WorldWideScience

Sample records for mirror suspension system

  1. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Takamori, A; Bertolini, A; Cella, G; DeSalvo, R; Fukushima, M; Iida, Y; Jacquier, F; Kawamura, S; Marka, S; Nishi, Y; Numata, K; Sannibale, V; Somiya, K; Takahashi, R; Tariq, H; Tsubono, K; Ugas, J; Viboud, N; Yamamoto, H; Yoda, T; Wang Chen Yang

    2002-01-01

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SU...

  2. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Akiteru; Ando, Masaki; Bertolini, Alessandro; Cella, Giancarlo; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Iida, Yukiyoshi; Jacquier, Florian; Kawamura, Seiji; Marka, Szabolcs; Nishi, Yuhiko; Numata, Kenji; Sannibale, Virginio; Somiya, Kentaro; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Tariq, Hareem; Tsubono, Kimio; Ugas, Jose; Viboud, Nicolas; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Yoda, Tatsuo; Wang Chenyang

    2002-01-01

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SUS is equipped with a totally passive magnetic damper to suppress internal resonances without degrading the thermal noise performance. In this paper we discuss the SUS details and present prototype results

  3. Mirror systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogassi, Leonardo; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons, discovered in the monkey premotor cortex and in an anatomically connected area of the inferior parietal lobule, that activate both during action execution and action observation. They constitute a circuit dedicated to match actions made by others with the internal motor representations of the observer. It has been proposed that this matching system enables individuals to understand others' behavior and motor intentions. Here we will describe the main features of mirror neurons in monkeys. Then we will present evidence of the presence of a mirror system in humans and of its involvement in several social-cognitive functions, such as imitation, intention, and emotion understanding. This system may have several implications at a cognitive level and could be linked to specific social deficits in humans such as autism. Recent investigations addressed the issue of the plasticity of the mirror neuron system in both monkeys and humans, suggesting also their possible use in rehabilitation. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 22-38 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.89 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1985-12-01

    The physics of VUV and x-ray reflection is reviewed. The main functions of mirrors in synchrotron beamlines are stated briefly and include deflection, filtration, power absorption, formation of a real image of the source, focusing, and collimation. Methods of fabrication of optical surfaces are described. Types of imperfections are discussed, including, aberrations, surface figure inaccuracy, roughness, and degradation due to use. Calculation of the photon beam thermal load, including computer modelling, is considered. 50 refs., 7 figs

  5. The mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2009-05-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of neurons, originally discovered in the premotor cortex of monkeys, that discharge both when individuals perform a given motor act and when they observe others perform that same motor act. Ample evidence demonstrates the existence of a cortical network with the properties of mirror neurons (mirror system) in humans. The human mirror system is involved in understanding others' actions and their intentions behind them, and it underlies mechanisms of observational learning. Herein, we will discuss the clinical implications of the mirror system.

  6. Hydropneumatic suspension systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    Hydropneumatic suspensions systems combine the excellent properties of gas springs with the favourable damping properties of hydraulic fluids. The advantages of these systems are particularly appropriate for automotive applications, such as passenger cars, trucks and agricultural equipment. In this book, Dr. Bauer provides an extensive overview of hydropneumatic suspension systems. Starting with a comparison of different types of suspension systems, the author subsequently describes the theoretical background associated with spring and damping characteristics of hydropneumatic systems and furthermore explains the design of the most important system components. Additionally he gives an overview of level control systems and various special functions. Finally the technology is illustrated by design examples and the outlook for future hydropneumatic suspensions is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Physics of mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1982-05-01

    In recent years the emphasis in research on the magnetic mirror approach to fusion has been shifted to address what are essentially economically-motivated issues. The introduction of the Tandem Mirror idea solved in principal the problem of low Q (low fusion power gain) of mirror-based fusion systems. In order to optimize the tandem mirror idea from an economic standpoint, some important improvements have been suggested. These improvements include the thermal barrier idea of Baldwin and Logan and the axicell concept of Kesner. These new modifications introduce some special physics considerations. Among these are (1) The MHD stability properties of high energy electron components in the end cells; (2) The optimization of end-cell magnetic field configurations with the objective of minimizing equilibrium parallel currents; (3) The suppression of microstabilities by use of sloshing ion distributions. Following a brief outline of tandem mirror concepts, the above three topics are discussed, with illustrative examples taken from earlier work or from recent design studies

  8. Intelligent systems of the vehicles’ suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurlin, D.

    2018-02-01

    The article is devoted to the current condition of car’s active suspension system. It presents the tendencies in development of the active systems of suspension system, adjustable elements incorporated in them and the companies succeeded in designing such systems. It also mirrors the problem of impact of active systems on car’s safety and their importance for the driver. Advantages and disadvantages of the most common types of active elements are being described, analyzed and compared. The author concludes about the perspectives of these systems’ development.

  9. Physics of mirror fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experimental results with the 2XIIB mirror machine at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory have demonstrated the stable confinement of plasmas at fusion temperatures and with energy densities equaling or exceeding that of the confining fields. The physics of mirror confinement is discussed in the context of these new results. Some possible approaches to further improving the confinement properties of mirror systems and the impact of these new approaches on the prospects for mirror fusion reactors are discussed

  10. The mirror-neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Craighero, Laila

    2004-01-01

    A category of stimuli of great importance for primates, humans in particular, is that formed by actions done by other individuals. If we want to survive, we must understand the actions of others. Furthermore, without action understanding, social organization is impossible. In the case of humans, there is another faculty that depends on the observation of others' actions: imitation learning. Unlike most species, we are able to learn by imitation, and this faculty is at the basis of human culture. In this review we present data on a neurophysiological mechanism--the mirror-neuron mechanism--that appears to play a fundamental role in both action understanding and imitation. We describe first the functional properties of mirror neurons in monkeys. We review next the characteristics of the mirror-neuron system in humans. We stress, in particular, those properties specific to the human mirror-neuron system that might explain the human capacity to learn by imitation. We conclude by discussing the relationship between the mirror-neuron system and language.

  11. Anomalous transport in mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    As now being explored for fusion applications confinement systems based on the mirror principle embody two kinds of plasma regimes. These two regimes are: (a) high-beta plasmas, stabilized against MHD and other low frequency plasma instabilities by magnetic-well fields, but characterized by non-Maxwellian ion distributions; (b) near-Maxwellian plasmas, confined electrostatically (as in the tandem mirror) or in a field-reversed region within the mirror cell. Common to both situations are the questions of anomalous transport owing to high frequency instabilities in the non-maxwellian portions of the plasmas. This report will summarize the status of theory and of experimental data bearing on these questions, with particular reference to the high temperature regimes of interest for fusion power

  12. Mirror Confinement Systems: project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This report contains descriptions of the projects supported by the Mirror Confinement Systems (MCS) Division of the Office of Fusion Energy. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators, in collaboration with MCS staff office, and include objectives and milestones for each project. In addition to project summaries, statements of Division objectives and budget summaries are also provided

  13. The mirror neuron system : New frontiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Fadiga, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of mirror neurons, much effort has been invested into Studying their location and properties in the human brain. Here we review these original findings and introduce the Main topics of this special issue of Social Neuroscience. What does the mirror system code? How is the mirror

  14. Four-Wheel Vehicle Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1990-01-01

    Four-wheel suspension system uses simple system of levers with no compliant components to provide three-point suspension of chassis of vehicle while maintaining four-point contact with uneven terrain. Provides stability against tipping of four-point rectangular base, without rocking contact to which rigid four-wheel frame susceptible. Similar to six-wheel suspension system described in "Articulated Suspension Without Springs" (NPO-17354).

  15. 49 CFR 570.8 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 570.8 Section 570.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Pounds or Less § 570.8 Suspension systems. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut or...

  16. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut...

  17. Sensorimotor learning configures the human mirror system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline; Walsh, Vincent; Heyes, Cecilia

    2007-09-04

    Cells in the "mirror system" fire not only when an individual performs an action but also when one observes the same action performed by another agent [1-4]. The mirror system, found in premotor and parietal cortices of human and monkey brains, is thought to provide the foundation for social understanding and to enable the development of theory of mind and language [5-9]. However, it is unclear how mirror neurons acquire their mirror properties -- how they derive the information necessary to match observed with executed actions [10]. We address this by showing that it is possible to manipulate the selectivity of the human mirror system, and thereby make it operate as a countermirror system, by giving participants training to perform one action while observing another. Before this training, participants showed event-related muscle-specific responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation over motor cortex during observation of little- and index-finger movements [11-13]. After training, this normal mirror effect was reversed. These results indicate that the mirror properties of the mirror system are neither wholly innate [14] nor fixed once acquired; instead they develop through sensorimotor learning [15, 16]. Our findings indicate that the human mirror system is, to some extent, both a product and a process of social interaction.

  18. Attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, David B.; Fontana, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic suspension systems can be used in a wide variety of applications. The decision of whether to use an attractive or repulsive suspension system for a particular application is a fundamental one which must be made during the design process. As an aid to the designer, we compare and contrast attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems and indicate whether and under what conditions one or the other system is preferred.

  19. Physics issues in mirror and tandem mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Over the years the study of the confinement of high temperature plasma in magnetic mirror systems has presented researchers with many unusual physics problems. Many of these issues are by now understood theoretically and documented experimentally. With the advent of the tandem mirror idea, some new issues have emerged and are now under intensive study. These include: (1) the generation and control of ambipolar confining potentials and their effect on axial confinement and, (2) the combined influence of nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields (used to ensure MHD stability) and electric magnetic particle drifts on radial transport. Physics considerations associated with these two categories of issues will be reviewed, including concepts for the control of radial transport, under study or proposed

  20. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz Hussain; Jawaid Daudpoto; Ali Asghar Memon

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability...

  1. The mirror neuron system: new frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysers, Christian; Fadiga, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of mirror neurons, much effort has been invested into studying their location and properties in the human brain. Here we review these original findings and introduce the main topics of this special issue of Social Neuroscience. What does the mirror system code? How is the mirror system embedded into the mosaic of circuits that compose our brain? How does the mirror system contribute to communication, language and social interaction? Can the principle of mirror neurons be extended to emotions, sensations and thoughts? Papers using a wide range of methods, including single cell recordings, fMRI, TMS, EEG and psychophysics, collected in this special issue, start to give us some impressive answers.

  2. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  3. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... braking system. The vehicle shall be level (not tilting to the left or right). Air leakage shall not be... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 393.207 Section 393.207... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393...

  4. Preparation of dielectrics HR mirrors from colloidal oxide suspensions containing organic polymer binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, I.M.

    1994-01-01

    Colloidal suspensions of oxides have been used to prepare dielectric HR (high reflective) mirrors, specifically for high power fusion case applications, on substrates up to 38 cm square using a meniscus coater. These coatings consist of porous quarterwave layers of alternating high and low refractive index oxides. Silica was used as the low index oxide and AlOOH, ZrO 2 , or HfO 2 as the high index material. Coatings were weak because of low particle-to-particle adhesion. Use of organic polymer binders in the high index component was found to increase strength, thereby improving the laser damage threshold and also reducing the number of layers required for 99% reflection due to increased refractive index

  5. Four-Mirror Freeform Reflective Imaging Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Central Objectives: The research involves a revelation of the solution space for revolutionary families of four-mirror freeform reflective imaging systems. A...

  6. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost

  7. Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanSant, J.H.; Kozman, T.A.; Bulmer, R.H.; Ng, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, R.H. Bulmer of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) discussed a proposed tandem-mirror magnet system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) at the 8th symposium on Engineering Problems in Fusion Research. Since then, Congress has voted funds for expanding LLNL's MFTF to a tandem-mirror facility (designated MFTF-B). The new facility, scheduled for completion by 1985, will seek to achieve two goals: (1) Energy break-even capability (Q or the ratio of fusion energy to plasma heating energy = 1) of mirror fusion, (2) Engineering feasibility of reactor-scale machines. Briefly stated, 22 superconducting magnets contained in a 11-m-diam by 65-m-long vacuum vessel will confine a fusion plasma fueled by 80 axial streaming-plasma guns and over 40 radial neutral beams. We have already completed a preliminary design of this magnet system

  8. Tandem mirror magnet system for the mirror fusion test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulmer, R.H.; Van Sant, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) will be a large magnetic fusion experimental facility containing 22 supercounducting magnets including solenoids and C-coils. State-of-the-art technology will be used extensively to complete this facility before 1985. Niobium titanium superconductor and stainless steel structural cases will be the principle materials of construction. Cooling will be pool boiling and thermosiphon flow of 4.5 K liquid helium. Combined weight of the magnets will be over 1500 tonnes and the stored energy will be over 1600 MJ. Magnetic field strength in some coils will be more than 8 T. Detail design of the magnet system will begin early 1981. Basic requirements and conceptual design are disclosed in this paper

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  10. Mirroring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Wegener, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    and metaphorical value of mirroring for creativity theory across two different research fields — neuroscience and learning. We engage in a mutual (possibly creative) exploration of mirroring from ‘mirror neurons’ to mirroring in social learning theory. One of the most fascinating aspects of mirroring...... as a neurobiological and as a learning phenomenon is that it points to the embodied and unconscious aspects of social interaction. Thus, mirroring should not be reduced to the non-creative, mechanical repetition of the original, outstanding creativity. To mirror is a human capability built into our capacity to create......Most definitions of creativity emphasise originality. The creative product is recognised as distinct from other products and the creative person as someone who stands out from the crowd. What tend to be overlooked are acts of mirroring as a crucial element of the creative process. The human ability...

  11. Language comprehension warps the mirror neuron system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah eZarr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Is the mirror neuron system (MNS used in language understanding? According to embodied accounts of language comprehension, understanding sentences describing actions makes use of neural mechanisms of action control, including the MNS. Consequently, repeatedly comprehending sentences describing similar actions should induce adaptation of the MNS thereby warping its use in other cognitive processes such as action recognition and prediction. To test this prediction, participants read blocks of multiple sentences where each sentence in the block described transfer of objects in a direction away or toward the reader. Following each block, adaptation was measured by having participants predict the end-point of videotaped actions. The adapting sentences disrupted prediction of actions in the same direction, but a only for videos of biological motion, and b only when the effector implied by the language (e.g., the hand matched the videos. These findings are signatures of the mirror neuron system.

  12. The mirror system in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Guy A

    2014-04-01

    The description of the mirror neuron system provided by Cook et al. is incomplete for the macaque, and incorrect for humans. This is relevant to exaptation versus associative learning as the underlying mechanism generating mirror neurons, and to the sensorimotor learning as evidence for the authors' viewpoint. The proposed additional testing of the mirror system in rodents is unrealistic.

  13. Stability design considerations for mirror support systems in ICF lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Sommer, S.C.

    1996-10-01

    Some of the major components of laser systems used for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are the large aperture mirrors which direct the path of the laser. These mirrors are typically supported by systems which consist of mirror mounts, mirror enclosures, superstructures, and foundations. Stability design considerations for the support systems of large aperture mirrors have been developed based on the experience of designing and evaluating similar systems at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Examples of the systems developed at LLNL include Nova, the Petawatt laser, Beamlet, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The structural design of support systems of large aperture mirrors has typically been controlled by stability considerations in order for the large laser system to meet its performance requirements for alignment and positioning. This paper will discuss the influence of stability considerations and will provide guidance on the structural design and evaluation of mirror support systems in ICF lasers so that this information can be used on similar systems

  14. Mirror fusion test facility plasma diagnostics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.R. Jr.; Coffield, F.E.; Davis, G.E.; Felker, B.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 25 years, experiments with several magnetic mirror machines were performed as part of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program at LLL. The latest MFE experiment, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), builds on the advances of earlier machines in initiating, stabilizing, heating, and sustaining plasmas formed with deuterium. The goals of this machine are to increase ion and electron temperatures and show a corresponding increase in containment time, to test theoretical scaling laws of plasma instabilities with increased physical dimensions, and to sustain high-beta plasmas for times that are long compared to the energy containment time. This paper describes the diagnostic system being developed to characterize these plasma parameters

  15. Can syntax appear in a mirror (system)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettamanti, Marco; Moro, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Converging evidence indicates that the processing of some aspects related to the phonetic and the semantic components of language is tightly associated with both the perceptual and the motor neural systems. It has been suggested that mirror neurons contribute to language understanding by virtue of a neurophysiological response matching perceptual linguistic information onto corresponding motor plans. This proposal has sometimes been extended to advocate that the language competence as a whole, including syntax, may be ascribed to this kind of perceptuo-motor mappings. This position paper examines what kinds of empirical and theoretical challenges such general mirror neuron language accounts need to face in order to proof their validity--challenges that we think have not been adequately addressed yet. We highlight that the most important limitation is constituted by the fact that some core defining properties of human language, at the phonetic, semantic, and especially at the syntactic level, are not transparent to the bodily senses and thus they cannot be the direct source of mirror neuron perceptuo-motor matching. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurements on an electromagnetic active suspension system for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysen, B.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.; Encica, L.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Jansen, J.W.; Krop, D.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract—This paper describes the specifications for active suspension systems and provides an electromagnetic solution. Electromagnetic actuation and preliminary control strategies are investigated in order to achieve a suspension system with the ability to absorb road irregularities and perform

  17. Vibration Reduction System Using Magnetic Suspension Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spychała Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents considerations concerning the construction of vibration reduction system using magnetic suspension technology. Presents the results of simulation, numerical and experimental the bearingless electric motor, for which successfully used this type of solution. Positive results of research and testing have become the basis for the development of the concept of building this type of active vibration reduction system , at the same time acting as a support for a technical object, which is a jet engine. Bearing failures are manifested by loss or distortion of their mass, which leads to a total destruction of the roller bearing, and thus reflected in the security. The article presents the concept of building active magnetic suspension to eliminate the bearing system of classical rolling bearing and replace it with magnetic bearing.

  18. Parametric systems analysis for tandem mirror hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Chapin, D.L.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1980-09-01

    Fusion fission systems, consisting of fissile producing fusion hybrids combining a tandem mirror fusion driver with various blanket types and net fissile consuming LWR's, have been modeled and analyzed parametrically. Analysis to date indicates that hybrids can be competitive with mined uranium when U 3 O 8 cost is about 100 $/lb., adding less than 25% to present day cost of power from LWR's. Of the three blanket types considered, uranium fast fission (UFF), thorium fast fission (ThFF), and thorium fission supressed (ThFS), the ThFS blanket has a modest economic advantage under most conditions but has higher support ratios and potential safety advantages under all conditions

  19. Secondary mirror system for the European Solar Telescope (EST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaller, L.; Siegel, B.; Prieto, G.; Hernandez, E.; Casalta, J. M.; Mercader, J.; Barriga, J.

    2010-07-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a European collaborative project to build a 4m class solar telescope in the Canary Islands, which is now in its design study phase. The telescope will provide diffraction limited performance for several instruments observing simultaneously at the Coudé focus at different wavelengths. A multi-conjugated adaptive optics system composed of a tip-tilt mirror and several deformable mirrors will be integrated in the telescope optical path. The secondary mirror system is composed of the mirror itself (Ø800mm), the alignment drives and the cooling system needed to remove the solar heat load from the mirror. During the design study the feasibility to provide fast tip-tilt capabilities at the secondary mirror to work as the adaptive optics tip-tilt mirror is also being evaluated.

  20. EUV multilayer mirror, optical system including a multilayer mirror and method of manufacturing a multilayer mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Qiushi; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik; de Boer, Meint J.; von Blanckenhagen, G.

    2016-01-01

    A multilayer mirror (M) reflecting extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from a first wave-length range in a EUV spectral region comprises a substrate (SUB) and a stack of layers (SL) on the substrate, the stack of layers comprising layers comprising a low index material and a high index material, the

  1. Nonlinear Predictive Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhuang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An active suspension system is important in meeting the requirements of the ride comfort and handling stability for vehicles. In this work, a nonlinear model of active suspension system and a corresponding nonlinear robust predictive sliding mode control are established for the control problem of active suspension. Firstly, a seven-degree-of-freedom active suspension model is established considering the nonlinear effects of springs and dampers; and secondly, the dynamic model is expanded in the time domain, and the corresponding predictive sliding mode control is established. The uncertainties in the controller are approximated by the fuzzy logic system, and the adaptive controller reduces the approximation error to increase the robustness of the control system. Finally, the simulation results show that the ride comfort and handling stability performance of the active suspension system is better than that of the passive suspension system and the Skyhook active suspension. Thus, the system can obviously improve the shock absorption performance of vehicles.

  2. Mirror confinement systems: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This report contains: (1) A discussion of azimuthal asymmetrics and fluctuations in RFC-XX-M. Both lead to enhanced radial transport in RFC-XX-M, and presumably most other tandem mirror machines as well; A report on four operating modes of RFC-XX-M which were developed and studied as part of the collaboration. These operating modes were the simple tandem mode, the negative (floating) potential mode, the hot electron mode, and the ECH (electron cyclotron heating) mode; A pulsed rf heated discharge cleaning system which was developed for RFC-XX-M. This method of cleaning proved much more effective than normal glow discharge cleaning, and variations of it are currently in use on the GAMMA-10 tandem mirror and the JIPP TII-U tokamak at the Institute for Plasma Physics at Nagoya; Short descriptions of the diagnostics development and improvement done in conjunction with the work on RFC-XX-M; and a compilation of the work performed at the University of Tsukuba on GAMMA-10. Most of the effort on GAMMA-10 involved diagnostics development and improvement. 16 refs., 42 figs., 1 tab

  3. 15 CFR 2011.207 - Suspension of the certificate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.207 Suspension of the certificate system. (a) Suspension. The.... Notice of such suspension and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (b... such reinstatement and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (c...

  4. Mirror system based therapy for autism spectrum disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHEN; Jing ZHANG; Jun DING

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the present theories and empirical research of autisms' cognitive research and mir-ror systems and introduces a new hypothesis about the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD): autistic mir-ror neuron dysfunction hypothesis. ASD subjects show obvious lack of the activation of the mirror system during the task of observation or emotional cognition. It is sig-nificant to investigate the mirror system for revealing the causes of autism and it is also helpful for developing new ways to diagnose or treat this disorder.

  5. Language comprehension warps the mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Noah; Ferguson, Ryan; Glenberg, Arthur M

    2013-01-01

    Is the mirror neuron system (MNS) used in language understanding? According to embodied accounts of language comprehension, understanding sentences describing actions makes use of neural mechanisms of action control, including the MNS. Consequently, repeatedly comprehending sentences describing similar actions should induce adaptation of the MNS thereby warping its use in other cognitive processes such as action recognition and prediction. To test this prediction, participants read blocks of multiple sentences where each sentence in the block described transfer of objects in a direction away or toward the reader. Following each block, adaptation was measured by having participants predict the end-point of videotaped actions. The adapting sentences disrupted prediction of actions in the same direction, but (a) only for videos of biological motion, and (b) only when the effector implied by the language (e.g., the hand) matched the videos. These findings are signatures of the MNS.

  6. The mirror neuron system and the consequences of its dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella

    2006-12-01

    The discovery of premotor and parietal cells known as mirror neurons in the macaque brain that fire not only when the animal is in action, but also when it observes others carrying out the same actions provides a plausible neurophysiological mechanism for a variety of important social behaviours, from imitation to empathy. Recent data also show that dysfunction of the mirror neuron system in humans might be a core deficit in autism, a socially isolating condition. Here, we review the neurophysiology of the mirror neuron system and its role in social cognition and discuss the clinical implications of mirror neuron dysfunction.

  7. The Mirror Neuron System and Action Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Giovanni; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Riggio, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Mirror neurons, first described in the rostral part of monkey ventral premotor cortex (area F5), discharge both when the animal performs a goal-directed hand action and when it observes another individual performing the same or a similar action. More recently, in the same area mirror neurons responding to the observation of mouth actions have been…

  8. Neural control of magnetic suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, W. Steven

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to design, build and test (in cooperation with NASA personnel from the NASA Langley Research Center) neural controllers for two different small air-gap magnetic suspension systems. The general objective of the program is to study neural network architectures for the purpose of control in an experimental setting and to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. The specific objectives of the research program are: (1) to demonstrate through simulation and experimentation the feasibility of using neural controllers to stabilize a nonlinear magnetic suspension system; (2) to investigate through simulation and experimentation the performance of neural controllers designs under various types of parametric and nonparametric uncertainty; (3) to investigate through simulation and experimentation various types of neural architectures for real-time control with respect to performance and complexity; and (4) to benchmark in an experimental setting the performance of neural controllers against other types of existing linear and nonlinear compensator designs. To date, the first one-dimensional, small air-gap magnetic suspension system has been built, tested and delivered to the NASA Langley Research Center. The device is currently being stabilized with a digital linear phase-lead controller. The neural controller hardware is under construction. Two different neural network paradigms are under consideration, one based on hidden layer feedforward networks trained via back propagation and one based on using Gaussian radial basis functions trained by analytical methods related to stability conditions. Some advanced nonlinear control algorithms using feedback linearization and sliding mode control are in simulation studies.

  9. Mirror Objects in the Solar System?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2002-01-01

    This talk was given at the Tunguska-2001 international conference but it is not about the Tunguska event. Instead we tried to give some flavor of mirror matter, which is predicted to exist if parity is an unbroken symmetry of nature, to non-experts. The possible connection of the mirror matter ideas to the Tunguska phenomenon was indicated by Foot and Gninenko some time ago and was elaborated by Foot in the separate talk at this conference. If the mirror world interpretation of the Tunguska like events is indeed correct then the most fascinating (but very speculative) possibility is that some well known celestial bodies with strange properties are in fact made mostly from mirror matter, and so maybe the mirror world was discovered long ago and we just have not suspected this. (author)

  10. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-08-15

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy.

  11. The Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion System -- Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammash, Terry; Tang, Ricky

    2005-01-01

    Many of the previous studies assessing the capability of the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system employed analyses that ignored the 'ambipolar' potential. This electrostatic potential arises as a result of the rapid escape of the electrons due to their small mass. As they escape, they leave behind an excess positive charge which manifests itself in an electric field that slows down the electrons while speeding up the ions until their respective axial diffusions are equalized. The indirect effect on the ions is that their confinement time is reduced relative to that of zero potential, and hence the plasma length must be increased to accommodate that change. But as they emerge from the thruster mirror - which serves as a magnetic nozzle - the ions acquire an added energy equal to that of the potential energy, and that in turn manifests itself in increased specific impulse and thrust. We assess the propulsive performance of the GDM thruster, based on the more rigorous theory, by applying it to a round trip Mars mission employing a continuous burn acceleration/deceleration type of trajectory. We find that the length of the device and travel time decrease with increasing plasma density, while the total vehicle mass reaches a minimum at a plasma density of 3 x 1016 cm-3. At such a density, and an initial DT ion temperature of 10 keV, a travel time of 60 days is found to be achievable at GDM propulsion parameters of about 200,000 seconds of specific impulse and approximately 47 kN of thrust

  12. Magnetic mirror fusion systems: Characteristics and distinctive features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    A tutorial account is given of the main characteristics and distinctive features of conceptual magnetic fusion systems employing the magnetic mirror principle. These features are related to the potential advantages that mirror-based fusion systems may exhibit for the generation of economic fusion power

  13. System and technique for ultrasonic characterization of settling suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Margaret S [Richland, WA; Panetta, Paul D [Richland, WA; Bamberger, Judith A [Richland, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA

    2006-11-28

    A system for determining properties of settling suspensions includes a settling container, a mixer, and devices for ultrasonic interrogation transverse to the settling direction. A computer system controls operation of the mixer and the interrogation devices and records the response to the interrogating as a function of settling time, which is then used to determine suspension properties. Attenuation versus settling time for dilute suspensions, such as dilute wood pulp suspension, exhibits a peak at different settling times for suspensions having different properties, and the location of this peak is used as one mechanism for characterizing suspensions. Alternatively or in addition, a plurality of ultrasound receivers are arranged at different angles to a common transmitter to receive scattering responses at a variety of angles during particle settling. Angular differences in scattering as a function of settling time are also used to characterize the suspension.

  14. Lateralization of the human mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Koski, Lisa; Zaidel, Eran; Mazziotta, John; Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-03-15

    A cortical network consisting of the inferior frontal, rostral inferior parietal, and posterior superior temporal cortices has been implicated in representing actions in the primate brain and is critical to imitation in humans. This neural circuitry may be an evolutionary precursor of neural systems associated with language. However, language is predominantly lateralized to the left hemisphere, whereas the degree of lateralization of the imitation circuitry in humans is unclear. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of imitation of finger movements with lateralized stimuli and responses. During imitation, activity in the inferior frontal and rostral inferior parietal cortex, although fairly bilateral, was stronger in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the visual stimulus and response hand. This ipsilateral pattern is at variance with the typical contralateral activity of primary visual and motor areas. Reliably increased signal in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was observed for both left-sided and right-sided imitation tasks, although subthreshold activity was also observed in the left STS. Overall, the data indicate that visual and motor components of the human mirror system are not left-lateralized. The left hemisphere superiority for language, then, must be have been favored by other types of language precursors, perhaps auditory or multimodal action representations.

  15. Mirror theory applied to toroidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Central features of a mirror plasma are strong departures from Maxwellian distribution functions, ambipolar potentials and densities which vary along a field line, and losses, and the mirror field itself. To examine these features, mirror theorists have developed analytical and numerical techniques to solve the Fokker-Planck equation, evaluate the potentials consistent with the resulting distribution functions, and assess the microstability of these distributions. Various combinations of mirror-plasma fetures are present and important in toroidal plasmas as well, particularly in the edge region and in plasmas with strong r.f. heating. In this paper we survey problems in toroidal plasmas where mirror theory and computational techniques are applicable, and discuss in more detail three specific examples: calculation of the toroidal generalization of the Spitzer-Haerm distribution function (from which trapped-particle effects on current drive can be calculated), evaluation of the nonuniform potential and density set up by pulsed electron-cyclotron heating, and calculation of steady-state distribution functions in the presence of strong r.f. heating and collisions. 37 refs., 3 figs

  16. Mirror theory applied to toroidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Central features of a mirror plasma are strong departures from Maxwellian distribution functions, ambipolar potentials and densities which vary along a field line, end losses, and the mirror field itself. To examine these features, mirror theorists have developed analytical and numerical techniques to solve the Fokker-Planck equation, evaluate the potentials consistent with the resulting distribution functions, and assess the microstability of these distributions. Various combinations of mirror-plasma features are present and important in toroidal plasmas as well, particularly in the edge region and in plasmas with strong rf heating. In this paper we survey problems in toroidal plasmas where mirror theory and computational techniques are applicable, and discuss in more detail three specific examples: calculation of the toroidal generalization of the Spitzer-Haerm distribution function (from which trapped-particle effects on current drive can be calculated), evaluation of the nonuniform potential and density set up by pulsed electron-cyclotron heating, and calculation of steady-state distribution functions in the presence of strong rf heating and collisions. 37 refs

  17. The human mirror neuron system and embodied representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Ivry, Richard B

    2009-01-01

    Mirror neurons are defined as neurons in the monkey cortex which respond to goal oriented actions, whether the behavior is self-generated or produced by another. Here we briefly review this literature and consider evidence from behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain imaging studies for a similar mirror neuron system in humans. Furthermore, we review functions of this system related to action comprehension and motor imagery, as well as evidence for speculations on the system's ties with conceptual knowledge and language.

  18. Magnetic suspension of a rotating system. Application to inertial flywheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarquand, Guy

    1984-01-01

    The various possible magnetic suspension configurations compatible with rotating mechanical systems are defined from studies of the characteristics of different types of magnetic bearings. The results obtained are used in the design and realization of a magnetic suspension for an inertial flywheel. (author) [fr

  19. 15 CFR 2011.110 - Suspension of certificate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Certificate of Quota Eligibility § 2011.110 Suspension of certificate system. (a... of such suspension and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (b... such reinstatement and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (c...

  20. Ballooning instabilities in toroidally linked mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastie, R.J.; Watson, C.J.H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the stability against ballooning modes of plasma equilibria in toroidally linked mirror configurations consisting of a number of quadrupole minimum-B mirrors linked toroidally. On the basis of the Kruskal-Oberman energy principle, a class of displacements is identified which are potentially unstable, and a necessary criterion for stability is derived. The criterion is obtained from the eigenvalues of an ordinary differential equation, which determines the variation of the displacement along a field line. The coefficients in the equation are determined by the configuration, and by inserting various model configurations, estimates are obtained of the maximum value of β consistent with stability. In cases of interest, quite high β-values are obtained. (author)

  1. The infant mirror neuron system studied with high density EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Pär

    2008-01-01

    The mirror neuron system has been suggested to play a role in many social capabilities such as action understanding, imitation, language and empathy. These are all capabilities that develop during infancy and childhood, but the human mirror neuron system has been poorly studied using neurophysiological measures. This study measured the brain activity of 6-month-old infants and adults using a high-density EEG net with the aim of identifying mirror neuron activity. The subjects viewed both goal-directed movements and non-goal-directed movements. An independent component analysis was used to extract the sources of cognitive processes. The desynchronization of the mu rhythm in adults has been shown to be a marker for activation of the mirror neuron system and was used as a criterion to categorize independent components between subjects. The results showed significant mu desynchronization in the adult group and significantly higher ERP activation in both adults and 6-month-olds for the goal-directed action observation condition. This study demonstrate that infants as young as 6 months display mirror neuron activity and is the first to present a direct ERP measure of the mirror neuron system in infants.

  2. Study on Dynamic Behaviour of Wishbone Suspension System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M; Rahman, M M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristic model of the wishbone suspension system using the quarter car model approach. Suspension system in an automobile provides vehicle control and passenger comfort by providing isolation from road disturbances. This makes it essential that the detailed behavior of suspension should be known to optimize the performance. A kinetic study is performed using multi body system (MBS) analysis. The dirt road profile is considered as an applied loading. The spring constant, damping coefficient and sprung mass are studied on the performance of the suspension system. It can be observed that the spring constant is inversely related with time required to return to initial position and the amount of deformations. The damping ratio affects the suppression of spring oscillations, beyond a certain limit damping ration has the negligible effect. Sprung mass effected the equilibrium position of the suspension system with a small effect on its oscillation behavior. It is shown that the spring constant, damping ratio and sprung mass are significant parameters to design the suspension system. This study is essential for complete understanding of working of the suspension system and a future study with real geometries.

  3. A universal suspension test rig for electrohydraulic active and passive automotive suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Omar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A fully active electro-hydraulic and passive automotive quarter car suspensions with their experimental test-rigs are designed and implemented. Investigation of the active performance compared against the passive is performed experimentally and numerically utilizing SIMULINK's Simscape library. Both systems are modeled as single-degree-of-freedom in order to simplify the validation process. Economic considerations were considered during the rig's implementation. The rig consists of two identical platforms fixed side by side allowing testing two independent suspensions simultaneously. Position sensors for sprung and unsprung masses on both platforms are installed. The road input is introduced by a cam and a roller follower mechanism driven by 1.12 kW single phase induction motor with speed reduction assembly. The active hydraulic cylinder was the most viable choice due to its high power-to-weight ratio. The active control is of the proportional-integral-differential (PID type. Though this technique is quite simple and not new, yet the emphasis of this paper is the engineering, design and implementation of the experimental setup and controller. A successful validation process is performed. Ride comfort significantly improved with active suspension, as shown by the results; 24.8% sprung mass vibration attenuation is achieved. The details of the developed system with the analytical and experimental results are presented. Keywords: Active suspension, Passive suspension, Servo, Hydraulic, Control, PID

  4. A novel magnetic lead screw active suspension system for vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    This paper encompasses a detailed study of the redesign of a novel Magnetic Lead Screw (MLS) active suspension system for possible regeneration of the energy dispatched in the suspension system and active control of vehicle body movement. The MLS converts a low speed high force linear motion...... of a translator into a high speed low torque rotational motion of a rotor through helically shaped magnets. The paper describes the drawback of the first MLS prototype v1.0 developed for active suspension system, which lead to a new design of the MLS prototype named v1.5. Furthermore the paper introduces detailed...

  5. A Kinematic, Kevlar(registered) Suspension System for an ADR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael L.; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2003-01-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their bolometer detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar@ suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists or two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill. The resulting assembly constrains each degree of freedom only once, yielding a kinematic, tensile structure.

  6. The mirror system and its role in social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena

    2008-04-01

    Experiments in monkeys have shown that coding the goal of the motor acts is a fundamental property of the cortical motor system. In area F5, goal-coding motor neurons are also activated by observing motor acts done by others (the 'classical' mirror mechanism); in area F2 and area F1, some motor neurons are activated by the mere observation of goal-directed movements of a cursor displayed on a computer screen (a 'mirror-like' mechanism). Experiments in humans and monkeys have shown that the mirror mechanism enables the observer to understand the intention behind an observed motor act, in addition to the goal of it. Growing evidence shows that a deficit in the mirror mechanism underlies some aspects of autism.

  7. AFOCAL SYSTEMS FORMED BY MIRROR OFF-AXIS PARABOLOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Artiukhina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror systems make it possible to reduce device dimensions and its weight while preserving high input aperture and these systems are characterized by a number of other advantages. Their significant disadvantage is a central screening of an entrance pupil that leads to lower image quality. The paper contains description of the investigations on afocal systems formed by eccentrically cut-out mirror paraboloids (off-axis mirrors where aperture diaphragm is displaced in the meridian plane for a defined value and a central field point is located on the optical axis. The canonic Mersenne systems are accepted as base schemas (modules for these compositions. The paper considers two types of such systems: visible increases – Г > 0 and Г < 0. Algorithms for calculation of centered afocal systems with two and four reflections have been written in the paper and the systems are free from spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism when an input pupil is located in superimposed focal planes of all parabolic mirrors. An aberration in curvature image has been additionally corrected in three-mirror quart-parabolic scheme which is a combination of two classical telescopic Mersenne systems. The paper presents schemes and calculation results. Two-mirror schemes with non-screened input pupil have been studied in the paper and in this case all the system remains centered and an aperture diaphragm is decentered for the distance Cm which is commensurable with the diaphragm size. The paper contains description of the investigated afocal schemes with four reflections from off-axis mirror paraboloids, a prepared algorithm for calculation, the obtained formulas for making combination of canonic afocal systems formed by two mirrors. Computer simulation in software environment Opal and Zemax has been carried out in the paper. Basic description has been prepared while using two alternative methods for the class of decentered systems and aberration characteristics and

  8. Analysis of Train Suspension System Using MR dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    RamaSastry, DVA; Ramana, K. V.; Mohan Rao, N.; Siva Kumar, SVR; Priyanka, T. G. L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with introducing MR dampers to the Train Suspension System for improving the ride comfort of the passengers. This type of suspension system comes under Semi-active suspension system which utilizes the properties of MR fluid to damp the vibrations. In case of high speed trains, the coach body is subjected to vibrations due to vertical displacement, yaw and pitch movements. When the body receives these disturbances from the ground,the transmission of vibrations to the passenger increases which affect the ride comfort. In this work, the equations of motion of suspension system are developed for both conventional passive system and semi-active system and are modelled in Matlab/Simulink and analysis has been carried out. The passive suspension system analysis shows that it is taking more time to damp the vibrations and at the same time the transmissibility of vibrations is more.Introducing MR dampers,vertical and angular displacements of the body are computed and compared. The results show that the introduction of MR dampers into the train suspension system improves ride comfort.

  9. Optimal Vibration Control for Tracked Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique of optimal vibration control with exponential decay rate and simulation for vehicle active suspension systems is developed. Mechanical model and dynamic system for a class of tracked vehicle suspension vibration control is established and the corresponding system of state space form is described. In order to prolong the working life of suspension system and improve ride comfort, based on the active suspension vibration control devices and using optimal control approach, an optimal vibration controller with exponential decay rate is designed. Numerical simulations are carried out, and the control effects of the ordinary optimal controller and the proposed controller are compared. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  10. Control system for several rotating mirror camera synchronization operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningwen; Wu, Yunfeng; Tan, Xianxiang; Lai, Guoji

    1997-05-01

    This paper introduces a single chip microcomputer control system for synchronization operation of several rotating mirror high-speed cameras. The system consists of four parts: the microcomputer control unit (including the synchronization part and precise measurement part and the time delay part), the shutter control unit, the motor driving unit and the high voltage pulse generator unit. The control system has been used to control the synchronization working process of the GSI cameras (driven by a motor) and FJZ-250 rotating mirror cameras (driven by a gas driven turbine). We have obtained the films of the same objective from different directions in different speed or in same speed.

  11. Effect of the crone suspension control system on braking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, X.; Oustaloup, A. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Talence (France). Lab. d' Automatique et de Productique; Nouillant, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Talence (France). Lab. d' Automatique et de Productique]|[DRIA-PSA Peugeot Citroen, Velizy - Villacoublay (France)

    2001-07-01

    Semi-active or active suspensions not only increase driving comfort, but also permit the control system to be switched over if required in order to improve the transmission of forces at the points of contact between tire and road surface by minimizing the dynamic wheel loads. It may also be possible to use these systems to control wheel load distribution and, thus, influence braking or steering performance by changing the distribution of normal forces between the front and rear axles. This article examines the effect of the CRONE suspension control system on braking. The central idea is to use continuously variable dampers and fast load levelling devices to distribute the normal forces of tire between the front and rear axles. The basis principle is explained using known dynamic properties of active suspension, vehicles and tires. The effect of active suspension on vehicle response during braking is then evaluated using computer simulations from a two-wheel vehicle model. (orig.)

  12. Development of A New Automotive Active Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef Abdulhammed, Eng.; Eng. Hisham Elsherif, Dr, Prof.

    2017-12-01

    The main objective was to develop a smart new vehicle suspension system that minimizes the road irregularities impact on the driver, also to increase performance and stability of the vehicle at high speeds. The central idea is based on modifying the normal passive suspension system into a computer controller hydraulic actuated active suspension system simply by adding a new component such as a hydraulic cylinder on a normal passive system. The new suspension system is economical to be wildly used in consumer’s cars with low prices. The new added components was analytically tested and modeled according to different parameters. A new test rig was implemented to simulate a real quarter suspension system. The new suspension model was controlled by feedback controller according to the road conditions; the controller output controls the cylinder actuator to compensate the road oscillations and increases the vehicle stability for the passenger. Finally, to maximize the aerodynamics coefficients of the vehicle during high speeds by controlling the vehicle clearance level from the ground to achieve full stability, steering and fuel economy.

  13. Design of a suspension system and determining suspension parameters of a medium downforce small Formula type car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Sadjyot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper is on designing a suspension system for a medium downforce small Formula type race car. The paper not only focusses on step by step design for a double wishbone type suspension but will also show the use and role of kinematics software in determining the optimized suspension of the car. The paper will also focus on the use of tire data in determining suspension parameters and the design of the double wishbone suspension. Various parameters, their design importance and the process to optimize them according to suspension design goals will be covered. The easiest and best ways to change the suspension parameters to get the best results will also be covered.

  14. Modulation of the mirror system by social relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, James M; Marchant, Jennifer L; Frith, Chris D

    2006-09-01

    When we observe the actions of others, certain areas of the brain are activated in a similar manner as to when we perform the same actions ourselves. This 'mirror system' includes areas in the ventral premotor cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. Experimental studies suggest that action observation automatically elicits activity in the observer, which precisely mirrors the activity observed. In this case we would expect this activity to be independent of observer's viewpoint. Here we use whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record cortical activity of human subjects whilst they watched a series of videos of an actor making a movement recorded from different viewpoints. We show that one cortical response to action observation (oscillatory activity in the 7-12 Hz frequency range) is modulated by the relationship between the observer and the actor. We suggest that this modulation reflects a mechanism that filters information into the 'mirror system', allowing only socially relevant information to pass.

  15. Torsional asymmetry in suspension bridge systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 6 (2015), s. 677-701 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : suspension bridge * Hamilton principle * vertical and torsional oscillation * uniqueness * existence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10492-015-0117-3

  16. Spectral analysis connected with suspension bridge systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2016), s. 42-75 ISSN 0272-4960 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : suspension bridge * vertical and torsional oscillation * eigenvalue * eigenvector * flutter Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.945, year: 2016 http://imamat.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/09/16/imamat.hxv027.short?rss=1

  17. Laser-start-up system for magnetic mirror fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.M.; Thomas, S.R.; Denhoy, B.S.; Chargin, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    A CO 2 laser system has been developed at LLL to provide hot start-up plasmas for magnetic mirror fusion experiments. A frozen ammonia pellet is irradiated with a laser power density in excess of 10 13 W/cm 2 in a 50-ns pulse. This system uses commercially available laser systems. Optical components were fabricated both by direct machining and standard techniques. The technologies used in this system are directly applicable to reactor scale systems

  18. Cryogenic systems for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.; Nelson, R.L.; Chronis, W.C.

    1985-08-01

    This paper includes an in-depth discussion of the design, fabrication, and operation of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) cryogenic system located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Each subsystem discussed to present a basic composite of the entire facility. The following subsystems are included: 500kW nitrogen reliquefier, subcoolers, and distribution system; 15kW helium refrigerator/liquefier and distribution system; helium recovery and storage system; rough vacuum and high vacuum systems

  19. Extending the mirror neuron system model, II: what did I just do? A new role for mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaiuto, James; Arbib, Michael A

    2010-04-01

    A mirror system is active both when an animal executes a class of actions (self-actions) and when it sees another execute an action of that class. Much attention has been given to the possible roles of mirror systems in responding to the actions of others but there has been little attention paid to their role in self-actions. In the companion article (Bonaiuto et al. Biol Cybern 96:9-38, 2007) we presented MNS2, an extension of the Mirror Neuron System model of the monkey mirror system trained to recognize the external appearance of its own actions as a basis for recognizing the actions of other animals when they perform similar actions. Here we further extend the study of the mirror system by introducing the novel hypotheses that a mirror system may additionally help in monitoring the success of a self-action and may also be activated by recognition of one's own apparent actions as well as efference copy from one's intended actions. The framework for this computational demonstration is a model of action sequencing, called augmented competitive queuing, in which action choice is based on the desirability of executable actions. We show how this "what did I just do?" function of mirror neurons can contribute to the learning of both executability and desirability which in certain cases supports rapid reorganization of motor programs in the face of disruptions.

