yue, Xiaoguang; Yuen, Stephanie Pui Yan; Bin Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, George; Zaffaroni, Ettore; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; Zeissner, Sonja Verena; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zemaityte, Gabija; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Zerwas, Dirk; Zgubic, Miha; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, You; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Heling; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zhulanov, Vladimir; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zoch, Knut; Zorbas, Theodoros Georgio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    ATLAS measurements of the production of muons from heavy-flavor decays in $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV Pb+Pb collisions and $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV $pp$ collisions at the LHC are presented. Integrated luminosities of 0.14 $\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$ and 570 $\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$ are used for the Pb+Pb and $pp$ measurements, respectively, which are performed over the muon transverse momentum range $4 < p_{\\mathrm{T}} < 14$ GeV and for five Pb+Pb centrality intervals. Backgrounds arising from in-flight pion and kaon decays, hadronic showers, and mis-reconstructed muons are statistically removed using a template-fitting procedure. The heavy-flavor muon differential cross-sections and per-event yields are measured in $pp$ and Pb+Pb collisions, respectively. The nuclear modification factor $R_{\\mathrm{AA}}$ obtained from these is observed to be independent of $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$, within uncertainties, and to be less than unity, which indicates suppressed production of heavy-flavor muons in Pb+Pb collisions. For the 10...

  13. X-ray electron spectra of chalcogenide glasses and polycrystalline alloys of Ge-Te and As-Te systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panus, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    Comparative investigation into structures of crystals and glasses in Ge-Te and As-Te two-component systems was conducted. Analysis of x-ray electron spectra of Ge-Te and As-Te systems indicates, that processes of dissociation-association resulting in formation of new structure units occur in telluride melts at synthesis temperatures. Structural chemical composition of binary glass-like alloys of Ge-Te and As-Te systems differs essentially from the one that corresponds to fusibility equilibrium curve. Oxygen doping into tellurium-base glasses results mainly in occurence of structures forecasted due to thermochemical calculation

  14. Vestlus Raul Kelleriga = A conversation with Raul Keller / intervjueerinud Margit Aule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keller, Raul, 1973-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna linnainstallatsioonide festivali "LIFT11" installatsioonist "Tütarlaps kloaagis", mis koosnes helist ja realistlikust inimkäte imitatsioonist endise Pegasuse kohviku ees kanalisatsioonikaevus. Autor Raul Keller

  15. Stiilne seks / Marita Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Marita

    2011-01-01

    Raamatu "Discovering Your Couple Sexual Style" autorite Barry ja Emily McCarthy paaride seksuaalsestiili teooriast ning testist, mis aitab selgitada, millise seksuaalsestiili esindajad neljast te olete

  16. The effects of frequency and {gamma}-irradiation on the dielectric properties of MIS type Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tataroglu, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Teknikokullar, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: ademt@gazi.edu.tr; Altindal, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Teknikokullar, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    The effects of {gamma}-irradiation on the dielectric properties of Al/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si (MIS) Schottky diodes were investigated using capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/{omega}-V) characteristics. Before irradiation, the C-V and G/{omega}-V characteristics were measured by applying a small ac signal of 50 mV amplitude and 100 Hz-1 MHz frequencies, while the dc voltage was swept from positive bias to negative bias for MIS Schottky diodes. Afterwards, the C-V and G/{omega}-V measurements carried out at various radiation doses and 1 MHz. The MIS Schottky diodes were exposed to a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation source at a dose of 2.12 kGy/h and the total dose range was from zero to 450 kGy. The dielectric constant ({epsilon}'), dielectric loss ({epsilon}''), loss tangent (tan {delta}) and ac electrical conductivity ({sigma} {sub ac}) were calculated from the C-V and G/{omega}-V measurements and plotted as a function of frequency and radiation dose. Experimental results show that the {epsilon}' and {epsilon}'' were found to decrease with increasing frequency while increase with increasing radiation dose. In addition, tan {delta} versus log f show a peak, which was not present in the tan {delta} versus radiation dose. Also, the {sigma} {sub ac} is found to increase with increasing radiation dose. These changes were attributed to mobile charge carriers or dipolar molecules generated by structural changes in the irradiated samples.

  17. Electric transport properties of the pentatelluride materials HfTe{sub 5} and ZrTe{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tritt, T M; Wilson, M L; Littleton, R L [and others

    1997-07-01

    The authors have measured the resistivity and thermopower of single crystals as well as polycrystalline pressed powders of the low-dimensional pentatelluride materials: HfTe{sub 5} and ZrTe{sub 5}. They have performed these measurements as a function of temperature between 5K and 320K. In the single crystals there is a peak in the resistivity for both materials at a peak temperature, T{sub p} where T{sub p} {approx} 80K for HfTe{sub 5} and T{sub p} {approx} 145K for ZrTe{sub 5}. Both materials exhibit a large p-type thermopower around room temperature which undergoes a change to n-type below the peak. These data are similar to behavior observed previously in these materials. They have also synthesized pressed powders of polycrystalline pentatelluride materials, HfTe{sub 5} and ZrTe{sub 5}. They have measured the resistivity and thermopower of these polycrystalline materials as a function of temperature between 5K and 320K. For the polycrystalline material, the room temperature thermopower for each of these materials is relatively high, +95 {micro}V/K and +65 {micro}V/K for HfTe{sub 5} and ZrTe{sub 5}, respectively. These values compare closely to thermopower values for single crystals of these materials. At 77 K, the thermopower is +55 {micro}V/K for HfTe{sub 5} and +35 {micro}V/K for ZrTe{sub 5}. In fact, the thermopower for the polycrystals decreases monotonically with temperature to T {approx} 5K, thus exhibiting p-type behavior over the entire range of temperature. As expected, the resistivity for the polycrystals is higher than the single crystal material, with values of 430 m{Omega}-cm and 24 m{Omega}-cm for HfTe{sub 5} and ZrTe{sub 5} respectively, compared to single crystal values of 0.35 m{Omega}-cm (HfTe{sub 5}) and 1.0 m{Omega}-cm (ZrTe{sub 5}). The authors have found that the peak in the resistivity evident in both single crystal materials is absent in these polycrystalline materials. They will discuss these materials in relation to their potential as

  18. Infrared stimulated luminescence dating of an Eemian (MIS 5e) site in Denmark using K-feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Huot, Sebastian; Murray, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    Infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating of K-feldspars may be an alternative to quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating when the quartz OSL signal is too close to saturation or when the quartz luminescence characteristics are unsuitable. In this paper, Eemian (MIS 5e) coastal...

  19. Manufacturing Te/PEDOT Films for Thermoelectric Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Mario; Igual-Muñoz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Fernández, Carlos; Gómez-Gómez, María Isabel; Gómez, Clara; Cantarero, Andrés

    2017-06-21

    In this work, flexible Te films have been synthesized by electrochemical deposition using PEDOT [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)] nanofilms as working electrodes. The Te electrodeposition time was varied to find the best thermoelectric properties of the Te/PEDOT double layers. To show the high quality of the Te films grown on PEDOT, the samples were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, showing the three Raman active modes of Te: E 1 , A 1 , and E 2 . The X-ray diffraction spectra also confirmed the presence of crystalline Te on top of the PEDOT films. The morphology of the Te/PEDOT films was studied using scanning electron microscopy, showing a homogeneous distribution of Te along the film. Also an atomic force microscope was used to analyze the quality of the Te surface. Finally, the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient of the Te/PEDOT films were measured as a function of the Te deposition time. The films showed an excellent thermoelectric behavior, giving a maximum power factor of about 320 ± 16 μW m -1 K -2 after 2.5 h of Te electrochemical deposition, a value larger than that reported for thin films of Te. Qualitative arguments to explain this behavior are given in the discussion.

  20. Preliminary study of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostructures deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwoto, Putut; Made, D. P. Ngurah; Sugianto [Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Wibowo, Edy; Astuti, Santi Yuli; Aryani, Nila Prasetya [Materials Research Group, Laboratory of Thin Film, Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Othaman, Zulkafli [Departement of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2013-09-03

    Growth and properties of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostrucures deposited by using dc magnetron sputtering are reported. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphologies of the thin films. At growth conditions of 250 °C and 14 W, CdTe films did not yet evenly deposited. However, at growth temperature and plasma power of 325 °C and 43 W, both CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) have deposited on the substrates. In this condition, the morphology of the films indicate that the films have a grain-like nanostructures. Grain size diameter of about 200 nm begin to appear on top of the films. Energy Dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDX) was used to investigate chemical elements of the Cu doped CdTe film deposited. It was found that the film deposited consist of Cd, Te and Cu elements. XRD was used to investigate the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the thin films deposited. The results show that CdTe:Cu(2%) thin film has better crystallographic properties than CdTe thin film. The UV-Vis spectrometer was used to investigate the optical properties of thin films deposited. The transmittance spectra showed that transmittance of CdTe:Cu(2%) film is lower than CdTe film. It was found that the bandgap energy of CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) thin films of about 1.48 eV.

  1. Surface preparation effects on efficient indium-tin-oxide-CdTe and CdS-CdTe heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthen, J. G.; Fahrenbruch, A. L.; Bube, R. H.; Zesch, J. C.

    1983-05-01

    The effects of CdTe surface preparation and subsequent junction formation have been investigated through characterization of ITO/CdTe and CdS/CdTe heterojunction solar cells formed by electron beam evaporation of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and CdS onto single crystal p-type CdTe. Surfaces investigated include air-cleaved (110) surfaces, bromine-in-methanol etched (110) and (111) surfaces, and teh latter surfaces subjected to a hydrogen heat treatment. Both air-cleaved and hydrogen heat treated surfaces have a stoichiometric Cd to Te ratio. The ITO/CdTe junction formation process involves an air heat treatment, which ahs serious effects on the behavior of junctions formed on these surfaces. Etched surfaces which have a large excesss of Te, are less affected by the junction formation process and result in ITO/CdTe heterojunctions with solar efficiencies of 9% (Vsc =20 mA/cm2). Use of low-doped CdTe results in junctions characterized by considerably larger open-circuit votages (Voc =0.81 V) which are attributable to increasing diode factors caused by a shift from interfacial recombination to recombination in the depletion region. Resulting solar efficiencies reach 10.5% which is the highest value reported to date for a genuine CdTe heterojunction, CdS/CdTe heterojunctions show a strong dependence on CdTe surface condition, but less influence on the junction formation process. Solar efficiencies of 7.5% on an etched and heat treated surface are observed. All of these ITO/CdTe and CdS/CdTe heterojunctions have been stable for at least 10 months.

  2. New developments in clinical applications of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheiber, C.

    1996-01-01

    This review about the medical applications of CdTe and CdZnTe is an update on the 1992 paper (1992). This new paper is legitimized by the recent progress which has been made in this field. First of all, the usefulness of a new material, i.e. CdZnTe, has been demonstrated. While the two materials are still being improved, it seems as yet too early to debate which of CdTe:Cl or CdZnTe will be the best choice. Historical applications span over the past 18 years, involving devices like miniature probes for per-operative scintigraphy or the monitoring of physiological functions and, closer to us, appliances dedicated to bone densitometry, and have been expanding as such devices have become commercially available, for many years now. Newly available microelectronic circuitry allows 2D-arrays to be built for digital quantitative X-ray (chest, dental..) and for high-resolution gamma cameras. The clinical demand is very high, especially in the field of nuclear medicine. Although there already exist clinical demonstrators, the future of such CdTe applications depends on further reduction in material and device mounting costs. New perspectives concern XCT applications, but the data resulting from research work are kept for restricted use within industrial R and D laboratories. (orig.)

  3. Mechanism of leakage of ion-implantation isolated AlGaN/GaN MIS-high electron mobility transistors on Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhili; Song, Liang; Li, Weiyi; Fu, Kai; Yu, Guohao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fan, Yaming; Deng, Xuguang; Li, Shuiming; Sun, Shichuang; Li, Xiajun; Yuan, Jie; Sun, Qian; Dong, Zhihua; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Baoshun

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we systematically investigated the leakage mechanism of the ion-implantation isolated AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) on Si substrate. By means of combined DC tests at different temperatures and electric field dependence, we demonstrated the following original results: (1) It is proved that gate leakage is the main contribution to OFF-state leakage of ion-implantation isolated AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs, and the gate leakage path is a series connection of the gate dielectric Si3N4 and Si3N4-GaN interface. (2) The dominant mechanisms of the leakage current through LPCVD-Si3N4 gate dielectric and Si3N4-GaN interface are identified to be Frenkel-Poole emission and two-dimensional variable range hopping (2D-VRH), respectively. (3) A certain temperature annealing could reduce the density of the interface state that produced by ion implantation, and consequently suppress the interface leakage transport, which results in a decrease in OFF-state leakage current of ion-implantation isolated AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs.

  4. Effect of surface states on electrical characteristic of metal - insulator - semiconductor (MIS) diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altindal, S.; Doekme, I.; Tataroglu, A.; Sahingoez, R.

    2002-01-01

    The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) Schottky barrier diodes which is consider distribution of interface states in equilibrium with semiconductor were determined at two (low and high) temperature. The interface states were responsible for non-ideal behavior of the forward I-V characteristic of diodes. Both diodes (n and p type Si) showed non-ideal behavior with an ideality factor 1.6 and 1.85 respectively at room temperature. The higher values of n-type Si were attributed to an order of magnitude higher density of interface states in the both diodes. The effect of an interfacial insulator layer between the metal and semiconductor are also studied. The high density of interface states also caused a reduction in the barrier height of the MIS diode. It is shown that by using Norde function at low and high temperature, barrier height □ b , series resistance R s and ideality factor n can be determined even in the case 1 s obtained from Norde function strongly depend on temperature, and decrease with increasing temperature. In addition, the potential barrier height increases with increasing temperature. The mean density of interface states N ss decreases with increasing temperature. Particularly at low temperature the I-V characteristics are controlled by interface states density

  5. Formation of self assembled PbTe quantum dots in CdTe on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, F.; Fognini, A.; Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Müller, E.; Zogg, H.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the growth and formation of self assembled PbTe quantum dots in a CdTe host on a silicon (111) substrate. Annealing yields different photoluminescence spectra depending on initial PbTe layer thickness, thickness of the CdTe cap layer and annealing temperature. Generally two distinct emission peaks at ˜0.3 eV and ˜0.45 eV are visible. Model calculations explaining their temperature dependence are performed. The dot size corresponds well with the estimated sizes from electron microscopy images. The quantum dots may be used as absorber within a mid-infrared detector.

  6. Comparative study of CdTe sources used for deposition of CdTe thin films by close spaced sublimation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Anacleto Pinheiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other thin film deposition techniques, close spaced sublimation (CSS requires a short source-substrate distance. The kind of source used in this technique strongly affects the control of the deposition parameters, especially the deposition rate. When depositing CdTe thin films by CSS, the most common CdTe sources are: single-crystal or polycrystalline wafers, powders, pellets or pieces, a thick CdTe film deposited onto glass or molybdenum substrate (CdTe source-plate and a sintered CdTe powder. In this work, CdTe thin films were deposited by CSS technique from different CdTe sources: particles, powder, compact powder, a paste made of CdTe and propylene glycol and source-plates (CdTe/Mo and CdTe/glass. The largest deposition rate was achieved when a paste made of CdTe and propylene glycol was used as the source. CdTe source-plates led to lower rates, probably due to the poor heat transmission, caused by the introduction of the plate substrate. The results also showed that compacting the powder the deposition rate increases due to the better thermal contact between powder particles.

  7. Analysis of grain boundaries, twin boundaries, and Te precipitates in CdZnTe grown by high-pressure Bridgeman method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffelfinger, J.R.; Medlin, D.L.; James, R.B.

    1998-03-01

    Grain boundaries and twin boundaries in commercial Cd 1-x Zn x Te, which is prepared by a high pressure Bridgeman technique, have been investigated with transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared light microscopy and visible light microscopy. Boundaries inside these materials were found to be decorated with Te precipitates. The shape and local density of the precipitates were found to depend on the particular boundary. For precipitates that decorate grain boundaries, their microstructure was found to consist of a single, saucer shaped grain of hexagonal Te (space group P3 1 21). Analysis of a Te precipitate precipitates by selected area diffraction revealed the Te to be aligned with the surrounding Cd 1-x Zn x Te grains. This alignment was found to match the (111) Cd 1-x Z x Te planes with the (1 bar 101) planes of hexagonal Te. Crystallographic alignments between the Cd 1-x Zn x Te grains were also observed for a high angle grain boundary. The structure of the grain boundaries and the Te/Cd 1-x Zn x Te interface are discussed

  8. An Activity Theory Approach to Analyze Barriers to a Virtual Management Information Systems (MIS) Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Suhair; Qablan, Ahmad; Barham, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains how the activity theory is used as a framework to analyze the barriers to a virtual Management Information Stream (MIS) Curriculum in Jordanian schools, from both the sociocultural and pedagogical perspectives. Taking the activity system as a unit of analysis, this study documents the processes by which activities shape and are…

  9. Villu Jaanisoo : Nodi kunstniku hõlma all = Stuff under the artist's hem / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Skulptor Villu Jaanisoo loomingust Soomes ja Eestis 1990-ndatel. Tema kunst 2000-ndatel toitub sündmuste jääkidest ja kildudest ning selle kujutistest, mis mujal omas selget pragmaatilist väärtust. Kasutatud argiesemed on oragniseeritud mütopoeetiliseks tervikuks, mis enam ei tähista mugavust, puhtust, soojust ja sööki, vaid kõigest sellest konstrueeritud panoptikumi - elulaadi, maailmapilti ja tunnetuslikke müüte

  10. Effect of Te atmosphere annealing on the properties of CdZnTe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Pengfei; Jie Wanqi; Wang Tao

    2011-01-01

    Low-resistivity CdZnTe:In (CZT:In) single crystals were annealed under Te atmosphere according to the behaviors of deep-donor Te antisite. The results indicated that the star-like Cd inclusions were completely eliminated after 120 h annealing. Meanwhile, the resistivity is greatly enhanced. The resistivity of the slice annealed after 240 h was achieved as high as 1.8x10 11 Ω cm, five orders of magnitude higher than that of as-grown slice. It suggested that the deep-donor level Te antisites were successfully introduced to pin the Fermi level at the mid band-gap position. The IR transmittances of the slices were also improved, which increased as the annealing time increased. PL measurement revealed that the (D 0 ,X) peak representing high quality of CZT crystal appeared. It can be concluded that the quality of CZT crystals is obviously improved after annealing under Te atmosphere. - Highlights: → High resistivity is due to deep-donor level Te Cd . → The resistivity achieved was as high as 1.8x10 11 Ω cm. → Star-like inclusions are Cd inclusions. → (D 0 ,X) peak represents the improvement of the crystal quality.

