Sample records for mirid nesidiocoris tenuis

  1. Characterization of the symbiont Rickettsia in the mirid bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Miridae). (United States)

    Caspi-Fluger, A; Inbar, M; Steinberg, S; Friedmann, Y; Freund, M; Mozes-Daube, N; Zchori-Fein, E


    Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is an omnivorous insect used for biological control. Augmentative release and conservation of N. tenuis have been used for pest control in tomato crops. Intracellular bacterial symbionts of arthropods are common in nature and have diverse effects on their hosts; in some cases they can dramatically affect biological control. Fingerprinting methods showed that the symbiotic complex associated with N. tenuis includes Wolbachia and Rickettsia. Rickettsia of N. tenuis was further characterized by sequencing the 16S rRNA and gltA bacterial genes, measuring its amount in different developmental stages of the insect by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and localizing the bacteria in the insect's body by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The Rickettsia in N. tenuis exhibited 99 and 96% similarity of both sequenced genes to Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia reported from Bemisia tabaci, respectively. The highest amount of Rickettsia was measured in the 5th instar and adult, and the symbionts could be detected in the host gut and ovaries. Although the role played by Rickettsia in the biology of N. tenuis is currently unknown, their high amount in the adults and localization in the gut suggest that they may have a nutritional role in this insect.

  2. Stage-Related Defense Response Induction in Tomato Plants by Nesidiocoris tenuis (United States)

    Naselli, Mario; Urbaneja, Alberto; Siscaro, Gaetano; Jaques, Josep A.; Zappalà, Lucia; Flors, Víctor; Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell


    The beneficial effects of direct predation by zoophytophagous biological control agents (BCAs), such as the mirid bug Nesidiocoris tenuis, are well-known. However, the benefits of zoophytophagous BCAs’ relation with host plants, via induction of plant defensive responses, have not been investigated until recently. To date, only the females of certain zoophytophagous BCAs have been demonstrated to induce defensive plant responses in tomato plants. The aim of this work was to determine whether nymphs, adult females, and adult males of N. tenuis are able to induce defense responses in tomato plants. Compared to undamaged tomato plants (i.e., not exposed to the mirid), plants on which young or mature nymphs, or adult males or females of N. tenuis fed and developed were less attractive to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, but were more attractive to the parasitoid Encarsia formosa. Female-exposed plants were more repellent to B. tabaci and more attractive to E. formosa than were male-exposed plants. When comparing young- and mature-nymph-exposed plants, the same level of repellence was obtained for B. tabaci, but mature-nymph-exposed plants were more attractive to E. formosa. The repellent effect is attributed to the signaling pathway of abscisic acid, which is upregulated in N. tenuis-exposed plants, whereas the parasitoid attraction was attributed to the activation of the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Our results demonstrate that all motile stages of N. tenuis can trigger defensive responses in tomato plants, although these responses may be slightly different depending on the stage considered. PMID:27472328

  3. Stage-Related Defense Response Induction in Tomato Plants by Nesidiocoris tenuis

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    Mario Naselli


    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of direct predation by zoophytophagous biological control agents (BCAs, such as the mirid bug Nesidiocoris tenuis, are well-known. However, the benefits of zoophytophagous BCAs’ relation with host plants, via induction of plant defensive responses, have not been investigated until recently. To date, only the females of certain zoophytophagous BCAs have been demonstrated to induce defensive plant responses in tomato plants. The aim of this work was to determine whether nymphs, adult females, and adult males of N. tenuis are able to induce defense responses in tomato plants. Compared to undamaged tomato plants (i.e., not exposed to the mirid, plants on which young or mature nymphs, or adult males or females of N. tenuis fed and developed were less attractive to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, but were more attractive to the parasitoid Encarsia formosa. Female-exposed plants were more repellent to B. tabaci and more attractive to E. formosa than were male-exposed plants. When comparing young- and mature-nymph-exposed plants, the same level of repellence was obtained for B. tabaci, but mature-nymph-exposed plants were more attractive to E. formosa. The repellent effect is attributed to the signaling pathway of abscisic acid, which is upregulated in N. tenuis-exposed plants, whereas the parasitoid attraction was attributed to the activation of the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Our results demonstrate that all motile stages of N. tenuis can trigger defensive responses in tomato plants, although these responses may be slightly different depending on the stage considered.

  4. Impact of Feeding on Contaminated Prey on the Life Parameters of Nesidiocoris Tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) Adults (United States)

    Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Viñuela, Elisa; Medina, Pilar; Adán, Ángeles


    Insecticide selectivity to natural enemies is an important concern in integrated pest management programs. Although there is a wide range of information concerning pesticide lethal and sublethal effects on contaminated surfaces, little is known when the route of exposure occurs at a trophic level. This study evaluates this route of pesticide intake on the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) for the first time. Under laboratory conditions, prey treated with six insecticides (flubendiamide, spirotetramat, deltamethrin, flonicamid, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor) were offered to N. tenuis adults for 3 days. Mortality (24, 48, and 72 h after treatment), offspring production (third until eighth day) and longevity were documented. Metaflumizone and sulfoxaflor were classified as moderately harmful products because although the percentage of mortality was only 28 and 36%, respectively, both products caused a severe decrease in offspring production and longevity. Flonicamid and flubendiamide were classified as slightly harmful products; although they did not have a lethal effect, sublethal impact was important on the parameters studied. Spirotetramat and deltamethrin were insecticides categorized as harmless. This information could be useful for selecting the most appropriate insecticides to control pests in tomato crops in which N. tenuis is a relevant biological control agent. PMID:27694345

  5. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Insecticides on the Functional Response of Two Mirid Generalist Predators.

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    Angeliki F Martinou

    Full Text Available The use of agrochemicals particularly pesticides, can hamper the effectiveness of natural enemies, causing disruption in the ecosystem service of biological control. In the current study, the effects of the insecticides thiacloprid and chlorantraniliprole on the functional response curves were assessed for two mirid predator nymphs, Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter. In the absence of insecticides, both predators exhibited a type II functional response when feeding on eggs of the moth Ephestia kuehniella. N. tenuis seems to be a more efficient predator than M. pygmaeus, as model estimated handling time was significantly lower for the former than for the latter. Residual exposure of M. pygmaeus to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide was associated with a change in the asymptote but not the type of the functional response curve. Thiacloprid seems to be the least compatible with M. pygmaeus, as it led to both a significant reduction of the attack rate and an increase in handling time. In contrast, chlorantraniliprole exposure significantly increased the handling time, but not the attack rate of the predator. Residual exposure of N. tenuis to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide did not have a significant effect on the type nor the parameters of the functional response model. The results show that pesticide residues that do not have lethal effects on beneficial arthropods can reduce prey consumption depending on predator species and on likely risks associated with toxicity.

  6. Comparative mitogenomic analysis of mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae and evaluation of potential DNA barcoding markers

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    Juan Wang


    Full Text Available The family Miridae is one of the most species-rich families of insects. To better understand the diversity and evolution of mirids, we determined the mitogenome of Lygus pratenszs and re-sequenced the mitogenomes of four mirids (i.e., Apolygus lucorum, Adelphocoris suturalis, Ade. fasciaticollis and Ade. lineolatus. We performed a comparative analysis for 15 mitogenomic sequences representing 11 species of five genera within Miridae and evaluated the potential of these mitochondrial genes as molecular markers. Our results showed that the general mitogenomic features (gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and codon usage were well conserved among these mirids. Four protein-coding genes (PCGs (cox1, cox3, nad1 and nad3 had no length variability, where nad5 showed the largest size variation; no intraspecific length variation was found in PCGs. Two PCGs (nad4 and nad5 showed relatively high substitution rates at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, where cox1 had the lowest substitution rate. The Ka/Ks values for all PCGs were far lower than 1 (<0.59, but the Ka/Ks values of cox1-barcode sequences were always larger than 1 (1.34 –15.20, indicating that the 658 bp sequences of cox1 may be not the appropriate marker due to positive selection or selection relaxation. Phylogenetic analyses based on two concatenated mitogenomic datasets consistently supported the relationship of Nesidiocoris + (Trigonotylus + (Adelphocoris + (Apolygus + Lygus, as revealed by nad4, nad5, rrnL and the combined 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs, respectively. Taken sequence length, substitution rate and phylogenetic signal together, the individual genes (nad4, nad5 and rrnL and the combined 22 tRNAs could been used as potential molecular markers for Miridae at various taxonomic levels. Our results suggest that it is essential to evaluate and select suitable markers for different taxa groups when performing phylogenetic, population genetic and species identification

  7. Sex pheromone of the mirid bug, Adelphocoris suturalis (United States)

    Mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are phytophagous insect pests that damage many types of economically significant field crops. In recent years, a great deal of attention has been paid to the species, Adelphocoris suturalis, because of it outbreaks in Bt cotton. Our previous work showed that virgin A....

  8. A New Diterpenoid from Hydroclathrus tenuis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new dolabellane diterpene 1, named as hydroclathrol, has been isolated from the alga Hydroclathrus tenuis. Its structure has been determined on the basis of spectral analysis as 1, 4, 8-trimethyl-14-isopropyl-bicyclo [9, 3, 0]-4(Z), 8(E), 11(Z)-tetradeca triene-6-ol.

  9. Do nymphs and adults of three Neotropical zoophytophagous mirids damage leaves and fruits of tomato? (United States)

    Silva, D B; Bueno, V H P; Calvo, F J; van Lenteren, J C


    The predators Macrolophus basicornis (Stal), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho) consume large numbers of tomato pests such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). However, they are zoophytophagous and feed on plant parts as well. We evaluated the type and effect of injury caused by nymphs and adults of these mirids on tomato seedlings and fruit in the absence of prey. For each mirid species, seedlings were exposed to groups of 20 nymphs or adults for 72 h, and fruits were exposed for 48 h to groups of four nymphs or adults. Type and the number of injury on stems, petioles and leaflets of tomato seedlings and fruits were recorded after removal of insects. Nymphs and adults of these mirids caused necrotic rings on the leaflets, but no injury was observed on stem and petioles. The necrotic rings on leaflets consisted of blemishes, characterized by feeding punctures surrounded by a yellowish, bleached area. The number of necrotic rings did not exceed one per individual mirid and seedlings developed normally. Nymphs also caused feeding punctures on tomato fruit, but in even lower numbers than on leaflets. Two weeks after the start of the experiment the tomato fruit still looked fresh and feeding punctures had disappeared. Adults did not cause any injury to tomato fruit. The results indicate that nymphs and adults of these zoophytophagous mirids cause little injury to tomato seedlings and fruit, even when present in high densities and in the absence of prey, making them interesting candidates for biological control.

  10. Evaluation of mirid predatory bugs and release strategy for aphid control in sweet pepper

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    Messelink, G.J.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Schelt, van J.; Ingegno, B.L.; Tavella, L.


    Zoophytophagous predators of the family Miridae (Heteroptera), which feed both on plant and prey, often maintain a close relationship with certain host plants. In this study, we aimed to select a suitable mirid predatory bug for aphid control in sweet pepper. Four species were compared: Macrolophus

  11. Sources of pheromones in the lizard Liolaemus tenuis Fuentes de feromonas en el lagarto Liolaemus tenuis

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    Antonieta Labra


    Full Text Available Experimental tests were conducted with the lizard Liolaemus tenuis (Tropiduridae, to determine the potential sources of pheromones used in its chemical communication, centered in the phenomenon of self-recognition. During the post-reproductive season, feces of both sexes and secretions of precloacal pores (present only in males were tested. Stimuli were presented to lizards spread on rocks, and the number of tongue-flicks (TF to the rocks was used as a bioassay to determine pheromone recognition. Feces contained pheromones involved in self-recognition, since lizards showed less TF confronted to rocks with suspensions of their own feces than with suspensions of feces of conspecifics or with water (control. In order to assess the chemical nature of self-recognition pheromones, feces were submitted to a sequential extraction with three solvents of increasing polarity, thereby obtaining three feces fractions. There were no differences in TF towards rocks with different fractions with own feces. Additionally, lizards showed similar TF to rocks with fractions of own and conspecific feces, suggesting that the separation procedure broke up a complex stimulus into parts that were not active individually as pheromones. Finally, males did not discriminate between precloacal secretions from themselves and from another male. It is possible that these secretions convey information relevant to or detectable by females onlySe realizaron pruebas experimentales con la especie Liolaemus tenuis (Tropiduridae, para determinar las potenciales fuentes de feromonas usadas en su comunicación química. El estudio se centró en el fenómeno de auto-reconocimiento. Durante la estación post-reproductiva, las fecas de ambos sexos y las secreciones precloacales (presentes sólo en machos fueron probadas. Los estímulos fueron presentados a los lagartos esparcidos sobre rocas, y el número de lamidos (TF a la roca fue utilizado como un bioensayo para determinar

  12. Occurrence of Hydroclathrus tenuis Tseng and Baoren, (Phaeophyta) from Gulf of Kutch, northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Hydroclathrus tenuis (C. Agardh), a marine brown alga was considered to be a monotypic, till H. tenuis Tseng and Baoren was reported during 1983 from south China Sea. Recently the same alga was noticed to be abundant from Kalubhar Island in the Gulf...

  13. Population growth of three mirid predatory bugs feeding on eggs and larvae of Tuta absoluta on tomato

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    Silva, Diego B.; Bueno, Vanda H.P.; Montes, Flavio C.; Lenteren, van Joop C.


    Tuta absoluta Meyrick quickly developed into a significant pest of tomatoes worldwide. While the mirid bugs Macrolophus basicornis (Stal), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho) prey on this tomato borer, their biology have not been well characterized. Using a mixtu

  14. Should the Waterhyacinth Mirid, Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Heteroptera: Miridae), be Considered for Release against Waterhyacinth in the United States of America? (United States)

    At least one and as many as seven biological control agents have been released against waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in no less than 30 countries, with varying degrees of success. A mirid, Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Carvalho) (Heteroptera: Miridae), the most recent agent releas...

  15. Serological diagnosis of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in white-tailed deer and identification of a potentially unique parasite antigen. (United States)

    Ogunremi, O; Lankester, M; Kendall, J; Gajadhar, A


    Serological diagnosis of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection should offer many advantages over the currently used method of fecal analysis that relies on a patent infection. Toward this end, we investigated the presence of P. tenuis-specific antibodies in experimentally infected white-tailed deer (WTD) and of unique P. tenuis antigens that may be exploited for serodiagnosis. WTD infected with 6, 20 or 100-150 P. tenuis third-stage larvae (L3) had anti-parasite antibodies from as early as 21 days postinoculation (dpi) until the end of the experiment (147 dpi). Peak anti-P. tenuis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titers in individual animals ranged from 1:70 to 1:5,700. Serum from infected WTD reacted with 5 distinct P. tenuis L3 antigens (105, 45, 37, 32, and 19 kDa) as detected by the immunoblotting technique. Serum from caribou infected with Parelaphostrongylus andersoni or Elaphostrongylus rangiferi reacted with all antigens except the 37-kDa antigen of L3, indicating that it may be unique to P. tenuis and can serve as a serodiagnostic antigen. The 37-kDa antigen appears to be present in the adult P. tenuis but not adult E. rangiferi or E. cervi. The development of an ELISA utilizing the unique antigen of P. tenuis should lead to a reliable diagnostic assay for P. tenuis infection in WTD.

  16. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon. (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo


    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  17. Inhibition of spore germination of Alternaria tenuis by sulfur dioxide

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    Couey, H.M.


    As a part of a continuing study of SO/sub 2/ fumigation of table grapes, the effect of SO/sub 2/ on spores of an isolate of A. tenuis Auct. causing decay of table grapes was determined. The amount of SO/sub 2/ required to inhibit completely spore germination depended on availability of moisture and the temperature. At 20/sup 0/C, wet spores required 20-min exposure to 100 ppm SO/sub 2/ to prevent germination, but spores equilibrated at 90% relative humidity (RH) required 10-min exposure to 1000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Dry spores at 60% RH were unaffected by a 20-min exposure to 4000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Increasing the temperature in the range 5-20/sup 0/C increased effectiveness of the SO/sub 2/ treatment. A comparison of Alternaria with Botrytis cinerea Fr. (studied earlier) showed that wet spores of these organisms were about equally sensitive to SO/sub 2/, but that dry Alternaria spores were more resistant to SO/sub 2/ than dry Botrytis spores under comparable conditions.

  18. Systemic Nicotinoid Toxicity against the Predatory Mirid Pilophorus typicus : Residual Side Effect and Evidence for Plant Sucking


    Nakahira, Kengo; Kashitani, Ryoya; Tomoda, Masafumi; Kodama, Rika; Ito, Katsura; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Momoshita, Mitsutoshi; Arakawa, Ryo; Takagi, Masami


    The predatory mirid Pilophorus typicus (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a potential biological control agent against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), but the sucking for host plant is unknown. To investigate collaboration use of P. typicus and nicotinoid granules and to confirm the sucking for pepper plant, residual harmful toxicity of 4 nicotinoids: acetamiprid; imidacloprid; nitempyram; and thiamethoxam on P. typicus adult were investigated at 7, 14 21, 28 and 35 d after treatment of the n...

  19. Lotus tenuis tolerates the interactive effects of salinity and waterlogging by 'excluding' Na+ and Cl- from the xylem. (United States)

    Teakle, Nl; Flowers, Tj; Real, D; Colmer, Td


    Salinity and waterlogging interact to reduce growth of poorly adapted species by, amongst other processes, increasing the rate of Na(+) and Cl(-) transport to shoots. Xylem concentrations of these ions were measured in sap collected using xylem-feeding spittlebugs (Philaenus spumarius) from Lotus tenuis and Lotus corniculatus in saline (NaCl) and anoxic (stagnant) treatments. In aerated NaCl solution (200 mM), L. corniculatus had 50% higher Cl(-) concentrations in the xylem and shoot compared with L. tenuis, whereas concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) did not differ between the species. In stagnant-plus-NaCl solution, xylem Cl(-) and Na(+) concentrations of L. corniculatus increased to twice those of L. tenuis. These differences in xylem ion concentrations, which were not caused by variation in transpiration between the two species, contributed to lower net accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in shoots of L. tenuis, indicating that ion transport mechanisms in roots of L. tenuis were contributing to better 'exclusion' of Cl(-) and Na(+) from shoots, compared with L. corniculatus. Root porosity was also higher in L. tenuis, due to constitutive aerenchyma, than in L. corniculatus, suggesting that enhanced root aeration contributed to the maintenance of Na(+) and Cl(-) 'exclusion' in L. tenuis exposed to stagnant-plus-NaCl treatment. Lotus tenuis also had greater dry mass than L. corniculatus after 56 d in NaCl or stagnant-plus-NaCl treatment. Thus, Cl(-) 'exclusion' is a key trait contributing to salt tolerance of L. tenuis, and 'exclusion' of both Cl(-) and Na(+) from the xylem enables L. tenuis to tolerate, better than L. corniculatus, the interactive stresses of salinity and waterlogging.

  20. Three new species of Macrobiotus (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae, tenuis-group from Tien Shan (Kirghizia and Spitsbergen

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    Denis V. TUMANOV


    Full Text Available Illustrated descriptions of Macrobiotus danilovi sp. n., Macrobiotus tenuiformis sp. n. from Tien Shan (Kirghizia and Macrobiotus voronkovi sp. n. from Spitsbergen are given. These new species belong to the tenuis-group of the genus Macrobiotus. Members of the tenius-group have claws with a particularly long and thin common tract with a prominent frontal appendage at the base. Macrobiotus danilovi and M. tenuiformis differ from all known species of this group in the structure of their buccal armature. Macrobiotus voronkovi differs from all known species of the tenuis-group in its combination of features in adult animals and in the egg shell.

  1. Life table parameters of three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris species (Hemiptera: Miridae under contrasted relative humidity regimes.

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    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH. Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80% were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm, the net reproductive rate (R0 and the finite rate of increase (λ for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests.

  2. Expression and Characterisation of Recombinant Rhodocyclus tenuis High Potential Iron-Sulphur Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Bjerg; Bennet, K.; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager


    The high potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) from Rhodocyclus tenuis strain 2761 has been overproduced in Escherichia coli from its structural gene, purified to apparent homogeneity, and then characterized by an array of methods. UV-visible spectra of the reduced and oxidized recombinant protein...

  3. Jumping performance of flea hoppers and other mirid bugs (Hemiptera, Miridae). (United States)

    Burrows, M; Dorosenko, M


    The order Hemiptera includes jumping insects with the fastest take-off velocities, all generated by catapult mechanisms. It also contains the large family Miridae or plant bugs. Here we analysed the jumping strategies and mechanisms of six mirid species from high speed videos and from the anatomy of their propulsive legs and conclude that they use a different mechanism in which jumps are powered by the direct contractions of muscles. Three strategies were identified. First, jumping was propelled only by movements of the middle and hind legs which were respectively 140% and 190% longer than the front legs. In three species with masses ranging from 3.4 to 12.2 mg, depression of the coxo-trochanteral and extension of femoro-tibial joints accelerated the body in 8-17 ms to take-off velocities of 0.5 to 0.8 m s(- 1) The middle legs lost ground contact 5-6 ms before take-off so that the hind legs generated the final propulsion. The power requirements could be met by the direct muscle contractions so that catapult mechanisms are not implicated. Second, other species combined the same leg movements with wing beating to generate take-off during a wing downstroke. In the third strategy, up to four wing beat cycles preceded take-off and were not assisted by leg movements. Take-off velocities were reduced and acceleration times lengthened. Other species from the same habitat did not jump. The lower take-off velocities achieved by powering jumping by direct muscle contractions may be offset by eliminating the time taken to load catapult mechanisms.

  4. Preference of a Polyphagous Mirid Bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) for Flowering Host Plants (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A. G.; Wu, Kongming


    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult) A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3–28.9 times and 9.3–19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum); in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia). Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest. PMID:23874835

  5. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) for flowering host plants. (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming


    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult) A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum); in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia). Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  6. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dur for flowering host plants.

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    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum; in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia. Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  7. Naturally occurring Parelaphostrongylus tenuis-associated choriomeningitis in a guinea pig with neurologic signs. (United States)

    Southard, T; Bender, H; Wade, S E; Grunenwald, C; Gerhold, R W


    An adult male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) with a 1-month history of hind limb paresis, torticollis, and seizures was euthanized and submitted for necropsy. Gross examination was unremarkable, but histologic examination revealed multifocal eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic choriomeningitis and cross sections of nematode parasites within the leptomeninges of the midbrain and diencephalon. Morphologic features of the nematode were consistent with a metastrongyle, and the parasite was identified as Parelaphostrongylus tenuis by polymerase chain reaction testing and nucleotide sequencing. Further questioning of the owner revealed that the guinea pig was fed grass from a yard often grazed by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a naturally occurring P. tenuis infection in a guinea pig.

  8. Studies on Alternaria allergens. I. Isolation of allergens from Alternaria tenuis and Alternaria solani. (United States)

    Vijay, H M; Huang, H; Young, N M; Bernstein, I L


    Extracts of Alternaria tenuis and Alternaria solani were separated into dialyzable (molecular weight less than 10,000) and non-dialyzable forms. The latter was further fractionated by gel filtration through Sephadex G-100 followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The dialyzable material was fractionated by gel filtration through Sephadex G-50. The allergenic activities of the fractions obtained from the A. tenuis extract was measured in vitro by the radioallergosorbent test assay and the allergenic potency was measured by radioallergosorbent test inhibition assay. Allergenic activity was detected in most of the non-dialyzable fractions, the majority of the activity being in the last G-100 fraction (MW approximately 20,000) which was predominantly protein in nature. The same component may be responsible for the activity found in the dialyzate and its first G-50 fraction since the immunodiffusion studies indicated that the last G-100 fraction has antigenic components in common with those of the first G-50 fraction. In addition, cross-reactions between A. tenuis and A. solani extracts show that the two species share common antigenic determinants.

  9. Lotus tenuis Seedling Establishment and Biomass Production in Flooding Pampa Grasslands (Buenos Aires , Argentina Establecimiento de Plántulas y Producción de Biomasa de Lotus tenuis en Pastizales de la Pampa Deprimida (Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Osvaldo R Vignolio


    Full Text Available Biomass and plant density of Lotus tenuis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. have been reported in decreasing in grasslands and pastures. Our objective was to determine if L. tenuis biomass and plant density can be increased in grassland through seed addition. Two separated experiments under cattle grazing exclusion were conducted in three paddocks of a Flooding Pampa grassland. The first experiment was from autumn 2004 to autumn 2006 and the second from autumn 2005 to autumn 2007. Different L. tenuis seed additions (0, 57, 229, 917 and 1833 seeds m-² were broadcast into experimental plots. In the second experiment, besides seed additions there was a reseeding of approximately 900 seed m-² from seed rain produced by plants of grassland. Seed density explained the 81% and 19% of the variation in seedling density and L. tenuis biomass, respectively. Seedling emergence occurred mainly between autumn and early spring, while seedling mortality was mainly between late spring and early summer. Lotus tenuis adult plant density and biomass production increased with seed additions. Total biomass production in the plant community varied between 589.94 ± 26.89 and 1042.44 ± 54.39 g m-² yr-1 and the differences were principally attributed to precipitations. Lotus tenuis biomass contribution was of approximately 10%. The results suggest that L. tenuis seedling and plant establishment and biomass production can be increased through seed addition and/or seed rain through grazing exclusion during reproductive period.En pastizales y pasturas ha sido documentada la reducción de la densidad de plantas y de la biomasa de Lotus tenuis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar si su densidad de plantas y su producción de biomasa pueden ser incrementadas en un pastizal mediante la adición de semillas. Dos experimentos sin pastoreo fueron realizados en tres potreros de un pastizal de la Pampa Deprimida. El primer experimento fue realizado entre otoño 2004

  10. Different strategies of Lotus japonicus, L. corniculatus and L. tenuis to deal with complete submergence at seedling stage. (United States)

    Striker, G G; Izaguirre, R F; Manzur, M E; Grimoldi, A A


    Two main strategies allow plants to deal with submergence: (i) escape from below water by means of shoot elongation, or (ii) remaining quiescent under the water until water subsides and then resume growth. We investigated these strategies in seedlings of Lotus japonicus, L. corniculatus and L. tenuis subjected to control and submergence for 12 days, with a subsequent 30-day recovery period. All three species survived submergence but used different strategies. Submerged seedlings of L. japonicus exhibited an escape strategy (emerging from water) as a result of preferential carbon allocation towards shoot mass and lengthening, in detriment to root growth. In contrast, seedlings of L. corniculatus and L. tenuis became quiescent, with no biomass accumulation, no new unfolding of leaves and no shoot elongation. Upon de-submergence, seedlings of L. japonicus had the lowest recovery growth (a biomass and shoot height 58% and 40% less than controls, respectively), L. corniculatus was intermediate and L. tenuis showed the greatest recovery growth. Previously submerged seedlings of L. tenuis did not differ from their controls, either in final shoot biomass or shoot height. Thus, for the studied species, quiescence appears to be an adequate strategy for tolerance of short-term (i.e., 12 days) complete submergence, being consistent with field observations of L. tenuis colonisation of flood-prone environments.