  20. The simplest possible design for a KB microfocus mirror system?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S. P., E-mail: steve.collins@diamond.ac.uk; Scott, S. M.; Hawkins, D. M.; Fabrizi, F.; Moser, B.; Nisbet, G.; Sutter, J. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science & Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Harwin, R. C. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science & Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Harwin, W. S. [School of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6AH (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    We report a design for a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microfocussing mirror system. The main components are described, with emphasis on a ‘tripod’ manipulator, where we outline the required coordinate transformation calculations. The merit of this device lies in its simplicity of design, minimal degrees of freedom, and speed and ease of setup on a beamline. Test results and an example of the mirrors in use on Diamond Beamline I16, showing a high-resolution polar domain map of KTiOPO{sub 4} with a spot size of 1.25 µm × 1.5 µm, are presented.

  1. Plasma surface interactions in Q-enhanced mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Two approaches to enhancement of the Q (energy gain) factor of mirror systems are under study at Livermore. These include the Tandem Mirror and the Field Reversed Mirror. Both of these new ideas preserve features of conventional mirror systems as far as plasma-wall interactions are concerned. Specifically in both approaches field lines exit from the ends of the system and impinge on walls located at a distance from the confinement chamber. It is possible to predict some aspects of the plasma/surface interactions of TM and FRM systems from experience obtained in the Livermore 2XIIB experiment. In particular, as observed in 2XIIB, effective isolation of the plasma from thermal contact with the ends owing to the development of sheath-like regions is to be expected. Studies presently underway directed toward still further enhancing the decoupling of the plasma from the effects of plasma surface interactions at the walls will be discussed, with particular reference to the problem of minimizing the effects of refluxing secondary electrons produced by plasma impact on the end walls

  2. Acting together in and beyond the mirror neuron system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, Idil; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Moving a set dinner table often takes two people, and doing so without spilling the glasses requires the close coordination of the two agents' actions. It has been argued that the mirror neuron system may be the key neural locus of such coordination. Instead, here we show that such coordination

  3. Cryogenic systems for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.; Chronis, W.C.; Nelson, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper will include an in-depth discussion of the design, fabrication, and operation of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) cryogenic system located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Each subsystem will be discussed to present a basic composite of the entire facility

  4. Empathy and the somatotopic auditory mirror system in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazzola, Valeria; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Keysers, Christian

    2006-01-01

    How do we understand the actions of other individuals if we can only hear them? Auditory mirror neurons respond both while monkeys perform hand or mouth actions and while they listen to sounds of similar actions [1, 2]. This system might be critical for auditory action understanding and language

  5. The Mirror Neuron System: Grasping Others' Actions from Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Jean-Francois; Theoret, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    In the adult human brain, the presence of a system matching the observation and the execution of actions is well established. This mechanism is thought to rely primarily on the contribution of so-called "mirror neurons", cells that are active when a specific gesture is executed as well as when it is seen or heard. Despite the wealth of evidence…

  6. On Empathy: The Mirror Neuron System and Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Carol S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper re/considers empathy and its implications for learning in the art classroom, particularly in light of relevant neuroscientific investigations of the mirror neuron system recently discovered in the human brain. These investigations reinterpret the meaning of perception, resonance, and connection, and point to the fundamental importance…

  7. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 2. Mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    The process of reflection of VUV and x-radiation is summarized. The functions of mirrors in synchrotron beamlines are described, which include deflection, filtration, power absorption, formation of a real image, focusing, and collimation. Fabrication of optical surfaces for synchrotron radiation beamlines are described, and include polishing of a near spherical surface as well as bending a cylindrical surface to toroidal shape. The imperfections present in mirrors, aberrations and surface figure inaccuracy, are discussed. Calculation of the thermal load of a mirror in a synchrotron radiation beam and the cooling of the mirror are covered briefly. 50 refs., 7 figs

  8. Development of an Air Pneumatic Suspension System for Transtibial Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Pirouzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The suspension system and socket fitting of artificial limbs have major roles and vital effects on the comfort, mobility, and satisfaction of amputees. This paper introduces a new pneumatic suspension system that overcomes the drawbacks of current suspension systems in donning and doffing, change in volume during daily activities, and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface. An air pneumatic suspension system (APSS for total-contact sockets was designed and developed. Pistoning and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface were tested for the new APSS. More than 95% of the area between each prosthetic socket and liner was measured using a Tekscan F-Scan pressure measurement which has developed matrix-based pressure sensing systems. The variance in pressure around the stump was 8.76 kPa. APSS exhibits less pressure concentration around the stump, improved pressure distribution, easy donning and doffing, adjustability to remain fitted to the socket during daily activities, and more adaptability to the changes in stump volume. The volume changes were adjusted by utility of air pressure sensor. The vertical displacement point and reliability of suspension were assessed using a photographic method. The optimum pressure in every level of loading weight was 55 kPa, and the maximum displacement was 6 mm when 90 N of weight was loaded.

  9. Digital control of wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Goodyer, Michael J.; Eskins, Jonathan; Parker, David; Halford, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Digital controllers are being developed for wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems, which in turn permit wind tunnel testing of aircraft models free from support interference. Hardware and software features of two existing digital control systems are reviewed. Some aspects of model position sensing and system calibration are also discussed.

  10. Magnet system of the ''AMBAL'' experimental trap with ambipolar mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, G.I.; Lysyanskij, P.B.; Tadber, M.V.; Timoshin, I.Ya.; Shrajner, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    A magnet system of the ''AMBAL'' ambipolar trap under construction is described. The trap magnetic field configuration, geometry of the main coils and diagram of the whole device magnet system are outlined. Drift surface cross sections in the equatorial plane of the ring mirror device, in the median plane and at different distances from the trap median plane are presented. The magnet system design is described in brief

  11. Neutral beam control systems for the Tandem Mirror Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.I.

    1979-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) is presently developing the technology and approaches which will be used in larger fusion systems. This paper describes some of the designs which were used in creating the control system for the TMX neutral beams. To create a system of controls that would work near these large, rapid switching current sources required a mixture of different technologies: fiberoptic data transmission, printed circuit and wirewrap techniques, etc

  12. Optical demodulation system for digitally encoded suspension array in fluoroimmunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Li, Dongmei; He, Yonghong; Guan, Tian; Zhang, Yilong; Shen, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xuejing; Liu, Siyu; Lu, Bangrong; Ji, Yanhong

    2017-09-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy-coupled optical system is reported to demodulate digitally encoded suspension array in fluoroimmunoassay. It takes advantage of the plasma emissions of assembled elemental materials to digitally decode the suspension array, providing a more stable and accurate recognition to target biomolecules. By separating the decoding procedure of suspension array and adsorption quantity calculation of biomolecules into two independent channels, the cross talk between decoding and label signals in traditional methods had been successfully avoided, which promoted the accuracy of both processes and realized more sensitive quantitative detection of target biomolecules. We carried a multiplexed detection of several types of anti-IgG to verify the quantitative analysis performance of the system. A limit of detection of 1.48×10-10 M was achieved, demonstrating the detection sensitivity of the optical demodulation system.

  13. Magnet system for a thermal barrier Tandem Mirror Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, N.S.; Conn, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The magnet system for a thermal barrier D-D tandem mirror reactor has been studied as part of the UCLA tandem mirror reactor design study SATYR. Three main considerations in designing the SATYR magnet system are to obtain the desired field strength variation throughout the system, to have proper space for plasma and neutron shielding, and to satisfy the MHD stability to achieve maximum central cell /beta/. Due to the importance and the complexity, the 'internal' field reversal magnet is the main concern in the entire magnet system for SATYR. Two different magnet designs, a non-uniform current density solenoid and a higher-order solenoid, are discussed. Coil levitation for the internal field reversal magnet has been analyzed

  14. BOLDMirror: a global mirror system of DNA barcode data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Liu, L; Guo, G; Wang, W; Sun, Q; Parani, M; Ma, J

    2013-11-01

    DNA barcoding is a novel concept for taxonomic identification using short, specific genetic markers and has been applied to study a large number of eukaryotes. The huge amount of data output generated by DNA barcoding requires well-organized information systems. Besides the Barcode of Life Data system (BOLD) established in Canada, the mirror system is also important for the international barcode of life project (iBOL). For this purpose, we developed the BOLDMirror, a global mirror system of DNA barcode data. It is open-sourced and can run on the LAMP (Linux + Apache + MySQL + PHP) environment. BOLDMirror has data synchronization, data representation and statistics modules, and also provides spaces to store user operation history. BOLDMirror can be accessed at http://www.boldmirror.net and several countries have used it to setup their site of DNA barcoding. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Design and Optimization of Thermophotovoltaic System Cavity with Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermophotovoltaic (TPV systems can convert radiant energy into electrical power. Here we explore the design of the TPV system cavity, which houses the emitter and the photovoltaic (PV cells. Mirrors are utilized in the cavity to modify the spatial and spectral distribution within. After discussing the basic concentric tubular design, two novel cavity configurations are put forward and parametrically studied. The investigated variables include the shape, number, and placement of the mirrors. The optimization objectives are the optimized efficiency and the extended range of application of the TPV system. Through numerical simulations, the relationship between the design parameters and the objectives are revealed. The results show that careful design of the cavity configuration can markedly enhance the performance of the TPV system.

  16. Sign language processing and the mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P; Knapp, Heather

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we review evidence for frontal and parietal lobe involvement in sign language comprehension and production, and evaluate the extent to which these data can be interpreted within the context of a mirror neuron system for human action observation and execution. We present data from three literatures--aphasia, cortical stimulation, and functional neuroimaging. Generally, we find support for the idea that sign language comprehension and production can be viewed in the context of a broadly-construed frontal-parietal human action observation/execution system. However, sign language data cannot be fully accounted for under a strict interpretation of the mirror neuron system. Additionally, we raise a number of issues concerning the lack of specificity in current accounts of the human action observation/execution system.

  17. A magnetic suspension system for measuring liquid density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Centeno González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Density is a derived quantity of mass and length; it is defined as mass per volume unit and its SI unit is kg/m3. National metrology institutes have been designing and building their own magnetic suspension systems during the last 5 decades for making fluid density measurements; this has allowed them to carry out research into liquids and gases’ physical characteristics. This paper was aimed at designing and developing a magnetic suspension system for a magnetic balance used in determining liquid density to be used in CENAM’s metrology density laboratories.

  18. Augmented Mirror: Interactive Augmented Reality System Based on Kinect

    OpenAIRE

    Vera , Lucía; Gimeno , Jesús; Coma , Inmaculada; Fernández , Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; In this paper we present a virtual character controlled by an actor in real time, who talks with an audience through an augmented mirror. The application, which integrates video images, the avatar and other virtual objects within an Augmented Reality system, has been implemented using a mixture of technologies: two kinect systems for motion capture, depth map and real images, a gyroscope to detect head movements, and control algorithms to...

  19. A new variable stiffness suspension system: passive case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Anubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, analysis, and experimental validation of the passive case of a variable stiffness suspension system. The central concept is based on a recently designed variable stiffness mechanism. It consists of a horizontal control strut and a vertical strut. The main idea is to vary the load transfer ratio by moving the location of the point of attachment of the vertical strut to the car body. This movement is controlled passively using the horizontal strut. The system is analyzed using an L2-gain analysis based on the concept of energy dissipation. The analyses, simulation, and experimental results show that the variable stiffness suspension achieves better performance than the constant stiffness counterpart. The performance criteria used are; ride comfort, characterized by the car body acceleration, suspension deflection, and road holding, characterized by tire deflection.

  20. MHD-Stabilization of Axisymmetric Mirror Systems Using Pulsed ECRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper, part of a continuing study of means for the stabilization of MHD interchange modes in axisymmertric mirror-based plasma confinement systems, is aimed at a preliminary look at a technique that would employ a train of plasma pressure pulses produced by ECRH to accomplish the stabilization. The purpose of using sequentially pulsed ECRH rather than continuous-wave ECRH is to facilitate the localization of the heated-electron plasma pulses in regions of the magnetic field with a strong positive field-line curvature, e. g. in the 'expander' region of the mirror magnetic field, outside the outermost mirror, or in other regions of the field with positive field-line curvature. The technique proposed, of the class known as 'dynamic stabilization,' relies on the time-averaged effect of plasma pressure pulses generated in regions of positive field-line curvature to overcome the destabilizing effect of plasma pressure in regions of negative field-line curvature within the confinement region. As will also be discussed in the paper, the plasma pulses, when produced in regions of the confining having a negative gradient, create transient electric potentials of ambipolar origin, an effect that was studied in 1964 in The PLEIDE experiment in France. These electric fields preserve the localization of the hot-electron plasma pulses for a time determined by ion inertia. It is suggested that it may be possible to use this result of pulsed ECRH not only to help to stabilize the plasma but also to help plug mirror losses in a manner similar to that employed in the Tandem Mirror.

  1. Multivectored Superficial Muscular Aponeurotic System Suspension for Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Garrison; Kurnik, Nicole; Joganic, Jessica; Joganic, Edward

    2017-06-01

    Facial paralysis is a devastating condition that may cause severe cosmetic and functional deformities. In this study we describe our technique for superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS) suspension using barbed suture and compare the vectors of suspension in relation to the underlying musculature. This study also quantifies the improvements in postoperative symmetry using traditional anthropologic landmarks. The efficacy of this procedure for improving facial paralysis was determined by comparing anthropometric indices and using Procrustes distance between 4 groupings of homologous landmarks plotted on each patient's preoperative and postoperative photos. Geometric morphometrics was used to evaluate change in facial shape and improvement in symmetry postoperatively.To analyze the vector of suspension in relation to the underlying musculature, specific anthropologic landmarks were used to calculate the vector of the musculature in 3 facial hemispheres from cadaveric controls against the vector of repair in our patients. Ten patients were included in our study. Subjectively, great improvement in functional status was achieved. Geometric morphometric analysis demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in facial symmetry. Cadaveric dissection demonstrated that the suture should be placed in the SMAS in vectors parallel to the underlying musculature to achieve these results. There were no complications in our study to date. In conclusion, multivectored SMAS suture suspension is an effective method for restoring static suspension of the face after facial paralysis. This method has the benefit of producing quick, reliable results with improved function, low cost, and low morbidity.

  2. [The mirror neuron system in motor and sensory rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oouchida, Yutaka; Izumi, Shinichi

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of the mirror neuron system has dramatically changed the study of motor control in neuroscience. The mirror neuron system provides a conceptual framework covering the aspects of motor as well as sensory functions in motor control. Previous studies of motor control can be classified as studies of motor or sensory functions, and these two classes of studies appear to have advanced independently. In rehabilitation requiring motor learning, such as relearning movement after limb paresis, however, sensory information of feedback for motor output as well as motor command are essential. During rehabilitation from chronic pain, motor exercise is one of the most effective treatments for pain caused by dysfunction in the sensory system. In rehabilitation where total intervention unifying the motor and sensory aspects of motor control is important, learning through imitation, which is associated with the mirror neuron system can be effective and suitable. In this paper, we introduce the clinical applications of imitated movement in rehabilitation from motor impairment after brain damage and phantom limb pain after limb amputation.

  3. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    that has been subjected to comfort improvement is a two axle articulated dump truck. The comfort has been in terms of whole body vibration exposure and the overall improvement has been made possible by adding front axle suspension. However, a hydraulic stabilizing system between the tractor and trailer...... to evaluate the whole body vibrations. By use of a multibody simulation model of the dump truck the whole body vibration exposure has been computed using the predefined work cycle as model input. The design parameters comprise the components of the hydraulic subsystem of the suspension, i.e., the size...

  4. Morphological differences in the mirror neuron system in Williams Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Rowena; Brown, Timothy T.; Erhart, Matthew; Järvinen, Anna M.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by an overly gregarious personality, including high empathetic concern for others. Although seemingly disparate from the profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), both are associated with deficits in social communication/cognition. Notably, the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been implicated in social dysfunction for ASD; yet, the integrity of this network and its association with social functioning in WS remains unknown. Magnetic re...

  5. Design considerations for a semi-active electromagnetic suspension system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Encica, L.; Lomonova, E.A.; Vandenput, A.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Vehicle manufacturers always strive to improve the vehicle handling and passenger safety and comfort. One of the focus points for the automotive industry is the (semi-)active suspension system for which various commercial technologies are existing, varying from pneumatic to hydraulic. This paper

  6. Are mirror neurons the basis of speech perception? Evidence from five cases with damage to the purported human mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Love, Tracy; Driscoll, David; Anderson, Steven W.; Hickok, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque has led to a resurrection of motor theories of speech perception. Although the majority of lesion and functional imaging studies have associated perception with the temporal lobes, it has also been proposed that the ‘human mirror system’, which prominently includes Broca’s area, is the neurophysiological substrate of speech perception. Although numerous studies have demonstrated a tight link between sensory and motor speech processes, few have directly assessed the critical prediction of mirror neuron theories of speech perception, namely that damage to the human mirror system should cause severe deficits in speech perception. The present study measured speech perception abilities of patients with lesions involving motor regions in the left posterior frontal lobe and/or inferior parietal lobule (i.e., the proposed human ‘mirror system’). Performance was at or near ceiling in patients with fronto-parietal lesions. It is only when the lesion encroaches on auditory regions in the temporal lobe that perceptual deficits are evident. This suggests that ‘mirror system’ damage does not disrupt speech perception, but rather that auditory systems are the primary substrate for speech perception. PMID:21207313

  7. A primary mirror metrology system for the GMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT)1 is a 25 m "doubly segmented" telescope composed of seven 8.4 m "unit Gregorian telescopes", on a common mount. Each primary and secondary mirror segment will ideally lie on the geometrical surface of the corresponding rotationally symmetrical full aperture optical element. Therefore, each primary and conjugated secondary mirror segment will feed a common instrument interface, their focal planes co-aligned and cophased. First light with a subset of four unit telescopes is currently scheduled for 2022. The project is currently considering an important aspect of the assembly, integration and verification (AIV) phase of the project. This paper will discuss a dedicated system to directly characterize the on-sky performance of the M1 segments, independently of the M2 subsystem. A Primary Mirror Metrology System (PMS) is proposed. The main purpose of this system will be to he4lp determine the rotation axis of an instrument rotator (the Gregorian Instrument Rotator or GIR in this case) and then to characterize the deflections and deformations of the M1 segments with respect to this axis as a function of gravity and temperature. The metrology system will incorporate a small (180 mm diameter largest element) prime focus corrector (PFC) that simultaneously feeds a risk reduction during AIV; it allows an on-sky characterization of the primary mirror segments and cells, without the complications of other optical elements. The PMS enables a very useful alignment strategy that constrains each primary mirror segments' optical axes to follow the GIR axis to within a few arc seconds. An additional attractive feature of the incorporation of the PMS into the AIV plan, is that it allows first on-sky telescope operations to occur with a system of considerably less optical and control complexity than the final doubly segmented Gregorian telescope configuration. This paper first discusses the strategic rationale for a PMS. Next the system itself is

  8. Report of the workshop on rf heating in mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.E.; Woo, J.T.

    1980-08-01

    This report is prepared from the proceedings of the Workshop on RF Heating in Magnetic Mirror Systems held at DOE Headquarters in Washington, DC, on March 10-12, 1980. The workshop was organized into four consecutive half-day sessions of prepared talks and one half-day discussion. The first session on tandem mirror concepts and program plans served to identify the opportunities for the application of rf power and the specific approaches that are being pursued. A summary of the ideas presented in this session is given. The following sessions of the workshop were devoted to an exposition of current theoretical and experimental knowledge on the interaction of rf power with magnetically confined, dense, high temperature plasmas at frequencies near the electron cyclotron resonance, lower hybrid resonance and ion cyclotron resonance (including magnetosonic) ranges. The conclusions from these proceedings are presented

  9. Managing Risk on a Technology Development Project/Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byberg, Alicia; Russell, J. Kevin; Stahl, Phil (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The risk management study applied to the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD), a precursor mirror technology development for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is documented. The AMSD will be developed as a segment of a lightweight primary mirror system that can be produced at a low cost and with a short manufacturing schedule. The technology gained from the program will support the risk mitigation strategy for the NGST, as well as other government agency space mirror programs.

  10. Design analysis of formula student race car suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, Julian Wisnu; Ubaidillah, Aditra, Rama; Alnursyah, Rafli; Rahman, Rizki Abdul; Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro

    2018-02-01

    Design analysis of suspension especially for racecar suspension is very crucial to achieve maximum performance and handling. Suspension design may vary depending on the road terrain and the vehicle purpose itself, such as high speed or off-road vehicle. This paper focused on the suspension which used for racecar vehicle. The suspension type used was unequal double wishbone. This model is used because of its stability for high-speed usage compared to another kind of suspension. The suspension parameter was calculated to achieve desired performance. The result is the motion ratio of the designed suspension geometry. The obtained value of motion ratio was 1:2 for front suspension and 1:1 for the rear suspension. These calculation result the front suspension is still too soft, which the optimal motion ratio should be kept around 1:1 for better handling. This problem caused by the lack of space for suspension linkage.

  11. MEMS mass-spring-damper systems using an out-of-plane suspension scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed Kamal Said; Sharaf, Abdel Hameed; Serry, Mohamed Yousef; Sedky, Sherif Salah

    2014-01-01

    MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) using an out-of-plane (or vertical) suspension scheme, wherein the suspensions are normal to the proof mass, are disclosed. Such out-of-plane suspension scheme helps such MEMS mass-spring-damper systems achieve inertial grade performance. Methods of fabricating out-of-plane suspensions in MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) are also disclosed.

  12. MEMS mass-spring-damper systems using an out-of-plane suspension scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed Kamal Said

    2014-02-04

    MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) using an out-of-plane (or vertical) suspension scheme, wherein the suspensions are normal to the proof mass, are disclosed. Such out-of-plane suspension scheme helps such MEMS mass-spring-damper systems achieve inertial grade performance. Methods of fabricating out-of-plane suspensions in MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) are also disclosed.

  13. Design and analysis of an intelligent controller for active geometry suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Avesta; Oloomi, Ehsan; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2011-02-01

    An active geometry suspension (AGS) system is a device to optimise suspension-related factors such as toe angle and roll centre height by controlling vehicle's suspension geometry. The suspension geometry could be changed through control of suspension mounting point's position. In this paper, analysis and control of an AGS system is addressed. First, the effects of suspension geometry change on roll centre height and toe angle are studied. Then, based on an analytical approach, the improvement of the vehicle's stability and handling due to the control of suspension geometry is investigated. In the next section, an eight-degree-of-freedom handling model of a sport utility vehicle equipped with an AGS system is introduced. Finally, a self-tuning proportional-integral controller has been designed, using the fuzzy control theory, to control the actuator that changes the geometry of the suspension system. The simulation results show that an AGS system can improve the handling and stability of the vehicle.

  14. Car suspension system monitoring under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Kuznetsov, N. Y.; Lysenko, A. V.; Vlasov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes an advanced gyro-based measuring system comprising a CGV-4K central vertical gyro and a G-3M gyrocompass. The advanced system provides additional functions that help measure unsprung mass rotation angles about a vertical axis, rolling angles, trim angles and movements of the unsprung masses of the front (ap and al) and rear b axes when a car wheel hits a single obstruction. The paper also describes the operation of the system, which measures movements of unsprung masses about the body of a car when it hits a single obstruction. The paper presents the dependency diagrams ap = f(t) and al = f(t) for front and rear wheels respectively, as well as b = f(t) for a rear left wheel, which were determined experimentally. Test results for a car equipped with an advanced gyro-based measuring system moving around a circle can form a basis for developing a mathematical model of the process.

  15. The modecleaner system and suspension aspects of GEO 600

    CERN Document Server

    Gossler, S; Freise, A; Grote, H; Lück, H B; McNamara, P; Plissi, M V; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Skeldon, K D; Strain, K A; Torrie, C I; Ward, H; Willke, B; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2002-01-01

    GEO 600 uses two 8 m triangular ring cavities as a modecleaner system for the stabilization of the laser. To isolate the cavities with respect to the seismic noise the optical components are suspended as double pendulums. The resonances of these pendulums are damped by a local-control loop via magnet-coil actuators acting on the intermediate masses. The suspension scheme and the measured key data (i.e. finesse, linewidth, visibility, throughput and in-lock durations of the cavities, as well as the isolation performance and the resulting frequency stability) of the modecleaner system will be given in this paper. Furthermore an overview of the GEO 600 interferometer suspension will be given.

  16. Mirror neuron system based therapy for emotional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Hoff, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Mirror neuron system (MNS) represents one of the most important discoveries in the area of neuropsychology of past decades. More than 500 papers have been published in this area (PubMed), and the major functions of MNS include action understanding, imitation, empathy, all of which are critical for an individual to be social. Recent studies suggested that MNS can modulate emotion states possibly through the empathy mechanism. Here we propose that MNS-based therapies provide a non-invasive approach in treatments to emotional disorders that were observed in autism patients, post-stroke patients with depression as well as other mood dysregulation conditions.

  17. Analysis of a front suspension system for UniART FSAE car using FEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidie, M. N. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Tasyrif, M.; Basha, M. H.; Ibrahim, I.; Kamaruddin, N. S.; Shahriman, A. B.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, many research works from institutions that participated in Formula SAE had highlighted on suspension systems. The aim is to improve the system in term of performance and robustness. However, every suspension system for a racing car is tailored to the car itself. Thus, this paper proposes a new design for front suspension system for UniART FSAE car. The new design was than being compared to the previous suspension system for enhancement. The analysis covered in this paper based on several conditions such as braking, cornering and bumping condition and was carried out using finite element analysis. Each main component for the suspension system such as lower arm, upper arm and knuckle has been analysed in term of strength and performance. From the results, the proposed new design of the suspension system has improved in term of strength and performance compared to the previous suspension system.

  18. Mirror neuron system: basic findings and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, Marco; Mazziotta, John C

    2007-09-01

    In primates, ventral premotor and rostral inferior parietal neurons fire during the execution of hand and mouth actions. Some cells (called mirror neurons) also fire when hand and mouth actions are just observed. Mirror neurons provide a simple neural mechanism for understanding the actions of others. In humans, posterior inferior frontal and rostral inferior parietal areas have mirror properties. These human areas are relevant to imitative learning and social behavior. Indeed, the socially isolating condition of autism is associated with a deficit in mirror neuron areas. Strategies inspired by mirror neuron research recently have been used in the treatment of autism and in motor rehabilitation after stroke.

  19. Calibration of the mirror system in the HERA-B RICH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staric, Marko; Krizan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The mirror system of the HERA-B ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counter consists of two spherical and two planar mirrors, composed of altogether 116 mirror segments. Analysis of displacements of the Cherenkov ring center relative to the charged particle track, for given spherical-planar segment pairs, leads to accurate information regarding the orientation of individual mirror segments. The method for mirror calibration is described and the effect of applying the required corrections on the Cherenkov angle resolution of the HERA-B RICH is discussed

  20. Studying the Behaviour of Model of Mirror Neuron System in Case of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Anirban, Shikha; Hanif Ali, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Several experiment done by the researchers conducted that autism is caused by the dysfunctional mirror neuron system and the dysfunctions of mirror neuron system is proportional to the symptom severity of autism. In the present work those experiments were studied as well as studying a model of mirror neuron system called MNS2 developed by a research group. This research examined the behavior of the model in case of autism and compared the result with those studies conducting dysfunctions of m...

  1. The Active Fractional Order Control for Maglev Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peichang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maglev suspension system is the core part of maglev train. In the practical application, the load uncertainties, inherent nonlinearity, and misalignment between sensors and actuators are the main issues that should be solved carefully. In order to design a suitable controller, the attention is paid to the fractional order controller. Firstly, the mathematical model of a single electromagnetic suspension unit is derived. Then, considering the limitation of the traditional PD controller adaptation, the fractional order controller is developed to obtain more excellent suspension specifications and robust performance. In reality, the nonlinearity affects the structure and the precision of the model after linearization, which will degrade the dynamic performance. So, a fractional order controller is addressed to eliminate the disturbance by adjusting the parameters which are added by the fractional order controller. Furthermore, the controller based on LQR is employed to compare with the fractional order controller. Finally, the performance of them is discussed by simulation. The results illustrated the validity of the fractional order controller.

  2. Novel electro-hydraulic position control system for primary mirror supporting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongbin Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the field of modern large-scale telescope, primary mirror supporting system technology faces the difficulties of theoretically uniform output force request and bias compensation. Therefore, a novel position control system combining hydraulic system with servo motor system is introduced. The novel system ensures uniform output force on supporting points without complicating the mechanical structure. The structures of both primary mirror supporting system and novel position system are described. Then, the mathematical model of novel position control system is derived for controller selection. A proportional–derivative controller is adopted for simulations and experiments of step response and triangle path tracking. The results show that proportional–derivative controller guarantees the system with micrometer-level positioning ability. A modified proportional–derivative controller is utilized to promote system behavior with faster response overshoot. The novel position control system is then applied on primary mirror supporting system. Coupling effect is observed among actuator partitions, and relocation of virtual pivot supporting point is chosen as the decoupling measurement. The position keeping ability of the primary mirror supporting system is verified by rotating the mirror cell at a considerably high rate. The experiment results show that the decoupled system performs better with smaller bias and shorter recovery time.

  3. Tactile interactions activate mirror system regions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKyton, Ayelet

    2011-12-07

    Communicating with others is essential for the development of a society. Although types of communications, such as language and visual gestures, were thoroughly investigated in the past, little research has been done to investigate interactions through touch. To study this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve participants were scanned with their eyes covered while stroking four kinds of items, representing different somatosensory stimuli: a human hand, a realistic rubber hand, an object, and a simple texture. Although the human and the rubber hands had the same overall shape, in three regions there was significantly more blood oxygen level dependent activation when touching the real hand: the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the ventral premotor cortex, and the posterior superior temporal cortex. The last two regions are part of the mirror network and are known to be activated through visual interactions such as gestures. Interestingly, in this study, these areas were activated through a somatosensory interaction. A control experiment was performed to eliminate confounds of temperature, texture, and imagery, suggesting that the activation in these areas was correlated with the touch of a human hand. These results reveal the neuronal network working behind human tactile interactions, and highlight the participation of the mirror system in such functions.

  4. Suspension for the low frequency facility

    CERN Document Server

    Cella, G; Di Virgilio, A; Gaddi, A; Viceré, A

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the working principles of the VIRGO Low Frequency Facility (LFF), whose main aim is the measurement of the thermal noise in the VIRGO suspension system. We evaluate the displacement thermal noise of a mirror, which is an intermediate element of a double pendulum suspension system. This double pendulum will be suspended to the last stage of a VIRGO Super-Attenuator (SA), the prototype VIRGO suspension system being tested at the Pisa section of INFN. In the proposed configuration, we evaluate the spectrum of the thermal noise for different choices of the parameters: based on this study, we comment on the future directions to be undertaken in the LFF experiment.

  5. Sensorimotor learning and the ontogeny of the mirror neuron system

    OpenAIRE

    Catmur, C

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons, which have now been found in the human and songbird as well as the macaque, respond to both the observation and the performance of the same action. It has been suggested that their matching response properties have evolved as an adaptation for action understanding; alternatively, these properties may arise through sensorimotor experience. Here I review mirror neuron response characteristics from the perspective of ontogeny; I discuss the limited evidence for mirror neurons in ...

  6. Systems and methods for mirror mounting with minimized distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonille, Scott R. (Inventor); Wallace, Thomas E. (Inventor); Content, David A. (Inventor); Wake, Shane W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for mounting a mirror for use in a telescope includes attaching the mirror to a plurality of adjustable mounts; determining a distortion in the mirror caused by the plurality adjustable mounts, and, if the distortion is determined to be above a predetermined level: adjusting one or more of the adjustable mounts; and determining the distortion in the mirror caused by the adjustable mounts; and in the event the determined distortion is determined to be at or below the predetermined level, rigidizing the adjustable mounts.

  7. Mirror Neuron System and Mentalizing System connect during online social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperduti, Marco; Guionnet, Sophie; Fossati, Philippe; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2014-08-01

    Two sets of brain areas are repeatedly reported in neuroimaging studies on social cognition: the Mirror Neuron System and the Mentalizing System. The Mirror System is involved in goal understanding and has been associated with several emotional and cognitive functions central to social interaction, ranging from empathy to gestural communication and imitation. The Mentalizing System is recruited in tasks requiring cognitive processes such as self-reference and understanding of other's intentions. Although theoretical accounts for an interaction between the two systems have been proposed, little is known about their synergy during social exchanges. In order to explore this question, we have recorded brain activity by means of functional MRI during live social exchanges based on reciprocal imitation of hand gestures. Here, we investigate, using the method of psychophysiological interaction, the changes in functional connectivity of the Mirror System due to the conditions of interest (being imitated, imitating) compared with passive observation of hand gestures. We report a strong coupling between the Mirror System and the Mentalizing System during the imitative exchanges. Our findings suggest a complementary role of the two networks during social encounters. The Mirror System would engage in the preparation of own actions and the simulation of other's actions, while the Mentalizing System would engage in the anticipation of the other's intention and thus would participate to the co-regulation of reciprocal actions. Beyond a specific effect of imitation, the design used offers the opportunity to tackle the role of role-switching in an interpersonal account of social cognition.

  8. Stabilization of Electromagnetic Suspension System Behavior by Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Najar Khoda Bakhsh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic suspension system with a nonlinear and unstable behavior, is used in maglev trains. In this paper a linear mathematical model of system is achieved and the state feedback method is used to improve the system stability. The control coefficients are tuned by two different methods, Riccati and a new method based on Genetic algorithm. In this new proposed method, we use Genetic algorithm to achieve the optimum values of control coefficients. The results of the system simulation by Matlab indicate the effectiveness of new proposed system. When a new reference of air gap is needed or a new external force is added, the proposed system could omit the vibration and shake of the train coupe and so, passengers feel more comfortable.

  9. Gas box control system for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, H.H. Jr.; Hunt, A.L.; Clower, C.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) uses several methods to feed gas (usually deuterium) at different energies into the plasma region of the machine. One is an arrangement of eight high-speed piezo-electric valves mounted on special manifolds (gas box) that feed cold gas directly to the plasma. This paper describes the electronic valve control and data acquisition portions of the gas box, which are controlled by a desk-top computer. Various flow profiles have been developed and stored in the control computer for ready access by the operator. The system uses two modes of operation, one that exercises and characterizes the valves and one that operates the valves with the rest of the experiment. Both the valve control signals and the pressure transducers data are recorded on the diagnostics computer so that they are available for experiment analysis

  10. Mirror neuron system as the joint from action to language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2008-08-01

    Mirror neuron system (MNS) represents one of the most important discoveries of cognitive neuroscience in the past decade, and it has been found to involve in multiple aspects of brain functions including action understanding, imitation, language understanding, empathy, action prediction and speech evolution. This manuscript reviewed the function of MNS in action understanding as well as language evolution, and specifically assessed its roles as the bridge from body language to fluent speeches. Then we discussed the speech defects of autism patients due to the disruption of MNS. Finally, given that MNS is plastic in adult brain, we proposed MNS targeted therapy provides an efficient rehabilitation approach for brain damages conditions as well as autism patients.

  11. Design and analysis of the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole magnet suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    The design of the suspension system for Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnets has been driven by rigorous thermal and structural requirements. The current system, designed to meet those requirements, represents a significant departure from previous superconducting magnet suspension system designs. This paper will present a summary of the design and analysis of the vertical and lateral suspension as well as the axial anchor system employed in SSC dipole magnets. 5 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Preview based control of suspension systems for commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijderman, J.H.E.A.; Kok, J.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Veldpaus, F.E.; van Heck, J.G.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    An active suspension with preview is developed for the rear axle of a commercial vehicle. The obtained improvements are promising and justify further investigation of the more feasible semi-active suspensions with preview. The inherent non-linearity of semi-active suspensions with switching shock

  13. Sensorimotor learning and the ontogeny of the mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline

    2013-04-12

    Mirror neurons, which have now been found in the human and songbird as well as the macaque, respond to both the observation and the performance of the same action. It has been suggested that their matching response properties have evolved as an adaptation for action understanding; alternatively, these properties may arise through sensorimotor experience. Here I review mirror neuron response characteristics from the perspective of ontogeny; I discuss the limited evidence for mirror neurons in early development; and I describe the growing body of evidence suggesting that mirror neuron responses can be modified through experience, and that sensorimotor experience is the critical type of experience for producing mirror neuron responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Load-cell based characterization system for a “Violin-Mode” shadow-sensor in advanced LIGO suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which 40 kg test-mass/mirrors are each suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation and a rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which, together, were to bracket the fibre under test. The aim was to detect transverse Violin-Mode resonances in the suspension fibres. Part of the testing procedure involved tensioning a silica fibre sample and translating it transversely through the illuminating NIR beam, so as to measure the DC responsivity of the detection system to fibre displacement. However, an equally important part of the procedure, reported here, was to keep the fibre under test stationary within the beam, whilst trying to detect low-level AC Violin-Mode resonances excited on the fibre, in order to confirm the primary function of the sensor. Therefore, a tensioning system, incorporating a load-cell readout, was built into the test fibre’s holder. The fibre then was excited by a signal generator, audio power amplifier, and distant loudspeaker, and clear resonances were detected. A theory for the expected fundamental resonant frequency as a function of fibre tension was developed and is reported here, and this theory was found to match closely with the detected resonant frequencies as they varied with tension. Consequently, the resonances seen were identified as being proper Violin-Mode fundamental resonances of the fibre, and the operation of the Violin-Mode detection system was validated.

  15. Load-cell based characterization system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor in advanced LIGO suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which 40 kg test-mass/mirrors are each suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation and a rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which, together, were to bracket the fibre under test. The aim was to detect transverse Violin-Mode resonances in the suspension fibres. Part of the testing procedure involved tensioning a silica fibre sample and translating it transversely through the illuminating NIR beam, so as to measure the DC responsivity of the detection system to fibre displacement. However, an equally important part of the procedure, reported here, was to keep the fibre under test stationary within the beam, whilst trying to detect low-level AC Violin-Mode resonances excited on the fibre, in order to confirm the primary function of the sensor. Therefore, a tensioning system, incorporating a load-cell readout, was built into the test fibre's holder. The fibre then was excited by a signal generator, audio power amplifier, and distant loudspeaker, and clear resonances were detected. A theory for the expected fundamental resonant frequency as a function of fibre tension was developed and is reported here, and this theory was found to match closely with the detected resonant frequencies as they varied with tension. Consequently, the resonances seen were identified as being proper Violin-Mode fundamental resonances of the fibre, and the operation of the Violin-Mode detection system was validated.

  16. Load-cell based characterization system for a “Violin-Mode” shadow-sensor in advanced LIGO suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V. [SUPA (Scottish Universities Physics Alliance) Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which 40 kg test-mass/mirrors are each suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation and a rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which, together, were to bracket the fibre under test. The aim was to detect transverse Violin-Mode resonances in the suspension fibres. Part of the testing procedure involved tensioning a silica fibre sample and translating it transversely through the illuminating NIR beam, so as to measure the DC responsivity of the detection system to fibre displacement. However, an equally important part of the procedure, reported here, was to keep the fibre under test stationary within the beam, whilst trying to detect low-level AC Violin-Mode resonances excited on the fibre, in order to confirm the primary function of the sensor. Therefore, a tensioning system, incorporating a load-cell readout, was built into the test fibre’s holder. The fibre then was excited by a signal generator, audio power amplifier, and distant loudspeaker, and clear resonances were detected. A theory for the expected fundamental resonant frequency as a function of fibre tension was developed and is reported here, and this theory was found to match closely with the detected resonant frequencies as they varied with tension. Consequently, the resonances seen were identified as being proper Violin-Mode fundamental resonances of the fibre, and the operation of the Violin-Mode detection system was validated.

  17. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  18. Fuzzy-Skyhook Control for Active Suspension Systems Applied to a Full Vehicle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref M.A. Soliman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most modern vehicles are equipped with controlled suspension systems for improving the vehicle ride comfort. Therefore, this paper is concerned with a theoretical study for the ride comfort performance of the vehicle. The theoretical investigation includes a suggestion of an active suspension system controller using fuzzy-skyhook control theory, which offers new opportunities for the improvement of vehicle ride performance. The ride comfort of the active suspension system has been evaluated using a 7 degree of freedom full vehicle mathematical model. The simulation results are presented in the time and frequency domain, also in terms of RMS values, and it’s shown that the proposed active suspension system with fuzzy-skyhook control improved the vehicle ride quality in terms of body acceleration, suspension working space and dynamic tyre load in comparison with the passive and skyhook suspension systems.

  19. DESIGN OF MIRRORS AND APODIZATION FUNCTIONS IN PHASE-INDUCED AMPLITUDE APODIZATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, Eric, E-mail: eric.j.cady@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA, 91109 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphs are a promising technology for imaging exoplanets, with the potential to detect Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars. A PIAA system nominally consists of a pair of mirrors that reshape incident light without attenuation, coupled with one or more apodizers to mitigate diffraction effects or provide additional beam shaping to produce a desired output profile. We present a set of equations that allow apodizers to be chosen for any given pair of mirrors, or conversely mirror shapes chosen for given apodizers, to produce an arbitrary amplitude profile at the output of the system. We show how classical PIAA systems may be designed by this method and present the design of a novel four-mirror system with higher throughput than a standard two-mirror system. We also discuss the limitations due to diffraction and the design steps that may be taken to mitigate them.

  20. Calibration of the mirror system in the HERA-B RICH

    OpenAIRE

    Starič, Marko; Križan, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The mirror system of the HERA-B RICH consists of two spherical and two planar mirrors, composed of altogether 116 mirror segments. Analysis of displacements of the \\v{C}erenkov ring center relative to the charged particle track, for given spherical-planar segment pairs, leads to accurate information regarding the orientation of individual mirror segments. The method is described and the effect of applying the required corrections on the \\v{C}erenkov angle resolution of the HERA-B RICH is disc...

  1. Structural analysis of compression helical spring used in suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akshat; Misra, Sheelam; Jindal, Arun; Lakhian, Prateek

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this work has to develop a helical spring for shock absorber used in suspension system which is designed to reduce shock impulse and liberate kinetic energy. In a vehicle, it increases comfort by decreasing amplitude of disturbances and it improves ride quality by absorbing and dissipating energy. When a vehicle is in motion on a road and strikes a bump, spring comes into action quickly. After compression, spring will attempt to come to its equilibrium state which is on level road. Helical springs can be made lighter with more strength by reducing number of coils and increasing the area. In this research work, a helical spring is modeled and analyzed to substitute the existing steel spring which is used in suspension. By using different materials, stress and deflection of helical spring can be varied. Comparability between existing spring and newly replaced spring is used to verify the results. For finding detailed stress distribution, finite element analysis is used to find stresses and deflection in both the helical springs. Finite element analysis is a method which is used to find proximate solutions of a physical problem defined in a finite domain. In this research work, modeling of spring is accomplished using Solid Works and analysis on Ansys.

  2. Design and simulation of the surface shape control system for membrane mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gengsheng; Tang, Minxue

    2009-11-01

    The surface shape control is one of the key technologies for the manufacture of membrane mirror. This paper presents a design of membrane mirror's surface shape control system on the basis of fuzzy logic control. The system contains such function modules as surface shape design, surface shape control, surface shape analysis, and etc. The system functions are realized by using hybrid programming technology of Visual C# and MATLAB. The finite element method is adopted to simulate the surface shape control of membrane mirror. The finite element analysis model is established through ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). ANSYS software kernel is called by the system in background running mode when doing the simulation. The controller is designed by means of controlling the sag of the mirror's central crosssection. The surface shape of the membrane mirror and its optical aberration are obtained by applying Zernike polynomial fitting. The analysis of surface shape control and the simulation of disturbance response are performed for a membrane mirror with 300mm aperture and F/2.7. The result of the simulation shows that by using the designed control system, the RMS wavefront error of the mirror can reach to 142λ (λ=632.8nm), which is consistent to the surface accuracy of the membrane mirror obtained by the large deformation theory of membrane under the same condition.

  3. Progress towards extreme attitude testing with Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Parker, David H.

    1988-01-01

    Progress is reported in a research effort aimed towards demonstration of the feasibility of suspension and aerodynamic testing of models at high angles of attack in wind tunnel Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems. Extensive modifications, described in this paper, have been made to the Southampton University suspension system in order to facilitate this work. They include revision of electromagnet configuration, installation of all-new position sensors and expansion of control system programs. An angle of attack range of 0 to 90 deg is expected for axisymmetric models. To date, suspension up to 80 deg angle of attack has been achieved.

  4. LLNL Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) upgrade vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, W.L.; Chargin, A.K.; Drake, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    TMX Upgrade is a large, tandem, magnetic-mirror fusion experiment with stringent requirements on base pressure (10 -8 torr), low H reflux from the first walls, and peak gas pressure (5 x 10 -7 torr) due to neutral beam gas during plasma operation. The 225 m 3 vacuum vessel is initially evacuated by turbopumps. Cryopumps provide a continuous sink for gases other than helium, deuterium, and hydrogen. The neutral beam system introduces up to 480 l/s of H or D. The hydrogen isotopes are pumped at very high speed by titanium sublimed onto two cylindrical radially separated stainless steel quilted liners with a total surface area of 540 m 2 . These surfaces (when cooled to about 80 0 K) provide a pumping speed of 6 x 10 7 l/s for hydrogen. The titanium getter system is programmable and is used for heating as well as gettering. The inner plasma liner can be operated at elevated temperatures to enhance migration of gases away from the surfaces close to the plasma. Glow discharge cleaning is part of the pumpdown procedure. The design features are discussed in conjunction with the operating procedures developed to manage the dynamic vacuum conditions

  5. Mirror hybrid reactor blanket and power conversion system conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Backus, G.A.; Baxi, C.B.; Dee, J.B.; Estrine, E.A.; Rao, R.; Veca, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for a gas-cooled mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor is presented. The designs of the fuel, blanket module and power conversion system are based on existing gas-cooled fission reactor technology that has been developed at General Atomic Company. The uranium silicide fuel is contained in Inconel-clad rods and is cooled by helium gas. The fuel is contained in 16 spherical segment modules which surround the fusion plasma. The hot helium is used to raise steam for a conventional steam cycle turbine generator. The details of the method of support for the massive blanket modules and helium ducts remain to be determined. Nevertheless, the conceptual design appears to be technically feasible with existing gas-cooled technology. A preliminary safety analysis shows that with the development of a satisfactory method of primary coolant circuit containment and support, the hybrid reactor could be licensed under existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations

  6. Entangling movable mirrors in a double cavity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinard, Michel; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Vitali, David

    2005-01-01

    We propose a double-cavity set-up capable of generating a stationary entangled state of two movable mirrors at cryogenic temperatures. The scheme is based on the optimal transfer of squeezing of input optical fields to mechanical vibrational modes of the mirrors, realized by the radiation pressure...... of the intracavity light. We show that the presence of macroscopic entanglement can be demonstrated by an appropriate readout of the output light of the two cavities....