  11. Kinetic barriers for Cd and Te adatoms on Cd and Te terminated CdTe (111) surface using ab initio simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Ebadollah; Nanavati, Sachin P.; Majumder, Chiranjib; Ghaisas, S. V.

    2014-03-01

    In the present work we have calculated using density functional theory (DFT), diffusion barrier potentials on both the CdTe (111) surfaces, Cd terminated (A-type) & Te terminated (B-type). We employ nudge elastic band method (NEB) for obtaining the barrier potentials. The barrier is computed for Cd and for Te adatoms on both A-type and B-type surfaces. We report two energetically favourable positions along the normal to the surface, one above and other below the surface. The one above the surface has binding energy slightly more the one below. According to the results of this work, binding energy (in all cases) for adatoms are reasonable and close to experimental data. The barrier potential for hopping adatoms (Cd and Te) on both the surfaces is less than 0.35 eV. Apart from these most probable sites, there are other at least two sites on both the types of surfaces which are meta stable. We have also computed barriers for hopping to and from these meta stable positions. The present results can shade light on the defect formation mechanism in CdTe thin films during growth. The authors would like to thank C-DAC for the computing time on its PARAM series of supercomputers and DST Govt. of India, for partial funding.

  12. First-principles study of lattice thermal conductivity in ZrTe5 and HfTe5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Wang, Haifeng; Chen, Y. B.; Yao, Shu-Hua; Zhou, Jian

    2018-05-01

    Recently, the layered transition-metal pentatellurides ZrTe5 and HfTe5 have attracted increasing attention because of their interesting topological electronic properties. Nevertheless, some of their other good physical properties seem to be ignored now. Actually, both ZrTe5 and HfTe5 have high electric conductivities (>105 Ω-1 m-1) and Seebeck coefficients (> 100 μV/K) at room temperature, thus making them promising thermoelectric materials. However, the disadvantage is that the thermal conductivities of the two materials are relatively high according to the few available experiments; meanwhile, the detailed mechanism of the intrinsic thermal conductivity has not been studied yet. Based on the density functional theory and the Boltzmann transport theory, we present here the theoretical study of the intrinsic lattice thermal conductivities of ZrTe5 and HfTe5, which are found to be in the range of 5-8 W/mṡK at room temperature and well consistent with the experimental results. We also find that the thermal conductivities of the two materials are anisotropic, which are mainly caused by their anisotropic crystal structures. Based on the detailed analysis, we proposed that the thermal conductivities of the two materials could possibly be reduced by different kinds of structural engineering at the atomic and mesoscopic scales, such as alloying, doping, nano-structuring, and polycrystalline structuring, which could make ZrTe5 and HfTe5 good thermoelectric materials for room temperature thermoelectric applications.

  13. Crystallization and memory programming characteristics of Ge-doped SbTe materials of varying Sb : Te ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jeung-hyun; Lee, Hyun Seok; Lee, Suyoun; Lee, Taek Sung; Kim, Won Mok; Wu Zhe; Cheong, Byung-ki; Kim, Seul Cham; Oh, Kyu Hwan

    2009-01-01

    A phase change memory (PCM) utilizes resistivity changes accompanying fast transitions from an amorphous to a crystalline phase (SET) and vice versa (RESET). An investigation was made on the SET characteristics of PCM cells with Ge-doped SbTe (Ge-ST) materials of two different Sb : Te ratios (4.53 and 2.08). For the material of higher Sb : Te (4.53), a SET operation was completed within several tens of nanoseconds via nucleation-free crystallization whereas the material of lower Sb : Te (2.08) rendered a slower SET operation requiring several hundred nanoseconds for a nucleation-mediated crystallization. From measurements of nucleation and growth kinetics via laser-induced crystallization, the observed SET characteristics of the former case were found to derive from a growth time about 10 3 times shorter than the nucleation time and those of the latter from a much shorter nucleation time as well as a longer growth time than in the former case. The measured nucleation kinetics of the lower Sb : Te (2.08) material is unexpected from the existing data, which has led us to advance an interesting finding that there occurs a trend-reversing change in the nucleation kinetics of the Ge-ST materials around the eutectic composition (Sb : Te ∼2.6); nucleation is accelerated with the increase in the Sb : Te ratio above Sb : Te of 2.6, but with a decrease in the Sb : Te ratio below it.

  14. Schreibende Messgeräte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Die schreibenden Messgeräte werden hauptsächlich eingesetzt, um Vorgänge aufzuzeichnen und zu dokumentieren, die sich im Minuten- und Stunden-Bereich abspielen. Sie sind weitgehend durch Oszilloskope oder elektronische Geräte ähnlich einem Oszilloskop ersetzt worden, die entsprechend für Langzeitaufnahmen ausgelegt sind. Der Vorteil dieser Geräte gegenüber den schreibenden Messgeräten ist der, dass die Daten dauerhaft gespeichert sind, einschließlich der notwendigen Kenngrößen wie Zeitmaßstab, Amplitude, Datum, Aufzeichnungsgerät usw., und sich in dieser Form beliebig oft ausdrucken und vor allem direkt weiterverarbeiten lassen. Weiterhin entfallen die Probleme mit der Mechanik, dem Papier und den Schreibstiften. Deshalb folgt hier eine nur kurze Darstellung der Geräte.

  15. New bound on MIS and MIN-CDS for a unit ball graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Mojdeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The size of the maximum independent set (MIS in a graph G is called the independence number. The size of the minimum connected dominating set (MIN-CDS in G is called the connected domination number. The aim of this paper is to determine two better upper bounds of the independence number; dependent on the connected domination number for a unit ball graph. Further, we improve the upper bound to obtain the best bound with respect to the upper bounds obtained thus far.

  16. Edgar Savisaar: valitsus ei taju, mis linnas ta valitseb / Edgar Savisaar ; interv. Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Edgar, 1950-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 15. nov. lk. 9. Tallinna linnapea vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Keskerakonna ainuvõimu Tallinnas, valimislubaduste täitmist, linnaelanike rahulolu, Keskerakonna toetust, pronksiöö sündmuste mõju Eesti majandusele, riigi ja linnavalitsuse suhteid, pealinna seadust, hüvede saamist linnavalitsuselt, tulevaste valimiste tulemusi. Lisa: Tallinna võim

  17. 32 CFR 22.325 - Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and other minority institutions (MIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and other minority institutions (MIs). 22.325 Section 22.325 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.325...

  18. Silicon MIS diodes with Cr2O3 nanofilm: Optical, morphological/structural and electronic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim Y.; Guellue, O.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we report the optical, morphological and structural characterization and diode application of Cr 2 O 3 nanofilms grown on p-Si substrates by spin coating and annealing process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), non-contact mode atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were used for characterization of nanofilms. For Cr 2 O 3 nanofilms, the average particle size determined from XRD and NC-AFM measurements was approximately 70 nm. Structure analyses of nanofilms demonstrate that the single phase Cr 2 O 3 on silicon substrate is of high a crystalline structure with a dominant in hexagonal (1 1 0) orientation. The morphologic analysis of the films indicates that the films formed from hexagonal nanoparticles are with low roughness and uniform. UV-vis absorption measurements indicate that the band gap of the Cr 2 O 3 film is 3.08 eV. The PL measurement shows that the Cr 2 O 3 nanofilm has a strong and narrow ultraviolet emission, which facilitates potential applications in future photoelectric nanodevices. Au/Cr 2 O 3 /p-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diodes were fabricated for investigation of the electronic properties such as current-voltage and capacitance-voltage. Ideality factor and barrier height for Au//Cr 2 O 3 /p-Si diode were calculated as 2.15 eV and 0.74 eV, respectively. Also, interfacial state properties of the MIS diode were determined. The interface-state density of the MIS diode was found to vary from 2.90 x 10 13 eV -1 cm -2 to 8.45 x 10 12 eV -1 cm -2 .

  19. Growth of InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum well solar cells on mis-orientated GaAs substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodabanlu, Hassanet, E-mail: sodabanlu@hotaka.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Wang, Yunpeng; Watanabe, Kentaroh [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Sugiyama, Masakazu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information System, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nakano, Yoshiaki [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering and Information System, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-06-21

    The effects of growth temperature on the properties of InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cells on various mis-orientated GaAs substrates were studied using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Thickness modulation effect caused by mismatch strain of InGaAs/GaAsP could be suppressed by low growth temperature. Consequently, abrupt MQWs with strong light absorption could be deposited on mis-oriented substrates. However, degradation in crystal quality and impurity incorporation are the main drawbacks with low temperature growth because they tend to strongly degraded carrier transport and collection efficiency. MQW solar cells grown at optimized temperature showed the better conversion efficiency. The further investigation should focus on improvement of crystal quality and background impurities.

  20. The complementarity of luminescence dating methods illustrated on the Mousterian sequence of the Roc de Marsal: A series of reindeer-dominated, Quina Mousterian layers dated to MIS 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerin, Guillaume; Frouin, Marine; Tuquoi, Joséphine

    2017-01-01

    that place mixed faunal assemblages in the initial MIS 4; however, while the Quina ages overlap with several other Quina assemblages from the region, they place the reindeer dominated fauna well after the peak cold of MIS 4 and suggest a more extended and complex period of contemporaneous lithic techno...

  1. Determination of equilibrium phase composition in the Hg-HgTe-CdTe system by ''dew point'' method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanyukov, A.V.; Krotov, I.I.; Ermakov, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    Using the ''dew point'' method a study has been made of the equilibrium composition of the solid and liquid phases in the Hg-HgTe-CdTe system at 404, 435 and 454 deg C. It has been pointed out that crystallization of cadmium-rich solid solutions of Cdsub(x)Hgsub(1-x) Te takes place from a liquid phase with a much higher concentration of Hg. The activity of Hg in the liquid phase increases along the liquidus isotherm in the direction from section Hg-HgTe to section HgCdTe in accordance with the increase of its concentration. An increase in activity of Hg in the solid phase of Cdsub(x)Hgsub(1-x)Te has been noted with the reduction of its concentration

  2. Self-Catalyzed CdTe Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Baines

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available CdTe wires have been fabricated via a catalyst free method using the industrially scalable physical vapor deposition technique close space sublimation. Wire growth was shown to be highly dependent on surface roughness and deposition pressure, with only low roughness surfaces being capable of producing wires. Growth of wires is highly (111 oriented and is inferred to occur via a vapor-solid-solid growth mechanism, wherein a CdTe seed particle acts to template the growth. Such seed particles are visible as wire caps and have been characterized via energy dispersive X-ray analysis to establish they are single phase CdTe, hence validating the self-catalysation route. Cathodoluminescence analysis demonstrates that CdTe wires exhibited a much lower level of recombination when compared to a planar CdTe film, which is highly beneficial for semiconductor applications.

  3. CdCl2 passivation of polycrystalline CdMgTe and CdZnTe absorbers for tandem photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Drew E.; Reich, Carey; Abbas, Ali; Shimpi, Tushar; Liu, Hanxiao; Ponce, Fernando A.; Walls, John M.; Zhang, Yong-Hang; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Sampath, W. S.; Holman, Zachary C.

    2018-05-01

    As single-junction silicon solar cells approach their theoretical limits, tandems provide the primary path to higher efficiencies. CdTe alloys can be tuned with magnesium (CdMgTe) or zinc (CdZnTe) for ideal tandem pairing with silicon. A II-VI/Si tandem holds the greatest promise for inexpensive, high-efficiency top cells that can be quickly deployed in the market using existing polycrystalline CdTe manufacturing lines combined with mature silicon production lines. Currently, all high efficiency polycrystalline CdTe cells require a chloride-based passivation process to passivate grain boundaries and bulk defects. This research examines the rich chemistry and physics that has historically limited performance when extending Cl treatments to polycrystalline 1.7-eV CdMgTe and CdZnTe absorbers. A combination of transmittance, quantum efficiency, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy clearly reveals that during passivation, Mg segregates and out-diffuses, initially at the grain boundaries but eventually throughout the bulk. CdZnTe exhibits similar Zn segregation behavior; however, the onset and progression is localized to the back of the device. After passivation, CdMgTe and CdZnTe can render a layer that is reduced to predominantly CdTe electro-optical behavior. Contact instabilities caused by inter-diffusion between the layers create additional complications. The results outline critical issues and paths for these materials to be successfully implemented in Si-based tandems and other applications.

  4. Diffusion and influence of Cu on properties of CdTe thin films and CdTe/CdS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhafarov, T.D.; Yesilkaya, S.S.; Yilmaz Canli, N.; Caliskan, M. [Department of Physics, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa, 34210 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-01-31

    The effective diffusion coefficients of Cu for thermal and photodiffusion in the CdTe films have been estimated from resistivity versus duration of thermal or photoannealing curves. In the temperature range 60-200{sup o}C the effective coefficient of thermal diffusion (D{sub t}) and photodiffusion (D{sub ph}) are described as D{sub t}=7.3x10{sup -7}exp(-0.33/kT) and D{sub ph}=4.7x10{sup -8}exp(-0.20/kT). It is found that the diffusion doping of CdTe thin films by Cu at 400{sup o}C results in a sharp decrease of resistivity up to 7 orders of magnitude of p-type material, depending on thickness of Cu film. The comparative study of performance of CdTe(Cu)/CdS and CdTe/CdS cells has been studied. It is shown that the diffusion doping of CdTe film by Cu increases efficiency of CdTe(Cu)/CdS cells from 0.9% to 6.8%. The degradation of photovoltaic parameters of CdTe(Cu)/CdS cell, during testing under forward and reverse bias at room temperature, proceeds at a larger rate than those of CdTe/CdS cell without Cu. The degradation of performance of CdTe(Cu)/CdS cells is tentatively assigned to electrodiffusion of Cu in CdTe, resulting in redistribution of concentration of Cu-related centers in CdTe film and heterojunction region.

  5. Diagnostic and correction of chronic-biological mis-balances of population at radiation injuries in regions with increased radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, T.G.; Vasil'eva, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    It was shown the possibility of bio-indication of population irradiation and its rehabilitation by estimation of chronic biological mis-balances and correction realization. Investigation were accomplished on people contingent living at the former Semipalatinsk test site

  6. Andrew Smith: peame leidma tee majanduskasvuni, mis põhineb säästmisel, investeeringutel ja ekspordil / Andrew Smith

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smith, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    KPMG (UK) peaökonomist Andrew Smith vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad majanduskriisi tekkimist, olukorra paranemist, majandusolukorda Suurbritannias, erinevusi Euroopa ja muude maailma piirkondade vahel, sarnasusi Eesti ja Suurbritannia majandusolukorra vahel ning prognoose edaspidiste arengute osas

  7. Study of CdTe:Cl and CdZnTe detectors for medical multi-slices X-ray Computed Tomography; Etude de detecteurs en CdTe:Cl et CdZnTe pour la tomographie X medicale multicoupes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricq, St

    1999-09-28

    The application of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors to medical X-ray Computed Tomography have been investigated. Different electrodes (Au, Pt, In) have been deposited on CdZnTe HPBM and on CdTe:ClTHM. Their injection properties have been determined with Current-Voltage characteristics. Under X-ray in CT conditions, injection currents measurements reveal trapped carriers space-charges formation. The same way, the comparisons of the responses to X-beam cut-off with various injection possibilities enable to follow the space-charges evolutions and then to determine the predominant traps types. Nevertheless, both hole and electron traps are responsible for the memory effect e.g. the currents levels dependence with irradiation history. This effect is noticed in particular on responses to fast flux variations that simulate scanner's conditions. Trap levels probably corresponding to native defects are responsible for these limitations. In order to make such detectors suitable for X-ray Computed Tomography, significant progresses in CdTe for CdZnTe crystal growth with an important defects densities reduction (factor 10), or possibly counting mode operation, seem necessary. (author)

  8. Histoire d’un itinéraire épidémiologique entre le Burkina Faso et la Côte d’Ivoire : le cas des foyers de maladie du sommeil de Koudougou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiendrébéogo D.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans la première moitié du XXème siècle, alors que la Haute-Volta (actuel Burkina Faso subissait une terrible épidémie de maladie du sommeil, l’administration coloniale française a orchestré des déplacements massifs de populations de la Haute-Volta vers la Côte d’Ivoire, pour exploiter le territoire. Cela a conduit à la mise en place de villages de colonisation Mossi en zone forestière ivoirienne, comme ceux de Koudougou, issus de l’une des régions les plus peuplées de Haute-Volta, mais aussi l’une des plus touchées par la maladie du sommeil. Depuis 2000, au Burkina Faso, c’est dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou que sont dépistés passivement le plus grand nombre de trypanosomés en provenance de Côte d’Ivoire. Qui sont-ils ? Où habitent-ils au Burkina Faso ? D’où viennent-ils de Côte d’Ivoire ? Après avoir retracé l’histoire épidémiologique des villages de Koudougou au Burkina Faso et en Côte d’Ivoire, nous avons recherché les trypanosomés dépistés passivement depuis 2000 dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou au Burkina Faso. Au total, dix trypanosomés ont été enquêtés. Le processus de propagation de la maladie du sommeil dans l’espace ivoiro-burkinabé a été mis en évidence et des zones à risque de la maladie identifiées dans ce même espace.

  9. Histoire d’un itinéraire épidémiologique entre le Burkina Faso et la Côte d’Ivoire : le cas des foyers de maladie du sommeil de Koudougou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiendrébéogo, D.; Kambiré, R.; Jamonneau, V.; Lingué, K.; Solano, P.; Courtin, F.