  11. Temperature Dependence of Respiration in Larvae and Adult Colonies of the Corals Acropora tenuis and Pocillopora damicornis

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    Dwi Haryanti


    Full Text Available Although algal symbionts can become a source of reactive oxygen species under stressful conditions, symbiotic planulae of the coral Pocillopora damicornis are highly tolerant to thermal stress compared with non-symbiotic planulae of Acropora tenuis. As a first step to understand how P. damicornis planulae attain high stress tolerance, we compared the respiration rate and temperature dependence between symbiotic planulae of P. damicornis and non-symbiotic planulae of A. tenuis, as well as between larvae and adult branches within each species. Larvae and adult branches of both species had similar temperature dependency of respiration rate, with the temperature coefficient (Q10 values of about 2. Planula larvae of P. damicornis had a significantly lower respiration rate than that of A. tenuis larvae at 25–30 °C, but not at 32 °C, whereas adult branches of P. damicornis had a significantly higher respiration rate than that of A. tenuis branches at all temperatures. Thus, P. damicornis larvae appear to be capable of reducing their respiration rate to a greater extent than A. tenuis larvae, which could partly explain why P. damicornis larvae had high survivorship under thermal stress, although other antioxidant or photoprotective mechanisms should be investigated in the future.

  12. Genome sequence and physiological analysis of Yamadazyma laniorum f.a. sp. nov. and a reevaluation of the apocryphal xylose fermentation of its sister species, Candida tenuis (United States)

    Xylose fermentation is a rare trait that is immensely important to the cellulosic biofuel industry, and Candida tenuis is one of the few yeasts that has been reported with this trait. Here we report the isolation of two strains representing a candidate sister species to C. tenuis. Integrated analysi...

  13. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta: A New Species from South China Sea Based on Morphological Observation and rbcL Gene Sequences Analysis

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    Ling Yu


    Full Text Available Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1 thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2 cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3 the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.

  14. Toxic effects of Pseudanabaena tenuis (Cyanobacteria on the cladocerans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia Efectos tóxicos de Pseudanabaena tenuis (Cyanobacteria en los cladóceros Daphnia magna y Ceriodaphnia dubia

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    Roxana Olvera-Ramírez


    Full Text Available Some cyanobacteria can produce toxins that affect the aquatic biota and represent a human health risk. The cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena tenuis was isolated from the Valle de Bravo dam, and cultured in the laboratory under controlled conditions. We determined the acute toxic effects and performed a chronic (consumption test in the cladocerans Daphnia magna (a reference test organism and Ceriodaphnia dubia (a cosmopolitan species. To determine acute toxicity, three exposure ways were assayed: a cell-free culture medium, b crude cell extracts of the cyanobacterium after lysing, and c aqueous extracts of P. tenuis phycobiliproteins. On the other hand, both cladocerans were fed P. tenuis, assessing the effects on survival and reproduction. For comparison, a control culture of both cladocerans was fed the green microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Exposure to the cell-free culture medium did not produce any mortality in either cladoceran, but the aqueous and crude extracts generated acute toxicity. D. magna and C. dubia were negatively affected when fed P. tenuis, since their survival, total progeny, average number of neonates per clutch, and the number of clutches decreased. C. dubia was more sensitive than D. magna, both in the acute toxicity tests and to the effects of P. tenuis consumption. Although most of the blooms around the world are dominated by cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis, attention should be given to other species, such as P. tenuis, because, frequently, it is not recognized that smaller cyanobacteria could exceed the larger species in terms of biomass, and produce noxious biological effects.Algunas cianobacterias producen toxinas que afectan la biota acuática y representan un riesgo para la salud humana. La cianobacteria Pseudanabaena tenuis fue aislada del embalse Valle de Bravo y cultivada en el laboratorio. Se determinaron los efectos tóxicos agudos (por exposición y se evaluó la toxicidad crónica (por consumo

  15. Ultrastructural study of sperm cells in Acanthocolpidae: the case of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis (Digenea

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    Abdoulaye J.S. Bakhoum


    Full Text Available The mature spermatozoa of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis are described by transmission electron microscopy. They present several ultrastructural features previously reported in other digeneans. Their spermatozoa possess two axonemes of different length showing the 9 + ‘1’ trepaxonematan pattern, four attachment zones, two mitochondria (with an anterior moniliform one in S. murielae, a nucleus, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. The main differences between the mature spermatozoon of S. murielae and S. tenuis are the maximum number of cortical microtubules, the morphology of the anterior spermatozoon extremity and the anterior mitochondrion. This study is the first concerning members of the family Acanthocolpidae. The main ultrastructural characteristics discussed are the morphology of the anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, antero-lateral electron dense material, external ornamentations, spine-like bodies and number and morphology of mitochondria. In addition, the phylogenetic significance of all these ultrastructural features is discussed and compared to molecular results in order to highlight the complex relationships in the Digenea.

  16. Dispersion models and sampling of cacao mirid bug Sahlbergella singularis (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Theobroma Cacao in southern Cameroon. (United States)

    Bisseleua, D H B; Vidal, Stefan


    The spatio-temporal distribution of Sahlbergella singularis Haglung, a major pest of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao) (Malvaceae), was studied for 2 yr in traditional cacao forest gardens in the humid forest area of southern Cameroon. The first objective was to analyze the dispersion of this insect on cacao trees. The second objective was to develop sampling plans based on fixed levels of precision for estimating S. singularis populations. The following models were used to analyze the data: Taylor's power law, Iwao's patchiness regression, the Nachman model, and the negative binomial distribution. Our results document that Taylor's power law was a better fit for the data than the Iwao and Nachman models. Taylor's b and Iwao's β were both significantly >1, indicating that S. singularis aggregated on specific trees. This result was further supported by the calculated common k of 1.75444. Iwao's α was significantly cacao plantations. Sampling plans, presented here, should be a tool for research on population dynamics and pest management decisions of mirid bugs on cacao.

  17. Differential tolerance of Agrostis tenuis populations growing at two mine soils to Cu, Zn, and Pb

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    Karataglis, S.S.


    The Cu, Zn and Pb tolerance of Agrostis tenuis Sibth. populations found in the area of two mines in England as well as in uncontaminated areas were studied by determining the effect of these metals on the rooting of tillers. The populations proved tolerant to the particular metals present in high quantities in the soil of their original habitats as compared to the populations collected from uncontaminated soil. The populations of the Trelogan mine were tolerant only to Zn and not to Cu and Pb. On the contrary, the populations in the mine of Parys Mountain were highly tolerant to all these metals. A linear correlation in the index of tolerance between Zn and Pb in both mines was found suggesting the possibility of a physiological association of the tolerance mechanisms to these two elements.

  18. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of fruit extracts of Calamus tenuis Roxb

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    Zaki Uddin Ahmed; Seheli Sejuti Bithi; Md Minhazur Rahman Khan; Md Mofazzol Hossain; Suriya Sharmin; Satyajit Roy Rony


    Objective:To investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the fruits of Calamus tenuis Roxb. Methods:The preliminary phytochemical group tests were done, which revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid and steroid. The dried fruit was extracted in soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant potential of each extract was evaluated using total phenol content, total flavonoid content, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and total antioxidant capacity determinations. Results:The extracts were found to possess moderate to high amounts of phenolic and flavonoid contents. In cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assay the extracts showed moderate reducing power which increases with concentration. Scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical was found to rise with concentration with lowest IC50 value for methanol extract, which was confirmed by total antioxidant activity test that shows highest (95 mg/g of extract) in ascorbic acid equivalent for methanol extract. In Brine shrimp lethality bioassay the methanol and petroleum ether extracts were found to be toxic to Brine shrimp nauplii, with LC50 of 25.53 µg/mL and 28.07 µg/mL respectively while the LC50 of the reference vincristine sulphate was 1.32 µg/mL. Ethyl acetate extract was found to be moderately cytotoxic showing LC50 of 47.79 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the fruits of Calamus tenuis Roxb possess antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. Moreover, phytochemical screening reveals the presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid and steroid, which may be responsible for the observed bioactivities.


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    José Eduardo Marcondes Almeida


    Full Text Available Estudou-se a área de forrageamento do cupim Heterotermes tenuis utilizando-se a isca Termitrap® marcada com o radioisótopo 32P. O experimento foi conduzido numa área com cana-de-açúcar, em Piracicaba-SP. Foram localizados 20 focos de H. tenuis, com iscas. Em cada um desses focos aplicou-se uma isca Termitrap® impregnada com 18,5 MBb (500 mCi 32P na forma de fosfato de sódio diluído em 15 ml de água destilada. Ao redor das iscas marcadas, foram instaladas iscas sem marcador em quatro pontos: Norte, Sul, Leste e Oeste, eqüidistantes de 1, 5, 10 e 20 metros. Cada tratamento foi representado por um foco previamente determinado e marcado e uma das distâncias estipuladas para a isca de monitoramento, sendo repetido de 4 a 6 vezes. Após 15 dias da marcação, procedeu-se a avaliação coletando-se 15 indivíduos de H. tenuis de cada isca de monitoramento infestada, acondicionando-os em frascos de vidro com água destilada, que foram analisados em cintilador líquido, pelo teste de Cerenkov. Verificou-se que em apenas 20% das iscas de monitoramento coletaram-se cupins e 11,3% estavam marcadas com o radioisótopo. Constatou-se que ocorrem diversas colônias forrageando numa mesma área. A área de forrageamento de H. tenuis em cana-de-açúcar pode variar de 3 a 1.250 m2.The area of foraging of the termite species Heterotermes tenuis was evaluated using the Termitrap® bait marked with the radioisotope 32P. The experiment was conducted in an area with sugarcane, in Piracicaba,SP Brazil. Twenty infestion foci of H. tenuis were identified with baits. Each focus recieved baits labeled with 18.5 MBb (500 mCi 32P in the form of sodium phosphate diluted in 15 ml of distilled water. Surrounding the marked baits were installed baits without marker in four points: North, South, East and West, halfway of 1, 5, 10 and 20 meters. Each treatment was represented previously by a focus settled and marked and one of the distances specified for the monitoring

  20. Effect of mineral nutrients on cell growth and self-flocculation of Tolypothrix tenuis for the production of a biofertilizer. (United States)

    Silva, P G; Silva, H J


    The influence of mineral nutrients on the growth and self-flocculation of Tolypothrix tenuis was studied. The identification of possible limiting nutrients in the culture medium was performed by the biomass elemental composition approach. A factorial experimental design was used in order to estimate the contribution of macronutrients and micronutrients, as well as their interactions. Iron was identified to be limiting in the culture medium. The micronutrients influenced mainly cellular growth without effects on self-flocculation. Conversely, the self-flocculation capacity of the biomass increased at higher concentrations of macronutrients. The optimization of mineral nutrition of T. tenuis allowed a 73% increase in the final biomass level and 3.5 times higher flocculation rates.

  1. Lotus tenuis tolerates combined salinity and waterlogging: maintaining O2 transport to roots and expression of an NHX1-like gene contribute to regulation of Na+ transport. (United States)

    Teakle, Natasha L; Amtmann, Anna; Real, Daniel; Colmer, Timothy D


    Salinity and waterlogging interact to reduce growth for most crop and pasture species. The combination of these stresses often cause a large increase in the rate of Na(+) and Cl(-) transport to shoots; however, the mechanisms responsible for this are largely unknown. To identify mechanisms contributing to the adverse interaction between salinity and waterlogging, we compared two Lotus species with contrasting tolerances when grown under saline (200 mM NaCl) and O(2)-deficient (stagnant) treatments. Measurements of radial O(2) loss (ROL) under stagnant conditions indicated that more O(2) reaches root tips of Lotus tenuis, compared with Lotus corniculatus. Better internal aeration would contribute to maintaining Na(+) and Cl(-) transport processes in roots of L. tenuis exposed to stagnant-plus-NaCl treatments. L. tenuis root Na(+) concentrations after stagnant-plus-NaCl treatment (200 mM) were 17% higher than L. corniculatus, with 55% of the total plant Na(+) being accumulated in roots, compared with only 39% for L. corniculatus. L. tenuis accumulated more Na(+) in roots, presumably in vacuoles, thereby reducing transport to the shoot (25% lower than L. corniculatus). A candidate gene for vacuole Na(+) accumulation, an NHX1-like gene, was cloned from L. tenuis and identity established via sequencing and yeast complementation. Transcript levels of NHX1 in L. tenuis roots under stagnant-plus-NaCl treatment were the same as for aerated NaCl, whereas L. corniculatus roots had reduced transcript levels. Enhanced O(2) transport to roots enables regulation of Na(+) transport processes in L. tenuis roots, contributing to tolerance to combined salinity and waterlogging stresses.

  2. Comparative symbiotic performance of native rhizobia of the Flooding Pampa and strains currently used for inoculating Lotus tenuis in this region. (United States)

    Sannazzaro, Analía Inés; Bergottini, Verónica Mariel; Paz, Rosalía Cristina; Castagno, Luis Nazareno; Menéndez, Ana Bernardina; Ruiz, Oscar Adolfo; Pieckenstain, Fernando Luis; Estrella, María Julia


    The Flooding Pampa (FP) is the most important area for cattle breeding in Argentina. In this region, persistence and yield of typical forage legumes are strongly limited by soil salinity and alkalinity, which affect around 30% of the total area. Instead, naturalized Lotus tenuis is the main forage legume in this region. Rhizobial strains currently used for inoculating L. tenuis in the FP are exotic or native from non-saline soils of this region, their taxonomic identity being unknown. Assuming that rhizobia native from the most restrictive environments are well adapted to adverse conditions, the use of such isolates could improve the productivity of L. tenuis in the FP. Hence, the goal of this study was to evaluate the symbiotic efficiency of selected L. tenuis rhizobia native from the FP, as compared with strains currently used for field inoculation of this legume. Under non-stressing conditions, the symbiotic performance of native strains of FP exceeded those ones currently used for L. tenuis. Moreover, the symbiotic performance of the native strain ML103 was considerably high under salt stress, compared with strains currently used as inoculants. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that unclassified rhizobia currently used for field inoculation of L. tenuis and native strains grouped with the genus Mesorhizobium. As a whole, results obtained demonstrate that soils of the FP are a source of efficient and diverse rhizobia that could be used as a sustainable agronomic tool to formulate inoculants that improve forage yield of L. tenuis in this region.

  3. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.


    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  4. The Effectiveness of Lemongrass, Garlic, and Tree Marigold as Botanical Insecticides in Controlling of Cocoa Mirid,Helopeltis antonii

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    Endang Sulistyowati


    Full Text Available Control of cocoa mirid, Helopeltis antoniiso far uses chemicalinsecticides as the main alternative. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the environment friendly control techniques. Lemongrass, garlic, and tree marigold have been known as an efectiveness botanical insecticides for horticulture. A research with aim to study the effectiveness of lemongrass (Cymbopogon nardus, garlic (Allium sativum and tree marigold (Tithonia diversifoliafor controlling H. antoniihave been carried out in cocoa plantation at Kaliwining experimental garden of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research was arranged in split plot design in three replication, with the main plot infestation time of H. antoniiand sub-plot kind of botanical insecticides. Concentration of botanical insecticides used in this study was 5% and applied on 12 cm cocoa pod in length by using knapsack sprayer. Infestation of H. antonii nymphes were conducted before and after insecticide applications. Observation was conducted on the mortality and the lesion of H. antonii. The results of orthogonal contrast test on feeding activity based on the number of lesion and percentage of mortality of H. antoniishowed that there were significantly different between insecticide treatment and control, between chemical insecticide and botanical insecticides, but there was no significant different on kind of botanical insecticides. The lowest number of lesion due to H. antonii was shown by chemical insecticide with an average 34.0, followed by garlic and lemongrass botanical insecticide with number of lesion were 51.2 and 64.7 respectively, whereas the number of lesion in the control reached 84.2. The highest percentage mortality of H. antoniiwas shown by chemical insecticide with active ingredient teta-cypermethrin at 84.3%, followed by garlic, lemon grass and tree marigold botanical insecticide were 65.8%; 65.0%; and 63.8% respectively and significantly different with control by 8

  5. Purification, characterization and synthetic application of a thermally stable laccase from Hexagonia tenuis MTCC-1119. (United States)

    Chaurasia, Pankaj Kumar; Bharati, Shashi Lata; Yadava, Sudha; Yadav, Rama Shanker Singh


    A thermally stable laccase was purified from the culture filtrate of Hexagonia tenuis MTCC-1119. The method involved concentration of the culture filtrate by ammonium sulphate precipitation and an anion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose. The sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE) both gave single protein bands, indicating that the enzyme preparation was pure. The molecular mass of the enzyme determined from SDS-PAGE analysis was 100 kDa. The purification fold and percentage recovery of the enzyme activity were 12.75 and 30.12%, respectively. The pH and the temperature optima were 3.5 and 45 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme was most stable at pH 4.0 when exposed for 1 h. Using 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP), 2,2 [azino-bis-(3-ethylbonzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt] (ABTS) and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde azine (syringaldazine) as the substrates, the K(m), k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) values of the laccase were 80 μM, 2.54 s(-1), 3.17 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1), 36 μM, 2.54 s(-1), 7.05 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1) and 87 μM, 2.54 s(-1), 2.92 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. The purified laccase was finally used for the selective biotransformation of aromatic methyl group to aldehyde group in presence of diammonium salt of ABTS as the mediator and products were characterized by HPLC, IR and 1H NMR. The percentage yields of these transformed products were > 91%.

  6. Evidence for the existence of 2n gametes in Lotus tenuis Wald. et Kit. (2n=2x=12): their relevance in evolution and breeding of Lotus corniculatus L. (2n=4x=24). (United States)

    Negri, V; Veronesi, F


    Crosses between male sterile L. corniculatus (2n=4x=24) and L. tenuis (2n=2x=12) plants were performed in order to verify the presence of 2n gametes in L. tenuis. All but one of the plants from these crosses had 2n=4x=24 and the L. corniculatus phenotype; this plant had 2n=2x=12 and the L. tenuis phenotype. The plants also showed good quantity of pollen at tripping, good pollen fertility and good percentage of seed setting in the backcross to L. corniculatus. On the whole, both cytological and morphological observations, showing that all but one of the plants from L. corniculatus x L. tenuis were normal tetraploids, suggest the existence of diploandrous gametes in L. tenuis. On the other hand, haploid parthenogenesis probably gave origin to the dihaploid plant 2n=2x=12.

  7. Temperature as an ecological factor in the distribution of two closely related freshwater Triclads: an experimental study. [Polycelis tenuis, polycelis nigra

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    Lascombe, C.; Pattee, E.; Bornard, C.


    The influence of temperature on the ecophysiology of two closely related limnophilic Triclads, Polycelis tenuis and P. nigra, in the Lyons region was investigated. Both species have the same physiological rate in the middle zone of the temperature range, but P. tenuis prevails at both ends of the range. It tolerates higher temperatures and its reproduction rate is greater in the cold. Also, because of the existence of physiological races, it seems adapted to a greater diversity of situations. It appears as a real eurytherm. These different points contribute to the explanation of the habitat of both species in the region.

  8. 贵州省发现侏伏翼%The Least Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus tenuis) was Discovered in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周江; 杨天友; 侯秀发


    2010年6月在贵州省三都县进行翼手目动物标本采集,于水龙乡采集到1只雄性伏翼,经鉴定为侏伏翼(Pipistrellus tenuis).主要鉴别特征:体型甚小,前臂长30.64mm;颅全长12.04mm.耳较大,顶端钝圆;耳屏不足耳长的1/2.第1上门齿有2个齿尖.第1上前臼齿与犬齿基部充分接触,并稍位于齿列内侧.下犬齿发达,外侧有一小附尖.阴茎骨长3.82mm.%During the survey on bats for specimen collection in June,2010 at Sandu County, Guizhou Province,one specimen of Vespertilionidae, collected at Shuilong Township, was identified as Least Pipistrelle ( Pipistrellus tenuis). Description as follows: small body size, the forearm length 30. 64 mm; the greatest length of skull 12.04 mm. Ears large, with broadly rounded tip; tragus length is half of pinna. The upper canine usually bicuspid, and the first upper premolar sufficient contact with canine base and slightly inside toothrow. Lower canines well-developed, and exist a small tip in lateral. Baculum length 3.82 mm.

  9. External development of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis Desenvolvimento dos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana E Metarhizium anisopliae no cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis

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    Alcides Moino Jr.


    Full Text Available The subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis is one of the main pests of sugarcane and eucalyptus in Brazil, and the use of entomopathogenic fungi, alone or associated to chemicals, is an efficient and environmentally favorable method for its control. Studies related to the fungal development on these insects are important due to the effect of insect behavior on entomopathogens. The objective of this work was to describe the external development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on H. tenuis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, determining the duration of the different phases of fungal infection. Two fixation techniques for preparing SEM samples were also evaluated. Worker specimens of H. tenuis were inoculated with a 1 x 10(9 conidia mL-1 suspension of the fungi and maintained at 25±1ºC and 70±10% relative humidity. Insects were collected from 0 to 144 hours after inoculation and prepared on SEM stubs for each of the two fixation techniques. The results obtained with the two techniques were compared and duration of the different phases of the infection process were estimated from SEM observations and compared for three fungal isolates. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae have similar development cycles on the termite, but some important differences exist. The penetration, colonization and conidiogenesis phases are relatively faster for M. anisopliae than for B. bassiana, which results in a faster rate of insect mortality. The fixation technique with OsO4 vapor is suitable for preparation of insects to be used in SEM observation of the developmental stages of entomopathogenic fungi.O cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis , uma das principais pragas da cana-de-açúcar e eucalipto no Brasil, e o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos, isoladamente ou associados a produtos químicos, é um método eficiente e ambientalmente seguro para seu controle. Estudos relacionados ao desenvolvimento fúngico nestes insetos são importantes devido

  10. Effects of coal contamination on early life history processes of a reef-building coral, Acropora tenuis. (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L E; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Brinkman, Diane L; Burns, Kathryn A; Negri, Andrew P


    Successful reproduction and larval dispersal are important for the persistence of marine invertebrate populations, and these early life history processes can be sensitive to marine pollution. Coal is emerging as a contaminant of interest due to the proximity of ports and shipping lanes to coral reefs. To assess the potential hazard of this contaminant, gametes, newly developed embryos, larvae and juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis were exposed to a range of coal leachate, suspended coal, and coal smothering treatments. Fertilisation was the most sensitive reproductive process tested. Embryo survivorship decreased with increasing suspended coal concentrations and exposure duration, effects on larval settlement varied between treatments, while effects on juvenile survivorship were minimal. Leachate exposures had negligible effects on fertilisation and larval settlement. These results indicate that coral recruitment could be affected by spills that produce plumes of suspended coal particles which interact with gametes and embryos soon after spawning. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic variability of an unusual apomictic triploid cactus--Haageocereus tenuis Ritter--from the Coast of Central Peru. (United States)

    Arakaki, Mónica; Speranza, Pablo; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E


    Haageocereus tenuis is a prostrate cactus restricted to a small area of 2 km(2) near the city of Lima, Peru. The species is triploid and propagates mainly through stem fragmentation. In addition, propagation via agamospermy is documented and adventitious embryony is also inferred as a mechanism. Although seedling recruitment has not been observed in nature, we have shown that asexually produced seeds are viable. About 45 adult individuals, plus 9 individuals obtained from seeds, were sampled and 5 microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic variability. Microsatellite analysis confirms that individuals from the only existing population are genetically identical and that the population likely represents a single clone. The absence of mutations in any individual, even in highly variable microsatellite loci, may indicate that the species is also of recent origin. Other prostrate species of Haageocereus are suspected to be occasional apomicts. This phenomenon has significant implications for the evolutionary biology and ecology of Haageocereus and other clonal Cactaceae.

  12. Akaline, saline and mixed saline-alkaline stresses induce physiological and morpho-anatomical changes in Lotus tenuis shoots. (United States)

    Paz, R C; Reinoso, H; Espasandin, F D; González Antivilo, F A; Sansberro, P A; Rocco, R A; Ruiz, O A; Menéndez, A B


    Saline, alkaline and mixed saline-alkaline conditions frequently co-occur in soil. In this work, we compared these plant stress sources on the legume Lotus tenuis, regarding their effects on shoot growth and leaf and stem anatomy. In addition, we aimed to gain insight on the plant physiological status of stressed plants. We performed pot experiments with four treatments: control without salt (pH = 5.8; EC = 1.2 dS·m(-1)) and three stress conditions, saline (100 mM NaCl, pH = 5.8; EC = 11.0 dS·m(-1)), alkaline (10 mM NaHCO3, pH = 8.0, EC = 1.9 dS·m(-1)) and mixed salt-alkaline (10 mM NaHCO3 + 100 mM NaCl, pH = 8.0, EC = 11.0 dS·m(-1)). Neutral and alkaline salts produced a similar level of growth inhibition on L. tenuis shoots, whereas their mixture exacerbated their detrimental effects. Our results showed that none of the analysed morpho-anatomical parameters categorically differentiated one stress from the other. However, NaCl- and NaHCO3 -derived stress could be discriminated to different extents and/or directions of changes in some of the anatomical traits. For example, alkalinity led to increased stomatal opening, unlike NaCl-treated plants, where a reduction in stomatal aperture was observed. Similarly, plants from the mixed saline-alkaline treatment characteristically lacked palisade mesophyll in their leaves. The stem cross-section and vessel areas, as well as the number of vascular bundles in the sectioned stem were reduced in all treatments. A rise in the number of vessel elements in the xylem was recorded in NaCl-treated plants, but not in those treated exclusively with NaHCO3.

  13. Predation of the Peach Aphid Myzus persicae by the mirid Predator Macrolophus pygmaeus on Sweet Peppers: Effect of Prey and Predator Density

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    Lara De Backer


    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management strategies are widely implemented in sweet peppers. Aphid biological control on sweet pepers includes curative applications of parasitoids and generalist predators, but with limited efficiency. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a zoophytophagous predator which has been reported to predate on aphids, but has traditionally been used to control other pests, including whiteflies. In this work, we evaluate the effectiveness of M. pygmaeus in controlling Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae by testing different combinations of aphid and predator densities in cage-experiments under greenhouse conditions. The impact of the presence of an alternative factitious prey (E. kuehniella eggs was also investigated. Macrolophus pygmaeus, at densities of four individuals/plant, caused rapid decline of newly established aphid populations. When aphid infestations were heavy, the mirid bug reduced the aphid numbers but did not fully eradicate aphid populations. The availability of a factitious prey did not influence M. pygmaeus predation on aphids. Based on our data, preventive application of M. pygmaeus, along with a supplementary food source , is recommended to control early infestations of aphids.

  14. The effect of compost treatments and a plant cover with Agrostis tenuis on the immobilization/mobilization of trace elements in a mine-contaminated soil. (United States)

    Alvarenga, P; de Varennes, A; Cunha-Queda, A C


    A semi-field experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of mixed municipal solid waste compost (MMSWC) and green waste-derived compost (GWC) as immobilizing agents in aided-phytostabilization of a highly acidic soil contaminated with trace elements, with and without a plant cover of Agrostis tenuis. The compost application ratio was 50 Mg ha(-1), and GWC amended soil was additionally limed and supplemented with mineral fertilizers. Both treatments had an equivalent capacity to raise soil organic matter and pH, without a significant increase in soil salinity and in pseudo-total As, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations, allowing the establishment of a plant cover. Effective bioavailable Cu and Zn decreased as a consequence of both compost treatments, while effective bioavailable As increased by more than twice but remained as a small fraction of its pseudo-total content. Amended soil had higher soil enzymatic activities, especially in the presence of plants. Accumulation factors for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn by A. tenuis were low, and their concentrations in the plant were lower than the maximum tolerable levels for cattle. As a consequence, the use of A. tenuis can be recommended for assisted phytostabilization of this type of mine soil, in combination with one of the compost treatments evaluated.