  7. High-concentration mirror-based Kohler integrating system for tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Benitez, P.; Cvetkovic, A.

    2006-06-01

    A novel two-mirror high concentration nonimaging optic has been designed that shares the advantages of present two mirror aplanatic imaging concentrators but also overcomes their main limitation of trade-off between acceptance angle and irradiance uniformity. A system concept has been defined, and a first prototype in under development.

  8. Development of Slewing Mirror Telescope Optical System for the UFFO-pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, S.; Nam, J.W.; Ahn, K.-B.

    2013-01-01

    The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) is the UV/optical telescope of UFFO-pathfinder. The SMT optical system is a Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) telescope of 100 mm diameter pointed by means of a gimbal-mounted flat mirror in front of the telescope. The RC telescope has a 17 × 17arcmin2 in Field of View and ...

  9. Machining and metrology systems for free-form laser printer mirrors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    optical systems were designed and manufactured for the individual laser wavelength to be ... The design objective in utilizing a free-form mirror has resulted in a corresponding ... Since mass production of these free-form mirrors is required, the ...

  10. Design of control system for piezoelectric deformable mirror based on fuzzy self-adaptive PID control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Nan; Gao, Wei; Song, Zongxi

    2017-10-01

    With the rapid development of adaptive optics technology, it is widely used in the fields of astronomical telescope imaging, laser beam shaping, optical communication and so on. As the key component of adaptive optics systems, the deformable mirror plays a role in wavefront correction. In order to achieve the high speed and high precision of deformable mirror system tracking control, it is necessary to find out the influence of each link on the system performance to model the system and design the controller. This paper presents a method about the piezoelectric deformable mirror driving control system.

  11. Progress of magnetic-suspension systems and magnetic bearings in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper traces the development and progress of magnetic suspension systems and magnetic bearings in the USSR. The paper describes magnetic bearings for turbomachines, magnetic suspension systems for vibration isolation, some special measuring devices, wind tunnels, and other applications. The design, principles of operation, and dynamic characteristics of the system are presented

  12. Active Electromechanical Suspension System for Planetary Rovers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Balcones Technologies, LLC proposes to adapt actively controlled suspension technology developed by The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics...

  13. Morphological differences in the mirror neuron system in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Rowena; Brown, Timothy T; Erhart, Matthew; Järvinen, Anna M; Korenberg, Julie R; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by an overly gregarious personality, including high empathetic concern for others. Although seemingly disparate from the profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), both are associated with deficits in social communication/cognition. Notably, the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been implicated in social dysfunction for ASD; yet, the integrity of this network and its association with social functioning in WS remains unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods were used to examine the structural integrity of the MNS of adults with WS versus typically developing (TD) individuals. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a tool typically used to screen for social features of ASD, was also employed to assess the relationships between social functioning with the MNS morphology in WS participants. WS individuals showed reduced cortical surface area of MNS substrates yet relatively preserved cortical thickness as compared to TD adults. Increased cortical thickness of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was associated with increased deficits in social communication, social awareness, social cognition, and autistic mannerisms. However, social motivation was not related to anatomical features of the MNS. Our findings indicate that social deficits typical to both ASD and WS may be attributed to an aberrant MNS, whereas the unusual social drive marked in WS is subserved by substrates distinct from this network.

  14. Mirror neuron system and observational learning: behavioral and neurophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago-Rodriguez, Angel; Lopez-Alonso, Virginia; Fernández-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    Three experiments were performed to study observational learning using behavioral, perceptual, and neurophysiological data. Experiment 1 investigated whether observing an execution model, during physical practice of a transitive task that only presented one execution strategy, led to performance improvements compared with physical practice alone. Experiment 2 investigated whether performing an observational learning protocol improves subjects' action perception. In experiment 3 we evaluated whether the type of practice performed determined the activation of the Mirror Neuron System during action observation. Results showed that, compared with physical practice, observing an execution model during a task that only showed one execution strategy does not provide behavioral benefits. However, an observational learning protocol allows subjects to predict more precisely the outcome of the learned task. Finally, intersperse observation of an execution model with physical practice results in changes of primary motor cortex activity during the observation of the motor pattern previously practiced, whereas modulations in the connectivity between primary and non primary motor areas (PMv-M1; PPC-M1) were not affected by the practice protocol performed by the observer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Associative (not Hebbian) learning and the mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard P; Cook, Richard; Dickinson, Anthony; Heyes, Cecilia M

    2013-04-12

    The associative sequence learning (ASL) hypothesis suggests that sensorimotor experience plays an inductive role in the development of the mirror neuron system, and that it can play this crucial role because its effects are mediated by learning that is sensitive to both contingency and contiguity. The Hebbian hypothesis proposes that sensorimotor experience plays a facilitative role, and that its effects are mediated by learning that is sensitive only to contiguity. We tested the associative and Hebbian accounts by computational modelling of automatic imitation data indicating that MNS responsivity is reduced more by contingent and signalled than by non-contingent sensorimotor training (Cook et al. [7]). Supporting the associative account, we found that the reduction in automatic imitation could be reproduced by an existing interactive activation model of imitative compatibility when augmented with Rescorla-Wagner learning, but not with Hebbian or quasi-Hebbian learning. The work argues for an associative, but against a Hebbian, account of the effect of sensorimotor training on automatic imitation. We argue, by extension, that associative learning is potentially sufficient for MNS development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Two-Dimensional Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hsing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the two-dimensional fuzzy sliding mode control of a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The fuzzy rules include both the sliding manifold and its derivative. The fuzzy sliding mode control has advantages of the sliding mode control and the fuzzy control rules are minimized. Magnetic suspension systems are nonlinear and inherently unstable systems. The two-dimensional fuzzy sliding mode control can stabilize the nonlinear systems globally and attenuate chatter effectively. It is adequate to be applied to magnetic suspension systems. New design circuits of magnetic suspension systems are proposed in this paper. ARM Cortex-M3 microcontroller is utilized as a digital controller. The implemented driver, sensor, and control circuits are simpler, more inexpensive, and effective. This apparatus is satisfactory for engineering education. In the hands-on experiments, the proposed control scheme markedly improves performances of the field-sensed magnetic suspension system.

  17. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, M S; Choi, S B [Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, M W [Precision Manufacturing and Inspection Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H G [Department of Automotive Engineering, Daeduk College, Daejeon, 305-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  18. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, M S; Choi, S B; Cho, M W; Lee, H G

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  19. Design and test of a novel magnetic lead screw for active suspension system in a vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore the Magnetic Lead Screw is introduced and its benefits when used with an active suspension system are discussed. Based on a model of a quarter car, the design specifications for the MLS active suspension system are found, which leads to a design study. The design study investigates the relation...

  20. 22 CFR 208.110 - What is the purpose of the nonprocurement debarment and suspension system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the purpose of the nonprocurement debarment and suspension system? 208.110 Section 208.110 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... the nonprocurement debarment and suspension system? (a) To protect the public interest, the Federal...

  1. Mirror fusion propulsion system - A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveny, M.; Carpenter, S.; O'connell, T.; Schulze, N.

    1993-06-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons. 50 refs

  2. Method for pulse control in a laser including a stimulated brillouin scattering mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2007-10-23

    A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

  3. Research on large-aperture primary mirror supporting way of vehicle-mounted laser communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lixin; Meng, Lingchen; Zhang, Yiqun; Zhang, Lizhong; Liu, Ming; Li, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    In the satellite to earth laser communication link, large-aperture ground laser communication terminals usually are used in order to realize the requirement of high rate and long distance communication and restrain the power fluctuation by atmospheric scintillation. With the increasing of the laser communication terminal caliber, the primary mirror weight should also be increased, and selfweight, thermal deformation and environment will affect the surface accuracy of the primary mirror surface. A high precision vehicular laser communication telescope unit with an effective aperture of 600mm was considered in this paper. The primary mirror is positioned with center hole, which back is supported by 9 floats and the side is supported by a mercury band. The secondary mirror adopts a spherical adjusting mechanism. Through simulation analysis, the system wave difference is better than λ/20 when the primary mirror is in different dip angle, which meets the requirements of laser communication.

  4. Analysis of the Kinematics and Compliance of a Passive Suspension System using Adams Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ikhsan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental approach is usually used as the way to develop or modify a suspension system to obtain maximum ride comfort and handling characteristics. This approach is a time-consuming process, costly, and may not guarantee the optimum solution. Thus, to avoid this, a virtual vehicle suspension system is necessary. In this paper, a half-car body of an actual suspension system based on the PROTON WRM 44 P0-34 was modeled and simulated. In total, 10 components comprised each front McPherson strut and rear multilink suspension consisting of different joint types and a number of degrees of freedom. The model was developed by defining the location of the hard point or coordinate before specifying the component characteristics and joint type. The completed suspension model was simulated using the vertical parallel and vertical oppose movement test, the same tests conducted with the actual experimental parameter setup. The kinematics and compliance (K&C of the simulation is compared with the experimental data to verify the suspension model. The outcome from the simulation showed a verified virtual suspension system model with a very minimum percentage of error and different characteristics of the static performance of the suspension system when subjected to the test as explained further in the paper.

  5. The mirror-neuron system and observational learning: Implications for the effectiveness of dynamic visualizations.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Marcus, Nadine; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John

    2009-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Paas, F., Marcus, N., Ayres, P., & Sweller, J. (2009). The mirror-neuron system and observational learning: Implications for the effectiveness of dynamic visualizations. Educational Psychology Review, 21, 21-30.

  6. Design of an optimized adaptive optics system with a photo-controlled deformable mirror

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilař, Jan; Bonora, Stefano; Lucianetti, Antonio; Jelínková, H.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 13 (2016), s. 1422-1425 ISSN 1041-1135 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : adaptive optics * closed loop systems * deformable mirror Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.375, year: 2016

  7. Solution or suspension - Does it matter for lipid based systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A T; Holm, R; Müllertz, A

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the potential of co-administering an aqueous suspension with a placebo lipid vehicle, i.e. chase dosing, was investigated in rats relative to the aqueous suspension alone or a solution of the drug in the lipid vehicle. The lipid investigated in the present study was Labrafil M2125CS...... and three evaluated poorly soluble model compounds, danazol, cinnarizine and halofantrine. For cinnarizine and danazol the oral bioavailability in rats after chase dosing or dosing the compound dissolved in Labrafil M21515CS was similar and significantly higher than for the aqueous suspension....... For halofantrine the chase dosed group had a tendency towards a low bioavailability relative to the Labrafil M2125CS solution, but still a significant higher bioavailability relative to the aqueous suspension. This could be due to factors such as a slower dissolution rate in the intestinal phase of halofantrine...

  8. Establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Additionally, sorghum cell suspension cultures have been initiated from the friable ... proteomics technologies. The field of proteomics is .... air dried at room temperature and resuspended in 2 ml of urea buffer [9 M urea, 2 M ...

  9. NASA's OCA Mirroring System: An Application of Multiagent Systems in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; vanHoof, Ron J. J.; Seah, Chin H.; Scott, Michael S.; Nado, Robert A.; Blumenberg, Susan F.; Shafto, Michael G.; Anderson, Brian L.; Bruins, Anthony C.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Orbital Communications Adaptor (OCA) Flight Controllers, in NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, use different computer systems to uplink, downlink, mirror, archive, and deliver files to and from the International Space Station (ISS) in real time. The OCA Mirroring System (OCAMS) is a multiagent software system (MAS) that is operational in NASA's Mission Control Center. This paper presents OCAMS and its workings in an operational setting where flight controllers rely on the system 24x7. We also discuss the return on investment, based on a simulation baseline, six months of 24x7 operations at NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, and a projection of future capabilities. This paper ends with a discussion of the value of MAS and future planned functionality and capabilities.

  10. Studying the Behaviour of Model of Mirror Neuron System in Case of Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Anirban

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Several experiment done by the researchers conducted that autism is caused by the dysfunctional mirror neuron system and the dysfunctions of mirror neuron system is proportional to the symptom severity of autism. In the present work those experiments were studied as well as studying a model of mirror neuron system called MNS2 developed by a research group. This research examined the behavior of the model in case of autism and compared the result with those studies conducting dysfunctions of mirror neuron system in autism. To perform this, a neural network employing the model was developed which recognized the three types of grasping (faster, normal and slower. The network was implemented with back propagation through time learning algorithm. The whole grasping process was divided into 30 time steps and different hand and object states at each time step was used as the input of the network. Normally the network successfully recognized all of the three types of grasps. The network required more times as the number of inactive neurons increased. And in case of maximum inactive neurons of the mirror neuron system the network became unable to recognize the types of grasp. As the time to recognize the types of grasp is proportional to the number of inactive neurons, the experiment result supports the hypothesis that dysfunctions of MNS is proportional to the symptom severity of autism. Keywords— Autism, MNS, mirror neuron, neural network, BPTT

  11. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  12. Quantum noise in the mirror-field system: A field theoretic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung, E-mail: cosmology@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hua-lien, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Tai-Hung [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hua-lien, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Da-Shin, E-mail: dslee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hua-lien, Taiwan, ROC (China); King, Sun-Kun [Institutes of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Chun-Hsien [Department of Physics, Soochow University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-02-15

    We revisit the quantum noise problem in the mirror-field system by a field-theoretic approach. Here a perfectly reflecting mirror is illuminated by a single-mode coherent state of the massless scalar field. The associated radiation pressure is described by a surface integral of the stress-tensor of the field. The read-out field is measured by a monopole detector, from which the effective distance between the detector and mirror can be obtained. In the slow-motion limit of the mirror, this field-theoretic approach allows to identify various sources of quantum noise that all in all leads to uncertainty of the read-out measurement. In addition to well-known sources from shot noise and radiation pressure fluctuations, a new source of noise is found from field fluctuations modified by the mirror's displacement. Correlation between different sources of noise can be established in the read-out measurement as the consequence of interference between the incident field and the field reflected off the mirror. In the case of negative correlation, we found that the uncertainty can be lowered than the value predicted by the standard quantum limit. Since the particle-number approach is often used in quantum optics, we compared results obtained by both approaches and examine its validity. We also derive a Langevin equation that describes the stochastic dynamics of the mirror. The underlying fluctuation-dissipation relation is briefly mentioned. Finally we discuss the backreaction induced by the radiation pressure. It will alter the mean displacement of the mirror, but we argue this backreaction can be ignored for a slowly moving mirror. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quantum noise problem in the mirror-field system is re-visited by a field-theoretic approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other than the shot noise and radiation pressure noise, we show there are new sources of noise and correlation between them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The noise

  13. Computation of magnetic suspension of maglev systems using dynamic circuit theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J. L.; Rote, D. M.; Coffey, H. T.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic circuit theory is applied to several magnetic suspensions associated with maglev systems. These suspension systems are the loop-shaped coil guideway, the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil guideway, and the continuous sheet guideway. Mathematical models, which can be used for the development of computer codes, are provided for each of these suspension systems. The differences and similarities of the models in using dynamic circuit theory are discussed in the paper. The paper emphasizes the transient and dynamic analysis and computer simulation of maglev systems. In general, the method discussed here can be applied to many electrodynamic suspension system design concepts. It is also suited for the computation of the performance of maglev propulsion systems. Numerical examples are presented in the paper.

  14. A human mirror neuron system for language: Perspectives from signed languages of the deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 105-167; Arbib M.A. (2008). From grasp to language: Embodied concepts and the challenge of abstraction. Journal de Physiologie Paris 102, 4-20]. Signed languages of the deaf are fully-expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually. We suggest that if a unitary mirror neuron system mediates the observation and production of both language and non-linguistic action, three prediction can be made: (1) damage to the human mirror neuron system should non-selectively disrupt both sign language and non-linguistic action processing; (2) within the domain of sign language, a given mirror neuron locus should mediate both perception and production; and (3) the action-based tuning curves of individual mirror neurons should support the highly circumscribed set of motions that form the "vocabulary of action" for signed languages. In this review we evaluate data from the sign language and mirror neuron literatures and find that these predictions are only partially upheld. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional Based Adaptive and Fuzzy Sliding Controller for Non-Autonomous Active Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiuh-Jer; Chen, Hung-Yi

    In this paper, an adaptive sliding controller is developed for controlling a vehicle active suspension system. The functional approximation technique is employed to substitute the unknown non-autonomous functions of the suspension system and release the model-based requirement of sliding mode control algorithm. In order to improve the control performance and reduce the implementation problem, a fuzzy strategy with online learning ability is added to compensate the functional approximation error. The update laws of the functional approximation coefficients and the fuzzy tuning parameters are derived from the Lyapunov theorem to guarantee the system stability. The proposed controller is implemented on a quarter-car hydraulic actuating active suspension system test-rig. The experimental results show that the proposed controller suppresses the oscillation amplitude of the suspension system effectively.

  16. The mirror neuron system and the strange case of Broca's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Gabriella; Cabinio, Monia; Blasi, Valeria; Borroni, Paola; Iadanza, Antonella; Fava, Enrica; Fornia, Luca; Ferpozzi, Valentina; Riva, Marco; Casarotti, Alessandra; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Falini, Andrea; Bello, Lorenzo

    2015-03-01

    Mirror neurons, originally described in the monkey premotor area F5, are embedded in a frontoparietal network for action execution and observation. A similar Mirror Neuron System (MNS) exists in humans, including precentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal sulcus. Controversial is the inclusion of Broca's area, as homologous to F5, a relevant issue in light of the mirror hypothesis of language evolution, which postulates a key role of Broca's area in action/speech perception/production. We assess "mirror" properties of this area by combining neuroimaging and intraoperative neurophysiological techniques. Our results show that Broca's area is minimally involved in action observation and has no motor output on hand or phonoarticulatory muscles, challenging its inclusion in the MNS. The presence of these functions in premotor BA6 makes this area the likely homologue of F5 suggesting that the MNS may be involved in the representation of articulatory rather than semantic components of speech. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Use of MBS (ADAMS / CAR software in simulations of vehicle suspension systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the examination of a vehicle suspension system in the plate position are presented in the paper. The model vehicle is a Fiat Seicento with front independent suspension, McPherson type, with the steering system and with the semi-trailing arm in the rear suspension. Identification of the model was made by comparing the simulation results with the results from the test stand. A multibody model of the vehicle will be used in studies of the impact of shock absorber technical conditions on the dynamics of automotive vehicles.

  18. Does dysfunction of the mirror neuron system contribute to symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Andrew; Lemon, Roger; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hornberger, Michael; Turner, Martin R

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that mirror neurons, initially discovered over two decades ago in the monkey, are present in the human brain. In the monkey, mirror neurons characteristically fire not only when it is performing an action, such as grasping an object, but also when observing a similar action performed by another agent (human or monkey). In this review we discuss the origin, cortical distribution and possible functions of mirror neurons as a background to exploring their potential relevance in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have recently proposed that ALS (and the related condition of frontotemporal dementia) may be viewed as a failure of interlinked functional complexes having their origins in key evolutionary adaptations. This can include loss of the direct projections from the corticospinal tract, and this is at least part of the explanation for impaired motor control in ALS. Since, in the monkey, corticospinal neurons also show mirror properties, ALS in humans might also affect the mirror neuron system. We speculate that a defective mirror neuron system might contribute to other ALS deficits affecting motor imagery, gesture, language and empathy. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptive tracking control for active suspension systems with non-ideal actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Sun, Weichao; Jing, Xingjian; Gao, Huijun; Yao, Jianyong

    2017-07-01

    As a critical component of transportation vehicles, active suspension systems are instrumental in the improvement of ride comfort and maneuverability. However, practical active suspensions commonly suffer from parameter uncertainties (e.g., the variations of payload mass and suspension component parameters), external disturbances and especially the unknown non-ideal actuators (i.e., dead-zone and hysteresis nonlinearities), which always significantly deteriorate the control performance in practice. To overcome these issues, this paper synthesizes an adaptive tracking control strategy for vehicle suspension systems to achieve suspension performance improvements. The proposed control algorithm is formulated by developing a unified framework of non-ideal actuators rather than a separate way, which is a simple yet effective approach to remove the unexpected nonlinear effects. From the perspective of practical implementation, the advantages of the presented controller for active suspensions include that the assumptions on the measurable actuator outputs, the prior knowledge of nonlinear actuator parameters and the uncertain parameters within a known compact set are not required. Furthermore, the stability of the closed-loop suspension system is theoretically guaranteed by rigorous mathematical analysis. Finally, the effectiveness of the presented adaptive control scheme is confirmed using comparative numerical simulation validations.

  20. Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhizheng; Ben Amara, Foued

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems presents a novel design of wavefront correctors based on magnetic fluid deformable mirrors (MFDM) as well as corresponding control algorithms. The presented wavefront correctors are characterized by their linear, dynamic response. Various mirror surface shape control algorithms are presented along with experimental evaluations of the performance of the resulting adaptive optics systems. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used in various fields of application to enhance the performance of optical systems, such as imaging, laser, free space optical communication systems, etc. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students, professors, engineers, scientists and researchers working on the design of adaptive optics systems and their various emerging fields of application. Zhizheng Wu is an associate professor at Shanghai University, China. Azhar Iqbal is a research associate at the University of Toronto, Canada. Foue...

  1. Online Adaptive Optimal Control of Vehicle Active Suspension Systems Using Single-Network Approximate Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the performance requirements (e.g., ride comfort, road holding, and suspension space limitation for vehicle suspension systems, this paper proposes an adaptive optimal control method for quarter-car active suspension system by using the approximate dynamic programming approach (ADP. Online optimal control law is obtained by using a single adaptive critic NN to approximate the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equation. Stability of the closed-loop system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Compared with the classic linear quadratic regulator (LQR approach, the proposed ADP-based adaptive optimal control method demonstrates improved performance in the presence of parametric uncertainties (e.g., sprung mass and unknown road displacement. Numerical simulation results of a sedan suspension system are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  2. Operational Modal Analysis and the Performance Assessment of Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Soria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comfort, road holding and safety of passenger cars are mainly influenced by an appropriate design of suspension systems. Improvements of the dynamic behaviour can be achieved by implementing semi-active or active suspension systems. In these cases, the correct design of a well-performing suspension control strategy is of fundamental importance to obtain satisfying results. Operational Modal Analysis allows the experimental structural identification in those that are the real operating conditions: Moving from output-only data, leading to modal models linearised around the more interesting working points and, in the case of controlled systems, providing the needed information for the optimal design and verification of the controller performance. All these characters are needed for the experimental assessment of vehicle suspension systems. In the paper two suspension architectures are considered equipping the same car type. The former is a semi-active commercial system, the latter a novel prototypic active system. For the assessment of suspension performance, two different kinds of tests have been considered, proving ground tests on different road profiles and laboratory four poster rig tests. By OMA-processing the signals acquired in the different testing conditions and by comparing the results, it is shown how this tool can be effectively utilised to verify the operation and the performance of those systems, by only carrying out a simple, cost-effective road test.

  3. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, D.M.; He, J.; Johnson, L.R.

    1994-01-04

    A propulsion and stabilization system are described comprising a series of coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance, and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension. 8 figures.

  4. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Donald M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of FIG. 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the FIG. 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  5. Concept and design of an alignment monitoring system for the CBM RICH mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendarouach, Jordan [Justus Liebig University (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 2-11 AGeV (SIS100) beam energy. One of the key detector components required for this CBM physics program is the RICH (Ring Imaging CHerenkov) detector, developed for efficient and clean electron identification and pion suppression. The detector consists of about 80 spherical glass mirror tiles, distributed over two sphere parts. An important aspect to guarantee a stable operation of the RICH detector is the alignment of the mirrors. A method originally developed and inspired by the HERA-B experiment uses recorded data to assess mirror alignment of the RICH mirror system. Measurements of Cherenkov distances and angles on the PMT plane may reveal potential misalignments of the considered tile. If mirror misalignment is revealed, it can be subsequently included and rectified by correction routines, which should mostly increase ring reconstruction as well as ring-track matching efficiencies. Results of this alignment method based on simulated events, reproducing potential mirror misalignments, its limits and first correction routines are presented.

  6. Gender differences in the mu rhythm of the human mirror-neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yawei; Lee, Po-Lei; Yang, Chia-Yen; Lin, Ching-Po; Hung, Daisy; Decety, Jean

    2008-05-07

    Psychologically, females are usually thought to be superior in interpersonal sensitivity than males. The human mirror-neuron system is considered to provide the basic mechanism for social cognition. However, whether the human mirror-neuron system exhibits gender differences is not yet clear. We measured the electroencephalographic mu rhythm, as a reliable indicator of the human mirror-neuron system activity, when female (N = 20) and male (N = 20) participants watched either hand actions or a moving dot. The display of the hand actions included androgynous, male, and female characteristics. The results demonstrate that females displayed significantly stronger mu suppression than males when watching hand actions. Instead, mu suppression was similar across genders when participants observed the moving dot and between the perceived sex differences (same-sex vs. opposite-sex). In addition, the mu suppressions during the observation of hand actions positively correlated with the personal distress subscale of the interpersonal reactivity index and negatively correlated with the systemizing quotient. The present findings indirectly lend support to the extreme male brain theory put forward by Baron-Cohen (2005), and may cast some light on the mirror-neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. The mu rhythm in the human mirror-neuron system can be a potential biomarker of empathic mimicry.

  7. Reflecting on the mirror neuron system in autism: a systematic review of current theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2013-01-01

    There is much interest in the claim that dysfunction of the mirror neuron system in individuals with autism spectrum condition causes difficulties in social interaction and communication. This paper systematically reviews all published studies using neuroscience methods (EEG/MEG/TMS/eyetracking/EMG/fMRI) to examine the integrity of the mirror system in autism. 25 suitable papers are reviewed. The review shows that current data are very mixed and that studies using weakly localised measures of the integrity of the mirror system are hard to interpret. The only well localised measure of mirror system function is fMRI. In fMRI studies, those using emotional stimuli have reported group differences, but studies using non-emotional hand action stimuli do not. Overall, there is little evidence for a global dysfunction of the mirror system in autism. Current data can be better understood under an alternative model in which social top-down response modulation is abnormal in autism. The implications of this model and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic suspension motorized spindle-cutting system dynamics analysis and vibration control review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli QIAO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of high-speed spindle directly determines the development of high-end machine tools. The cutting system's dynamic characteristics and vibration control effect are inseparable with the performance of the spindle,which influence each other, synergistic effect together the cutting efficiency, the surface quality of the workpiece and tool life in machining process. So, the review status on magnetic suspension motorized spindle, magnetic suspension bearing-flexible rotor system dynamics modeling theory and status of active control technology of flexible magnetic suspension motorized spindle rotor vibration are studied, and the problems which present in the magnetic suspension flexible motorized spindle rotor systems are refined, and the development trend of magnetic levitation motorized spindle and the application prospect is forecasted.

  9. Optimization of damping in the passive automotive suspension system with using two quarter-car models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozia, Z.; Zdanowicz, P.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the optimization of damping in the passive suspension system of a motor vehicle moving rectilinearly with a constant speed on a road with rough surface of random irregularities, described according to the ISO classification. Two quarter-car 2DoF models, linear and non-linear, were used; in the latter, nonlinearities of spring characteristics of the suspension system and pneumatic tyres, sliding friction in the suspension system, and wheel lift-off were taken into account. The smoothing properties of vehicle tyres were represented in both models. The calculations were carried out for three roads of different quality, with simulating four vehicle speeds. Statistical measures of vertical vehicle body vibrations and of changes in the vertical tyre/road contact force were used as the criteria of system optimization and model comparison. The design suspension displacement limit was also taken into account. The optimum suspension damping coefficient was determined and the impact of undesirable sliding friction in the suspension system on the calculation results was estimated. The results obtained make it possible to evaluate the impact of the structure and complexity of the model used on the results of the optimization.

  10. Ride performance of a high speed rail vehicle using controlled semi active suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-05-01

    The rail-wheel interaction in a rail vehicle running at high speed results in large amplitude vibration of carbody that deteriorates the ride comfort of travellers. The role of suspension system is crucial to provide an acceptable level of ride performance. In this context, an existing rail vehicle is modelled in vertical, pitch and roll motions of carbody and bogies. Additionally, nonlinear stiffness and damping parameters of passive suspension system are defined based on experimental data. In the secondary vertical suspension system, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is included to improve the ride quality and comfort. The parameters of MR damper depend on the current, amplitude and frequency of excitations. At different running speeds, three semi-active suspension strategies with MR damper are analysed for periodic track irregularity and the resulting performance indices are juxtaposed with the nonlinear passive suspension system. The disturbance rejection and force tracking damper controller algorithms are applied to control the desired force of MR damper. This study reveals that the vertical vibrations of a vehicle can be reduced significantly by using the proposed semi-active suspension strategies. Moreover, it naturally results in improved ride quality and passenger’s comfort in comparison to the existing passive system.

  11. Interpersonal motor resonance in autism spectrum disorder: evidence against a global "mirror system" deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G; Kennedy, Hayley A; Rinehart, Nicole J; Bradshaw, John L; Tonge, Bruce J; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2013-01-01

    The mirror neuron hypothesis of autism is highly controversial, in part because there are conflicting reports as to whether putative indices of mirror system activity are actually deficient in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent evidence suggests that a typical putative mirror system response may be seen in people with an ASD when there is a degree of social relevance to the visual stimuli used to elicit that response. Individuals with ASD (n = 32) and matched neurotypical controls (n = 32) completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment in which the left primary motor cortex (M1) was stimulated during the observation of static hands, individual (i.e., one person) hand actions, and interactive (i.e., two person) hand actions. Motor-evoked potentials (MEP) were recorded from the contralateral first dorsal interosseous, and used to generate an index of interpersonal motor resonance (IMR; a putative measure of mirror system activity) during action observation. There was no difference between ASD and NT groups in the level of IMR during the observation of these actions. These findings provide evidence against a global mirror system deficit in ASD, and this evidence appears to extend beyond stimuli that have social relevance. Attentional and visual processing influences may be important for understanding the apparent role of IMR in the pathophysiology of ASD.

  12. Optimal micro-mirror tilt angle and sync mark design for digital micro-mirror device based collinear holographic data storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinpeng; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Lin, Xiao; Liu, Jinyan; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi

    2017-06-01

    The collinear holographic data storage system (CHDSS) is a very promising storage system due to its large storage capacities and high transfer rates in the era of big data. The digital micro-mirror device (DMD) as a spatial light modulator is the key device of the CHDSS due to its high speed, high precision, and broadband working range. To improve the system stability and performance, an optimal micro-mirror tilt angle was theoretically calculated and experimentally confirmed by analyzing the relationship between the tilt angle of the micro-mirror on the DMD and the power profiles of diffraction patterns of the DMD at the Fourier plane. In addition, we proposed a novel chess board sync mark design in the data page to reduce the system bit error rate in circumstances of reduced aperture required to decrease noise and median exposure amount. It will provide practical guidance for future DMD based CHDSS development.

  13. Preliminary conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for the Mirror Hybrid Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual design of a commercial Mirror Hybrid Reactor, optimized for 239 Pu production, has been completed. This design is the product of a joint effort by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Company, and follows directly from earlier work on the Mirror Hybrid. This paper describes the blanket and power conversion system of the reactor design. Included are descriptions of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel that supports the magnets and contains the blanket and power conversion system components, the blanket module design, the blanket fuel design, and the power conversion system

  14. Time response analysis in suspension system design of a high-speed car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagwiwoko, Cosmas Pandit

    2010-03-01

    A land speed record vehicle is designed to run on a flat surface like salt lake where the wheels are normally made from solid metal with a special suspension system. The suspension is designed to provide a stable platform to keep the wheel treads on tract, to insulate the car and the driver from the surface irregularities and to take part of good handling properties. The surface condition of the lake beds is basically flat without undulations but with inconsistent surface textures and ridges. Spring with nonlinear rate is used with the reason that the resistance builds up roughly proportional to the aerodynamic download for keeping the height more nearly constant. The objective of the work is to produce an efficient method for assisting the design of suspension system. At the initial step, the stiffness and the damping constants are determined based on RMS optimization by following the optimization strategy i.e. to minimize the absolute acceleration respect to the relative displacement of the suspension. Power bond graph technique is then used to model the nonlinearity of the components i.e. spring and dashpot of the suspension system. This technique also enables to incorporate the interactions of dynamic response of the vehicle's body with aerodynamic flow as a result of the base excitation of the ground to the wheels. The simulation is conducted on the platform of Simulink-MATLAB and the interactions amongst the components within the system are observed in time domain to evaluate the effectiveness of the suspension.

  15. Development of a non-piston MR suspension rod for variable mass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huaxia; Han, Guanghui; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Mingxian; Ma, Mengchao; Zhong, Xiang; Yu, Liandong

    2018-06-01

    The semi-active suspension systems for variable mass systems require long work stroke and variable damping, while the currently piston structure limits the work stroke for the magnetorheological (MR) dampers. The main work of this paper is to design a semi-active non-piston MR (NPMR) suspension rod for the reduction of the vibration of an automatic impeller washing machine, which is a typical variable mass system. The designed suspension rod locates in the suspension system that links the internal tub to the washing machine cabinet. The NPMR suspension rod includes a MR part and a air part. The MR part can provide low initial damping force and the unlimited work stroke compared with the piston MR damper. The hysteretic response tests and vibration performance evaluation with different loadings are conducted to verify the dynamic performance for the designed rod. The measured damping force of the MR part varies from 5 to 20 N. Studies of dehydration mode experiments of the washing machine indicate that its vibration acceleration with the NPMR suspension rods can reduce to half of the original passive ones in certain conditions.

  16. A comparison of optimal semi-active suspension systems regarding vehicle ride comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulocheris, Dimitrios; Papaioannou, Georgios; Chrysos, Emmanouil

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to present a comparison of the main semi active suspension systems used in a passenger car, after having optimized the suspension systems of the vehicle model in respect with ride comfort and road holding. Thus, a half car model, equipped with controllable dampers, along with a seat and a driver was implemented. Semi-active suspensions have received a lot of attention since they seem to provide the best compromise between cost (energy consumption, actuators/sensors hardware) and performance in comparison with active and passive suspensions. In this work, the semi active suspension systems studied are comfort oriented and consist of (a) the two version of Skyhook control (two states skyhook and skyhook linear approximation damper), (b) the acceleration driven damper (ADD), (c) the power driven damper (PDD), (d) the combination of Skyhook and ADD (Mixed Skyhook-ADD) and (e) the combination of the two with the use of a sensor. The half car model equipped with the above suspension systems was excited by a road bump, and was optimized using genetic algorithms (GA) in respect with ride comfort and road holding. This study aims to highlight how the optimization of the vehicle model could lead to the best compromise between ride comfort and road holding, overcoming their well-known trade-off. The optimum results were compared with important performance metrics regarding the vehicle’s dynamic behaviour in general.

  17. A novel mirror diversity receiver for indoor MIMO visible light communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2016-12-24

    In this paper, we propose and study a non-imaging receiver design reducing the correlation of channel matrix for indoor multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) systems. Contrary to previous works, our proposed mirror diversity receiver (MDR) not only blocks the reception of light on one specific direction but also improves the channel gain on the other direction by receiving the light reflected by a mirror deployed between the photodetectors. We analyze the channel capacity and optimal height of mirror in terms of maximum channel capacity for a 2 × 2 MIMO-VLC system in a 2-dimensional geometric model. We prove that this constructive and destructive effects in channel matrix resulting from our proposed MDR are more beneficial to obtain well-conditioned channel matrix which is suitable for implementing spatial-multiplexing MIMO-VLC systems in order to support high data rate.

  18. Observing complex action sequences: The role of the fronto-parietal mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Kaplan, Jonas; Greenfield, Patricia M; Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-11-15

    A fronto-parietal mirror neuron network in the human brain supports the ability to represent and understand observed actions allowing us to successfully interact with others and our environment. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we wanted to investigate the response of this network in adults during observation of hierarchically organized action sequences of varying complexity that emerge at different developmental stages. We hypothesized that fronto-parietal systems may play a role in coding the hierarchical structure of object-directed actions. The observation of all action sequences recruited a common bilateral network including the fronto-parietal mirror neuron system and occipito-temporal visual motion areas. Activity in mirror neuron areas varied according to the motoric complexity of the observed actions, but not according to the developmental sequence of action structures, possibly due to the fact that our subjects were all adults. These results suggest that the mirror neuron system provides a fairly accurate simulation process of observed actions, mimicking internally the level of motoric complexity. We also discuss the results in terms of the links between mirror neurons, language development and evolution.

  19. Lateral Vibration Attenuation by the Dynamic Adjustment of Bias Currents in Magnetic Suspension System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Takeshi; Takasaki, Masaya; Ishino, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Switching stiffness control is applied to attenuate vibration in the lateral directions in an active magnetic suspension system with electromagnets operated in differential mode. The magnetic suspension system using the attractive force between magnetized bodies is inherently unstable in the normal direction so that feedback control is necessary to achieve stable suspension. In contrast, it can be stable in the lateral directions due to the edge effects in the magnetic circuits. In several applications, such passive suspension is used in combination with the active one to reduce cost and space. However, damping in the lateral directions is generally small. As a result, induced vibrations in these directions are hardly attenuated. To suppress such vibration without any additional actuator (electromagnet), switching stiffness control is applied to an magnetic suspension system operated in the differential mode. The stiffness in the lateral direction is adjusted by varying the bias currents of an opposed pair of electromagnets located in the normal direction simultaneously according to the motion of the suspended object. When the varied bias currents are adjusted for the additive normal forces cancel each other, such control does not affect the suspension in the normal direction. The effectiveness of the proposed control methods is confirmed experimentally. (paper)

  20. Exact solutions to nonlinear symmetron theory: One- and two-mirror systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brax, Philippe; Pitschmann, Mario

    2018-03-01

    We derive the exact analytical solutions to the symmetron field theory equations in the presence of a one- or two-mirror system. The one-dimensional equations of motion are integrated exactly for both systems and their solutions can be expressed in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Surprisingly, in the case of two parallel mirrors, the equations of motion generically provide not a unique solution but a discrete set of solutions with increasing number of nodes and energies. The solutions obtained herein can be applied to q BOUNCE experiments, neutron interferometry and for the calculation of the symmetron-field-induced "Casimir force" in the CANNEX experiment.

  1. Status of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, G.W.; Coffield, F.E.; Hornady, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics system. For the initial instruments active on TMX-U, the expansions or upgrades that have been implemented are outlined. For the newly added systems, more implementation details are presented

  2. Mirror System for Collecting Thomson-Scattered Light in a Tangential Direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, C. J.; Grobben, B. J. J.; Verhaag, G. C. H. M.

    1994-01-01

    We describe an optical system for collecting Thomson-scattering light in the tangential direction of a tokamak. The key part of the optics is a set of mirrors arranged as a Venetian blind. This system makes it possible to look around the corner of the tokamak vessel. Design considerations and test

  3. Viability study of porous silicon photonic mirrors as secondary reflectors for solar concentration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Mora, M.B.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Nava, R.; Tagueena-Martinez, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Transferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, 62760 Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-08-15

    In this paper we report the viability of using porous silicon photonic mirrors (PSPM) as secondary reflectors in solar concentration systems. The PSPM were fabricated with nanostructured porous silicon to reflect light from the visible range to the near infrared region (500-2500 nm), although this range could be tuned for specific wavelength applications. Our PSPM are multilayers of two alternated refractive indexes (1.5 and 2.0), where the condition of a quarter wavelength in the optical path was imposed. The PSPM were exposed to high radiation in a solar concentrator equipment. As a result, we observed a significant degradation of the mirrors at an approximated temperature of 900 C. In order to analyze the origin of the degradation of PSPM, we model the samples with a non-linear optical approach and study the effect of a temperature increase. Those theoretical and experimental studies allow us to conclude that the main phenomenon involved in the breakdown of the photonic mirrors is of thermal origin, produced by heterogeneous expansion of each layer. Our next step was to introduce a cooling system into the solar concentrator to keep the mirrors at approximately 70 C, with very good results. As a conclusion we propose the use of PSPM as selective secondary mirrors in solar concentration devices using temperature control to avoid thermal degradation. (author)

  4. Optimization of an Angle-Aided Mirror Diversity Receiver for Indoor MIMO-VLC Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2017-02-07

    In this paper, we investigate the channel correlation problem which affects the performance of indoor multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) systems. More specifically, in order to reduce the high correlation of channel matrix in MIMO-VLC intensity channel, we propose a non-imaging receiver called angle-aided mirror diversity receiver (AMDR) which utilizes not only a mirror placement but also a variation of orientation angle for the photodetector (PD) plane. Deploying a mirror helps reducing the correlation by blocking the reception of the light in one specific direction and by receiving additional light reflected in the mirror in another direction, while orienting the angle of PD plane into specific direction enables the directional reception of light. Applying a zero-forcing decorrelator at the receiver, we analyze the bit error rate (BER) performance for a 2×2 multiplexing MIMO-VLC system using a 2-dimensional geometric model. In particular, we formulate a min-max BER problem and find the optimal height of mirror and elevation angle of PD plane. Some selected numerical results validate our proposed optimal solution to our min-max BER problem and show that the BER performance of our proposed AMDR outperforms that of the previous non-imaging receivers.

  5. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of an Angle-Aided Mirror Diversity Receiver for Indoor MIMO-VLC Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the channel correlation problem which affects the performance of indoor multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) systems. More specifically, in order to reduce the high correlation of channel matrix in MIMO-VLC intensity channel, we propose a non-imaging receiver called angle-aided mirror diversity receiver (AMDR) which utilizes not only a mirror placement but also a variation of orientation angle for the photodetector (PD) plane. Deploying a mirror helps reducing the correlation by blocking the reception of the light in one specific direction and by receiving additional light reflected in the mirror in another direction, while orienting the angle of PD plane into specific direction enables the directional reception of light. Applying a zero-forcing decorrelator at the receiver, we analyze the bit error rate (BER) performance for a 2×2 multiplexing MIMO-VLC system using a 2-dimensional geometric model. In particular, we formulate a min-max BER problem and find the optimal height of mirror and elevation angle of PD plane. Some selected numerical results validate our proposed optimal solution to our min-max BER problem and show that the BER performance of our proposed AMDR outperforms that of the previous non-imaging receivers.

  7. Remote Control System of the TJ-II Microwave Transmission Lines Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Sanchez, A.; Fernandez, A.; Cappa, A.; Gama, J. de la; Olivares, J.; Garcia, R.; Chamorro, M.

    2007-01-01

    The ECRH system of the TJ-II stellarator has two gyrotrons, which deliver a maximum power of 300 kW each at a frequency of 53.2 GHz. Another 28 GHz gyrotron will be used to heat the plasma by electron Bernstein waves (EBWH). The microwave power is transmitted from the gyrotrons to the vacuum chamber by two quasi-optical transmission lines for ECRH and a corrugated waveguide for EBWH. All transmission lines have an internal movable mirror inside the vacuum chamber to focus the beam and to be able to change the launching angle. The control of the beam polarization is very important and the lines have two corrugated mirrors, which actuate as polarizers. In this report the control system of the position of these three internal mirrors and the polarizers of the EBWH transmission line is described. (Author) 20 refs

  8. System and method for online inspection of turbines using an optical tube with broadspectrum mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleine, Erwan

    2015-12-22

    An optical inspection system for nondestructive internal visual inspection and non-contact infra-red (IR) temperature monitoring of an online, operating power generation turbine. The optical inspection system includes an optical tube having a viewing port, at least one reflective mirror or a mirror array having a reflectivity spectral range from 550 nm to 20 .mu.m, and capable of continuous operation at temperatures greater than 932 degrees Fahrenheit (500 degrees Celsius), and a transparent window with high transmission within the same spectral range mounted distal the viewing port. The same optical mirror array may be used to measure selectively surface temperature of metal turbine blades in the near IR range (approximately 1 .mu.m wavelength) and of thermal barrier coated turbine blades in the long IR range (approximately 10 .mu.m wavelength).

  9. Lessons Learned During Cryogenic Optical Testing of the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrators (AMSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaway, James; Reardon, Patrick; Geary, Joseph; Robinson, Brian; Stahl, Philip; Eng, Ron; Kegley, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Optical testing in a cryogenic environment presents a host of challenges above and beyond those encountered during room temperature testing. The Advanced Mirror System Demonstrators (AMSDs) are 1.4 m diameter, ultra light-weight (mA2), off-axis parabolic segments. They are required to have 250 nm PV & 50 nm RMS surface figure error or less at 35 K. An optical testing system, consisting of an Instantaneous Phase Interferometer (PI), a diffractive null corrector (DNC), and an Absolute Distance Meter (ADM), was used to measure the surface figure & radius-of-curvature of these mirrors at the operational temperature within the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Ah4SD program was designed to improve the technology related to the design, fabrication, & testing of such mirrors in support of NASA s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This paper will describe the lessons learned during preparation & cryogenic testing of the AMSDs.