    2012-01-01

    Dans la première moitié du XXème siècle, alors que la Haute-Volta (actuel Burkina Faso) subissait une terrible épidémie de maladie du sommeil, l’administration coloniale française a orchestré des déplacements massifs de populations de la Haute-Volta vers la Côte d’Ivoire, pour exploiter le territoire. Cela a conduit à la mise en place de villages de colonisation Mossi en zone forestière ivoirienne, comme ceux de Koudougou, issus de l’une des régions les plus peuplées de Haute-Volta, mais aussi l’une des plus touchées par la maladie du sommeil. Depuis 2000, au Burkina Faso, c’est dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou que sont dépistés passivement le plus grand nombre de trypanosomés en provenance de Côte d’Ivoire. Qui sont-ils ? Où habitent-ils au Burkina Faso ? D’où viennent-ils de Côte d’Ivoire ? Après avoir retracé l’histoire épidémiologique des villages de Koudougou au Burkina Faso et en Côte d’Ivoire, nous avons recherché les trypanosomés dépistés passivement depuis 2000 dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou au Burkina Faso. Au total, dix trypanosomés ont été enquêtés. Le processus de propagation de la maladie du sommeil dans l’espace ivoiro-burkinabé a été mis en évidence et des zones à risque de la maladie identifiées dans ce même espace. PMID:23193525

  10. Nb/sub 2/Te/sub 2/O/sub 9/ and Ta/sub 2/Te/sub 2/O/sub 9/: Two new mixed oxides of Te(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaitan, M.; Jerez, A.; Pico, C.; Veiga, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Nb/sub 2/Te/sub 2/O/sub 9/ and Ta/sub 2/Te/sub 2/O/sub 9/ were prepared by solid state reactions between amorphous TeO/sub 3/(s) and metallic pentoxides of Nb and Ta. A crystallographic analysis carried out by X-ray diffraction showed that these compounds are isostructural (space group: P2/sub 1//C. a = 6.883 A, b = 7.853 A, c = 14.591 A, β = 103.66 for Nb/sub 2/Te/sub 2/O/sub 9/ and a = 7.10 A, b = 7.48 A, c = 14.62 A, β = 102.9 for Ta/sub 2/Te/sub 2/O/sub 9/). The IR spectra and thermal decomposition processes of both mixed oxides were studied

  11. Effects of {gamma}-ray irradiation on the C-V and G/{omega}-V characteristics of Al/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si (MIS) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doekme, Ilbilge [Science Education Department, Faculty of Education, Ahi Evran University, Kirsehir (Turkey)], E-mail: ilbilgedokme@gazi.edu.tr; Durmus, Perihan; Altindal, Semsettin [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-03-15

    The effect of the {sup 60}C{sub o} ({gamma}-ray) exposure on the electrical characteristics of Al/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si (MIS) structures has been investigated using capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/{omega}-V) measurements. The MIS structures were stressed with a bias of 0 V during {sup 60}C{sub o}{gamma}-sources irradiation with the total dose range from 0 to 25 kGy. The C-V and G/{omega}-V characteristics were measured at 500 kHz and room temperature before and after {sup 60}C{sub o}{gamma}-ray irradiation. The results indicated that {gamma}-irradiation caused an increase in the barrier height {phi}{sub B}, interface states N{sub ss} and depletion layer width W{sub D} obtained from reverse bias C-V measurements. The series resistance R{sub s} profile for various radiation doses was obtained from forward and reverse bias C-V and G/{omega}-V measurements. Both C-V and G/{omega}-V characteristics indicate that the total dose radiation hardness of MIS structures may be limited by the decisive properties of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface to radiation-induced damage. After {gamma}-irradiation, the decrease in capacitance of MIS structure results in the increase in the semiconductor depletion width.

  12. Andmekaitsemäärus - mis see on ja mida tähele panna? / Maarja Heinsoo, Märten Padu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinsoo, Maarja

    2016-01-01

    2016. aasta kevadel vastu võetud Euroopa Liidu isikuandmete kaitse üldmäärusest (General Data Protection Regulation), mis toob kaasa viimase kahekümne aasta suurima muutuse isikuandmete kaitse valdkonna reguleerimises. Rakendub alates 2018. aasta kevadest

  13. Bacon, Lettuce and Tomato: een strategie om leerlingen te helpen hun antwoorden op examenvragen te verbeteren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneppers, L.

    2014-01-01

    In Tutor2u las ik dat in een workshop een strategie was besproken om leerlingen te helpen hun examenantwoorden vollediger en juister te formuleren. De strategie heet in Groot Brittannië BLT, voor leerlingen daar gemakkelijk te onthouden vanwege de populaire Bacon, Lettuce en Tomato sandwich.

  14. HgTe based topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruene, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis summarizes the discovery of topological insulators and highlights the developments on their experimental observations. The work focuses on HgTe. The thesis is structured as follows: - The first chapter of this thesis will give a brief overview on discoveries in the field of topological insulators. It focuses on works relevant to experimental results presented in the following chapters. This includes a short outline of the early predictions and a summary of important results concerning 2-dimensional topological insulators while the final section discusses observations concerning 3-dimensional topological insulators. - The discovery of the quantum spin Hall effect in HgTe marked the first experimental observation of a topological insulator. Chapter 2 focuses on HgTe quantum wells and the quantum spin Hall effect. The growth of high quality HgTe quantum wells was one of the major goals for this work. In a final set of experiments the spin polarization of the edge channels was investigated. Here, we could make use of the advantage that HgTe quantum well structures exhibit a large Rashba spin orbit splitting. - HgTe as a 3-dimensional topological insulator is presented in chapter 3. - Chapters 4-6 serve as in depth overviews of selected works: Chapter 4 presents a detailed overview on the all electrical detection of the spin Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells. The detection of the spin polarization of the quantum spin Hall effect is shown in chapter 5 and chapter 6 gives a detailed overview on the quantum Hall effect originating from the topological surface state in strained bulk HgTe.

  15. Fine-grained quartz OSL dating chronology of loess sequence from southern Tajikistan: Implications for climate change in arid central Asia during MIS 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leibin; Jia, Jia; Li, Guoqiang; Li, Zaijun; Wang, Xin; Chen, Fahu

    2018-04-01

    The desert and semi-desert region of arid central Asia is one of the most important areas of middle-latitude dust emission and deposition in the Northern Hemisphere. Marine isotope stage 2 (MIS 2) was the latest and one of the most representative intervals of dust emission from the region, and it is especially important for research into processes of dust transportation and deposition. Here, we report the results of an optically stimulated luminescence study of the Hoalin section in southern Tajikistan, which was deposited during MIS 2. The fine-grained quartz single aliquot regeneration (SAR) approach was used and its reliability was verified by internal checks. In addition, grain-size analyses, calculated dust accumulation rates (DARs) and mass accumulation rates (MARs) were used to reconstruct the pattern of climate change during MIS 2. The mean DAR for southern Tajikistan during MIS 2 was 0.43 m/ka, and the corresponding average MAR was 673 g/cm2/a for a non-river-terrace site, which is higher than the average MARs estimated for the central and southern Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). In contrast to previous suggestions, the high dust DARs and MARs during the LGM indicate a 'cold-dry' climatic pattern, rather than a 'cold-humid' pattern. Our results also confirm that the patterns of high dust emission and deposition during the LGM in the mid-latitude arid zone of Asia were synchronous.

  16. Thin-barrier enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT using ALD Al2O3 as gate insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zheli; Zhou Jianjun; Kong Yuechan; Kong Cen; Dong Xun; Yang Yang; Chen Tangsheng

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance enhancement-mode (E-mode) gallium nitride (GaN)-based metal–insulator–semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT) that employs a 5-nm-thick aluminum gallium nitride (Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 N) as a barrier layer and relies on silicon nitride (SiN) passivation to control the 2DEG density is presented. Unlike the SiN passivation, aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on AlGaN surface would not increase the 2DEG density in the heterointerface. ALD Al 2 O 3 was used as gate insulator after the depletion by etching of the SiN in the gate region. The E-mode MIS-HEMT with gate length (L G ) of 1 μm showed a maximum drain current density (I DS ) of 657 mA/mm, a maximum extrinsic transconductance (g m ) of 187 mS/mm and a threshold voltage (V th ) of 1 V. Comparing with the corresponding E-mode HEMT, the device performances had been greatly improved due to the insertion of Al 2 O 3 gate insulator. This provided an excellent way to realize E-mode AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs with both high V th and I DS . (paper)

  17. Study on the local stress induced dislocations on (1 bar 1 bar 1 bar) Te face of CdTe-based crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xu; Xu, Yadong; Xu, Lingyan; Gu, Yaxu; Jia, Ningbo; Jie, Wanqi

    2017-11-01

    The rosette-like dislocation clusters around Te inclusions in as-grown CdZnTe/CdTe crystals and those introduced by the micro-indentation on CdZnTe/CdTe surface are studied experimentally. The extended dislocation patterns are formed around Te inclusions in both CdZnTe and CdTe crystals, owing to the build-in stress. Two mutually orthogonal tetrahedrons are observed in CdZnTe crystal. However, the ;double-arms; dislocation rosette pattern extended along 〈1 1 0〉 direction is observed in CdTe crystal. The Peierls kink pair mechanism and the Hirsch effects are used to explain the discrepancy of these two different rosette patterns. Similar dislocation rosette patterns are observed on indentation surface of CdZnTe crystal. The dislocation rosette patterns are found to be independent of the indenter orientation, but completely determined by the crystallographic properties of zinc-blende structure of the crystal. Furthermore, the Te(g) and Cd(g) dislocation arms are found to be mixed and bended with each other in CdTe crystal under high indentation stress, making it different from that generated around Te inclusions. A model concerning the comprehensive impact of stress field and electronic polarities dislocations is proposed to clarify the dislocation bending phenomenon.

  18. Watertightness in anti-flotation slabs: MIS-RJ case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Britez

    Full Text Available It is common in coastal cities as Rio de Janeiro, that buildings located close to the shoreline have their basements below water table level. In most cases, the engineering solution for these buildings is to design a massive anti-flotation slab to satisfy, principally, the issues related to structural dimensioning and calculation hypothesis. On the other hand, the execution of this solution imply in significant construction problems related to reinforced concrete watertightness and durability. This paper presents a case study about challenges and solutions devised to execute an anti-flotation, 1m thick, 1200m³ reinforced concrete slab for the new Museu de Imagem e Som (MIS - Sound and Image Museum, located at 50m from the seashore, at Copacabana in Rio de Janeiro, RJ. The results show that concrete proportions, concreting plan and pouring method adopted were decisive in obtaining a watertight structure, avoiding thus the employment of traditional waterproofing alternatives.

  19. The Inchworm and the Nightingale: On the (Mis)use of Data in Music Teacher Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The music education profession is faced with two serious problems regarding the (mis)use of data in music teacher evaluation. The first has to do with the quality and kinds of data that music teachers have been forced to use; the second is concerned with how these data are being used in the music teacher evaluation process. The evidence I will use…

  20. On the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of BiTeBr and BiTeI single crystals and of BiTeI with the addition of BiI3 and CuI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulbachinskii, Vladimir A.; Kytin, Vladimir G.; Kudryashov, Alexey A.; Kuznetsov, Alexei N.; Shevelkov, Andrei V.

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structures were calculated for BiTeBr and BiTeI using the density-functional theory approach and accounting for the strong spin–orbital interaction. Qualitatively, the band structures for two compounds are similar, showing strong mixing of the p states of all elements in vicinity of the Fermi level, with the band gaps of 0.595 and 0.478 eV for BiTeBr and BiTeI, respectively. The optimized crystal structures show a tendency for the Bi–X (X=Br, I) bond elongation compared to the Bi–Te one. Both compounds are intrinsic n-type semiconductors but display a metallic-like conductivity coupled to rather large thermopower, which is rationalized within the frames of the acoustic phonons scattering model. Because of larger thermopower BiTeBr exhibits a twice higher thermoelectric figure-of-merit near room temperature, ZT=0.17, compared to BiTeI. The addition of 1 mass% of BiI 3 or CuI to BiTeI decreases the mobility of electrons by two orders of magnitude, leading to significantly lower electrical conductivity, but at the same time effectively reduces the thermal conductivity. The prospects of further enhancing the thermoelectric efficiency are briefly discussed. - Graphical abstract: View of the crystal structure of BiTeBr is shown in the figure The optimized crystal structures show a tendency for the Bi–X (X=Br, I) bond elongation compared to the Bi–Te one. The electronic structures were calculated for BiTeBr and BiTeI using the density-functional theory approach and accounting for the strong spin–orbital interaction. Qualitatively, the band structures for two compounds are similar, showing strong mixing of the p states of all elements in vicinity of the Fermi level, with the band gaps of 0.595 and 0.478 eV for BiTeBr and BiTeI, respectively. Both compounds are intrinsic n-type semiconductors but display a metallic-like conductivity coupled to rather large thermopower, which is rationalized within the frames of the acoustic phonons scattering

  1. CdTe and Cd1-xZnxTe for nuclear detectors: facts and fictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fougeres, P.; Siffert, P.; Hageali, M.; Koebel, J.M.; Regal, R.

    1999-01-01

    Both CdTe and Cd 1-x Zn x Te (CZT) can be considered from their physical properties as very good materials for room temperature X- and γ-rays detection. However, despite years of intense material research, no significant advance has been made to help one to choose between both semiconductors. This paper reviews a few facts about CdTe and CZT to attempt to draw a real comparison between both. THM-CdTe and HPB-CZT have been grown and characterized in Strasbourg. Crystal growth, alloying effects, transport properties and defects are reviewed on the basis of our results and the published ones. The results show that it is still very difficult to claim which one is the best

  2. Identification of Ag-acceptors in $^{111}Ag^{111}Cd$ doped ZnTe and CdTe

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, J; Deicher, M; Filz, T; Lany, S; Ostheimer, V; Strasser, F; Wolf, H; Wichert, T

    2000-01-01

    Nominally undoped ZnTe and CdTe crystals were implanted with radioactive /sup 111/Ag, which decays to /sup 111/Cd, and investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). In ZnTe, the PL lines caused by an acceptor level at 121 meV are observed: the principal bound exciton (PBE) line, the donor-acceptor pair (DAP) band, and the two-hole transition lines. In CdTe, the PBE line and the DAP band that correspond to an acceptor level at 108 meV appear. Since the intensities of all these PL lines decrease in good agreement with the half-life of /sup 111/Ag of 178.8 h, both acceptor levels are concluded to be associated with defects containing a single Ag atom. Therefore, the earlier assignments to substitutional Ag on Zn- and Cd-lattice sites in the respective II-VI semiconductors are confirmed. The assignments in the literature of the S/sub 1/, S /sub 2/, and S/sub 3/ lines in ZnTe and the X/sub 1//sup Ag/, X/sub 2 //sup Ag//C/sub 1//sup Ag/, and C/sub 2//sup Ag/ lines in CdTe to Ag- related defect complexes are ...

  3. Study of CdTe:Cl and CdZnTe detectors for medical multi-slices X-ray Computed Tomography; Etude de detecteurs en CdTe:Cl et CdZnTe pour la tomographie X medicale multicoupes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricq, St

    1999-09-28

    The application of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors to medical X-ray Computed Tomography have been investigated. Different electrodes (Au, Pt, In) have been deposited on CdZnTe HPBM and on CdTe:ClTHM. Their injection properties have been determined with Current-Voltage characteristics. Under X-ray in CT conditions, injection currents measurements reveal trapped carriers space-charges formation. The same way, the comparisons of the responses to X-beam cut-off with various injection possibilities enable to follow the space-charges evolutions and then to determine the predominant traps types. Nevertheless, both hole and electron traps are responsible for the memory effect e.g. the currents levels dependence with irradiation history. This effect is noticed in particular on responses to fast flux variations that simulate scanner's conditions. Trap levels probably corresponding to native defects are responsible for these limitations. In order to make such detectors suitable for X-ray Computed Tomography, significant progresses in CdTe for CdZnTe crystal growth with an important defects densities reduction (factor 10), or possibly counting mode operation, seem necessary. (author)

  4. An Empirical Examination of the Composition of Vocational Interest in Business Colleges: MIS vs. Other Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, James

    2011-01-01

    Given the diminishing number of Management Information Systems (MIS) majors, an understanding of the factors which influence student choice of major is crucial. It has been noted in many previous studies that interest in a major and career significantly influences the student's choice of college major; indeed, in most studies, it is the strongest…

  5. Fluctuations in induced charge introduced by Te inclusions within CdZnTe radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, Derek S.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, homogenization theory based on a multiple-scale perturbation of the electron transport equation has been used to derive a mathematical framework for modeling the excess charge lost to Te inclusions within radiation detectors based on semi-insulating cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe). In that theory, the heterogeneous material is mathematically replaced by a homogenized CdZnTe crystal whose effective electron attenuation length incorporates the additional uniform electron trapping caused by the inclusions. In this paper, the homogenization theory is extended to incorporate fluctuations in the induced charge (i.e., charge collection nonuniformities) introduced by the random position and size distributions of a noncorrelated population of small (i.e, <20 μm) Te inclusions. Analysis of the effective parameters derived within the homogenized framework is used to develop a probability distribution of effective electron attenuation lengths, and therefore effective mobility-lifetime products, as a function of both the position and size distribution of Te inclusions. Example distributions are detailed for the case of an exponential size distribution at various number densities. Further, it is demonstrated that the inclusion-induced material nonuniformities derived in this paper can be numerically sampled efficiently, making them applicable to Monte Carlo device simulation of realistic CdZnTe detectors. Simulated charge induction maps and pulse-height spectra are presented and compared to recently published measurements.

  6. Strong sp-d exchange coupling in ZnMnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojnar, Piotr; Janik, Elzbieta; Szymura, Malgorzata; Zaleszczyk, Wojciech; Kret, Slawomir; Klopotowski, Lukasz; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Baczewski, Lech T.; Wiater, Maciej; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Wojtowicz, Tomasz; Kossut, Jacek [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Suffczynski, Jan; Papierska, Joanna [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-07-15

    In this work, our recent progress in the growth and optical studies of telluride nanowire heterostructures containing a small molar fraction of magnetic Mn-ions of only a few percent is overviewed. ZnMnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires (NWs) are grown by molecular beam epitaxy by employing the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism assisted with gold catalyst. The structures are studied by means of photoluminescence and microphotoluminescence in an external magnetic field. In the first step, however, an activation of the near band edge emission from ZnTe and ZnMnTe nanowires is described, which is achieved by coating the nanowires with shells made of ZnMgTe. The role of these shells is to passivate Zn(Mn)Te surface states. The incorporation of Mn ions into the crystalline lattice of ZnMnTe nanowires is manifested as a considerable blue shift of near band edge emission with increasing Mn concentration inside the nanowire cores, which reflects directly the increase of their energy gap. In an external magnetic field the near band edge emission exhibits a giant spectral redshift accompanied by an increase of the circular polarization of the emitted light. Both effect are fingerprints of giant Zeeman splitting of the band edges due to sp-d exchange interaction between the band carriers and magnetic Mn-ions. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. The effect of dephasing on edge state transport through p-n junctions in HgTe/CdTe quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Tao; Song, Juntao; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2014-02-26

    Using the Landauer-Büttiker formula, we study the effect of dephasing on the transport properties of the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction. It is found that in the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction the topologically protected gapless helical edge states manifest a quantized 2e²/h plateau robust against dephasing, in sharp contrast to the case for the normal HgTe/CdTe quantum well. This robustness of the transport properties of the edge states against dephasing should be attributed to the special construction of the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction, which limits the gapless helical edge states to a very narrow region and thus weakens the influence of the dephasing on the gapless edge states to a large extent. Our results demonstrate that the p-n junction could be a substitute device for use in experimentally observing the robust edge states and quantized plateau. Finally, we present a feasible scheme based on current experimental methods.