  15. Seasonal occurrence of Opechona pyriforme metacercariae (Digenea: Lepocreadiidae) in Eirene tenuis medusae (Hydrozoa: Leptothecata) from a hypersaline lagoon in western Gulf of Mexico. (United States)

    Martell-Hernández, Luis Felipe; Ocaña-Luna, Alberto; Sánchez-Ramírez, Marina


    Seasonal occurrence of Opechona pyriforme metacercariae in the Eirene tenuis population from Laguna Madre, Mexico was analyzed in zooplankton samples collected in October 1997 and January, May, and July 1998. Eirene tenuis medusae were present in May, July, and October, although parasites were found only in October and July samples. Host population density was positively correlated with both surface water temperature and salinity. Total sample prevalence was 3.74%, mean abundance of the parasite was 0.06, and intensity of infection ranged between 1 and 59 metacercariae/host. Prevalence differed significantly among seasons, while intensity of infection did not. Parasite distribution was found to be highly aggregated. Although O. pyriforme infected hydromedusae of all sizes, prevalence was higher in sizes above 2.11 mm umbrella diameter. Additionally, a tendency towards increasing intensity of infection values with increasing umbrella diameter of medusae was observed. This is the first record of E. tenuis as a second intermediate host of O. pyriforme, as well as the first record of this helminth in the Gulf of Mexico.

  16. Algal symbiont type affects gene expression in juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis exposed to thermal stress. (United States)

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Harii, Saki; Hidaka, Michio


    Reef-building corals harbor symbiotic dinoflagellates, Symbiodinium spp., which are currently divided into several clades. The responses of corals associated with different Symbiodinium clades to thermal stress are not well understood, especially at a gene expression level. Juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis inoculated with different algal types (clade A or D) were exposed to thermal stress and the expression levels of four putative stress-responsive genes, including genes coding green and red fluorescent proteins, an oxidative stress-responsive protein, and an ascorbic acid transporter, were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression levels of the four genes decreased at high temperatures if juveniles were associated with clade A symbionts but increased if the symbionts were in clade D. The intensity of green fluorescence increased with temperature in clade D symbionts harboring juveniles, but not in juveniles associated with clade A symbionts. The present results suggest that genotypes of endosymbiotic algae affect the thermal stress responses of the coral juveniles.

  17. Constant Phycobilisome Size in Chromatically Adapted Cells of the Cyanobacterium Tolypothrix tenuis, and Variation in Nostoc sp. 1 (United States)

    Ohki, Kaori; Gantt, Elisabeth; Lipschultz, Claudia A.; Ernst, Marjorie C.


    Phycobilisomes of Tolypothrix tenuis, a cyanobacterium capable of complete chromatic adaptation, were studied from cells grown in red and green light, and in darkness. The phycobilisome size remained constant irrespective of the light quality. The hemidiscoidal phycobilisomes had an average diameter of about 52 nanometers and height of about 33 nanometers, by negative staining. The thickness was equivalent to a phycocyanin molecule (about 10 nanometers). The molar ratio of allophycocyanin, relative to other phycobiliproteins always remained at about 1:3. Phycobilisomes from red light grown cells and cells grown heterotrophically in darkness were indistinguishable in their pigment composition, polypeptide pattern, and size. Eight polypeptides were resolved in the phycobilin region (17.5 to 23.5 kilodaltons) by isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Half of these were invariable, while others were variable in green and red light. It is inferred that phycoerythrin synthesis in green light resulted in a one for one substitution of phycocyanin, thus retaining a constant phycobilisome size. Tolypothrix appears to be one of the best examples of phycobiliprotein regulation with wavelength. By contrast, in Nostoc sp., the decrease in phycoerythrin in red light cells was accompanied by a decrease in phycobilisome size but not a regulated substitution. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:16664550

  18. Pigmentation and dermal conservative effects of the astonishing algae Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis on guinea pigs, human epidermal melanocytes (HEM) and Chang cells. (United States)

    Quah, Chin Chew; Kim, Kah Hwi; Lau, Mei Siu; Kim, Wee Ric; Cheah, Swee Hung; Gundamaraju, Rohit


    The preference for a fairer skin-tone has become a common trend among both men and women around the world. In this study, seaweeds Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis were investigated for their in vitro and in vivo potentials in working as skin whitening agents. Seaweed has been used as a revolutionary skin repairing agent in both traditional and modern preparations. The high antioxidant content is one of the prime reasons for its potent action. It has been employed in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine. For centuries, most medical practitioners in the Asian cultures have known seaweed as an organic source of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids like omega-3 and omega-6 and antioxidants. The present objective of the study was to evaluate the potent dermal protective effect of the two seaweeds Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis on human cell lines and guinea pigs. Seaweeds were extracted with ethanol and further fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate and water. The extracts were tested for mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity in human epidermal melanocyte (HEM), and Chang cells. Extracts with potent melanocytotoxicity were formulated into cosmetic cream and tested on guinea pigs in dermal irritation tests and de-pigmentation assessments. Both Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis seaweeds showed significant inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase in the concentration tested. SPEt showed most potent cytotoxicity on HEM (IC50 of 36µg/ml), followed by SPHF (65µg/ml), and PTHF (78.5µg/ml). SPHF and SPEt reduced melanin content in skin of guinea pigs when assessed histologically. SPEt, SPHF and PTHF were able to inhibit HEM proliferation in vitro, with SPHF being most potent and did not cause any dermal irritation in guinea pigs. The results obtained indicate that SPHF is a promising pharmacological or cosmetic agent.

  19. 盲蝽寄生蜂在美国的利用现状%Status of parasitic wasps for biological control of Lygus and other mirid bugs in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付雪姣; Kim Hoelmer; 石旺鹏


    盲蝽是一类世界性害虫,寄主广泛,主要为害棉花、苜蓿、果树和蔬菜等作物.在美国,对农业生产危害较严重的是美国牧草盲蝽Lygus lineolaris(Palisot de Beauvois),农民每年用于控制盲蝽的费用和盲蝽造成的损失达数亿美元,目前美国对牧草盲蝽的控制逐渐从化学防治转向生物防治.美国从欧洲引入用来防治欧洲长毛草盲蝽Lygus rugulipennis Poppius的寄生性天敌常室茧蜂属Peristenus Foerster,在东北部苜蓿地释放后,成功地控制了该地区牧草盲蝽数量,取得了巨大的经济和生态效益.美国同时对该类寄生性天敌的生理生态及生产应用技术等进行了大量的研究,这对我国开展盲蝽生物防治具有良好的借鉴作用.%Mirid bugs are worldwide pests with a wide host range,including cotton and alfalfa.The damage caused by the mirid genus, Lygus Hahn, is particularly great; the cost of controlling this pest and the losses caused by it amounting to hundreds of millions dollars per year in the United States alone.In the U.S., biological control has increasingly replaced chemical pesticides for the control of this pest.For example, Peristenus Foerster ( Hymenoptera:Braconidae ) ,introduced from Europe, has successfully prevented outbreaks of Lygus lineolaris ( Palisot de Beauvois) in northeastern USA.Extensive studies on the ecology and physiology of these groups of parasitoids and their application in biological control have been carried out.This experience should be used in China to improve control of the cotton mirid bug.

  20. Las ficobiliproteínas de Spirulina maxima y Pseudanabaena tenuis protegen contra el daño hepático y el estrés oxidativo ocasionado por el Hg2+


    Carlos Ángel Gallardo C.; Edgar Cano E.; Gabriel Eduardo López G.; Vanessa Blas V.; Roxana Olvera R.; Margarita Franco C.; Rocío Ortiz B.


    El objetivo fue evaluar si las ficobiliproteínas de P. tenuis y S. maxima, protegen contra el daño hepático y estrés oxidativo que ocasiona el Hg2+. Se emplearon 42 ratones macho adultos, divididos en: 1) control; 2) amortiguador de fosfatos (AF) + 5 mg/Kg de HgCl2 (ip); 3) AF + extracto proteico (EP) con 100 mg/kg de ficobiliproteínas de Spirulina maxima (ig); 4) AF + extracto proteico con 100 mg/kg de ficobiliproteínas de Pseudanabena tenuis (ig). Los ratones se sacrificaron y se obtuvo el ...


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    Leonardo Castellanos


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Del extracto orgánico de la esponja marina Cliona tenuis, recolectada en las Islas del Rosario (Colombia, Mar Caribe, fue obtenida la fracción lipídica, la cual presentó propiedades antifouling en pruebas en campo. Esta fracción fue separada por CC sobre gel de sílice hasta obtener fracciones de ésteres metílicos, glicéridos, glicolípidos, fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos libres, las cuales fueron identificadas por CCD y técnicas de dereplicación (RMN 1H y 13C. Posteriormente, las fracciones de glicéridos, glicolípidos y fosfolípidos fueron hidrolizadas y los ácidos obtenidos, junto con los provenientes de la fracción de ácidos grasos libres, fueron transformados en ésteres metílicos y todos se analizaron por CGAR-EM. Para ubicar las insaturaciones y ramificaciones, los ésteres metílicos se transformaron luego en sus correspondientes pirrolididas, las cuales también se analizaron por CGAR-EM. El estudio cromatográfico (valores de ECL y de los espectros de masas de los ésteres metílicos y de sus derivados pirrolididas permitió identificar 81 ácidos grasos diferentes, de los cuales no habían sido previamente reportados: los ácidos 4,8-hexadecadienoico, 11-metil-4,10-octadecadienoico, 6,9,12,14-icosatetraenoico, y 6,9,12,14,17-icosapentanoico.

  2. Transcriptional regulation of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) gene by putrescine accumulation positively modulates ABA synthesis and drought tolerance in Lotus tenuis plants. (United States)

    Espasandin, Fabiana D; Maiale, Santiago J; Calzadilla, Pablo; Ruiz, Oscar A; Sansberro, Pedro A


    The accumulation of putrescine (Put) and increased arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC activity levels in response to osmotic stress has been reported; however, the biological meaning of this increase remains unclear. To obtain new insights into these questions, we studied the drought response of a transgenic Lotus tenuis line that expresses the oat ADC gene, which is driven by the stress-inducible pRD29A promoter. This line contains high levels of Put with no changes in spermidine and spermine contents, even under water deficits. Our results indicate that the biochemical and morphological responses to dehydration correlate with the Put level and provide evidence that Put controls the ABA content in response to drought by modulating ABA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level.

  3. A spider population in flux: selection and abandonment of artificial web-sites and the importance of intraspecific interactions in Lephthyphantes tenuis (Araneae: Linyphiidae) in wheat. (United States)

    Samu, Ferenc; Sunderland, Keith D; Topping, Chris J; Fenlon, John S


    Lepthyphantes tenuis, a small sheet-webbuilding linyphiid spider is one of the most abundant spider species of cereal fields in Europe. In the present study we examined the process of web-site selection and web-site tenacity by adult females of this species in a winter wheat field. Spiders were selective in their choice of web-site. Different immigration rates into various manipulated web-sites, in field and laboratory, suggested that structural support and suitable micro-climate (high humidity) are the most important factors in the selection. Small holes dug in the ground were the most favoured web-sites. Web-site occupation was influenced by the presence of other conspecific spiders. Territorial contests occurred between spiders attempting to occupy the same web, these almost invariably led to the take-over of the web when the intruder was heavier. Interference, but also a certain level of tolerance, between spiders within the same web-site but in different webs was suggested by direct and indirect evidence. Many holes supported two or even three spiders in vertically stratified webs. Leaving probability of marked spiders was significantly higher in multiply occupied holes than in holes with a single web. Comparison with the results of a no-interference stochastic model showed that multiple occupancy in nature is less frequent than predicted by the model. There was further evidence for weak extra-web-interference between spiders in that multiple occupancy was even less frequent and overall occupancy was lower in web-sites which were packed close to each other. However, a level of tolerance for crowding is shown by the fact that closely packed hole colonies supported a spider density 13 times higher than in natural web-sites in the field. A marking experiment was carried out to gain information on web-site tenacity (i.e. the length of time a spider spends in a web-site) and abandonment. The average duration of tenacity was less than 2 days. A random loss function

  4. On the identity of types of Roncus diocletiani Ćurčić, Dimitrijević & Rađa and Archaeoroncus tenuis (Hadži (Pseudoscorpiones, Neobisiidae from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić B.P.M.


    Full Text Available Five years ago, Ćurčić et al. (2008 described two new pseudoscorpions: Roncus diocletiani Ćurčić, Dimitrijević and Rađa (from Croatia and R. orjensis Ćurčić, Dimitrijević and Rađa (from Montenegro. The pseudoscorpions studied were mounted on slides with gum-chloral medium. They are deposited in the collection of the Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and in the collection of the Natural History Museum, 21000 Split, Croatia. It has been shown that only the male of R. diocletiani belongs to the nominal species, while the female of the same taxon belongs to Archaeoroncus tenuis (Hadži. Therefore, the “allotype male” of R. diocletiani is actually a holotype of this species, while the “holotype” of R. diocletiani becomes a paratype of A. tenuis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173038

  5. Control of the Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Open-Field Tomatoes by Indigenous Natural Enemies Occurring in Israel. (United States)

    Shaltiel-Harpaz, Liora; Gerling, Dan; Graph, Shaul; Kedoshim, Hendrika; Azolay, Lotem; Rozenberg, Tamir; Nachache, Yaakov; Steinberg, Shimon; Allouche, Arnon; Alon, Tamar


    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), had established in Israel by 2010, attacking both open-field tomatoes and greenhouse crops.We searched for its natural enemies in open-field tomatoes, and tried to determine their potential for controlling this pest. We surveyed the local natural enemies in open tomato fields and measured their impact on pest populations in an unsprayed field. We assessed the suppressive ability of the dominant hemipteran predator, Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter, against T. absoluta under controlled laboratory conditions and evaluated the impact of its augmentation on T. absoluta control in open-field tomatoes. We found five natural enemy species:the predator, N. tenuis, two braconids, and two eulophids. Predation accounted for 64.5±9.2% (mean ± SE) of T. absoluta larval mortality, whereas parasitism accounted for 20.96±7.5%. Together, they eliminated the pest population at tomato harvest time. Under controlled conditions, predation by N. tenuis rose from 58 to 72% with increased density of T. absoluta, suggesting positive density dependence. The reduction of T. absoluta (83%) by N. tenuis was higher than that of Bemisia tabaci (32%), suggesting a preference of N. tenuis for T. absoluta. Augmentation of N.tenuis was as effective as conventional treatment insecticide treatment, and plant damage was low and did not seem to affect yield. Results indicate that reduced pesticide use enables indigenous natural enemies, particularly N.tenuis, to successfully control T. absoluta and prevent crop damage in open-field tomatoes.

  6. Seasonal alterations in host range and fidelity in the polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Heteroptera: Miridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available In herbivorous insects, host plant switching is commonly observed and plays an important role in their annual life cycle. However, much remains to be learned about seasonal host switching of various pestiferous arthropods under natural conditions. From 2006 until 2012, we assessed Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür host plant use in successive spring, summer and winter seasons at one single location (Langfang, China. Data were used to quantify changes in host plant breadth and host fidelity between seasons. Host fidelity of A. lucorum differed between seasons, with 87.9% of spring hosts also used in the summer and 36.1% of summer hosts used in winter. In contrast, as little as 25.6% host plant species were shared between winter and spring. Annual herbaceous plants are most often used for overwintering, while perennial woody plants are relatively important for initial population build-up in the spring. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of evolutionary interactions between A. lucorum and its host plants and lays the groundwork for the design of population management strategies for this important pest in myriad crops.

  7. Plant Feeding in an Omnivorous Mirid, Dicyphus hesperus: Why Plant Context Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Gillespie


    Full Text Available True omnivores that feed on both plant and animal tissues are not additive combinations of herbivore and predator (carnivore. Because true omnivores must distribute adaptive feeding decisions among two disparate tissue types, understanding the context that plants provide for foraging is important to understand their role in food webs. We varied prey and plant resources to investigate the plant context in an omnivorous true bug, Dicyphus hesperus. The contribution of plant species to fitness was unimportant in water acquisition decisions, but affected numbers of prey consumed over longer periods. In plant communities, in the absence of prey, D. hesperus moved to plants with the highest resource quality. Unlike pure predators facing declining prey, omnivores can use a nondepleting resource to fund future foraging without paying a significant cost. However, the dual resource exploitation can also impose significant constraints when both types of resources are essential. The presence of relatively profitable plants that are spatially separate from intermediate consumer populations could provide a mechanism to promote stability within food webs with plant-feeding omnivores. The effects of context in omnivores will require adding second-order terms to the Lotka-Volterra structure to explicitly account for the kinds of interactions we have observed here.

  8. Volatile fragrances associated with flowers mediate the host plant alternation of a polyphagous mirid bug (United States)

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important insect pest of cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and exhibits a particularly broad host range. Adult A. lucorum greatly prefers host plants at the flowering stage, and their populations track flowering plants both spatiall...

  9. Pheromones of milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) attract wayward plant bugs: Phytocoris mirid sex pheromone. (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Aldrich, Jeffrey R


    The synthetic aggregation pheromone of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeinae), also attracted males of the plant bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight (Miridae). Field testing partial blends against the six-component blend comprising the Oncopeltus pheromone showed that cross-attraction of P. difficilis males was due to synergism between (E)-2-octenyl acetate and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate. Hexyl acetate was abundant in the metathoracic scent gland (MSG) secretion of P. difficilis males, but because female P. difficilis could not initially be found in the field, further combinatorial tests were guided by prior research on the pheromones of two Phytocoris species in the western United States. The combination of hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates was as attractive to P. difficilis males as the milkweed bug pheromone, yet no milkweed bugs were drawn to this blend. Gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection (EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of female P. difficilis MSGs determined that their secretion contained predominantly hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (all strongly EAD-active)-the latter two compounds found only in trace amounts from males-plus five minor female-specific compounds, three of which were EAD-active. (E,E)-2,4-Hexadienyl acetate was not detected from P. difficilis females or males. The blend of the three major components, hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (2:1.5:1 by volume), was as attractive as the blend of all six EAD-active compounds identified from females, indicating that this ternary blend constitutes the sex pheromone of P. difficilis. Hexyl acetate with (E)-2-octenyl acetate also attracted males of another species, P. breviusculus Reuter, but addition of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and/or (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate inhibited attraction of P. breviusculus males. Attraction of P. difficilis males occurred mainly during the first half of scotophase. The possible neurophysiological basis for this asymmetrical cross-attraction is discussed.

  10. Do nymphs and adults of three Neotropical zoophytophagous mirids damage leaves and fruits of tomato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, D.B.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Calvo, F.J.; Lenteren, Van J.C.


    The predators Macrolophus basicornis (Stal), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho) consume large numbers of tomato pests such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). However, they are zoophytophagous and feed on plant parts as well. We evaluated the

  11. On the occurrence of Stenopus tenui- rostris De Man, 1888 in Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 5, 1990 ... After extensive snorkelling on reefs around the Durban area (29°48'S /31°05'E), ... from Seal Rocks, N.S.W., Australia (32~7'S /152~2'E) which would ... low water springs and 45 m (Bruce 1976), or in coral. (Debelius 1986).

  12. Trophic relationships between predators, whiteflies and their parasitoids in tomato greenhouses: a molecular approach. (United States)

    Moreno-Ripoll, R; Gabarra, R; Symondson, W O C; King, R A; Agustí, N


    The whiteflies Bemisia tabaci Gennadius and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are two of the main pests in tomato crops. Their biological control in Mediterranean IPM systems is based on the predators Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae), as well as on the parasitoids Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet) and Encarsia pergandiella Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). These natural enemies may interact with each other and their joint use could interfere with the biological control of those whitefly pests. Analysis of predator-prey interactions under field conditions is therefore essential in order to optimize whitefly control. Species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-primers were designed to detect DNA fragments of these whiteflies and parasitoids within both predator species in tomato greenhouses. We demonstrated that both predators feed on both whitefly species, as well as on both parasitoids under greenhouse conditions. Prey molecular detection was possible where prey abundance was very low or even where predation was not observed under a microscope. Whitefly DNA detection was positively correlated with adult whitefly abundance in the crop. However, a significant relationship was not observed between parasitoid DNA detection and the abundance of parasitoid pupae, even though the predation rate on parasitoids was high. This unidirectional intraguild predation (predators on parasitoids) could potentially reduce their combined impact on their joint prey/host. Prey molecular detection provided improved detection of prey consumption in greenhouse crops, as well as the possibility to identify which prey species were consumed by each predator species present in the greenhouse, offering a blueprint with wider applicability to other food webs.

  13. An updated list of Municipal Public-Private Innovation studies in Europe, especially Nordic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Hvidtfeldt; Fuglsang, Lars; Hulgård, Lars

    Prepaperd for the research project Municipal Innovation Research for Institutional Development (MIRID), WP1, at Lillehammer University College......Prepaperd for the research project Municipal Innovation Research for Institutional Development (MIRID), WP1, at Lillehammer University College...

  14. Is competition for space between the encrusting excavating sponge Cliona tenuis and corals influenced by higher-than-normal temperatures?


    Márquez, J.C.; Zea, S.; López-Victoria, M.


    Temperaturas del agua de mar por encima del promedio durante 2005 en el Archipiélago de las Islas del Rosario (Caribe Colombiano) causaron un blanqueamiento coralino masivo en aguas someras (hasta 2-3 m de profundidad). Para confirmar resultados previos en los que el estrés inducido por calentamiento del agua en los corales puede acelerar la velocidad a la que esponjas excavadoras incrustantes le ganan espacio a los corales vivos, se contrastaron las tasas de propagación lateral en individuos...

  15. Ecologie et biologie de la conservation des métallophytes: le cas de Crepidorhopalon perenniset C. tenuis (Scrophulariaceae) des sols cupro-cobaltifères du Katanga


    Faucon, Michel-Pierre


    La province du Katanga est connue pour ses affleurements naturels de roches riches en cuivre et en cobalt. Plus d’une centaine de « collines de cuivre », isolées géographiquement et écologiquement possèdent une flore très originale qui comprend plus de 600 espèces dont 32 endémiques. Les métallophytes du Katanga sont des plantes fascinantes aux points de vue écologique, biogéographique, physiologique et évolutif. Elles restent très peu étudiées et leur conservation est très problématique comp...

  16. Assessment of chronic wasting disease, meningeal worm, (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis), and liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) in large ungulates at the Sullys Hill National Game Preserve (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on a project to assess the status of disease in the large mammal population at Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and provide recommendations to...

  17. Effectiveness of kaolin clay particle film in managing Helopeltis collaris (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of cacao in the Philippines (United States)

    Helopeltis collaris Stal, commonly known as cacao mirid or capsid bug is one of the major pests of cacao in Southeast Asia. Recent survey of cacao pests in the Philippines showed that cacao mirid bug is causing significant yield loss particularly in cacao growing areas in Luzon. Kaolin is a naturall...

  18. Evaluación del riesgo ecológico de insecticidas utilizados contra plagas hortícolas en el agente de control biológico Nesidicoris tenuis Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae)



    El Manejo Integrado de Plagas (MIP) propone el uso de todas las medidas disponibles para disminuir el crecimiento de las poblaciones plaga, priorizando las actuaciones preventivas y evitando el uso de insecticidas siempre que sea posible. El MIP contribuye al logro de una agricultura más sostenible, basada en el equilibrio entre las necesidades de producción y la conservación de la biodiversidad (Bianchi et al. 2006). La identificación y uso de insecticidas que no afecten negativamente a los...

  19. Bt Cotton in China: Are Secondary Insect Infestations Offsetting the Benefits in Farmer Fields?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-jun; LIN Hai; HUANG Ji-kun; HU Rui-fa; Scott Rozelle; Carl Pray


    The area sown to Bt cotton has expanded rapidly in China since 1997. It has effectively controlled the bollworm. However, in recent years, concern has surfaced about the emergence of secondary insect pests, particular mirids, in Bt cotton fields. This study measures the patterns of insecticide use based on farm-level from 1999 to 2006, the analysis demonstrates a rise in insecticide use to control mirids between 2001 and 2004, secondary insect infestations is largely related to the rise of mirids, but this rising did not continue in more than half of sample villages studied in 2004-2006. Moreover, the increase in insecticide use for the control of secondary insects is far smaller than the reduction in total insecticide use due to Bt cotton adoption. Further econometric analyses show that rise and fall of mirids is largely related to local temperature and rainfall.

  20. Effective classification of microRNA precursors using feature mining and AdaBoost algorithms. (United States)

    Zhong, Ling; Wang, Jason T L; Wen, Dongrong; Aris, Virginie; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Shapiro, Bruce A


    MicroRNAs play important roles in most biological processes, including cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, and embryonic development, among others. They originate from precursor transcripts (pre-miRNAs), which contain phylogenetically conserved stem-loop structures. An important bioinformatics problem is to distinguish the pre-miRNAs from pseudo pre-miRNAs that have similar stem-loop structures. We present here a novel method for tackling this bioinformatics problem. Our method, named MirID, accepts an RNA sequence as input, and classifies the RNA sequence either as positive (i.e., a real pre-miRNA) or as negative (i.e., a pseudo pre-miRNA). MirID employs a feature mining algorithm for finding combinations of features suitable for building pre-miRNA classification models. These models are implemented using support vector machines, which are combined to construct a classifier ensemble. The accuracy of the classifier ensemble is further enhanced by the utilization of an AdaBoost algorithm. When compared with two closely related tools on twelve species analyzed with these tools, MirID outperforms the existing tools on the majority of the twelve species. MirID was also tested on nine additional species, and the results showed high accuracies on the nine species. The MirID web server is fully operational and freely accessible at . Potential applications of this software in genomics and medicine are also discussed.

  1. Effect of Farmer Field School Training on the Management of Cocoa Marids (Saghbergella singularis by Famers in Edo State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Ebewore


    Full Text Available The study assessed the contribution of FFS training to farmers’ knowledge of control of cocoa mirids (Saghbergella singularis in Edo State. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of respondents, identify which control measures FFS has helped farmers to acquire knowledge, ascertain FFS contributory role in improving farmers’ knowledge on these control measures and ascertain the percentage of farmers who benefited from FFS training on control of mirids. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting 68 respondents for the study and descriptive statistics like frequency counts and percentages were used for data analysis. The results of the study showed that FFS has contributed significantly to farmers’ knowledge on the control of cocoa mirids. It was therefore recommended that this approach should be used for training farmers in other crops besides cocoa.

  2. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Polygalacturonase Genes in Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase (PG is an enzyme in the salivary glands of piercing-sucking mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae that plays a key role in plant feeding and injury. By constructing a full-length cDNA library, we cloned and characterized 14 PG genes from the salivary glands of Apolygus lucorum, a pestiferous mirid bug in cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China. BLAST search analysis showed that the amino acid sequences deduced from transcripts of the PG genes were closely related to PGs from other mirid bugs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PGs of mirid bugs had six main branches, PG1-PG6 (Genbank accession numbers: KF881899~KF881912. We investigated the mRNA expression patterns of the A. lucorum PG genes using real-time PCR. All 14 PGs were expressed significantly higher in the salivary glands than in other tissues (head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing. For eggs and nymphs, the expression levels of these PGs were much higher in the 5th instar stage than in the egg, and 1st and 3rd instar stages. The PG expression levels in 1-day-old adults were very low, and increased in 5, 20 and 30-day-old adults. Additionally, PG expression levels were generally similar between males and females. The possible physiological functions of PGs in A. lucorum were discussed.

  3. Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: transcriptome analysis of Arma chinensis fed on artificial diet and Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi pupae (United States)

    Background: The insect predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou), is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Life history parameters were not as good for A. chinensis when reared on an artificial diet compared to Chinese oak silk moth p...

  4. Communities and coexistence of benthos in northern limb of Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Venugopal, P.

    be considered as a pollution resistant species. Lycastis indica, Paraheteromastus tenuis, Telehspia annandalei, chironimid larvae and Pendora flexousa present at st 8, even though in very low numbers, can be treated as pollution tolerant species. The number...