  10. Sensorimotor cortex as a critical component of an 'extended' mirror neuron system: Does it solve the development, correspondence, and control problems in mirroring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pineda Jaime A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A core assumption of how humans understand and infer the intentions and beliefs of others is the existence of a functional self-other distinction. At least two neural systems have been proposed to manage such a critical distinction. One system, part of the classic motor system, is specialized for the preparation and execution of motor actions that are self realized and voluntary, while the other appears primarily involved in capturing and understanding the actions of non-self or others. The latter system, of which the mirror neuron system is part, is the canonical action 'resonance' system in the brain that has evolved to share many of the same circuits involved in motor control. Mirroring or 'shared circuit systems' are assumed to be involved in resonating, imitating, and/or simulating the actions of others. A number of researchers have proposed that shared representations of motor actions may form a foundational cornerstone for higher order social processes, such as motor learning, action understanding, imitation, perspective taking, understanding facial emotions, and empathy. However, mirroring systems that evolve from the classic motor system present at least three problems: a development, a correspondence, and a control problem. Developmentally, the question is how does a mirroring system arise? How do humans acquire the ability to simulate through mapping observed onto executed actions? Are mirror neurons innate and therefore genetically programmed? To what extent is learning necessary? In terms of the correspondence problem, the question is how does the observer agent know what the observed agent's resonance activation pattern is? How does the matching of motor activation patterns occur? Finally, in terms of the control problem, the issue is how to efficiently control a mirroring system when it is turned on automatically through observation? Or, as others have stated the problem more succinctly: "Why don't we imitate all the time

  11. Sensorimotor cortex as a critical component of an 'extended' mirror neuron system: Does it solve the development, correspondence, and control problems in mirroring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jaime A

    2008-01-01

    A core assumption of how humans understand and infer the intentions and beliefs of others is the existence of a functional self-other distinction. At least two neural systems have been proposed to manage such a critical distinction. One system, part of the classic motor system, is specialized for the preparation and execution of motor actions that are self realized and voluntary, while the other appears primarily involved in capturing and understanding the actions of non-self or others. The latter system, of which the mirror neuron system is part, is the canonical action 'resonance' system in the brain that has evolved to share many of the same circuits involved in motor control. Mirroring or 'shared circuit systems' are assumed to be involved in resonating, imitating, and/or simulating the actions of others. A number of researchers have proposed that shared representations of motor actions may form a foundational cornerstone for higher order social processes, such as motor learning, action understanding, imitation, perspective taking, understanding facial emotions, and empathy. However, mirroring systems that evolve from the classic motor system present at least three problems: a development, a correspondence, and a control problem. Developmentally, the question is how does a mirroring system arise? How do humans acquire the ability to simulate through mapping observed onto executed actions? Are mirror neurons innate and therefore genetically programmed? To what extent is learning necessary? In terms of the correspondence problem, the question is how does the observer agent know what the observed agent's resonance activation pattern is? How does the matching of motor activation patterns occur? Finally, in terms of the control problem, the issue is how to efficiently control a mirroring system when it is turned on automatically through observation? Or, as others have stated the problem more succinctly: "Why don't we imitate all the time?" In this review, we argue

  12. An isotropic suspension system for a biaxial accelerometer using electroplated thick metal with a HAR SU-8 mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Seung; Lee, Seung S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is developed to design an isotropic suspension system using thick metal freestanding micro-structures combining bulk micro-machining with electroplating based on a HAR SU-8 mold. An omega-shape isotropic suspension system composed of circular curved beams that have free switching of imaginary boundary conditions is proposed. This novel isotropic suspension design is not affected by geometric dimensional parameters and always achieves matching stiffness along the principle axes of elasticity. Using the finite element method, the isotropic suspension system was compared with an S-shaped meandering suspension system. In order to realize the suggested isotropic suspension system, a cost-effective fabrication process using electroplating with the SU-8 mold was developed to avoid expensive equipment and materials such as deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) or a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The fabricated isotropic suspension system was verified by electromagnetic actuation experiments. Finally, a biaxial accelerometer with isotropic suspension system was realized and tested using a vibration generator system. The proposed isotropic suspension system and the modified surface micro-machining technique based on electroplating with an SU-8 mold can contribute towards minimizing the system size, simplifying the system configuration, reducing the system price of and facilitating mass production of various types of low-cost sensors and actuators

  13. A study on multi-point gravity compensation of mirror bending system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fuquan; Fu Yuan; Zhu Wanqian; Xue Song

    2011-01-01

    The sag of mirror due to gravity induces unacceptable slope errors in beamline mirror-bending system of a synchrotron radiation facility, and approaches must be found to eliminate the unwanted gravity effect. According to the beam bending theory, the multi-point gravity compensation method is applicable. Taking an example of the bent collimating mirror for the XAFS beam-line (BL14W) at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), the best position and value of the equilibrant were calculated through minimizing the gravity effect. With two, three and four points gravity compensation, slope errors were 0.179, 0.067 and 0.032 μrad,respectively, i.e.the multi-point gravity compensation is better than the two-point gravity compensation, which is used for the Phase I beamlines of SSRF. The four-point gravity compensation method reduces more slope error and stress due to four support points. (authors)

  14. A real-space renormalization approach to the Kubo-Greenwood formula in mirror Fibonacci systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Vicenta; Wang Chumin

    2006-01-01

    An exact real-space renormalization method is developed to address the electronic transport in mirror Fibonacci chains at a macroscopic scale by means of the Kubo-Greenwood formula. The results show that the mirror symmetry induces a large number of transparent states in the dc conductivity spectra, contrary to the simple Fibonacci case. A length scaling analysis over ten orders of magnitude reveals the existence of critically localized states and their ac conduction spectra show a highly oscillating behaviour. For multidimensional quasiperiodic systems, a novel renormalization plus convolution method is proposed. This combined renormalization + convolution method has shown an extremely elevated computing efficiency, being able to calculate electrical conductance of a three-dimensional non-crystalline solid with 10 30 atoms. Finally, the dc and ac conductances of mirror Fibonacci nanowires are also investigated, where a quantized dc-conductance variation with the Fermi energy is found, as observed in gold nanowires

  15. Tunable system for production of mirror and cusp configurations using chassis of permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Alexander; Bushmelov, Maxim; Batishchev, Oleg

    2018-03-01

    Compact arrays of permanent magnets have shown promise as replacements for electromagnets in applications requiring magnetic cusps and mirrors. An adjustable system capable of suspending and translating a pair of light, nonmagnetic chassis carrying such sources of magnetic field has been designed and constructed. Using this device to align two cylindrical chassis, strong solenoid-like domains of field, as well as classic biconic cusp and magnetic mirror topologies, are generated. Employing a pair of ring-shaped chassis instead, the superposition of their naturally-emitted cusps is demonstrated to produce sextupolar and octupolar magnetic fields.

  16. Mechanism design of the Thomson scattering diagnostic system for the TMX east mirror plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, D.D.; Goodman, R.K.; Jenkins, S.L.; Wilkerson, J.A.; Parkinson, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    This Thomson scattering diagnostic system is used to measure the electron temperature and density of the east mirror plug of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The measurements are made by firing a high-power ruby laser pulse through the plasma where the electrons then re-radiate a small fraction of the light. Because of the velocity of the electrons, the wavelength of the re-radiated light is Doppler shifted. The width of the Doppler-shifted wavelength spectrum is a measure of the temperature of the electrons in the plasma, and the total amount of re-radiated light is proportional to the electron density

  17. Kineto-dynamic design optimisation for vehicle-specific seat-suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Wen-Bin; Shui, Yijie; Rakheja, Subhash

    2017-11-01

    Designs and analyses of seat-suspension systems are invariably performed considering effective vertical spring rate and damping properties, while neglecting important contributions due to kinematics of the widely used cross-linkage mechanism. In this study, a kineto-dynamic model of a seat-suspension is formulated to obtain relations for effective vertical suspension stiffness and damping characteristics as functions of those of the air spring and the hydraulic damper, respectively. The proposed relations are verified through simulations of the multi-body dynamic model of the cross-linkage seat-suspension in the ADAMS platform. The validity of the kineto-dynamic model is also demonstrated through comparisons of its vibration transmission response with the experimental data. The model is used to identify optimal air spring coordinates to attain nearly constant natural frequency of the suspension, irrespective of the seated body mass and seated height. A methodology is further proposed to identify optimal damping requirements for vehicle-specific suspension designs to achieve minimal seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT) and vibration dose value (VDV) considering vibration spectra of different classes of earthmoving vehicles. The shock and vibration isolation performance potentials of the optimal designs are evaluated under selected vehicle vibration superimposed with shock motions. Results show that the vehicle-specific optimal designs could provide substantial reductions in the SEAT and VDV values for the vehicle classes considered.

  18. DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF MAGNETIC BEARING SUSPENSION SYSTEM IN A THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman GÜRDAL

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The current popularity of suspension and levitation stems no doubt the possibilities in high-speed ground transportation schemes. Although these are both challenging and exciting, there is considerable scope for application of suspension techniques to achieving frictionless bearing. The requirement in this case is often for close tolerances, low power consumption, small airgaps and ingeneral, compactness. Thus, magnetic suspension using DC electromagnets schemes have received more attention than the other techniques of repulsion levitation. Proposed prototype system consists of a conventional stator and its rotor without iron core, set of electromagnets for suspension of rotor shaft and set of compensation circuits feedbacked by optical-transducers. Prototyped system is aimed as a laboratory demonstration tool so there is no challenging to exceed the speeds of 1500 rev/min that is the speed of motor with mechanical bearings. Magnetic bearing suspension system provides a high impact visual demonstration of many principles in undergraduate educational programs in electrical education, e.g., electromagnetic design, PD controlled compensation of a unstable control system and power amplifier design. The system is capable of giving a good comparison between mechanical and magnetic bearing up to speeds 350 rev/min. Power losses without load show about 15% reduction with magnetic bearing. The noise of the motor is also decreased to a low level.

  19. A semi-active control suspension system for railway vehicles with magnetorheological fluid dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiukun; Zhu, Ming; Jia, Limin

    2016-07-01

    The high-speed train has achieved great progress in the last decades. It is one of the most important modes of transportation between cities. With the rapid development of the high-speed train, its safety issue is paid much more attention than ever before. To improve the stability of the vehicle with high speed, extra dampers (i.e. anti-hunting damper) are used in the traditional bogies with passive suspension system. However, the curving performance of the vehicle is undermined due to the extra lateral force generated by the dampers. The active suspension systems proposed in the last decades attempt to solve the vehicle steering issue. However, the active suspension systems need extra actuators driven by electrical power or hydraulic power. There are some implementation and even safety issues which are not easy to be overcome. In this paper, an innovative semi-active controlled lateral suspension system for railway vehicles is proposed. Four magnetorheological fluid dampers are fixed to the primary suspension system of each bogie. They are controlled by online controllers for enhancing the running stability on the straight track line on the one hand and further improving the curving performance by controlling the damper force on the other hand. Two control strategies are proposed in the light of the pure rolling concept. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is demonstrated by SIMPACK and Matlab co-simulation for a full railway vehicle with two conventional bogies.

  20. What do mirror neurons mirror?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uithol, S.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Bekkering, H.; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Single cell recordings in monkeys provide strong evidence for an important role of the motor system in action understanding. This evidence is backed up by data from studies of the (human) mirror neuron system using neuroimaging or TMS techniques, and behavioral experiments. Although the data

  1. Operation of the cryogenic system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronis, W.C.; Slack, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The cryogenic system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was designed to cool the entire MFTF-B system from ambient to operating temperature in less than 10 days. The system was successfully operated in the recent plant and capital equipment (PACE) acceptance tests, and results from these tests helped us correct problem areas and improve the system

  2. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the mirror neuron system during social intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Bolmont, Mylene; Monteleone, George

    2017-10-27

    Previous research has shown that specific goals and intentions influence a person's allocation of social attention. From a neural viewpoint, a growing body of evidence suggests that the inferior fronto-parietal network, including the mirror neuron system, plays a role in the planning and the understanding of motor intentions. However, it is unclear whether and when the mirror neuron system plays a role in social intentions. Combining a behavioral task with electrical neuroimaging in 22 healthy male participants, the current study investigates whether the temporal brain dynamic of the mirror neuron system differs during two types of social intentions i.e., lust vs. romantic intentions. Our results showed that 62% of the stimuli evoking lustful intentions also evoked romantic intentions, and both intentions were sustained by similar activations of the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule/angular gyrus for the first 432 ms after stimulus onset. Intentions to not love or not lust, on the other hand, were characterized by earlier differential activations of the inferior fronto-parietal network i.e., as early as 244 ms after stimulus onset. These results suggest that the mirror neuron system may not only code for the motor correlates of intentions, but also for the social meaning of intentions and its valence at both early/automatic and later/more elaborative stages of information processing.

  3. Design of GA thermochemical water-splitting process for the Mirror Advanced Reactor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.C.

    1983-04-01

    GA interfaced the sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle to the Mirror Advanced Reactor System (MARS). The results of this effort follow as one section and part of a second section to be included in the MARS final report. This section describes the process and its interface to the reactor. The capital and operating costs for the hydrogen plant are described

  4. A Human Mirror Neuron System for Language: Perspectives from Signed Languages of the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). "Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28", 105-167; Arbib…

  5. The Mirror Neuron System and Observational Learning: Implications for the Effectiveness of Dynamic Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Marcus, Nadine; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John

    2009-01-01

    Learning by observing and imitating others has long been recognized as constituting a powerful learning strategy for humans. Recent findings from neuroscience research, more specifically on the mirror neuron system, begin to provide insight into the neural bases of learning by observation and imitation. These findings are discussed here, along…

  6. Facial expressions : What the mirror neuron system can and cannot tell us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, Christiaan; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Keysers, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Facial expressions contain both motor and emotional components. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior parietal cortex have been considered to compose a mirror neuron system (MNS) for the motor components of facial expressions, while the amygdala and insula may represent an "additional" MNS

  7. Suspension system vibration analysis with regard to variable type ability to smooth road irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykov, S. P.; Rykova, O. A.; Koval, V. S.; Makhno, D. E.; Fedotov, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper aims to analyze vibrations of the dynamic system equivalent of the suspension system with regard to tyre ability to smooth road irregularities. The research is based on static dynamics for linear systems of automated control, methods of correlation, spectral and numerical analysis. Input of new data on the smoothing effect of the pneumatic tyre reflecting changes of a contact area between the wheel and road under vibrations of the suspension makes the system non-linear which requires using numerical analysis methods. Taking into account the variable smoothing ability of the tyre when calculating suspension vibrations, one can approximate calculation and experimental results and improve the constant smoothing ability of the tyre.

  8. Vibration control of an MR vehicle suspension system considering both hysteretic behavior and parameter variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Seong, Min-Sang; Ha, Sung-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents vibration control responses of a controllable magnetorheological (MR) suspension system considering the two most important characteristics of the system; the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper and the parameter variation of the suspension. In order to achieve this goal, a cylindrical MR damper which is applicable to a middle-sized passenger car is designed and manufactured. After verifying the damping force controllability, the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper is identified using the Preisach hysteresis model. The full-vehicle suspension model is then derived by considering vertical, pitch and roll motions. An H ∞ controller is designed by treating the sprung mass of the vehicle as a parameter variation and integrating it with the hysteretic compensator which produces additional control input. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control system, the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) methodology is adopted by integrating the suspension model with the proposed MR damper. Vibration control responses of the vehicle suspension system such as vertical acceleration are evaluated under both bump and random road conditions

  9. Robust finite-time tracking control for nonlinear suspension systems via disturbance compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Jing, Xingjian; Sun, Weichao

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the finite-time tracking control with external disturbance for active suspension systems. In order to compensate unknown disturbance efficiently, a disturbance compensator with finite-time convergence property is studied. By analyzing the discontinuous phenomenon of classical disturbance compensation techniques, this study presents a simple approach to construct a continuous compensator satisfying the finite-time disturbance rejection performance. According to the finite-time separation principle, the design procedures of the nominal controller for the suspension system without disturbance and the disturbance compensator can be implemented in a completely independent manner. Therefore, the overall control law for the closed-loop system is continuous, which offers some distinct advantages over the existing discontinuous ones. From the perspective of practical implementation, the continuous controller can avoid effectively the unexpected chattering in active suspension control. Comparative experimental results are presented and discussed to illustrate the advantage and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  10. The Design and Simulation of the Modular Vehicle Air Suspension Height Control System Based on ECAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peigang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on ECAS, this paper intended to develop a modular air suspension height control system with WABCO4728800010 two-position three way solenoid valves and Free scale MC9S12D64 microprocessor as its core components. And a simulation test was conducted in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The air suspension height control strategy of this system was divided into four modules: start control module, dynamic adjustment module, manual adjustment module and errors adjustment module, which were controlled by module select switch. Simulation tests indicated that the air suspension height control strategy is featured by its logical control accuracy and debug convenience, and the modular design greatly reduced the system complexity and software development cycle and costs as well.

  11. Sky-Hook Control and Kalman Filtering in Nonlinear Model of Tracked Vehicle Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurkiewicz Andrzej

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the undertaken topic is application of the continuous sky-hook control strategy and the Extended Kalman Filter as the state observer in the 2S1 tracked vehicle suspension system. The half-car model of this suspension system consists of seven logarithmic spiral springs and two magnetorheological dampers which has been described by the Bingham model. The applied continuous sky-hook control strategy considers nonlinear stiffness characteristic of the logarithmic spiral springs. The control is determined on estimates generated by the Extended Kalman Filter. Improve of ride comfort is verified by comparing simulation results, under the same driving conditions, of controlled and passive vehicle suspension systems.

  12. Design and Optimization of Intelligent Service Robot Suspension System Using Dynamic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seong Hoon; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Soo Ho; Jung, Sung Pil; Jun, Kab Jin; Yoon, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, an intelligent service robot is being developed for use in guiding and providing information to visitors about the building at public institutions. The intelligent robot has a sensor at the bottom to recognize its location. Four wheels, which are arranged in the form of a lozenge, support the robot. This robot cannot be operated on uneven ground because its driving parts are attached to its main body that contains the important internal components. Continuous impact with the ground can change the precise positions of the components and weaken the connection between each structural part. In this paper, the design of the suspension system for such a robot is described. The dynamic model of the robot is created, and the driving characteristics of the robot with the designed suspension system are simulated. Additionally, the suspension system is optimized to reduce the impact for the robot components

  13. Magnetic suspension and pointing system. [on a carrier vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Groom, N. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for providing accurate pointing of instruments on a carrier vehicle and for providing isolation of the instruments from the vehicle's motion disturbances is presented. The apparatus includes two assemblies, with connecting interfaces, each assembly having a separate function. The first assembly is attached to the carrier vehicle and consists of an azimuth gimbal and an elevation gimbal which provide coarse pointing of the instruments by allowing two rotations of the instruments relative to the carrier vehicle. The second or vernier pointing assembly is made up of magnetic suspension and fine pointing actuators, roll motor segments, and an instrument mounting plate around which a continuous annular rim is attached which provides appropriate magnetic circuits for the actuators and the roll motor segments. The vernier pointing assembly provides six degree-of-freedom isolation from carrier motion disturbances.

  14. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a "tall-thin" rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse "Violin-Mode" vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor's DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor's more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz-300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m-1 was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC/DC transimpedance gain ratio

  15. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N A; Tokmakov, K V

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a "tall-thin" rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse "Violin-Mode" vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor's DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor's more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz-300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m(-1) was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC/DC transimpedance gain

  16. Machine and plasma diagnostic instrumentation systems for the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, G.W.; Coffield, F.E.; Lang, D.D.; Hornady, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate performance of a second generation Tandem Mirror Machine, an extensive instrumentation system is being designed and installed as part of the major device fabrication. The systems listed will be operational during the start-up phase of the TMX Upgrade machine and provide bench marks for future performance data. In addition to plasma diagnostic instrumentation, machine parameter monitoring systems will be installed prior to machine operation. Simultaneous recording of machine parameters will permit evaluation of plasma parameters sensitive to machine conditions

  17. Is the human mirror neuron system plastic? Evidence from a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Waghmare, Avinash V; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2015-10-01

    Virtual lesions in the mirror neuron network using inhibitory low-frequency (1Hz) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have been employed to understand its spatio-functional properties. However, no studies have examined the influence of neuro-enhancement by using excitatory high-frequency (20Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) on these networks. We used three forms of TMS stimulation (HF-rTMS, single and paired pulse) to investigate whether the mirror neuron system facilitates the motor system during goal-directed action observation relative to inanimate motion (motor resonance), a marker of putative mirror neuron activity. 31 healthy individuals were randomized to receive single-sessions of true or sham HF-rTMS delivered to the left inferior frontal gyrus - a component of the human mirror system. Motor resonance was assessed before and after HF-rTMS using three TMS cortical reactivity paradigms: (a) 120% of resting motor threshold (RMT), (b) stimulus intensity set to evoke motor evoked potential of 1-millivolt amplitude (SI1mV) and (c) a short latency paired pulse paradigm. Two-way RMANOVA showed a significant group (true versus sham) X occasion (pre- and post-HF-rTMS motor resonance) interaction effect for SI1mV [F(df)=6.26 (1, 29), p=0.018] and 120% RMT stimuli [F(df)=7.01 (1, 29), p=0.013] indicating greater enhancement of motor resonance in the true HF-rTMS group than the sham-group. This suggests that HF-rTMS could adaptively modulate properties of the mirror neuron system. This neuro-enhancement effect is a preliminary step that can open translational avenues for novel brain stimulation therapeutics targeting social-cognition deficits in schizophrenia and autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 76 FR 41855 - Columbus Geographic Systems (GIS) Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Columbus Geographic Systems (GIS) Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading July 13, 2011. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that... Systems (GIS) Ltd. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended June 30, 2008. The...

  19. Design aspects of an active electromagnetic suspension system for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysen, B.L.J.; Janssen, J.L.G.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design aspects of an active electromagnet suspension system for automotive applications which combines a brushless tubular permanent magnet actuator (TPMA) with a passive spring. This system provides for additional stability and safety by performing active roll and

  20. Direct-drive electromagnetic active suspension system with integrated eddy current damping for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysen, B.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.

    2011-01-01

    A direct-drive electromagnetic active suspension system is considered which consists of a tubular permanent magnet actuator in parallel with a coil spring. This system has the ability of improving the ride comfort while maintaining optimum handling and stability. Since safety is of major concern,

  1. Design aspects of an active electromagnetic suspension system for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysen, B.L.J.; Janssen, J.L.G.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design aspects of an active electromagnet suspension system for automotive applications which combines a brushless tubular permanent-magnet actuator with a passive spring. This system provides for additional stability and safety by performing active roll and pitch

  2. Nonlinear Robust Observer-Based Fault Detection for Networked Suspension Control System of Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fault detection approach based on nonlinear robust observer is designed for the networked suspension control system of Maglev train with random induced time delay. First, considering random bounded time-delay and external disturbance, the nonlinear model of the networked suspension control system is established. Then, a nonlinear robust observer is designed using the input of the suspension gap. And the estimate error is proved to be bounded with arbitrary precision by adopting an appropriate parameter. When sensor faults happen, the residual between the real states and the observer outputs indicates which kind of sensor failures occurs. Finally, simulation results using the actual parameters of CMS-04 maglev train indicate that the proposed method is effective for maglev train.

  3. A new pneumatic suspension system with independent stiffness and ride height tuning capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhihong; Khajepour, Amir; Cao, Dongpu; Ebrahimi, Babak; Guo, Konghui

    2012-12-01

    This paper introduces a new pneumatic spring for vehicle suspension systems, allowing independent tuning of stiffness and ride height according to different vehicle operating conditions and driver preferences. The proposed pneumatic spring comprises a double-acting pneumatic cylinder, two accumulators and a tuning subsystem. This paper presents a detailed description of the pneumatic spring and its working principle. The mathematical model is established based on principles of thermo and fluid dynamics. An experimental setup has been designed and fabricated for testing and evaluating the proposed pneumatic spring. The analytical and experimental results confirm the capability of the new pneumatic spring system for independent tuning of stiffness and ride height. The mathematical model is verified and the capabilities of the pneumatic spring are further proved. It is concluded that this new pneumatic spring provides a more flexible suspension design alternative for meeting various conflicting suspension requirements for ride comfort and performance.

  4. Decoupling Control Design for the Module Suspension Control System in Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An engineering oriented decoupling control method for the module suspension system is proposed to solve the coupling issues of the two levitation units of the module in magnetic levitation (maglev train. According to the format of the system transfer matrix, a modified adjoint transfer matrix based decoupler is designed. Then, a compensated controller is obtained in the light of a desired close loop system performance. Optimization between the performance index and robustness index is also carried out to determine the controller parameters. However, due to the high orders and complexity of the obtained resultant controller, model reduction method is adopted to get a simplified controller with PID structure. Considering the modeling errors of the module suspension system as the uncertainties, experiments have been performed to obtain the weighting function of the system uncertainties. By using this, the robust stability of the decoupled module suspension control system is checked. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed decoupling design method is validated by simulations and physical experiments. The results illustrate that the presented decoupling design can result in a satisfactory decoupling and better dynamic performance, especially promoting the reliability of the suspension control system in practical engineering application.

  5. Integrated cooling system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.; Chang, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The MFTF components that require water cooling include the neutral beam dumps, ion dumps, plasma dumps, baffle plates, magnet liners, gas boxes, streaming guns, and the neutral beam injectors. A total heat load of nearly 500 MW for 0.5 s dissipates over 4-min intervals. A steady-flow, closed-loop system is utilized. The design of the cooling system assumes that all components require cooling simultaneously. The cooling system contains process instrumentation for loop control. Alarms and safety interlocks are incorporated for the safe operation of the system

  6. Design and experiment study of a semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Dehua; Chen, Long; Wang, Ruochen; Jiang, Haobin; Shen, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system is proposed to recover suspension vibration energy, as well as to reduce the suspension cost and demands for the motor-rated capacity. The system consists of an energy-regenerative damper and a DC-DC converter-based energy-regenerative circuit. The energy-regenerative damper is composed of an electromagnetic linear motor and an adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels. The linear motor just works as the generator to harvest the suspension vibration energy. The circuit can be used to improve the system’s energy-regenerative performance and to continuously regulate the motor’s electromagnetic damping force. Therefore, although the motor works as a generator and damps the isolation without an external power source, the motor damping force is controllable. The damping characteristics of the system are studied based on a two degrees of freedom vehicle vibration model. By further analyzing the circuit operation characteristics under different working modes, the double-loop controller is designed to track the desired damping force. The external-loop is a fuzzy controller that offers the desired equivalent damping. The inner-loop controller, on one hand, is used to generate the pulse number and the frequency to control the angle and the rotational speed of the step motor; on the other hand, the inner-loop is used to offer the duty cycle of the energy-regenerative circuit. Simulations and experiments are conducted to validate such a new suspension system. The results show that the semi-active energy-regenerative suspension can improve vehicle ride comfort with the controllable damping characteristics of the linear motor. Meanwhile, it also ensures energy regeneration. (paper)

  7. Mirror fusion test facility magnet system. Final design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Hodges, A.J.; VanSant, J.H.; Dalder, E.N.; Hinkle, R.E.; Horvath, J.A.; Scanlan, R.M.; Shimer, D.W.; Baldi, R.W.; Tatro, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) magnet description, (2) superconducting manufacture, (3) mechanical behavior of conductor winding, (4) coil winding, (5) thermal analysis, (6) cryogenic system, (7) power supply system, (8) structural analysis, (9) structural finite element analysis refinement, (10) structural case fault analysis, and (11) structural metallurgy

  8. From music making to speaking: Engaging the mirror neuron system in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Catherine Y.; Demaine, Krystal; Zipse, Lauryn; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with autism show impairments in emotional tuning, social interactions and communication. These are functions that have been attributed to the putative human mirror neuron system (MNS), which contains neurons that respond to the actions of self and others. It has been proposed that a dysfunction of that system underlies some of the characteristics of autism. Here, we review behavioral and imaging studies that implicate the MNS (or a brain network with similar functions) in sensory-...

  9. Mirror distortion of the levels of a compound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvalchenko, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of the action of an arbitrary perturbation on a system of two identical atoms in the radiation field is analyzed. For simplicity, only two-level atoms are considered, the field is assumed to be classical, and the spontaneous transitions are ignored. The polarizations are calculated for the open-quotes two atoms + fieldclose quotes and open-quotes two atoms + field + particleclose quotes systems. A comparison of the obtained relationships allows us to clarify the character of the level distortions caused by the external perturbation in the compound system. 10 refs

  10. Topological mirror superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Kane, C L; Mele, E J

    2013-08-02

    We demonstrate the existence of topological superconductors (SCs) protected by mirror and time-reversal symmetries. D-dimensional (D=1, 2, 3) crystalline SCs are characterized by 2(D-1) independent integer topological invariants, which take the form of mirror Berry phases. These invariants determine the distribution of Majorana modes on a mirror symmetric boundary. The parity of total mirror Berry phase is the Z(2) index of a class DIII SC, implying that a DIII topological SC with a mirror line must also be a topological mirror SC but not vice versa and that a DIII SC with a mirror plane is always time-reversal trivial but can be mirror topological. We introduce representative models and suggest experimental signatures in feasible systems. Advances in quantum computing, the case for nodal SCs, the case for class D, and topological SCs protected by rotational symmetries are pointed out.

  11. Internal stray radiation measurement for cryogenic infrared imaging systems using a spherical mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; He, Fengyun; Li, Zhou; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-06-10

    Internal stray radiation is a key factor that influences infrared imaging systems, and its suppression level is an important criterion to evaluate system performance, especially for cryogenic infrared imaging systems, which are highly sensitive to thermal sources. In order to achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation, an approach is proposed, which is based on radiometric calibration using a spherical mirror. First of all, the theory of spherical mirror design is introduced. Then, the calibration formula considering the integration time is presented. Following this, the details regarding the measurement method are presented. By placing a spherical mirror in front of the infrared detector, the influence of internal factors of the detector on system output can be obtained. According to the calibration results of the infrared imaging system, the output caused by internal stray radiation can be acquired. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to validate the theory proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the measurement results are in good accordance with the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the proposed theories are valid and can be employed in practical applications. The proposed method can achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation at arbitrary integration time and ambient temperatures. The measurement result can be used to evaluate whether the suppression level meets the system requirement.

  12. The W. M. Keck Telescope segmented primary mirror active control system software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R.W. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA) California Association for Research in Astronomy, Kamuela, HI (USA)); Andreae, S.; Biocca, A.K.; Jared, R.C.; Llacer, J.; Meng, J.D.; Minor, R.H.; Orayani, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-07-01

    The active control system (ACS) uses both parallel and distributed processing techniques to measure and control the positions of the 36 segments of the Keck Observatory Telescope primary mirror. The main function of the software is to maintain the mirror figure; to accomplish this goal the software uses a predictive, feed-forward'' mechanism which effectively increases the system bandwidth for the most important sources of perturbation. The software executes on a set of twelve 68000-family processors under the supervision of a VAX workstation. An array of nine parallel I/O processors collect and process data from 168 displacement sensors and transmit motion commands to 108 actuators. Three additional processors simultaneously compute actuator commands, monitor system performance, compute sensor control parameters and communicate with other observatory computers. The software is highly optimized for speed. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Analysis of Driving Safety Criteria Based on National Regulations for the Suspension Systems of NGVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Mauricio Martinod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work analyses the technical evaluation process of the suspension system for vehicles that have been adapted to natural-gas-fuelled engines from power light-duty gasoline, and diesel vehicles; this evaluation is done through a mechanical review established by national regulations. The development of this analysis is focused on establishing the relationship between the natural-gas-fuelled equipment and the dynamic effect caused by the extra-weight, according to two measuring criteria that determine the safety and driving comfort, these are: (i tire-road adhesion index; and (ii tire excitation phase angle. The paper also proposes new elements that can be added to the current national regulations and that are currently applied to assess the suspension of natural gas vehicles, recorded using a test standard benchmark for the evaluation of the suspension.

  14. Grating exchange system of independent mirror supported by floating rotary stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhuan; Tao, Jin; Liu, Yan; Nan, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The performance of The Grating Exchange System can satisfy the Thirty Meter Telescope - TMT for astronomical observation WFOS index requirements and satisfy the requirement of accuracy in the grating exchange. It is used to install in the MOBIE and a key device of MOBIE. The Wide Field Optical Spectrograph (WFOS) is one of the three first-light observing capabilities selected by the TMT Science Advisory Committee. The Multi-Object Broadband Imaging Echellette (MOBIE) instrument design concept has been developed to address the WFOS requirements as described in the TMT Science-Based Requirements Document (SRD). The Grating Exchange System uses a new type of separate movement way of three grating devices and a mirror device. Three grating devices with a mirror are able to achieve independence movement. This kind of grating exchange system can effectively solve the problem that the volume of the grating change system is too large and that the installed space of MOBIE instruments is too limit. This system adopts the good stability, high precision of rotary stage - a kind of using air bearing (Air bearing is famous for its ultra-high precision, and can meet the optical accuracy requirement) and rotation positioning feedback gauge turntable to support grating device. And with a kind of device which can carry greater weight bracket fixed on the MOBIE instrument, with two sets of servo motor control rotary stage and the mirror device respectively. And we use the control program to realize the need of exercising of the grating device and the mirror device. Using the stress strain analysis software--SolidWorks for stress and strain analysis of this structure. And then checking the structure of the rationality and feasibility. And prove that this system can realize the positioning precision under different working conditions can meet the requirements of imaging optical grating diffraction efficiency and error by the calculation and optical performance analysis.

  15. Caycedo's Sophrology and Lozanov's Suggestology: Mirror Images of a System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    In the 1960's, two medical doctors, Georgi Lozanov and Alfonso Caycedo, discovered independently that certain yogic techniques of physical and mental relaxation could be used to produce not only analgesia but also improved memory and concentration. Systems originally used in medicine and psycho-therapy were applied to education, in particular to…

  16. An augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror training and imagery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Jörg; Diers, Martin; Fuchs, Xaver; Bach, Felix; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Foell, Jens; Kamping, Sandra; Rance, Mariela; Maaß, Heiko; Flor, Herta

    2014-09-01

    Mirror training and movement imagery have been demonstrated to be effective in treating several clinical conditions, such as phantom limb pain, stroke-induced hemiparesis, and complex regional pain syndrome. This article presents an augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror and imagery treatment approaches for hand training. A head-mounted display equipped with cameras captures one hand held in front of the body, mirrors this hand, and displays it in real time in a set of four different training tasks: (1) flexing fingers in a predefined sequence, (2) moving the hand into a posture fitting into a silhouette template, (3) driving a "Snake" video game with the index finger, and (4) grasping and moving a virtual ball. The system records task performance and transfers these data to a central server via the Internet, allowing monitoring of training progress. We evaluated the system by having 7 healthy participants train with it over the course of ten sessions of 15-min duration. No technical problems emerged during this time. Performance indicators showed that the system achieves a good balance between relatively easy and more challenging tasks and that participants improved significantly over the training sessions. This suggests that the system is well suited to maintain motivation in patients, especially when it is used for a prolonged period of time.

  17. View-Invariant Visuomotor Processing in Computational Mirror Neuron System for Humanoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Farhan; Loo, Chu Kiong

    2016-01-01

    Mirror neurons are visuo-motor neurons found in primates and thought to be significant for imitation learning. The proposition that mirror neurons result from associative learning while the neonate observes his own actions has received noteworthy empirical support. Self-exploration is regarded as a procedure by which infants become perceptually observant to their own body and engage in a perceptual communication with themselves. We assume that crude sense of self is the prerequisite for social interaction. However, the contribution of mirror neurons in encoding the perspective from which the motor acts of others are seen have not been addressed in relation to humanoid robots. In this paper we present a computational model for development of mirror neuron system for humanoid based on the hypothesis that infants acquire MNS by sensorimotor associative learning through self-exploration capable of sustaining early imitation skills. The purpose of our proposed model is to take into account the view-dependency of neurons as a probable outcome of the associative connectivity between motor and visual information. In our experiment, a humanoid robot stands in front of a mirror (represented through self-image using camera) in order to obtain the associative relationship between his own motor generated actions and his own visual body-image. In the learning process the network first forms mapping from each motor representation onto visual representation from the self-exploratory perspective. Afterwards, the representation of the motor commands is learned to be associated with all possible visual perspectives. The complete architecture was evaluated by simulation experiments performed on DARwIn-OP humanoid robot. PMID:26998923

  18. View-Invariant Visuomotor Processing in Computational Mirror Neuron System for Humanoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Farhan; Loo, Chu Kiong

    2016-01-01

    Mirror neurons are visuo-motor neurons found in primates and thought to be significant for imitation learning. The proposition that mirror neurons result from associative learning while the neonate observes his own actions has received noteworthy empirical support. Self-exploration is regarded as a procedure by which infants become perceptually observant to their own body and engage in a perceptual communication with themselves. We assume that crude sense of self is the prerequisite for social interaction. However, the contribution of mirror neurons in encoding the perspective from which the motor acts of others are seen have not been addressed in relation to humanoid robots. In this paper we present a computational model for development of mirror neuron system for humanoid based on the hypothesis that infants acquire MNS by sensorimotor associative learning through self-exploration capable of sustaining early imitation skills. The purpose of our proposed model is to take into account the view-dependency of neurons as a probable outcome of the associative connectivity between motor and visual information. In our experiment, a humanoid robot stands in front of a mirror (represented through self-image using camera) in order to obtain the associative relationship between his own motor generated actions and his own visual body-image. In the learning process the network first forms mapping from each motor representation onto visual representation from the self-exploratory perspective. Afterwards, the representation of the motor commands is learned to be associated with all possible visual perspectives. The complete architecture was evaluated by simulation experiments performed on DARwIn-OP humanoid robot.

  19. View-Invariant Visuomotor Processing in Computational Mirror Neuron System for Humanoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Dawood

    Full Text Available Mirror neurons are visuo-motor neurons found in primates and thought to be significant for imitation learning. The proposition that mirror neurons result from associative learning while the neonate observes his own actions has received noteworthy empirical support. Self-exploration is regarded as a procedure by which infants become perceptually observant to their own body and engage in a perceptual communication with themselves. We assume that crude sense of self is the prerequisite for social interaction. However, the contribution of mirror neurons in encoding the perspective from which the motor acts of others are seen have not been addressed in relation to humanoid robots. In this paper we present a computational model for development of mirror neuron system for humanoid based on the hypothesis that infants acquire MNS by sensorimotor associative learning through self-exploration capable of sustaining early imitation skills. The purpose of our proposed model is to take into account the view-dependency of neurons as a probable outcome of the associative connectivity between motor and visual information. In our experiment, a humanoid robot stands in front of a mirror (represented through self-image using camera in order to obtain the associative relationship between his own motor generated actions and his own visual body-image. In the learning process the network first forms mapping from each motor representation onto visual representation from the self-exploratory perspective. Afterwards, the representation of the motor commands is learned to be associated with all possible visual perspectives. The complete architecture was evaluated by simulation experiments performed on DARwIn-OP humanoid robot.

  20. Wheeled Vehicle Drive Lines, Axles, and Suspension Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle drive lines, axles, and suspension systems. It provides the basic…

  1. Active and semi-active control of suspension systems for commercial vehicles based on preview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, J.J.; van Heck, J.G.A.M.; Muijderman, J.H.E.A.; Veldpaus, F.E.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a vehicle axle/wheel suspension system is primarily determined by the comfort of the occupants, the required working space, the handling properties and, for commercial vehicles in particular, the dynamic tire forces and the load on the chassis components and on the cargo. General

  2. V-TECS Guide for Auto Mechanics: Suspension Systems, Brakes and Steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles G.; And Others

    The materials in this document are an extension of a catalog of occupational duties, tasks, and performance objectives relevant to maintaining automotive suspension systems, brakes, and steering mechanisms. This document provides the following for each occupational task within each duty: (1) a standard of performance; (2) the conditions under…

  3. Adaptive Optics System with Deformable Composite Mirror and High Speed, Ultra-Compact Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C.; Knowles, G. J.; Shea, B. G.

    2006-06-01

    We report development of a novel adaptive optics system for optical astronomy. Key components are very thin Deformable Mirrors (DM) made of fiber reinforced polymer resins, subminiature PMN-PT actuators, and low power, high bandwidth electronics drive system with compact packaging and minimal wiring. By using specific formulations of fibers, resins, and laminate construction, we are able to fabricate mirror face sheets that are thin (2 KHz. By utilizing QorTek’s proprietary synthetic impendence power supply technology, all the power, control, and signal extraction for many hundreds to 1000s of actuators and sensors can be implemented on a single matrix controller printed circuit board co-mounted with the DM. The matrix controller, in turn requires only a single serial bus interface, thereby obviating the need for massive wiring harnesses. The technology can be scaled up to multi-meter aperture DMs with >100K actuators.

  4. Modeling, performance analysis and economic feasibility of a mirror-augmented photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunato, B.; Torresi, M.; Deramo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical modeling for the energy yield in Mirror Augmented PV systems. • Simplified analytical expression for skyview factor applicable to MAPV. • Economic appraisal of MAPV systems: NPV, DPBP, IRR and LCC. - Abstract: In the last years, solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have had great impetus with research and demonstration projects, both in Italy and other European countries. The main problems with solar PV are the cost of solar electricity, which is still higher compared with other renewables (such as wind or biomass), due to the cost of semi-conductors, and the low conversion efficiency. However, PV panel prices are rapidly decreasing benefiting from favorable economies of scale. For instance, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) the US average levelized costs for plants entering service in the 2018 should be 144.3$/MW h for solar PV, whereas 111.0$/MW h for biomass and 86.6$/MW h for wind (Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook, 2013). In order to increase the electric yield of PV modules (which can be even doubled with respect to constant tilt configurations), without significantly increasing the system costs, it was decided to consider the addition of inclined mirrors at both sides of the PV modules, so as to deflect more solar rays towards them, as in Mirror-Augmented Photovoltaic (MAPV) systems. The system preserves its constructive simplicity with commercial flat PV modules even though dual axis tracker must be implemented, since MAPV systems harness mainly the direct radiation. The performance analysis of MAPV systems starts from the calculation of the global irradiation on the surface of the PV module which is a sum of the direct sunlight on it and the irradiation reflected by the mirrors. A mathematical model of a MAPV system is presented, which takes into account not only the increase of direct (or beam) radiation, due to the mirrors, but also the reduction of both the diffuse

  5. Design of mirrors and apodization functions in phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cady, E.

    2012-01-01

    Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphs are a promising technology for imaging exoplanets, with the potential to detect Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars. A PIAA system nominally consists of a pair of mirrors which reshape incident light without attenuation, coupled with one or more apodizers to mitigate diffraction effects or provide additional beam-shaping to produce a desired output profile. We present a set of equations that allow apodizers to be chosen for any give...

  6. Design and fabrication of multimode interference couplers based on digital micro-mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sumei; He, Xingdao; Shen, Chenbo

    2008-03-01

    Multimode interference (MMI) couplers, based on the self-imaging effect (SIE), are accepted popularly in integrated optics. According to the importance of MMI devices, in this paper, we present a novel method to design and fabricate MMI couplers. A technology of maskless lithography to make MMI couplers based on a smart digital micro-mirror device (DMD) system is proposed. A 1×4 MMI device is designed as an example, which shows the present method is efficient and cost-effective.

  7. Autism and the mirror neuron system: Insights from learning and teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Vivanti, G; Rogers, SJ

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulties in social learning domains which typically involve mirror neuron system (MNS) activation. However, the precise role of the MNS in the development of autism and its relevance to treatment remain unclear. In this paper, we argue that three distinct aspects of social learning are critical for advancing knowledge in this area: (i) the mechanisms that allow for the implicit mapping of and learning from others' behaviour, (ii) the motivation to attend to an...

  8. System model for analysis of the mirror fusion-fission reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Carlson, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a system model for the mirror fusion-fission reactor. In this model we include a reactor description as well as analyses of capital cost and blanket fuel management. In addition, we provide an economic analysis evaluating the cost of producing the two hybrid products, fissile fuel and electricity. We also furnish the results of a limited parametric analysis of the modeled reactor, illustrating the technological and economic implications of varying some important reactor design parameters

  9. An efficient recursive least square-based condition monitoring approach for a rail vehicle suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Alfi, S.; Bruni, S.

    2016-06-01

    A model-based condition monitoring strategy for the railway vehicle suspension is proposed in this paper. This approach is based on recursive least square (RLS) algorithm focusing on the deterministic 'input-output' model. RLS has Kalman filtering feature and is able to identify the unknown parameters from a noisy dynamic system by memorising the correlation properties of variables. The identification of suspension parameter is achieved by machine learning of the relationship between excitation and response in a vehicle dynamic system. A fault detection method for the vertical primary suspension is illustrated as an instance of this condition monitoring scheme. Simulation results from the rail vehicle dynamics software 'ADTreS' are utilised as 'virtual measurements' considering a trailer car of Italian ETR500 high-speed train. The field test data from an E464 locomotive are also employed to validate the feasibility of this strategy for the real application. Results of the parameter identification performed indicate that estimated suspension parameters are consistent or approximate with the reference values. These results provide the supporting evidence that this fault diagnosis technique is capable of paving the way for the future vehicle condition monitoring system.

  10. Multiobjective Robust Design of the Double Wishbone Suspension System Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfu Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the suspension system is one of the most important factors in the vehicle design. For the double wishbone suspension system, the conventional deterministic optimization does not consider any deviations of design parameters, so design sensitivity analysis and robust optimization design are proposed. In this study, the design parameters of the robust optimization are the positions of the key points, and the random factors are the uncertainties in manufacturing. A simplified model of the double wishbone suspension is established by software ADAMS. The sensitivity analysis is utilized to determine main design variables. Then, the simulation experiment is arranged and the Latin hypercube design is adopted to find the initial points. The Kriging model is employed for fitting the mean and variance of the quality characteristics according to the simulation results. Further, a particle swarm optimization method based on simple PSO is applied and the tradeoff between the mean and deviation of performance is made to solve the robust optimization problem of the double wishbone suspension system.

  11. Multiobjective Robust Design of the Double Wishbone Suspension System Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuqun

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the suspension system is one of the most important factors in the vehicle design. For the double wishbone suspension system, the conventional deterministic optimization does not consider any deviations of design parameters, so design sensitivity analysis and robust optimization design are proposed. In this study, the design parameters of the robust optimization are the positions of the key points, and the random factors are the uncertainties in manufacturing. A simplified model of the double wishbone suspension is established by software ADAMS. The sensitivity analysis is utilized to determine main design variables. Then, the simulation experiment is arranged and the Latin hypercube design is adopted to find the initial points. The Kriging model is employed for fitting the mean and variance of the quality characteristics according to the simulation results. Further, a particle swarm optimization method based on simple PSO is applied and the tradeoff between the mean and deviation of performance is made to solve the robust optimization problem of the double wishbone suspension system. PMID:24683334

  12. Multiobjective robust design of the double wishbone suspension system based on particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianfu; Lin, Yuqun

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the suspension system is one of the most important factors in the vehicle design. For the double wishbone suspension system, the conventional deterministic optimization does not consider any deviations of design parameters, so design sensitivity analysis and robust optimization design are proposed. In this study, the design parameters of the robust optimization are the positions of the key points, and the random factors are the uncertainties in manufacturing. A simplified model of the double wishbone suspension is established by software ADAMS. The sensitivity analysis is utilized to determine main design variables. Then, the simulation experiment is arranged and the Latin hypercube design is adopted to find the initial points. The Kriging model is employed for fitting the mean and variance of the quality characteristics according to the simulation results. Further, a particle swarm optimization method based on simple PSO is applied and the tradeoff between the mean and deviation of performance is made to solve the robust optimization problem of the double wishbone suspension system.