  8. A Combined MIS/DS Course Uses Lecture Capture Technology to "Level the Playing Field" in Student Numeracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the process taken to develop a quantitative-based and Excel™-driven course that combines "BOTH" Management Information Systems (MIS) and Decision Science (DS) modeling outcomes and lays the foundation for upper level quantitative courses such as operations management, finance and strategic management. In addition,…

  9. Numerical study of the influence of ZnTe thickness on CdS/ZnTe solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skhouni, Othmane; El Manouni, Ahmed; Mari, Bernabe; Ullah, Hanif

    2016-05-01

    At present most of II-VI semiconductor based solar cells use the CdTe material as an absorber film. The simulation of its performance is realized by means of various numerical modelling programs. We have modelled a solar cell based on zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin film as absorber in substitution to the CdTe material, which contains the cadmium element known by its toxicity. The performance of such photovoltaic device has been numerically simulated and the thickness of the absorber layer has been optimized to give the optimal conversion efficiency. A photovoltaic device consisting of a ZnTe layer as absorber, CdS as the buffer layer and ZnO as a window layer was modelled through Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator Software. Dark and illuminated I-V characteristics and the results for different output parameters of ZnO/CdS/ZnTe solar cell were analyzed. The effect of ZnTe absorber thickness on different main working parameters such as: open-circuit voltage Voc, short-circuit current density Jsc, fill factor FF, photovoltaic conversion efficiency η was intensely studied in order to optimize ZnTe film thickness. This study reveals that increasing the thickness of ZnTe absorber layer results in higher efficiency until a maximum value and then decreases slightly. This maximum was found to be 10% at ZnTe optimum thickness close to 2 µm. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage (ICOME 2015) - Elected submissions", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  10. Determination of a natural valence-band offset - The case of HgTe and CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C. K.; Spicer, W. E.

    1987-01-01

    A method to determine a natural valence-band offset (NVBO), i.e., the change in the valence-band maximum energy which is intrinsic to the bulk band structures of semiconductors is proposed. The HgTe-CdTe system is used as an example in which it is found that the valence-band maximum of HgTe lies 0.35 + or - 0.06 eV above that of CdTe. The NVBO of 0.35 eV is in good agreement with the X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurement of the heterojunction offset. The procedure to determine the NVBO between semiconductors, and its implication on the heterojunction band lineup and the electronic structures of semiconductor alloys, are discussed.

  11. The (Mis)understanding of Scientific Uncertainty? How Experts View Policy-Makers, the Media and Publics

    OpenAIRE

    Landstrom, Catharina; Hauxwell-Baldwin, Richard; Lorenzoni, Irene; Rogers-Hayden, Tee

    2015-01-01

    Frequent claims that publics ‘misunderstand’ science ignore the contested definition of scientific uncertainty itself. Scientific uncertainty means different things in the natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities, while public controversies show that these interpretations of scientific uncertainty have different implications for policy and decision-making. This prompts analysis of the ways that experts view scientific uncertainty and how they characterise the (mis)understandings o...

  12. Study of the CdX-B2X3-X (X=S, Se), CdTe-B-Te systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odin, I.N.; Grin'ko, V.V.; Safronov, E.V.; Kozlovskij, V.F.

    2001-01-01

    Liquidus surfaces of the CdX-B 2 X 3 -X (X=S, Se), CdTe-B-Te systems are plotted for the first time. It is shown that in equilibrium solid solutions on the basis of ternary Cd 2 B 2 X 5 compounds and binary B 2 X 3 , CdX, BS 2 compounds take part with liquid phases. p gen -T and T-x projects of p-T-x phase diagram of B-S (59-100 at. % S), B-Se (59-100 at. % Se), B-Te systems are plotted . B 2 X 3 , BS 2 compounds are formed in that regions of compositions of B-X systems . In the B-Te system compounds are not formed. Ternary compounds are not formed in the CdTe-B-Te system [ru

  13. Zn2(TeO3Br2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Johnsson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of dizinc tellurium dibromide trioxide, Zn2(TeO3Br2, were synthesized via a transport reaction in sealed evacuated silica tubes. The compound has a layered crystal structure in which the building units are [ZnO4Br] distorted square pyramids, [ZnO2Br2] distorted tetrahedra, and [TeO3E] tetrahedra (E being the 5s2 lone pair of Te4+ joined through sharing of edges and corners to form layers of no net charge. Bromine atoms and tellurium lone pairs protrude from the surfaces of each layer towards adjacent layers. This new compound Zn2(TeO3Br2 is isostructural with the synthetic compounds Zn2(TeO3Cl2, CuZn(TeO32, Co2(TeO3Br2 and the mineral sophiite, Zn2(SeO3Cl2.

  14. Si-Sb-Te materials for phase change memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Feng; Song Zhitang; Ren Kun; Zhou Xilin; Cheng Yan; Wu Liangcai; Liu Bo

    2011-01-01

    Si-Sb-Te materials including Te-rich Si 2 Sb 2 Te 6 and Si x Sb 2 Te 3 with different Si contents have been systemically studied with the aim of finding the most suitable Si-Sb-Te composition for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) use. Si x Sb 2 Te 3 shows better thermal stability than Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 or Si 2 Sb 2 Te 6 in that Si x Sb 2 Te 3 does not have serious Te separation under high annealing temperature. As Si content increases, the data retention ability of Si x Sb 2 Te 3 improves. The 10 years retention temperature for Si 3 Sb 2 Te 3 film is ∼ 393 K, which meets the long-term data storage requirements of automotive electronics. In addition, Si richer Si x Sb 2 Te 3 films also show improvement on thickness change upon annealing and adhesion on SiO 2 substrate compared to those of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 or Si 2 Sb 2 Te 6 films. However, the electrical performance of PCRAM cells based on Si x Sb 2 Te 3 films with x > 3.5 becomes worse in terms of stable and long-term operations. Si x Sb 2 Te 3 materials with 3 < x < 3.5 are proved to be suitable for PCRAM use to ensure good overall performance.

  15. Measurement of the top quark pair production cross section with the ATLAS detector at LHC in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV in dilepton final states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abajyan, Tatevik

    2012-03-15

    The production cross section of top quark pairs in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is measured. The goal of the analysis is to provide a benchmark test of perturbative QCD and the Standard Model by measuring the t t production cross section in data and compare the measurement with theoretical predictions. Within the Standard Model, a top quark almost exclusively decays to a W-boson and a b-quark. Using a data sample of 35 pb{sup -1}, candidate events are selected in the dilepton topology (where both W-bosons from t t decay leptonically) with large missing transverse energy and at least two jets. The branching ratio of this process is 6.5%. The theoretical expectation for t t production cross section in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is 165{sup +11}{sub -16} pb. Backgrounds from Z/{gamma}* {yields} ll and mis-identified leptons are estimated from data. Results include detailed studies of systematic uncertainties. A t t production cross section 181{+-}22(stat.){+-}14(syst.){sup +8}{sub -7}(lumi) pb is measured for an assumed top quark mass of 172.5 GeV.

  16. Measurement of the top quark pair production cross section with the ATLAS detector at LHC in pp collisions at √(s)=7 TeV in dilepton final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abajyan, Tatevik

    2012-03-01

    The production cross section of top quark pairs in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is measured. The goal of the analysis is to provide a benchmark test of perturbative QCD and the Standard Model by measuring the t t production cross section in data and compare the measurement with theoretical predictions. Within the Standard Model, a top quark almost exclusively decays to a W-boson and a b-quark. Using a data sample of 35 pb -1 , candidate events are selected in the dilepton topology (where both W-bosons from t t decay leptonically) with large missing transverse energy and at least two jets. The branching ratio of this process is 6.5%. The theoretical expectation for t t production cross section in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is 165 +11 -16 pb. Backgrounds from Z/γ* → ll and mis-identified leptons are estimated from data. Results include detailed studies of systematic uncertainties. A t t production cross section 181±22(stat.)±14(syst.) +8 -7 (lumi) pb is measured for an assumed top quark mass of 172.5 GeV.

  17. Robust half-metallicity at the zincblende CrTe(0 0 1) surfaces and its interface with ZnTe(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadian, F.; Abolhassani, M.R.; Hashemifar, S.J.; Elahi, M.

    2010-01-01

    All electron full potential calculations based on spin density functional theory are performed to study cubic zincblende (ZB) and hexagonal NiAs structures of bulk CrTe, free (0 0 1) surfaces of ZB CrTe, and interface of ZB CrTe with ZnTe(0 0 1). The ferromagnetic NiAs structure is reported to be about 0.26 eV more stable than the ferromagnetic ZB phase while ZB CrTe is found to be a half-metallic ferromagnet with a half-metallic gap of about 2.90 eV. Thermodynamic stability of CrTe(0 0 1) surfaces are studied in the framework of ab-initio thermodynamic. The obtained phase diagram evidences more stability of the Te terminated surface compared with the Cr termination. We discuss that both Te and Cr ideal terminations of CrTe(0 0 1) retain bulk-like half-metallic property but with a reduced half-metallic gap compared with bulk value. The structural, electronic, magnetic, and band alignment properties of the ZB CrTe/ZnTe(0 0 1) interface are computed and a rather large minority valence band offset of about 1.09 eV is observed in this heterojunction.

  18. Temperature dependence and effects of series resistance on current and admittance measurements of Al/SnO2/p-Si MIS diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altindal, S.; Tekeli, Z.; Karadeniz, S.; Sahingoez, R.

    2002-01-01

    Temperature dependency and the series resistance effect on I-V, C-V and G-V characteristics of Al/SnO 2 /p-Si MIS diode were investigated in the temperature range 150-350 K. The current-voltage (I-V) analysis in this temperature range gives the saturation current (10''-''9 - 10''-''5 A), the ideality factor (6-1.8), the barrier height Φ B (I-V) (0.3-0.65 eV) the density of interface states D it (8x10''1''3 - 1x10''1''3 eV''-''1cm''-''2) and the series resistance R s (500-100 Ω). The decreases with increasing temperature of density of interface states is the result of molecular restructuring and reordering at the metal-semiconductor interface. The value of series resistance 520 Ω was calculated from the admittance measurement at room temperature and enough high frequency (500 khz) when the diode is biased in strong accumulation region. The admittance frequency (C-V and G-V) measurement confirmed that the measured capacitance (C m ) and conductance (G m ) varies with applied voltage and frequency due to the presence of density of interface states in the MIS diode, interfacial insulator layer and enough high series resistance. Similar results have been observed on MIS type Schottky diodes

  19. A rhinocerotid-dominated megafauna at the MIS6-5 transition: The late Middle Pleistocene Coc Muoi assemblage, Lang Son province, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Anne-Marie; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Huong, Nguyen Thi Mai; Westaway, Kira; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Duringer, Philippe; Zhao, Jian-xin; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Dung, Sam Canh; Nghia, Truong Huu; Minh, Tran Thi; Son, Pham Thanh; Boyon, Marc; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Kim; Blin, Amandine; Demeter, Fabrice

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about the ecosystems in the north of the Indochinese peninsula at the Middle-Late Pleistocene transition. In this paper, we analyzed the new fauna from Coc Muoi cave, Lang Son province, northeast Vietnam. In comparison with other well-documented faunas from the region, that of Coc Muoi is distinguished by the predominance of rhinoceroses among diverse large-bodied herbivores. The results of the OSL and pIR-IRSL dating of the cave sediments and U-series dating of flowstones indicate a potential age range of 148-117 ka for the fauna (MIS6-5). The analysis of age-at-death distributions of rhinoceroses, wild cattle, sambar deer, and wild pig, does not show any apparent selectivity of age classes. We also focused our study on rhinoceroses, tapirs, and wild cattle by analyzing the prevalence of hypoplastic defects on deciduous and permanent teeth, in an attempt to assess the health status of the taxa during their first years of growth. The health status of large-bodied herbivores (kouprey and rhinoceros) reveals the importance of stressors (biotic and abiotic) in the rainforest environment during a period of marked climatic transition (MIS6-5) in comparison with other MIS5-4 well-documented faunas from the region.

  20. Radiographic and clinical outcomes following MIS-TLIF in patients with adult lumbar degenerative scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongfei; Liang, Yan; Mao, Keya

    2018-04-19

    Patients suffering from adult lumbar degenerative scoliosis (ALDS) are commonly complicated with advanced age, osteoporosis, cardiopulmonary insufficiency, and some other medical comorbidity. Therefore, the traditional open surgery can lead to high rate of postoperative complications. The purposes of this study were to introduce our experiences and explore the efficacy and feasibility of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in the treatment of patients with ALDS. From January 2008 to January 2014, a retrospective study of 22 patients with ALDS treated with MIS-TLIF was followed up at least 2 years. All patients suffered from one-level lumbar stenosis, and the nerve root block was performed to make sure the exact level. The clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated preoperatively and at the time of 2-year follow-up. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) back pain scores decreased from 6.2 ± 1.8 preoperatively to 2.2 ± 0.7 at 2-year follow-up (P < 0.05), and the mean VAS leg pain scores decreased from 8.2 ± 0.7 preoperatively to 1.4 ± 1.4 at 2-year follow-up (P < 0.05). The Oswestry Disability Index score improved from 62.4 ± 16.1% preoperatively to 24.2 ± 9.3% at 2-year follow-up (P < 0.05). The average lumbar curve was 20.7° ± 7.0° preoperatively and 12.7° ± 7.1° at 2-year follow-up (P < 0.05). The lumbar lordosis changed from - 39.5° ± 13.6° to - 43.6° ± 10.6° at 2-year follow-up (P < 0.05). Solid fusion was achieved in all patients. The technique of MIS-TLIF can be used to treat the patients with ALDS whose symptom is mainly from one-level lumbar stenosis, achieving favorable clinical outcomes and good fusion, with less blood loss and complications.

  1. Investigations of small-gap semiconductors: HgTe, HgMnTe and PbMnTe in the far infrared region using Fourierspectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roschger, I.

    1985-05-01

    A special method was developed in the framework of this thesis to solve the inherent problem of dynamic range in Fourier spectrometry by using optical compensation. The so-called dual beam spectrometer consists of two coupled interferometers. This technique was adapted for measurements on small gap semiconductors. The investigated sample was n-HgTe, for which a resonant acceptor absorption in the conduction band was predicted. By alloying Mn-ions into the inverted gap-HgTe-crystal the band gap can be tuned to an open gap band structure. The mixed crystal exhibits additional structures in the phonon spectrum. The model of Barker and Verleur (including clustering) was applied. The substitution of Mn-ions in the IV-VI-compound PbTe leads to semimagnetic effects resolved by magneto-reflectivity measurements. The extrapolation in the fan-charts to zero-magnetic field suggests residual spin splitting either in the conduction and/or in the valence band. To evaluate the data an oscillator fit was applied to cyclotron absorption (Faraday- and Voigt-configuration) and was proved to be in agreement with the experimental data. Zero field splitting appears in PbMnTe in the valence band and indicates a weak ferromagnetism already observed in other measurements cited in the literature. Kramers-Kronig-data were in agreement with the theoretical results of the Barker-Verleur-model. The influence of clustering in the mixed crystal HgMnTe on the phonon spectra must be taken into account for Mn concentrations > 20%. The existence of the resonance acceptor state in HgTe was proved by optical transmission measurements. (Author, shortened by G.Q.)

  2. Zn2(TeO3)Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Johnsson, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of dizinc tellurium dibromide trioxide, Zn2(TeO3)Br2, were synthesized via a transport reaction in sealed evacuated silica tubes. The compound has a layered crystal structure in which the building units are [ZnO4Br] distorted square pyramids, [ZnO2Br2] distorted tetra­hedra, and [TeO3 E] tetra­hedra (E being the 5s 2 lone pair of Te4+) joined through sharing of edges and corners to form layers of no net charge. Bromine atoms and tellurium lone pairs protrude from the surfaces of each layer towards adjacent layers. This new compound Zn2(TeO3)Br2 is isostructural with the synthetic compounds Zn2(TeO3)Cl2, CuZn(TeO3)2, Co2(TeO3)Br2 and the mineral sophiite, Zn2(SeO3)Cl2. PMID:21202162

  3. HgTe-CdTe phase diagrams calculation by RAS model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hady, A.A.A.

    1986-11-01

    The model of Regular Associated Solutions (RAS) for binary solution, which extended onto the ternary solution was used for Mercury-Cadnium-Tellurim phase diagrams calculations. The function of dissociation parameters is used here as a function of temperature and it is independent of composition. The ratio of mole fractions has a weak dependence on temperature and is not neglected. The calculated liquidus binary temperature and the experimental one are so fitted to give the best values of parameters used to calculate the HgTe-CdTe phase diagrams. (author)

  4. Using Mobility to Enhance the Routing Process in the MIS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkoutbi Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the original Mobile Intelligent System (MIS in embedded FPGA architecture. This node will allow the construction of autonomous mobile network units which can move in unknowns, inaccessible or hostile environnement for human being, in order to collect data by various sensors and transmits them by routing to a unit of distant process. In the sake of improving the performance of routing unit, we propose a measure of mobility. Each node measure its own mobility in the network, based on the change of the links state in his neighboring. This measure of mobility has no unit, and it is calculated by quantification in regular time intervals.

  5. Investigation of the electronic and magnetic structure of thin layer FeTe on Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornils, Lasse; Manna, Sujit; Kamlapure, Anand; Haenke, Torben; Wiebe, Jens; Wiesendanger, Roland [Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Hu, Jin; Mao, Zhiqiang [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans (United States); Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo; Hofmann, Philip [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center iNANO, Aarhus University (Denmark)

    2016-07-01

    The surprising discovery of Fe based superconductors in 2008 lead to a big effort in finding new materials with very high critical temperatures. One good example are Fe-chalcogenides. Although the parent compound FeTe is not superconducting, the situation changes drastically on interfacing the material with other substrates. Recently He and coworkers found zero resistance at the interface of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films grown on bulk FeTe, which showed a transition temperature of 12 K. In this talk we present our latest results on our investigation of the electronic and magnetic nature of epitaxially grown FeTe thin films on the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Up to several monolayers of FeTe, an antiferromagnetic structure similar to the one observed on its bulk compound FeTe was clearly visible. Surprisingly we found a gap around the Fermi level indicating proximity to superconductivity in coexistence with magnetism on the nanoscale.

  6. Anomalous Phase Change in [(GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)]20 Superlattice Observed by Coherent Phonon Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, K.; Saito, Y.; Mitrofanov, K.; Tominaga, J.; Kolobov, A. V.; Nakano, T.; Fons, P.; Hase, M.