  5. Nuevas citas de Blastocladiales (Chytridiomycota en ambientes contaminados de Ensenada (Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica M. Steciow


    Full Text Available Tres Chytridiomycota saprótrofos: Blastocladia incrassata, B. sparrowii y B. tenuis (Blastocladiales, Chytridiomycetes encontrados en ambientes contaminados del partido de Ensenada, Buenos Aires, son citados y descriptos por primera vez para la Argentina

  6. Combined effect of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide gases on mold fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochurova, A.I.; Karpova, T.N.


    Sulfur dioxide at 0.08% killed Penicillium expansum, Stemphylium macrosporium, and Botrytis cinerea within 24 hours. At 0.2%, it killed P. citrinum, Alternaria tenuis, and Fusarium moniliforme. Sulfur dioxide (at 0.04%) and Sulfur dioxide-carbon dioxide mixtures (at 0.02 and 5% respectively) completely suppressed the growth of P. citrinum, P. expansum, P. rubrum, A. tenuis, S. macrosporium, B. cinerea, and F. moniliforme in laboratory experiments. 1 table.

  7. Asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-lundurine B and determination of its absolute stereochemistry. (United States)

    Nakajima, Masaya; Arai, Shigeru; Nishida, Atsushi


    A total synthesis of the Kopsia tenuis alkaloid (-)-lundurine B has been achieved. A quaternary chiral carbon has been created by an asymmetric deprotonation using a symmetric spiro cyclohexanone intermediate with a chiral lithium amide. The hexacyclic skeleton was sequentially constructed through metal-mediated reactions. The absolute stereochemistry of intermediate 5 has been unambiguously established by X-ray crystallographic analysis. This is the first description of the absolute stereochemistry of Kopsia tenuis alkaloids based on chemical synthesis.

  8. Spatiotemporal mapping of the muscular activity of the gizzard of the chicken (Gallus domesticus). (United States)

    Lentle, R G; Reynolds, G; de Loubens, C; Hulls, C; Janssen, P W M; Ravindran, V


    We report the results of spatiotemporal mapping of the spontaneous actions of component muscles of the gizzard and associated structures in ex vivo preparations with combined superfusion and vascular perfusion. Ongoing spontaneous contraction of cranial and caudal thin muscles occurred at a frequency of 2.2 ± 0.1 cycles per minute. Contractions of M. tenuis craniodorsalis with mean duration of 2.8 ± 0.2 s commenced ventrally adjacent to the distal limit of the proventriculus and progressed dorsally at 2.02 ± 0.03 mm•s(-1) in a concerted front. Near simultaneous contraction of M. tenuis caudoventralis of mean duration of contraction of 4.7 ± 0.7 s commenced dorsally and progressed ventrally at a similar rate (2.1 ± 0.1 mm•s(-1)) and in a similar manner. Contraction of the caudoventralis preceded that of craniodorsalis (mean 1.1 ± 0.15 s). Contraction of the 2 tenuis muscles was synchronous with the first component peak of the cyclic increase in lumen pressure and with distension of the crassus musculature. Contraction of the M. crassus caudodorsalis muscle coincided with the second component peak and was followed by distension of the tenuis musculature. The latter commenced before the relaxation of the tenuis muscles. Contractions of the crassus muscle propagated rapidly at right angles to the orientation of the muscle fibers at a faster velocity than that of the tenuis musculature. The durations of the component peaks in lumen pressure indicated that the duration of crassus contraction was similar to that of the tenuis musculature.

  9. Can the parasitoid Necremnus tutae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) improve existing biological control of the tomato leafminer Tuta aboluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)? (United States)

    Calvo, F J; Soriano, J D; Stansly, P A; Belda, J E


    Necremnus tutae is native to the Mediterranean region where it has been observed in greenhouses parasitizing the invasive Tuta absoluta on tomato. The objective of the present study was to determine whether augmentative releases of N. tutae can improve existing biological control of T. absoluta based on predation by Nesidicoris tenuis. Two experiments were carried out, of which the first evaluated different N. tutae release rates (1 and 2 N. tutae m-2 week-1). The parasitoid reduced plant and fruit damage, especially at the higher rate. However, such reduction was considered insufficient given the large numbers of parasitoids needed and still unacceptable level of fruit damage. The second experiment focused on combining the most efficient rate of N. tutae of those evaluated during the first experiment, with the pre- and post-planting release of N. tenuis and supplemental additions of Ephestia kuehniella eggs. Addition of N. tutae decreased leaf damage by T. absoluta regardless the release method for N. tenuis, but the pre-plant release of N. tenuis alone was sufficient to prevent fruit damage by T. absoluta. This suggested that the addition of N. tutae may not be necessary to obtain satisfactory control of T. absoluta following pre-plant application of N. tenuis, although different options for using N. tutae in commercial crops may still be possible.

  10. The origin of Lotus corniculatus. (United States)

    Ross, M D; Jones, W T


    Earlier students of the origin of Lotus corniculatus suggested that this tetraploid species arose as an autotetraploid of the closely related diploid species L. tenuis or L. alpinus. More recent studies suggested that L. alpinus and L. japonicus could be ancestral forms. The present study of tannin content, phenolic content, cyanide production, morphology, cytogenetics, Rhizobium specificity and self-incompatibility in the corniculatus group virtually excludes the possibility that L. corniculatus could have arisen through autopolyploidy of L. tenuis or L. alpinus, and suggests that L. corniculatus arose through hybridization of L. alpinus and/or L. tenuis (probably as female parent) with L. uliginosus (probably as male parent), followed by chromosome doubling in the hybrid.

  11. Contributions to Papuasian Botany III. Three new species of Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae) from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schodde, Richard


    Frutex circa I m altus affinis P. sinuato Bl., differt pumilione, ramulis dense ferrugineis arachnoideo-tomentosis, foliis ± anguste obovato-spathulatis (1½—) 2—4(—4½) cm longis tenuiter coriaceis integris, et fructibus semper solitariis ellipsoideo-rostellatis bi- et tenui-valvibus. Flores ignoti.

  12. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.


    tenuis are strongly diminished, causing an increase in relative abundance of the lower photic zone taxa Florisphaera profunda and Gladiolithus flabellatus. During the past 140,000 years the surface water circulation of the equatorial Atlantic has changed drastically, as can be seen from changes...

  13. Over de taxonomische plaats en de variabiliteit van de subspecies van Lotus corniculatus L. in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Willie


    As a result of an investigation on the variability in morphology, anatomy and cytology in relation to ecological behaviour of the subspecies of Lotus corniculatus L. in the Netherlands, we found subsp. corniculatus as an ecological-plastic taxon with a number of modifications. In subsp. tenuis we co

  14. Zwei neue Arten der Gattung Coelosterna (Coleoptera) aus Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, K.M.


    Nigra, fere ubique sulphureo-tomentosa; antennis, macula postoculari, thorace vitta laterali spinaque, linea tenui mediana, scutello apice, elytris humeris limboque externo, nigro-denudatis, bis apice truncatis ac singulis bispinosis. Long. corporis 41, lat. ad bum. 15mm. Patria: Sumatrae litus in o

  15. Coléoptères Hétéromères de Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.


    Long. 6½ millim. — Oblongum, subparallelum, fuscum, pube tenui ferruginea tinctum, et setulis ferrugineis in spatiis elevatis indutum; capite summo asperato, inter oculos breviter elevato, inter antennas sat acute transversim carinato, carina medio leviter et utrinque magis sinuato, antice paulo rec

  16. Phenotypic plasticity revealed by molecular studies on reef corals of Fungia (Cycloseris) spp. (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) near river outlets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, A.; Hoeksema, B.W.


    On a patch reef off Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia, corals identified as Fungia (Cycloseris) costulata, Fungia (Cycloseris) tenuis and Fungia (Cycloseris) cf costulata were collected down to a maximum depth of 10 m. The corals lived sympatrically. Mushroom coral clones resulting from fragmentation

  17. A new Maculotriton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayer, Ch.


    Drupa (Maculotriton) buitendijki n. sp. (Pl. I, fig. 1). Testa parvula, tenuis, elongato-turrita, nitidula. Anfractus 10, apice laevi anfractibus 3l/2 annumerata, liris subtilimis, longitudinalibus et transversis ad decussationem nodulosis reticulata Varices 10. Apertura ovata, utrinque attenuata, l

  18. Freshwater fishes of Tsitsikamma National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Tsitsikamma National Park. Fish assemblages in six river systems were sampled in 2001, with a total of 323 fish from eight species recorded. Indigenous fish collected included four freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Pseudobarbus tenuis, Sandelia capensis, Anguilla mossambica, three estuarine species (Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Myxus capensis, and one alien (Micropterus salmoides. One additional indigenous species (Galaxias zebratus and two aliens (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss could potentially occur within the park. The topography and locality of the park presents a unique opportunity to meaningfully conserve the endangered P. tenuis as well as other fish characteristic of the eastern reaches of the Cape Floristic Region. Management action is required to minimise opportunities for further establishment and spread of alien fish species and to conserve indigenous fish assemblages within the park.

  19. Seasonal Community Structure of Mesozooplankton in the Daya Bay, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huaxue; LI Kaizhi; HUANG Honghui; SONG Xingyu; YIN Jianqiang; HUANG Liangmin


    Mesozooplankton are key components of coastal ecosystems,linking the microbial food web to the classic food chain.In this study,species composition and abundance of mesozooplankton is studied for the Daya Bay in April (spring) and October (fall),2006.A total of 27 species of mesozooplankton were identified in spring and 58 species in fall.Dominant species were Oithona tenuis,Flaccisagitta enflata,Penilia avirostris and Centropages tenuiremis in spring,shifting to Microsetella norvegica,Oithona tenuis and Parvocalanus crassirostris in fall.Higher mesozooplankton abundance was found at Aotou Cove and Dapeng'ao Cove compared to other stations,indicating the influence of eutrophication on mesozooplankton community in the Daya Bay.The outbreak ofNoctiluca scintillans bloom in spring reduced the species diversity and abundance of mesozooplankton.

  20. [Prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens in 10 030 patients with allergic rhinitis]. (United States)

    Yang, You; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Cheng-shuo; Wang, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Luo


    To investigate the main inhaled allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis. Forty-three standardization allergens were used to perform skin prick test in 54 813 patients with chronic rhinitis. According to different gender and age groups, 10 030 patients with allergic rhinitis were divided into eight groups. The distributions of different allergens in the eight groups were analyzed. (1) The most common four allergens in male patients with allergic rhinitis were Dermatophagoides farina (Der f), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p), Mugwort and Blaterlia Germanica. Der f, Der p, Mugwort and Chenopodium album were the most common in female patients. (2) In all groups, patients with dual positive allergens were the most common, followed by triple positive allergens and single positive allergen. (3) In single positive allergen group, the top four allergen in male 3-17 year group were Der f, Der p, Alternaria tenuis and Mugwort. In other male groups, the most common positive allergen were Der f, Der p, Mugwort and Blaterlia Germanica. Meanwhile, the top four positive allergens in female 3-17 year group were Der f, Der p, Mugwort and Alternaria tenuis, in 18-39 year group were Der f, Der P, Mugwort and Dandelion, in 40-59 year group were Der f, Der p Mugwort and mixed tree 1, in ≥60 year group were Derf, Der P, mixed animal hair and Mugwort. (4) In dual positive allergens group, the most common allergen combination was Der f+Der p, followed by Alternaria tenuis in patient of 3-17 year group. (5) In triple positive allergens group, the most common allergen combination was Der f+Der p+Blaterlia Germanica, followed by Der f+Der p+mixed animal hair. Dust mites, flowers pollen, herbs, Alternaria tenuis and Blaterlia Germanica were the most common allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis. However, the frequencies of the allergens were different in different age groups.

  1. Further new additions to the lichen mycota of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    S. Mohabe


    Full Text Available During the lichen exploration in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh several interesting lichen taxa were collected of which 10 species are reported here as new records for the state. The species includes Biatorella conspersa (Biatorellaceae, Caloplaca bassiae, C. poliotera (Teloschistaceae, Dimelaena tenuis (Physciaceae, Lecanora chlarotera, L. helva, L. interjecta, L. psuedistera (Lecanoraceae, Pertusaria melastomella (Pertusariaceae and Porina tetracerae (Porinaceae. These taxa / species have been enumerated along with their characteristic features and distributional notes.

  2. Dorlodotia Salée, 1920 (Rugosa), related and morphologically similar taxa in the Lower Carboniferous of Russia Ukraine



    Records of Dorlodotia Salée, 1920 in Russia and Ukraine include Thysanophyllum vermiculare Degtjarev, 1973 from the Moliniacian (?)-Livian of the Central Urals, Dorlodotia briarti Salée, 1920 and D. fomitschevi Zhizhina, 1978, possibly synonymous with it, both from the Moliniacian of the Donets Basin, Pseudodorlodotia subkakimii Vassilyuk, 1978 from the Warnantian of the same area and Lonsdaleia sokolovi Dobrolyubova, 1958 from the Brigantian of the Moscow Basin. Protolonsdaleia tenuis Zhi...

  3. Plant frequency and distribution on high-lead soil near Leadhills, Lanarkshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxbrow, A.; Moffat, J.


    The mean frequency of plants along a transect descending Wanlock Dod, near Leadhills, Lanarkshire, Scotland was determined by quadrat analysis. The results obtained strongly suggested that lead tolerant ecotypes of Agrostis tenuis, Nardus stricta and Potentialla erecta were present above known lead veins. The evidence for Vaccinium myrtillus was less certain. Other species appeared to be affected by soil moisture content, grazing pressure and climatic factors. The areas above known lead veins exhibited a larger diversity of species than the areas between veins.

  4. Onuphidae (Annelida, Polychaeta da região de Ubatuba, litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil Onuphidae (Annelida, Polychaeta from Ubatuba, north coast of the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Eloisa H Morgado


    Full Text Available Ten species of onuphid polychaetes were identified from the sublitoral of Ubatuba, on the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil: Diopatra cuprea (Bosc, 1802; Diopatra tridentata Hartman, 1944; Kinhergonuphis difficilis (Fauchald, 1982; Kinhergonuphis fauchaldi Lana, 1991; Kinhergonuphis orensanzi (Fauchald, 1982; Kinhergonuphis tenuis (Hansen, 1882; Mooreonuphis nebulosa (Moore, 1911; Mooreonuphis pallidula (Hartman, 1965; Mooreonuphis intermedia (Kinberg, 1865; Onuphis dibranchiala Willey, 1905. A discussion on the characteristics of the species found and related species is also provided.

  5. Biannual Spawning and Temporal Reproductive Isolation in Acropora Corals.

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    James P Gilmour

    Full Text Available Coral spawning on the oceanic reef systems of north-western Australia was recently discovered during autumn and spring, but the degree to which species and particularly colonies participated in one or both of these spawnings was unknown. At the largest of the oceanic reef systems, the participation by colonies in the two discrete spawning events was investigated over three years in 13 species of Acropora corals (n = 1,855 colonies. Seven species spawned during both seasons; five only in autumn and one only in spring. The majority of tagged colonies (n = 218 spawned once a year in the same season, but five colonies from three species spawned during spring and autumn during a single year. Reproductive seasonality was not influenced by spatial variation in habitat conditions, or by Symbiodinium partners in the biannual spawner Acropora tenuis. Colonies of A. tenuis spawning during different seasons separated into two distinct yet cryptic groups, in a bayesian clustering analysis based on multiple microsatellite markers. These groups were associated with a major genetic divergence (G"ST = 0.469, despite evidence of mixed ancestry in a small proportion of individuals. Our results confirm that temporal reproductive isolation is a common feature of Acropora populations at Scott Reef and indicate that spawning season is a genetically determined trait in at least A. tenuis. This reproductive isolation may be punctuated occasionally by interbreeding between genetic groups following favourable environmental conditions, when autumn spawners undergo a second annual gametogenic cycle and spawn during spring.

  6. Development of novel, cross-species microsatellite markers for Acropora corals using next-generation sequencing technology

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    Chuya eShinzato


    Full Text Available The genus Acropora (Scleractinia, Acroporidae is one of the most widespread coral genera, comprising the largest number of extant species among scleractinian (reef-building corals. Molecular phylogenetic studies have suggested that A. tenuis belongs to the most basal clade (clade I while A. digitifera belongs to a derived clade (clade IV. In order to develop microsatellite markers that would be useful for most Acropora species, we sequenced the genomic DNA of A. tenuis, using a next generation sequencer (Illumina MiSeq, and designed primer sets that amplify microsatellite loci. Afterward we selected primer pairs with perfectly matched nucleotide sequences from which at least one primer was uniquely mapped to the A. digitifera genome. Fourteen microsatellite markers showed non-significant departure from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE in both A. tenuis and A. digitifera. Thus these markers could be used for wide range of species and may provide powerful tools for population genetics studies and conservation of Acropora corals.

  7. Comparative mitogenomic analyses of three North American stygobiont amphipods of the genus Stygobromus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) (United States)

    Aunins, Aaron W.; Nelms, David L.; Hobson, Christopher S.; King, Timothy L.


    The mitochondrial genomes of three North American stygobiont amphipods Stygobromus tenuis potomacus, S. foliatus and S. indentatus collected from Caroline County, VA, were sequenced using a shotgun sequencing approach on an Illumina NextSeq500 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). All three mitogenomes displayed 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and two rRNAs typical of metazoans. While S. tenuis and S. indentatusdisplayed identical gene orders similar to the pancrustacean ground pattern, S. foliatus displayed a transposition of the trnL2-cox2 genes to after atp8-atp6. In addition, a short atp8 gene, longer rrnL gene and large inverted repeat within the Control Region distinguished S. foliatus from S. tenuis potomacus and S. indentatus. Overall, it appears that gene order varies considerably among amphipods, and the addition of these Stygobromus mitogenomes to the existing sequenced amphipod mitogenomes will prove useful for characterizing evolutionary relationships among various amphipod taxa, as well as investigations of the evolutionary dynamics of the mitogenome in general.

  8. Fine-scale differences in diel activity among nocturnal freshwater planarias (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida

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    Cicolani Bruno


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most freshwater planarias are well known photonegative organisms, their diel rhythms have never been quantified. Differences in daily activity rhythms may be particularly important for temperate-climate, freshwater planarias, which tend to overlap considerably in spatial distribution and trophic requirements. Methods Activity of stress-free, individually tested young adults of three common planarian species was recorded at 3-h intervals in a 10-d experiment under natural sunlight and photoperiod during autumnal equinox (D:L ~12:12. Individual activity status was averaged over the 10-d experiment, each tested individual thus serving as a true replicate. Twelve individuals per species were tested. Food was provided every 36 h, resulting in alternating day- and nighttime feeding events. Activity during the first post-feeding h was recorded and analyzed separately. Statistical procedures included ANOVAs, correlations, and second-order analyses of angles. Results Dugesia (= Girardia tigrina Girard 1850 exhibited clear nocturnal behavior, Dugesia (= Schmidtea polychroa Schmidt 1861 was predominantly but not exclusively nocturnal, and Polycelis tenuis Ijima 1884 was relatively more active from midnight through noon. Species-specific activity peaks were statistically similar, with peaks at dawn for P. tenuis and just before midnight for the two dugesiids; however, D. tigrina was comparatively more active in the early night hours, while D. polychroa was more active than D. tigrina during daytime. D. tigrina also responded less readily to daytime food addition. P. tenuis remained poorly active and unresponsive throughout the experiment. Individual variability in diel behavior was highest for D. polychroa and lowest for D. tigrina. P. tenuis's general low degree of activity and late activity peak in the experiment may be related to a strong reliance on external stimuli. Conclusions The tested species are mainly nocturnal

  9. Chinese Scientists Elucidated the Influence Mechanisms of Bt Cotton Plantation on Populations of Target and Non-target Insects in Multiple Crops%中国科学家阐明转基因Bt棉种植对靶标与非靶标昆虫种群的影响机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ 2010年5月14日,国际著名杂志报道了中国农业科学院植物保护研究所吴孔明研究团队的研究论文"Mirid Bug Outbreaks in Multiple Crops Correlated with Wide-Scale Adoption of Bt Cotton China"(Bt棉花种植对盲蝽蟓种群区域性灾变影响机制)(Lu et al.,2010),这是继2008年9月19日该团队在Science杂志发表的研究论文(Suppression of Cotton Bollworm in Multiple Crops in China in Areas with Bt Toxin-Containing Cot-ton)以后的又一个重大研究成果(Wu et al.,2008).

  10. Web Usage Analysis: New Science Indicators and Co-usage

    CERN Document Server

    Polanco, Xavier; Besagni, Dominique


    A new type of statistical analysis of the science and technical information (STI) in the Web context is produced. We propose a set of indicators about Web users, visualized bibliographic records, and e-commercial transactions. In addition, we introduce two Web usage factors. Finally, we give an overview of the co-usage analysis. For these tasks, we introduce a computer based system, called Miri@d, which produces descriptive statistical information about the Web users' searching behaviour, and what is effectively used from a free access digital bibliographical database. The system is conceived as a server of statistical data which are carried out beforehand, and as an interactive server for online statistical work. The results will be made available to analysts, who can use this descriptive statistical information as raw data for their indicator design tasks, and as input for multivariate data analysis, clustering analysis, and mapping. Managers also can exploit the results in order to improve management and d...

  11. An analysis of the fate of eggs of Gratiana spadicea (Klug, 1829 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae in relation to the position in the ootheca

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    Miriam Becker


    Full Text Available Randomly sampled oothecae of a natural population of Gratiana spadicea from the outskirts of Porto Alegre, RS, were dissected. The overlapping of the egg membranes makes possible to enumerate the eggs in a batch and therefore to relate mortality to position in the ootheca. The ootheca of this cassid provides a spatial refuge for some of its eggs. Successful eggs of G. spadicea amounted to less than one fifth of the total in each batch. Parasitoids and predators were responsible for a high mortality of eggs whatever the size of the ootheca. The main cause of mortality was the eulophid wasp Emersonella ooecia De Santis, 1983. A large proportion of eggs were sucked dry by the mirid Tupiocoris cincticornis (Stal, 1860. The sucked eggs could have contained either the embryo of G. spadicea or the parasitoid in the pre-emergence stages.

  12. Olive trees protected from the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) with a pyrethroid insecticide: Effect on the insect community of the olive grove. (United States)

    Ruano, Francisca; Campos, Mercedes; Sánchez-Raya, A Juan; Peña, Aránzazu


    Field studies were performed in two successive years, 2005 and 2006, in different olive groves of the province of Granada (South-eastern Spain) by spraying olive trees (Olea europaea) with a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin, for the control of the olive bark beetle Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Three olive groves received each year three treatments in June consisting of water (control) and two insecticide doses, which were halved the second year. From June to September six olives trees per site were inspected every 15d for feeding galleries in olive branches; the arthropods, collected in traps placed below the olive trees (three traps per site), were identified and counted. Results show that feeding galleries were significantly reduced, what proves that the pyrethroid insecticide efficiently protected the olive trees from the olive bark beetle with a single application and even at the lower dose employed in 2006. Some repellent effect may occur as deduced from the number of P. scarabaeoides individuals captured. Other individuals from the insect community were also affected to a great extent by insecticide application, though no statistical differences were found among the treatments due to the high variability in insect captures. Among the parasitoids, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae, Eurytomidae and Pteromalidae were captured in great numbers. Mirids were the predators whose numbers drastically increased in traps placed under the treated trees, while spiders and ants were less affected. A knock-down effect was noticed for some insect groups, for instance mirids and Euphyllura olivina. Approximately 80% of their captures corresponded to the first date of sampling after insecticide application.

  13. Population genetic structure of the biological control agent Macrolophus pygmaeus in Mediterranean agroecosystems. (United States)

    Streito, Jean-Claude; Clouet, Cécile; Hamdi, Faten; Gauthier, Nathalie


    Biological control of agricultural pests relies on knowledge of agroecosystem functionality, particularly when affected by the use of mass-produced biological agents. Incorporating pre- and/or post-release information such as genetic diversity and structure on these agents using molecular-based approaches could advance our knowledge of how they perform in agroecosystems. We evaluated the population genetics of Macrolophus pygmaeus, the most widely used predatory mirid against many arthropod pests of greenhouse crops in the Mediterranean region, using the mitochondrial Cytb sequence and microsatellite data, and population genetics and phylogeny approaches. We investigated commercially mass-produced insects (i.e., commercial insects either mass-reared in the laboratory for many generations, or purchased by farmers and released in the greenhouses) and "wild" insects (i.e., that occur naturally outside or are collected in nature for release in the greenhouses). The mirids were mainly collected in agroecosystems in which solanaceous plants are grown in northern Spain, southern France and Greece. Both molecular markers and approaches distinguished 2 genetically differentiated populations. The less genetically diverse population, hereafter named the "commercial" strain included all individuals from laboratory mass-rearings and most releases of commercially bred individuals. The most genetically diverse population mainly comprised individuals originating from noncultivated environments, or from releases of "wild" individuals. Rare examples of hybridization between M. pygmaeus from the 2 populations were observed and asymmetric gene flow was revealed. These findings provide new insights into what happens to M. pygmaeus released in the agroecosystems we studied, and show that it is possible to monitor some commercial strains. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Early-season host switching in Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae of differing host breadth.

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    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The mirid bugs Adelphocoris suturalis (Jakovlev, Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze and Adelphocoris fasciaticollis (Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae are common pests of several agricultural crops. These three species have vastly different geographical distributions, phenologies and abundances, all of which are linked to their reliance on local plants. Previous work has shown notable differences in Adelphocoris spp. host use for overwintering. In this study, we assessed the extent to which each of the Adelphocoris spp. relies on some of its major overwinter hosts for spring development. Over the course of four consecutive years (2009-2012, we conducted population surveys on 77 different plant species from 39 families. During the spring, A. fasciaticollis used the broadest range of hosts, as it was found on 35 plant species, followed by A. suturalis (15 species and A. lineolatus (7 species. Abundances of the species greatly differed between host plants, with A. fasciaticollis reaching the highest abundance on Chinese date (Ziziphus jujuba Mill., whereas both A. suturalis and A. lineolatus preferred alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. The host breadths of the three Adelphocoris spp. differed greatly between subsequent spring and winter seasons. The generalist species exhibited the least host fidelity, with A. suturalis and A. lineolatus using 8 of 22 and 4 of 12 overwinter host species for spring development, respectively. By contrast, the comparative specialist A. fasciaticollis relied on 9 of its 11 overwinter plants as early-season hosts. We highlight important seasonal changes in host breadth and interspecific differences in the extent of host switching behavior between the winter and spring seasons. These findings benefit our understanding of the evolutionary interactions between mirid bugs and their host plants and can be used to guide early-season population management.