  13. Olfactory bulb dysgenesis, mirror neuron system dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation as the neural basis for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Ramachandran, V S

    2010-05-01

    Autism is a disorder characterized by social withdrawal, impoverished language and empathy, and a profound inability to adopt another's viewpoint - a failure to construct a "theory of mind" for interpreting another person's thoughts and intentions. We previously showed that these symptoms might be explained, in part, by a paucity of mirror neurons. Prompted by an MRI report of an individual with autism, we now suggest that there may be, in addition, a congenital aplasia/dysplasia of the olfactory bulbs with consequent reduction of vasopressin and oxytocin receptor binding. There may also be sub-clinical temporal lobe epilepsy affecting the recently discovered third visual system that is rich in "empathy" related mirror neurons (MNS) and projects (via the TOP junction - just below the inferior parietal lobule) to limbic structures that regulate autonomic outflow. This causes deranged autonomic feedback, resulting in additional deficiencies in MNS with loss of emotional empathy and introspection.

  14. FxLMS Method for Suppressing In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor Vertical Force Based on Vehicle Active Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration of SRM obtains less attention for in-wheel motor applications according to the present research works. In this paper, the vertical component of SRM unbalanced radial force, which is named as SRM vertical force, is taken into account in suspension performance for in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles (IWM-EV. The analysis results suggest that SRM vertical force has a great effect on suspension performance. The direct cause for this phenomenon is that SRM vertical force is directly exerted on the wheel, which will result in great variation in tyre dynamic load and the tyre will easily jump off the ground. Furthermore, the frequency of SRM vertical force is broad which covers the suspension resonance frequencies. So it is easy to arouse suspension resonance and greatly damage suspension performance. Aiming at the new problem, FxLMS (filtered-X least mean square controller is proposed to improve suspension performance. The FxLMS controller is based on active suspension system which can generate the controllable force to suppress the vibration caused by SRM vertical force. The conclusion shows that it is effective to take advantage of active suspensions to reduce the effect of SRM vertical force on suspension performance.

  15. EEG study of the mirror neuron system in children with high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymaekers, Ruth; Wiersema, Jan Roelf; Roeyers, Herbert

    2009-12-22

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are characterised by an impaired imitation, thought to be critical for early affective, social and communicative development. One neurological system proposed to underlie this function is the mirror neuron system (MNS) and previous research has suggested a dysfunctional MNS in ASD. The EEG mu frequency, more precisely the reduction of the mu power, is considered to be an index for mirror neuron functioning. In this work, EEG registrations are used to evaluate the mirror neuron functioning of twenty children with high functioning autism (HFA) between 8 and 13 years. Their mu suppression to self-executed and observed movement is compared to typically developing peers and related to age, intelligence and symptom severity. Both groups show significant mu suppression to both self and observed hand movements. No group differences are found in either condition. These results do not support the hypothesis that HFA is associated with a dysfunctional MNS. The discrepancy with previous research is discussed in light of the heterogeneity of the ASD population.

  16. Modal and Dynamic Analysis of a Vehicle with Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangji Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel kinetic dynamic suspension (KDS system is presented for the cooperative control of the roll and warp motion modes of off-road vehicles. The proposed KDS system consists of two hydraulic cylinders acting on the antiroll bars. Hence, the antiroll bars are not completely replaced by the hydraulic system, but both systems are installed. In this paper, the vibration analysis in terms of natural frequencies of different motion modes in frequency domain for an off-road vehicle equipped with different configurable suspension systems is studied by using the modal analysis method. The dynamic responses of the vehicle with different configurable suspension systems are investigated under different road excitations and maneuvers. The results of the modal and dynamic analysis prove that the KDS system can reduce the roll and articulation motions of the off-road vehicle without adding extra bounce stiffness and deteriorating the ride comfort. Furthermore, the roll stiffness is increased and the warp stiffness is decreased by the KDS system, which could significantly enhance handing performance and off-road capability.

  17. An Ultra-low Frequency Modal Testing Suspension System for High Precision Air Pressure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling YUAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As a resolution for air pressure control challenges in ultra-low frequency modal testing suspension systems, an incremental PID control algorithm with dead band is applied to achieve high-precision pressure control. We also develop a set of independent hardware and software systems for high-precision pressure control solutions. Taking control system versatility, scalability, reliability, and other aspects into considerations, a two-level communication employing Ethernet and CAN bus, is adopted to complete such tasks as data exchange between the IPC, the main board and the control board ,and the pressure control. Furthermore, we build a single set of ultra-low frequency modal testing suspension system and complete pressure control experiments, which achieve the desired results and thus confirm that the high-precision pressure control subsystem is reasonable and reliable.

  18. Mirror power reactor magnet coil system: a technically and economically feasible design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The design and preliminary engineering analysis of a ''Yin Yang'' coil system utilizing several original design concepts to achieve technical and economic feasibility will be presented. The design analysis is begun with a general description of the constraints and prerequisites which define the problem of designing a satisfactory coil system for a mirror power reactor. This description includes a discussion of the coil conductor geometry required by plasma physics considerations, and also a description of the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force system distributed over the conductor geometry. In addition, the important design constraints which all mirror coil system designs must satisfy if they are to successfully interface with the other reactor components are reviewed. After considering the basic constraints that Yin Yong coil systems must be developed around, a survey of the various design concepts that were developed and explored in search of a satisfactory coil system design is discussed. From this extensive preliminary investigation of potential coil system configurations, a coil system design was developed which appears to offer by far the best combination of technical and economic feasibility of any other coil system design developed thus far

  19. Preliminary investigations of design philosophies and features applicable to large magnetic suspension and balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcher, C. P.; Fortescue, P. W.; Allcock, G. A.; Goodyer, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The technology which is required to allow the principles of magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBS) to be applied to the high Reynolds number transonic testing of aircraft models is examined. A test facility is presented as comprising a pressurized transonic cryogenic wind tunnel, with the MSBS providing full six degree of freedom control. The electro-magnets which are superconducting and fed from quiet, bipolar power supplies are examined. A model control system having some self adaptive characteristics is discussed.

  20. Microbial spoilage, instability risk of antacid suspension in the presence of commonly used preservative system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jamshaid Ali; Khan, Imran Ullah; Iqbal, Zafar; Nasir, Fazli; Muhammad, Salar; Hannan, Peer Abdul; Ullah, Irfan

    2015-09-01

    Manifestation of microbial spoilage of any product by bacteria and to assess the effectiveness of the anti-microbial preservatives (parabens) used for the prevention and stability purpose. The aim of the present work is to study the effectiveness of preservatives used in the antacid suspensions and to analyze the effect of microbial growth on the quality of respective antacid suspensions. Samples of various antacid suspensions were randomly collected from local market and Government hospital pharmacies. Three different antacid formulations were prepared in the laboratory. All the formulations were preliminarily evaluated on the basis of organoleptic characteristics, pH, viscosity and assay. Efficacy of the preservative system in suspension formulation was determined by inoculating the samples in its final container, with specific strains of bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, taking samples from the inoculated preparation at specified intervals of time i.e. 0 time, 07 days, 14 days and 28 days, growing it on nutrient agar medium and colony forming units (CFUs) were scored by plate count. At the same time the samples were also subjected to qualitative and quantitative testing. The decrease in CFU and alteration in assay, pH and viscosity was observed in all the formulations except formulation M2 and F3 that showed stability throughout the study period.

  1. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a modified microelectromechanical systems mirror for detection of bladder cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tuqiang; Xie, Huikai; Fedder, Gary K.; Pan, Yingtian

    2003-11-01

    Experimental results of a modified micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror for substantial enhancement of the transverse laser scanning performance of endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) are presented. Image distortion due to buckling of MEMS mirror in our previous designs was analyzed and found to be attributed to excessive internal stress of the transverse bimorph meshes. The modified MEMS mirror completely eliminates bimorph stress and the resultant buckling effect, which increases the wobbling-free angular optical actuation to greater than 37°, exceeding the transverse laser scanning requirements for EOCT and confocal endoscopy. The new optical coherence tomography (OCT) endoscope allows for two-dimensional cross-sectional imaging that covers an area of 4.2 mm × 2.8 mm (limited by scope size) and at roughly 5 frames/s instead of the previous area size of 2.9 mm × 2.8 mm and is highly suitable for noninvasive and high-resolution imaging diagnosis of epithelial lesions in vivo. EOCT images of normal rat bladders and rat bladder cancers are compared with the same cross sections acquired with conventional bench-top OCT. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of EOCT for in vivo imaging diagnosis and precise guidance for excisional biopsy of early bladder cancers.

  2. Six movements measurement system employed for GAIA secondary mirror positioning system vacuum tests at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Garranzo García-Ibarrola, Daniel; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás

    2008-07-01

    In this work, the optical measurement system employed to evaluate the performance of a 6 degrees of freedom (dof) positioning mechanism under cryogenic conditions is explored. The mechanism, the flight model of three translations and three rotations positioning mechanism, was developed by the Spanish company SENER (for ASTRIUM) to fulfil the high performance requirements from ESA technology preparatory program for the positioning of a secondary mirror within the GAIA Astrometric Mission. Its performance has been evaluated under vacuum and temperature controlled conditions (up to a 10-6mbar and 100K) at the facilities of the Space Instrumentation Laboratory (LINES) of the Aerospace Technical Nacional Institute of Spain (INTA). After the description of the 'alignment tool' developed to compare a fixed reference with the optical signal corresponding to the movement under evaluation, the optical system that allows measuring the displacements and the rotations in the three space directions is reported on. Two similar bread-boards were defined and mounted for the measurements purpose, one containing two distancemeters, in order to measure the displacements through the corresponding axis, and an autocollimator in order to obtain the rotations on the plane whose normal vector is the axis mentioned before, and other one containing one distancemeter and one autocollimator. Both distancemeter and autocollimator measurements have been combined in order to extract the information about the accuracy of the mechanism movements as well as their repeatability under adverse environmental conditions.

  3. Motion control of a large gap magnetic suspension system for microrobotic manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, David; Khamesee, Mir Behrad [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2007-06-07

    Magnetic suspension systems have shown a great deal of promise in the field of microrobotics. This paper discusses the performance of a new large gap magnetic suspension system developed by the researchers. The magnetic drive unit consists of six electromagnets attached to a soft iron pole piece and yoke. Levitation of an 11.19 g microrobot prototype is demonstrated for step, ramp and periodic input trajectories using PID control. The working envelope of the microrobot is 30 x 22 x 20 mm{sup 3}, with an RMS error on the order of 18 {mu}m in the vertical direction and 8 {mu}m in the horizontal direction. It is demonstrated that the levitated microrobot is able to track the desired trajectory precisely and that the system has potential application for micromanipulation.

  4. Motion control of a large gap magnetic suspension system for microrobotic manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, David; Khamesee, Mir Behrad

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic suspension systems have shown a great deal of promise in the field of microrobotics. This paper discusses the performance of a new large gap magnetic suspension system developed by the researchers. The magnetic drive unit consists of six electromagnets attached to a soft iron pole piece and yoke. Levitation of an 11.19 g microrobot prototype is demonstrated for step, ramp and periodic input trajectories using PID control. The working envelope of the microrobot is 30 x 22 x 20 mm 3 , with an RMS error on the order of 18 μm in the vertical direction and 8 μm in the horizontal direction. It is demonstrated that the levitated microrobot is able to track the desired trajectory precisely and that the system has potential application for micromanipulation

  5. Adaptive Control of Electromagnetic Suspension System by HOPF Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aming Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available EMS-type maglev system is essentially nonlinear and unstable. It is complicated to design a stable controller for maglev system which is under large-scale disturbance and parameter variance. Theory analysis expresses that this phenomenon corresponds to a HOPF bifurcation in mathematical model. An adaptive control law which adjusts the PID control parameters is given in this paper according to HOPF bifurcation theory. Through identification of the levitated mass, the controller adjusts the feedback coefficient to make the system far from the HOPF bifurcation point and maintain the stability of the maglev system. Simulation result indicates that adjusting proportion gain parameter using this method can extend the state stability range of maglev system and avoid the self-excited vibration efficiently.

  6. Design of a New Integrated Structure of the Active Suspension System and Emergency Lane Change Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-bo; Liu, Hai-mei; Zhang, Lan-chun; Bei, Shao-yi

    2017-09-01

    An integrated structure of the active suspension system was proposed in order to solve the problem of the individual control of the height of the body or the adjustable damping of the active suspension system of the electric vehicle, which improve the vibration reduction performance of the vehicle. The air bag was used to replace the traditional spiral spring, and the traditional shock absorber was replaced by the damping adjustable shock absorber, and the control module received the body acceleration sensor and the horizontal height sensor signal. The system controlled adjustable damping coefficient of shock absorber through the height of the car body the output of the air pump relay and the height control valve and the output of the electromagnetic valve of the adjustable damping shock absorber, and the emergency lane change test was carried out under different modes of speed of 60km/h. The experimental results indicated that the damping value was greater, average roll angle, yaw angle and average vehicle lateral acceleration were small when vehicle body was in the state of emergency lane change, which verified the feasibility of the integrated control strategy and structure design of the active suspension system. The research has important theoretical research value and engineering application prospect for designing and controlling strategy of vehicle chassis integrated control system.

  7. Hysteresis-induced bifurcation and chaos in a magneto-rheological suspension system under external excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hailong; Zhang Ning; Wang Enrong; Min Fuhong

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-rheological damper (MRD) is a promising device used in vehicle semi-active suspension systems, for its continuous adjustable damping output. However, the innate nonlinear hysteresis characteristic of MRD may cause the nonlinear behaviors. In this work, a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) MR suspension system was established first, by employing the modified Bouc–Wen force–velocity (F–v) hysteretic model. The nonlinear dynamic response of the system was investigated under the external excitation of single-frequency harmonic and bandwidth-limited stochastic road surface. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) was used to detect the chaotic area of the frequency and amplitude of harmonic excitation, and the bifurcation diagrams, time histories, phase portraits, and power spectrum density (PSD) diagrams were used to reveal the dynamic evolution process in detail. Moreover, the LLE and Kolmogorov entropy (K entropy) were used to identify whether the system response was random or chaotic under stochastic road surface. The results demonstrated that the complex dynamical behaviors occur under different external excitation conditions. The oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations was observed in detail. The chaotic regions revealed that chaotic motions may appear in conditions of mid-low frequency and large amplitude, as well as small amplitude and all frequency. The obtained parameter regions where the chaotic motions may appear are useful for design of structural parameters of the vibration isolation, and the optimization of control strategy for MR suspension system. (paper)

  8. Circular waveguide systems for electron-cyclotron-resonant heating of the tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, B.; Calderon, M.O.; Chargin, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive use of electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) requires continuous development of components to improve efficiency, increase reliability, and deliver power to new locations with respect to the plasma. We have used rectangular waveguide components on the experiment and have developed, tested, and installed circular waveguide components. We replaced the rectangular with the circular components because of the greater transmission efficiency and power-handling capability of the circular ones. Design, fabrication, and testing of all components are complete for all systems. In this paper we describe the design criteria for the system

  9. Tandem-Mirror Experiment-Upgrade neutral pressure measurement diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, W.L.; Allen, S.L.; Hill, D.N.; Hunt, A.L.; Simonen, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Tandem-Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) has a large and complex system of Bayard--Alpert, magnetron, and Penning gauges, in addition to mass spectrometers (RGA), all of which measure neutral pressures in the many internal regions of TMX-U. These pressure measurements are used as part of the confinement physics data base as well as for management of the TMX-U vacuum system. Dynamic pressures are modeled by a coupled-volumes simulation code, which includes wall reflux, getter pumping, and plasma pumping

  10. A Control and Detecting System of Micro-Near-Infrared Spectrometer Based on a MOEMS Scanning Grating Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the scanning grating mirror we developed, this paper presents a method of the precise control of a scanning grating mirror and of high-speed spectrum data detection. In addition, the system circuit of the scanning grating mirror control and spectrum signal detecting is designed and manufactured in this paper. The mirror control system includes a drive generator module, an amplitude detection module, a feedback control module, and a variable gain amplification (VGA module; the detecting system includes a field programmable gate array (FPGA main control module, a synchronous trigger module, an analog-digital conversion (ADC module, and a universal serial bus (USB interface module. The final results of the experiment show that the control system has successfully realized the precision control of the swing of the scanning grating mirror and that the detecting system has successfully realized the high-speed acquisition and transmission of the spectral signal and the angle signals. The spectrum has been reconstructed according to the mathematical relationship between the wavelength λ and the angle β of the mirror. The resolution of the spectrometer reaches 10 nm in the wavelength range of 800–1800 nm, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the spectrometer is 4562 at full scale, the spectrum data drift is 0.9% in 24 h, and the precision of the closed loop control is 0.06%.

  11. Application of MEMS Accelerometers and Gyroscopes in Fast Steering Mirror Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a charge-coupled device (CCD-based fast steering mirror (FSM tracking control system, high control bandwidth is the most effective way to enhance the closed-loop performance. However, the control system usually suffers a great deal from mechanical resonances and time delays induced by the low sampling rate of CCDs. To meet the requirements of high precision and load restriction, fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOGs are usually used in traditional FSM tracking control systems. In recent years, the MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope are becoming smaller and lighter and their performance have improved gradually, so that they can be used in a fast steering mirror (FSM to realize the stabilization of the line-of-sight (LOS of the control system. Therefore, a tentative approach to implement a CCD-based FSM tracking control system, which uses MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes as feedback components and contains an acceleration loop, a velocity loop and a position loop, is proposed. The disturbance suppression of the proposed method is the product of the error attenuation of the acceleration loop, the velocity loop and the position loop. Extensive experimental results show that the MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes can act the similar role as the FOG with lower cost for stabilizing the LOS of the FSM tracking control system.

  12. Using geometric algebra to understand pattern rotations in multiple mirror optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, J.; Ziock, H.

    1997-01-01

    Geometric Algebra (GA) is a new formulation of Clifford Algebra that includes vector analysis without notation changes. Most applications of Ga have been in theoretical physics, but GA is also a very good analysis tool for engineering. As an example, the authors use GA to study pattern rotation in optical systems with multiple mirror reflections. The common ways to analyze pattern rotations are to use rotation matrices or optical ray trace codes, but these are often inconvenient. The authors use GA to develop a simple expression for pattern rotation that is useful for designing or tolerancing pattern rotations in a multiple mirror optical system by inspection. Pattern rotation is used in many optical engineering systems, but it is not normally covered in optical system engineering texts. Pattern rotation is important in optical systems such as: (1) the 192 beam National ignition Facility (NIF), which uses square laser beams in close packed arrays to cut costs; (2) visual optical systems, which use pattern rotation to present the image to the observer in the appropriate orientation, and (3) the UR90 unstable ring resonator, which uses pattern rotation to fill a rectangular laser gain region and provide a filled-in laser output beam

  13. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Calatayud, Sebastien Borreani, Juan C. Colado, Fernando F Martín, Michael E. Rogers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29 performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001. Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation.

  14. Discrete-time sliding mode control for MR vehicle suspension system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J W; Choi, S B [Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Wereley, N M [Smart Structures Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)], E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents control performance of a full-vehicle suspension system featuring magnetorheological (MR) dampers via a discrete-time sliding mode control algorithm (DSMC). A cylindrical MR damper is designed by incorporating Bingham model of the MR fluid and the field-dependent damping characteristics of the MR damper are evaluated. A full-vehicle suspension model installed with independent four MR dampers is constructed and the governing equations which include vertical, pitch and roll motion are derived. A discrete-time control model is established with considering system uncertainties and a discrete-time sliding mode controller which has inherent robustness to model uncertainty and external disturbance is formulated. Vibration control performances under bump excitation are evaluated and presented.

  15. Discrete-time sliding mode control for MR vehicle suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J W; Choi, S B; Wereley, N M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents control performance of a full-vehicle suspension system featuring magnetorheological (MR) dampers via a discrete-time sliding mode control algorithm (DSMC). A cylindrical MR damper is designed by incorporating Bingham model of the MR fluid and the field-dependent damping characteristics of the MR damper are evaluated. A full-vehicle suspension model installed with independent four MR dampers is constructed and the governing equations which include vertical, pitch and roll motion are derived. A discrete-time control model is established with considering system uncertainties and a discrete-time sliding mode controller which has inherent robustness to model uncertainty and external disturbance is formulated. Vibration control performances under bump excitation are evaluated and presented.

  16. Global attractors for the coupled suspension bridge system with temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dell'Oro, Filippo; Giorgi, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2016), s. 864-875 ISSN 0170-4214 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : absorbing set * coupled bridge system * global attractor Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mma.3526/abstract

  17. DESIGN AN INTELLIGENT CONTROLLER FOR FULL VEHICLE NONLINEAR ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Aldair, A. A.; Wang, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of designed the controller for a vehicle suspension system is to reduce the discomfort sensed by passengers which arises from road roughness and to increase the ride handling associated with the pitching and rolling movements. This necessitates a very fast and accurate controller to meet as much control objectives, as possible. Therefore, this paper deals with an artificial intelligence Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) technique to design a robust controller to meet the control objectives....

  18. DC electrostatic gyro suspension system for the Gravity Probe B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Huei

    1994-12-01

    The Gravity Probe B experiment is a satellite-based experiment primarily designed to test two aspects of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by observing the spin axis drift of near-perfect gyroscopes in a 650-km circular polar orbit. The goal of this experiment is to measure the drift angles to an accuracy of 0.3 milli-arcsec after one year in orbit. As a result, electrostatically suspended free-spinning gyroscopes operating at a very low temperature became the final choice for their ultra-low Newtonian torque-induced drift rate. The Conventional AC current-driven suspension system faces two fundamental difficulties for ground gyro testing. Field emission causes rotor charging and arcing with an imperfect electrode or rotor surfaces because the electric field intensity needed to support a solid rotor in the 1-g field is more than 107 V/m. The system not only becomes unstable at a high rotor charge, which can be more than 500 volts, but may also lose control in case of arcing. Both the high voltage AC suspension signal and the high frequency (1 MHz) signal for rotor position sensing interfere with the superconducting SQUID magnetometer for spin axis readout through inductive coupling. These problems were resolved by using DC voltage to generate a suspension force and a low frequency position sensor. In addition to the Input/Output linearization algorithm developed to remove the system nonlinearity for global stability and dynamic performance, we also minimized the electric field intensity to reduce rotor charging. Experimental results verified the desired global stability and satisfactory dynamic performance. The problem of rotor charging is virtually eliminated. More importantly, the DC system is compatible with the SQUID readout system in the Science Mission configuration. Consequently, experiments in low magnetic field at a sub-micro-gauss level for SQUID design verification and trapped flux distribution study were finally realizable in ground environment

  19. Estimation of Road Loads and Vibration Transmissibility of Torsion Bar Suspension System in a Tracked Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagneza, G. P. S.; Chandramohan, Sujatha

    2018-05-01

    Designing the suspension system of a tracked combat vehicle (CV) is really challenging as it has to satisfy conflicting requirements of good ride comfort, vehicle handling and stability characteristics. Many studies in this field have been reported in literature and it has been found that torsion bars satisfy the designer's conflicting requirements of good ride and handling and thus have reserved a place for themselves as the most widely used suspension system for military track vehicles. Therefore, it is imperative to evaluate the effectiveness of the torsion bar under dynamic conditions of undulating terrain and validating the same by correlating it with computer simulation results. Thus in the present work, the dynamic simulation of a 2N + 4 degrees of freedom (DOF) mathematical model has been carried out using MATLAB Simulink and the vibration levels were also measured experimentally on a 12 wheel stationed high mobility military tracked infantry combat vehicle (ICV BMP-II) traversing different terrain, that is, Aberdeen proving ground (APG) and Sinusoidal, at a constant vehicle speed. The dynamic force transmitted to the hull CG through the 12 torsion bar suspension systems was computed to be around 26,700 N and found to match the measured values. The vibration isolation of the torsion bar in bounce was found to be effective, with a transmissibility from the road wheel to the hull of about 0.6.

  20. Applications of small computers for systems control on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bork, R.G.; Kane, R.J.; Moore, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    Desktop computers operating into a CAMAC-based interface are used to control and monitor the operation of the various subsystems on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These systems include: shot sequencer/master timing, neutral beam control (four consoles), magnet power system control, ion-cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) control, thermocouple monitoring, getter system control, gas fueling system control, and electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) monitoring. Two additional computers are used to control the TMX-U neutral beam test stand and provide computer-aided repair/test and development of CAMAC modules. These machines are usually programmed in BASIC, but some codes have been interpreted into assembly language to increase speed. Details of the computer interfaces and system complexity are described as well as the evolution of the systems to their present states

  1. Final Report: Model interacting particle systems for simulation and macroscopic description of particulate suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Mucha

    2007-08-30

    Suspensions of solid particles in liquids appear in numerous applications, from environmental settings like river silt, to industrial systems of solids transport and water treatment, and biological flows such as blood flow. Despite their importance, much remains unexplained about these complicated systems. Mucha's research aims to improve understanding of basic properties of suspensions through a program of simulating model interacting particle systems with critical evaluation of proposed continuum equations, in close collaboration with experimentalists. Natural to this approach, the original proposal centered around collaboration with studies already conducted in various experimental groups. However, as was detailed in the 2004 progress report, following the first year of this award, a number of the questions from the original proposal were necessarily redirected towards other specific goals because of changes in the research programs of the proposed experimental collaborators. Nevertheless, the modified project goals and the results that followed from those goals maintain close alignment with the main themes of the original proposal, improving efficient simulation and macroscopic modeling of sedimenting and colloidal suspensions. In particular, the main investigations covered under this award have included: (1) Sedimentation instabilities, including the sedimentation analogue of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (for heavy, particle-laden fluid over lighter, clear fluid). (2) Ageing dynamics of colloidal suspensions at concentrations above the glass transition, using simplified interactions. (3) Stochastic reconstruction of velocity-field dependence for particle image velocimetry (PIV). (4) Stochastic modeling of the near-wall bias in 'nano-PIV'. (5) Distributed Lagrange multiplier simulation of the 'internal splash' of a particle falling through a stable stratified interface. (6) Fundamental study of velocity fluctuations in sedimentation

  2. Production of hot electrons in mirror systems associated with ECR heating with longitudinal input of microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Skovoroda, A.A.; Timofeev, A.V.; Kharitonov, K.Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Almost all experiments on ECR plasma heating are accompanied by the formation of hot electrons (i.e., electrons with energy substantially greater than the average of the bulk population). In mirror systems these electrons may determine the basic energy content (β) of the plasma. In this paper, results are presented from experimental measurements of the hot electron population resulting from ECR heating of the plasma in OGRA-4. A theoretical model is developed which describes the hot electron dynamics and the propagation of electromagnetic oscillations in the plasma self-consistently. The results obtained with this model are in agreement with experimental data

  3. Development of the measurement system with interferometers for ultraprecise X-ray mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Yamauchi, K; Mimura, H

    2003-01-01

    A figure measurement system with a stitching method has been developed for evaluation and fabrication of the ultraprecise hard X-ray mirror optics. This system was constructed by two interferometers. One is the Michelson-type microscopic interferometer which is improved to keep the focus distance within 0.1 mu m. Another is the Fizeau's interferometer employed to compensate stitching error in the long spatial wavelength range. To estimate the absolute accuracy in this figure measurement system, the reflection X-ray intensity distributions of flat and aspherical mirrors, which are fabricated by us, were predicted by wave-optical simulation based on measured profile an compared with actually observed distributions. As the result, they are in good agreements. These agreements prove that the developed system has sub-nanometer absolute accuracy in all the spatial wavelength range longer than 0.5mm, because sub-nanometer figure error in those spatial wavelength ranges are known to affect reflection X-ray intensity ...

  4. Effect on the vibration of the suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the damping effect of shock absorbs in vehicles, different vehicles acceleration values were measured while they were passing over speed bumps at different speeds. The vehicles’ vibration magnitudes caused by road roughness were analyzed. In this study the measurements were conducted with two different vehicles, multiple drivers and at different speeds. The vibration valves were determined with a HVM 100 device, in different field conditions and at 20 - 40 and 60 km/h by transferring the results to the system. According to the results of statistical analysis damping effect of the shock absorbers in the vehicles changed in different speed ranges and field conditions and it was seen that driver’s performance was significantly affected due to the vibration.

  5. A multiobjective ? control strategy for energy harvesting in regenerative vehicle suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavola, Alessandro; Di Iorio, Fabio; Tedesco, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    A significant amount of energy induced by road unevenness and vehicle roll and pitch motions is usually dissipated by conventional shock-absorbers. In this paper, a novel active multiobjective ? control design methodology is proposed which explicitly includes, besides the usual control objectives on ride comfort, road handling and suspension stroke, the amount of energy to be harvested as an additional, though conflicting, control objective and allows the designer to directly trade-off among them depending on the application. An electromechanical regenerative suspension system is considered where the viscous damper is replaced by a linear electrical motor which is actively governed. It is shown that the proposed control law is able to achieve remarkable improvements on the amount of the harvested energy with respect to passive or semi-active control strategies while maintaining the other objectives at acceptable levels. Simulative studies undertaken via CarSim are also reported that confirm the potentiality and flexibility of the proposed control design strategy.

  6. Nonlinear Dynamics Analysis of the Semiactive Suspension System with Magneto-Rheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines dynamical behavior of a nonlinear oscillator which models a quarter-car forced by the road profile. The magneto-rheological (MR suspension system has been established, by employing the modified Bouc-Wen force-velocity (F-v model of magneto-rheological damper (MRD. The possibility of chaotic motions in MR suspension is discovered by employing the method of nonlinear stability analysis. With the bifurcation diagrams and corresponding Lyapunov exponent (LE spectrum diagrams detected through numerical calculation, we can observe the complex dynamical behaviors and oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasiperiodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations with different profiles of road excitation, as well as the dynamical evolutions to chaos through period-doubling bifurcations, saddle-node bifurcations, and reverse period-doubling bifurcations.

  7. The magnet power control system for the tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the desktop computer/CAMAC based system that controls the power source for the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) magnet power system. Presently it contains 42 dc rectifier power supplies connected to 24 magnet coils arranged in 17 circuits. During each shot, the system delivers 22.6 MW dc to the magnets for about 3 s. The system is presently being changed to add six power supplies, two solenoidal throttle coils, and two reverse C-coils. When complete, the delivered power will increase to 36.9 MW. The closed-loop control system usually provides current (and thus, magnetic field) that is within 1% of the requested current. Achieving this accuracy required using grounding, shielding, and isolation methods to reduce noise and related problems

  8. Review of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) machine-parameter-instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, R.J.; Coffield, F.E.; Coutts, G.W.; Hornady, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) machine consists of seven major machine subsystems: magnet system, neutral beam system, microwave heating (ECRH), ion heating (ICRH), gas fueling, stream guns, and vacuum system. Satisfactory performance of these subsystems is necessary to achieve the experimental objectives planned for TMX-U operations. Since the performance quality of the subsystem is important and can greatly affect plasma parameters, a 233-channel instrumentation system has been installed. Data from the instrumentation system are acquired and stored with the plasma diagnostic information. Thus, the details of the machine performance are available during post-shot analysis. This paper describes all the machine-parameter-instrumentation hardware, presents some typical data, and outlines how the data are used

  9. The Mirror Fusion Test Facility cryogenic system: Performance, management approach, and present equipment status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.; Chronis, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    The cryogenic system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a 14-kW, 4.35-K helium refrigeration system that proved to be highly successful and cost-effective. All operating objectives were met, while remaining within a few percent of initial cost and schedule plans. The management approach used in MFTF allowed decisions to be made quickly and effectively, and it helped keep costs down. Manpower levels, extent and type of industrial participation, key aspects of subcontractor specifications, and subcontractor interactions are reviewed, as well as highlights of the system tests, operation, and present equipment status. Organizations planning large, high-technology systems may benefit from this experience with the MFTF cryogenic system

  10. Effect of imperfect Faraday mirrors on the security of a Faraday–Michelson quantum cryptography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei-Long; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    The one-way Faraday–Michelson system is a very useful practical quantum cryptography system where Faraday mirrors (FMs) play an important role. In this paper we analyze the security of this system against imperfect FMs. We consider the security loophole caused by imperfect FMs in Alice’s and Bob’s security zones. Then we implement a passive FM attack in this system. By changing the values of the imperfection parameters of Alice’s FMs, we calculate the quantum bit error rate between Alice and Bob induced by Eve and the probability that Eve obtains outcomes successfully. It is shown that the imperfection of one of Alice’s two FMs makes the system sensitive to an attack. Finally we give a modified key rate as a function of the FM imperfections. The security analysis indicates that both Alice’s and Bob’s imperfect FMs can compromise the secure key. (paper)

  11. Analysis of Structural and Material Aspects of Selected Elements of a Hydropneumatic Suspension System in a Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konieczny Ł.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses results of analyses of design solutions and materials commonly used in gas springs for hydropneumatic suspension systems. The authors have discussed main advantages resulting from application of such a design solution in passenger car suspension systems. Fundamental correlations defining the parameters characterising a gas spring with constant gas mass have been referred to. Also materials used in the manufacture of selected gas spring elements have been described

  12. The effects of suction and pin/lock suspension systems on transtibial amputees' gait performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Gholizadeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The suction sockets that are commonly prescribed for transtibial amputees are believed to provide a better suspension than the pin/lock systems. Nevertheless, their effect on amputees' gait performance has not yet been fully investigated. The main intention of this study was to understand the potential effects of the Seal-in (suction and the Dermo (pin/lock suspension systems on amputees' gait performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten unilateral transtibial amputees participated in this prospective study, and two prostheses were fabricated for each of them. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to evaluate the temporal-spatial, kinematics and kinetics variables during normal walking. We also asked the participants to complete some part of Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ regarding their satisfaction and problems with both systems. The results revealed that there was more symmetry in temporal-spatial parameters between the prosthetic and sound limbs using the suction system. However, the difference between two systems was not significant (p<0.05. Evaluation of kinetic data and the subjects' feedback showed that the participants had more confidence using the suction socket and the sockets were more fit for walking. Nevertheless, the participants had more complaints with this system due to the difficulty in donning and doffing. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that even though the suction socket could create better suspension, fit, and gait performance, overall satisfaction was higher with the pin/lock system due to easy donning and doffing of the prosthesis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: irct.ir IRCT2014012816395N1.

  13. Einstein's Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a…

  14. A one-dimensional ion beam figuring system for x-ray mirror fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idir, Mourad; Huang, Lei; Bouet, Nathalie; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Vescovi, Matthew; Lauer, Ken; Conley, Ray; Rennie, Kent; Kahn, Jim; Nethery, Richard; Zhou, Lin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the development of a one-dimensional Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) system for x-ray mirror polishing. Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The system is based on a state of the art sputtering deposition system outfitted with a gridded radio frequency inductive coupled plasma ion beam source equipped with ion optics and dedicated slit developed specifically for this application. The production of an IBF system able to produce an elongated removal function rather than circular is presented in this paper, where we describe in detail the technical aspect and present the first obtained results

  15. A one-dimensional ion beam figuring system for x-ray mirror fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idir, Mourad, E-mail: midir@bnl.gov; Huang, Lei; Bouet, Nathalie; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Vescovi, Matthew; Lauer, Ken [NSLS-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Conley, Ray [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rennie, Kent; Kahn, Jim; Nethery, Richard [Kaufman & Robinson, Inc., 1330 Blue Spruce Drive, Fort Collins, Colorado 80524 (United States); Zhou, Lin [College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, 109 Deya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Hu’nan Key Laboratory of Ultra-precision Machining Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a one-dimensional Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) system for x-ray mirror polishing. Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The system is based on a state of the art sputtering deposition system outfitted with a gridded radio frequency inductive coupled plasma ion beam source equipped with ion optics and dedicated slit developed specifically for this application. The production of an IBF system able to produce an elongated removal function rather than circular is presented in this paper, where we describe in detail the technical aspect and present the first obtained results.

  16. Supervisory control and diagnostics system for the mirror fusion test facility: overview and status 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoldrick, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a complex facility requiring a highly-computerized Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) to monitor and provide control over ten subsystems; three of which require true process control. SCDS will provide physicists with a method of studying machine and plasma behavior by acquiring and processing up to four megabytes of plasma diagnostic information every five minutes. A high degree of availability and throughput is provided by a distributed computer system (nine 32-bit minicomputers on shared memory). Data, distributed across SCDS, is managed by a high-bandwidth Distributed Database Management System. The MFTF operators' control room consoles use color television monitors with touch sensitive screens; this is a totally new approach. The method of handling deviations to normal machine operation and how the operator should be notified and assisted in the resolution of problems has been studied and a system designed

  17. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect "Violin-Mode" (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a "synthesized split photodiode" detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC "shadow notch" outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing "jitter" at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  18. Optimization of Automotive Suspension System by Design of Experiments: A Nonderivative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban C. Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of health issues like low back pain, digestive disorders, and musculoskeletal disorders are caused as a result of the whole body vibrations induced by automobiles. This paper is concerned with the enhancement and optimization of suspension performance by using factorial methods of Design of Experiments, a nonderivative method. It focuses on the optimization of ride comfort and determining the parameters which affect the suspension behavior significantly as per the guidelines stated in ISO 2631-1:1997 standards. A quarter car test rig integrated with a LabVIEW based data acquisition system was developed to understand the real time behavior of a vehicle. In the pilot experiment, only three primary suspension parameters, that is, spring-stiffness, damping, and sprung mass, were considered and the full factorial method was implemented for the purpose of optimization. But the regression analysis of the data obtained rendered a very low goodness of fit which indicated that other parameters are likely to influence the response. Subsequently, steering geometry angles, camber and toe and tire pressure, were included in the design. Fractional factorial method with six factors was implemented to optimize ride comfort. The resultant optimum combination was then verified on the test rig with high correlation.

  19. Quadruple suspension design for Advanced LIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, N A; Cagnoli, G; Crooks, D R M; Elliffe, E; Faller, J E; Fritschel, P; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Heptonstall, A; Hough, J; Lueck, H; Mittleman, R; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Plissi, M V; Rowan, S; Shoemaker, D H; Sneddon, P H; Strain, K A; Torrie, C I; Ward, H; Willems, P

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the conceptual design for the suspension system for the test masses for Advanced LIGO, the planned upgrade to LIGO, the US laser interferometric gravitational-wave observatory. The design is based on the triple pendulum design developed for GEO 600 - the German/UK interferometric gravitational wave detector. The GEO design incorporates fused silica fibres of circular cross-section attached to the fused silica mirror (test mass) in the lowest pendulum stage, in order to minimize the thermal noise from the pendulum modes. The damping of the low-frequency modes of the triple pendulum is achieved by using co-located sensors and actuators at the highest mass of the triple pendulum. Another feature of the design is that global control forces acting on the mirrors, used to maintain the output of the interferometer on a dark fringe, are applied via a triple reaction pendulum, so that these forces can be implemented via a seismically isolated platform. These techniques have been extended to meet the more stringent noise levels planned for in Advanced LIGO. In particular, the Advanced LIGO baseline design requires a quadruple pendulum with a final stage consisting of a 40 kg sapphire mirror, suspended on fused silica ribbons or fibres. The design is chosen to aim to reach a target noise contribution from the suspension corresponding to a displacement sensitivity of 10 -19 m Hz -1/2 at 10 Hz at each of the test masses

  20. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E; Behm, David G; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key PointsCompared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation.A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity.More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation.A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS.

  1. Learning of Spatial Relationships between Observed and Imitated Actions allows Invariant Inverse Computation in the Frontal Mirror Neuron System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyuk; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Reggia, James A.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human mirror neuron system can facilitate learning by imitation through coupling of observation and action execution. During imitation of observed actions, the functional relationship between and within the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, and the superior temporal sulcus can be modeled within the internal model framework. The proposed biologically plausible mirror neuron system model extends currently available models by explicitly modeling the intraparietal sulcus and the superior parietal lobule in implementing the function of a frame of reference transformation during imitation. Moreover, the model posits the ventral premotor cortex as performing an inverse computation. The simulations reveal that: i) the transformation system can learn and represent the changes in extrinsic to intrinsic coordinates when an imitator observes a demonstrator; ii) the inverse model of the imitator’s frontal mirror neuron system can be trained to provide the motor plans for the imitated actions. PMID:22255261

  2. Learning of spatial relationships between observed and imitated actions allows invariant inverse computation in the frontal mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyuk; Gentili, Rodolphe J; Reggia, James A; Contreras-Vidal, José L

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human mirror neuron system can facilitate learning by imitation through coupling of observation and action execution. During imitation of observed actions, the functional relationship between and within the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, and the superior temporal sulcus can be modeled within the internal model framework. The proposed biologically plausible mirror neuron system model extends currently available models by explicitly modeling the intraparietal sulcus and the superior parietal lobule in implementing the function of a frame of reference transformation during imitation. Moreover, the model posits the ventral premotor cortex as performing an inverse computation. The simulations reveal that: i) the transformation system can learn and represent the changes in extrinsic to intrinsic coordinates when an imitator observes a demonstrator; ii) the inverse model of the imitator's frontal mirror neuron system can be trained to provide the motor plans for the imitated actions.

  3. Real-time wavefront correction system using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.T.; Bliss, E.S.; Long, T.W.; Orham, E.L.; Presta, R.W.; Swift, C.D.; Ward, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    We have developed an adaptive optics system that corrects up to five waves of 2nd-order and 3rd-order aberrations in a high-power laser beam to less than 1/10th wave RMS. The wavefront sensor is a Hartmann sensor with discrete lenses and position-sensitive photodiodes; the deformable mirror uses piezoelectric actuators with feedback from strain gauges bonded to the stacks. The controller hardware uses a VME bus. The system removes thermally induced aberrations generated in the master-oscillator-power-amplifier chains of a dye laser, as well as aberrations generated in beam combiners and vacuum isolation windows for average output powers exceeding 1 kW. The system bandwidth is 1 Hz, but higher bandwidths are easily attainable

  4. Controllable optical bistability in a three-mode optomechanical system with atom-cavity-mirror couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yan, Jia-Kai; Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistable behavior in a three-mode optomechanical system with atom-cavity-mirror couplings. The effects of the cavity-pump detuning and the pump power on the bistable behavior are discussed detailedly, the impacts of the atom-pump detuning and the atom-cavity coupling strength on the bistability of the system are also explored, and the influences of the cavity-resonator coupling strength and the cavity decay rate are also taken into consideration. The numerical results demonstrate that by tuning these parameters the bistable behavior of the system can be freely switched on or off, and the threshold of the pump power for the bistability as well as the bistable region width can also be effectively controlled. These results can find potential applications in optical bistable switch in the quantum information processing.

  5. Handbook of camera monitor systems the automotive mirror-replacement technology based on ISO 16505

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This handbook offers a comprehensive overview of Camera Monitor Systems (CMS), ranging from the ISO 16505-based development aspects to practical realization concepts. It offers readers a wide-ranging discussion of the science and technology of CMS as well as the human-interface factors of such systems. In addition, it serves as a single reference source with contributions from leading international CMS professionals and academic researchers. In combination with the latest version of UN Regulation No. 46, the normative framework of ISO 16505 permits CMS to replace mandatory rearview mirrors in series production vehicles. The handbook includes scientific and technical background information to further readers’ understanding of both of these regulatory and normative texts. It is a key reference in the field of automotive CMS for system designers, members of standardization and regulation committees, engineers, students and researchers.

  6. Program user's manual: cryogen system for the analysis for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility being designed and constructed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory requires a liquid helium liquefaction, storage, distribution, and recovery system and a liquid nitrogen storage and distribution system. To provide a powerful analytical tool to aid in the design evolution of this system through hardware, a thermodynamic fluid flow model was developed. This model allows the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to verify that the design meets desired goals and to play what if games during the design evolution. For example, what if the helium flow rate is changed in the magnet liquid helium flow loop; how does this affect the temperature, fluid quality, and pressure. This manual provides all the information required to run all or portions of this program as desired. In addition, the program is constructed in a modular fashion so changes or modifications can be made easily to keep up with the evolving design

  7. Research on Measurement Accuracy of Laser Tracking System Based on Spherical Mirror with Rotation Errors of Gimbal Mount Axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhaoyao; Song, Huixu; Chen, Hongfang; Sun, Yanqiang

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a novel experimental approach for confirming that spherical mirror of a laser tracking system can reduce the influences of rotation errors of gimbal mount axes on the measurement accuracy. By simplifying the optical system model of laser tracking system based on spherical mirror, we can easily extract the laser ranging measurement error caused by rotation errors of gimbal mount axes with the positions of spherical mirror, biconvex lens, cat's eye reflector, and measuring beam. The motions of polarization beam splitter and biconvex lens along the optical axis and vertical direction of optical axis are driven by error motions of gimbal mount axes. In order to simplify the experimental process, the motion of biconvex lens is substituted by the motion of spherical mirror according to the principle of relative motion. The laser ranging measurement error caused by the rotation errors of gimbal mount axes could be recorded in the readings of laser interferometer. The experimental results showed that the laser ranging measurement error caused by rotation errors was less than 0.1 μm if radial error motion and axial error motion were within ±10 μm. The experimental method simplified the experimental procedure and the spherical mirror could reduce the influences of rotation errors of gimbal mount axes on the measurement accuracy of the laser tracking system.

  8. Hysteresis-induced bifurcation and chaos in a magneto-rheological suspension system under external excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailong, Zhang; Enrong, Wang; Fuhong, Min; Ning, Zhang

    2016-03-01

    The magneto-rheological damper (MRD) is a promising device used in vehicle semi-active suspension systems, for its continuous adjustable damping output. However, the innate nonlinear hysteresis characteristic of MRD may cause the nonlinear behaviors. In this work, a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) MR suspension system was established first, by employing the modified Bouc-Wen force-velocity (F-v) hysteretic model. The nonlinear dynamic response of the system was investigated under the external excitation of single-frequency harmonic and bandwidth-limited stochastic road surface. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) was used to detect the chaotic area of the frequency and amplitude of harmonic excitation, and the bifurcation diagrams, time histories, phase portraits, and power spectrum density (PSD) diagrams were used to reveal the dynamic evolution process in detail. Moreover, the LLE and Kolmogorov entropy (K entropy) were used to identify whether the system response was random or chaotic under stochastic road surface. The results demonstrated that the complex dynamical behaviors occur under different external excitation conditions. The oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations was observed in detail. The chaotic regions revealed that chaotic motions may appear in conditions of mid-low frequency and large amplitude, as well as small amplitude and all frequency. The obtained parameter regions where the chaotic motions may appear are useful for design of structural parameters of the vibration isolation, and the optimization of control strategy for MR suspension system. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51475246, 51277098, and 51075215), the Research Innovation Program for College Graduates of Jiangsu Province China (Grant No. KYLX15 0725), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. BK20131402).