    The temperature-dependent ultrafast coherent phonon dynamics of topological (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3) super lattice phase change memory material was investigated. By comparing with Ge-Sb-Te alloy, a clear contrast suggesting the unique phase change behavior was found.

  7. Preparation of CdxHg1-xTe films by the method of vapour-phase epitaxy of HgTe on CdTe substrates with subsequent mutual diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varavin, V.S.; Sidorov, Yu.G.; Remesnik, V.G.; Chikichev, S.I.; Nis, I.E.

    1994-01-01

    Mirror-like HgTe films have been grown on CdTe substrates of various orientations by vapor deposition of HgTe in temperature gradient. Deposition rates fell in the range of 5-12 μm/h. Subsequent annealing has permitted production of Hg 1-x Cd x Te layers about 15 μm in thickness. Canier density in annealed n-type specimens has been found to constitute (1-20)x10 15 cm -3 at carrier mobility of (2-5)x10 4 cm 2 xV -1 xs -1 and in p-type films - (1-5)x10 16 cm -3 and 200-350 cm 2 xV -1 xs -1 (77 K) respectively

  8. Suppression in the electrical hysteresis by using CaF2 dielectric layer for p-GaN MIS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Liwen; Ren, Bing; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2018-04-01

    The capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis in the bidirectional measurements of the p-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor is suppressed by using a CaF2 dielectric layer and a post annealing treatment. The density of trapped charge states at the CaF2/p-GaN interface is dramatically reduced from 1.3 × 1013 cm2 to 1.1 × 1011/cm2 compared to that of the Al2O3/p-GaN interface with a large C-V hysteresis. It is observed that the disordered oxidized interfacial layer can be avoided by using the CaF2 dielectric. The downward band bending of p-GaN is decreased from 1.51 to 0.85 eV as a result of the low-density oxides-related trap states. Our work indicates that the CaF2 can be used as a promising dielectric layer for the p-GaN MIS structures.

  9. CURRENT ISSUES IN OUTSOURCING: MIS, AIS AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIDA SY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En años recientes, el outsourcing se ha venido convirtiendo en una tendencia tanto en empresas de Europa y los Estados Unidos. Ni siquiera, trabajadores muy calificados se salvan de este asalto.La vanidad de los intelectuales y los profesionales que ejecutan tanto sistemas de información contable(AIS, como sistemas de información de gestión (MIS es su creencia de que están exentos de estosprocesos de outsourcing. Algunos creen que disfrutan de una vida de ensueño, que la demanda de sus servicios está asegurada. Se consuelan pensando que el aumento de su dominiotécnico les ofrece una defensa suficiente contra los ataques provenientes del mercado laboral y de productos.Una interpretación desde los estudios críticos indicará que esta posición es un acto dearrogancia, siendo esto el eje de la discusión de este documento. Tal actitud de los profesionales contables es una reminiscencia del Rey Canuto esperando que la marea retroceda.

  10. Surface passivation for CdTe devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Matthew O.; Perkins, Craig L.; Burst, James M.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a method for surface passivation for CdTe devices is provided. The method includes adjusting a stoichiometry of a surface of a CdTe material layer such that the surface becomes at least one of stoichiometric or Cd-rich; and reconstructing a crystalline lattice at the surface of the CdTe material layer by annealing the adjusted surface.

  11. Design principles for HgTe based topological insulator devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Parijat; Kubis, Tillmann; Tan, Yaohua; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    The topological insulator properties of CdTe/HgTe/CdTe quantum wells are theoretically studied. The CdTe/HgTe/CdTe quantum well behaves as a topological insulator beyond a critical well width dimension. It is shown that if the barrier (CdTe) and well-region (HgTe) are altered by replacing them with the alloy CdxHg1-xTe of various stoichiometries, the critical width can be changed. The critical quantum well width is shown to depend on temperature, applied stress, growth directions, and external electric fields. Based on these results, a novel device concept is proposed that allows to switch between a normal semiconducting and topological insulator state through application of moderate external electric fields.

  12. The effect of mis-specification on mean and selection between the Weibull and lognormal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiang; Nadarajah, Saralees; Guo, Bo

    2018-02-01

    The lognormal and Weibull models are commonly used to analyse data. Although selection procedures have been extensively studied, it is possible that the lognormal model could be selected when the true model is Weibull or vice versa. As the mean is important in applications, we focus on the effect of mis-specification on mean. The effect on lognormal mean is first considered if the lognormal sample is wrongly fitted by a Weibull model. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) and quasi-MLE (QMLE) of lognormal mean are obtained based on lognormal and Weibull models. Then, the impact is evaluated by computing ratio of biases and ratio of mean squared errors (MSEs) between MLE and QMLE. For completeness, the theoretical results are demonstrated by simulation studies. Next, the effect of the reverse mis-specification on Weibull mean is discussed. It is found that the ratio of biases and the ratio of MSEs are independent of the location and scale parameters of the lognormal and Weibull models. The influence could be ignored if some special conditions hold. Finally, a model selection method is proposed by comparing ratios concerning biases and MSEs. We also present a published data to illustrate the study in this paper.

  13. A high-elevation, multi-proxy biotic and environmental record of MIS 6-4 from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ian M.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, R. Scott; Johnson, Kirk R.; Mahan, Shannon; Ager, Thomas A.; Baker, Richard G.; Blaauw, Maarten; Bright, Jordon; Brown, Peter M.; Bryant, Bruce; Calamari, Zachary T.; Carrara, Paul E.; Michael D., Cherney; Demboski, John R.; Elias, Scott A.; Fisher, Daniel C.; Gray, Harrison J.; Haskett, Danielle R.; Honke, Jeffrey S.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Kline, Douglas; Leonard, Eric M.; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Lucking, Carol; McDonald, H. Gregory; Miller, Dane M.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Nash, Stephen E.; Newton, Cody; Paces, James B.; Petrie, Lesley; Plummer, Mitchell A.; Porinchu, David F.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Scott, Eric; Sertich, Joseph J. W.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Skipp, Gary L.; Strickland, Laura E.; Stucky, Richard K.; Thompson, Robert S.; Wilson, Jim

    2014-01-01

    In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~ 140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5.

  14. Optical properties of CuCdTeO thin films sputtered from CdTe-CuO composite targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza-Galván, A., E-mail: amendoza@qro.cinvestav.mx [Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, 76230 Querétaro (Mexico); Laboratory of Applied Optics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Arreola-Jardón, G. [Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, 76230 Querétaro (Mexico); Karlsson, L.H.; Persson, P.O.Å. [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Jiménez-Sandoval, S. [Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, 76230 Querétaro (Mexico)

    2014-11-28

    The effective complex dielectric function (ε) of Cu and O containing CdTe thin films is reported in the spectral range of 0.05 to 6 eV. The films were fabricated by rf sputtering from targets comprised by a mixture of CdTe and CuO powders with nominal Cu and O concentrations in the range of 2–10 at.%. Low concentration levels improved the crystalline quality of the films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurements were used to determine ε. The critical point energies E{sub 1}, E{sub 1} + Δ{sub 1}, and E{sub 2} of CdTe are red-shifted with the incorporation of Cu and O. Also, an absorption band is developed in the infrared range which is associated with a mixture of CdTe and low resistivity phases Cu{sub 2−x}Te according to an effective medium analysis. The elemental distribution of the films was mapped by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using scanning transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Incorporation of 2 to 10 at.% of Cu and O atoms in CdTe films • Improved crystalline quality with 2 and 3 at.% of Cu and O • Complex dielectric function of Cu and O containing CdTe thin films • Effective medium modeling of below band-gap absorption.

  15. Interface Si donor control to improve dynamic performance of AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Fu, Kai; Zhang, Zhili; Sun, Shichuang; Li, Weiyi; Yu, Guohao; Hao, Ronghui; Fan, Yaming; Shi, Wenhua; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Baoshun

    2017-12-01

    In this letter, we have studied the performance of AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) with different interface Si donor incorporation which is tuned during the deposition process of LPCVD-SiNx which is adopted as gate dielectric and passivation layer. Current collapse of the MIS-HEMTs without field plate is suppressed more effectively by increasing the SiH2Cl2/NH3 flow ratio and the normalized dynamic on-resistance (RON) is reduced two orders magnitude after off-state VDS stress of 600 V for 10 ms. Through interface characterization, we have found that the interface deep-level traps distribution with high Si donor incorporation by increasing the SiH2Cl2/NH3 flow ratio is lowered. It's indicated that the Si donors are most likely to fill and screen the deep-level traps at the interface resulting in the suppression of slow trapping process and the virtual gate effect. Although the Si donor incorporation brings about the increase of gate leakage current (IGS), no clear degradation of breakdown voltage can be seen by choosing appropriate SiH2Cl2/NH3 flow ratio.

  16. CdTe and CdZnTe detectors behavior in X-ray computed tomography conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ricq, S; Garcin, M

    2000-01-01

    The application of CdTe and CdZnTe 2D array detectors for medical X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) is investigated. Different metallic electrodes have been deposited on High-Pressure Bridgman Method CdZnTe and on Traveling Heater Method CdTe:Cl. These detectors are exposed to X-rays in the CT irradiation conditions and are characterized experimentally in current mode. Detectors performances such as sensitivity and response speed are studied. They are correlated with charge trapping and de-trapping. The trapped carrier space charges may influence the injection from the electrodes. This enables one to get information on the nature of the predominant levels involved. The performances achieved are encouraging: dynamic ranges higher than 4 decades and current decreases of 3 decades in 4 ms after X-ray beam cut-off are obtained. Nevertheless, these detectors are still limited by high trap densities responsible for the memory effect that makes them unsuitable for XCT.

  17. Optimization of Monocrystalline MgxCd1-xTe/MgyCd1-yTe Double-Heterostructure Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jacob J.

    Polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells continue to dominate the thin-film photovoltaics industry with an achieved record efficiency of over 22% demonstrated by First Solar, yet monocrystalline CdTe devices have received considerably less attention over the years. Monocrystalline CdTe double-heterostructure solar cells show great promise with respect to addressing the problem of low Voc with the passing of the 1 V benchmark. Rapid progress has been made in driving the efficiency in these devices ever closer to the record presently held by polycrystalline thin-films. This achievement is primarily due to the utilization of a remote p-n heterojunction in which the heavily doped contact materials, which are so problematic in terms of increasing non-radiative recombination inside the absorber, are moved outside of the CdTe double heterostructure with two MgyCd1-yTe barrier layers to provide confinement and passivation at the CdTe surfaces. Using this design, the pursuit and demonstration of efficiencies beyond 20% in CdTe solar cells is reported through the study and optimization of the structure barriers, contacts layers, and optical design. Further development of a wider bandgap MgxCd1-xTe solar cell based on the same design is included with the intention of applying this knowledge to the development of a tandem solar cell constructed on a silicon subcell. The exploration of different hole-contact materials--ZnTe, CuZnS, and a-Si:H--and their optimization is presented throughout the work. Devices utilizing a-Si:H hole contacts exhibit open-circuit voltages of up to 1.11 V, a maximum total-area efficiency of 18.5% measured under AM1.5G, and an active-area efficiency of 20.3% for CdTe absorber based devices. The achievement of voltages beyond 1.1V while still maintaining relatively high fill factors with no rollover, either before or after open-circuit, is a promising indicator that this approach can result in devices surpassing the 22% record set by polycrystalline

  18. Plasma kinetics and biodistribution of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots in mice: a comparison between Cd and Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Ying; Xie Guangyun; Sun Zhiwei; Mu Ying; Han Sihai; Xiao Yang; Liu Na; Wang Hui; Guo Caixia; Shi Zhixiong; Li Yanbo; Huang Peili

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) have shown potential as tumor diagnostic agents. However, little is known about their biological behaviors in vivo. Male ICR mice were intravenously given a single dose (2.5 μmol kg −1 body weight) of water-soluble cadmium–telluride (CdTe) QDs (the QDs are approximately 4 nm in diameter and have maximal emission at 630 nm). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for measuring the kinetic action of 111 Cd and 125 Te for 7 days. The plasma kinetics of Cd and Te followed a two-compartment model, in which Cd exhibited greater apparent volume of distribution, greater clearance, faster distribution half-life, and significantly slower elimination half-life compared to Te. Contrary to its relatively transient fate in the plasma, high levels of Cd persisted in the liver and kidneys. Te accumulated primarily in the spleen. The different plasma kinetics and distribution patterns of Cd and Te imply that CdTe QDs have been part of the degradation or aggregation in vivo.

  19. Thermopower of thermoelectric materials with resonant levels: PbTe:Tl versus PbTe:Na and Cu1 -xNix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiendlocha, Bartlomiej

    2018-05-01

    Electronic transport properties of thermoelectric materials containing resonant levels are discussed by analyzing the two best known examples: copper-nickel metallic alloy (Cu-Ni, constantan) and thallium-doped lead telluride (PbTe:Tl). As a contrasting example of a material with a nonresonant impurity, sodium-doped PbTe is considered. Theoretical calculations of the electronic structure, Bloch spectral functions, and energy-dependent electrical conductivity at T =0 K are done using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method with the coherent potential approximation and the Kubo-Greenwood formalism. The effect of a resonance on the residual resistivity and electronic lifetimes in PbTe is analyzed. By using the full Fermi integrals, room-temperature thermopower is calculated, confirming its increase in PbTe:Tl versus PbTe:Na, due to the presence of the resonant level. In addition, our calculations support the self-compensation model, in which the experimentally observed reduction of carrier concentration in PbTe:Tl against the nominal one is explained by the presence of n -type Te vacancies.

  20. Deposition of polycrystalline Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x} Te films on ZnTe/graphite and graphite substrates by close-spaced sublimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Akiba, Sho; Takahashi, Kohei; Nagatsuka, Satsuki; Kanda, Yohei [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kisarazu National College of Technology, 2-11-1 Kiyomidai-higashi, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0041 (Japan); Tokuda, Satoshi; Kishihara, Hiroyuki; Sato, Toshiyuki [Technology Research Laboratory, Shimadzu Corporation, 3-9-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    The effects of a ZnTe layer on the deposition of a Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te (CZT) layer in the initial stage of the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) deposition were investigated. The deposition rate was almost constant in the initial stage of the CdTe deposition on the ZnTe/graphite substrates. However, the deposition rate within 1 minute was lower than that after 1 minute in the CdTe deposition on graphite substrates. This result suggests that nucleation of CdTe directly deposited on graphite substrate is difficult when compared to that with a ZnTe layer. Furthermore, the effects of CdCl{sub 2} and ZnTe additions to the CdTe sources in the CSS deposition were also investigated. Both the grain size and the intensity of donor-acceptor pair (DAP) emission in photoluminescence (PL) spectra were decreased by the effect of CdCl{sub 2} addition. Zn content in CZT films was controlled by the ZnTe ratio in the CdTe/ZnTe powder sources. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Reduction in thermal conductivity of BiSbTe lump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Kaleem [King Saud University, Sustainable Energy Technologies Center, College of Engineering, PO Box 800, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Wan, C. [Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing (China); Al-Eshaikh, M.A.; Kadachi, A.N. [King Saud University, Research Center, College of Engineering, PO Box 800, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-03-15

    In this work, systematic investigations on the thermal conductivities of BiSbTe lump, microstructured pristine BiSbTe bulk and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)/BiSbTe bulk nanocomposites were performed. BiSbTe lumps were crushed to form a coarse powder (200 μm) and effect of particle size reduction on the effective thermal conductivity of BiSbTe (200 μm) bulk were analyzed. For further reduction in the conductivity, a two pronged strategy has been employed. First, additional refinement of BiSbTe (200 μm) were performed through ball milling in an inert environment. Second, SWCNTs in 0.75, and 1.0 vol% were distributed uniformly in the fine BiSbTe ball milled powder. The results showed that the effective thermal conductivities decrease with the reduction in the particle size from lump to BiSbTe (200 μm) bulk as well as with the addition of SWCNTs accompanied by further refinement of BiSbTe particles. The significant reduction in thermal conductivities of the lump was achieved for pure BiSbTe (200 μm) bulk and 0.75 vol% of SWCNTs/BiSbTe composite. This can be ascribed to the enhanced phonon scattering by the grain boundaries between the nanostructured BiSbTe particles as well as the interfaces between BiSbTe and the low dimensional carbon nanotubes. (orig.)

  2. Anomalous phase change characteristics in Fe-Te materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, X. T.; Song, W. D.; Ji, R.; Ho, H. W.; Wang, L.; Hong, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials have become significantly attractive due to its unique characteristics for its extensive applications. In this paper, a kind of phase change material, which consists of Fe and Te components, is developed. The crystallization temperature of the Fe-Te materials is 180 deg. C for Fe 1.19 Te and can be adjusted by the Fe/Te ratio. High-speed phase change in the Fe-Te materials has been demonstrated by nanosecond laser irradiation. Comparing to conventional phase change materials, the Fe-Te materials exhibit an anomalous optical property that has higher reflectivity at amorphous than crystalline state, which is useful for data storage design.

  3. Vibrational properties of homopolar and heteropolar surfaces and interfaces of the CdTe/HgTe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey Gonzalez, R.; Camacho B, A.; Quiroga, L.