  15. Microbial community of predatory bugs of the genus Macrolophus (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Machtelinckx Thijs


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predatory mirids of the genus Macrolophus are key natural enemies of various economically important agricultural pests. Both M. caliginosus and M. pygmaeus are commercially available for the augmentative biological control of arthropod pests in European greenhouses. The latter species is known to be infected with Wolbachia -inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility in its host- but the presence of other endosymbionts has not been demonstrated. In the present study, the microbial diversity was examined in various populations of M. caliginosus and M. pygmaeus by 16S rRNA sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results Besides Wolbachia, a co-infection of 2 Rickettsia species was detected in all M. pygmaeus populations. Based on a concatenated alignment of the 16S rRNA gene, the gltA gene and the coxA gene, the first is phylogenetically related to Rickettsia bellii, whereas the other is closely related to Rickettsia limoniae. All M. caliginosus populations were infected with the same Wolbachia and limoniae-like Rickettsia strain as M. pygmaeus, but did not harbour the bellii-like Rickettsia strain. Interestingly, individuals with a single infection were not found. A PCR assay on the ovaries of M. pygmaeus and M. caliginosus indicated that all endosymbionts are vertically transmitted. The presence of Wolbachia and Rickettsia in oocytes was confirmed by a fluorescence in situ hybridisation. A bio-assay comparing an infected and an uninfected M. pygmaeus population suggested that the endosymbionts had minor effects on nymphal development of their insect host and did not influence its fecundity. Conclusion Two species of the palaearctic mirid genus Macrolophus are infected with multiple endosymbionts, including Wolbachia and Rickettsia. Independent of the origin, all tested populations of both M. pygmaeus and M. caliginosus were infected with three and two endosymbionts, respectively. There was no indication that

  16. Diatom community structure on commercially available ship hull coatings. (United States)

    Zargiel, Kelli A; Coogan, Jeffrey S; Swain, Geoffrey W


    Diatoms are primary colonizers of both antifouling and fouling-release ship hull coatings. There are few published studies which report on diatom community development on modern ship hull coatings. This study reports diatom communities on eight commercial marine ship hull coatings exposed at three static immersion sites along the east coast of Florida, viz. Daytona, Sebastian, and Miami. The coatings tested were three ablative copper systems (Ameron ABC-3, International BRA-640, and Hempel Olympic 76600), two copper-free biocidal systems (E-Paint SN-1, Sherwin Williams HMF), and three fouling-release (FR) systems (International Intersleek 700, International Intersleek 900, and Hempel Hempasil). One hundred and twenty-seven species comprising 44 genera were identified, including some of the more commonly known foulers, viz. Achnanthes, Amphora, Cocconeis, Entomoneis, Licmophora, Melosira, Navicula, Nitzschia, Synedra, and Toxarium. A significant difference was seen among sites, with the more estuarine site, Sebastian, having lower overall diatom abundance and higher diversity than Daytona and Miami. Copper coatings were primarily fouled by Amphora delicatissima and Entomoneis pseudoduplex. Copper-free coatings were fouled by Cyclophora tenuis, A. delicatissima, Achnanthes manifera, and Amphora bigibba. FR surfaces were typified by C. tenuis, and several species of Amphora. The presence of C. tenuis is new to the biofouling literature, but as new coatings are developed, this diatom may be one of many that prove to be problematic for static immersion. Results show coatings can be significantly influenced by geographical area, highlighting the need to test ship hull coatings in locations similar to where they will be utilized.

  17. Climate driven range divergence among host species affects range-wide patterns of parasitism

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    Richard E. Feldman


    Full Text Available Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose and Rangifer tarandus (caribou, in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000 and future (2050 ranges (probabilities of occurrence of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies. (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra


    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  19. Subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae):Exploitation of equivalent food resources with different forms of placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliana Toledo Lima; Ana Maria Costa-Leonardo


    Coptotermes gestroi and Heterotermes tenuis have been described as important urban pests in Brazil.The establishment of control technologies using baits that consider the social behavior of termites requires a better knowledge of their foraging behavior.Thus,this study analyzed the feeding behavior of these species with three different forms of food placement:food on the surface of a substrate and food either partially or completely buried in the substrate.Experimental arenas were composed of a central chamber connected to three food chambers.Each central chamber contained 550 foragers of C.gestroi or 517 foragers ofH.tenuis.Blocks ofPinus elliottii were placed in the different food chambers.After 28 days,the consumption of each wood block and the percentage of foraging individuals recruited for food chambers were verified in relation to the total survival rate obtained for each one of the 20 replicates.Results showed that completely buried food was most consumed for H.tenuis and presented a higher recruitment rate of workers and soldiers for both species.Although the consumption had non-significant differences for C.gestroi,these termites exhibited a tendency to prefer completely buried food.In these conditions,it can be concluded that the forms of food placement used in the present research influenced the recruitment of individuals for both species.Data also suggests that when the foraging subterranean termites find food resources in the tunneling substrate,they tend to concentrate their efforts on it,a behavior regime that reduces exposure to external environment.

  20. Scale‐up and intensification of (S)‐1‐(2‐chlorophenyl)ethanol bioproduction: Economic evaluation of whole cell‐catalyzed reduction of o‐Chloroacetophenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eixelsberger, Thomas; Woodley, John; Nidetzky, Bernd


    Escherichia coli cells co‐expressing genes coding for Candida tenuis xylose reductase and Candida boidinii formate dehydrogenase were used for the bioreduction of o‐chloroacetophenone with in situ coenzyme recycling. The product, (S)‐1‐(2‐chlorophenyl)ethanol, is a key chiral intermediate...... in the synthesis of polo‐like kinase 1 inhibitors, a new class of chemotherapeutic drugs. Production of the alcohol in multi‐gram scale requires intensification and scale‐up of the biocatalyst production, biotransformation, and downstream processing. Cell cultivation in a 6.9‐L bioreactor led to a more than...

  1. Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW) Maintenance Program Evaluation Study. (United States)


    fasiculata patridge pea Chenopodiu album lambs quarters Chenopodiui ambrosioides mexican tea Erigeon bnarinsishors ewe ed Erigeron canadensis horseweed...6empe/WZ’tenh SEASIDE GOLDENROD) Amb.’w6ia atemiAZ.jotia RAG~IMED Hetemtheca .6ubaxJitL& Chenopodium ambuioAodesh IOEUCAN-TE K3zteA tenui~otaw5...Phytoacc ameA.Leana Pathenoczzhu qwunqu~ejota vnuM M Rhu4 to xi odend’wn POISON IVY VitIA aevtiva&W POSSUM GPAfl EAZigwn czanadeun44HR Chenopodium

  2. The heterodonty in euselachian sharks from the Pennsylvanian of Nebraska (United States)

    Ginter, Michał


    Among the rich material of chondrichthyan microremains from the Indian Cave Sandstone (Upper Pennsylvanian, Gzhelian) near Peru, Nebraska, USA, housed at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, there occur almost sixty teeth representing Euselachii. They belong to at least seven species, presenting various types of heterodonty. Two new species are described, viz. Ossianodus nebraskensis gen. et sp. nov., whose dentition is similar to that of certain Mesozoic hybodonts, and Sphenacanthus tenuis sp. nov. with minute teeth of protacrodont design. Most of the euselachian teeth served to crush or grind prey, and some had the potential to clutch, but cutting teeth are absent from the fauna.

  3. A comparative study on the phylogenetic diversity of culturable actinobacteria isolated from five marine sponge species. (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Yan; Jin, Meifang; Yu, Xingju


    A cultivation-based approach was employed to compare the culturable actinobacterial diversity associated with five marine sponge species (Craniella australiensis, Halichondria rugosa, Reniochalina sp., Sponge sp., and Stelletta tenuis). The phylogenetic affiliation of the actinobacterial isolates was assessed by 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis. A total of 181 actinobacterial strains were isolated using five different culture media (denoted as M1-M5). The type of medium exhibited significant effects on the number of actinobacteria recovered, with the highest number of isolates on M3 (63 isolates) and the lowest on M1 (12 isolates). The genera isolated were also different, with the recovery of three genera on M2 and M3, and only a single genus on M1. The number of actinobacteria isolated from the five sponge species was significantly different, with a count of 83, 36, 30, 17, and 15 isolates from S. tenuis, H. rugosa, Sponge sp., Reniochalina sp., and C. australiensis, respectively. M3 was the best isolation medium for recovery of actinobacteria from S. tenuis, H. rugosa, and Sponge sp., while no specific medium preference was observed for the recovery of actinobacteria from Reniochalina sp., and C. australiensis. The RFLP fingerprinting of 16S rDNA genes digested with HhaI revealed six different patterns, in which 16 representative 16S rDNAs were fully sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 12 strains belong to the group Streptomyces, three strains belong to Pseudonocardia, and one strain belongs to Nocardia. Two strains C14 (from C. australiensis) and N13 (from Sponge sp.) have only 96.26% and 96.27% similarity to earlier published sequences, and are therefore potential candidates for new species. The highest diversity of three actinobacteria genera was obtained from Sponge sp., though the number of isolates was low. Two genera of actinobacteria, Streptomyces, and Pseudonocardia, were isolated from both S. tenuis and C. australiensis. Only the genus of Streptomyces

  4. Seven species of Pseudopecoeloides Yamaguti, 1940 (Digenea, Opecoelidae from temperate marine fishes of Australia, including five new species

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    Thelma Aken’Ova


    Full Text Available Seven species of Pseudopecoeloides including five new are described from marine fishes in the waters off the coasts of Queensland, and West and South Australia. The new species are Pseudopecoeloides hickmani n. sp. from Pseudocaranx wrighti (Carangidae, P. lesteri n. sp. from Pseudocaranx dentex and Pseudocaranx wrighti, P. arripi n. sp. from Arripis georgianus (Arripidae, P. atherinomori n. sp. from Atherinonmorus ogilbyi (Atherinidae, P, hafeezullahi n. sp. from Trachurus novaezealandiae (Carangidae. Pseudopecoeloides scomberi Hafeezullah, 1971, which was transferred to Opecoeloides (Odhner, 1928 by Madhavi (1975 is reported from Scomberoides lysan (Carangidae and returned to Pseudopecoeloides. Pseudopecoeloides tenuis Yamaguti, 1940 is reported from a new host species, Priacanthus macracanthus (Priacanthidae.

  5. Role of mycorhizal links between plants in establishment of liverworts thalli in natural habitats

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    Katarzyna Turnau


    Full Text Available Research on the development of arbuscular fungi within thalli of Conocephalum conicum and Pellia endiviifolia was carried out on the banks of a stream ravine in the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. (Southern Poland. The links via arbuscular fungi were observed between liverworts and plants as Dryopteris carthusiana and Oxalis acetosella. Glomus tenuis, a fine endophyte, was the dominating mycorrhizal partner of all the plant species investigated. Arum-type of mycorrhiza was observed in Oxalis acetosella while in the fern and liverworts Paris-type was found. The role of plant roots in the establishment of liverworts thalli (source of fungal inoculum, important mechanical support on unstable sand banks is considered.

  6. Infestazione sottocutanea da Dirofilaria spp.: descrizione di un caso clinico

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    Ilaria Crespi


    Full Text Available Dirofilaria spp. causes a common zoonotic filarial infection found in dogs and humans in the tropical, subtropical and temperate areas. After biological development in the mosquito, dogs and humans may be infected with the infective larvae when the mosquito takes a blood meal. In humans, the worms do not reach maturity, and no microfilariae can be detected.A number of species, such as D. tenuis, D. repens, D. immitis have been identified as causative agents of subcutaneous or conjunctival nodules in humans. Diagnosis is made by identifying the worm in biopsies or extracting the worm from the lesion. Surgical removal of the worms is the only known treatment.

  7. Diversity of Marine Cyanobacteria from Three Mangrove Environment in Tamil Nadu Coast, South East Coast of India

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    G. Silambarasan


    Full Text Available Marine cyanobacteria were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples, of the three mangroves viz Parangipettai, Ariyankuppam and Mudasal odai mangroves south east coast of India. As many as 39 Cyanobacteria, belonging to 12 families were identified in which Oscillatoriaceae alone contributed (11. The species such as Oscillatoria cortiana, Oscillatoria salina, Oscillatoria tenuis, Oscillatoria formosa, Lyngbya major, Lyngbya confervoides, Lyngbya majuscule, Lyngbya mesotricha, Phormidium stagnina, Plectonema terebrans and Plectonema putuale and minimum in Synechococcaceae recorded only one species the species such as Synechococcus elongatus. Among the species Synechocystis salina, Oscillatoria salina, Phormidium ambiguum, Phormidium tenue, Spirulina major distributed all the mangroves.


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    Full Text Available The present paper presents descriptions of 11 trepostome bryozoan species from the material deposited at the Geological Centrum Göttingen, Germany, and Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum (Naturalis, Leiden, Netherlands. The studied material comes from the Lower to Middle Devonian (Emsian-Eifelian deposits of different localities in Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain. Three species are new: Leptotrypella maculata n. sp., Anomalotoechus tabulatus n. sp. and Eifelipora tenuis n. sp. The genus Mongoloclema is reported for the first time from the Devonian of Europe. The described fauna displays palaeobiogeographic relations to the Lower Devonian (Pragian of Bohemia and to the Middle Devonian of Kazakhstan and Michigan (USA. 

  9. Description of a new species of the spider genus Syntrechalea (Araneae: Lycosoidea: Trechaleidae from Colombia Descrição de uma nova espécie de Syntrechalea (Araneae: Lycosoidea: Trechaleidae da Colômbia

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    Estevam L. C. da Silva


    Full Text Available A new species of the spider genus Syntrechalea F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1902 is described and illustrated based on material collected in Loreto Mocagua, Colombia. Representatives of this spider genus exhibit an arboreal foraging behavior and are distinguished from the other genera of Trechaleidae by the flattened carapace, long legs and flexible metatarsi and tarsi. New records on the distribution of Syntrechalea tenuis F.O.P.Cambridge, 1902 in Colombia are presented.Uma espécie nova do gênero Syntrechalea F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1902 é descrita e ilustrada, a partir de material coletado em Loreto Mocagua, Colômbia. Os representantes deste gênero apresentam o hábito arbóreo de forragear e são distinguidos dos demais gêneros de Trechaleidae pela carapaça achatada,pernas longas e metatarsos e tarsos flexíveis. Novos registros de distribuição de Syntrechalea tenuis F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1902 na Colômbia são apresentados.

  10. Necropsy findings in 62 opportunistically collected free-ranging moose (Alces alces) from Minnesota, USA (2003-13). (United States)

    Wünschmann, Arno; Armien, Anibal G; Butler, Erika; Schrage, Mike; Stromberg, Bert; Bender, Jeff B; Firshman, Anna M; Carstensen, Michelle


    The Minnesota, US moose population has declined dramatically since the 1990s. All 54 carcasses of moose that died of unknown cause or were euthanized by gun shot by tribal or Department of Natural Resources personnel because of perceived signs of illness between 2003 and 2013 and eight carcasses of moose that died from vehicular accidents between 2009 and 2013 were submitted to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and included in our study. The majority of the animals were underweight or cachectic (n = 53; 85%). Neural migration presumably by Parelaphostrongylus tenuis was a common finding (n = 28; 45%). Moderate to marked Dermacentor albipictus ("winter tick") ectoparasitism with widespread alopecia was the cause or a contributing cause of death in 14 (23%) cases in which grossly apparent anemia was associated with exhaustion of hepatic iron stores. Hepatic lesions associated with Fascioloides magna were common (n = 37; 60%) but were unlikely to be the cause of death. Environmental factors favoring winter tick survival, habitat expansion of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and the survival of terrestrial and aquatic snails (serving as intermediate hosts for P. tenuis and F. magna), might contribute to the seemingly severe parasitic burden in Minnesota's moose population.

  11. Synthesis and Microbiological Evaluation of New 2- and 2,3-Diphenoxysubstituted Naphthalene-1,4-diones with 5-Oxopyrrolidine Moieties

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    Aušra Voskienė


    Full Text Available New 3-substituted 1-(3-hydroxyphenyl-5-oxopyrrolidine derivatives containing hydrazone, azole, diazole, oxadiazole fragments, as well as 2-phenoxy- and 2,3-diphenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives were synthesized. The structure of all compounds has been confirmed by NMR, IR, mass spectra, and elemental analysis data. Methyl 1-{3-[(3-chloro-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenyloxy]phenyl}-5-oxo-3-pyrrolidinecarboxylate demonstrated potential antibacterial and antifungal activities as determined by diffusion and serial dilution methods, while N'-[(4-bromophenylmethylidene]-1-{3-[(3-chloro-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenyloxy]phenyl}-5-oxo-3-pyrrolidinecarbohydrazide and 2-{3-[4-(1,2,3-oxadiazol-5-yl-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl]phenoxy}-3-{3-[4-(1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-2-oxo- 1-pyrrolidinyl]phenoxy}naphthoquinone showed antifungal activity against Candida tenuis and Aspergillus niger at low concentrations, as determined by the serial dilution method. The substitution of the methoxy fragment by N-containing substituents in monophenoxy substituted naphthoquinones was found to decrease their activity against Mycobacterium luteum. Besides, introduction of the second phenoxy substituted fragment increased the antifungal activity against Candida tenuis and Aspergillus niger at lower concentrations.

  12. Systematics and diversity of deep-water Cheilostomata (Bryozoa) from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic). (United States)

    Souto, Javier; Berning, Björn; Ostrovsky, Andrew N


    Galicia Bank is a large seamount situated c. 200 km off NW Iberia with a minimum depth of 600 m. It was recently included in Natura 2000, an EU-wide network of nature protection areas. We here present the first taxonomic descriptions of cheilostome bryozoans from this bank. The specimens were collected through the Spanish project INDEMARES (during BANGAL 0811 cruise conducted in 2011) and during two previous campaigns, the French Seamount 1 in 1987 and the German Victor Hensen in 1997). Twenty-five species were found, including 12 that are new to science, while five species remain in open nomenclature. Three new cheilostome genera (Breoganipora, Galiciapora and Placidoporella) are described. A lectotype is designated for Setosella vulnerata (Busk), and Palmicellaria tenuis Calvet is transferred to the genus Porella [as Porella tenuis (Calvet) n. comb.]. Additionally, our study shows that 48-60% of the bryozoan species are endemic to Galicia Bank. The degree of endemism of the Cheilostomata is thus the highest among all orders present on this seamount.

  13. A comparison of the prevalence and burdens of helminth infections in growers and adult free-range chickens. (United States)

    Magwisha, H B; Kassuku, A A; Kyvsgaard, N C; Permin, A


    Matched samples of 100 chickens of each of growers and adult rural free-range chickens in Morogoro, Tanzania, were purchased from the beginning to the end of the long rainy season. At necropsy, the trachea, the gastrointestinal tract and the oviduct were examined for helminth infections. The helminth species isolated comprised 18 nematodes and 8 cestodes but no trematodes. Tetrameres fissispina is a new record in Tanzania. All the chickens harboured at least three different helminth species. Growers contained 4-14 and adults 3-12 helminth species. The number of species isolated per chicken increased as the rainy season advanced. The prevalence of the following species were significantly higher in growers than in adults (p Raillietina tetragona (36%, 21%). Allodapa suctoria (3%, 20%) and Capillaria annulata (1%, 10%) had a significantly lower prevalence in growers than in adults (p tetragona, S. trachea, T. americana, T. fissispina and T. tenuis. Conversely, A. suctoria and C. annulata showed significantly higher worm burdens in adults (p < 0.05). The sex of the chickens influenced the burdens of Heterakis brevispiculum (p < 0.05). There was an interaction effect such that growing males and adult females had statistically higher (p < 0.05) burdens of T. tenuis and A. suctoria, respectively.

  14. Asymmetric competition prevents the outbreak of an opportunistic species after coral reef degradation. (United States)

    González-Rivero, Manuel; Bozec, Yves-Marie; Chollett, Iliana; Ferrari, Renata; Schönberg, Christine H L; Mumby, Peter J


    Disturbance releases space and allows the growth of opportunistic species, excluded by the old stands, with a potential to alter community dynamics. In coral reefs, abundances of fast-growing, and disturbance-tolerant sponges are expected to increase and dominate as space becomes available following acute coral mortality events. Yet, an increase in abundance of these opportunistic species has been reported in only a few studies, suggesting certain mechanisms may be acting to regulate sponge populations. To gain insights into mechanisms of population control, we simulated the dynamics of the common reef-excavating sponge Cliona tenuis in the Caribbean using an individual-based model. An orthogonal hypothesis testing approach was used, where four candidate mechanisms-algal competition, stock-recruitment limitation, whole and partial mortality-were incorporated sequentially into the model and the results were tested against independent field observations taken over a decade in Belize, Central America. We found that releasing space after coral mortality can promote C. tenuis outbreaks, but such outbreaks can be curtailed by macroalgal competition. The asymmetrical competitive superiority of macroalgae, given by their capacity to pre-empt space and outcompete with the sponge in a size-dependant fashion, supports their capacity to steal the opportunity from other opportunists. While multiple system stages can be expected in coral reefs following intense perturbation macroalgae may prevent the growth of other space-occupiers, such as bioeroding sponges, under low grazing pressure.

  15. Measuring gene flow from two birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) field trials using transgenes as tracer markers. (United States)

    De Marchis, F; Bellucci, M; Arcioni, S


    Genetic engineering is becoming a useful tool in the improvement of plants but concern has been expressed about the potential environmental risks of releasing genetically modified (GM) organisms into the environment. Attention has focused on pollen dispersal as a major issue in the risk assessment of transgenic crop plants. In this study, pollen-mediated dispersal of transgenes via cross-fertilization was examined. Plants of Lotus corniculatus L. transformed with either the Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase gene asnA or the beta-glucuronidase gene uidA, were used as the pollen donor. Nontransgenic plants belonging to the species L. corniculatus L., L. tenuis Waldst. and Kit. ex Willd, and L. pedunculatus Cav., were utilized as recipients. Two experimental fields were established in two areas of central Italy. Plants carrying the uidA gene were partially sterile, therefore only the asnA gene was used as a tracer marker. No transgene flow between L. corniculatus transformants and the nontransgenic L. tenuis and L. pedunculatus plants was detected. As regards nontransgenic L. corniculatus plants, in one location flow of asnA transgene was detected up to 18 m from the 1.8 m2 donor plot. In the other location, pollen dispersal occurred up to 120 m from the 14 m2 pollinating plot.

  16. Bioavailability of PAHs in aluminum smelter affected sediments: evaluation through assessment of pore water concentrations and in vivo bioaccumulation. (United States)

    Ruus, Anders; Bøyum, Olav; Grung, Merete; Næs, Kristoffer


    Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal tar pitch polluted sediments was predicted by (1) a generic approach based on organic carbon-water partitioning and Gibbs linear free energy relationship (between K(OW) and K(OC)), and (2) measurements of freely dissolved concentrations of PAHs in the sediment pore water, using passive samplers and solid phase extraction. Results from these predictions were compared with those from in vivo bioaccumulation experiments using Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta), Hinia reticulata (Gastropoda), and Nuculoma tenuis (Bivalvia). Measured sediment/water partition coefficients were higher than predicted by the generic approach. Furthermore, predicted biota-to-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) derived from measured pore water concentrations were more in agreement with the bioaccumulation observed for two of the three species. Discrepancies associated with the third species (N. tenuis) were likely a result of particles remaining in the intestine (as shown by microscopic evaluation). These results indicate the importance of conducting site-specific evaluations of pore water concentrations and/or bioaccumulation studies by direct measurements to accurately provide a basis for risk assessment and remediation plans. The importance of knowledge regarding specific characteristics of model organisms is emphasized.

  17. Nursery use of shallow habitats by epibenthic fishes in Maine nearshore waters (United States)

    Lazzari, M. A.; Sherman, S.; Kanwit, J. K.


    Species richness and abundance of epibenthic fishes were quantified with daytime beam trawl tows in shallow water habitats during April-November 2000 of three mid-coast Maine estuaries: Casco Bay, Muscongus Bay and the Weskeag River. Five shallow (fishes were collected. Species richness per tow was greater in Casco Bay followed by the Weskeag River and Muscongus Bay. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) of fishes was greater in Casco Bay than in the Weskeag River or Muscongus Bay. Species richness and faunal abundances were positively associated with vegetation, particularly Zostera, at all sampling locations. CPUEs of fishes were higher in Zostera primarily due to the abundance of Gasterosteus aculeatus, Apeltes quadracus, Pungitius pungitius, Myoxocephalus aenaeus, and Cylcopterus lumpus. The fish community of mid-coast estuaries was dominated by young-of-the-year (YOY) and juvenile fishes and all of the habitat types function as nursery areas. Twelve species (38%) of commercial and recreational importance were collected in the three estuaries, but the percentage was higher in Casco Bay (44%) and the Weskeag River (46%). These species included Anguilla rostrata, Clupea harengus, Gadus morhua, Microgadus tomcod, Pollachius virens, Urophycis chuss, Urophycis regia, Urophycis tenuis, Osmerus mordax, Macrozoarces americanus, Tautogolabrus adspersus, and Pleuronectes americanus. Four species, G. morhua, M. tomcod, P. virens, and U. tenuis were more common in spring than summer or autumn. P. americanus was most abundant in summer followed by spring and autumn. This study documents the importance of shallow estuarine areas in Maine as nurseries for these species.

  18. Arsenic tolerance of cyanobacterial strains with potential use in biotechnology

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    Susana G Ferrari

    Full Text Available The arsenic content of various water bodies in Argentina is higher than the acceptable levels for human and animal uses. Cyanobacteria are widely distributed in aquatic environments and can bioaccumulate arsenic (As. This study presents the response of indigenous cyanobacteria to As(III and As(V, including the species Tolypothrix tenuis, Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc minutum, previously used with biotechnological purposes. As(III resulted more toxic than As(V in all cases, causing cell death in the range of 5-20 mg/l. T. tenuis growth was sensitive to As(V with lethal inhibition at 625 mg/l, whereas the Noctoc species were stimulated. EC50 values found were 73.34 mg/l for N. muscorum and 989.3 mg/l for N. minutum. Batch cultures of N. minutum showed improvements in both growth parameters and photosynthetic pigment content in the presence of 1,000 mg/l As(V. Increases of 66.7%, 75.5%, 40% and 20.7% in cell productivity, chlorophyll a, total carotenoids and C-phycocyanin respectively were observed, reaching a bioaccumulated arsenic value of 37.4 μg/g at the stationary growth phase.

  19. Associations among habitat characteristics and meningeal worm prevalence in eastern South Dakota, USA (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.


    Few studies have evaluated how wetland and forest characteristics influence the prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection of deer throughout the grassland biome of central North America. We used previously collected, county-level prevalence data to evaluate associations between habitat characteristics and probability of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across eastern South Dakota, US. The highest-ranked binomial regression model for detecting probability of meningeal worm infection was spring temperature + summer precipitation + percent wetland; weight of evidence (wi=0.71) favored this model over alternative models, though predictive capability was low (Receiver operating characteristic=0.62). Probability of meningeal worm infection increased by 1.3- and 1.6-fold for each 1-cm and 1-C increase in summer precipitation and spring temperature, respectively. Similarly, probability of infection increased 1.2-fold for each 1% increase in wetland habitat. Our findings highlight the importance of wetland habitat in predicting meningeal worm infection across eastern South Dakota. Future research is warranted to evaluate the relationships between climatic conditions (e.g., drought, wet cycles) and deer habitat selection in maintaining P. tenuis along the western boundary of the parasite.

  20. Immunity through early development of coral larvae. (United States)

    Palmer, C V; Graham, E; Baird, A H


    As a determinant of survival, immunity is likely to be significant in enabling coral larvae to disperse and successfully recruit, however, whether reef-building coral larvae have immune defenses is unknown. We investigated the potential presence and variation in immunity in the lecithotrophic larvae of Acropora tenuis through larval development. Enzymes indicative of tyrosinase and laccase-type melanin-synthesis were quantified, and the concentration of three coral fluorescent proteins was measured over six developmental stages; egg, embryo, motile planula, planula post-exposure to crustose coralline algae (CCA; settlement cue), settled, settled post-exposure to Symbiodinium (endosymbiont). Both types of melanin-synthesis pathways and the three fluorescent proteins were present in A. tenuis throughout development. Laccase-type activity and red fluorescence increased following exposure of planula to CCA, whereas tyrosinase-type activity and cyan fluorescence increased following settlement. No change was detected in the measured parameters following exposure to Symbiodinium. This study is the first to document coral larval immune responses and suggests the melanin-synthesis pathways have disparate roles-the laccase-type potentially non-immunological and the tyrosinase-type in cytotoxic defense. Our results indicate that corals have the potential to resist infection from the earliest life history phase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Highly infectious symbiont dominates initial uptake in coral juveniles. (United States)

    Abrego, David; VAN Oppen, Madeleine J H; Willis, Bette L


    The majority of reef-building corals acquire their obligate algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) from the environment. However, factors shaping the initial establishment of coral-algal symbioses, including parental effects, local environmental conditions and local availability of symbionts, are not well understood. This study monitored the uptake and maintenance of Symbiodinium in juveniles of two common corals, Acropora tenuis and Acropora millepora, that were reciprocally explanted between sites where adult colonies host different types of Symbiodinium. We found that coral juveniles were rapidly dominated by type D Symbiodinium, even though this type is not found in adult colonies (including the parental colonies) in four out of the five study populations. Furthermore, type D Symbiodinium was found in less than one-third of a wide range of coral species (n > 50) sampled at the two main study sites, suggesting that its dominance in the acroporid juveniles is not because it is the most abundant local endosymbiotic type. Moreover, dominance by type D was observed irrespective of the light intensity to which juveniles were exposed in a field study. In summary, despite its relatively low abundance in coral assemblages at the study sites and irrespective of the surrounding light environment, type D Symbiodinium is the main symbiont type initially acquired by juveniles of A. millepora and A. tenuis. We conclude that during early ontogeny in these corals, there are few barriers to the uptake of Symbiodinium types which differ from those found in parental colonies, resulting in dominance by a highly infectious and potentially opportunistic symbiont.