  9. Chiral mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-01-01

    Mirrors are used in telescopes, microscopes, photo cameras, lasers, satellite dishes, and everywhere else, where redirection of electromagnetic radiation is required making them arguably the most important optical component. While conventional isotropic mirrors will reflect linear polarizations without change, the handedness of circularly polarized waves is reversed upon reflection. Here, we demonstrate a type of mirror reflecting one circular polarization without changing its handedness, while absorbing the other. The polarization-preserving mirror consists of a planar metasurface with a subwavelength pattern that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image without being lifted out of its plane, and a conventional mirror spaced by a fraction of the wavelength from the metasurface. Such mirrors enable circularly polarized lasers and Fabry-Pérot cavities with enhanced tunability, gyroscopic applications, polarization-sensitive detectors of electromagnetic waves, and can be used to enhance spectroscopies of chiral media

  10. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  11. Compact vibration isolation and suspension for Australian International Gravitational Observatory: local control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jean-Charles; Barriga, Pablo; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G

    2009-11-01

    High performance vibration isolators are required for ground based gravitational wave detectors. To attain very high performance at low frequencies we have developed multistage isolators for the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory detector in Australia. New concepts in vibration isolation including self-damping, Euler springs, LaCoste springs, Roberts linkages, and double preisolation require novel sensors and actuators. Double preisolation enables internal feedback to be used to suppress low frequency seismic noise. Multidegree of freedom control systems are required to attain high performance. Here we describe the control components and control systems used to control all degrees of freedom. Feedback forces are injected at the preisolation stages and at the penultimate suspension stage. There is no direct actuation on test masses. A digital local control system hosted on a digital signal processor maintains alignment and position, corrects drifts, and damps the low frequency linear and torsional modes without exciting the very high Q-factor test mass suspension. The control system maintains an optical cavity locked to a laser with a high duty cycle even in the absence of an autoalignment system. An accompanying paper presents the mechanics of the system, and the optical cavity used to determine isolation performance. A feedback method is presented, which is expected to improve the residual motion at 1 Hz by more than one order of magnitude.

  12. Compact vibration isolation and suspension for Australian International Gravitational Observatory: Local control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jean-Charles; Barriga, Pablo; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G.

    2009-11-01

    High performance vibration isolators are required for ground based gravitational wave detectors. To attain very high performance at low frequencies we have developed multistage isolators for the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory detector in Australia. New concepts in vibration isolation including self-damping, Euler springs, LaCoste springs, Roberts linkages, and double preisolation require novel sensors and actuators. Double preisolation enables internal feedback to be used to suppress low frequency seismic noise. Multidegree of freedom control systems are required to attain high performance. Here we describe the control components and control systems used to control all degrees of freedom. Feedback forces are injected at the preisolation stages and at the penultimate suspension stage. There is no direct actuation on test masses. A digital local control system hosted on a digital signal processor maintains alignment and position, corrects drifts, and damps the low frequency linear and torsional modes without exciting the very high Q-factor test mass suspension. The control system maintains an optical cavity locked to a laser with a high duty cycle even in the absence of an autoalignment system. An accompanying paper presents the mechanics of the system, and the optical cavity used to determine isolation performance. A feedback method is presented, which is expected to improve the residual motion at 1 Hz by more than one order of magnitude.

  13. Exploring associations between gaze patterns and putative human mirror neuron system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Peter H; Gurvich, Caroline; Fielding, Joanne; Enticott, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    The human mirror neuron system (MNS) is hypothesized to be crucial to social cognition. Given that key MNS-input regions such as the superior temporal sulcus are involved in biological motion processing, and mirror neuron activity in monkeys has been shown to vary with visual attention, aberrant MNS function may be partly attributable to atypical visual input. To examine the relationship between gaze pattern and interpersonal motor resonance (IMR; an index of putative MNS activity), healthy right-handed participants aged 18-40 (n = 26) viewed videos of transitive grasping actions or static hands, whilst the left primary motor cortex received transcranial magnetic stimulation. Motor-evoked potentials recorded in contralateral hand muscles were used to determine IMR. Participants also underwent eyetracking analysis to assess gaze patterns whilst viewing the same videos. No relationship was observed between predictive gaze and IMR. However, IMR was positively associated with fixation counts in areas of biological motion in the videos, and negatively associated with object areas. These findings are discussed with reference to visual influences on the MNS, and the possibility that MNS atypicalities might be influenced by visual processes such as aberrant gaze pattern.

  14. Exploring associations between gaze patterns and putative human mirror neuron system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hugh Donaldson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human mirror neuron system (MNS is hypothesised to be crucial to social cognition. Given that key MNS-input regions such as the superior temporal sulcus are involved in biological motion processing, and mirror neuron activity in monkeys has been shown to vary with visual attention, aberrant MNS function may be partly attributable to atypical visual input. To examine the relationship between gaze pattern and interpersonal motor resonance (IMR; an index of putative MNS activity, healthy right-handed participants aged 18-40 (n = 26 viewed videos of transitive grasping actions or static hands, whilst the left primary motor cortex received transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs recorded in contralateral hand muscles were used to determine IMR. Participants also underwent eyetracking analysis to assess gaze patterns whilst viewing the same videos. No relationship was observed between predictive gaze (PG and IMR. However, IMR was positively associated with fixation counts in areas of biological motion in the videos, and negatively associated with object areas. These findings are discussed with reference to visual influences on the MNS, and the possibility that MNS atypicalities might be influenced by visual processes such as aberrant gaze pattern.

  15. Mirror neurons, procedural learning, and the positive new experience: a developmental systems self psychology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, N S; Gales, M; Shane, E; Shane, M

    2000-01-01

    In summary, we are impressed with the existence of a mirror neuron system in the prefrontal cortex that serves as part of a complex neural network, including afferent and efferent connections to the limbic system, in particular the amygdala, in addition to the premotor and motor cortex. We think it is possible to arrive at an integration that postulates the mirror neuron system and its many types of associated multimodal neurons as contributing significantly to implicit procedural learning, a process that underlies a range of complex nonconscious, unconscious, preconscious and conscious cognitive activities, from playing musical instruments to character formation and traumatic configurations. This type of brain circuitry may establish an external coherence with developmental systems self psychology which implies that positive new experience is meliorative and that the intentional revival of old-old traumatic relational configurations might enhance maladaptive procedural patterns that would lead to the opposite of the intended beneficial change. When analysts revive traumatic transference patterns for the purpose of clarification and interpretation, they may fail to appreciate that such traumatic transference patterns make interpretation ineffective because, as we have stated above, the patient lacks self-reflection under such traumatic conditions. The continued plasticity and immediacy of the mirror neuron system can contribute to positive new experiences that promote the formation of new, adaptive, implicit-procedural patterns. Perhaps this broadened repertoire in the patient of ways of understanding interrelational events through the psychoanalytic process allows the less adaptive patterns ultimately to become vestigial and the newer, more adaptive patterns to emerge as dominant. Finally, as we have stated, we believe that the intentional transferential revival of trauma (i.e., the old-old relational configuration) may not contribute to therapeutic benefit. In

  16. Why is your spouse so predictable? Connecting mirror neuron system and self-expansion model of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2008-12-01

    The simulation theory assumes we understand actions and intentions of others through a direct matching process. This matching process activates a complex brain network involving the mirror neuron system (MNS), which is self-related and active when one does something or observes someone else acting. Because social psychology admits that mutual intention's understanding grows in close relationship as love grows, we hypothesize that mirror mechanisms take place in love relationships. The similarities between the mirror matching process and the mutual intention's understanding that occurs when two persons are in love suggest that exposure to love might affect functional and neural mechanisms, thus facilitating the understanding of the beloved's intentions. Congruent with our hypothesis, our preliminary results from 38 subjects strongly suggest a significant facilitation effect of love on understanding the intentions of the beloved (as opposed to control stimuli). Based on these phenomenological, and neurofunctional findings we suggest that the mirror mechanisms are involved in the facilitation effects of love for understanding intentions, and might further be extended to any types of love (e.g., passionate love, maternal love). Love experiences are important not only to the beloved himself, but also to any societal, cultural, and institutional patterns that relate to love. Yet, concerning its subjective character, love experiences are difficult to access. The modern procedures and techniques of socio-cognitive neuroscience make it possible to understand love and self-related experiences not only by the analysis of subjective self-reported questionnaires, but also by approaching the automatic (non-conscious) mirror experiences of love in healthy subjects, and neurological patients with a brain damage within the mirror neuron system. Although the psychology of love is now well admitted, the systematic study of the automatic facilitation effect of love through mirror

  17. Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.D., E-mail: ydchung@suwon.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suwon University, Bongdang Eup, Hwaseong Si 445-743 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C.Y. [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Woram Dong, Uiwang Si 437-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ansan College of Technology, Choji-Dong, Ansan Si 425-792 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y.S. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Sinchon-dong, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, T.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ansan College of Technology, Choji-Dong, Ansan Si 425-792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    We examine levitation and propulsion forces of the proto-type maglev vehicle system based on 3D FEM. The levitation force increases over 15% due to AC current of the guideway. The levitation force by HTS electromagnet (EM) and AC current is larger over 30% than that of only HTS EM. We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

  18. Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Jang, J.Y.; Yoon, Y.S.; Ko, T.K.

    2011-01-01

    We examine levitation and propulsion forces of the proto-type maglev vehicle system based on 3D FEM. The levitation force increases over 15% due to AC current of the guideway. The levitation force by HTS electromagnet (EM) and AC current is larger over 30% than that of only HTS EM. We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

  19. Anatomical differences in the mirror neuron system and social cognition network in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Joseph, Robert M; Snyder, Josh; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2006-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impaired social and emotional skills, the anatomical substrate of which is still unknown. In this study, we compared a group of 14 high-functioning ASD adults with a group of controls matched for sex, age, intelligence quotient, and handedness. We used an automated technique of analysis that accurately measures the thickness of the cerebral cortex and generates cross-subject statistics in a coordinate system based on cortical anatomy. We found local decreases of gray matter in the ASD group in areas belonging to the mirror neuron system (MNS), argued to be the basis of empathic behavior. Cortical thinning of the MNS was correlated with ASD symptom severity. Cortical thinning was also observed in areas involved in emotion recognition and social cognition. These findings suggest that the social and emotional deficits characteristic of autism may reflect abnormal thinning of the MNS and the broader network of cortical areas subserving social cognition.

  20. A design assessment of tritium removal systems for the mirror advanced reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, S.K.; Kveton, O.K.

    1983-01-01

    This study investigates the available processes for removing tritium from light water, and selects the most appropriate process for recovering tritium from the various tritiated water streams identified in the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). A simplified flowsheet is shown for the process and the main process parameters are identified. Previous experience is utilized to predict direct capital costs and power requirement for the Tritiated Water Removal Unit (TWRU). A number of possibilities are discussed for lowering the cost of the TWRU. An estimate is made of the direct capital cost for the Air Detritiation System that has already been selected as the reference design by MARS personnel. The leakage from the MARS coolant loop is estimated, based on the experience obtained with Ontario Hydro's coolant systems. Design targets are identified for tritium levels in the reactor hall atmosphere and in water and air emissions. Tritium levels are predicted for these and are assessed against the previously identified targets

  1. Sustaining neutral beam power supply system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckard, R.D.; Wilson, J.H.; Van Ness, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    In late August 1978, a fixed price procurement contract for $25,000,000 was awarded to Aydin Energy Division, Palo Alto, California, for the design, manufacture, installation and acceptance testing of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) Sustaining Neutral Beam Power Supply System (SNBPSS). This system of 24 power supply sets will provide the conditioned power for the 24 neutral beam source modules. Each set will provide the accel potential the arc power, the filament power, and the suppressor power for its associated neutral beam source module. The design and development of the SNBPSS has progressed through the final design phase and is now in production. Testing of the major sub-assembly power supply is proceeding at Aydin and the final acceptance testing of the first two power supplies at LLNL is expected to be completed this year

  2. Compressible Fluid Suspension Performance Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoogterp, Francis

    2003-01-01

    ... compressible fluid suspension system that was designed and installed on the vehicle by DTI. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the possible performance benefits of the compressible fluid suspension system...

  3. Macrostructure of smectite-water systems. Influence of anionic poly-electrolytes on the organisation of montmorillonite suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morvan, Mikel

    1993-01-01

    In its first part, this research thesis reports a bibliographical study which aimed at highlighting the main aspects of smectite swelling, discusses the organisation of smectite suspension, and briefly presents the knowledge on clay-polymer mixtures. Then, the author describes the method he used to characterise clay suspensions (relaxation, MNR, osmometric techniques, small-angle X-ray diffraction), and theoretical elements required to interpret results. He addresses more particularly the organisation of smectite-water systems with either a natural smectite (montmorillonite) or a synthetic one (laponite) which have different geometries. The last part addresses the interactions between a montmorillonite suspension and sodium polyacrylates. The author, based on the use of small-angle X-ray diffraction and the measurement of the polyelectrolyte osmotic pressure, proposes a new interpretation of the action mechanism of an anionic polyelectrolyte of low molecular mass within a montmorillonite suspension

  4. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz

  5. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  6. Does dysfunction of the mirror neuron system contribute to symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, Andrew; Lemon, Roger; Kiernan, Matthew C.; Hornberger, Michael; Turner, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that mirror neurons, initially discovered over two decades ago in the monkey, are present in the human brain. In the monkey, mirror neurons characteristically fire not only when it is performing an action, such as grasping an object, but also when observing a similar action performed by another agent (human or monkey). In this review we discuss the origin, cortical distribution and possible functions of mirror neurons as a background to exploring their potential rele...

  7. U. S. Mirror Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1978-01-01

    The mirror approach is now the principal alternate to the tokamak in the U.S. magnetic fusion energy program. The program is now focused on two new concepts that can obtain high values of Q, defined as the ratio of fusion power output to the neutral beam power injected to sustain the reaction. These are the tandem mirror and field reversed mirror concepts. Theoretically both concepts should be able to attain Q = 5 or more, as compared with Q approximately 1 in previous mirror designs. Success with either or both of these approaches would point the way toward fusion power plants with many attractive features. The linear geometry of mirror systems offers a distinct alternative to the toroidal tokamak. As a direct consequence of this difference in geometry, it is generally possible to build mirror systems in smaller units of modular construction that can probably be made to operate in steady-state. During the next 5 years the main mirror facilities in the U.S. will be the 2XIIB (renamed Beta II); a tandem mirror experiment caled TMX; and the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) scheduled to be completed in 1981 at a cost of $94 million. As a background for discussing this program and mirror reactor concepts in later lectures, the current status of mirror physics will be reviewed by comparing theory and experimental data in four critical areas. These are adiabatic confinement of individual ions, electron heat losses out of the ends of the machine, the achievement of beta values of order unity; and stabilization of ''loss cone'' modes

  8. Numerical simulation of shock absorbers heat load for semi-active vehicle suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demić Miroslav D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modelling, has a significant role during to the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first design stages, when relevant parameters are to be defined. Shock absorber, as an executive part of a semi-active suspension system, is exposed to thermal loads which can lead to its damage and degradation of characteristics. Therefore, this paper attempts to analyze a conversion of mechanical work into heat energy by use of a method of dynamic simulation. The issue of heat dissipation from the shock absorber has not been taken into consideration.

  9. Superconducting electromagnets for large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boom, R.W.; Abdelsalam, M.K.; Bakerek, K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a new design study of a Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) for airplane models in a large 8 ft x 8 ft wind tunnel. New developments in the design include: use of a superconducting solenoid as a model core instead of magnetized iron; combination of permanent magnet material in the model wings along with four race-track coils to produce the required roll torque; and mounting of all the magnets in an integral cold structure instead of in separate cryostats. Design of superconducting solenoid model cores and practical experience with a small-scale prototype are discussed

  10. Motor-Auditory-Visual Integration: The Role of the Human Mirror Neuron System in Communication and Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bel, Ronald M.; Pineda, Jaime A.; Sharma, Anu

    2009-01-01

    The mirror neuron system (MNS) is a trimodal system composed of neuronal populations that respond to motor, visual, and auditory stimulation, such as when an action is performed, observed, heard or read about. In humans, the MNS has been identified using neuroimaging techniques (such as fMRI and mu suppression in the EEG). It reflects an…

  11. Avoiding unstable regions in the design space of EUV mirror systems comprising high-order aspheric surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinescu, O.; Bociort, F.; Braat, J.

    2004-01-01

    When Extreme Ultraviolet mirror systems having several high-order aspheric surfaces are optimized, the configurations often enter into highly unstable regions of the parameter space. Small changes of system parameters lead then to large changes in ray paths, and therefore optimization algorithms

  12. Adaptive Neural-Sliding Mode Control of Active Suspension System for Camera Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The camera always suffers from image instability on the moving vehicle due to the unintentional vibrations caused by road roughness. This paper presents a novel adaptive neural network based on sliding mode control strategy to stabilize the image captured area of the camera. The purpose is to suppress vertical displacement of sprung mass with the application of active suspension system. Since the active suspension system has nonlinear and time varying characteristics, adaptive neural network (ANN is proposed to make the controller robustness against systematic uncertainties, which release the model-based requirement of the sliding model control, and the weighting matrix is adjusted online according to Lyapunov function. The control system consists of two loops. The outer loop is a position controller designed with sliding mode strategy, while the PID controller in the inner loop is to track the desired force. The closed loop stability and asymptotic convergence performance can be guaranteed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the simulation results show that the employed controller effectively suppresses the vibration of the camera and enhances the stabilization of the entire camera, where different excitations are considered to validate the system performance.

  13. Adaptive neural networks control for camera stabilization with active suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The camera always suffers from image instability on the moving vehicle due to unintentional vibrations caused by road roughness. This article presents an adaptive neural network approach mixed with linear quadratic regulator control for a quarter-car active suspension system to stabilize the image captured area of the camera. An active suspension system provides extra force through the actuator which allows it to suppress vertical vibration of sprung mass. First, to deal with the road disturbance and the system uncertainties, radial basis function neural network is proposed to construct the map between the state error and the compensation component, which can correct the optimal state-feedback control law. The weights matrix of radial basis function neural network is adaptively tuned online. Then, the closed-loop stability and asymptotic convergence performance is guaranteed by Lyapunov analysis. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller effectively suppresses the vibration of the camera and enhances the stabilization of the entire camera, where different excitations are considered to validate the system performance.

  14. Evaluation of indeterminacy of initial data for cad system of electric engine suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, D. Ya; Izmerov, O. V.; Shorokhov, S. G.; Nadtochey, D. G.

    2018-03-01

    The research of the variants of the suspension of the traction electric motor of diesel locomotives was performed. It was found that the method of designing the suspension does not take into consideration the possible changes of the characteristics of the parts in operation conditions. Variants of the suspension design were proposed and patented, which provide the work reliability despite the operating conditions.

  15. Design of Immune-Algorithm-Based Adaptive Fuzzy Controllers for Active Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Shieh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to integrate the artificial immune systems and adaptive fuzzy control for the automobile suspension system, which is regarded as a multiobjective optimization problem. Moreover, the fuzzy control rules and membership controls are then introduced for identification and memorization. It leads fast convergence in the search process. Afterwards, by using the diversity of the antibody group, trapping into local optimum can be avoided, and the system possesses a global search capacity and a faster local search for finding a global optimal solution. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system with the recognition and memory functions allows the system to rapidly converge and search for the global optimal approximate solutions.

  16. High angle of attack position sensing for the Southampton University magnetic suspension and balance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David H.

    1987-01-01

    An all digital five channel position detection system is to be installed in the Southampton University Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (SUMSBS). The system is intended to monitor a much larger range of model pitch attitudes than has been possible hitherto, up to a maximum of a 90 degree angle of attack. It is based on the use of self-scanning photodiode arrays and illuminating laser light beams, together with purpose built processing electronics. The principles behind the design of the system are discussed, together with the results of testing one channel of the system which was used to control the axial position of a magnetically suspended model in SUMSBS. The removal of optically coupled heave position information from the axial position sensing channel is described.

  17. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    fluid-fluid interface [2]. Together with Remco Tuinier, Henk has recently completed a book in this area which is to appear later this year. A major theme in Henk's research is that of phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystals. Henk, together with Daan Frenkel and Alain Stroobants, realized in the 1980s that a smectic phase in dispersions of rod-like particles can be stable without the presence of attractive interactions, similar to nematic ordering as predicted earlier by Onsager [3]. Together with Gert-Jan Vroege he wrote a seminal review in this area [4]. Henk once said that 'one can only truly develop one colloidal model system in one's career' and in his case this must be that of gibbsite platelets. Initially Henk's group pursued another polymorph of aluminium hydroxide, boehmite, which forms rod-like particles [5], which already displayed nematic liquid crystal phases. The real breakthrough came when the same precursors treated the produced gibbsite platelets slightly differently. These reliably form a discotic nematic phase [6] and, despite the polydispersity in their diameter, a columnar phase [7]. A theme encompassing a wide range of soft matter systems is that of colloidal dynamics and phase transition kinetics. Many colloidal systems have a tendency to get stuck in metastable states, such as gels or glasses. This is a nuisance if one wishes to study phase transitions, but it is of great practical significance. Such issues feature in many of Henk's publications, and with Valerie Anderson he wrote a highly cited review in this area [8]. Henk Lekkerkerker has also invested significant effort into the promotion of synchrotron radiation studies of colloidal suspensions. He was one of the great supporters of the Dutch-Belgian beamline 'DUBBLE' project at the ESRF [9]. He attended one of the very first experiments in Grenoble in 1999, which led to a Nature publication [7]. He was strongly involved in many other experiments which followed and also has been a

  18. Establishment of Aquilaria malaccensis Callus, cell suspension and adventitious root systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin; Rusli Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Aquilaria malaccensis is a tropical forest tree from the family Thymelaeaceae, an endangered forest species and was listed in CITES since 1995. Locally known as Pokok Karas, this tree produces agar wood or gaharu, a highly valuable, resinous and fragrant forest product. Karas has been highly recognized for its vast medicinal values and gaharu has been widely use for perfumery, incense and religious purposes. The phyto chemical studies of agar wood showed that Sesqui terpenoid and Phenyl ethy chromone derivatives are the principal compounds that have anti allergic and anti microbe activities. Cell and organ culture systems provide large scale production of biomass and offers feasibilities for the production of secondary metabolites. This paper describes the work done for establishing reproducible systems for callus initiation and production of cell suspension cultures as well as production of adventitious roots that will later be amenable for the production of secondary metabolites of A. malaccensis. Hence, further manipulation with Methyl Jasmonate, a chemical elicitor could be done to induce secondary metabolites using callus, cell suspension and adventitious roots systems. (author)

  19. Optimization and performance evaluation of a conical mirror based fluorescence molecular tomography imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    We performed numerical simulations and phantom experiments with a conical mirror based fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) imaging system to optimize its performance. With phantom experiments, we have compared three measurement modes in FMT: the whole surface measurement mode, the transmission mode, and the reflection mode. Our results indicated that the whole surface measurement mode performed the best. Then, we applied two different neutral density (ND) filters to improve the measurement's dynamic range. The benefits from ND filters are not as much as predicted. Finally, with numerical simulations, we have compared two laser excitation patterns: line and point. With the same excitation position number, we found that the line laser excitation had slightly better FMT reconstruction results than the point laser excitation. In the future, we will implement Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations to calculate multiple reflection photons, and create a look-up table accordingly for calibration.

  20. Single-axis four-mirror system: large spherical primary and small fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranne, Andre

    1998-08-01

    A catoptric corrector of modest size can be used for large spherical primaries, easily integrated at the prime focus, this corrector gives back to the system, aspect and properties of 2-mirrors classical telescopes. In the last few years, progress in active and adaptative optics makes possible a lot of things, progress in measuring distances, new ideas on optical coatings, new materials and so on in a near future, all that makes the instrumentalist dreamy It is said that nobody knows today if the size of 3rd millennium telescopes will be limited or not by a theoretical, physical or technical phenomenon, thus let us imagine but with thoughtfulness because our projects will be surely restricted by financial considerations

  1. Development of a Plasma Streaming System for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdsworth, T.; Clark, R.N.; McCotter, R.E.; Rossow, T.L.; Cruz, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Plasma Streaming System (PSS) is an essential portion of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), scheduled for completion in October 1981. The PSS will develop a plasma density of at least 2 x 10 12 particles/cm 3 at the MFTF magnet centerline by injecting particles along the field lines. The plasma will have a midplane plasma radius as large as 40 cm with variable plasma particle energy and beam geometry. Minimum amounts of impurities will be injected, with emphasis on minimizing high Z materials. Each of the 60 PSS units will consist of a gun magnet assembly (GMA) and a power supply. Each GMA consists of a plasma streaming gun, a pulse magnet that provides variable beam shaping, and a fast reaction pulse gas valve

  2. A Novel Mirror-Aided Non-imaging Receiver for Indoor 2x2 MIMO Visible Light Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2017-06-07

    Indoor visible light communication (VLC) systems are now possible because of advances in light emitting diode and laser diode technologies. These lighting technologies provide the foundation for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) data transmission through visible light. However, the channel matrix can be strongly correlated in indoor MIMO-VLC systems, preventing parallel data streams from being decoded. Here, in $2\\\\times 2$ MIMO-VLC systems, we describe a mirror diversity receiver (MDR) design that reduces the channel correlation by both blocking the reception of light from one specific direction and improving the channel gain from light from another direction by utilizing a double-sided mirror deployed between the receiver\\'s photodetectors. We report on the channel capacity of the MDR system and the optimal height of its mirrors in terms of maximum channel capacity. We also derived analytic results on the effect of rotation on MDR\\'s performance. Based on numerical and experimental results, we show that the double-sided mirror has both constructive and destructive effects on the channel matrix. Our design can be used with previously described non-imaging systems to improve the performance of indoor VLC systems.

  3. Conception and design of a control and monitoring system for the mirror alignment of the CBM RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendarouach, J

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures created in A+A collisions. For the SIS100 accelerator, the foreseen beam energy will range up to 11 AGeV for the heaviest nuclei. One of the key detector components required for the CBM physics program is the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector, which is developed for efficient and clean electron identification and pion suppression. An important aspect to guarantee a stable operation of the RICH detector is the alignment of the mirrors. A qualitative alignment control procedure for the mirror system has been implemented in the CBM RICH prototype detector and tested under real conditions at the CERN PS/T9 beamline. Collected data and results of image processing are reviewed and discussed. In parallel a quantitative method using recorded data has also been employed to compute mirror displacements of the RICH mirrors. Results based on simulated events and the limits of the method are presented and discussed as well. If mirror misalignment is detected, it can be subsequently included and rectified by correction routines. A first correction routine is presented and a comparison between misaligned, corrected and ideal geometries is shown. (paper)

  4. Conception and design of a control and monitoring system for the mirror alignment of the CBM RICH detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendarouach, J.

    2016-08-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures created in A+A collisions. For the SIS100 accelerator, the foreseen beam energy will range up to 11 AGeV for the heaviest nuclei. One of the key detector components required for the CBM physics program is the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector, which is developed for efficient and clean electron identification and pion suppression. An important aspect to guarantee a stable operation of the RICH detector is the alignment of the mirrors. A qualitative alignment control procedure for the mirror system has been implemented in the CBM RICH prototype detector and tested under real conditions at the CERN PS/T9 beamline. Collected data and results of image processing are reviewed and discussed. In parallel a quantitative method using recorded data has also been employed to compute mirror displacements of the RICH mirrors. Results based on simulated events and the limits of the method are presented and discussed as well. If mirror misalignment is detected, it can be subsequently included and rectified by correction routines. A first correction routine is presented and a comparison between misaligned, corrected and ideal geometries is shown.

  5. Robust control of nonlinear MAGLEV suspension system with mismatched uncertainties via DOBC approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zolotas, Argyrios; Chen, Wen-Hua; Michail, Konstantinos; Li, Shihua

    2011-07-01

    Robust control of a class of uncertain systems that have disturbances and uncertainties not satisfying "matching" condition is investigated in this paper via a disturbance observer based control (DOBC) approach. In the context of this paper, "matched" disturbances/uncertainties stand for the disturbances/uncertainties entering the system through the same channels as control inputs. By properly designing a disturbance compensation gain, a novel composite controller is proposed to counteract the "mismatched" lumped disturbances from the output channels. The proposed method significantly extends the applicability of the DOBC methods. Rigorous stability analysis of the closed-loop system with the proposed method is established under mild assumptions. The proposed method is applied to a nonlinear MAGnetic LEViation (MAGLEV) suspension system. Simulation shows that compared to the widely used integral control method, the proposed method provides significantly improved disturbance rejection and robustness against load variation. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Suspension-thermal noise in spring–antispring systems for future gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Jan; Mow-Lowry, Conor M.

    2018-01-01

    Spring–antispring systems have been investigated in the context of low-frequency seismic isolation in high-precision optical experiments. These systems provide the possibility to tune the fundamental resonance frequency to, in principle, arbitrarily low values, and at the same time maintain a compact design. It was argued though that thermal noise in spring–antispring systems would not be as small as one may naively expect from lowering the fundamental resonance frequency. In this paper, we present calculations of suspension-thermal noise for spring–antispring systems potentially relevant in future gravitational-wave detectors, i.e. the beam-balance tiltmeter, and the Roberts linkage. We find a concise expression of the suspension-thermal noise spectrum, which assumes a form very similar to the well-known expression for a simple pendulum. For systems such as the Roberts linkage foreseen as passive seismic isolation, we find that while they can provide strong seismic isolation due to a very low fundamental resonance frequency, their thermal noise is determined by the dimension of the system and is insensitive to fine-tunings of the geometry that can strongly influence the resonance frequency. By analogy, i.e. formal similarity of the equations of motion, this is true for all horizontal mechanical isolation systems with spring–antispring dynamics. This imposes strict requirements on mechanical spring–antispring systems for seismic isolation in potential future low-frequency gravitational-wave detectors as we discuss for the four main concepts, atom-interferometric, superconducting, torsion-bars, and conventional laser interferometer, and generally suggests that thermal noise needs to be evaluated carefully for high-precision experiments implementing spring–antispring dynamics.

  7. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proise, M.

    1994-01-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  8. An approach for multi-objective optimization of vehicle suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulocheris, D.; Papaioannou, G.; Christodoulou, D.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a half car model of with nonlinear suspension systems is selected in order to study the vertical vibrations and optimize its suspension system with respect to ride comfort and road holding. A road bump was used as road profile. At first, the optimization problem is solved with the use of Genetic Algorithms with respect to 6 optimization targets. Then the k - ɛ optimization method was implemented to locate one optimum solution. Furthermore, an alternative approach is presented in this work: the previous optimization targets are separated in main and supplementary ones, depending on their importance in the analysis. The supplementary targets are not crucial to the optimization but they could enhance the main objectives. Thus, the problem was solved again using Genetic Algorithms with respect to the 3 main targets of the optimization. Having obtained the Pareto set of solutions, the k - ɛ optimality method was implemented for the 3 main targets and the supplementary ones, evaluated by the simulation of the vehicle model. The results of both cases are presented and discussed in terms of convergence of the optimization and computational time. The optimum solutions acquired from both cases are compared based on performance metrics as well.

  9. Dysfunction of the Human Mirror Neuron System in Ideomotor Apraxia: Evidence from Mu Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel-Toledo, Silvi; Liebermann, Dario G; Bentin, Shlomo; Soroker, Nachum

    2016-06-01

    Stroke patients with ideomotor apraxia (IMA) have difficulties controlling voluntary motor actions, as clearly seen when asked to imitate simple gestures performed by the examiner. Despite extensive research, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying failure to imitate gestures in IMA remain controversial. The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between imitation failure in IMA and mirror neuron system (MNS) functioning. Mirror neurons were found to play a crucial role in movement imitation and in imitation-based motor learning. Their recruitment during movement observation and execution is signaled in EEG recordings by suppression of the lower (8-10 Hz) mu range. We examined the modulation of EEG in this range in stroke patients with left (n = 21) and right (n = 15) hemisphere damage during observation of video clips showing different manual movements. IMA severity was assessed by the DeRenzi standardized diagnostic test. Results showed that failure to imitate observed manual movements correlated with diminished mu suppression in patients with damage to the right inferior parietal lobule and in patients with damage to the right inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis-areas where major components of the human MNS are assumed to reside. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping revealed a significant impact on imitation capacity for the left inferior and superior parietal lobules and the left post central gyrus. Both left and right hemisphere damages were associated with imitation failure typical of IMA, yet a clear demonstration of relationship to the MNS was obtained only in the right hemisphere damage group. Suppression of the 8-10 Hz range was stronger in central compared with occipital sites, pointing to a dominant implication of mu rather than alpha rhythms. However, the suppression correlated with De Renzi's apraxia test scores not only in central but also in occipital sites, suggesting a multifactorial mechanism for IMA, with a possible

  10. Professor Jesse W. Beams and the first practical magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, P. E.; Humphris, R. R.; Lewis, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Dr. Jesse W. Beams developed the first practical magnetic suspension for high speed rotating devices. The devices included high speed rotating mirrors, ultracentrifuges, and high speed centrifugal field rotors. A brief biography of Dr. Beams is presented, and the following topics are discussed: (1) early axial magnetic suspension for ultracentrifuges; and (2) magnetic suspension for high centrifugal fields.

  11. Reduced mu suppression and altered motor resonance in euthymic bipolar disorder: Evidence for a dysfunctional mirror system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sophie C; Enticott, Peter G; Hoy, Kate E; Thomson, Richard H; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Social cognitive difficulties are common in the acute phase of bipolar disorder and, to a lesser extent, during the euthymic stage, and imaging studies of social cognition in euthymic bipolar disorder have implicated mirror system brain regions. This study aimed to use a novel multimodal approach (i.e., including both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalogram (EEG)) to investigate mirror systems in bipolar disorder. Fifteen individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder and 16 healthy controls participated in this study. Single-pulse TMS was applied to the optimal site in the primary motor cortex (M1), which stimulates the muscle of interest during the observation of hand movements (goal-directed or interacting) designed to elicit mirror system activity. Single EEG electrodes (C3, CZ, C4) recorded mu rhythm modulation concurrently. Results revealed that the patient group showed significantly less mu suppression compared to healthy controls. Surprisingly, motor resonance was not significantly different overall between groups; however, bipolar disorder participants showed a pattern of reduced reactivity on some conditions. Although preliminary, this study indicates a potential mirror system deficit in euthymic bipolar disorder, which may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disorder.

  12. What neuromodulation and lesion studies tell us about the function of the mirror neuron system and embodied cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Paracampo, Riccardo; Gazzola, V.

    2018-01-01

    We review neuromodulation and lesion studies that address how activations in the mirror neuron system contribute to our perception of observed actions. Past reviews showed disruptions of this parieto-premotor network impair imitation and goal and kinematic processing. Recent studies bring five new

  13. White Matter Microstructure of the Human Mirror Neuron System Is Related to Symptom Severity in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fründt, Odette; Schulz, Robert; Schöttle, Daniel; Cheng, Bastian; Thomalla, Götz; Braaß, Hanna; Ganos, Christos; David, Nicole; Peiker, Ina; Engel, Andreas K.; Bäumer, Tobias; Münchau, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Mirror neuron system (MNS) dysfunctions might underlie deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Diffusion tensor imaging based probabilistic tractography was conducted in 15 adult ASD patients and 13 matched, healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was quantified to assess group differences in tract-related white matter microstructure of…

  14. Imitation and Action Understanding in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: How Valid Is the Hypothesis of a Deficit in the Mirror Neuron System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.; Brindley, Rachel M.; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    The motor mirror neuron system supports imitation and goal understanding in typical adults. Recently, it has been proposed that a deficit in this mirror neuron system might contribute to poor imitation performance in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be a cause of poor social abilities in these children. We aimed to test…

  15. Mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, Claire

    1999-01-01

    This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...

  16. Einstein's Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-10-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity.1-4 The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a constant velocity.5 Einstein showed an intriguing fact that the usual law of reflection would not hold in the case of a uniformly moving mirror, that is, the angles of incidence and reflection of the light would not equal each other. Later on, it has been shown that the law of reflection at a moving mirror can be obtained in various alternative ways,6-10 but none of them seems suitable for bringing this interesting subject into the high school classroom.

  17. T-S Fuzzy Model Based Control Strategy for the Networked Suspension Control System of Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The control problem for the networked suspension control system of maglev train with random induced time delay and packet dropouts is investigated. First, Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy models are utilized to represent the discrete-time nonlinear networked suspension control system, and the parameters uncertainties of the nonlinear model have also been taken into account. The controllers take the form of parallel distributed compensation. Then, a sufficient condition for the stability of the networked suspension control system is derived. Based on the criteria, the state feedback fuzzy controllers are obtained, and the controller gains can be computed by using MATLAB LMI Toolbox directly. Finally, both the numerical simulations and physical experiments on the full-scale single bogie of CMS-04 maglev train have been accomplished to demonstrate the effectiveness of this proposed method.

  18. Simulation of disturbance rejection control of half-car active suspension system using active disturbance rejection control with decoupling transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbullah, Faried; Faris, Waleed F.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) has become a popular control alternative due to its easy applicability and robustness to varying processes. In this article, ADRC with input decoupling transformation (ADRC-IDT) is proposed to improve ride comfort of a vehicle with an active suspension system using half-car model. The ride performance of the ADRC-IDT is evaluated and compared with decentralized ADRC control as well as the passive system. Simulation results show that both ADRC and ADRC-IDT manage to appreciably reduce body accelerations and able to cope well with varying conditions typically encountered in an active suspension system. Also, it is sufficient to control only the body motions with both active controllers to improve ride comfort while maintaining good road holding and small suspension working space.

  19. MEMS scanner mirror based system for retina scanning and in eye projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woittennek, Franziska; Knobbe, Jens; Pügner, Tino; Dallmann, Hans-Georg; Schelinski, Uwe; Grüger, Heinrich

    2015-02-01

    Many applications could benefit from miniaturized systems to scan blood vessels behind the retina in the human eye, so called "retina scanning". This reaches from access control to sophisticated security applications and medical devices. High volume systems for consumer applications require low cost and a user friendly operation. For example this includes no need for removal of glasses and self-adjustment, in turn guidance of focus and point of attraction by simultaneous projection for the user. A new system has been designed based on the well-known resonantly driven 2-d scanner mirror of Fraunhofer IPMS. A combined NIR and VIS laser system illuminates the eye through an eye piece designed for an operating distance allowing the use of glasses and granting sufficient field of view. This usability feature was considered to be more important than highest miniaturization. The modulated VIS laser facilitates the projection of an image directly onto the retina. The backscattered light from the continuous NIR laser contains the information of the blood vessels and is detected by a highly sensitive photo diode. A demonstrational setup has been realized including readout and driving electronics. The laser power was adjusted to an eye-secure level. Additional security features were integrated. Test measurements revealed promising results. In a first demonstration application the detection of biometric pattern of the blood vessels was evaluated for issues authentication in.

  20. A novel automotive headlight system based on digital micro-mirror devices and diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping; Song, Yuming; Ma, Jianshe

    2018-01-01

    The DMD (Digital Micro-mirror Device) has the advantages of high refresh rate and high diffraction efficiency, and these make it become an ideal loader of multiple modes illumination. DOEs (Diffractive Optical Element) have the advantages of high degree of freedom, light weight, easy to copy, low cost etc., and can be used to reduce the weight, complexity, cost of optical system. A novel automotive headlamp system using DMD as the light distribution element and a DOE as the light field modulation device is proposed in this paper. The pure phase DOE is obtained by the GS algorithm using Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral model. Based on the standard automotive headlamp light intensity distribution in the target plane, the amplitude distribution of DMD is obtained by numerical simulation, and the grayscale diagram loaded on the DMD can be obtained accordingly. Finally, according to simulation result, the light intensity distribution in the target plane is proportional to the national standard, hence verifies the validity of the novel system. The novel illumination system proposed in this paper provides a reliable hardware platform for the intelligent headlamps.

  1. Self-processing and the default mode network: Interactions with the mirror neuron system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan eMolnar-Szakacs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence for the fractionation of the default mode network (DMN into functionally distinguishable subdivisions with unique patterns of connectivity calls for a reconceptualization of the relationship between this network and self-referential processing. Advances in resting-state functional connectivity analyses are beginning to reveal increasingly complex patterns of organization within the key nodes of the DMN - medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC – as well as between these nodes and other brain systems. Here we review recent examinations of the relationships between the DMN and various aspects of self-relevant and social-cognitive processing in light of emerging evidence for heterogeneity within this network. Drawing from a rapidly evolving social cognitive neuroscience literature, we propose that embodied simulation and mentalizing are processes which allow us to gain insight into another's physical and mental state by providing privileged access to our own physical and mental states. Embodiment implies that the same neural systems are engaged for self- and other-understanding through a simulation mechanism, while mentalizing refers to the use of high-level conceptual information to make inferences about the mental states of self and others. These mechanisms work together to provide a coherent representation of the self and by extension, of others. Nodes of the DMN selectively interact with brain systems for embodiment and mentalizing, including the mirror neuron system, to produce appropriate mappings in the service of social cognitive demands.

  2. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a “Violin-Mode” transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a “tall-thin” rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse “Violin-Mode” vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor’s DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor’s more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz–300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m"−"1 was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC

  3. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a “Violin-Mode” transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V. [SUPA (Scottish Universities Physics Alliance) Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a “tall-thin” rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse “Violin-Mode” vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor’s DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor’s more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz–300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m{sup −1} was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC

  4. Polarization and reflectivity changes on mirror based viewing systems during long pulse operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaquias, A. [Association-Euratom/IST, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Von Hellermann, M. [Association-Euratom-FOM, Institute for Plasma Physique Rijnhuizen (Netherlands); Lotte, P. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Tugarinov, S. [SRC Triniti, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Voitsenya, V.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (Ukraine)

    2003-07-01

    In ITER, long plasma discharges will produce a high flux of energetic particles leading to high erosion rate, as a consequence materials from first wall and divertor i.e. Be and C (or eventually W) will be released and will pile up on slightly-buried surfaces. Particularly affected by this scenario are MSE (motional Stark effect) diagnostic first mirrors. In this work the change in the polarization state of incident light induced by Be and C deposition on Au mirror is calculated. The results show that Be and C deposition on Au mirror will induce changes on light polarization and reflectivity properties as a function of layer thickness. For Be case, all the induced effects are seem to stabilize above 75 nm. This result indicates that the otherwise Au mirror becomes a Be mirror suggesting that the use of Be mirror as first mirror may help to diminish the transitional optical changes from Au to Be. For the case of C deposit, the results show that the polarization induced changes and intensity modulation (interference) are quite marked and much more visible than in the case of Be. In that sense, machines using C components will produce a more undesirable mirror deposit than a BPX with a Be first wall, although, they take advantage of a lower deposition rate. We have no data on Be or C deposition rate for ITER yet, but for the ITER MSE case, control and monitoring of the mirror state shall be included in the optical design. Uncertainties on measuring the polarization angle can be translated on the achievable spatial resolution.

  5. Polarization and reflectivity changes on mirror based viewing systems during long pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaquias, A.; Von Hellermann, M.; Lotte, P.; Voitsenya, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    In ITER, long plasma discharges will produce a high flux of energetic particles leading to high erosion rate, as a consequence materials from first wall and divertor i.e. Be and C (or eventually W) will be released and will pile up on slightly-buried surfaces. Particularly affected by this scenario are MSE (motional Stark effect) diagnostic first mirrors. In this work the change in the polarization state of incident light induced by Be and C deposition on Au mirror is calculated. The results show that Be and C deposition on Au mirror will induce changes on light polarization and reflectivity properties as a function of layer thickness. For Be case, all the induced effects are seem to stabilize above 75 nm. This result indicates that the otherwise Au mirror becomes a Be mirror suggesting that the use of Be mirror as first mirror may help to diminish the transitional optical changes from Au to Be. For the case of C deposit, the results show that the polarization induced changes and intensity modulation (interference) are quite marked and much more visible than in the case of Be. In that sense, machines using C components will produce a more undesirable mirror deposit than a BPX with a Be first wall, although, they take advantage of a lower deposition rate. We have no data on Be or C deposition rate for ITER yet, but for the ITER MSE case, control and monitoring of the mirror state shall be included in the optical design. Uncertainties on measuring the polarization angle can be translated on the achievable spatial resolution

  6. Analysis Of The Method Of Predictive Control Applicable To Active Magnetic Suspension Systems Of Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnyta-Mazurek Paulina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional controllers are usually synthesized on the basis of already known parameters associated with the model developed for the object to be controlled. However, sometimes it proves extremely difficult or even infeasible to find out these parameters, in particular when they subject to changes during the exploitation lifetime. If so, much more sophisticated control methods have to be applied, e.g. the method of predictive control. Thus, the paper deals with application of the predictive control approach to follow-up tracking of an active magnetic suspension where the mathematical and simulation models for such a control system are disclosed with preliminary results from simulation investigations of the control system in question.

  7. Development of Matlab Simulink model for dynamics analysis of passive suspension system for lightweight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, M. S.; Ismail, K. A.; Taha, Z.; Aiman, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    In designing suitable isolators to reduce unwanted vibration in vehicles, the response from a mathematical model which characterizes the transmissibility ratio of the input and output of the vehicle is required. In this study, a Matlab Simulink model is developed to study the dynamic behaviour performance of passive suspension system for a lightweight electric vehicle. The Simulink model is based on the two degrees of freedom system quarter car model. The model is compared to the theoretical plots of the transmissibility ratios between the amplitudes of the displacements and accelerations of the sprung and unsprung masses to the amplitudes of the ground, against the frequencies at different damping values. It was found that the frequency responses obtained from the theoretical calculations and from the Simulink simulation is comparable to each other. Hence, the model may be extended to a full vehicle model.