    1993-08-01

    We present results of calculations for the density of vibrational modes for (001) and (111) homopolar, as well as for (011) heteropolar free surfaces of CdTe and HgTe. A rigid-ion model with a dynamical matrix parametrization including force constants up to second neighbours is used. We report on the existence of highly localized surface resonant modes at the top of the acoustic branch for CdTe and the bottom of the optical branch for HgTe. A different behaviour in the three directions analysed is found. The interface atomic planes show themselves as phonon gapless layers. The contribution of in-plane and out-of-plane vibration is analysed for both the surface and interface cases. (author). 7 refs, 7 figs

  4. Tellurium sulfates from reactions in oleum and sulfur trioxide: syntheses and crystal structures of TeO(SO_4), Te_4O_3(SO_4)_5, and Te(S_2O_7)_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logemann, Christian; Bruns, Joern; Schindler, Lisa Verena; Zimmermann, Vanessa; Wickleder, Mathias S.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of K_2TeO_4 with fuming sulfuric acid (65 % SO_3) in sealed glass ampoules at 250 C led to colorless single crystals of TeO(SO_4) [triclinic, P anti 1, Z = 8, a = 819.89(3) pm, b = 836.95(4) pm, c = 1179.12(5) pm, α = 82.820(2) , β = 70.645(2) , γ = 81.897(2) , V = 753.11(6) x 10"6 pm"3]. A horseshoe type [Te_4O_3] fragment is the basic motif in the layer structure of the compound. The [Te_4O_3] moieties are linked to infinite chains by further oxide ions. Monomeric [Te_4O_3] horseshoes are found in the crystal structure of Te_4O_3(SO_4)_5 [trigonal, P3_221, Z = 3, a = 859.05(2) pm, c = 2230.66(7) pm, V = 1425.61(6) x 10"6 pm"3], which was obtained from TeO_2 and fuming sulfuric acid (65 % SO_3) at 200 C as colorless single crystals. By switching to neat SO_3 as reaction medium colorless crystals of Te(S_2O_7)_2 [P2_1/n, Z = 4, a = 1065.25(3) pm, b = 818.50(2) pm, c = 1206.27(3) pm, β = 102.097(1) , V = 1028.40(5) x 10"6 pm"3] form when ortho-telluric acid, H_6TeO_6, is used as the tellurium source. The compound was reported previously, however, obviously with a wrong crystallographic description. In the crystal structure the tellurium atoms are coordinated by two chelating disulfate ions. Further Te-O contacts link the [Te(S_2O_7)_2] units to an extended network. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Studies for Muon Colliders at Center-of-Mass Energies of 10 TeV and 100 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    Parameter lists are presented for speculative muon colliders at center-of-mass energies of 10 TeV and 100 TeV. The technological advances required to achieve the given parameters are itemized and discussed, and a discussion is given of the design goals and constraints. An important constraint for multi-TeV muon colliders is the need to minimize neutrino radiation from the collider ring

  6. High-frequency climate linkages between the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean during marine oxygen isotope stage 100 (MIS100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Julia; Lourens, L.J.; Raymo, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution records of Mediterranean and North Atlantic deep-sea sediments indicate that rapid changes in hydrology and climate occurred during marine oxygen isotope stage 100 (MIS100) (at ~2.52 Ma), which exhibits characteristics similar to late Pleistocene Dansgaard-Oeschger, Bond cycles and

  7. Biografia coletiva, engajamento e memória: a miséria do mundo Collective biography, commitment and memory: the weight of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ângelo Montagner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura relacionar a proposta de biografia coletiva de Pierre Bourdieu e suas possibilidades teóricas com a questão histórica do "engajamento" político dos cientistas, o que acaba por nos inserir no debate sobre o que é um intelectual, tema caro a muitos autores. Como exemplo polêmico, a forma elaborada desse engajamento por Pierre Bourdieu, em seu livro A miséria do mundo, é debatida neste artigo. Por fim, o interesse foi elaborar, à luz dessas ideias, uma proposta coerente de análise das trajetórias sociais e histórias de vida dos indivíduos inseridos em grupos comuns, assumindo como bases o conceito de memória coletiva de Halbwachs e de persona coletiva de Boltanski.This text aims to relate Pierre Bourdieu's proposal of collective biography and its theoretical possibilities to the historical question of the political 'commitment' of scientists, which pitches us once again into the debate on what is an intellectual, a key topic for many authors. As a polemical example, the article discusses the form in which this commitment is elaborated by Pierre Bourdieu in his book The weight of the world. It then seeks to develop these ideas into a coherent proposal for analyzing the social trajectories and life histories of individuals inserted in social groups, taking as its lead Halbwachs's concept of collective memory and Boltanski's notion of collective persona.

  8. Current state-of-the-art industrial and research applications using room-temperature CdTe and CdZnTe solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Improvements of CdTe crystal quality and significant progress in the growth of large ingots of high resistivity CdZnTe material enable the fabrication of larger area detectors in single element form or monolithic arrays. These advances allow for the development of imaging devices of improved spatial resolution for industrial, research and medical applications. CdTe and CdZnTe detectors operate in single photon counting mode or in current mode (charge integrating mode). The paper presents advantages of CdTe and CdZnTe over common scintillator type detectors, but also presents the shortcomings of the former detectors with respect to charge collection which limit the yields of good spectrometers. The paper reviews industrial and research applications utilizing these detectors and in particular describes in detail two imaging systems for security screening and custom inspection. These systems are characterized by large dynamic range and good spatial resolution and are composed of large arrays of CdTe spectrometers and discriminator grade detectors. A wide energy range detector assembly, for astrophysical research of gamma ray bursts composed of CdTe, HgI 2 and CdZnTe spectrometers in two dimensional arrays is also presented. (orig.)

  9. Kirjanduse ajalugu ja ühiskonna murrang / Pertti Lassila ; tlk. Katrin Raid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lassila, Pertti

    1998-01-01

    Bibl. lk. 276. Kokkuvõte inglise k. lk. 317. Talve- ja Jätkusõja põhjustatud kriisist Soome ühiskonnas, mis lõpetas rahvusromantismi saja-aastase valitsusaja soome kirjanduses ja tõi kaasa 1950. a.-te modernismi.

  10. Bouwlogistieke innovaties weerbarstig te implementeren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludema, M.W.; Vries, A.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Toelevering van bouwmaterialen aan bouwprojecten is complex en verregaande gesegregeerd. De bouwsector staat voor een kans te innoveren op het vlak van de bouwlogistiek. In het verleden is ervaring opgedaan met ‘best-practices’ die voldoende kansen bieden de noodzakelijk innovatie door te voeren.

  11. Study of CdTe:Cl and CdZnTe detectors for medical multi-slices X-ray Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricq, St.

    1999-01-01

    The application of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors to medical X-ray Computed Tomography have been investigated. Different electrodes (Au, Pt, In) have been deposited on CdZnTe HPBM and on CdTe:ClTHM. Their injection properties have been determined with Current-Voltage characteristics. Under X-ray in CT conditions, injection currents measurements reveal trapped carriers space-charges formation. The same way, the comparisons of the responses to X-beam cut-off with various injection possibilities enable to follow the space-charges evolutions and then to determine the predominant traps types. Nevertheless, both hole and electron traps are responsible for the memory effect e.g. the currents levels dependence with irradiation history. This effect is noticed in particular on responses to fast flux variations that simulate scanner's conditions. Trap levels probably corresponding to native defects are responsible for these limitations. In order to make such detectors suitable for X-ray Computed Tomography, significant progresses in CdTe for CdZnTe crystal growth with an important defects densities reduction (factor 10), or possibly counting mode operation, seem necessary. (author)

  12. HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanio, K.R.; Bean, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors have been fabricated on Si substrates through intermediate CdTe/GaAs layers. Encapsulation of the GaAs between the CdTe and Si prevents unintentional doping of the HgCdTe by Ga and As. Uniform epitaxial GaAs is grown on three inch diameter Si substrates. Detectors on such large area Si substrates will offer hybrid focal plane arrays whose dimensions are not limited by the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the Si signal processor and the substrate for the HgCdTe detector array. The growth of HgCdTe detectors on the Si signal processors for monolithic focal plane arrays is also considered. 40 references

  13. Piezomodulated reflectivity on CdMnTe/CdTe quantum well structures as a new standard characterization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, E.; Schmitt, K.; Hommel, D.; Waag, A.; Bicknell-Tassius, R.N.; Landwehr, G. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany))

    1993-01-30

    Piezomodulated reflectivity (PZR) measurements are reported for the first time as a standard characterization method for CdMnTe/CdTe single (SQW) and multiple (MQW) quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy on CdTe substrates 1 mm thick. Previously, modulation spectroscopy studies of II-VI structures required thin substrates which needed special preparation. In this paper we present studies of optical properties of CdMnTe/CdTe SQWs and MWQs using the PZR technique. The samples, mounted on a sinusoidally driven piezoelectric transducer are subjected to an alternating strain. Exploiting ''lock-in'' techniques, the first derivative of the reflectivity is measured directly. Specific electronic transitions, e.g. excitons, are well resolved in the modulated spectrum and can be easily identified. This makes PZR a very sensitive and powerful tool for the characterization of quantum well structures, and a useful complement to other standard techniques such as photoluminescence and excitation spectroscopy. (orig.).

  14. In situ study on the formation of FeTe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Wulff, Anders Christian; Yue, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The formation of the FeTe compound from a mixture of Fe and Te powders was studied in situ by means of high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. FeTe does not form directly from the starting elements; instead, FeTe2 forms as an intermediate product. During a 2 °C/min heating ramp, Te first reacts...

  15. Fabrication and electrical characteristics for MIS diode by utilizing TiO2 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Metal insulator semiconductor diodes were made by utilizing TiO 2 ceramics. Tunnel field emission is here proposed as a model for rectification in TiO 2 diode. Measurements of junction depth show very satisfactory agreement with value obtained from the Richardson plot, thus serving as additional supporting evidence of field emission in TiO 2 ceramic. The measured junction area exceeds by a factor of 10 6 the value expected by assuming field emission. The Richardson plot shows a deviation from the emission theory at low voltage, which is probably due to leakage currents which are present in MIS rutile diode. (author)

  16. Strong coupling and polariton lasing in Te based microcavities embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, J.-G., E-mail: j-g.rousset@fuw.edu.pl; Piętka, B.; Król, M.; Mirek, R.; Lekenta, K.; Szczytko, J.; Borysiuk, J.; Suffczyński, J.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Goryca, M.; Smoleński, T.; Kossacki, P.; Nawrocki, M.; Pacuski, W. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-11-16

    We report on properties of an optical microcavity based on (Cd,Zn,Mg)Te layers and embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells. The key point of the structure design is the lattice matching of the whole structure to MgTe, which eliminates the internal strain and allows one to embed an arbitrary number of unstrained quantum wells in the microcavity. We evidence the strong light-matter coupling regime already for the structure containing a single quantum well. Embedding four unstrained quantum wells results in further enhancement of the exciton-photon coupling and the polariton lasing in the strong coupling regime.

  17. "The Brick People" by Alejandro Morales, novel and documentary: A story of intercultural (mis)communication

    OpenAIRE

    Lanslots, Inge; Van Hecke, An

    2015-01-01

    "The Brick People" by Alejandro Morales, novel and documentary: A story of intercultural (mis)communication The focus of this study is an analysis of the novel The Brick People published by the Chicano author Alejandro Morales in 1988 and its homonymous documentary film from 2012. Both narrations are based on a true story, namely the lives of Mexican immigrants at the beginning of the twentieth century, who worked as employees in Simons Brickyard in Los Angeles, California. Simons Brickya...

  18. Uncertainty of block estimates introduced by mis-allocation of point samples: on the example of spatial indoor Radon data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P. [European Commission (Ecuador), Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), TP441, Via Fermi 1, I-21020 Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: peter.bossew@jrc.it

    2009-03-15

    The European indoor Radon map which is currently under production is based on gridded data supplied by the contributing countries. Each grid node represents the arithmetic mean (among other statistics) of the individual measurements within 10 x 10 km{sup 2}, called cells, pixels or blocks, which are aligned to a common metric coordinate system. During work the question emerged, if uncertainty in the geo-referencing of individual data might affect the aggregated 'block' statistics to an extent that the statistics have an unpredictably high additional uncertainty, which makes them unusable. In this note we try to quantify the effect, based on simulations. The overall result is that the relevant statistics should not be affected too badly in most cases, in particular if the rate of mis-allocations, and the mean uncertainty of coordinates are not too high, so that also cell statistics which are to some degree distorted by mis-allocated data, can still be used for the purpose of the European Radon map.

  19. Optical spectroscopy and Fermi surface studies of BiTeCl and BiTeBr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Catalin; Suslov, A. V.; Buvaev, S.; Hebard, A. F.; Bugnon, Philippe; Berger, Helmuth; Magrez, Arnaud; Tanner, D. B.

    2014-03-01

    The observation of a large bulk Rashba effect in the non-centrosymmetric semiconductors BiTeX(X=Cl, Br, I) has stimulated the interest in these sys- tems, as promising candidates for studying spin related phenomena and for the realization of spin devices. Here we present a comparative study of the electronic properties of BiTeCl and BiTeBr, determined from temperature dependent infrared spectroscopy and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. In par- ticular, we compare the angle dependence of quantum oscillations between the two compounds and discuss possible differences between the topology of their Fermi surfaces. Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement DMR-1157490 to the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.

  20. Syntheses and crystal structures of BaAgTbS{sub 3}, BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and CsAgUTe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Jai; Beard, Jessica C.; Ibers, James A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Mesbah, Adel [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); ICSM-UMR 5257 CNRS/CEA/UM2/ENSCM, Bat 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France)

    2015-06-15

    Five new quaternary chalcogenides of the 1113 family, namely BaAgTbS{sub 3}, BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and CsAgUTe{sub 3}, were synthesized by the reactions of the elements at 1173-1273 K. For CsAgUTe{sub 3} CsCl flux was used. Their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The sulfide BaAgTbS{sub 3} crystallizes in the BaAgErS{sub 3} structure type in the monoclinic space group C{sup 3},{sub 2h}-C2/m, whereas the tellurides BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and CsAgUTe{sub 3} crystallize in the KCuZrS{sub 3} structure type in the orthorhombic space group D{sup 1},{sub 2}{sup 7},{sub h}-Cmcm. The BaAgTbS{sub 3} structure consists of edge-sharing [TbS{sub 6}{sup 9-}] octahedra and [AgS{sub 5}{sup 9-}] trigonal pyramids. The connectivity of these polyhedra creates channels that are occupied by Ba atoms. The telluride structure features {sup 2}{sub ∞}[MLnTe{sub 3}{sup 2-}] layers for BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and {sup 2}{sub ∞}[AgUTe{sub 3}{sup 1-}] layers for CsAgUTe{sub 3}. These layers comprise [MTe{sub 4}] tetrahedra and [LnTe{sub 6}] or [UTe{sub 6}] octahedra. Ba or Cs atoms separate these layers. As there are no short Q..Q (Q = S or Te) interactions these compounds achieve charge balance as Ba{sup 2+}M{sup +}Ln{sup 3+}(Q{sup 2-}){sub 3} (Q = S and Te) and Cs{sup +}Ag{sup +}U{sup 4+}(Te{sup 2-}){sub 3}. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. A high-elevation, multi-proxy biotic and environmental record of MIS 6–4 from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian M. Miller; Mitchell A. Plummer; Various Others

    2014-10-01

    In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5

  2. Analysis of Etched CdZnTe Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, J. D.; Bubulac, L. O.; Jaime-Vasquez, M.; Lennon, C. M.; Arias, J. M.; Smith, P. J.; Jacobs, R. N.; Markunas, J. K.; Almeida, L. A.; Stoltz, A.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Peterson, J.; Reddy, M.; Jones, K.; Johnson, S. M.; Lofgreen, D. D.

    2016-09-01

    State-of-the-art as-received (112)B CdZnTe substrates have been examined for surface impurity contamination and polishing residue. Two 4 cm × 4 cm and one 6 cm × 6 cm (112)B state-of-the-art as-received CdZnTe wafers were analyzed. A maximum surface impurity concentration of Al = 1.7 × 1015 atoms cm-2, Si = 3.7 × 1013 atoms cm-2, Cl = 3.12 × 1015 atoms cm-2, S = 1.7 × 1014 atoms cm-2, P = 1.1 × 1014 atoms cm-2, Fe = 1.0 × 1013 atoms cm-2, Br = 1.2 × 1014 atoms cm-2, and Cu = 4 × 1012 atoms cm-2 was observed on the as-received CdZnTe wafers. CdZnTe particulates and residual SiO2 polishing grit were observed on the surface of the as-received (112)B CdZnTe substrates. The polishing grit/CdZnTe particulate density on CdZnTe wafers was observed to vary across a 6 cm × 6 cm wafer from ˜4 × 107 cm-2 to 2.5 × 108 cm-2. The surface impurity and damage layer of the (112)B CdZnTe wafers dictate that a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) preparation etch is required. The contamination for one 4 cm × 4 cm and one 6 cm × 6 cm CdZnTe wafer after a standard MBE Br:methanol preparation etch procedure was also analyzed. A maximum surface impurity concentration of Al = 2.4 × 1015 atoms cm-2, Si = 4.0 × 1013 atoms cm-2, Cl = 7.5 × 1013 atoms cm-2, S = 4.4 × 1013 atoms cm-2, P = 9.8 × 1013 atoms cm-2, Fe = 1.0 × 1013 atoms cm-2, Br = 2.9 × 1014 atoms cm-2, and Cu = 5.2 × 1012 atoms cm-2 was observed on the MBE preparation-etched CdZnTe wafers. The MBE preparation-etched surface contamination consists of Cd(Zn)Te particles/flakes. No residual SiO2 polishing grit was observed on the (112)B surface.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3 base solid solutions in the Bi2Te3-InS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarov, M.G.; Rustamov, P.G.; Alidzhanov, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rich Bi 2 Te 3 part ot the Bi 2 Te 3 -InS constitutional diagram has been studied with a view to produce new Bi 2 Te 3 -based solid solutions and to establish the maximum solubility of InS in Bi 2 Te 3 . The methods of differential-thermal, X-ray phase and microstructural analysis have been used. The alloys microhardness, density and thermal electric properties have been measured. A large region of Bi 2 Te 3 -based restricted solid solutions has been detected; it reaches 14.0 mol.% InS at room temperature. Studied have been the thermoelectromotive forces, electric and thermal conductivity of the alloys, containing up to 5 mol.% InS in the 300-700 K temperature range

  4. High Flux Energy-Resolved Photon-Counting X-Ray Imaging Arrays with CdTe and CdZnTe for Clinical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, William C.; Hartsough, Neal E.; Gandhi, Thulasidharan; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Wessel, Jan C.; Nygard, Einar; Malakhov, Nail; Wawrzyniak, Gregor; Dorholt, Ole; Danielsen, Roar

    2013-06-01

    We have fabricated fast room-temperature energy dispersive photon counting x-ray imaging arrays using pixellated cadmium zinc (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) semiconductors. We have also fabricated fast application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) with a two dimensional (2D) array of inputs for readout from the CdZnTe sensors. The new CdTe and CdZnTe sensors have a 2D array of pixels with a 0.5 mm pitch and can be tiled in 2D. The new 2D ASICs have four energy discriminators per pixel with a linear energy response across the entire dynamic range for clinical CT. The ASICs can also be tiled in 2D and are designed to fit within the active area of the 2D sensors. We have measured several important performance parameters including; an output count rate (OCR) in excess of 20 million counts per second per square mm, an energy resolution of 7 keV full width at half maximum (FWHM) across the entire dynamic range, and a noise floor less than 20 keV. This is achieved by directly interconnecting the ASIC inputs to the pixels of the CdTE and CdZnTe sensors incurring very little additional capacitance. We present a comparison of the performance of the CdTe and CdZnTe sensors including the OCR, FWHM energy resolution, and noise floor. (authors)

  5. HgSe(Te)-HgHal2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'ko, V.V.; Khudolij, V.A.; Voroshilov, Yu.V.

    1989-01-01

    Using the methods of differential thermal and X-ray phase analyses the character of chemical interaction in the systems HgTe(Se)-HgHal 2 , where Hal is Cl, Br, I, is investigated. Formation of compounds Hg 3 Se 2 Hal 2 , Hg 3 Te 2 Hal 2 , Hg 3 TeCl 4 and Hg 3 TeBr 4 in these systems is established. The phase diagrams of the studied systems are presented. The parameters of elementary cells of the compounds with the unknown structure, as well as their unknown physicochemical properties, are determined

  6. Om te staak of nie te staak nie? Die sieninge van 'n aantal swart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    sig, is eerstens om ondersoek in te stel na 'n groep swart opvoeders se sieninge oor opvoeders se reg om te staak. Tweedens sal na die redes wat hierdie opvoeders aanvoer waarom hulle al aan stakings deel- geneem het of sal deelneem, gelet word. Derdens sal die redes waarom sommige opvoeders nie sal staak nie, ...