  2. Projected near-future levels of temperature and pCO2 reduce coral fertilization success.

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    Rebecca Albright

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2 are projected to contribute to a 1.1-6.4°C rise in global average surface temperatures and a 0.14-0.35 reduction in the average pH of the global surface ocean by 2100. If realized, these changes are expected to have negative consequences for reef-building corals including increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching and reduced rates of calcification and reef accretion. Much less is known regarding the independent and combined effects of temperature and pCO2 on critical early life history processes such as fertilization. Here we show that increases in temperature (+3°C and pCO2 (+400 µatm projected for this century negatively impact fertilization success of a common Indo-Pacific coral species, Acropora tenuis. While maximum fertilization did not differ among treatments, the sperm concentration required to obtain 50% of maximum fertilization increased 6- to 8- fold with the addition of a single factor (temperature or CO2 and nearly 50- fold when both factors interact. Our results indicate that near-future changes in temperature and pCO2 narrow the range of sperm concentrations that are capable of yielding high fertilization success in A. tenuis. Increased sperm limitation, in conjunction with adult population decline, may have severe consequences for coral reproductive success. Impaired sexual reproduction will further challenge corals by inhibiting population recovery and adaptation potential.

  3. Archipelago, Chile

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    Gerald A. Wheeler


    Full Text Available En el Archipiélago Juan Fernández se encuentran diez miembros de la tribu Cariceae (Cyperaceae: cuatro especies de Carex y seis de Uncinia. Ocho de las especies se hallan en la Isla Alejandro Selkirk (= Masafuera; 50 km2, y cuatro en la Isla Robinson Crusoe (= Masatierra; 48 km2. Se describen cuatro nuevos taxones endémicos para el Archipiélago: Carex fernandezensis, C. stuessyi, Uncinia aspericaulis, y U. macloviformis. Sólo dos especies endémicas, Carex berteroniana y Uncinia douglasii, son frecuentes en ambas islas. Otro endemismo, Uncinia costata, es conocido sólo en la localidad de colección del tipo en Alejandro Selkirk. Las tres especies restantes, Uncinia phleoides, U. tenuis, y Carex phalaroides, se encuentran también en el continente Sudamericano, y se cita aquí por primera vez C. phalaroides para el archipiélago. Se lectotipifican los nombres Uncinia costata y U. tenuis f. firmula, y se describe una nueva sección de Carex, sect. Pellucidae, para ubicar a C. stuessyi y taxones afines.

  4. Primer registro de Phialella quadrata y ampliación del límite de distribución de ocho especies de hidromedusas (Hydrozoa en el Océano Atlántico Occidental First record of Phialella quadrata and range extension of eight species of hydromedusae (Hydrozoa in the Western Atlantic Ocean

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    María de los Angeles Mendoza-Becerril


    Full Text Available Los nuevos registros que se presentan en este trabajo, amplían la distribución geográfica conocida de nueve especies de hidromedusas, que fueron recolectadas en la Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas, México. La identificación de Phialella quadrata constituye el primer registro para el Océano Atlántico Occidental, mientras que Ectopleura dumortieri lo es para el Golfo de México y Clytia folleata para la región norte del mismo. Se extiende el área geográfica de distribución de Bougainvillia superciliaris, Nemopsis bachei, Sarsia tubulosa y Clytia globosa a menor latitud, mientras que Eirene tenuis y Octophialucium medium a mayor latitud.The new records provided here extend the geographic distribution know of nine hydromedusae species collected in the Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas, Mexico. The record of Phialella quadrata is the first one for the Western Atlantic Ocean, while Ectopleura dumortieri is registered for the first time in the Gulf of Mexico and Clytia folleata in the north of the same gulf. The geographic distribution of Bougainvillia superciliaris, Nemopsis bachei, Sarsia tubulosa and Clytia globosa is extended to a lower latitude, while Eirene tenuis and Octophialucium medium increase to a higher latitude.

  5. Ichnology of an upper carboniferous fluvio-estuarine paleovalley: The tonganoxie sandstone, buildex quarry, eastern Kansas, USA (United States)

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.; Maples, C.G.; Lanier, Wendy E.


    Tidal rhythmites of the Tonganoxie Sandstone Member (Stranger Formation, Douglas Group) at Buildex Quarry, eastern Kansas, contain a relatively diverse ichnofauna. The assemblage includes arthropod locomotion (Dendroidichnites irregulare, Diplichnites gouldi type A and B, Diplopodichnus biformis, Kouphichnium isp., Mirandaichnium famatinense, and Stiaria intermedia), resting (Tonganoxichnus buildexensis) and feeding traces (Stiallia pilosa, Tonganoxichnus ottawensis); grazing traces (Gordia indianaensis, Helminthoidichnites tenuis, Helminthopsis hieroglyphica); feeding structures (Circulichnis montanus, Treptichnus bifurcus, Treptichnus pollardi, irregular networks), fish traces (Undichna britannica, Undichna simplicitas), tetrapod trackways, and root traces. The taxonomy of some of these ichnotaxa is briefly reviewed and emended diagnoses for Gordia indianaensis and Helminthoidichnites tenuis are proposed. Additionally, the combined name Dendroidichnites irregulare is proposed for nested chevron trackways. Traces previously regarded as produced by isopods are reinterpreted as myriapod trackways (D. gouldi type B). Trackways formerly interpreted as limulid crawling and swimming traces are assigned herein to Kouphichnium isp and Dendroidichnites irregulare, respectively. Taphonomic analysis suggests that most grazing and feeding traces were formed before the arthropod trackways and resting traces. Grazing/feeding traces were formed in a soft, probably submerged substrate. Conversely, the majority of trackways and resting traces probably were produced subaerially in a firmer, dewatered and desiccated sediment. The Buildex Quarry ichnofauna records the activity of a terrestrial and freshwater biota. The presence of this assemblage in tidal rhythmites is consistent with deposition on tidal flats in the most proximal zone of the inner estuary, between the maximum landward limit of tidal currents and the salinity limit further towards the sea.

  6. Entomopathogenic fungi in greenhouse ecosystems:present and future roles%昆虫病原真菌在当前和未来的温室生态系统中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马克· 格特尔; Colleen Alma; Patricia Jaramillo; Jeong Jun Kim; David Gillespie; Bernard Roitberg


    There are several biopesticides based on entomopathogenic fungi available in the market for use against insect pests in greenhouse ecosystems.Although most are compatible for use with predators and parasitoids in greenhouse ecosystems,much more research is needed to determine the intraguild interactions for each combination of host, pathogen, predator, and parasitoid.Our research has demonstrated that, although direct effects on the predators could be demonstrated in laboratory bioassays, different results were found under greenhouse conditions, indicating that results obtained in the laboratory may be a poor predictor of what occurs in the greenhouse.In both cases, additive effects were obtained under greenhouse conditions,demonstrating compatibility. In addition, there is increasing evidence that entomopathogenic fungi have significant potential for dual management of invertebrate pests and plant pathogens.Our studies demonstrated that 3 species of Lecanicillium had significant effects on both aphids and cucumber powdery mildew, Sphaerotheca fuliginea;that the fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus was compatible with a mirid predator,Disyphus hesperus,when used concurrently against greenhouse whitefly,Trialeurodes vaporariorum;and that Lecaniciullium longisporum was compatible with a predatory midge,Aphidoletes aphidimyza when used concurrently against green peach aphids.

  7. Characterization of Adelphocoris suturalis (Hemiptera: Miridae) Transcriptome from Different Developmental Stages (United States)

    Tian, Caihong; Tek Tay, Wee; Feng, Hongqiang; Wang, Ying; Hu, Yongmin; Li, Guoping


    Adelphocoris suturalis is one of the most serious pest insects of Bt cotton in China, however its molecular genetics, biochemistry and physiology are poorly understood. We used high throughput sequencing platform to perform de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analyses across different developmental stages (eggs, 2nd and 5th instar nymphs, female and male adults). We obtained 20 GB of clean data and revealed 88,614 unigenes, including 23,830 clusters and 64,784 singletons. These unigene sequences were annotated and classified by Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. A large number of differentially expressed genes were discovered through pairwise comparisons between these developmental stages. Gene expression profiles were dramatically different between life stage transitions, with some of these most differentially expressed genes being associated with sex difference, metabolism and development. Quantitative real-time PCR results confirm deep-sequencing findings based on relative expression levels of nine randomly selected genes. Furthermore, over 791,390 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 2,682 potential simple sequence repeats were identified. Our study provided comprehensive transcriptional gene expression information for A. suturalis that will form the basis to better understanding of development pathways, hormone biosynthesis, sex differences and wing formation in mirid bugs.

  8. Biological control of Tetranychus urticae by Phytoseiulus macropilis and Macrolophus pygmaeus in tomato greenhouses. (United States)

    Gigon, Vincent; Camps, Cédric; Le Corff, Josiane


    Biological control against phytophagous arthropods has been widely used under greenhouse conditions. Its success is dependent on a number of factors related to the abiotic conditions and to the interactions between pests and biological control agents. In particular, when multiple predator species are introduced to suppress one pest, competitive interactions might occur, including intraguild predation (IGP). In tomato crops, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a very problematic phytophagous mite and its control is not yet satisfactory. In 2012 and 2013, the ability of a potential new predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) was assessed, alone and in the presence of Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a polyphagous mirid supposed to predate on P. macropilis. Both years, under greenhouse conditions, the effectiveness of the two predators was compared between the following treatments: T. urticae, T. urticae + P. macropilis, T. urticae + M. pygmaeus, and T. urticae + P. macropilis + M. pygmaeus. The number of arthropods per tomato plant over time indicated that P. macropilis well-controlled the population of T. urticae, whereas M. pygmaeus had a very limited impact. Furthermore, there was no evidence of IGP between the two predators but in the presence of M. pygmaeus, P. macropilis tended to have a more clumped spatial distribution. Further studies should clarify the number and location of inoculation points to optimize the control of T. urticae by P. macropilis.

  9. Aphidophagous guilds on nettle (Urtica dioica) strips close to fields of green pea, rape and wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The common nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a perennial and cosmopolitan plant species and is known to be the source of food for a great diversity of insects. To understand the importance of the nettle in agro-ecosystems, a field experiment was carried out in an experimental farm at Gembloux (Belgium) to study the effect of nettle margin strips on aphid and aphidophagous populations in close field crops, namely wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),green pea (Pisum sativum L.) and rape (Brassicae napus L.). The aphids and related beneficial populations were weekly assessed, from March to August 2005, by visual observations in two plots per field crop. A higher abundance of aphidophagous beneficials was collected in nettle strips when compared to the field crops. Particularly, the presence of predatory anthocorids, mirids and green lacewings was observed on nettle only. Nevertheless,the most abundant aphid predatory family, the Coccinellidae, was distributed in both environments, in nettle strips and in crop fields. The field margin supported a significantly higher density of Harmonia axyridis than the field crops. In contrast, the field crops, green pea particularly, supported a higher density of Coccinella septempunctata. The distribution of the aphidophagous species, mainly the ladybirds, was discussed in relation to the host plant and related aphid species and their potential effect on integrated pest management.

  10. Insect fauna associated with Anacardium occidentale (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Benin, West Africa. (United States)

    Agboton, C; Onzo, A; Ouessou, F I; Goergen, G; Vidal, S; Tamò, M


    Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), is an important cash crop in Benin. However, its production is threatened by several biotic factors, especially insects. In Benin, very few studies have focused on insects and just listed species commonly found on cashew worldwide. The present investigation fills this gap by presenting an exhaustive inventory of insect species associated with this crop in the country. The survey was carried out from September 2009 to August 2010 in 22 cashew orchards (5 young and 17 mature) distributed over three major agroecological zones where cashew is most produced in the country. Insects were collected using chemical knock-down technique and visual observation followed by capture with sweep net. In addition, infested plant organs were sampled and incubated to collect emerging insects. In total, 262 insect species were recorded and identified. Among them, the wood borer Apate terebrans Pallas, the leafminer Eteoryctis gemoniella Stainton, and the mirid bugs Helopeltis schoutedeni Reuter., and Helopeltis anacardii Miller., appeared as the most important insect species attacking cashew in Benin. Beneficial insects encountered included some predators, parasitoids, and pollinators. Few vertebrate predators were also recorded on the trees. Differences in agroecological conditions or in field cleanliness did not affect the number of insect species encountered in the cashew orchards. The results of this study represent an important baseline data for the design and implementation of strategies for cashew protection in Benin.

  11. The betrayed thief – the extraordinary strategy of Aristolochia rotunda to deceive its pollinators (United States)

    Oelschlägel, Birgit; Nuss, Matthias; von Tschirnhaus, Michael; Pätzold, Claudia; Neinhuis, Christoph; Dötterl, Stefan; Wanke, Stefan


    Pollination of several angiosperms is based on deceit. In such systems, the flowers advertise a reward that ultimately is not provided. We report on a previously unknown pollination/mimicry system discovered in deceptive Aristolochia rotunda (Aristolochiaceae). Pollinators were collected in the natural habitat and identified. Flower scent and the volatiles of insects (models) potentially mimicked were analyzed by chemical analytical techniques. Electrophysiological and behavioral tests on the pollinators identified the components that mediate the plant–pollinator interaction and revealed the model of the mimicry system. The main pollinators of A. rotunda were female Chloropidae. They are food thieves that feed on secretions of true bugs (Miridae) while these are eaten by arthropod predators. Freshly killed mirids and Aristolochia flowers released the same scent components that chloropids use to find their food sources. Aristolochia exploits these components to deceive their chloropid pollinators. Aristolochia and other trap flowers were believed to lure saprophilous flies and mimic brood sites of pollinators. We demonstrate for A. rotunda, and hypothesize for other deceptive angiosperms, the evolution of a different, kleptomyiophilous pollination strategy. It involves scent mimicry and the exploitation of kleptoparasitic flies as pollinators. Our findings suggest a reconsideration of plants assumed to show sapromyiophilous pollination. PMID:25488155

  12. The betrayed thief - the extraordinary strategy of Aristolochia rotunda to deceive its pollinators. (United States)

    Oelschlägel, Birgit; Nuss, Matthias; von Tschirnhaus, Michael; Pätzold, Claudia; Neinhuis, Christoph; Dötterl, Stefan; Wanke, Stefan


    Pollination of several angiosperms is based on deceit. In such systems, the flowers advertise a reward that ultimately is not provided. We report on a previously unknown pollination/mimicry system discovered in deceptive Aristolochia rotunda (Aristolochiaceae). Pollinators were collected in the natural habitat and identified. Flower scent and the volatiles of insects (models) potentially mimicked were analyzed by chemical analytical techniques. Electrophysiological and behavioral tests on the pollinators identified the components that mediate the plant-pollinator interaction and revealed the model of the mimicry system. The main pollinators of A. rotunda were female Chloropidae. They are food thieves that feed on secretions of true bugs (Miridae) while these are eaten by arthropod predators. Freshly killed mirids and Aristolochia flowers released the same scent components that chloropids use to find their food sources. Aristolochia exploits these components to deceive their chloropid pollinators. Aristolochia and other trap flowers were believed to lure saprophilous flies and mimic brood sites of pollinators. We demonstrate for A. rotunda, and hypothesize for other deceptive angiosperms, the evolution of a different, kleptomyiophilous pollination strategy. It involves scent mimicry and the exploitation of kleptoparasitic flies as pollinators. Our findings suggest a reconsideration of plants assumed to show sapromyiophilous pollination.

  13. The role of abiotic environmental conditions and herbivory in shaping bacterial community composition in floral nectar. (United States)

    Samuni-Blank, Michal; Izhaki, Ido; Laviad, Sivan; Bar-Massada, Avi; Gerchman, Yoram; Halpern, Malka


    Identifying the processes that drive community assembly has long been a central theme in ecology. For microorganisms, a traditional prevailing hypothesis states that "everything is everywhere, but the environment selects". Although the bacterial community in floral nectar may be affected by both atmosphere (air-borne bacteria) and animals as dispersal vectors, the environmental and geographic factors that shape microbial communities in floral nectar are unknown. We studied culturable bacterial communities in Asphodelus aestivus floral nectar and in its typical herbivorous bug Capsodes infuscatus, along an aridity gradient. Bacteria were sampled from floral nectar and bugs at four sites, spanning a geographical range of 200 km from Mediterranean to semi-arid conditions, under open and bagged flower treatments. In agreement with the niche assembly hypothesis, the differences in bacterial community compositions were explained by differences in abiotic environmental conditions. These results suggest that microbial model systems are useful for addressing macro-ecological questions. In addition, similar bacterial communities were found in the nectar and on the surface of the bugs that were documented visiting the flowers. These similarities imply that floral nectar bacteria dispersal is shaped not only by air borne bacteria and nectar consumers as previously reported, but also by visiting vectors like the mirid bugs.

  14. The role of abiotic environmental conditions and herbivory in shaping bacterial community composition in floral nectar.

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    Michal Samuni-Blank

    Full Text Available Identifying the processes that drive community assembly has long been a central theme in ecology. For microorganisms, a traditional prevailing hypothesis states that "everything is everywhere, but the environment selects". Although the bacterial community in floral nectar may be affected by both atmosphere (air-borne bacteria and animals as dispersal vectors, the environmental and geographic factors that shape microbial communities in floral nectar are unknown. We studied culturable bacterial communities in Asphodelus aestivus floral nectar and in its typical herbivorous bug Capsodes infuscatus, along an aridity gradient. Bacteria were sampled from floral nectar and bugs at four sites, spanning a geographical range of 200 km from Mediterranean to semi-arid conditions, under open and bagged flower treatments. In agreement with the niche assembly hypothesis, the differences in bacterial community compositions were explained by differences in abiotic environmental conditions. These results suggest that microbial model systems are useful for addressing macro-ecological questions. In addition, similar bacterial communities were found in the nectar and on the surface of the bugs that were documented visiting the flowers. These similarities imply that floral nectar bacteria dispersal is shaped not only by air borne bacteria and nectar consumers as previously reported, but also by visiting vectors like the mirid bugs.

  15. Performance of Three Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera:Miridae) on Flowering and Non-lfowering Cotton and Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen; PAN Hong-sheng; LIU Bing; LU Yan-hui; LIANG Ge-mei


    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera:Miridae) is a group of key insect pests in cotton ifelds in China that includes three dominant species:A. suturalis (Jakovlev), A. lineolatus (Goeze) and A. fasciaticollis (Reuter). Previous ifeld surveys have found that adults of these Adelphocoris species usually move onto speciifc host plants when the plants enter the lfowering stage. To determine the potential trade-offs for this host-plant preference behavior, the performance of these three Adelphocoris spp. on lfowering and non-lfowering cotton and alfalfa were compared in the laboratory. The results showed that Adelphocoris spp. had signiifcantly higher nymphal developmental and survival rates, along with increased adult longevity and fecundity on lfowering cotton and alfalfa than on non-lfowering plants of either species. In addition, compared with cotton plants, alfalfa generally promoted better performance of these three Adelphocoris species, especially for A. lineolatus. Simple correlation analysis indicated that female adult longevity was positively correlated to male adult longevity and female fecundity, and female fecundity was positively correlated to nymphal development and survival rates. This study demonstrated a positive correlation between adult preference and offspring/adult performance for all three Adelphocoris species, with no evidence of any trade-offs for this preference for lfowering host plants. These ifndings support the hypothesis that hemimetabolous insects such as mirid bugs have positive adult preference-adult/nymphal performance relationships, which is likely due to the similar feeding habits and nutritional requirements of adults and nymphs.

  16. The mouthparts enriched odorant binding protein 11 of the alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus displays a preferential binding behaviour to host plant secondary metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang eSun


    Full Text Available Odorant binding proteins (OBPs are proposed to be directly required for odorant discrimination and represent potential interesting targets for pest control. In the notoriously agricultural pest Adelphocoris lineolatus, our previous functional investigation of highly expressed antennal OBPs clearly supported this viewpoint, whereas the findings of the current study by characterizing of AlinOBP11 rather indicated that OBP in hemipterous plant bugs might fulfill a different and tantalizing physiological role. The phylogenetic analysis uncovered that AlinOBP11 together with several homologous bug OBP proteins are potential orthologs, implying they could exhibit a conserved function. Next, the results of expression profiles solidly showed that AlinOBP11 was predominantly expressed at adult mouthparts, the most important gustatory organ of Hemiptera mirid bug. Finally, a rigorously selective binding profile was observed in the fluorescence competitive binding assay, in which recombinant AlinOBP11 displayed much stronger binding abilities to non-volatile secondary metabolite compounds than the volatile odorants. These results reflect that AlinOBP11, even its orthologous proteins across bug species, could be associated with a distinctively conserved physiological role such as a crucial carrier for non-volatiles host secondary metabolites in gustatory system.

  17. Characterization of the Complex Locus of Bean Encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Proteins Reveals Subfunctionalization for Defense against Fungi and Insects1 (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Renato; Raiola, Alessandro; Capodicasa, Cristina; Devoto, Alessandra; Pontiggia, Daniela; Roberti, Serena; Galletti, Roberta; Conti, Eric; O'Sullivan, Donal; De Lorenzo, Giulia


    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are extracellular plant inhibitors of fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs) that belong to the superfamily of Leu-rich repeat proteins. We have characterized the full complement of pgip genes in the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotype BAT93. This comprises four clustered members that span a 50-kb region and, based on their similarity, form two pairs (Pvpgip1/Pvpgip2 and Pvpgip3/Pvpgip4). Characterization of the encoded products revealed both partial redundancy and subfunctionalization against fungal-derived PGs. Notably, the pair PvPGIP3/PvPGIP4 also inhibited PGs of two mirid bugs (Lygus rugulipennis and Adelphocoris lineolatus). Characterization of Pvpgip genes of Pinto bean showed variations limited to single synonymous substitutions or small deletions. A three-amino acid deletion encompassing a residue previously identified as crucial for recognition of PG of Fusarium moniliforme was responsible for the inability of BAT93 PvPGIP2 to inhibit this enzyme. Consistent with the large variations observed in the promoter sequences, reverse transcription-PCR expression analysis revealed that the different family members differentially respond to elicitors, wounding, and salicylic acid. We conclude that both biochemical and regulatory redundancy and subfunctionalization of pgip genes are important for the adaptation of plants to pathogenic fungi and phytophagous insects. PMID:15299124

  18. Characterization of the complex locus of bean encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins reveals subfunctionalization for defense against fungi and insects. (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Renato; Raiola, Alessandro; Capodicasa, Cristina; Devoto, Alessandra; Pontiggia, Daniela; Roberti, Serena; Galletti, Roberta; Conti, Eric; O'Sullivan, Donal; De Lorenzo, Giulia


    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are extracellular plant inhibitors of fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs) that belong to the superfamily of Leu-rich repeat proteins. We have characterized the full complement of pgip genes in the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotype BAT93. This comprises four clustered members that span a 50-kb region and, based on their similarity, form two pairs (Pvpgip1/Pvpgip2 and Pvpgip3/Pvpgip4). Characterization of the encoded products revealed both partial redundancy and subfunctionalization against fungal-derived PGs. Notably, the pair PvPGIP3/PvPGIP4 also inhibited PGs of two mirid bugs (Lygus rugulipennis and Adelphocoris lineolatus). Characterization of Pvpgip genes of Pinto bean showed variations limited to single synonymous substitutions or small deletions. A three-amino acid deletion encompassing a residue previously identified as crucial for recognition of PG of Fusarium moniliforme was responsible for the inability of BAT93 PvPGIP2 to inhibit this enzyme. Consistent with the large variations observed in the promoter sequences, reverse transcription-PCR expression analysis revealed that the different family members differentially respond to elicitors, wounding, and salicylic acid. We conclude that both biochemical and regulatory redundancy and subfunctionalization of pgip genes are important for the adaptation of plants to pathogenic fungi and phytophagous insects.

  19. Induced plant resistance as a pest management tactic on piercing sucking insects of sesame crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Mahmoud


    Full Text Available Sesame, Sesamum indicum L. is the most oil seed crop of the world and also a major oil seed crop of Egypt. One of the major constraints in its production the damage caused by insect pests, particularly sucking insects which suck the cell sap from leaves, flowers and capsules. Impact of three levels of potassin-F, salicylic acid and combination between them on reduction infestation of Stink bug Nezara viridula L., Mirid bug Creontiades sp., Green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, Leafhopper Empoasca lybica de Berg and Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius of sesame crop cultivar Shandawil 3 was carried out during 2010-2011 crop season at Experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. Also, the impacts of potassin-F and salicylic acid on yield production of sesame were studied. Results indicated that percent of reduction of infestation by N. viridula, M. persicae, Creontiades sp., E. lybicae, B. tabaci and phyllody disease were significantly higher at Level 2 (Potassin-F= 2.5 cm/l, Salicylic acid= 0.001 M and Potassin + Salicylic= 2.5 cm/l + 0.001 M and consequently higher seed yield per plant were obtained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyun Fitriana


    Full Text Available This research was aimed  to investigate the effect of siam weeds (C. odorata extract on the mortality of Helopeltis spp., the effect of the addition of emulsifier on the toxicity of siam weed extract, and to find out a potential concentration of the siam weeds extract that can be used as bioinsecticide for Helopeltis spp. Six concentration levels of C. odorata were used as treatments: 0% (control, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60%  by adding 0.3% or no emulsifier. Data collected were mortality  of  nymphs and adults of Helopeltis spp. The results showed that the application of the siam weeds (C. odorata extract was able to kill of nymph and adult of Helopeltis spp. The mortality of nymph ranged  from 26.6% to 50.0% without emulsifier and 78.8% to 85.0%  with emulsifier, and for adult range 15.00% - 46.67% without emulsifier and 31.67% - 71.67% with emulsifier  for adult. The results confirm by adding emulsifier can enhance toxicity of siam weed extract to Helopeltis spp.. There was no significant effect of concentration level of siam weed on cocoa mirid mortality, therefore concentration level of 20% seems to be the potential concentration of siam weed extract that can be used as bioinsecticide of Helopeltis spp..

  1. Marine organisms as source of extracts to disrupt bacterial communication: bioguided isolation and identification of quorum sensing inhibitors from Ircinia felix

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    Jairo Quintana


    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, 39 extracts from marine organisms were evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and the Brazilian Coast including 26 sponges, seven soft corals, five algae and one zooanthid. The results showed that crude extracts from the soft coral Eunicea laciniata, and the sponges Svenzea tubulosa, Ircinia felix and Neopetrosia carbonaria were the most promising source of quorum sensing inhibitors compounds without affecting bacterial growth, unlike the raw extracts of Agelas citrina, Agelas tubulata, Iotrochota arenosa, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Niphates caycedoi, Cliona tenuis, Ptilocaulis walpersi, Petrosia pellasarca, and the algae Laurencia catarinensis and Laurencia obtusa, which displayed potent antibacterial activity against the biosensors employed. The crude extract from the sponge I. felix was fractionated, obtaining furanosesterterpenes which were identified and evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, showing a moderate activity without affecting the biosensor's growth.