  8. Structural observation of long-span suspension bridges for safety assessment: implementation of an optical displacement measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, L Lages; Ribeiro, A Silva; Rebordão, J M

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the implementation of an optical displacement measurement system in the observation scenario of a long-span suspension bridge and its contribution for structural safety assessment. The metrological background required for quality assurance of the measurements is described, namely, the system's intrinsic parameterization and integration in the SI dimensional traceability chain by calibration, including its measurement uncertainty assessment

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXI, I--MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING REAR END SUSPENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM AND REAR AXLE SUSPENSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) AIR INDUCTION AND EXHAUST SYSTEM, (2) VALVE MECHANISM, (3) TROUBLESHOOTING THE AIR SYSTEM, (4) PURPOSE OF VEHICLE SUSPENSION, (5) TANDEM…

  10. Compact Low-Power Driver for Deformable Mirror Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boston Micromachines Corporation (BMC), a leading developer of unique, high-resolution micromachined deformable mirrors (DMs), will develop a compact, low-power,...

  11. Mathematical Modeling of Radiant Heat Transfer in Mirror Systems Considering Deep Reflecting Surface Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Leonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing large-sized mirror concentrating systems (MCS for high-temperature solar power plants, one must have at disposal reasonably reliable and economical methods and tools, making it possible to analyze its characteristics, to predict them depending on the operation conditions and accordingly to choose the most suitable system for the solution of particular task.Experimental determination of MCS characteristics requires complicated and expensive experimentation, having significant limitations on interpretation of the results, as well as limitations imposed due to the size of the structure. Therefore it is of particular interest to develop a mathematical model capable of estimating power characteristics of MCS considering the influence of operating conditions, design features, roughness and other surface defects.For efficient solution of the tasks the model must ensure simulation of solar radiant flux as well as simulation of geometrical and optical characteristics of reflection surface and their interaction. In this connection a statistical mathematical model of radiation heat exchange based on use of Monte Carlo methods and Finite Element Method was developed and realized in the software complex, making it possible to determine main characteristics of the MCS.In this paper the main attention is given to definition of MCS radiation characteristics with account for deep reflecting surface defects (cavities, craters. Deep cavities are not typical for MCS, but their occurrence is possible during operation as a result of erosion or any physical damage. For example, for space technology it is primarily micrometeorite erosion.

  12. Autism, emotion recognition and the mirror neuron system: the case of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Wang, Martha J; Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Overy, Katie; Wu, Wai-Ling; Piggot, Judith

    2009-11-16

    Understanding emotions is fundamental to our ability to navigate and thrive in a complex world of human social interaction. Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are known to experience difficulties with the communication and understanding of emotion, such as the nonverbal expression of emotion and the interpretation of emotions of others from facial expressions and body language. These deficits often lead to loneliness and isolation from peers, and social withdrawal from the environment in general. In the case of music however, there is evidence to suggest that individuals with ASD do not have difficulties recognizing simple emotions. In addition, individuals with ASD have been found to show normal and even superior abilities with specific aspects of music processing, and often show strong preferences towards music. It is possible these varying abilities with different types of expressive communication may be related to a neural system referred to as the mirror neuron system (MNS), which has been proposed as deficient in individuals with autism. Music's power to stimulate emotions and intensify our social experiences might activate the MNS in individuals with ASD, and thus provide a neural foundation for music as an effective therapeutic tool. In this review, we present literature on the ontogeny of emotion processing in typical development and in individuals with ASD, with a focus on the case of music.

  13. From music making to speaking: engaging the mirror neuron system in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Catherine Y; Demaine, Krystal; Zipse, Lauryn; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2010-05-31

    Individuals with autism show impairments in emotional tuning, social interactions and communication. These are functions that have been attributed to the putative human mirror neuron system (MNS), which contains neurons that respond to the actions of self and others. It has been proposed that a dysfunction of that system underlies some of the characteristics of autism. Here, we review behavioral and imaging studies that implicate the MNS (or a brain network with similar functions) in sensory-motor integration and speech representation, and review data supporting the hypothesis that MNS activity could be abnormal in autism. In addition, we propose that an intervention designed to engage brain regions that overlap with the MNS may have significant clinical potential. We argue that this engagement could be achieved through forms of music making. Music making with others (e.g., playing instruments or singing) is a multi-modal activity that has been shown to engage brain regions that largely overlap with the human MNS. Furthermore, many children with autism thoroughly enjoy participating in musical activities. Such activities may enhance their ability to focus and interact with others, thereby fostering the development of communication and social skills. Thus, interventions incorporating methods of music making may offer a promising approach for facilitating expressive language in otherwise nonverbal children with autism. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Associative learning alone is insufficient for the evolution and maintenance of the human mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Lindsay M; Hubbard, Edward M; McCleery, Joseph P

    2014-04-01

    Cook et al. argue that mirror neurons originate from associative learning processes, without evolutionary influence from social-cognitive mechanisms. We disagree with this claim and present arguments based upon cross-species comparisons, EEG findings, and developmental neuroscience that the evolution of mirror neurons is most likely driven simultaneously and interactively by evolutionarily adaptive psychological mechanisms and lower-level biological mechanisms that support them.

  15. Suspension tests on a larger scale. Report from the status seminar on magnetic suspension techniques. Testing of the electrodynamic system started

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogg, D; Muckli, W

    1976-07-01

    A world record speed for electromagnetically suspended vehicles as well as successful suspension tests with forced-circulation cooled superconducting magnets were the outstanding success reports at the fifth status seminar 'Magnetic suspension techniques' on 31st March and 1st April in Bad Kissingen. The research work on magnetic suspension techniques in the railborne long-distance travel is supported by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) within the frameworke of the programme 'Railway engineering - New technologies'.

  16. Fault Detection Based on Tracking Differentiator Applied on the Suspension System of Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fault detection method based on the optimized tracking differentiator is introduced. It is applied on the acceleration sensor of the suspension system of maglev train. It detects the fault of the acceleration sensor by comparing the acceleration integral signal with the speed signal obtained by the optimized tracking differentiator. This paper optimizes the control variable when the states locate within or beyond the two-step reachable region to improve the performance of the approximate linear discrete tracking differentiator. Fault-tolerant control has been conducted by feedback based on the speed signal acquired from the optimized tracking differentiator when the acceleration sensor fails. The simulation and experiment results show the practical usefulness of the presented method.

  17. The behaviour of a vehicle’s suspension system on dynamic testing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihon, L.; Lontiş, N.; Deac, S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a car suspension’s behaviour on dynamic testing conditions through theoretical and mathematical simulation on specific model, on the single traction wheel, according to the real vehicle and by experiment on the test bench by reproducing the road’s geometry and vehicle’s speed and measuring the acceleration and damping response of the suspension system on that wheel. There are taking in consideration also the geometry and properties of the tyre-wheel model and physical wheel’s properties. The results are important due to the suspension’s model properties which allows to extend the theory and applications to the whole vehicle for improving the vehicle’s dynamics.

  18. Techniques for extreme attitude suspension of a wind tunnel model in a magnetic suspension and balance system. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David Huw

    1989-01-01

    Although small scale magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBSs) for wind tunnel use have been in existence for many years, they have not found general application in the production testing of flight vehicles. One reason for this is thought to lie in the relatively limited range of attitudes over which a wind tunnel model may be suspended. Modifications to a small MSBS to permit the suspension and control of axisymmetric models over angles of attack from less than zero to over ninety degrees are reported. Previous work has shown that existing arrangement of ten electromagnets was unable to generate one of the force components needed for control at extreme attitudes. Examination of possible solutions resulted in a simple alteration to rectify this deficiency. To generate the feedback signals to control the suspended model, an optical position sensing system using collimated laser beams and photodiode arrays was installed and tested. An analytical basis was developed for distributing the demands for force and moment needed for model stabilization amonge the electromagnets over the full attitude range. This was implemented by an MSBS control program able to continually adjust the distribution for the instantaneous incidence in accordance with prescheduled data. Results presented demonstrate rotations of models from zero to ninety degrees at rates up to ninety degrees per second, with pitching rates rising to several hundred degrees per second in response to step-change demands. A study of a design for a large MSBS suggests that such a system could be given the capability to control a model in six degrees of freedom over an unlimited angle of attack range.

  19. Model predictive control of an air suspension system with damping multi-mode switching damper based on hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Yuan, Chaochun; Cai, Yingfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Long

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the hybrid modeling and the model predictive control of an air suspension system with damping multi-mode switching damper. Unlike traditional damper with continuously adjustable damping, in this study, a new damper with four discrete damping modes is applied to vehicle semi-active air suspension. The new damper can achieve different damping modes by just controlling the on-off statuses of two solenoid valves, which makes its damping adjustment more efficient and more reliable. However, since the damping mode switching induces different modes of operation, the air suspension system with the new damper poses challenging hybrid control problem. To model both the continuous/discrete dynamics and the switching between different damping modes, the framework of mixed logical dynamical (MLD) systems is used to establish the system hybrid model. Based on the resulting hybrid dynamical model, the system control problem is recast as a model predictive control (MPC) problem, which allows us to optimize the switching sequences of the damping modes by taking into account the suspension performance requirements. Numerical simulations results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control method finally.

  20. Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdogan, I.; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M.; Royston, T.J.; Shabana, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities

  1. A novel magnetic suspension cum linear actuator system for satellite cryo coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivadasan, K.K.

    1994-01-01

    Stirling cycle cryogenic coolers have been widely used for device cooling in satellites. Various types of magnetic bearings and linear actuators find application in such systems. The most widely used configurations have two-axis-radially-active suspension stations placed at either ends of a reciprocating shaft in the compression and expansion sections. Separate or integral liner motors are provided in each section for axial shaft movement. It may be noted that such configurations are rather complicated and less reliable because of the presence of numerous electro-mechanical components, sensors and electronic servo channels. In this paper, a simple and reliable scheme is suggested which axially stabilizes and linearly perturbs the piston so that the need for a separate motor for axial actuation can be totally dispensed with. The piston is radially supported by passive repulsive bearings. In the axial direction, a servo actuator ''balances'' the piston and also actuates it bi-directionally. Implemented of this ''bearing cum motor theme,'' reduces the number of electromechanical and electronic components required to operate the system and hence minimizes the chances of system failure. Apart from this, the system's power consumption is reduced and efficiency is improved as electrical heating losses caused by quiescent-operating currents are removed and electromagnetic losses on the moving parts are minimized. The necessary system parameters have been derived using finite element analysis techniques. Finally, the proposed design is validated by computer-aided system simulation

  2. Adaptive sliding control of non-autonomous active suspension systems with time-varying loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chang; Huang, An-Chyau

    2005-04-01

    An adaptive sliding controller is proposed in this paper for controlling a non-autonomous quarter-car suspension system with time-varying loadings. The bound of the car-body loading is assumed to be available. Then, the reference coordinate is placed at the static position under the nominal loading so that the system dynamic equation is derived. Due to spring nonlinearities, the system property becomes asymmetric after coordinate transformation. Besides, in practical cases, system parameters are not easy to be obtained precisely for controller design. Therefore, in this paper, system uncertainties are lumped into two unknown time-varying functions. Since the variation bound of one of the unknown functions is not available, conventional adaptive schemes and robust designs are not applicable. To deal with this problem, the function approximation technique is employed to represent the unknown function as a finite combination of basis functions. The Lyapunov direct method can thus be used to find adaptive laws for updating coefficients in the approximating series and to prove stability of the closed-loop system. Since the position and velocity measurements of the unsprung mass are lumped into the unknown function, there is no need to install sensors on the axle and wheel assembly in the actual implementation. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of the proposed strategy.

  3. Autism and the mirror neuron system: insights from learning and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Rogers, Sally J

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulties in social learning domains which typically involve mirror neuron system (MNS) activation. However, the precise role of the MNS in the development of autism and its relevance to treatment remain unclear. In this paper, we argue that three distinct aspects of social learning are critical for advancing knowledge in this area: (i) the mechanisms that allow for the implicit mapping of and learning from others' behaviour, (ii) the motivation to attend to and model conspecifics and (iii) the flexible and selective use of social learning. These factors are key targets of the Early Start Denver Model, an autism treatment approach which emphasizes social imitation, dyadic engagement, verbal and non-verbal communication and affect sharing. Analysis of the developmental processes and treatment-related changes in these different aspects of social learning in autism can shed light on the nature of the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social learning and positive treatment outcomes in autism. This knowledge in turn may assist in developing more successful pedagogic approaches to autism spectrum disorder. Thus, intervention research can inform the debate on relations among neuropsychology of social learning, the role of the MNS, and educational practice in autism.

  4. Grasping the intentions of others with one's own mirror neuron system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iacoboni

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the intentions of others while watching their actions is a fundamental building block of social behavior. The neural and functional mechanisms underlying this ability are still poorly understood. To investigate these mechanisms we used functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-three subjects watched three kinds of stimuli: grasping hand actions without a context, context only (scenes containing objects, and grasping hand actions performed in two different contexts. In the latter condition the context suggested the intention associated with the grasping action (either drinking or cleaning. Actions embedded in contexts, compared with the other two conditions, yielded a significant signal increase in the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus and the adjacent sector of the ventral premotor cortex where hand actions are represented. Thus, premotor mirror neuron areas-areas active during the execution and the observation of an action-previously thought to be involved only in action recognition are actually also involved in understanding the intentions of others. To ascribe an intention is to infer a forthcoming new goal, and this is an operation that the motor system does automatically.

  5. Autism and the mirror neuron system: insights from learning and teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Rogers, Sally J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulties in social learning domains which typically involve mirror neuron system (MNS) activation. However, the precise role of the MNS in the development of autism and its relevance to treatment remain unclear. In this paper, we argue that three distinct aspects of social learning are critical for advancing knowledge in this area: (i) the mechanisms that allow for the implicit mapping of and learning from others' behaviour, (ii) the motivation to attend to and model conspecifics and (iii) the flexible and selective use of social learning. These factors are key targets of the Early Start Denver Model, an autism treatment approach which emphasizes social imitation, dyadic engagement, verbal and non-verbal communication and affect sharing. Analysis of the developmental processes and treatment-related changes in these different aspects of social learning in autism can shed light on the nature of the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social learning and positive treatment outcomes in autism. This knowledge in turn may assist in developing more successful pedagogic approaches to autism spectrum disorder. Thus, intervention research can inform the debate on relations among neuropsychology of social learning, the role of the MNS, and educational practice in autism. PMID:24778379

  6. Atypical activation of the mirror neuron system during perception of hand motion in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Joëlle; Andersson, Frédéric; Barthélémy, Catherine; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Destrieux, Christophe

    2010-03-12

    Disorders in the autism spectrum are characterized by deficits in social and communication skills such as imitation, pragmatic language, theory of mind, and empathy. The discovery of the "mirror neuron system" (MNS) in macaque monkeys may provide a basis from which to explain some of the behavioral dysfunctions seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).We studied seven right-handed high-functioning male autistic and eight normal subjects (TD group) using functional magnetic resonance imaging during observation and execution of hand movements compared to a control condition (rest). The between group comparison of the contrast [observation versus rest] provided evidence of a bilateral greater activation of inferior frontal gyrus during observation of human motion than during rest for the ASD group than for the TD group. This hyperactivation of the pars opercularis (belonging to the MNS) during observation of human motion in autistic subjects provides strong support for the hypothesis of atypical activity of the MNS that may be at the core of the social deficits in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mirror neuron system involvement in empathy: a critical look at the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee D; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Wilson, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the human mirror neuron system (MNS) plays an integral role in mediating empathy. In this review, we critically examine evidence from three bodies of research that have been cited as supporting this notion: (1) behavioral studies that have examined the relationship between imitation and empathy, (2) findings from functional neuroimaging studies that report a positive correlation between MNS activation and self-report on an empathy questionnaire, and (3) observations of impaired imitation and empathy in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition, we briefly review lesion studies of the neural correlates of imitation and empathy. Current evidence suggests that the MNS is broadly involved in empathy, but at this stage there has been limited consideration of its various forms, including motor, emotional, and cognitive empathy. There are also various forms of imitation, encompassing emotional and non-emotional, automatic, and voluntary actions. We propose that the relationship between imitation and empathy may vary depending on the specific type of each of these abilities. Furthermore, these abilities may be mediated by partially distinct neural networks, which involve the MNS to a variable degree.

  8. A systems level analysis of the mirror neuron hypothesis and imitation impairments in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Wadsworth, Heather M; Travers, Brittany G

    2011-01-01

    Although several studies suggest an imitation deficit as a key feature of autism, questions have been raised about the consistency of this finding and about the component skills involved in imitation. The primary aim of this review is to examine the uneven profile of imitation deficits found in autism in the context of the mirror neuron system (MNS) dysfunction hypothesis. We use the cortical underconnectivity framework (Just et al., 2004) to examine the coordination of brain areas that orchestrate the communication between the component skills underlying imitation. A comprehensive account of imitation deficit in autism should take into account the regions that are at the core of the MNS (e.g., IFG and IPL) and related regions that feed into the MNS (e.g., STS, Cerebellum) in their functioning and in their coordination. Our findings suggest that the MNS may be associated with mediating familiarity, attention, self-other matching, and social relevance, which may be vital in characterizing the imitation deficits in autism. Such an analysis may have greater clinical and therapeutic value. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Object words modulate the activity of the mirror neuron system during action imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Tang, Honghong; Ge, Yue; Yang, Suyong; Mai, Xiaoqin; Luo, Yue-Jia; Liu, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Although research has demonstrated that the mirror neuron system (MNS) plays a crucial role in both action imitation and action-related semantic processing, whether action-related words can inversely modulate the MNS activity remains unclear. Here, three types of task-irrelevant words (body parts, verbs, and manufactured objects) were presented to examine the modulation effect of these words on the MNS activity during action observation and imitation. Twenty-two participants were recruited for the fMRI scanning and remaining data from 19 subjects were reported here. Brain activity results showed that word types elicited different modulation effects over nodes of the MNS (i.e., the right inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and STS), especially during the imitation stage. Compared with other word conditions, action imitation following manufactured objects words induced stronger activation in these brain regions during the imitation stage. These results were consistent in both task-dependent and -independent ROI analysis. Our findings thus provide evidence for the unique effect of object words on the MNS during imitation of action, which may also confirm the key role of goal inference in action imitation.

  10. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added

  11. Remote counseling using HyperMirror quasi space-sharing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Sayuri; Morikawa, Osamu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Maesako, Takanori

    2008-08-01

    In the modern information society, networks are getting faster, costs are getting lower, and displays are getting clearer. Today, just about anyone can easily use precise, dynamic, image distribution systems in their everyday life. Now, the question is how to give the benefits of network systems to the local community, as well as to each individual.This study was designed to use communication with realistic sensations to examine the effectiveness of remote individual counseling intervention in reducing depression, anxiety and stress in child-rearing mothers. Three child-rearing mothers residing in the city of Osaka each received one session of remote counseling intervention. The results showed an alleviation of stress related to child-rearing, i.e., the reduction in state anxiety, depression and subjective stress related to child-rearing. Moreover, an experimental demonstration employed a HyperMirror system capable of presenting visual and auditory images similar to reality, in order to provide the counselees with realistic sensations. While the voice communication environment was poor, the remote counseling allowed for the communication of sensory information, i.e., skinship that communicated information related to assurance/peace of mind, and auditory information, i.e., a whispering voices in which signals of affection were transmitted; the realistic sensation contributed to a reduction in stress levels. The positive effects of the intervention were confirmed through a pre and post intervention study. The results suggested the need to conduct future studies to confirm the mid- and long-term improvements caused by the intervention, as well as the need to improve the voice transmission environment.

  12. Speech-associated gestures, Broca’s area, and the human mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Jeremy I.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Small, Steven L

    2009-01-01

    Speech-associated gestures are hand and arm movements that not only convey semantic information to listeners but are themselves actions. Broca’s area has been assumed to play an important role both in semantic retrieval or selection (as part of a language comprehension system) and in action recognition (as part of a “mirror” or “observation–execution matching” system). We asked whether the role that Broca’s area plays in processing speech-associated gestures is consistent with the semantic retrieval/selection account (predicting relatively weak interactions between Broca’s area and other cortical areas because the meaningful information that speech-associated gestures convey reduces semantic ambiguity and thus reduces the need for semantic retrieval/selection) or the action recognition account (predicting strong interactions between Broca’s area and other cortical areas because speech-associated gestures are goal-direct actions that are “mirrored”). We compared the functional connectivity of Broca’s area with other cortical areas when participants listened to stories while watching meaningful speech-associated gestures, speech-irrelevant self-grooming hand movements, or no hand movements. A network analysis of neuroimaging data showed that interactions involving Broca’s area and other cortical areas were weakest when spoken language was accompanied by meaningful speech-associated gestures, and strongest when spoken language was accompanied by self-grooming hand movements or by no hand movements at all. Results are discussed with respect to the role that the human mirror system plays in processing speech-associated movements. PMID:17533001

  13. Mirror reactor surface study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  14. Mirror reactor surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A.L.; Damm, C.C.; Futch, A.H.; Hiskes, J.R.; Meisenheimer, R.G.; Moir, R.W.; Simonen, T.C.; Stallard, B.W.; Taylor, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included

  15. PELATIHAN MIRROR NEURON SYSTEM SAMA DENGAN PELATIHAN CONSTRAINT INDUCED MOVEMENT THERAPY DALAM MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN FUNGSIONAL ANGGOTA GERAK ATAS PASIEN STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul chalik meidian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an interruption of blood vasculature system in the brain that causes suddenly neurological dysfunction, resulted in clinically brain tissue damage in a relatively long time period, decreased physical mobility and functional ability impaired of upper limb. The purpose of this study is to know an increasing in upper limb functional ability among stroke patients after mirror neuron system exercise and constraint induced movement therapy exercise and to know the comparison of both exercise. This study uses an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control group design. Number of samples of the first group is 13 patients given mirror neuron system exercise for 30-60 minutes , while the second group 13 patients were given constraint induced movement therapy exercise for 30-60 minutes. The research was conducted in 2 month period time. Each patient is taught a variety of upper limb functional ability in accordance with the operational concept guidance and patients were asked to repeat the exercise independently at home as directed. Measuring test of upper limb functional ability is using the wolf motor function test instruments. The result is an increase the upper limb functional ability of 21.7% in the mirror neuron system exercise group and proved a significant difference (p<0.05 and an increase in the upper limb functional ability of 17.1% in the constraint induced movement therapy exercise group and proved a significant difference (p<0.05 while the difference of increasing of upper limb functional ability of the two groups showed no significant difference (p>0,05. It was concluded that the mirror neuron system exercise is similar with constraint induced movement therapy exercise in increasing the upper limb functional ability among stroke patients.

  16. A Semiactive and Adaptive Hybrid Control System for a Tracked Vehicle Hydropneumatic Suspension Based on Disturbance Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shousong Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The riding conditions for a high-speed tracked vehicle are quite complex. To enhance the adaptability of suspension systems to different riding conditions, a semiactive and self-adaptive hybrid control strategy based on disturbance velocity and frequency identification was proposed. A mathematical model of the semiactive, self-adaptive hybrid suspension control system, along with a performance evaluation function, was established. Based on a two-degree-of-freedom (DOF suspension system, the kinematic relations and frequency zero-crossing detection method were defined, and expressions for the disturbance velocity and disturbance frequency of the road were obtained. Optimal scheduling of the semiactive hybrid damping control gain (csky, cground, chybrid and self-adaptive control gain (cv under different disturbances were realized by exploiting the particle swarm multiobjective optimization algorithm. An experimental study using a carefully designed test rig was performed under a number of typical riding conditions of tracked vehicles, and the results showed that the proposed control strategy is capable of accurately recognizing different disturbances, shifting between control modes (semiactive/self-adaptive, and scheduling the damping control gain according to the disturbance identification outcomes; hence, the proposed strategy could achieve a good trade-off between ride comfort and ride safety and efficiently increase the overall performance of the suspension under various riding conditions.

  17. 3D phase-shifting fringe projection system on the basis of a tailored free-form mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Susanne; Heist, Stefan; Steinkopf, Ralf; Huber, Sandra; Krause, Sylvio; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2013-05-10

    Phase-shifting fringe projection is an effective method to perform 3D shape measurements. Conventionally, fringe projection systems utilize a digital projector that images fringes into the measurement plane. The performance of such systems is limited to the visible spectral range, as most projectors experience technical limitations in UV or IR spectral ranges. However, for certain applications these spectral ranges are of special interest. We present a wideband fringe projector that has been developed on the basis of a picture generating beamshaping mirror. This mirror generates a sinusoidal fringe pattern in the measurement plane without any additional optical elements. Phase shifting is realized without any mechanical movement by a multichip LED. As the system is based on a single mirror, it is wavelength-independent in a wide spectral range and therefore applicable in UV and IR spectral ranges. We present the design and a realized setup of this fringe projection system and the characterization of the generated intensity distribution. Experimental results of 3D shape measurements are presented.

  18. Highly efficient end-side-pumped Nd:YAG solar laser by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J; Liang, D; Vistas, C R; Guillot, E

    2015-03-10

    We report a large improvement in the collection and slope efficiency of an Nd:YAG solar laser pumped by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system. A conical fused silica lens was used to further concentrate the solar radiation from the focal zone of a 2 m diameter primary concentrator to a Nd:YAG single-crystal rod within a conical pump cavity, which enabled multipass pumping to the active medium. A 56 W cw laser power was measured, corresponding to 21.1  W/m2 record-high solar laser collection efficiency with the heliostat-parabolic mirror system. 4.9% slope efficiency was calculated, corresponding to 175% enhancement over our previous result.

  19. Optimisation of active suspension control inputs for improved performance of active safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško; Xu, Li; Tseng, H. Eric; Hrovat, Davor

    2018-01-01

    A collocation-type control variable optimisation method is used to investigate the extent to which the fully active suspension (FAS) can be applied to improve the vehicle electronic stability control (ESC) performance and reduce the braking distance. First, the optimisation approach is applied to the scenario of vehicle stabilisation during the sine-with-dwell manoeuvre. The results are used to provide insights into different FAS control mechanisms for vehicle performance improvements related to responsiveness and yaw rate error reduction indices. The FAS control performance is compared to performances of the standard ESC system, optimal active brake system and combined FAS and ESC configuration. Second, the optimisation approach is employed to the task of FAS-based braking distance reduction for straight-line vehicle motion. Here, the scenarios of uniform and longitudinally or laterally non-uniform tyre-road friction coefficient are considered. The influences of limited anti-lock braking system (ABS) actuator bandwidth and limit-cycle ABS behaviour are also analysed. The optimisation results indicate that the FAS can provide competitive stabilisation performance and improved agility when compared to the ESC system, and that it can reduce the braking distance by up to 5% for distinctively non-uniform friction conditions.

  20. Mirror, mirror on the wall

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    RICH 2, one of the two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment, is being prepared to join the other detector elements ready for the first proton-proton collisions at LHC. The mirrors of the RICH2 detector are meticulously assembled in a clean room.In a large dark room, men in white move around an immense structure some 7 metres high, 10 metres wide and nearly 2.5 metres deep. Apparently effortlessly, they are installing the two large high-precision spherical mirrors. These mirrors will focus Cherenkov light, created by the charged particles that will traverse this detector, onto the photon detectors. Each spherical mirror wall is made up of facets like a fly's eye. Twenty-eight individual thin glass mirrors will all point to the same point in space to within a few micro-radians. The development of these mirrors has been technically demanding : Ideally they should be massless, sturdy, precise and have high reflectivity. In practice, though not massless, they are made from a mere 6 mm thin gl...

  1. Modification of the Heating Position Using a Moveable Mirror in the TJ-II ECRH System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappa, A.; Tribaldos, V.; Likin, K.; Fernandez, A.; Martin, R.

    1999-01-01

    During the first stages of operation, start-up and heating of plasmas in TJ-II stellarator are being produced by EC waves. These are launched by two 1/2-MW type gyrotrons at 53.2 GHz and transmitted to the plasma by two quasi-optical transmission lines located at two symmetrical stellarator positions. The last mirror of both lines, placed inside the vacuum vessel, is a moveable mirror allowing for changes in the final direction of the microwave beam and therefore in the heating position. This report is devoted to the calculations describing the movement of this mirror and its influence in the position of the reflected beam. (Author)

  2. ANSYS UIDL-Based CAE Development of Axial Support System for Optical Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-Hua; Shao, Liang

    2008-09-01

    The Whiffle-tree type axial support mechanism is widely adopted by most relatively large optical mirrors. Based on the secondary developing tools offered by the commonly used Finite Element Anylysis (FEA) software ANSYS, ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) is used for creating the mirror FEA model driven by parameters, and ANSYS User Interface Design Language (UIDL) for generating custom menu of interactive manner, whereby, the relatively independent dedicated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) module is embedded in ANSYS for calculation and optimization of axial Whiffle-tree support of optical mirrors. An example is also described to illustrate the intuitive and effective usage of the dedicated module by boosting work efficiency and releasing related engineering knowledge of user. The philosophy of secondary-developed special module with commonly used software also suggests itself for product development in other industries.

  3. Fiber laser cleaning of metal mirror surfaces for optical diagnostic systems of the ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, A. P., E-mail: APKuznetsov@mephi.ru; Alexandrova, A. S. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Buzhinsky, O. I. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Gubskiy, K. L.; Kazieva, T. V.; Savchenkov, A. V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Tugarinov, S. N. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The results of experimental studies into efficiency of removal of films with a complex composition from metal mirrors by pulsed fiber laser irradiation are presented. It is shown that the initial reflectivity of optical elements can be restored by the selection of modes of irradiation impacting the surface with the sputtered film. Effective cleaning is performed by radiation with a power density lower than 10{sup 7} W/cm{sup 2}. The removal of contaminations at such a relatively low power density occurs in a solid phase, owing to which the thermal effect on the mirror is insignificant.

  4. Fiber laser cleaning of metal mirror surfaces for optical diagnostic systems of the ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A. P.; Alexandrova, A. S.; Buzhinsky, O. I.; Gubskiy, K. L.; Kazieva, T. V.; Savchenkov, A. V.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    The results of experimental studies into efficiency of removal of films with a complex composition from metal mirrors by pulsed fiber laser irradiation are presented. It is shown that the initial reflectivity of optical elements can be restored by the selection of modes of irradiation impacting the surface with the sputtered film. Effective cleaning is performed by radiation with a power density lower than 10 7 W/cm 2 . The removal of contaminations at such a relatively low power density occurs in a solid phase, owing to which the thermal effect on the mirror is insignificant

  5. Thermal effects on beryllium mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinswig, S.

    1989-01-01

    Beryllium is probably the most frequently used material for spaceborne system scan mirrors. Beryllium's properties include lightweightedness, high Young's modulus, high stiffness value, high resonance value. As an optical surface, beryllium is usually nickel plated in order to produce a higher quality surface. This process leads to the beryllium mirror acting like a bimetallic device. The mirror's deformation due to the bimetallic property can possibly degrade the performance of the associated optical system. As large space borne systems are designed and as temperature considerations become more crucial in the instruments, the concern about temporal deformation of the scan mirrors becomes a prime consideration. Therefore, two sets of tests have been conducted in order to ascertain the thermal effects on nickel plated beryllium mirrors. These tests are categorized. The purpose of this paper is to present the values of the bimetallic effect on typical nickel plated beryllium mirrors

  6. Computer control and data acquisition system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating System (ICRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheshire, D.L.; Thomas, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) large Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) will employ an Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) system for plasma startup. As the MFTF-B Industrial Participant, TRW has responsibility for the ICRH system, including development of the data acquisition and control system. During the MFTF-B Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS). For subsystem development and checkout at TRW, and for verification and acceptance testing at LLNL, the system will be run from a stand-alone computer system designed to simulate the functions of SCDS. The ''SCDS Simulator'' was developed originally for the MFTF-B ECRH System; descriptions of the hardware and software are updated in this paper. The computer control and data acquisition functions implemented for ICRH are described, including development status, and test schedule at TRW and at LLNL. The application software is written for the SCDS Simulator, but it is programmed in PASCAL and designed to facilitate conversion for use on the SCDS computers

  7. Demonstration of a switchable damping system to allow low-noise operation of high-Q low-mass suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Jan-Simon; Barr, Bryan W.; Bell, Angus S.; Cunningham, William; Danilishin, Stefan L.; Dupej, Peter; Gräf, Christian; Hough, James; Huttner, Sabina H.; Jones, Russell; Leavey, Sean S.; Pascucci, Daniela; Sinclair, Martin; Sorazu, Borja; Spencer, Andrew; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Strain, Kenneth A.; Wright, Jennifer; Zhang, Teng; Hild, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Low-mass suspension systems with high-Q pendulum stages are used to enable quantum radiation pressure noise limited experiments. Utilizing multiple pendulum stages with vertical blade springs and materials with high-quality factors provides attenuation of seismic and thermal noise; however, damping of these high-Q pendulum systems in multiple degrees of freedom is essential for practical implementation. Viscous damping such as eddy-current damping can be employed, but it introduces displacement noise from force noise due to thermal fluctuations in the damping system. In this paper we demonstrate a passive damping system with adjustable damping strength as a solution for this problem that can be used for low-mass suspension systems without adding additional displacement noise in science mode. We show a reduction of the damping factor by a factor of 8 on a test suspension and provide a general optimization for this system.

  8. Fokker-Planck equation in mirror research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Open confinement systems based on the magnetic mirror principle depend on the maintenance of particle distributions that may deviate substantially from Maxwellian distributions. Mirror research has therefore from the beginning relied on theoretical predictions of non-equilibrium rate processes obtained from solutions to the Fokker-Planck equation. The F-P equation plays three roles: Design of experiments, creation of classical standards against which to compare experiment, and predictions concerning mirror based fusion power systems. Analytical and computational approaches to solving the F-P equation for mirror systems will be reviewed, together with results and examples that apply to specific mirror systems, such as the tandem mirror

  9. A stand alone computer system to aid the development of mirror fusion test facility RF heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) control system architecture requires the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) to communicate with a LSI-11 Local Control Computer (LCC) that in turn communicates via a fiber optic link to CAMAC based control hardware located near the machine. In many cases, the control hardware is very complex and requires a sizable development effort prior to being integrated into the overall MFTF-B system. One such effort was the development of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system. It became clear that a stand alone computer system was needed to simulate the functions of SCDS. This paper describes the hardware and software necessary to implement the SCDS Simulation Computer (SSC). It consists of a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) LSI-11 computer and a Winchester/Floppy disk operating under the DEC RT-11 operating system. All application software for MFTF-B is programmed in PASCAL, which allowed us to adapt procedures originally written for SCDS to the SSC. This nearly identical software interface means that software written during the equipment development will be useful to the SCDS programmers in the integration phase

  10. Ultra-high performance mirror systems for the imaging and coherence beamline I13 at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U. H.; Alcock, S.; Ludbrook, G.; Wiatryzk, J.; Rau, C.

    2012-05-01

    I13L is a 250m long hard x-ray beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) currently under construction at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline comprises of two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques. To minimise the impact of thermal fluctuations and vibrations onto the beamline performance, we are developing a new generation of ultra-stable beamline instrumentation with highly repeatable adjustment mechanisms using low thermal expansion materials like granite and large piezo-driven flexure stages. For minimising the beam distortion we use very high quality optical components like large ion-beam polished mirrors. In this paper we present the first metrology results on a newly designed mirror system following this design philosophy.

  11. Design and fabrication of the superconducting-magnet system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatro, R.E.; Wohlwend, J.W.; Kozman, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) consists of 24 magnets; i.e. two pairs of C-shaped Yin-Yang coils, four C-shaped transition coils, four solenoidal axicell coils, and a 12-solenoid central cell. General Dynamics Convair Division has designed all the coils and is responsible for fabricating 20 coils. The two Yin-Yang pairs (four coils) are being fabricated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Since MFTF-B is not a magnet development program, but rather a major physics experiment critical to the mirror fusion program, the basic philosophy has been to use proven materials and analytical techniques wherever possible. The transition and axicell coils are currently being analyzed and designed, while fabrication is under way on the solenoid magnets

  12. Neutronics shielding analysis of the last mirror-beam duct system for a laser fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.M.H.; Klein, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    A Monte Carlo three-dimensional neutronics analysis for the last mirror-beam duct system for the SOLASE conceptual laser-driven fusion power reactor design is presented. Detailed geometric configurations including the reactor cavity, the two last mirrors, and the three-section two-right-angle bends duct are modeled. Measurements are given of the dimensions and compositions of the reactor components, and of neutron scalar fluxes, spatial dependencies and neutron volumetric heating rates for the cases of aluminum or Boral as laser beam duct liners, and ordinary concrete or lead mortar as shield material. A three-dimensional modeling of laser-driven reactor penetrations is employed. The particle leakage is found to be excessively high for the configuration of the conceptual design considered and the advantages and disadvantages of various solutions, such as the use of Boral as a duct liner and the use of lead mortar instead of ordinary concrete as a shield material, are considered

  13. [Mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  14. A 40 W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, J; Liang, D; Guillot, E; Abdel-Hadi, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solar-pumped solid-state lasers are promising for renewable extreme-temperature material processing. Here, we report a significant improvement in solar laser collection efficiency by pumping the most widely used Nd:YAG single-crystal rod through a heliostat–parabolic mirror system. A conical-shaped fused silica light guide with 3D-CPC output end is used to both transmit and compress the concentrated solar radiation from the focal zone of a 2 m diameter parabolic mirror to a 5 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod within a conical pump cavity, which enables multi-pass pumping through the laser rod. 40 W cw laser power is measured, corresponding to 13.9 W m −2 record-high collection efficiency for the solar laser pumped through a heliostat–parabolic mirror system. 2.9% slope efficiency is fitted, corresponding to 132% enhancement over that of our previous pumping scheme. A 209% reduction in threshold pump power is also registered. (paper)

  15. Laser ablation method for cleaning of mirror surfaces for optical diagnostic systems at the ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrova, A.S.; Kuznetsov, A.P.; Gubskij, K.L.; Petrovskij, V.N.; Savelov, A.S.; Shtamm, V.G.; Buzhinskij, O.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of cleaning metallic mirrors from films with complex composition by pulsed radiation from a fiber laser has been experimentally examined. It has been shown that the high initial reflection characteristics of optical elements can be recovered by choosing regimes of the action of radiation on the surface with a deposited film [ru

  16. Progress on the ITER H&CD EC upper launcher steering-mirror control system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collazos, A.; Bertizzolo, R.; Chavan, R.; Dolizy, F.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Henderson, M.A.; Landis, J.-D.; Sanchez, F.

    2010-01-01

    The ITER Heating and Current Drive Upper Launcher (H&CD EC UL) uses a pneumomechanical steering-mirror assembly (SMA) to steer the RF beams for their deposition in the appropriate location in the plasma to control magnetohydrodynamic activity (neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and sawtooth

  17. A high-force controllable MR fluid damper–liquid spring suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Pramod; Wang, Xiaojie; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present research is to investigate the feasibility of incorporating a liquid spring in a semi-active suspension system for use in heavy off-road vehicles. A compact compressible magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper–liquid spring (CMRFD–LS) with high spring rate is designed, developed and tested. Compressible MR fluids with liquid spring and variable damping characteristics are used. These fluids can offer unique functions in reducing the volume/weight of vehicle struts and improving vehicle dynamic stability and safety. The proposed device consists of a cylinder and piston–rod arrangement with an internal annular MR fluid valve. The internal pressures in the chambers on either side of the piston develop the spring force, while the pressure difference across the MR valve produces the damping force, when the fluid flows through the MR valve. Harmonic characterization of the CMRFD–LS is performed and the force–displacement results are presented. A fluid-mechanics based model is also developed to predict the performance of the system at different operating conditions and compared to the experimental results. Good agreement between the experimental results and theoretical predictions has been achieved. (paper)

  18. Design and Trajectory Analysis of Incompletely Restrained Cable-Suspension Swing System Driven by Two Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to simulate the swing conditions of a suspended platform of a construction shaft, marine ships, cars, etc., an incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables (IRCSWs2 was designed and parameter trajectories of displacements, angles and tensions were systematically investigated. Firstly, the motion mechanism of the IRCSWs2 is described and the corresponding kinematic model is established. For further evaluating the analytical expressions, the ADAMS simulation model and the physical prototype experimental model were developed. The basic consistency and slight difference among the three models are illustrated by a comparison of different parameters. The approximately linear relationship between the driving displacements of two cables and the swing angles of the platform was obtained. Finally, the effects of various parameters on displacements, angles and tensions were analysed, and the results indicate that the translation of a suspended platform is slight during its swing and that the novel IRCSWs2 can be used to drive heavy loads using a relatively small driving force, which is useful for simulating swing environmental conditions long-term, in addition to being cost-effective.

  19. Changes in the cholinergic system of rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle following suspension induced disuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. C.; Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle disused induced changes in the cholinergic system of sciatic nerve, slow twitch soleus (SOL) and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were studied in rats. Rats with hindlimbs suspended for 2 to 3 weeks showed marked elevation in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sciatic nerve (38%), in SOL (108%) and in EDL (67%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in SOL increased by 163% without changing the molecular forms pattern of 4S, 10S, 12S, and 16S. No significant changes in activity and molecular forms pattern of AChE were seen in EDL or in AChE activity of sciatic nerve. Nicotinic receptor binding of 3H-acetylcholine was increased in both muscles. When measured after 3 weeks of hindlimb suspension the normal distribution of type 1 fibers in SOL was reduced and a corresponding increase in type IIa and IIb fibers is seen. In EDL no significant change in fiber proportion is observed. Muscle activity, such as loadbearing, appears to have a greater controlling influence on the characteristics of the slow twitch SOL muscle than upon the fast twitch EDL muscle.

  20. The Effect of Hindlimb Suspension on the Reproductive System of Young Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet; Grindeland, R.; Baer, L.; Guran, G.; Fung, C.; Wade, C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Colonization of space requires the ability to reproduce in reduced gravity. Following spaceflight, astronauts and male rats exhibit decreased testosterone (T). This has important implications as T effects the testes and accessory sex glands. To our knowledge no studies have examined the effects of spaceflight on accessory sex glands. Due to the rarity of spaceflight opportunities, ground models have been used to simulate weightlessness. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (21 d) weightlessness on the reproductive system of male rats. Weightlessness was simulated using the Morey-Holton hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. Age 10 week old, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing (209.0 +9.7g) were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to either HLS or ambulatory control. In HLS rats, testes mass was 33% lower (pmale rats. This discrepancy may have been due to the age of animal and timing of sampling. T levels vary dramatically during testes development as well as within normal diurnal cycles. In young HLS rats, testes weight was reduced but not plasma T. Subsequently there was no effect on accessory sex glands. However, this may not be the case in older rats. More studies using standardized methods are needed to gain a better understanding of male reproduction function and capability in weightlessness. Funding provided by NASA.

  1. Granularity of the mirror neuron system: A complex endeavor. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by A. D'Ausilio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, S. P.; Alaerts, K.

    2015-03-01

    The review paper by D'Ausilio and coauthors [3] is very timely and addresses one of the long-standing issues with respect to the coding features of mirror neurons. Through the history of mirror neuron research, there has been some controversy with respect to the level of granularity of the mirror neuron system, as studied in animal and human systems. While some researchers have suggested that abstract (high level) features of movement are coded, others have claimed evidence for more muscle specific (low level) coding properties (for an example, see [1,2]). D'Ausilio et al. [3] take a strong position in their review, suggesting a convergence between basic mechanisms of movement control and the mirror neuron system. Their suggestion is inspired by Bernstein's influential work on the so-called degrees of freedom problem. Even though a goal can in principle be reached in an infinite number of ways, consistent and stereotypical patterns of kinematics and muscle activation are often observed [4]. This has led to the notion of movement synergies as the basic building blocks for movement control. Even though it is essentially possible to contract isolated muscles or even motor units, Bernstein suggested that control of complex movement relies on movement synergies or coordinative structures, referring to a group of muscles that behave as a functional unit. This reduces the computational demands of the central nervous system considerably by assigning more responsibility to the lower levels of the movement control system. Bernstein's approach has inspired the dynamical systems perspective that has focused on a better understanding of complex biological systems such as interlimb coordination in humans [8]. For example, the upper limbs behave as a coordinative structure whereby simultaneous activation of the homologous muscle groups constitutes the default or preferred coordination mode that has to be defied when alternative patterns of coordination need to be performed or

  2. Timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror effects measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Andrea; Heyes, Cecilia; Becchio, Cristina; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline

    2014-08-01

    The human mirror system has been the subject of much research over the past two decades, but little is known about the timecourse of mirror responses. In addition, it is unclear whether mirror and counter-mirror effects follow the same timecourse. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror responses in the human brain. Experiment 1 demonstrated that mirror responses can be measured from around 200 ms after observed action onset. Experiment 2 demonstrated significant effects of counter-mirror sensorimotor training at all timepoints at which a mirror response was found in Experiment 1 (i.e. from 200 ms onward), indicating that mirror and counter-mirror responses follow the same timecourse. By suggesting similarly direct routes for mirror and counter-mirror responses, these results support the associative account of mirror neuron origins whereby mirror responses arise as a result of correlated sensorimotor experience during development. More generally, they contribute to theorizing regarding mirror neuron function by providing some constraints on how quickly mirror responses can influence social cognition. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Predicting Intentions of a Familiar Significant Other Beyond the Mirror Neuron System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Cacioppo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inferring intentions of others is one of the most intriguing issues in interpersonal interaction. Theories of embodied cognition and simulation suggest that this mechanism takes place through a direct and automatic matching process that occurs between an observed action and past actions. This process occurs via the reactivation of past self-related sensorimotor experiences within the inferior frontoparietal network (including the mirror neuron system, MNS. The working model is that the anticipatory representations of others' behaviors require internal predictive models of actions formed from pre-established, shared representations between the observer and the actor. This model suggests that observers should be better at predicting intentions performed by a familiar actor, rather than a stranger. However, little is known about the modulations of the intention brain network as a function of the familiarity between the observer and the actor. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI with a behavioral intention inference task, in which participants were asked to predict intentions from three types of actors: A familiar actor (their significant other, themselves (another familiar actor, and a non-familiar actor (a stranger. Our results showed that the participants were better at inferring intentions performed by familiar actors than non-familiar actors and that this better performance was associated with greater activation within and beyond the inferior frontoparietal network i.e., in brain areas related to familiarity (e.g., precuneus. In addition, and in line with Hebbian principles of neural modulations, the more the participants reported being cognitively close to their partner, the less the brain areas associated with action self-other comparison (e.g., inferior parietal lobule, attention (e.g., superior parietal lobule, recollection (hippocampus, and pair bond (ventral tegmental area, VTA were recruited, suggesting that the

  4. Vibrating mirror system suitable for q-switching large-aperture lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckwith, P.J.