  7. The determination of the surface potential for the CdxHg1-xTe crystals and the V-CdxHg1-xTe and Ni-V-CdxMg1-xTe structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veliyulin, Eh.I.; Ragimova, R.A.; Mamedov, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Surface potential of semiconductor crystals n-Cd x Hg 1-x Te (unannealed and annealed in mercury vapors) and of the structures V-Cd x Hg 1-x Te, Ni-V-Cd x Hg 1-x Te has been defined using spectroscopy of weak-field electric reflection. It is shown that a deep penetration of vanadium atoms in near the surface region of the crystal occurs in the structures on the basis of unannealed Cd x Hg 1-x Te. 1 ref.; 4 figs

  8. Radiative and interfacial recombination in CdTe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, C. H., E-mail: craig.swartz@txstate.edu; Edirisooriya, M.; LeBlanc, E. G.; Noriega, O. C.; Jayathilaka, P. A. R. D.; Ogedengbe, O. S.; Hancock, B. L.; Holtz, M.; Myers, T. H. [Materials Science, Engineering, and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, 601 University Dr., San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States); Zaunbrecher, K. N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Mississippi RSF200, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Double heterostructures (DH) were produced consisting of a CdTe film between two wide band gap barriers of CdMgTe alloy. A combined method was developed to quantify radiative and non-radiative recombination rates by examining the dependence of photoluminescence (PL) on both excitation intensity and time. The measured PL characteristics, and the interface state density extracted by modeling, indicate that the radiative efficiency of CdMgTe/CdTe DHs is comparable to that of AlGaAs/GaAs DHs, with interface state densities in the low 10{sup 10 }cm{sup −2} and carrier lifetimes as long as 240 ns. The radiative recombination coefficient of CdTe is found to be near 10{sup −10} cm{sup 3}s{sup −1}. CdTe film growth on bulk CdTe substrates resulted in a homoepitaxial interface layer with a high non-radiative recombination rate.

  9. Contrasting Responses of the Humboldt Current Ecosystem between the Holocene and MIS5e Interglacials Revealed from Multiple Sediment Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatteci, R.; Schneider, R. R.; Blanz, T.; Martinez, P.; Crosta, X.

    2016-12-01

    The Humboldt Current Ecosystem (HCE) off Peru yields about 10% of the global fish catch, producing more fish per unit area than any other region in the world. The high productivity is maintained by the upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), driven by strong trade winds. However, the potential impacts of climate change on upwelling dynamics and oceanographic conditions in the near future are uncertain, threatening local and global economies. Here, we unravel the response of the HCE to contrasting climatic conditions during the last two interglacials (i.e. Holocene and MIS5e) providing an independent insight about the relation between climatic factors and upwelling and productivity dynamics. For this purpose, we used multiple cores to reconstruct past changes in OMZ and upwelling intensity, productivity and fish biomass variability. Chronologies for the Holocene were obtained by multiple 14C ages and laminae correlations among cores, while for the MIS5e they were mainly done by correlation of prominent features in several proxies with other published records. We used a multiproxy approach including alkenones to reconstruct sea surface temperatures, δ15N as a proxy for water column denitrification, redox sensitive metals as proxies for sediment redox conditions, and diatom and fish debris assemblages to reconstruct ecological changes. The results show a very different response of the HCE to climate conditions during the last 2 interglacials, likely driven by changes in Tropical Pacific dynamics. During the Holocene we find that 1) the Late Holocene exhibits higher multi-centennial scale variability compared to the Early Holocene, 2) increased upwelling and a weak OMZ during the mid-Holocene, and 3) long term increase in productivity (diatoms and fishes) from the Early to the Late Holocene. During the MIS5e we find an 1) intense OMZ, 2) strong water column stratification, 3) high siliceous biomass, and 4) low fish biomass compared

  10. Silicon MIS diodes with Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofilm: Optical, morphological/structural and electronic transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim Y. [Bingoel University, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 12000- Bingoel (Turkey); Guellue, O., E-mail: omergullu@gmail.com [Batman University, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Department of Physics, 72060- Batman (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    In this work we report the optical, morphological and structural characterization and diode application of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofilms grown on p-Si substrates by spin coating and annealing process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), non-contact mode atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were used for characterization of nanofilms. For Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofilms, the average particle size determined from XRD and NC-AFM measurements was approximately 70 nm. Structure analyses of nanofilms demonstrate that the single phase Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on silicon substrate is of high a crystalline structure with a dominant in hexagonal (1 1 0) orientation. The morphologic analysis of the films indicates that the films formed from hexagonal nanoparticles are with low roughness and uniform. UV-vis absorption measurements indicate that the band gap of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is 3.08 eV. The PL measurement shows that the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofilm has a strong and narrow ultraviolet emission, which facilitates potential applications in future photoelectric nanodevices. Au/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diodes were fabricated for investigation of the electronic properties such as current-voltage and capacitance-voltage. Ideality factor and barrier height for Au//Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-Si diode were calculated as 2.15 eV and 0.74 eV, respectively. Also, interfacial state properties of the MIS diode were determined. The interface-state density of the MIS diode was found to vary from 2.90 x 10{sup 13} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} to 8.45 x 10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2}.

  11. The large-area CdTe thin film for CdS/CdTe solar cell prepared by physical vapor deposition in medium pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Run; Liu, Bo; Yang, Xiaoyan; Bao, Zheng; Li, Bing, E-mail: libing70@126.com; Zhang, Jingquan; Li, Wei; Wu, Lili; Feng, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The large-area CdTe film has been prepared by PVD under the pressure of 0.9 kPa. • The as-prepared CdTe thin film processes excellent photovoltaic properties. • This technique is suitable for depositing large-area CdTe thin film. • The 14.6% champion efficiency CdS/CdTe cell has been achieved. - Abstract: The Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film has been prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD), the Ar + O{sub 2} pressure is about 0.9 kPa. This method is a newer technique to deposit CdTe thin film in large area, and the size of the film is 30 × 40 cm{sup 2}. This method is much different from the close-spaced sublimation (CSS), as the relevance between the source temperature and the substrate temperature is weak, and the gas phase of CdTe is transferred to the substrate by Ar + O{sub 2} flow. Through this method, the compact and uniform CdTe film (30 × 40 cm{sup 2}) has been achieved, and the performances of the CdTe thin film have been determined by transmission spectrum, SEM and XRD. The film is observed to be compact with a good crystallinity, the CdTe is polycrystalline with a cubic structure and a strongly preferred (1 1 1) orientation. Using the CdTe thin film (3 × 5 cm{sup 2}) which is taken from the deposited large-area film, the 14.6% efficiency CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell has been prepared successfully. The structure of the cell is glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/graphite slurry/Au, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of the cell is 26.9 mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) is 823 mV, and filling factor (FF) is 66.05%. This technique can be a quite promising method to apply in the industrial production, as it has great prospects in the fabricating of large-area CdTe film.

  12. Homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Kayo Oliveira [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Bettini, Jefferson [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: schiavon@ufsj.edu.br [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    The development of homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures based on electrostatic interactions has been investigated. We report a simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route that can be accomplished at room temperature, to prepare colloidal composites consisting of CdTe nanocrystals deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with a thin layer of polyelectrolytes by layer-by-layer technique. Specifically, physical adsorption of polyelectrolytes such as poly (4-styrene sulfonate) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used to deagglomerate and disperse MWCNTs, onto which we deposited CdTe quantum dots coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), as surface ligand, via electrostatic interactions. Confirmation of the CdTe quantum dots/carbon nanotubes heterostructures was done by transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), dynamic-light scattering (DLS) together with absorption, emission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies (UV–vis, PL, Raman and FT-IR). Almost complete quenching of the PL band of the CdTe quantum dots was observed after adsorption on the MWCNTs, presumably through efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs. - Highlights: • Highly homogeneous CdTe-carbon nanotubes heterostructures were prepared. • Simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route. • CdTe nanocrystals homogeneously deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs.

  13. Bromine doping of CdTe and CdMnTe epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waag, A. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Scholl, S. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Schierstedt, K. von (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Hommel, D. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Landwehr, G. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Bilger, G. (Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    We report on the n-type doping of CdTe and CdMnTe with bormine as a novel dopant material. /the thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. ZnBr[sub 2] was used as a source material for the n-type doping. Free carrier concentrations at room temperature of up to 2.8x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] could be readily obtained for both CdTe as well as CdMnTe thin films with Mn concentrations below 10%. This is to our knowledge the highest value ever obtained for the dilute magnetic semiconductor CdMnTe. For ZnBr[sub 2] source temperatures up to 60 C - corresponding to a free carrier concentration of (2-3)x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] - the free carrier concentration of the epitaxial film increases with ZnBr[sub 2] source temperature. For higher ZnBr[sub 2] source temperatures compensation becomes dominant, which is indicated by a steep decrease of the free carrier concentration with increasing ZnBr[sub 2] source temperature. In addition the carrier mobility decreases drastically for such high dopant fluxes. A model of bromine incorporation is proposed. (orig.)

  14. Review of CdTe medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entine, G; Garcia, D A; Tow, D E

    1977-02-01

    CdTe sensors are now being used in several areas of nuclear medicine. CdTe probe technics, originally developed to study dental pathology in dog models, are being used clinically to diagnose venous thrombosis of the legs and to detect occult dental infections in patients scheduled for prosthetic cardiovascular and orthopedic surgery. Similar instrumentation is in use in animal research of myocardial infarction and synthetic tooth substitutes. Transmission technics have also been developed to diagnose pulmonary edema and to measure bone mineral changes in space flight. Investigations are also underway in the use of linear or two-dimensional arrays of CdTe gamma sensors for medical imaging. Economic considerations have slowed this work, but the technology appears to be available. Development of photoconductive CdTe X-ray detectors for scintigraphic scanners has also begun. Rapid detector improvement will be needed for success in this field, but the potential usefulness is very great. Together, the present application results are encouraging and wide use of CdTe detectors should occur within only a few years.

  15. Evidence that C9ORF72 Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Associate with U2 snRNP to Cause Mis-splicing in ALS/FTD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shanye; Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Kunz, Ryan C; Gangopadhyay, Jaya; Borufka, Carl; Gygi, Steven P; Gao, Fen-Biao; Reed, Robin

    2017-06-13

    Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene results in production of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins that may disrupt pre-mRNA splicing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients. At present, the mechanisms underlying this mis-splicing are not understood. Here, we show that addition of proline-arginine (PR) and glycine-arginine (GR) toxic DPR peptides to nuclear extracts blocks spliceosome assembly and splicing, but not other types of RNA processing. Proteomic and biochemical analyses identified the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) as a major interactor of PR and GR peptides. In addition, U2 snRNP, but not other splicing factors, mislocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm both in C9ORF72 patient induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motor neurons and in HeLa cells treated with the toxic peptides. Bioinformatic studies support a specific role for U2-snRNP-dependent mis-splicing in C9ORF72 patient brains. Together, our data indicate that DPR-mediated dysfunction of U2 snRNP could account for as much as ∼44% of the mis-spliced cassette exons in C9ORF72 patient brains. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evidence that C9ORF72 Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Associate with U2 snRNP to Cause Mis-splicing in ALS/FTD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanye Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene results in production of dipeptide repeat (DPR proteins that may disrupt pre-mRNA splicing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD patients. At present, the mechanisms underlying this mis-splicing are not understood. Here, we show that addition of proline-arginine (PR and glycine-arginine (GR toxic DPR peptides to nuclear extracts blocks spliceosome assembly and splicing, but not other types of RNA processing. Proteomic and biochemical analyses identified the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP as a major interactor of PR and GR peptides. In addition, U2 snRNP, but not other splicing factors, mislocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm both in C9ORF72 patient induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived motor neurons and in HeLa cells treated with the toxic peptides. Bioinformatic studies support a specific role for U2-snRNP-dependent mis-splicing in C9ORF72 patient brains. Together, our data indicate that DPR-mediated dysfunction of U2 snRNP could account for as much as ∼44% of the mis-spliced cassette exons in C9ORF72 patient brains.

  17. Photoelectrical measurements of the local value of the contact potential difference in the metal-insulator semiconductor (MIS) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, A.; Przewlocki, H.M.; Borowicz, L.; Brzezinska, D.; Rzodkiewicz, W

    2004-02-22

    In this work the local values of contact potential difference (CPD) and their distributions in the plane of the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure's gate have been determined for the first time. This has been achieved by application of a focused beam of UV radiation from a laser source. The less than 20-{mu}m diameter of UV radiation beam allows determination of distributions of local CPD values in the plane of the gate. The CPD distribution is such that its values are highest far away from the gate edge regions, lower in the vicinity of gate edges and still lower in the vicinity of gate corners. In this paper the method and the optical setup used to determine local values of CPD are described and example measurement results are given. The CPD distributions obtained have been confirmed by a series of independent measurements by other methods. It is believed that the CPD distributions obtained (as well as distributions of local values of other parameters) are due to the mechanical stress distributions under the gate of a MIS system.

  18. Superparamagnetism in CuFeInTe{sub 3} and CuFeGaTe{sub 3} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grima-Gallardo, P.; Alvarado, F.; Munoz, M.; Duran, S.; Quintero, M.; Nieves, L.; Quintero, E.; Tovar, R.; Morocoima, M. [Centro de Estudios en Semiconductores (CES), Fac. Ciencias, Dpto. Fisica, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Ramos, M.A. [Laboratorio de Difraccion y Fluorescencia de Rayos-X, Instituto Zuliano de Investigaciones Tecnologicas (INZIT), La Canada de Urdaneta, Estado Zulia (Venezuela)

    2012-06-15

    The temperature dependencies of DC magnetic susceptibilities, {chi}(T), of CuFeInTe{sub 3} and CuFeGaTe{sub 3} alloys were measured in a SQUID apparatus using the protocol of field cooling (FC) and zero FC (ZFC). The FC curves of both samples reflect a weak ferromagnetic (or ferrimagnetic) behavior with a nearly constant value of {chi}(T) in the measured temperature range (2-300 K) indicating that the critical temperatures (T{sub c}) are >300 K. The ZFC curves diverges from FC, showing irreversibility temperatures (T{sub irr}) of {proportional_to}250 K for CuFeInTe{sub 3} and >300 K for CuFeGaTe{sub 3}, suggesting that we are dealing with cluster-glass systems in a superparamagnetic state. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Self-Assembled Formation of Well-Aligned Cu-Te Nano-Rods on Heavily Cu-Doped ZnTe Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Cheng, Man Kit; Lai, Ying Hoi; Wei, Guanglu; Yang, Sean Derman; Wang, Gan; Ho, Sut Kam; Tam, Kam Weng; Sou, Iam Keong

    2016-11-01

    Cu doping of ZnTe, which is an important semiconductor for various optoelectronic applications, has been successfully achieved previously by several techniques. However, besides its electrical transport characteristics, other physical and chemical properties of heavily Cu-doped ZnTe have not been reported. We found an interesting self-assembled formation of crystalline well-aligned Cu-Te nano-rods near the surface of heavily Cu-doped ZnTe thin films grown via the molecular beam epitaxy technique. A phenomenological growth model is presented based on the observed crystallographic morphology and measured chemical composition of the nano-rods using various imaging and chemical analysis techniques. When substitutional doping reaches its limit, the extra Cu atoms favor an up-migration toward the surface, leading to a one-dimensional surface modulation and formation of Cu-Te nano-rods, which explain unusual observations on the reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns and apparent resistivity of these thin films. This study provides an insight into some unexpected chemical reactions involved in the heavily Cu-doped ZnTe thin films, which may be applied to other material systems that contain a dopant having strong reactivity with the host matrix.

  20. Improved structural and electrical properties in native Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices due to intermixing mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Stefano; Zallo, Eugenio; Momand, Jamo; Wang, Ruining; Kooi, Bart J.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Calarco, Raffaella

    Superlattices made of Sb2Te3/GeTe phase change materials have demonstrated outstanding performance with respect to GeSbTe alloys in memory applications. Recently, epitaxial Sb2Te3/GeTe superlattices were found to feature GexSb2Te3+x blocks as a result of intermixing between constituting layers.

  1. Improved structural and electrical properties in native Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices due to intermixing mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, S.; Zallo, E.; Momand, J.; Wang, R.; Kooi, B.J.; Verheijen, M.A.; Calarco, R.

    Superlattices made of Sb2Te3/GeTe phase change materials have demonstrated outstanding performance with respect to GeSbTe alloys in memory applications. Recently, epitaxial Sb2Te3/GeTe superlattices were found to feature GexSb2Te3+x blocks as a result of intermixing between constituting layers. Here

  2. Lattice thermal transport in group II-alloyed PbTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Hodges, James M.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Chan, Maria K. Y.

    2018-04-01

    PbTe, one of the most promising thermoelectric materials, has recently demonstrated a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of above 2.0 when alloyed with group II elements. The improvements are due mainly to significant reduction of lattice thermal conductivity (κl), which was in turn attributed to nanoparticle precipitates. However, a fundamental understanding of various phonon scattering mechanisms within the bulk alloy is still lacking. In this work, we apply the newly-developed density-functional-theory-based compressive sensing lattice dynamics approach to model lattice heat transport in PbTe, MTe, and Pb0.94M0.06Te (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) and compare our results with experimental measurements, with focus on the strain effect and mass disorder scattering. We find that (1) CaTe, SrTe, and BaTe in the rock-salt structure exhibit much higher κl than PbTe, while MgTe in the same structure shows anomalously low κl; (2) lattice heat transport of PbTe is extremely sensitive to static strain induced by alloying atoms in solid solution form; (3) mass disorder scattering plays a major role in reducing κl for Mg/Ca/Sr-alloyed PbTe through strongly suppressing the lifetimes of intermediate- and high-frequency phonons, while for Ba-alloyed PbTe, precipitated nanoparticles are also important.