  2. Quantifying fenbendazole and its metabolites in self-medicating wild red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus using an HPLC-MS-MS approach. (United States)

    Adam, Aileen; Webster, Lucy M I; Mullen, William; Keller, Lukas F; Johnson, Paul C D


    On red grouse estates in the UK the nematode parasite Trichostrongylus tenuis is often controlled by application of grit medicated with the anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ). To date, assessment of the efficacy has been inhibited by the inability to quantify uptake of FBZ by the birds. We have developed a simple and sensitive HPLC-MS-MS method for detecting and quantifying FBZ and its metabolites from a 300 mg sample of red grouse liver. This method could be used to improve the efficacy of medicated grit treatment by allowing the identification of conditions and application methods that optimize the uptake of FBZ. With the necessary modifications, our method will also be applicable to other wildlife species where self-medication is used for parasite control.

  3. [Determination of parasite fauna of chicken in the Van region]. (United States)

    Orunç, Ozlem; Biçek, Kamile


    The aim of this study was to determine the parasite fauna of the chicken in Van Province in 2002 and 2003. The material of the present study included endoparasites and ectoparasites determined by rutine parasitological examinations. Direct, flotation and sedimentation techniques for endoparasites were used. The total of endoparasites and ectoparasites were determined as 85% and 76% respectively. The ratios of endoparasites obtained from the chicken were coccidial oocystis 65%, Echinostoma spp. 2%, Davania proglottina 8%, Raillietina spp. 10%, Trichostrongylus tenuis 4%, Dispharynx nasuta 1%, Ascaridia galli 13%, Heterakis gallinarum 15%, Capillaria spp. 30% whereas ratios of ectoparasites were Goniocotes hologaster 32%, Lipeurus heteragraphus 6%, Eomenacanthus stramineus 42%, Menacanthus cornutus 11%, Menopon gallinae 22%.

  4. Bolivian Rhinotragini IV: Paraeclipta gen. nov. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, new species and new combinations

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    Robin O. S. Clarke


    Full Text Available Paraeclipta gen. nov. is described to allocate five new species, and ten transferred from Eclipta Bates, 1873: P. cabrujai sp. nov.; P. clementecruzi sp. nov.; P. melgarae sp. nov.; P. tomhacketti sp. nov.; P. moscosoi sp. nov.; P. bicoloripes (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov.; P. croceicornis (Gounelle, 1911, comb. nov.; P. flavipes (Melzer, 1922, comb. nov.; P. jejuna (Gounelle, 1911, comb. nov.; P. kawensis (Peñaherrera-Leiva & Tavakilian, 2004, comb. nov.; P. longipennis (Fisher, 1947, comb. nov.; P. rectipennis (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov.; P. soumourouensis (Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2003, comb. nov.; P. tenuis (Burmeister, 1865, comb. nov.; and P. unicoloripes (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov. The Bolivian species are illustrated. A key to their identification and host flower records are provided.

  5. Cycle évolutif de Bucephalus anguillae Spakulová, Macko, Berrilli & Dezfuli, 2002 (Digenea, Bucephalidae) parasite de Anguilla anguilla (L.). (United States)

    Abdallah, L Gargouri-Ben; Maamouri, F


    The species of Bucephalus from the eel Anguilla anguilla of the north-eastern Tunisian lagoons was identified as B. anguillae which was recently described by Spakulová et al. (2002) from the Adriatic coast of Italy. In order to confirm that this eel digenean is distinct from B. polymorphus von Baer, 1827 present in other freshwater fishes, we investigated the life-cycle of this species. Surveys in the wild and experimental studies have shown that the life-cycle of B. anguillae is completed in brackish environments, with the lamellibranch Abra tenuis as the first intermediate host and the cyprinodontid fish Aphanius fasciatus as the second intermediate host. This life-cycle differs from that of B. polymorphus and can be considered as an additional argument for the distinction of these two morphologically similar species.


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    Yucra, H.


    Full Text Available A series of pools of stagnant water from Brisas de Oquendo neighborhood, Callao, Peru provides a great opportunity to study the composition algal from poluted environments. We characterized species from May to September 2005, collecting a series plankton and sediment samples. These was identified at the lowest rank taxonomy possible, to indicate the relative abundance and level of saprobity. A total of 22 species were identified: Bacillariophyta (14 species, followed by Cyanophyta (4 species, Chlorophyta (2 species and Euglenophyta (2 species. Dominant algae species were Chlamydomonas ehrenbergi and Euglena viridis, forming algal blooms throughout the sampling period. Subdominant species were: Nitzschia linearis, Nitzschia solita, Nitzschia fonticola, Oscillatoria tenuis and Lyngbya sp. The algal association suggests that these waters vary from â-mesosaprobic to polisaprobic, thus demonstrating the importance of the use of these organic pollution-tolerant species in water quality studies.

  7. First record of the Ordovician fauna in Mila-Kuh, eastern Alborz, northern Iran

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    Mohammad-Reza Kebria-ee Zadeh


    Full Text Available Restudy of the Cambrian–Ordovician boundary beds, traditionally assigned to the Mila Formation Member 5 in Mila-Kuh, northern Iran, for the first time provides convincing evidence of the Early Ordovician (Tremadocian age of the uppermost part of the Mila Formation. Two succeeding trilobite assemblages typifying the Asaphellus inflatus–Dactylocephalus and Psilocephalina lubrica associations have been recognized in the uppermost part of the unit. The Tremadocian trilobite fauna of Mila-Kuh shows close similarity to contemporaneous trilobite faunas of South China down to the species level, while affinity to the Tremadocian fauna of Central Iran is low. The trilobite species Dactylocephalus levificatus and brachiopod species Tritoechia tenuis from the Tremadocian of Mila-Kuh are new to science.

  8. Controle químico de fungos associados a sementes de sorgo e proteção contra fungos do solo

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    Pinto Nicésio Filadelfo Janssen de Almeida


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de alguns fungicidas no controle de fungos associados a sementes de sorgo cultivar CMS 182R e na proteção delas contra fungos do solo. A microbiota das sementes de sorgo, composta por Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium spp., Alternaria tenuis, Cladosporium spp. e Phoma sorghina, foi patogênica a essas sementes, e os fungos Pythium aphanidermatum e Sclerotium rolfsii, infectantes do solo de monocultivo de sorgo, também se mostraram patogênicos. Os fungicidas captan, thiram, captan + thiabendazole, thiram + thiabendazole, iprodione + thiram e tolylfluanid foram os mais eficientes no controle não só de toda a microbiota das sementes, como também na proteção das sementes contra Pythium aphanidermatum e Sclerotium rolfsii.

  9. Prevalence and distribution of gastro-intestinal helminths and haemoparasites in young scavenging chickens in upper eastern region of Ghana, West Africa. (United States)

    Poulsen, J; Permin, A; Hindsbo, O; Yelifari, L; Nansen, P; Bloch, P


    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and species of gastro-intestinal helminths and haemoparasites in 100 chickens kept under extensive management systems in Ghana, West Africa. All the examined chickens (100%) were infected with gastro-intestinal helminths; a total of 18 species were detected. The species and their prevalences were: Acuaria hamulosa (25%), Allodapa suctoria (20%), Ascaridia galli (24%), Capillaria spp. (60%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (13%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (62%), Heterakis gallinarum (31%), H. isolonche (16%), Hymenolepis spp. (66%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), R. echinobothrida (81%), R. tetragona (59%), Strongyloides avium (2%), Subulura strongylina (10%), Tetrameres fissispina (58%), Trichostronygylus tenuis (2%), and finally one unidentified acanthocephalan (1%) and one unidentified trematode (1%). Thirty-five per cent of the chickens were infected with the haemoparasites Aegyptinella pullorum and Plasmodium juxtanucleare (prevalences 9% and 27%, respectively). Association between chicken sex and prevalences was not significant. An over-dispersed distribution was seen for most of the helminth species.

  10. First frozen repository for the Great Barrier Reef coral created. (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary; van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Carter, Virginia; Henley, Mike; Abrego, David; Puill-Stephan, Eneour; Negri, Andrew; Heyward, Andrew; MacFarlane, Doug; Spindler, Rebecca


    To build new tools for the continued protection and propagation of coral from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), an international group of coral and cryopreservation scientists known as the Reef Recovery Initiative joined forces during the November 2011 mass-spawning event. The outcome was the creation of the first frozen bank for Australian coral from two important GBR reef-building species, Acropora tenuis and Acropora millepora. Approximately 190 frozen samples each with billions of cells were placed into long-term storage. Sperm cells were successfully cryopreserved, and after thawing, samples were used to fertilize eggs, resulting in functioning larvae. Additionally, developing larvae were dissociated, and these pluripotent cells were cryopreserved and viable after thawing. Now, we are in a unique position to move our work from the laboratory to the reefs to develop collaborative, practical conservation management tools to help secure Australia's coral biodiversity.

  11. Chiasmatic and achiasmatic inverted meiosis of plants with holocentric chromosomes (United States)

    Cabral, Gabriela; Marques, André; Schubert, Veit; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; Schlögelhofer, Peter


    Meiosis is a specialized cell division in sexually reproducing organisms before gamete formation. Following DNA replication, the canonical sequence in species with monocentric chromosomes is characterized by reductional segregation of homologous chromosomes during the first and equational segregation of sister chromatids during the second meiotic division. Species with holocentric chromosomes employ specific adaptations to ensure regular disjunction during meiosis. Here we present the analysis of two closely related plant species with holocentric chromosomes that display an inversion of the canonical meiotic sequence, with the equational division preceding the reductional. In-depth analysis of the meiotic divisions of Rhynchospora pubera and R. tenuis reveals that during meiosis I sister chromatids are bi-oriented, display amphitelic attachment to the spindle and are subsequently separated. During prophase II, chromatids are connected by thin chromatin threads that appear instrumental for the regular disjunction of homologous non-sister chromatids in meiosis II. PMID:25295686

  12. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae). (United States)

    Girardi, Felipe A; Tonial, Fabiana; Chini, Silvia O; Sobottka, Andréa M; Scheffer-Basso, Simone M; Bertol, Charise D


    The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv.) extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano), L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga) and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel) were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  13. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae

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    Full Text Available The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv. extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano, L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  14. Evaluation of hypotheses concerning the origin of Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) using isoenzyme data. (United States)

    Raelson, J V; Grant, W F


    An isoenzyme survey was conducted for several geographically dispersed accessions of four diploid Lotus species, L. alpinus Schleich., L. japonicus (Regel) Larsen, L. tenuis Waldst. et Kit and L. uliginosus Schkuhr, and for the tetraploid L. corniculatus L., in order to ascertain whether isoenzyme data could offer additional evidence concerning the origin of L. corniculatus. Seven enzyme systems were examined using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. These were PGI, TPI, MDH, IDH, PGM, 6-PGDH, and ME. Lotus uliginosus had monomorphic unique alleles, that were not found within L. corniculatus, at 7 loci. These loci and alleles are: Tpi1-112, Pgm1,2-110, Pgm3-82, Mdh3-68, 6-Pgdh1-110, 6-Pgdh2-98,95, and Me2-100. Other diploid taxa contained alleles found in L. corniculatus for these and other loci. The implications of the isoenzyme data to theories on the origin of L. corniculatus are discussed.


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    Full Text Available The present paper presents descriptions of 10 bryozoan species from material deposited at the Geological Centrum Göttingen, Germany. The studied material comes from the Lower Devonian rocks (Konĕprusy Limestone, Pragian, exposed in a quarry near Zlatý Kůň in Central Bohemia. Described bryozoans comprise 8 trepostome and 2 cryptostome (rhabdomesine species. One genus and species is new: the cryptostome (rhabdomesine Paracuneatopora striata gen. n., n. sp., and 7 species are new: trepostomes Leioclema elegans n. sp., Atactotoechus divulgatus n. sp., Loxophragma fistulosum n. sp., Leptotrypella punctata n. sp., Microcampylus obscurus n. sp., Dyscritella bohemica n. sp., and the rhabdomesine Orthopora tenuis n. sp. Furthermore, two trepostomes Monotrypa bohemica Prantl, 1933 and Anomalotoechus cf. typicus Duncan, 1939 were identified in this material. The described fauna displays palaeozoogeographic relations to the Lower Devonian (Pragian of Morocco and the Middle Devonian of Michigan (USA. 

  16. Phytolith assemblages in grasses native to central Argentina. (United States)

    Gallego, Lucrecia; Distel, Roberto A


    Phytolith reference collections are a prerequisite for accurate interpretation of soil phytolith assemblages aimed at reconstructing past vegetation. In this study a phytolith reference collection has been developed for several grasses native to central Argentina: Poa ligularis, Piptochaetium napostaense, Stipa clarazii, Stipa tenuis, Stipa tenuissima, Stipa eriostachya, Stipa ambigua, Stipa brachychaeta, Pappophorum subbulbosum, Digitaria californica, Bothriochloa edwardsiana and Aristida subulata. For each species, phytoliths present in the leaf blades were classified into 47 morphotypes, and their relative frequency determined by observing 300-400 phytoliths per sample (n = 5). Data were analyzed by complete linkage cluster analysis, using the Morisita Index as measure of association. The results showed differentiation among phytolith assemblages at species level or at plant functional type level. Cluster analysis separated C3 from C4 species and palatable from non-palatable species. This study highlights the possibility of reconstructing past vegetation in central Argentina grasslands through the analysis of soil phytolith assemblages.

  17. Simulated coal spill causes mortality and growth inhibition in tropical marine organisms (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L. E.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.


    Coal is a principal fossil fuel driving economic and social development, and increases in global coal shipments have paralleled expansion of the industry. To identify the potential harm associated with chronic marine coal contamination, three taxa abundant in tropical marine ecosystems (the coral Acropora tenuis, the reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus and the seagrass Halodule uninervis) were exposed to five concentrations (0–275 mg coal l‑1) of suspended coal dust (cause considerable lethal effects on corals, and reductions in seagrass and fish growth rates. Coral survivorship and seagrass growth rates were inversely related to increasing coal concentrations (≥38 mg coal l‑1) and effects increased between 14 and 28 d, whereas fish growth rates were similarly depressed at all coal concentrations tested. This investigation provides novel insights into direct coal impacts on key tropical taxa for application in the assessment of risks posed by increasing coal shipments in globally threatened marine ecosystems.

  18. Distribution, abundance and biomass of Chaetognaths off São Sebastião region, Brazil in February 1994

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    Tsui-Hua Liang


    Full Text Available The distribution, abundance, biomass, population structure and feeding habits of chaetognaths collected off São Sebastião region, Brazil, in February 1994 are described. Bongo nets were hauled obliquely to collect zooplankton samples. Forty-three samples obtained with the 333 urn mesh were analysed. In this study, 7 chaetognath species belonging to two genera were identified. Sagitta friderici, S. tenuis and S. bipunctata were grouped into the neritic category, and Sagitta enflata, S. hispida, S. minima and Krohnita pacifica into the semi-neritic group. The analysis of the community structure distinguished 3 zones: 1 a nearshore zone evidenced by low richness; 2 an offshore zone evidenced by higher number of species and 3 another offshore zone, located south and south-westward of São Sebastião Island, characterised by higher richness but with dominance of one species. The nearshore zone was dominated by the neritic species S. friderici and S. tenuis, whereas the offshore zone was dominated by S. enflata. Abundance and biomass increase from nearshore toward offshore zones by about two orders of magnitude. Gut content analysis revealed over 90% of empty guts. The chaetognath population was composed mainly of juveniles. The diets among the different chaetognath species was very similar, composed mostly of small copepods and appendicularians.No presente trabalho foram estudados a distribuição, abundância, biomassa, estrutura da população e hábito alimentar dos quetógnatos coletados na região de São Sebastião, Brasil, em fevereiro de 1994. As 43 amostras de zooplâncton utilizadas na elaboração deste trabalho foram obtidas através de arrastos oblíquos usando uma rede Bongô (333 um, providas de fluxômetro. Foram identificadas sete espécies de Chaetognatha pertencentes a dois gêneros. Sagitta friderici, S. tenuis e S. bipunctata foram agrupadas como espécies neríticas, enquanto que Sagitta enflata, S. hispida, S. minima e

  19. Leaf growth dynamics in four plant species of the Patagonian Monte, Argentina. (United States)

    Campanella, M Victoria; Bertiller, Mónica B


    Studying plant responses to environmental variables is an elemental key to understand the functioning of arid ecosystems. We selected four dominant species of the two main life forms. The species selected were two evergreen shrubs: Larrea divaricata and Chuquiraga avellanedae and two perennial grasses: Nassella tenuis and Pappostipa speciosa. We registered leaf/shoot growth, leaf production and environmental variables (precipitation, air temperature, and volumetric soil water content at two depths) during summer-autumn and winter-spring periods. Multiple regressions were used to test the predictive power of the environmental variables. During the summer-autumn period, the strongest predictors of leaf/shoot growth and leaf production were the soil water content of the upper layer and air temperature while during the winter-spring period, the strongest predictor was air temperature. In conclusion, we found that the leaf/shoot growth and leaf production were associated with current environmental conditions, specially to soil water content and air temperature.

  20. Larval taxonomy of Macrothemis Hagen, 1868 (Odonata: Libellulidae), with descriptions of four larvae and a key to the fourteen known species. (United States)

    Salgado, Luiz Gustavo Vargas; Carvalho, Alcimar Do Lago; Pinto, Ângelo Parise


    The ultimate larval stadia of Macrothemis declivata, M. hemichlora, M. imitans imitans and M. tenuis are described and illustrated for the first time, based on material from Brazil. Six of the most used keys to larvae of libellulid genera of the New World are evaluated with respect to the correct identification of the 27 known larvae of Macrothemis, Brechmorhoga, Gynothemis and Scapanea. Macrothemis species were wrongly identified in more than 50% of the trials, being keyed as Brechmorhoga, Gynothemis and even Dythemis. The genus Macrothemis and its relatives need to be revaluated and adequately diagnosed based on larvae. A key to the 14 known larvae of species currently included in Macrothemis is presented.

  1. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (June 2012

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    Full Text Available The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori(Fish:Turkey, Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain, Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coastof Greece, Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta: Turkey, Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island,and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece, Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos,Greece, Oxynotus centrina (Fish: Greece, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Chlorophyta , Stypopodium schimperi(Phaeophyta Siganus luridus and Stephanolepis diaspros (Fish Percnon gibbesi (Decapoda, Brachyura (Kyklades Archipelago,Greece, Cerithium scabridum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia: Anavissos: Greece and Cerithium renovatum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia:N. Κriti, Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusa: Rhodos Island, Greece, Abra tenuis (Mollusca Bivalvia: VouliagmeniLake, Greece Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Fish: Calabrian coast, Italy and Plocamopherus ocellatus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia:İskenderun Bay, Turkey.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Extraction Methods for the Recovery of Anguina sp. from Grass Seed Samples. (United States)

    Griesbach, J A; Chitambar, J J; Hamerlynck, M J; Duarte, E O


    Four procedures were compared in their efficacy to extract juveniles of Anguina agrostis from commercial grass seed. The procedures included those currently used by the state regulatory laboratories of Oregon and California, as well as new tests developed to determine juvenile viability for the phytosanitary certification of fumigated grass seed. Eleven seed lots of Agrostis tenuis (bentgrass) and Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass) naturally infested with varying levels of juveniles of Anguina were individually analyzed. Only one procedure, a new live recovery test, yielded nematodes in all 11 samples and is recommended as the best method for use by regulatory agencies. In comparison, although the other three extraction procedures resulted in greater numbers of Anguina agrostis juveniles per gram of seed, they failed to yield any nematodes in as many as four seed lots with low infection levels.

  3. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 4-acylaminobenzenethiosulfoacid S-esters

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    Vira Lubenets


    Full Text Available A series of esters of 4-acetyl, 4-trifluoroacetyl- and 4-(3-chloropropionylaminobenzenethiosulfoacids (twenty-four compounds were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR and IR spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity of the novel candidates has been screened using the agar diffusion or serial dilution methods against representative Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mesentericus, Mycobacterium sp., Mycobacterium luteum, Gram-negative (Aeromonas sp., Burkholderia cepacia, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris bacteria and fungi (Candida albicans, Candida tenuis, Candida glabrata, Verticillium dahliae, Trichophyton gypseum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum. Particular potency has been discovered against all tested pathogenic bacteria and fungi by compounds 1l and 3l at nanomolar concentrations. Some appropriate effect of thiosulfoesters structure upon their antimicrobial activity was determined.

  4. Age of the Kalana Lagerstätte, early Silurian, Estonia

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    Peep Männik


    Full Text Available The Kalana quarry in central Estonia is known for its exceptionally well-preserved non-calcified algal and other fossils. The interval with the fossil Konservat Lagerstätte in the Kalana section has previously been tentatively dated as early Aeronian. Recent findings of graptolites now enable more precise dating of these beds. The strata yielding the Lagerstätte are not older than the mid-Aeronian and correspond to the Pribylograptus leptotheca graptolite Biozone. In terms of conodont biostratigraphy they correlate with the middle of the Pranognathus tenuis conodont Biozone. It has also become evident that the uppermost Jõgeva Beds of the Nurmekund Formation, and probably also the uppermost Ikla Member of the Saarde Formation, are younger than previously thought and correlate with the Pribylograptus leptotheca graptolite Biozone. Our data additionally indicate that the conodont genus Aulacognathus had appeared by the mid-Aeronian.

  5. Effects of nematicides on nematode densities in turf in Connecticut. (United States)

    Miller, P M


    The plant-parasitic nematodes Criconemoides lobatum, Hoplolaimus tylenchiformis, and Tylenchorhynchus dubius were present in the top 7.5 cm of sod consisting of numerous stolons and fibrous roots. Phenamiphos and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) controlled all three species, whereas ethoprop and oxamyl controlled H. tylenchiformis and T. dubius but not C. lobatum. Benomyl and carbofuran controlled H. tylenchiformis but had poor control of C. lobatum and T. dubius. The effectiveness of carbofuran varied with the type of formulation, being most effective as a quick-release formulation. C. lobatum was the most difficult to control with chemicals. No chemical treatment improved the growth of 'Astoria colonial' bentgrass (A. tenuis Sibth.) or Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) under the moist condtions prevalent in these tests.

  6. Effect of the incubation of the phosphorus with the soil on growth and vesicular arbuscular micorrhizal infection in Lotus glaber and L. corniculatus



    Se investigó el efecto de la incubación de distintas dosis de fósforo (P) con un suelo Natraquol Típico, sobre el crecimiento y la absorción de P en Lotus glaber Mill. (syn. L. tenuis Waldst et. Kit.). y Lotus. corniculatus L., y su relación con la infección de micorrizas vesiculo-arbusculares (VAM). Un primer grupo de muestras de suelo fue fertilizado con KH2PO4 (0-400 µgP/g suelo) y luego incubado a 30 °C durante 34 días. El segundo grupo (control) se incubó en las mismas condiciones, pero ...

  7. Correlates of helminth community in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa L.) in Spain. (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J; Estrada, A; Telletxea, I


    Between 1992 and 1996, 587 wild red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) from 16 Spanish provinces were examined to study the variations of helminth communities in this game species across a broad geographical area. The survey revealed 13 species of helminth parasites. Dicrocoelium sp.. Rhabdometra nigropunctata, and Cheilospirura gruweli were the most common species, whereas Raillietina bolivari, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Tetrameres sp., and Capillaria anatis were the most rare. Subulura suctoria, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis tenuicaudata, Capillaria contorta, Trichostrongylus tenuis, and Raillietina tetragona occurred with intermediate frequencies. The abundance of C. gruweli, S. suctoria, H. tenuicaudata, T. tenuis, and R. tetragona was inversely correlated to latitude and directly correlated to yearly mean temperature, whereas the abundance of Dicrocoelium sp. was directly correlated to latitude and inversely correlated to yearly mean temperature. The abundance of R. tetragona was inversely correlated to latitude and yearly mean humidity. The number of helminths per partridge and the number of helminth species per partridge were lower in young birds than in adults. Partridge body condition was inversely correlated to abundance of C. contorta. Richer infracommunities were linked to richer component communities. At the infracommunity level, total number of helminths per partridge and number of helminth species per partridge were inversely correlated to latitude and directly correlated to yearly mean temperature. At the component community level, both species richness and diversity (Simpson's index) were inversely correlated to latitude and directly correlated to mean temperature. Across the broad geographical range of the study area, the helminth parasite communities of red-legged partridges had marked geographical variation in their structure. Our results suggest that this variation is determined by the distribution of both intermediate and definitive hosts

  8. Flooding tolerance of forage legumes. (United States)

    Striker, Gustavo G; Colmer, Timothy D


    We review waterlogging and submergence tolerances of forage (pasture) legumes. Growth reductions from waterlogging in perennial species ranged from >50% for Medicago sativa and Trifolium pratense to Lotus corniculatus, L. tenuis, and T. fragiferum For annual species, waterlogging reduced Medicago truncatula by ~50%, whereas Melilotus siculus and T. michelianum were not reduced. Tolerant species have higher root porosity (gas-filled volume in tissues) owing to aerenchyma formation. Plant dry mass (waterlogged relative to control) had a positive (hyperbolic) relationship to root porosity across eight species. Metabolism in hypoxic roots was influenced by internal aeration. Sugars accumulate in M. sativa due to growth inhibition from limited respiration and low energy in roots of low porosity (i.e. 4.5%). In contrast, L. corniculatus, with higher root porosity (i.e. 17.2%) and O2 supply allowing respiration, maintained growth better and sugars did not accumulate. Tolerant legumes form nodules, and internal O2 diffusion along roots can sustain metabolism, including N2 fixation, in submerged nodules. Shoot physiology depends on species tolerance. In M. sativa, photosynthesis soon declines and in the longer term (>10 d) leaves suffer chlorophyll degradation, damage, and N, P, and K deficiencies. In tolerant L corniculatus and L. tenuis, photosynthesis is maintained longer, shoot N is less affected, and shoot P can even increase during waterlogging. Species also differ in tolerance of partial and complete shoot submergence. Gaps in knowledge include anoxia tolerance of roots, N2 fixation during field waterlogging, and identification of traits conferring the ability to recover after water subsides.

  9. 维吾尔语浊塞音的声学特征分析%Acoustic feature analysis of the plosives in the Uyghur language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾斯卡尔·艾木都拉; 赛尔达尔·雅力坤; 祖丽皮亚·阿曼; 地里木拉提·吐尔逊


    This paper presents a statistical analysis of voiced plosives such as b,d,g that occur in 466 Uyghur single-syllable or multi-syllable words in the "Uyghur language acoustical database".The results describe the acoustical features such as the formants,sound intensity,duration,voice onset time (VOT) and the GAP (silence segment) distribution model.The acoustic phonetics are compared to identify the devoiced parametric features of the plosives and the tenuis consonants.The real speech data shows that the plosives have features of tenuis consonants devoiced.The critical acoustical parameters are identified that differentiate the plosives.%该文从实验语音学的角度出发,利用“维吾尔语语音声学参数库”,选择其中包含浊塞音b、d、g的466个单音节及多音节词,对其声学参数进行统计分析,归纳了其共振峰、音强、时长、嗓音起始时间和无声段的分布模式.根据语音学的规律对各浊塞音的声学特点进行了深入研究,通过分别对浊塞音发生清化和保持原来浊特点时的特征参数同其对立清塞音相应的特征参数进行对比,探讨了浊塞音的清化现象.该文用实验数据证明了浊塞音清化时会表现出清塞音特征,并获得了区分浊塞音的诸多声学参数.