    1977-11-01

    Resonant vibrating mirrors provide a convenient means of Q-switching a laser, but large-aperture versions require careful design if the drive power is not to become excessive. This report outlines the design principles involved in the optimisation of moving-iron galvanometer drivers, and describes a prototype device with an aperture of 40 mm x 80 mm which is capable of beam deflections of + or - 40 mrad at 800 Hz. Some suggestions are made concerning more refined designs.

  5. Dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions as a model system for bacterial cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jiye; Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2016-08-01

    There are various kinds of macromolecules in bacterial cell cytoplasm. The size polydispersity of the macromolecules is so significant that the crystallization and the phase separation could be suppressed, thus stabilizing the liquid state of bacterial cytoplasm. On the other hand, recent experiments suggested that the macromolecules in bacterial cytoplasm should exhibit glassy dynamics, which should be also affected significantly by the size polydispersity of the macromolecules. In this work, we investigate the anomalous and slow dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions, of which size distribution is chosen to mimic Escherichia coli cytoplasm. We find from our Langevin dynamics simulations that the diffusion coefficient (D_{tot}) and the displacement distribution functions (P(r,t)) averaged over all colloids of different sizes do not show anomalous and glassy dynamic behaviors until the system volume fraction ϕ is increased up to 0.82. This indicates that the intrinsic polydispersity of bacterial cytoplasm should suppress the glass transition and help maintain the liquid state of the cytoplasm. On the other hand, colloids of each kind show totally different dynamic behaviors depending on their size. The dynamics of colloids of different size becomes non-Gaussian at a different range of ϕ, which suggests that a multistep glass transition should occur. The largest colloids undergo the glass transition at ϕ=0.65, while the glass transition does not occur for smaller colloids in our simulations even at the highest value of ϕ. We also investigate the distribution (P(θ,t)) of the relative angles of displacement for macromolecules and find that macromolecules undergo directionally correlated motions in a sufficiently dense system.

  6. A transgenic plant cell-suspension system for expression of epitopes on chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Lee, Chin-Wei; Cho, Yu-Hsin; Wu, Feng-Chao; Hu, Chung-Chi; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel strategy to produce vaccine antigens using a plant cell-suspension culture system in lieu of the conventional bacterial or animal cell-culture systems. We generated transgenic cell-suspension cultures from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves carrying wild-type or chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) expression constructs encoding the viral protein 1 (VP1) epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Antigens accumulated to high levels in BdT38 and BdT19 transgenic cell lines co-expressing silencing suppressor protein P38 or P19. BaMV chimeric virus particles (CVPs) were subsequently purified from the respective cell lines (1.5 and 2.1 mg CVPs/20 g fresh weight of suspended biomass, respectively), and the resulting CVPs displayed VP1 epitope on the surfaces. Guinea pigs vaccinated with purified CVPs produced humoral antibodies. This study represents an important advance in the large-scale production of immunopeptide vaccines in a cost-effective manner using a plant cell-suspension culture system. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Manufacture of mirrors by NC machining of EEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Toshio; Azuma, Yasuo; Kato, Haruo; Hoshino, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    In the X-ray optical system for the photon factory facility being constructed now in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, total reflection mirrors occupy important position. The shapes of mirrors are both plane and curved surface, and the sizes are various. Especially concerning hard X-ray, the required accuracy of the shapes and surface roughness is high. Thereupon mirrors were machined by elastic emission machining (EEM) developed by Mori et al. of Osaka University, and the flatness and surface roughness were examined. The materials machined were Pyrex and copper, the mirror finish of which is difficult. The results are reported. In this machining method, the liquid in which very fine powder is uniformly dispersed and suspended in water was used. By approaching a rotating urethane ball to a work surface, the gap of about 1 μm was formed between them utilizing fluid bearing-like flow arising there. The machining was carried out by colliding the fine particles in suspension to a minute region of the work surface. In order to obtain an arbitrary curved surface, the numerical control according to the variable controling the amount of machining was made. In the case of glasses, the amount of machining was able to be controlled to about 0.01 μm. As for polycrystalline copper, the machining was difficult, and the suitable conditions must be sought hereafter. (Kako, I.)

  8. Mirror monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankos, Marian [Electron Optica, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Shadman, Khashayar [Electron Optica, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-12-02

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing a mirror electron monochromator (MirrorChrom) attachment to new and retrofitted electron microscopes (EMs) for improving the energy resolution of the EM from the characteristic range of 0.2-0.5 eV to the range of 10-50 meV. This improvement will enhance the characterization of materials by imaging and spectroscopy. In particular, the monochromator will refine the energy spectra characterizing materials, as obtained from transmission EMs [TEMs] fitted with electron spectrometers, and it will increase the spatial resolution of the images of materials taken with scanning EMs (SEMs) operated at low voltages. EOI’s MirrorChrom technology utilizes a magnetic prism to simultaneously deflect the electron beam off the axis of the microscope column by 90° and disperse the electrons in proportional to their energies into a module with an electron mirror and a knife-edge. The knife-edge cuts off the tails of the energy distribution to reduce the energy spread of the electrons that are reflected, and subsequently deflected, back into the microscope column. The knife-edge is less prone to contamination, and thereby charging, than the conventional slits used in existing monochromators, which improves the reliability and stability of the module. The overall design of the MirrorChrom exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in order to maintain the beam brightness – a parameter that impacts how well the electron beam can be focused downstream onto a sample. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate monochromator architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between energy resolution and beam current to achieve the optimum design for three particular applications with market potential: increasing the spatial resolution of low voltage SEMs, increasing the energy resolution of low voltage TEMs (beam energy of 5-20 keV), and increasing the energy resolution of conventional TEMs (beam

  9. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Bill; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion experiment is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the feasibility of this particular type of fusion device. Because of the open magnetic field line configuration of mirror fusion devices, they are particularly well suited for propulsion system applications since they allow for the easy ejection of thrust producing plasma. Currently, the MSFC GDM is constructed in three segments. The vacuum chamber mirror segment, the plasma injector mirror segment, and the main plasma chamber segment. Enough magnets are currently available to construct up to three main plasma chamber segments. The mirror segments are also segmented such that they can be expanded to accommodate new end plugging strategies with out requiring the disassembly of the entire mirror segment. The plasma for the experiment is generated in a microwave cavity located between the main magnets and the mirror magnets. Ion heating is accomplished through ambipolar diffusion. The objective of the experiment is to investigate the stability characteristics of the gasdynamic mirror and to map a region of parameter space within which the plasma can be confined in a stable steady state configuration. The mirror ratio, plasma density, and plasma "b" will be varied over a range of values and measurements subsequently taken to determine the degree of plasma stability.

  10. Robust non-fragile finite-frequency H∞ static output-feedback control for active suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Changzheng; Yu, Shenbo

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the problem of non-fragile H∞ static output-feedback control of vehicle active suspension systems with finite-frequency constraint. The control objective is to improve ride comfort within the given frequency range and ensure the hard constraints in the time-domain. Moreover, in order to enhance the robustness of the controller, the control gain perturbation is also considered in controller synthesis. Firstly, a new non-fragile H∞ finite-frequency control condition is established by using generalized Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (GKYP) lemma. Secondly, the static output-feedback control gain is directly derived by using a non-iteration algorithm. Different from the existing iteration LMI results, the static output-feedback design is simple and less conservative. Finally, the proposed control algorithm is applied to a quarter-car active suspension model with actuator dynamics, numerical results are made to show the effectiveness and merits of the proposed method.

  11. Combining support vector machines with linear quadratic regulator adaptation for the online design of an automotive active suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, J-S; Liu, M-T

    2008-01-01

    As a powerful machine-learning approach to pattern recognition problems, the support vector machine (SVM) is known to easily allow generalization. More importantly, it works very well in a high-dimensional feature space. This paper presents a nonlinear active suspension controller which achieves a high level performance by compensating for actuator dynamics. We use a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) to ensure optimal control of nonlinear systems. An LQR is used to solve the problem of state feedback and an SVM is used to address the question of the estimation and examination of the state. These two are then combined and designed in a way that outputs feedback control. The real-time simulation demonstrates that an active suspension using the combined SVM-LQR controller provides passengers with a much more comfortable ride and better road handling

  12. On the achievable performance using variable geometry active secondary suspension systems in commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.; Besselink, I.G.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to further improve driver comfort in commercial vehicles. The variable geometry active suspension offers an interesting option to achieve this in an energy efficient way. However, the optimal control strategy and the overal performance potential remains unclear. The aim of this paper

  13. Ion cyclotron radio frequency systems and performance on the tandem mirror experiment-upgrade (TMX-U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.L.; Molvik, A.W.; Cummins, W.F.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Henderson, A.L.; Karsner, P.G.; Scofield, D.W.; Brooksby, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    High power ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) systems are now gaining greater attention than before as prime driver ion heating systems. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has installed a 200 kW high frequency (HF) transmitter system on its Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). This paper describes the system, antenna, controls, and monitoring apparatus. The transmitter operates into a high Q antenna installed in the central cell region of the experiment. It incorporates a dual-port feedback system to automatically adjust the transmitter's output power and allow the maximum consistent with the plasma loading of the antenna. Special techniques have been used to measure, in real-time, the dynamically changing loading values presented by the plasma. From the measurements, the antenna impedance can be optimized for specified plasma density

  14. Mirror reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Barmore, W.L.; Bender, D.J.; Doggett, J.N.; Galloway, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    The general requirements of a breeding blanket for a mirror reactor are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) facility layout and blanket maintenance, (2) heat transfer and thermal conversion system, (3) materials, (4) tritium containment and removal, and (5) nuclear performance

  15. Kodak AMSD Mirror Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gary; Dahl, Roger; Barrett, David; Bottom, John; Russell, Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Mirror System Demonstration Program is developing minor technology for the next generation optical systems. Many of these systems will require extremely lightweight and stable optics due to the overall size of the primary mirror. These segmented, deployable systems require new technology that AMSD is developing. The on-going AMSD program is a critical enabler for Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) which will start in 2002. The status of Kodak's AMSD mirror and future plans will be discussed with respect to the NGST program.

  16. Motor-auditory-visual integration: The role of the human mirror neuron system in communication and communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bel, Ronald M; Pineda, Jaime A; Sharma, Anu

    2009-01-01

    The mirror neuron system (MNS) is a trimodal system composed of neuronal populations that respond to motor, visual, and auditory stimulation, such as when an action is performed, observed, heard or read about. In humans, the MNS has been identified using neuroimaging techniques (such as fMRI and mu suppression in the EEG). It reflects an integration of motor-auditory-visual information processing related to aspects of language learning including action understanding and recognition. Such integration may also form the basis for language-related constructs such as theory of mind. In this article, we review the MNS system as it relates to the cognitive development of language in typically developing children and in children at-risk for communication disorders, such as children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or hearing impairment. Studying MNS development in these children may help illuminate an important role of the MNS in children with communication disorders. Studies with deaf children are especially important because they offer potential insights into how the MNS is reorganized when one modality, such as audition, is deprived during early cognitive development, and this may have long-term consequences on language maturation and theory of mind abilities. Readers will be able to (1) understand the concept of mirror neurons, (2) identify cortical areas associated with the MNS in animal and human studies, (3) discuss the use of mu suppression in the EEG for measuring the MNS in humans, and (4) discuss MNS dysfunction in children with (ASD).

  17. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a “Violin-Mode” shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect “Violin-Mode” (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a “synthesized split photodiode” detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC “shadow notch” outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing “jitter” at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm

  18. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a “Violin-Mode” shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V. [SUPA (Scottish Universities Physics Alliance), Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect “Violin-Mode” (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a “synthesized split photodiode” detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC “shadow notch” outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing “jitter” at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  19. Solution or suspension - Does it matter for lipid based systems? In vivo studies of chase dosing lipid vehicles with aqueous suspensions of a poorly soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, A T; Holm, R; Müllertz, A

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the potential of co-administering an aqueous suspension with a placebo lipid vehicle, i.e. chase dosing, was investigated in rats relative to the aqueous suspension alone or a solution of the drug in the lipid vehicle. The lipid investigated in the present study was Labrafil M2125CS and three evaluated poorly soluble model compounds, danazol, cinnarizine and halofantrine. For cinnarizine and danazol the oral bioavailability in rats after chase dosing or dosing the compound dissolved in Labrafil M21515CS was similar and significantly higher than for the aqueous suspension. For halofantrine the chase dosed group had a tendency towards a low bioavailability relative to the Labrafil M2125CS solution, but still a significant higher bioavailability relative to the aqueous suspension. This could be due to factors such as a slower dissolution rate in the intestinal phase of halofantrine or a lower solubility in the colloidal structures formed during digestion, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The study thereby supported the potential of chase dosing as a potential dosing regimen in situations where it is beneficial to have a drug in the solid state, e.g. due to chemical stability issues in the lipid vehicle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of the monitoring system of plasma behavior using a CCD camera in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Hirokazu; Nakashima, Yousuke; Higashizono, Yuta

    2007-01-01

    In the central-cell of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror, a medium-speed camera (CCD camera, 400 frames per second, 216 x 640 pixel) has been installed for the observation of plasma behavior. This camera system is designed for monitoring the plasma position and movement in the whole discharge duration. The captured two-dimensional (2-D) images are automatically displayed just after the plasma shot and stored sequentially shot by shot. This system has been established as a helpful tool for optimizing the plasma production and heating systems by measuring the plasma behavior in several experimental conditions. The camera system shows that the intensity of the visible light emission on the central-cell limiter accompanied by central electron cyclotron heating (C-ECH) correlate with the wall conditioning and immersion length of a movable limiter (iris limiter) in the central cell. (author)

  1. Static and dynamic analyses on the MFTF [Mirror Fusion Test Facility]-B Axicell Vacuum Vessel System: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, D.S.

    1986-09-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a large-scale, tandem-mirror-fusion experiment. MFTF-B comprises many highly interconnected systems, including a magnet array and a vacuum vessel. The vessel, which houses the magnet array, is supported by reinforced concrete piers and steel frames resting on an array of foundations and surrounded by a 7-ft-thick concrete shielding vault. The Pittsburgh-Des Moines (PDM) Corporation, which was awarded the contract to design and construct the vessel, carried out fixed-base static and dynamic analyses of a finite-element model of the axicell vessel and magnet systems, including the simulation of various loading conditions and three postulated earthquake excitations. Meanwhile, LLNL monitored PDM's analyses with modeling studies of its own, and independently evaluated the structural responses of the vessel in order to define design criteria for the interface members and other project equipment. The assumptions underlying the finite-element model and the behavior of the axicell vessel are described in detail in this report, with particular emphasis placed on comparing the LLNL and PDM studies and on analyzing the fixed-base behavior with the soil-structure interaction, which occurs between the vessel and the massive concrete vault wall during a postulated seismic event. The structural members that proved sensitive to the soil effect are also reevaluated

  2. A comparative performance study of a photovoltaic concentrator system with discrete mirror and continuos profile for two different absorber shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H, Saiful; Rezau, K.M [University of Dhaka, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2000-07-01

    Profiles of parabolic concentrators of discrete mirror and continuos surface mirror have been designed for combined electrical thermal photovoltaic systems. In the design the changes of concentration ratio, effect of reflection, angle of incidence over the absorber have been taken into account for maximum energy collection. The performances of the system are studied for solar cells of modified grid finger for illuminations from 1-10 sun. The local concentration ratio (LCR) distribution over the absorbers for both the concentrator, the optical efficiency, thermal efficiency, electrical and thermal power output and overall efficiency have been evaluated for different values of beam radiation concentration ratio and focal distance. [Spanish] Se han disenado perfiles de concentradores parabolicos de espejo discreto y de superficie continua para sistemas fotovoltaicos combinados electricos y termicos. En el diseno los cambios de la proporcion de concentracion, del efecto de la reflexion, del angulo de incidencia sobre el observador se han tenido en cuenta para una maxima recoleccion de energia. Los rendimientos del sistema se han estudiado para celdas solares de parrilla modificada para iluminaciones solares de 1-10. Han sido evaluados para diferentes valores de la proporcion de la concentracion de la radiacion en el rayo y la distancia focal la proporcion de concentracion local (LCR) de la distribucion en los absorbedores, para el concentrador la eficiencia optica, la eficiencia termica, electrica, la produccion de energia termica y electrica y la eficiencia total.

  3. Plasma impact on diagnostic mirrors in JET

    OpenAIRE

    A. Garcia-Carrasco; P. Petersson; M. Rubel; A. Widdowson; E. Fortuna-Zalesna; S. Jachmich; M. Brix; L. Marot

    2017-01-01

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical systems for plasma diagnosis in ITER. This contribution provides a comprehensive account on plasma impact on diagnostic mirrors in JET with the ITER-Like Wall. Specimens from the First Mirror Test and the lithium-beam diagnostic have been studied by spectrophotometry, ion beam analysis and electron microscopy. Test mirrors made of molybdenum were retrieved from the main chamber and the divertor after exposure to the 2013–2014 experi...

  4. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  5. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have carried out conceptual design studies of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fission fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid based on standard mirror confinement, and also a small pilot plant hybrid. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000 MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single cell pilot plant

  6. Magnetic Suspension Technology Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keckler, C.R.; Groom, N.J.; Britcher, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to identify the state of magnetic suspension technology in such areas as rotating systems, pointing of experiments or subsystems, payload isolation, and superconducting materials, a workshop on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, on 2-4 Feb. 1988. The workshop included five technical sessions in which a total of 24 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of pointing, isolation, and measurement, rotating systems, modeling and control, and superconductors. A list of attendees is provided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report

  7. Minor bodies of the Solar system: meteorite orbits, relationship, mirror symmetry in C-distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'eva, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Population of large meteor bodies having masses from several kilograms up to several tens of tons has been revealed by means of photographic observations of bright fireballs. 39 of 69 objects of this population is meteorites producing. A unique class of meteorite orbits of an extremely short period (the Earth's group) has been found. The analysis of the distributions of minor bodies by Tisserand constant C (the perturbing planet is Jupiter) allowed to make conclusions about possible genetic connections and families inside the complex of minor bodies - comets, asteroids, large meteor bodies including meteorites and meteor streams. About 8 per cent of meteorites and 15 per cent of asteroids of the Amour group may have a cometary origin. Mirror symmetry has been found in C-distribution of minor bodies relative to the gap in the center of which collinear points of libration are located

  8. A solid-breeder blanket and power conversion system for the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullis, R.; Clarkson, I.

    1983-01-01

    A solid-breeder blanket has been designed for a commercial fusion power reactor based on the tandem mirror concept (MARS). The design utilizes lithium oxide, cooled by helium which powers a conventional steam electric generating cycle. Maintenance and fabricability considerations led to a modular configuration 6 meters long which incorporates two magnets, shield, blanket and first wall. The modules are arranged to form the 150 meter long reactor central cell. Ferritic steel is used for the module primary structure. The lithium oxide is contained in thin-walled vanadium alloy tubes. A tritium breeding ratio of 1.25 and energy multiplication of 1.1 is predicted. The blanket design appears feasible with only a modest advance in current technology

  9. Real-time high-speed motion blur compensation system based on back-and-forth motion control of galvanometer mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Takanoshin; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2015-12-14

    We developed a novel real-time motion blur compensation system for the blur caused by high-speed one-dimensional motion between a camera and a target. The system consists of a galvanometer mirror and a high-speed color camera, without the need for any additional sensors. We controlled the galvanometer mirror with continuous back-and-forth oscillating motion synchronized to a high-speed camera. The angular speed of the mirror is given in real time within 10 ms based on the concept of background tracking and rapid raw Bayer block matching. Experiments demonstrated that our system captures motion-invariant images of objects moving at speeds up to 30 km/h.

  10. Mirror reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Bender, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Design studies of a fusion mirror reactor, a fusion-fission mirror reactor, and two small mirror reactors are summarized. The fusion reactor uses 150-keV neutral-beam injectors based on the acceleration of negative ions. The injectors provide over 1 GW of continuous power at an efficiency greater than 80%. The fusion reactor has three-stage, modularized, Venetian blind, plasma direct converter with a predicted efficiency of 59% and a new concept for removal of the lune-shaped blanket: a crane is brought between the two halves of the Yin-Yang magnet, which are separated by a float. The design has desirable features such as steady-state operation, minimal impurity problems, and low first-wall thermal stress. The major disadvantage is low Q resulting in high re-circulating power and hence high cost of electrical power. However, the direct capital cost per unit of gross electrical power is reasonable [$1000/kW(e)]. By contrast, the fusion-fission reactor design is not penalized by re-circulating power and uses relatively near-term fusion technology being developed for the fusion power program. New results are presented on the Th- 233 U and the U- 239 Pu fuel cycles. The purpose of this hybrid is fuel production, with projected costs at $55/g of Pu or $127/g of 233 U. Blanket and cooling system designs, including an emergency cooling system, by General Atomic Company, lead us to the opinion that the reactor can meet expected safety standards for licensing. The smallest mirror reactor having only a shield between the plasma and the coil is the 4.2-m long fusion engineering research facility (FERF) designed for material irradiation. The smallest mirror reactor having both a blanket and shield is the 7.5-m long experimental power reactor (EPR), which has both a fusion and a fusion-fission version. (author)

  11. Design and development of a MLS based compact active suspension system, featuring air spring and energy harvesting capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of an novel Magnetic Lead Screw based active suspension system for passenger vehicles, using a new MLS topology. The design is based on performance specifications found from ISO road profiles, with a maximum harvested energy approach. By integrating...... the PMSM motor with the MLS, it possible to construct a very compact design with an integrated air spring. The prototype is build and frictional losses and efficiency for the MLS damper unit are measured. Additional the stall force and stall torque are measured for the build prototype to validate...

  12. Dynamic model and workspace analysis of novel incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables is introduced in this article. Based on wrench of forces theory and Lagrange’s equation of first kind, the static and dynamics models of incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables are established, respectively. In order to obtain an intuitive understanding of the trajectory analysis, a dynamics model consisting of governing equation and geometric constraint conditions which is a set of the mixed differential-algebraic equation in mathematics is established. A typical feedback controller and an inverse model were set up to estimate the driving function. The effective workspace, which is used to guarantee an efficient swing process, mostly depends on the geometrical shape rather than the volume itself which was calculated by trajectory analysis. In order to estimate system features and ensure a limited range of tension in underconstrained spatial cable system, the probable location of unbalanced loading was evaluated by pointwise evaluation techniques during normal work.

  13. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  14. Measuring the In-Process Figure, Final Prescription, and System Alignment of Large Optics and Segmented Mirrors Using Lidar Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Eegholm, Bente; Saif, Babak

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of large optics is traditionally a slow process, and fabrication capability is often limited by measurement capability. W hile techniques exist to measure mirror figure with nanometer precis ion, measurements of large-mirror prescription are typically limited to submillimeter accuracy. Using a lidar instrument enables one to measure the optical surface rough figure and prescription in virtuall y all phases of fabrication without moving the mirror from its polis hing setup. This technology improves the uncertainty of mirror presc ription measurement to the micron-regime.

  15. Administrative license suspension: Does length of suspension matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Scherer, Michael

    2017-08-18

    Administrative license revocation (ALR) laws, which provide that the license of a driver with a blood alcohol concentration at or over the illegal limit is subject to an immediate suspension by the state department of motor vehicles, are an example of a traffic law in which the sanction rapidly follows the offense. The power of ALR laws has been attributed to how swiftly the sanction is applied, but does the length of suspension matter? Our objectives were to (a) determine the relationship of the ALR suspension length to the prevalence of drinking drivers relative to sober drivers in fatal crashes and (b) estimate the extent to which the relationship is associated to the general deterrent effect compared to the specific deterrent effect of the law. Data comparing the impact of ALR law implementation and ALR law suspension periods were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques on the ratio of drinking drivers to nondrinking drivers in fatal crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). States with an ALR law with a short suspension period (1-30 days) had a significantly lower drinking driver ratio than states with no ALR law. States with a suspension period of 91-180 days had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods, while the three states with suspension lengths of 181 days or longer had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods. The implementation of any ALR law was associated with a 13.1% decrease in the drinking/nondrinking driver fatal crash ratio but only a 1.8% decrease in the intoxicated/nonintoxicated fatal crash ratio. The ALR laws and suspension lengths had a significant general deterrent effect, but no specific deterrent effect. States might want to keep (or adopt) ALR laws for their general deterrent effects and pursue alternatives for specific deterrent effects. States with short ALR suspension periods should consider lengthening them to 91 days or longer.

  16. Multiobjective suspension control problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a (controller) design problem in the field of suspension systems for transport vehicles. A ten degrees-of-freedom model for a tractor-semitrailer vehicle is presented, using parameters derived from a real vehicle, which should be used for design and verification purposes. Road

  17. [The motor organization of cerebral cortex and the role of the mirror neuron system. Clinical impact for rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallés, Laia; Gironès, Xavier; Lafuente, José Vicente

    2015-01-06

    The basic characteristics of Penfield homunculus (somatotopy and unique representation) have been questioned. The existence of a defined anatomo-functional organization within different segments of the same region is controversial. The presence of multiple motor representations in the primary motor area and in the parietal lobe interconnected by parieto-frontal circuits, which are widely overlapped, form a complex organization. Both features support the recovery of functions after brain injury. Regarding the movement organization, it is possible to yield a relevant impact through the understanding of actions and intentions of others, which is mediated by the activation of mirror-neuron systems. The implementation of cognitive functions (observation, image of the action and imitation) from the acute treatment phase allows the activation of motor representations without having to perform the action and it plays an important role in learning motor patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Simple suspension culture system of human iPS cells maintaining their pluripotency for cardiac cell sheet engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a simple three-dimensional (3D) suspension culture method for the expansion and cardiac differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is reported. The culture methods were easily adapted from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D culture without any additional manipulations. When hiPSCs were directly applied to 3D culture from 2D in a single-cell suspension, only a few aggregated cells were observed. However, after 3 days, culture of the small hiPSC aggregates in a spinner flask at the optimal agitation rate created aggregates which were capable of cell passages from the single-cell suspension. Cell numbers increased to approximately 10-fold after 12 days of culture. The undifferentiated state of expanded hiPSCs was confirmed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, and the hiPSCs differentiated into three germ layers. When the hiPSCs were subsequently cultured in a flask using cardiac differentiation medium, expression of cardiac cell-specific genes and beating cardiomyocytes were observed. Furthermore, the culture of hiPSCs on Matrigel-coated dishes with serum-free medium containing activin A, BMP4 and FGF-2 enabled it to generate robust spontaneous beating cardiomyocytes and these cells expressed several cardiac cell-related genes, including HCN4, MLC-2a and MLC-2v. This suggests that the expanded hiPSCs might maintain the potential to differentiate into several types of cardiomyocytes, including pacemakers. Moreover, when cardiac cell sheets were fabricated using differentiated cardiomyocytes, they beat spontaneously and synchronously, indicating electrically communicative tissue. This simple culture system might enable the generation of sufficient amounts of beating cardiomyocytes for use in cardiac regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Ride Quality Assessment of Bus Suspension System through Modal Frequency Response Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ride dynamic characteristics of an urban bus were investigated through simulations with suspension component characteristics and were validated through field measurements. It was performed on highway road at a constant forward speed. A random vibration bus model with two parallel tracks of terrain profile was synthesized with superposition between the left and right sides as well as time delay between front and rear. The bus frequency response model was introduced with embedded modal extraction data to enhance computation efficiency. The simulation results of the bus model were derived in terms of acceleration PSD and frequency-weighted root mean square acceleration along the vertical axes at three locations, namely, driver side, middle, and rear passenger side, to obtain the overall bus ride performance. Another two sets of new leaf spring design were proposed as suspension parameter analysis. The simulation approach provides reasonably good results in evaluating passenger perception on ride and shows that the proposed new spring design can significantly improve the ride quality of the driver and passengers.

  20. System-spanning dynamically jammed region in response to impact of cornstarch and water suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Sokol, Benjamin; Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek; Maharjan, Rijan; Brown, Eric

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally characterize the structure of concentrated suspensions of cornstarch and water in response to impact. Using surface imaging and particle tracking at the boundary opposite the impactor, we observed that a visible structure and particle flow at the boundary occur with a delay after impact. We show the delay time is about the same time as the strong stress response, confirming that the strong stress response results from deformation of the dynamically jammed structure once it spans between the impactor and a solid boundary. A characterization of this strong stress response is reported in a companion paper [Maharjan, Mukhopadhyay, Allen, Storz, and Brown, Phys. Rev. E 97, 052602 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.052602]. We observed particle flow in the outer part of the dynamically jammed region at the bottom boundary, with a net transverse displacement of up to about 5% of the impactor displacement, indicating shear at the boundary. Direct imaging of the surface of the outer part of the dynamically jammed region reveals a change in surface structure that appears the same as the result of dilation in other cornstarch suspensions. Imaging also reveals cracks, like a brittle solid. These observations suggest the dynamically jammed structure can temporarily support stress according to an effective modulus, like a soil or dense granular material, along a network of frictional contacts between the impactor and solid boundary.

  1. Imaging and image restoration of an on-axis three-mirror Cassegrain system with wavefront coding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaohu; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Jia, Wei; Kong, Lingqin; Wu, Yijian; Li, Bing

    2015-04-01

    Wavefront coding (WFC) technology is adopted in the space optical system to resolve the problem of defocus caused by temperature difference or vibration of satellite motion. According to the theory of WFC, we calculate and optimize the phase mask parameter of the cubic phase mask plate, which is used in an on-axis three-mirror Cassegrain (TMC) telescope system. The simulation analysis and the experimental results indicate that the defocused modulation transfer function curves and the corresponding blurred images have a perfect consistency in the range of 10 times the depth of focus (DOF) of the original TMC system. After digital image processing by a Wiener filter, the spatial resolution of the restored images is up to 57.14 line pairs/mm. The results demonstrate that the WFC technology in the TMC system has superior performance in extending the DOF and less sensitivity to defocus, which has great value in resolving the problem of defocus in the space optical system.

  2. Tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coensgen, F.H.; Simonen, T.C.; Turner, W.C.

    1979-08-21

    This paper is largely devoted to tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), and briefly summarizes results of experiments in which field-reversal has been achieved. In the tandem experiment, high-energy, high-density plasmas (nearly identical to 2XIIB plasmas) are located at each end of a solenoid where plasma ions are electrostatically confined by the high positive poentials arising in the end plug plasma. End plug ions are magnetically confined, and electrons are electrostatically confined by the overall positive potential of the system. The field-reversed mirror reactor consists of several small field-reversed mirror plasmas linked together for economic reasons. In the LLL Beta II experiment, generation of a field-reversed plasma ring will be investigated using a high-energy plasma gun with a transverse radial magnetic field. This plasma will be further heated and sustained by injection of intense, high-energy neutral beams.

  3. Measuring the Impact of Gastrointestinal Variables on the Systemic Outcome of Two Suspensions of Posaconazole by a PBPK Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Bart; Talattof, Arjang; Paixão, Paulo; Bermejo, Marival; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Löbenberg, Raimar; Amidon, Gordon L

    2018-03-29

    For the last two decades, the application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models has grown exponentially in the field of oral absorption and in a regulatory context. Although these models are widely used, their predictive power should be validated and optimized in order to rely on these models and to know exactly what is going on "under the hood". In this study, an automated sensitivity analysis (ASA) was performed for 11 gastrointestinal (GI) variables that are integrated into the PBPK software program Simcyp®. The model of interest was a previously validated workspace that was able to predict the intraluminal and systemic behavior of two different suspensions of posaconazole in the Simcyp® Simulator. The sensitivity of the following GI parameters was evaluated in this model: gastric and duodenal pH, gastric and duodenal bicarbonate concentrations (reflecting buffer capacity), duodenal bile salts concentration, gastric emptying, the interdigestive migrating motor complex (IMMC), small intestinal transit time (SITT), gastric and jejunal volumes, and permeability. The most sensitive parameters were gastric/duodenal pH and gastric emptying, for both suspensions. The outcome of the sensitivity analyses highlights the important GI variables that must be integrated into an in vivo predictive dissolution test to help and create a rational and scientific framework/design for product development of novel and generic drug products.

  4. Failure analysis of a helical compression spring for a heavy vehicle's suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youli Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed why a compression coil spring fractured at the transition position from the bearing coil to the first active coil in service, while the nominal stress here should always be much less than that at the inside coil position of a fully active coil. Visual observations indicated that a wear scar was formed on the first active coil and the fracture surface showed radiating ridges emanating from the wear scar. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed crescent shaped region and beach marks, typical of fatigue failure. ZnCaph phosphate layer and painting around the contact zone were worn out due to contact and friction and resulted in corrosion and corrosion pits induced local stress concentration. Stress analysis indicated severe stress singularities at the edges of the contact zone, which facilitated cycle slip and fatigue crack nucleation. Recommendations were also made for improving the fatigue performance of the suspension springs.

  5. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeylikovich, I.; Xu, M., E-mail: mxu@fairfield.edu [Physics Department, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT 06824 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation.

  6. Prilog optimalnom projektovanju aktivnog sistema za oslanjanje vozila / A contribution to optimal design of vehicle active suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Demić

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available U ovom radu prikazanje sistem za aktivno oslanjanje vozila, uz korišćenje ravanskog modela vozila, bez filtera u povratnim spregama sistema za regulaciju. Za optimizaciju parametara PI kontrolera korišćena je metoda stohastičke parametarske optimizacije. Cilj optimizacije bio je istovremeno minimiziranje vibracijskih ubrzanja oslonjene mase i standardnog odstupanja sila u kontaktima točkova i tla, što poboljšava udobnost i ponašanje vozila na putu. / In this paper, an active suspension system is developed by use of a vehicle plane model without feedback filters in control system. A method of stochastic parameters optimization has been utilized in order to optimize PI controller parameters. The basic optimization goal was a simultaneous minimization of sprung mass acceleration and standard deviation of forces in tire-to-ground contact area, so as to improve vehicle comfort and handling performances.

  7. Improvement of the vibration isolation system for TAMA300

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, R

    2002-01-01

    The vibration isolation system for TAMA300 has a vibration isolation ratio large enough to achieve the requirement in the observation band around 300 Hz. At a lower frequency range, it is necessary to reduce the large fluctuation of mirrors for stable operation of the interferometer. With this aim, the mirror suspension systems were modified and an active vibration isolation system using pneumatic actuators was installed. These improvements contributed to the realization of a continuous interferometer lock for more than 24 h.

  8. An x-ray detection system development for Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U): Hardware and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.; Coutts, G.W.; Failor, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    This x-ray detection system measures the electron Bremstrahlung spectrum from the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). From this spectrum, we can calculate the electron temperature. The low energy portion of the spectrum (0.5-40 keV) is measured by a liquid-nitrogen-cooled, lithium-drifted silicon detector. The higher energy spectrometer uses an intrinsic germanium detector to accommodate the 100 to 200 keV spectra. The system proceeds as follows. The preamplified detector signals are digitized by a high-speed A-to-D converter located in a Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) crate. The data is then stored in a histogramming memory via a data router. The CAMAC crate interfaces with a local desktop computer or the main data acquisition computer that stores the data. The software sets up the modules, acquires the energy spectra (with sample times as short as 2 ms) and plots it. Up to 40 time-resolved spectra are available during one plasma cycle. The actual module configuration, CAMAC interfacing and software that runs the system are the subjects of this paper

  9. Signed language and human action processing: evidence for functional constraints on the human mirror-neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P; Knapp, Heather Patterson

    2008-12-01

    In the quest to further understand the neural underpinning of human communication, researchers have turned to studies of naturally occurring signed languages used in Deaf communities. The comparison of the commonalities and differences between spoken and signed languages provides an opportunity to determine core neural systems responsible for linguistic communication independent of the modality in which a language is expressed. The present article examines such studies, and in addition asks what we can learn about human languages by contrasting formal visual-gestural linguistic systems (signed languages) with more general human action perception. To understand visual language perception, it is important to distinguish the demands of general human motion processing from the highly task-dependent demands associated with extracting linguistic meaning from arbitrary, conventionalized gestures. This endeavor is particularly important because theorists have suggested close homologies between perception and production of actions and functions of human language and social communication. We review recent behavioral, functional imaging, and neuropsychological studies that explore dissociations between the processing of human actions and signed languages. These data suggest incomplete overlap between the mirror-neuron systems proposed to mediate human action and language.

  10. Mechanical quality factor of mirror substrates for VIRGO

    CERN Document Server

    Amico, P; Carbone, L; Gammaitoni, L; Punturo, M; Travasso, F; Vocca, H

    2002-01-01

    Thermal noise in the mirror substrates is expected to be the main limit to the VIRGO sensitivity in the 50-500 Hz frequency range. The mechanical quality of the mirror substrates and the geometry of their suspension are expected to affect the noise level of the detector output. High mechanical Q have been obtained for different large fused silica substrates under VIRGO suspension conditions. Moreover, calcium fluoride substrates are shown to provide a more promising option for the design of future cryogenic, low thermal noise interferometers.

  11. A prospective, randomized, controlled study of a suspension positioning system used with elderly bedridden patients with neurogenic fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Yin; Lin, Shi-Quan; zhou, Ye-Wen; Zhou, Ye-Wen; Liu, Si-Ya; Lin, Ai; Lin, Xi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Elderly patients with acute neurological impairment are prone to severe disability, fecal incontinence (FI), and resultant complications. A suspension positioning system (SPS), based on the orthopedic suspension traction system commonly used for conservative treatment of pediatric femoral fracture and uncomplicated adult pelvic fracture, was developed to facilitate FI management in patients immobilized secondary to an acute neurological condition. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the system, a prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted between October 2009 and July 2012. Two hundred (200) elderly, bedridden, hospitalized patients with acute, nonchronic neurological impairment were randomly assigned to receive routine FI nursing care (ie, individualized dietary modification, psychological support, health education, and social support for caregivers and family members [control group]) or routine incontinence care plus the SPS (experimental group) during the day. Rates of perianal fecal contamination, skin breakdown, incontinence associated dermatitis, pressure ulcer development, and lower urinary tract infection (LUTI) were significantly lower in the SPS than in the control group (P <0.05). Length of hospitalization and costs of care were also lower in the SPS group (P <0.05). Patient quality-of-life (QoL) and FI QoL scores were similar at baseline but significantly higher (better) at the 6-month follow-up interview in the SPS than in the control group (P <0.05). In this study, the rate of FI-associated morbidities was lower and 6-month patient QoL scores were higher in the SPS than in the control group. No adverse events were observed, and all patients completed the study. Further clinical studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of SPS use among neurologically impaired FI patients.

  12. Computer control of the titanium getter system on the tandem mirror experiment-upgrade (TMX-U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlice, A.J.; Bork, R.G.; Clower, C.A.; Moore, T.L.; Lang, D.D.; Pico, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Gettering has been a standard technique for achieving high-quality vacuum in fusion experiments for some time. On Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX-U), an extensive gettering system is utilized with liquid-nitrogen-cooled panels to provide the fast pumping during each physics experiment. The getter wires are a 85% titanium and 15% tantalum alloy directly heated by an electrical current. TMX-U has 162 getter power-supply channels; each channel supplies approximately 106 A of regulated power to each getter for a 60-s cycle. In the vacuum vessel, the getter wires are organized into poles or arrays. On each pole there are six getter wires, each cables to the exterior of the vessel. This arrangement allows the power supplies to be switched from getter wire to getter wire as the individual wires deteriorate after 200 to 300 gettering cycles. To control the getter power suppiles, we will install a computer system to operate the system and document the performance of each getter circuit. This computer system will control the 162 power supplies via a Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) architecture with a fiber-optic serial highway. Getter wire history will be stored on the built-in 10 megabyte disc drive with new entries backed up daily on a floppy disc. Overall, this system will allow positive tracking of getter wire condition, document the total gettering performance, and predict getter maintenance/changeover cycles. How we will employ the computer system to enhance the getter system is the subject of this paper

  13. Comparative analysis of the operation efficiency of the continuous and relay control systems of a multi-axle wheeled vehicle suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhileykin, M. M.; Kotiev, G. O.; Nagatsev, M. V.

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of the multi-axle wheeled vehicles (MWV) automotive engineers are increasing their cruising speed. One of the promising ways to improve ride comfort of the MWV is the development of the dynamic active suspension systems and control laws for such systems. Here, by the dynamic control systems we mean the systems operating in real time mode and using current (instantaneous) values of the state variables. The aim of the work is to develop the MWV suspension optimal control laws that would reduce vibrations on the driver’s seat at kinematic excitation. The authors have developed the optimal control laws for damping the oscillations of the MWV body. The developed laws allow reduction of the vibrations on the driver’s seat and increase in the maximum speed of the vehicle. The laws are characterized in that they allow generating the control inputs in real time mode. The authors have demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed control laws by means of mathematical simulation of the MWV driving over unpaved road with kinematic excitation. The proposed optimal control laws can be used in the MWV suspension control systems with magnetorheological shock absorbers or controlled hydropneumatic springs. Further evolution of the research line can be the development of the energy-efficient MWV suspension control systems with continuous control input on the vehicle body.

  14. Tools and methods for implementing the control systems on the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, E.G.; Labiak, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Installation of the major hardware subsystems for MFTF is nearing completion. These subsystems include the Fusion Chamber System, the eighty KV Neutral Beam System, the Superconducting Magnet System, and the Personnel Safety System. The Local Controls group has undertaken a uniform aproach to implementing the control systems for all of these hardware subsystems. This approach has two major aspects: (1) to provide a stand-alone computer control system with a remote, portable terminal so that computer control can be provided at the site of the hardware for initial testing, (2) to provide hardware simulators so that the complicated MFTF computer control system can be tested independent of the hardware. The software and hardware tools which were developed to carry out this plan will be described. Our experiences with bringing up subsystems containing up to 900 separate channels of control and status will also be described

  15. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study of the effect of visual orientation on the putative human mirror neuron system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jed D.; Arnold, Sara L.; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.; Enticott, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of motor neuron that are active during both the performance and observation of behavior, and have been implicated in interpersonal understanding. There is evidence to suggest that the mirror response is modulated by the perspective from which an action is presented (e.g., egocentric or allocentric). Most human research, however, has only examined this when presenting intransitive actions. Twenty-three healthy adult participants completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment that assessed corticospinal excitability whilst viewing transitive hand gestures from both egocentric (i.e., self) and allocentric (i.e., other) viewpoints. Although action observation was associated with increases in corticospinal excitability (reflecting putative human mirror neuron activity), there was no effect of visual perspective. These findings are discussed in the context of contemporary theories of mirror neuron ontogeny, including models concerning associative learning and evolutionary adaptation. PMID:24137125

  16. Analysis of Non-Uniform Gain for Control of a Deformable Mirror in an Adaptive-Optics System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vitayaudom, Kevin P

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and experimentally verify the use of spatially varying gain maps on the servo-loop controller of a deformable mirror for improvements in the performance...

  17. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study of the effect of visual orientation on the putative human mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jed D; Arnold, Sara L; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Enticott, Peter G

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of motor neuron that are active during both the performance and observation of behavior, and have been implicated in interpersonal understanding. There is evidence to suggest that the mirror response is modulated by the perspective from which an action is presented (e.g., egocentric or allocentric). Most human research, however, has only examined this when presenting intransitive actions. Twenty-three healthy adult participants completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment that assessed corticospinal excitability whilst viewing transitive hand gestures from both egocentric (i.e., self) and allocentric (i.e., other) viewpoints. Although action observation was associated with increases in corticospinal excitability (reflecting putative human mirror neuron activity), there was no effect of visual perspective. These findings are discussed in the context of contemporary theories of mirror neuron ontogeny, including models concerning associative learning and evolutionary adaptation.

  18. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study of the effect of visual orientation on the putative human mirror neuron system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jed Donald Burgess

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mirror neurons are a class of motor neuron that are active during both the performance and observation of behavior, and have been implicated in interpersonal understanding There is evidence to suggest that the mirror response is modulated by the perspective from which an action is presented (e.g., egocentric or allocentric. Most human research, however, has only examined this when presenting intransitive actions. Twenty-three healthy adult participants completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS experiment that assessed corticospinal excitability whilst viewing transitive hand gestures from both egocentric (i.e., self and allocentric (i.e., other viewpoints. Although action observation was associated with increases in corticospinal excitability (reflecting putative human mirror neuron activity, there was no effect of visual perspective. These findings are discussed in the context of contemporary theories of mirror neuron ontogeny, including models concerning associative learning and evolutionary adaptation.

  19. Update on quadruple suspension design for Advanced LIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, S M; Carbone, L; Cutler, R M; Hoyland, D; Barton, M A; Bland, B; Bell, A S; Beveridge, N; Cagnoli, G; Cantley, C A; Cumming, A V; Cunningham, L; Hammond, G D; Haughian, K; Hough, J; Brummitt, A J; Greenhalgh, R J S; Hayler, T M; Heptonstall, A; Heefner, J

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of the suspension systems for the major optics for Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The design is based on that used in GEO600—the German/UK interferometric gravitational wave detector, with further development to meet the more stringent noise requirements for Advanced LIGO. The test mass suspensions consist of a four-stage or quadruple pendulum for enhanced seismic isolation. To minimize suspension thermal noise, the final stage consists of a silica mirror, 40 kg in mass, suspended from another silica mass by four silica fibres welded to silica ears attached to the sides of the masses using hydroxide-catalysis bonding. The design is chosen to achieve a displacement noise level for each of the seismic and thermal noise contributions of 10 −19 m/√Hz at 10 Hz, for each test mass. We discuss features of the design which has been developed as a result of experience with prototypes and associated investigations. (paper)

  20. The mirror neuron system as revealed through neonatal imitation: presence from birth, predictive power and evidence of plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Murray, Lynne; Paukner, Annika; Ferrari, Pier F

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that neonates imitate previously unseen behaviours. These behaviours are predominantly used in social interactions, demonstrating neonates' ability and motivation to engage with others. Research on neonatal imitation can provide a wealth of information about the early mirror neuron system (MNS), namely its functional characteristics, its plasticity from birth and its relation to skills later in development. Although numerous studies document the existence of neonatal imitation in the laboratory, little is known about its natural occurrence during parent-infant interactions and its plasticity as a consequence of experience. We review these critical aspects of imitation, which we argue are necessary for understanding the early action-perception system. We address common criticisms and misunderstandings about neonatal imitation and discuss methodological differences among studies. Recent work reveals that individual differences in neonatal imitation positively correlate with later social, cognitive and motor development. We propose that such variation in neonatal imitation could reflect important individual differences of the MNS. Although postnatal experience is not necessary for imitation, we present evidence that neonatal imitation is influenced by experience in the first week of life.