  3. Comparative study on nitridation and oxidation plasma interface treatment for AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs with AlN gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Hou, Bin; Chen, Li-Xiang; Zhu, Qing; Hao, Yue

    2017-02-01

    This paper demonstrated the comparative study on interface engineering of AlN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) by using plasma interface pre-treatment in various ambient gases. The 15 nm AlN gate dielectric grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition significantly suppressed the gate leakage current by about two orders of magnitude and increased the peak field-effect mobility by more than 50%. NH3/N2 nitridation plasma treatment (NPT) was used to remove the 3 nm poor-quality interfacial oxide layer and N2O/N2 oxidation plasma treatment (OPT) to improve the quality of interfacial layer, both resulting in improved dielectric/barrier interface quality, positive threshold voltage (V th) shift larger than 0.9 V, and negligible dispersion. In comparison, however, NPT led to further decrease in interface charges by 3.38 × 1012 cm-2 and an extra positive V th shift of 1.3 V. Analysis with fat field-effect transistors showed that NPT resulted in better sub-threshold characteristics and transconductance linearity for MIS-HEMTs compared with OPT. The comparative study suggested that direct removing the poor interfacial oxide layer by nitridation plasma was superior to improving the quality of interfacial layer by oxidation plasma for the interface engineering of GaN-based MIS-HEMTs.

  4. Post-growth annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe crystals for room-temperature nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Yang, Ge; Egarievwe, Alexander A.; Okwechime, Ifechukwude O.; Gray, Justin; Hales, Zaveon M.; Hossain, Anwar; Camarda, Giuseppe S.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2015-01-01

    Bridgman-grown cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) and cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe or CMT) crystals often have Te inclusions that limit their performances as X-ray- and gamma-ray-detectors. We present here the results of post-growth thermal annealing aimed at reducing and eliminating Te inclusions in them. In a 2D analysis, we observed that the sizes of the Te inclusions declined to 92% during a 60-h annealing of CZT at 510 °C under Cd vapor. Further, tellurium inclusions were eliminated completely in CMT samples annealed at 570 °C in Cd vapor for 26 h, whilst their electrical resistivity fell by an order of 10 2 . During the temperature-gradient annealing of CMT at 730 °C and an 18 °C/cm temperature gradient for 18 h in a vacuum of 10 −5 mbar, we observed the diffusion of Te from the sample, so causing a reduction in size of the Te inclusions. For CZT samples annealed at 700 °C in a 10 °C/cm temperature gradient, we observed the migration of Te inclusions from a low-temperature region to a high one at 0.022 μm/s. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CZT in a vacuum of 10 −5 mbar at 570 °C and 30 °C/cm for 18 h, some Te inclusions moved toward the high-temperature side of the wafer, while other inclusions of the same size, i.e., 10 µm in diameter, remained in the same position. These results show that the migration, diffusion, and reaction of Te with Cd in the matrix of CZT- and CMT-wafers are complex phenomena that depend on the conditions in local regions, such as composition and structure, as well as on the annealing conditions

  5. Interface Si donor control to improve dynamic performance of AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we have studied the performance of AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs with different interface Si donor incorporation which is tuned during the deposition process of LPCVD-SiNx which is adopted as gate dielectric and passivation layer. Current collapse of the MIS-HEMTs without field plate is suppressed more effectively by increasing the SiH2Cl2/NH3 flow ratio and the normalized dynamic on-resistance (RON is reduced two orders magnitude after off-state VDS stress of 600 V for 10 ms. Through interface characterization, we have found that the interface deep-level traps distribution with high Si donor incorporation by increasing the SiH2Cl2/NH3 flow ratio is lowered. It’s indicated that the Si donors are most likely to fill and screen the deep-level traps at the interface resulting in the suppression of slow trapping process and the virtual gate effect. Although the Si donor incorporation brings about the increase of gate leakage current (IGS, no clear degradation of breakdown voltage can be seen by choosing appropriate SiH2Cl2/NH3 flow ratio.

  6. Superconductivity with twofold symmetry in Bi2Te3/FeTe0.55Se0.45 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zengyi

    2018-01-01

    Topological superconductors are an interesting and frontier topic in condensed matter physics. In the superconducting state, an order parameter will be established with the basic or subsidiary symmetry of the crystalline lattice. In doped Bi2Se3 or Bi2Te3 with a basic threefold symmetry, it was predicted, however, that bulk superconductivity with order parameters of twofold symmetry may exist because of the presence of odd parity. We report the proximity effect–induced superconductivity in the Bi2Te3 thin film on top of the iron-based superconductor FeTe0.55Se0.45. By using the quasiparticle interference technique, we demonstrate clear evidence of twofold symmetry of the superconducting gap. The gap minimum is along one of the main crystalline axes following the so-called Δ4y notation. This is also accompanied by the elongated vortex shape mapped out by the density of states within the superconducting gap. Our results provide an easily accessible platform for investigating possible topological superconductivity in Bi2Te3/FeTe0.55Se0.45 heterostructures. PMID:29888330

  7. ZnSe/ZnSeTe Superlattice Nanotips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young SJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100 substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively.

  8. Assessment of the reliability and consistency of the "malnutrition inflammation score" (MIS) in Mexican adults with chronic kidney disease for diagnosis of protein-energy wasting syndrome (PEW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortiz, Ailema Janeth; Arce-Santander, Celene Viridiana; Vega-Vega, Olynka; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Angeles

    2014-10-04

    The protein-energy wasting syndrome (PEW) is a condition of malnutrition, inflammation, anorexia and wasting of body reserves resulting from inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).One way of assessing PEW, extensively described in the literature, is using the Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS). To assess the reliability and consistency of MIS for diagnosis of PEW in Mexican adults with CKD on hemodialysis (HD). Study of diagnostic tests. A sample of 45 adults with CKD on HD were analyzed during the period June-July 2014.The instrument was applied on 2 occasions; the test-retest reliability was calculated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC); the internal consistency of the questionnaire was analyzed using Cronbach's αcoefficient. A weighted Kappa test was used to estimate the validity of the instrument; the result was subsequently compared with the Bilbrey nutritional index (BNI). The reliability of the questionnaires, evaluated in the patient sample, was ICC=0.829.The agreement between MIS observations was considered adequate, k= 0.585 (p <0.001); when comparing it with BNI, a value of k = 0.114 was obtained (p <0.001).In order to estimate the tendency, a correlation test was performed. The r² correlation coefficient was 0.488 (P <0.001). MIS has adequate reliability and validity for diagnosing PEW in the population with chronic kidney disease on HD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Rashba split surface states in BiTeBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, S V; Rusinov, I P; Nechaev, I A; Chulkov, E V

    2013-01-01

    Within density functional theory, we study the bulk band structure and surface states of BiTeBr. We consider both ordered and disordered phases, which differ in atomic order in the Te–Br sublattice. On the basis of relativistic ab initio calculations, we show that the ordered BiTeBr is energetically preferable as compared with the disordered one. We demonstrate that both Te- and Br-terminated surfaces of the ordered BiTeBr hold surface states with a giant spin–orbit splitting. The Te-terminated surface-state spin splitting has Rashba-type behavior with the coupling parameter α R ∼ 2 eVÅ. (paper)

  10. Syntheses, crystal structures, and characterization of two new Tl{sup +}-Cu{sup 2+}-Te{sup 6+} oxides: Tl{sub 4}CuTeO{sub 6} and Tl{sub 6}CuTe{sub 2}O{sub 10}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Jeongho; Kim, Sang-Hwan [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, 136 Fleming Building, Houston, TX 77204-5003 (United States); Green, Mark A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742-2115 and NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standard and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6103 (United States); Bhatti, Kanwal Preet; Leighton, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0132 (United States); Shiv Halasyamani, P., E-mail: psh@uh.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, 136 Fleming Building, Houston, TX 77204-5003 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Crystals and polycrystalline powders of two new oxide materials, Tl{sub 4}CuTeO{sub 6} and Tl{sub 6}CuTe{sub 2}O{sub 10}, have been synthesized by hydrothermal and solid-state methods. The materials were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Tl{sub 4}CuTeO{sub 6} and Tl{sub 6}CuTe{sub 2}O{sub 10} exhibit one dimensional anionic slabs of [CuTeO{sub 6}]{sup 4-} and [CuTe{sub 2}O{sub 10}]{sup 6-}, respectively. Common to both slabs is the occurrence of Cu{sup 2+}O{sub 4} distorted squares and Te{sup 6+}O{sub 6} octahedra. The slabs are separated by Tl{sup +} cations. For Tl{sub 4}CuTeO{sub 6}, magnetic measurements indicate a maximum at {approx}8 K in the temperature dependence of the susceptibility. Low temperature neutron diffraction data confirm no long-range magnetic ordering occurs and the susceptibility was adequately accounted for by fits to a Heisenberg alternating chain model. For Tl{sub 6}CuTe{sub 2}O{sub 10} on the other hand, magnetic measurements revealed paramagnetism with no evidence of long-range magnetic ordering. Infrared, UV-vis spectra, thermogravimetric, and differential thermal analyses are also reported. Crystal data: Tl{sub 4}CuTeO{sub 6}, Triclinic, space group P-1 (No. 2), a=5.8629(8) A, b=8.7848(11) A, c=9.2572(12) A, {alpha}=66.0460(10), {beta}=74.2010(10), {gamma}=79.254(2), V=417.70(9) A{sup 3}, and Z=2; Tl{sub 6}CuTe{sub 2}O{sub 10}, orthorhombic, space group Pnma (No. 62), a=10.8628(6) A, b=11.4962(7) A, c=10.7238(6) A, V=1339.20(13) A{sup 3}, and Z=4. - Graphical Abstract: Two new oxide materials, Tl{sub 4}CuTeO{sub 6} and Tl{sub 6}CuTe{sub 2}O{sub 10}, have been synthesized and characterized. The materials exhibit one dimensional crystal structures consisting of CuO{sub 4} and TeO{sub 6} polyhedra. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two New Tl-Te-Cu-oxides have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For Tl{sub 4}CuTeO{sub 6}, magnetic measurements indicate a

  11. Measurement of the transport properties of (Sb2Te3)sub(0.75)(Bi2Te3)sub(0.25) solid solution with addition of Tl2Te3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, A.

    1983-03-01

    The thermoelectric parameters of the solid solution (Sb 3 Te 3 )sub(0.75)(Bi 2 Te 3 )sub(0.25) in the presence of a low concentration of Tl 3 Te 3 were examined. The electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and Hall constant were measured on samples which represent the upper parts of the ingots, in the temperature range 10K-300K. The lattice thermal conductivity, carrier, mobility, effective mass and carrier concentration were calculated from the measured parameters. The variation of the carrier mobility with temperature was similar in all the measured samples. At temperatures higher than 80K the mobility was proportional to Tsup(-33/2). At lower temperatures the mobility approached a saturation value which decreased with increasing Tl 2 Te 3 concentration. At about room temperature, the mobility was already not proportional to Tsup(x). Increasing the Tl 2 Te 3 or Sb 2 Se 3 concentration resulted in a lower deviation from the Tsup(x) dependence and a slower increase in the lattice thermal conductivity with decreasing temperature. Addition of Tl 2 Te 3 to the solid solution resulted in minor improvement in the thermoelectric quality which depends on the mobility, effective mass and lattice thermal conductivity. The thermoelectric properties were nearly the same as those obtained by addition of Sb 2 Se 3 to the solid solution. The addition of Tl 2 Te 3 annuled an effect of increasing carrier concentration with decreasing temperature. It resulted in a slower decrease in the Seebeck coefficient. (H.K.)

  12. Improved structural and electrical properties in native Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices due to intermixing mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cecchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Superlattices made of Sb2Te3/GeTe phase change materials have demonstrated outstanding performance with respect to GeSbTe alloys in memory applications. Recently, epitaxial Sb2Te3/GeTe superlattices were found to feature GexSb2Te3+x blocks as a result of intermixing between constituting layers. Here we present the epitaxy and characterization of Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices, where GexSb2Te3+x was intentionally fabricated. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and lateral electrical transport data are reported. The intrinsic 2D nature of both sublayers is found to mitigate the intermixing in the structures, significantly improving the interface sharpness and ultimately the superlattice structural and electrical properties.

  13. Effect of layer composition on band spectrum of CdxHg1-xTe - CdyHg1-yTe-type superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerchikov, L.G.; Subashiev, A.V.; Salman Dalla

    1993-01-01

    Evolution of energy spectrum of Cd x Hg 1-x Te -Cd y Hg 1-y Te superlattices at variation of layer composition is considered. Transition from 3 type superlattice to 1 type superlattice occurring for y=0.16 is studied comprehensively. In this case, dependence of the width of superlattice forbidden zone on layer thickness is shown to become more smooth, than in CdTe - HgTe superlattice and it gives more possibilities to use such superlattices for making IR phototransistors. 10 refs., 4 figs

  14. Design Strategies for High-Efficiency CdTe Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao

    With continuous technology advances over the past years, CdTe solar cells have surged to be a leading contributor in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) field. While empirical material and device optimization has led to considerable progress, further device optimization requires accurate device models that are able to provide an in-depth understanding of CdTe device physics. Consequently, this thesis is intended to develop a comprehensive model system for high-efficiency CdTe devices through applying basic design principles of solar cells with numerical modeling and comparing results with experimental CdTe devices. The CdTe absorber is central to cell performance. Numerical simulation has shown the feasibility of high energy-conversion efficiency, which requires both high carrier density and long minority carrier lifetime. As the minority carrier lifetime increases, the carrier recombination at the back surface becomes a limitation for cell performance with absorber thickness cell performance, since it can induce a large valence-band bending which suppresses the hole injection near the interface for the electron-hole recombination, but too large a spike is detrimental to photocurrent transport. In a heterojunction device with many defects at the emitter/absorber interface (high SIF), a thin and highly-doped emitter can induce strong absorber inversion and hence help maintain good cell performance. Performance losses from acceptor-type interface defects can be significant when interface defect states are located near mid-gap energies. In terms of specific emitter materials, the calculations suggest that the (Mg,Zn)O alloy with 20% Mg, or a similar type-I heterojunction partner with moderate DeltaE C (e.g., Cd(S,O) or (Cd,Mg)Te with appropriate oxygen or magnesium ratios) should yield higher voltages and would therefore be better candidates for the CdTe-cell emitter. The CdTe/substrate interface is also of great importance, particularly in the growth of epitaxial

  15. C-V Calculations in CdS/CdTe Thin Films Solar Cells with a CdSxTe1-x Interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gonzalez-Cisneros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In CdS/CdTe solar cells, chemical interdiffusion at the interface gives rise to the formation of an interlayer of the ternary compound CdSxCdTe1-x. In this work, we evaluate the effects of this interlayer in CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cells in order to improve theoretical results describing experimental C-V (capacitance versus voltage characteristics. We extended our previous theoretical methodology developed on the basis of three cardinal equations (Castillo-Alvarado et al., 2010. The present results provide a better fit to experimental data obtained from CdS/CdTe solar cells grown in our laboratory by the chemical bath deposition (for CdS film and the close-spaced vapor transport (for CdTe film techniques.

  16. CdTe aggregates in KBr crystalline matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensouici, A.; Plaza, J.L.; Dieguez, E.; Halimi, O.; Boudine, B.; Addala, S.; Guerbous, L.; Sebais, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we report the experimental results on the fabrication and optical characterization of Czochralski (Cz) grown KBr single crystals doped with CdTe crystallites. The results of the optical absorption have shown two bands, the first one located at 250 nm demonstrates the incorporation of cadmium atoms in the KBr host followed by a partial chemical decomposition of CdTe, the second band located at 585 nm shows an optical response of CdTe aggregates. Photoluminescence spectra at room temperature before annealing showed a band located at 520 nm (2.38 eV), with a blue shift from the bulk gap of 0.82 eV (E g (CdTe)=1.56 eV). While the photoluminescence spectra after annealing at 600 deg. C showed a band situated at 640 nm (1.93 eV), these bands are due to band-to-band transitions of CdTe nanocrystals with a blue shift from the bulk gap at 0.38 eV. Blue shift in optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra confirm nanometric size of dopant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra have shown the incorporation of CdTe aggregates in KBr.

  17. CdTe aggregates in KBr crystalline matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensouici, A., E-mail: bensouicia@yahoo.f [Laboratory of Crystallography, Department of Physics, Mentouri-Constantine University, Constantine 25000 (Algeria); Plaza, J.L., E-mail: joseluis.plaza@uam.e [Crystal Growth Laboratory (CGL), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Dieguez, E. [Crystal Growth Laboratory (CGL), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Halimi, O.; Boudine, B.; Addala, S. [Laboratory of Crystallography, Department of Physics, Mentouri-Constantine University, Constantine 25000 (Algeria); Guerbous, L. [Centre de recherche nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger 16000 (Algeria); Sebais, M. [Laboratory of Crystallography, Department of Physics, Mentouri-Constantine University, Constantine 25000 (Algeria)

    2009-09-15

    In this work, we report the experimental results on the fabrication and optical characterization of Czochralski (Cz) grown KBr single crystals doped with CdTe crystallites. The results of the optical absorption have shown two bands, the first one located at 250 nm demonstrates the incorporation of cadmium atoms in the KBr host followed by a partial chemical decomposition of CdTe, the second band located at 585 nm shows an optical response of CdTe aggregates. Photoluminescence spectra at room temperature before annealing showed a band located at 520 nm (2.38 eV), with a blue shift from the bulk gap of 0.82 eV (E{sub g} (CdTe)=1.56 eV). While the photoluminescence spectra after annealing at 600 deg. C showed a band situated at 640 nm (1.93 eV), these bands are due to band-to-band transitions of CdTe nanocrystals with a blue shift from the bulk gap at 0.38 eV. Blue shift in optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra confirm nanometric size of dopant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra have shown the incorporation of CdTe aggregates in KBr.

  18. Perspective on TeV-scale physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1989-02-01

    These lectures review theoretical motivations and experimental prospects for the study of TeV-scale physics. Three clues to the importance of TeV physics are discussed: implications of quantum corrections for the masses of a fourth generation quark-lepton family, the gauge hierarchy problem and known solutions, and implications of symmetry and unitarity for the symmetry-breaking sector of the electroweak gauge theory. The experimental prospects are reviewed with emphasis on the multi-TeV pp colliders that may be built in the 1990's. The topics include new phenomena that might occur - e.g., a fourth generation, heavy gauge bosons, composite structure, and supersymmetry - as well as the signals of the unknown SU(2)/sub L/ /times/ U(1)/sub Y/ breaking mechanism that must occur within the TeV domain. 96 refs., 21 figs

  19. Techno-Cultural Characterization of the MIS 5 (c. 105 - 90 Ka Lithic Industries at Bl