  10. Use of submerged aquatic vegetation as habitat by young-of-the-year epibenthic fishes in shallow Maine nearshore waters (United States)

    Lazzari, M. A.; Stone, B. Z.


    Epibenthic fishes were collected with daytime beam trawl tows ( n = 1713) in three shallow (marina (eelgrass), Laminaria longicruris (kelp), Phyllophora sp. (algae), and unvegetated sandy/mud areas. We divided the Maine coast into three broad zones based upon geological features and sampled over five consecutive years; during April-November 2000 in the mid coast, in 2001 and 2002 along the south coast and in 2003 and 2004 along the eastern Maine coast. We quantified habitat use by eight economically important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Microgadus tomcod, Pollachius virens, Urophycis chuss, Urophycis tenuis, Osmerus mordax, Tautogolabrus adspersus, and Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and 10 other common epibenthic species ( n = 18 571). We identified the physical and biological variables most important in discriminating between habitats with and without individual fish species. Logistic regression models based on nearshore habitat characteristics were developed to predict the distribution of these species along the three zones representing broad geological regions of the Maine coast. Logistic regression models correctly classified individual fish species 58.7-97.1% of the time based on the temporal and physical habitat variables (month, temperature, salinity, and depth) and the presence-absence of submerged aquatic vegetation ( Zostera, Laminaria, or Phyllophora). Overall fish presence and economically important fish presence were correctly classified 61.1-79.8% and 66.0-73.6% of the time, respectively. The Maine shallow water fish community was composed primarily of young-of-the-year and juvenile fishes with all habitats functioning as facultative nursery areas. Presence of most fish species was positively associated with Zostera, Laminaria, and to a lesser extent, Phyllophora. This study provides direct evidence of shallow waters of the Gulf of Maine as critical facultative nursery habitat for juvenile G. morhua, M. tomcod, P. virens, U. tenuis, U. chuss, T

  11. Impact of light and temperature on the uptake of algal symbionts by coral juveniles. (United States)

    Abrego, David; Willis, Bette L; van Oppen, Madeleine J H


    The effects of temperature and light on the breakdown of the coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis are well documented but current understanding of their roles during initial uptake and establishment of symbiosis is limited. In this study, we investigate how temperature and light affect the uptake of the algal symbionts, ITS1 types C1 and D, by juveniles of the broadcast-spawning corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora. Elevated temperatures had a strong negative effect on Symbiodinium uptake in both coral species, with corals at 31 °C showing as little as 8% uptake compared to 87% at 28 °C. Juveniles in high light treatments (390 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) had lower cell counts across all temperatures, emphasizing the importance of the light environment during the initial uptake phase. The proportions of the two Symbiodinium types taken up, as quantified by a real time PCR assay using clade C- and D-specific primers, were also influenced by temperature, although variation in uptake dynamics between the two coral species indicates a host effect. At 28 °C, A. tenuis juveniles were dominated by C1 Symbiodinium, and while the number of D Symbiodinium cells increased at 31 °C, they never exceeded the number of C1 cells. In contrast, juveniles of A. millepora had approximately equal numbers of C1 and D cells at 28 °C, but were dominated by D at 30 °C and 31 °C. This study highlights the significant role that environmental factors play in the establishment of coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis and provides insights into how potentially competing Symbiodinium types take up residence in coral juveniles.

  12. Polyphosphate Kinase from Activated Sludge Performing Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal† (United States)

    McMahon, Katherine D.; Dojka, Michael A.; Pace, Norman R.; Jenkins, David; Keasling, Jay D.


    A novel polyphosphate kinase (PPK) was retrieved from an uncultivated organism in activated sludge carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Acetate-fed laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors were used to maintain sludge with a high phosphorus content (approximately 11% of the biomass). PCR-based clone libraries of small subunit rRNA genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to verify that the sludge was enriched in Rhodocyclus-like β-Proteobacteria known to be associated with sludges carrying out EBPR. These organisms comprised approximately 80% of total bacteria in the sludge, as assessed by FISH. Degenerate PCR primers were designed to retrieve fragments of putative ppk genes from a pure culture of Rhodocyclus tenuis and from organisms in the sludge. Four novel ppk homologs were found in the sludge, and two of these (types I and II) shared a high degree of amino acid similarity with R. tenuis PPK (86 and 87% similarity, respectively). Dot blot analysis of total RNA extracted from sludge demonstrated that the Type I ppk mRNA was present, indicating that this gene is expressed during EBPR. Inverse PCR was used to obtain the full Type I sequence from sludge DNA, and a full-length PPK was cloned, overexpressed, and purified to near homogeneity. The purified PPK has a specific activity comparable to that of other PPKs, has a requirement for Mg2+, and does not appear to operate in reverse. PPK activity was found mainly in the particulate fraction of lysed sludge microorganisms. PMID:12324346

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among the Caribbean members of the Cliona viridis complex (Porifera, Demospongiae, Hadromerida) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. (United States)

    Escobar, Dairo; Zea, Sven; Sánchez, Juan A


    Species complexes - groups of closely related species in which intraspecific and interspecific variability overlap - have generated considerable interest and study. Frequently, members of a species complex do not have complete reproductive isolation; therefore, the complex may go through extensive gene flow. In the Caribbean Sea, some encrusting and excavating sponges of the genus Cliona (Porifera, Hadromerida, Clionaidae) are grouped within the great "Cliona viridis" complex because of their morphological similarities. This study examined the evolutionary relationships of the Caribbean members of this complex (C. caribbaea, C. tenuis, C. aprica and C. varians) and related taxa based on nuclear (ITS1 and ITS2) and mitochondrial (3' end of ND6) DNA sequences. The intragenomic ITS variation and its secondary structures were evaluated using a mixed approach of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), DNA sequencing and secondary structure prediction. Considerable intragenomic variation was found in all the species, with apparently functional ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structures. Despite the subtle but clear morphological differentiation in these excavating sponges, the intragenomic copies of C. caribbaea, C. tenuis and C. aprica had a polyphyletic placement in the ITS1 and ITS2 genealogies and very low divergence. Therefore, it is clear that these species constitute a species complex (herein called Ct-complex). Genetic distances within the Ct-complex revealed that an important part of the interspecific variation overlapped with intraspecific variation, suggesting either incomplete lineage sorting or extensive gene flow. In contrast, C. varians and an unidentified "Pione" species emerged as monophyletic clades, being the closest sister groups to the Ct-complex. Additionally, our results support that C. laticavicola and C. delitrix conform a monophyletic group, but absence of reciprocal monophyly in these species suggests they may be life stages or ecophenotypes of

  14. Allometric analysis of the induced flavonols on the leaf surface of wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata). (United States)

    Roda, Amy L; Oldham, Neil J; Svatos, Ales; Baldwin, Ian T


    Trichomes excrete secondary metabolites that may alter the chemical composition of the leaf surface, reducing damage caused by herbivores, pathogens and abiotic stresses. We examined the surface exudates produced by Nicotiana attenuata Torr. Ex Wats., a plant known to contain and secrete a number of secondary metabolites that are toxic or a deterrent to herbivorous insects. Extractions specific to the leaf surface, the trichomes, and the laminar components demonstrated the localization of particular compounds. Diterpene glycosides occurred exclusively in leaf mesophyll, whereas nicotine was found in both the trichomes and mesophyll. Neither rutin nor nicotine was found on the leaf surface. Quercetin and 7 methylated derivatives were found in the glandular trichomes and appeared to be excreted onto the leaf surface. We examined the elicitation of these flavonols on the leaf surface with a surface-area allometric analysis, which measures changes in metabolites independent of the effects of leaf expansion. The flavonols responded differently to wounding, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), herbivore attack and UV-C radiation, and the response patterns corresponded to their compound-specific allometries. Finding greater amounts of quercetin on younger leaves and reduced amounts after herbivore feeding and MeJA treatment, we hypothesized that quercetin may function as an attractant, helping the insects locate a preferred feeding site. Consistent with this hypothesis, mirids (Tupiocoris notatus) were found more often on mature leaves sprayed with quercetin at a concentration typical of young leaves than on unsupplemented mature leaves. The composition of metabolites on the leaf surface of N. attenuata changes throughout leaf development and in response to herbivore attack or environmental stress, and these changes are mediated in part by responses of the glandular trichomes.

  15. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae). (United States)

    Zhu, Pingyang; Lu, Zhongxian; Heong, Kongluen; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Xusong; Xu, Hongxing; Yang, Yajun; Nicol, Helen I; Gurr, Geoff M


    Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae), and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae) compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.

  16. Qualitative and Quantitative Differences in Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile Blends from Tomato Plants Infested by Either Tuta absoluta or Bemisia tabaci. (United States)

    Silva, Diego B; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Van Loon, Joop J A; Bueno, Vanda H P


    Plants release a variety of volatile organic compounds that play multiple roles in the interactions with other plants and animals. Natural enemies of plant-feeding insects use these volatiles as cues to find their prey or host. Here, we report differences between the volatile blends of tomato plants infested with the whitefly Bemisia tabaci or the tomato borer Tuta absoluta. We compared the volatile emission of: (1) clean tomato plants; (2) tomato plants infested with T. absoluta larvae; and (3) tomato plants infested with B. tabaci adults, nymphs, and eggs. A total of 80 volatiles were recorded of which 10 occurred consistently only in the headspace of T. absoluta-infested plants. Many of the compounds detected in the headspace of the two herbivory treatments were emitted at different rates. Plants damaged by T. absoluta emitted at least 10 times higher levels of many compounds compared to plants damaged by B. tabaci and intact plants. The multivariate separation of T. absoluta-infested plants from those infested with B. tabaci was due largely to the chorismate-derived compounds as well as volatile metabolites of C18-fatty acids and branched chain amino acids that had higher emission rates from T. absoluta-infested plants, whereas the cyclic sesquiterpenes α- and β-copaene, valencene, and aristolochene were emitted at significantly higher levels from B. tabaci-infested plants. Our findings imply that feeding by T. absoluta and B. tabaci induced emission of volatile blends that differ quantitatively and qualitatively, providing a chemical basis for the recently documented behavioral discrimination by two generalist predatory mirid species, natural enemies of T. absoluta and B. tabaci employed in biological control.

  17. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiling of Odorant-Binding Proteins in Apolygus lucorum.

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    Hai-Bin Yuan

    Full Text Available Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae is one of the most important agricultural pests, with broad host range and cryptic feeding habits in China. Chemosensory behavior plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of A. lucorum, such as the detection of sex pheromone cues during mate pursuit and fragrant odorants during flowering host plant localization. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs are involved in the initial biochemical recognition steps in semiochemical perception. In the present study, a transcriptomics-based approach was used to identify potential OBPs in A. lucorum. In total, 38 putative OBP genes were identified, corresponding to 26 'classic' OBPs and 12 'Plus-C' OBPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. lucorum OBP proteins are more closely related to the OBP proteins of other mirid bugs as the same family OBP clustering together. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis for the first reported 23 AlucOBPs revealed that the expression level of 11 AlucOBP genes were significantly higher in antennae of both sexes than in other tissues. Three of them were male antennae-biased and six were female antennae-biased, suggesting their putative roles in the detection of female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. In addition, three, four, two and one AlucOBPs had the highest degree of enrichment in the stylet, head, leg, and in abdomen tissues, respectively. Two other OBPs were ubiquitously expressed in the main tissues, including antennae, stylets, heads, legs and wings. Most orthologs had similar expression patterns, strongly indicating that these genes have the same function in olfaction and gustation.

  18. Identification of the key weather factors affecting overwintering success of Apolygus lucorum eggs in dead host tree branches. (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas


    Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba). Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking) was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches), very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009-2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in summer.

  19. Shade tree diversity, cocoa pest damage, yield compensating inputs and farmers' net returns in West Africa.

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    Hervé Bertin Bisseleua Daghela

    Full Text Available Cocoa agroforests can significantly support biodiversity, yet intensification of farming practices is degrading agroforestry habitats and compromising ecosystem services such as biological pest control. Effective conservation strategies depend on the type of relationship between agricultural matrix, biodiversity and ecosystem services, but to date the shape of this relationship is unknown. We linked shade index calculated from eight vegetation variables, with insect pests and beneficial insects (ants, wasps and spiders in 20 cocoa agroforests differing in woody and herbaceous vegetation diversity. We measured herbivory and predatory rates, and quantified resulting increases in cocoa yield and net returns. We found that number of spider webs and wasp nests significantly decreased with increasing density of exotic shade tree species. Greater species richness of native shade tree species was associated with a higher number of wasp nests and spider webs while species richness of understory plants did not have a strong impact on these beneficial species. Species richness of ants, wasp nests and spider webs peaked at higher levels of plant species richness. The number of herbivore species (mirid bugs and cocoa pod borers and the rate of herbivory on cocoa pods decreased with increasing shade index. Shade index was negatively related to yield, with yield significantly higher at shade and herb covers<50%. However, higher inputs in the cocoa farms do not necessarily result in a higher net return. In conclusion, our study shows the importance of a diverse shade canopy in reducing damage caused by cocoa pests. It also highlights the importance of conservation initiatives in tropical agroforestry landscapes.

  20. Existence of entomopathogen fungi, Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte in cacao seedlings

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    Endang Sulistyowati


    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is one of the entomopathogen fungi which is known as biological control agent of cocoa pod borer and cocoa mirids (Helopeltis spp.. Because of its effectiveness in the fields is still not consistent, so we conduct a research with the objective to know the possibility of Beauveria bassiana to be established as a endophyte. Various fungal entomopathogens have already been reported as endophytes and the various methods used to inoculate the plants with B. bassiana were partially effective. The research has been conducted in laboratory of Plant Protection, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute by inoculating of cocoa seeds and cocoa nursery with B. bassiana suspension.  The trial was arranged  by randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement. The factor were spore concentration of B. bassiana (0; 2; and 4 g/ 10 l and cocoa varieties (family of ICS 60, TSH858, and hybrid. The trial were use  four replications. The results showed that the fungal entomopathogen B. bassiana was established as an endophyte in cocoa seedling, both from cocoa seeds and nursery application. Percentage of existence of B. bassiana colonies as endophytes one month after seeds application were ICS 60 amounted to 93.3 % both on concentration treatments, while the families of TSH 858 by 80 % and 86.67 % respectively in 2 g and 4 g per 10 l of B. bassiana spores concentration treament.. The lowest percentage was in hybrids, which amounted to 66.67% and 50%. B. bassiana colonies was exixtence as an endophyte in culture from root, stem and leaves of cocoa seedling up to 5 months post inoculation. While the application on nursery by soil drenshing, leaf spraying, and stem injection , it was known that B. bassiana colonies were found in the tissues of leaves, stems, and roots until two months after application. Colonies of B. bassiana as endophytes still exsist until six weeks after nursery was planted in the field. 

  1. Préférences alimentaires de Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae vis-à-vis de quelques clones de cacaoyers (Theobroma cacao L.

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    Amang, J.


    Full Text Available Feeding Preferences of Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae to some Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones. The selection of cocoa clones, resistant to Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. was done in the laboratory according to the standardized method of indoor microtests based on the study of mirid feeding preferences. Fourteen cocoa clones were involved. The Sca6 clone was the control. An index (i which expresses the ratio of the number of stings on the clone to that obtained on the control was calculated for each cultivar. Which has enabled to quantify the levels of attractiveness of cocoa clones to S. singularis and to classify these clones in three groups: less attractive clones (i< 1, non different (i= 1 and more attractive (i> 1. The results obtained showed that the mean numbers of feeding stings on the control (tr ranged from 5.49 to 5.62 (5.49≤ tr≤ 5.62 and that obtained on the other clones (tc from 5.29 to 6.18 (5.29≤ tc ≤ 6.18. The Na33 clone had the highest stings mean number (6.18 and IFC 100 the lowest one (5.29. The High Amazonian clone Na33 was the most attractive and the clones ICS100, IFC100, (exotic trinitario, Sca12 (catongo and Na32 (High Amazonian were less attractive. On the other hand the clones IFC1363, IFC1362, IFC1374 (catongo, UPA337, T60/887, ICS1 and IMC60 (High Amazonians and ICS95 (exotic trinitario were non different. The reactivity seemed not depending on the origin of the clone. Save the High Amazonian clone Na33 which was the most attractive there were among non different and less attractive clones as well exotic trinitario, catongo as High Amazonians.

  2. Bioactivity effect of two macrophyte extracts on growth performance of two bloom-forming cyanophytes

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    M.G. Ghobrial


    Full Text Available Allelopathy is a biological phenomenon by which an organism produces one or more biochemicals that influence the growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals and can have beneficial (positive allelopathy or detrimental (negative allelopathy effects on the target organisms. The current research aims at using selected brackish water adapted submerged aquatic macrophytes allelopathy to combat bloom-forming cyanophytes, in laboratory bioassay experiments. Dry matters of macrophytes were extracted in solvents and the initial cyanophytes inoculum, derived from unialgal culture media, was used. Therefore, aqueous extracts with 50% and 100% acetone and ethanol solvents of two freshwater macrophytes; Potamogeton pectinatus and Ceratophyllum demersum were used to test their growth performance exhibited on two bloom-forming cyanophytes, Microcystis aeruginosa and Oscillatoria tenuis. The results revealed insignificant difference between the overall total average growth performance at treatment with 50% and 100% Ceratophyllum acetone extracts expressed by optical density (OD as well as chlorophyll a (chl a. Results showed, also, stimulation of M. aeruginosa growth. The highest growth increase in 100 μl/100 ml treatment with 50% acetone extract had a percentage rate (R of 94.66. On the contrary, treatment with ethanol extract recorded the highest inhibitory effect, thus in 1.5 μl/100 ml treatment with 50% Ceratophyllum ethanol extract R recorded −87.54, sustaining LC50 value of 1.12 μl/100 ml. The highest stimulating effect in 105 μl/100 ml treatment with 50% Ceratophyllum acetone extracts against O. tenuis was; R, 169.4. The highest inhibition in 1500 μl/100 ml treatment with 50% Ceratophyllum ethanol extracts against O. tenuis was; R −74.32, with LC50 0.830 μl/100 ml. While, the highest inhibition by 50% and 100% Potamogeton acetone or ethanol extracts against M. aeruginosa was

  3. Seasonal and vertical distribution of medusae in Aysén region, southern Chile Distribución estacional y vertical de medusas en la región de Aysén, sur de Chile

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    Viviana Bravo


    Full Text Available Medusae collected in winter and spring 2007 were analyzed in a longitudinal transect made between the Boca de Guafo and Elefantes Fjord, southern Chile. A total of 30 species were identified, Hydromedusae (29 and Scyphozoa (1, where Bougainvillia macloviana, Hybocodon chilensis, Hydractinia tenuis, Laodicea pulcra, L. undulada, Modeeria rotunda and Chrysaora plocamia represent new records for the area. A significant increase in the jellyfish abundance was higher in spring than in winter (fourteen times higher, with 68% of common species in both seasons. The specific diversity was slightly higher in winter (3.4 bits than spring (3.2 bits, the species richness instead was higher in spring than in winter, with a mean of 5 and 12 species, respectively. The vertical distribution showed the presence of surface (H. borealis, deep (A. apicata, C. peregrina and R. velatum and wide bathymetric distribution (B. muscoides and B. muscus species. Results from the area were compared with previous results (2002-2003 thus proving that most species identified are common in southern Chilean fjords and channels.Se analizaron las medusas colectadas en invierno y primavera de 2007, en una transecta longitudinal efectuada entre la boca del Guafo y fiordo Elefantes, sur de Chile. Se identificó un total de 30 especies, Hydromedusae (29 y Scyphozoa (1, de las cuales Bougainvillia macloviana, Hybocodon chilensis, Hydractinia tenuis, Laodicea pulcra, L. undulada, Modeeria rotunda y Chrysaora plocamia constituyen nuevos registros para esta área. Se determinó un fuerte incremento en la abundancia de medusas en primavera respecto a invierno y (14 veces mayor, con un 68% de especies comunes en ambas estaciones. La diversidad específica fue levemente mayor en invierno (3.4 bits que primavera (3.2 bits, en cambio la riqueza de especies fue mayor en primavera que en invierno, con una media de 5 y 12 especies, respectivamente. La distribución vertical mostró en ambas

  4. Variation of proanthocyanidins in Lotus species. (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Rumball, William; Lane, Geoff A; Fraser, Karl; Foo, Lai Y; Yu, Min; Meagher, Lucy P


    The proanthocyanidin (PA) chemistry of 12 Lotus species of previously unknown PA content was examined in comparison with agricultural cultivars of L. pedunculatus, L. corniculatus, and L. tenuis and a "creeping" selection of L. corniculatus. Herbage harvested in winter 2000 and again in spring had extractable PA concentrations, estimations of which varied between 0.2 and 10.9% of dry matter. The four novel Lotus spp. with the highest concentrations were selected for further evaluation together with the agricultural accessions. PA concentrations in herbage were estimated for individual plants harvested in spring 2001 and bulk samples harvested in summer 2002-2003. PA oligomer and polymer fractions were separated by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography from aqueous acetone PA extracts of herbage. The chemical characteristics of the fractions were examined by acid catalyzed degradation with benzyl mercaptan, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrospray ionization (ESI), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). A wide variation was found in the chemical composition, mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and polydispersity of PAs from Lotus spp. Fractions from L. americanus, L. corniculatus "creeping selection," and L. pedunculatus consisted predominantly of prodelphinidin (PD) units, whereas PA from L. angustissimus and L. corniculatus consisted predominantly of procyanidin (PC) units. An approximately equal composition in terms of PC and PD units was found in L. parviflorus and L. suaveolens. In L. angustissimus, epicatechin is dominant in both extender and terminal units. In all Lotus PA fractions, the 2,3-cis isomers (epicatechin or epigallocatechin) predominated. Only trace amounts of PA were extracted from L. tenuis. The mDP of the PA fractions ranged from 8 to 97, with high mDP found only for L. pedunculatus and L. americanus. In the ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS of the L. angustissimus PA fraction, ions

  5. Contributions to the study of Chinese Araliaceae: New species and synonyms in Brassaiopsis and Schefflera%中国五加科植物的分类学研究: 罗伞属和鹅掌柴属的新种和新异名

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Porter P.LOWRY II; 向其柏


    Two new species of Araliaceae from China are described based on material examined while preparing a treatment of the family for the Flora of China. Brassaiopsis pseudoficifolia Lowry & C. B. Shang, primarily found in Yunnan with a single collection known from adjacent Guangxi, most closely resembles B. ficifolia Dunn, but differs in having more numerously lobed leaves, more umbels per inflorescence, and prickles on the inflorescence axes and the stems. Schefflera zhuana Lowry & C. B. Shang, restricted to Mêdog County in southeastern Xizang, resembles S. leucantha R. Vig., but is distinguished by its ovaries with more carpels, an evident calyx forming a rim, a flat to depressed nectar disc, and thin leaf texture. Three previously recognized species (Brassaiopsis gaussenii Bui, Schefflera tenuis H. L. Li, and S. glomerulata H. L. Li) are formally placed in synonymy under currently recognized taxa.%在编写五加科Araliaceae时, 发现两个新种, 即拟榕叶罗伞Brassaiopsis pseudoficifolia Lowry & C. B. Shang和光华鹅掌柴Schefflera zhuana Lowry & C. B. Shang.前者与榕叶罗伞B. ficifolia Dunn很相似, 其区别在于, 叶裂片数目较多, 花序上具较多的伞形花序, 花序轴具刺, 主要分布于云南, 广西偶见.后者与白花鹅掌柴S. leucantha R. Vig.相似, 其区别在于, 子房心皮数目较多, 果时具明显的萼缘, 花盘扁平, 叶质地较薄, 局限分布于西藏墨脱县.同时发现越南产的Brassaiopsis gaussenii Bui和中国产的细序鹅掌柴Schefflera tenuis H. L. Li、球序鹅掌柴S. glomerulata H. L. Li均不能成立, 处理为异名.

  6. Germinação e incidência de fungos em testes com sementes de Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. Germination and fungi incidence in tests with Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. seeds

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    D.C.F.S. Dias


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito da escarifícação com ácido sulfúrico e da aplicação de fungicidas (thiabendazol, captan, thiram e iprodione + thiram nos resultados dos testes de germinação e no desenvolvimento de microrganismos sobre sementes de B. brizantha. Além dos testes de germinação, os quais foram avaliados quanto à incidência de microrganismos aos 10 e 21 dias, conduziram-se testes de sanidade, procurando-se identificar a microflora presente. A análise dos dados e interpretação dos resultados permitiram as seguintes conclusões: a escarificação com o ácido não promoveu acréscimo significativo na germinação, tendo contribuído para a redução do nível de incidência de fungos ao se comparar com a testemunha. Os fungicidas aplicados sobre as sementes escarificadas contribuíram para uma melhor germinação e para a redução na ocorrência de microrganismos, destacando-se a mistura iprodione + thiram. O uso dos fungicidas também facilitou a interpretação dos testes de germinação. Foram encontrados os seguintes fungos: Alternaria tenuis, Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Drechslera sp.p, Epicoccum sp., Fusarium sp., Neurospora monilia, Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus sp., Trichothecium sp. e Trichoconiella padwikii.The present research was carried out to evaluate the effects of sulphuric acid scarification and fungicide (thiabendazol, captan, thiram and iprodione + thiram applications on germination tests of B. brizantha and on mycroflora development associated with those tests. In germination tests mycroflora were identified and evaluated on the 10th and the 21st day; at the same time blotter tests were carried out to study the microflora. Interpretations of the results showed that sulphuric acid scarification did not increase significantly the germination but checked fungi development and showed less efficiency than fungicides. Among these the mixture of

  7. Antifungal Activity of Marine Pseudomonas GY-1 and Purification of the Antifungal Protein%海洋假单胞菌GY-1菌株的抗菌作用及其胞外抗菌蛋白的分离纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芳; 暴增海; 马桂珍; 葛平华; 吴少杰; 付泓润


    In the present study,agar-well diffusion method and Oxford Cup method were used to detect the antimicrobial activities of marine Pseudomonas GY-1 strain.The results showed that GY-1 strain and its fermentation broth had relatively strong inhibition activity against a variety of phytopathogenic fungi,including Bipolaris sorokiniana,Fusarium graminearum,Alternaria solania,Alternaria alternate,Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Alternaria tenuis Nees.Further study had successfully purified a protein from Pseudomonas GY-1 by ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation,DEAE sepharose fast flow ion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-75 filtration chromatography.This protein showed obvious inhibition activity against B.sorokiniana.SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the molecular weight of the protein was about 70.9 kD.%采用对峙培养法和牛津杯法测定海洋假单胞杆菌(Pseudomonas)GY-1菌株和发酵液的抑菌作用。结果表明:GY-1菌株和发酵液对小麦根腐病菌(Bipolaris sorokiniana)、禾谷镰刀病菌(Fusarium graminearum)、菠菜早疫病菌(Alternaria solania)、斑点落叶病菌(Alternaria alternata)、油菜菌核病菌(Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)和小麦叶枯病菌(Alternaria tenuis Nees)等植物病原真菌有较强的抑制作用。发酵液采用硫酸铵分级沉淀、DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow柱层析、Sephadex G-75凝胶层析,以小麦根腐病菌为指示菌进行活性追踪和SDS-PAGE电泳纯度跟踪检测,纯化出一种对小麦根腐病菌具有明显抗菌作用的抗菌蛋白,其分子质量约为70.9kD。

  8. Studies on chaetognaths off Ubatuba region, Brazil: I. distribution and abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tsui Hua


    Full Text Available The distribution of chaetognath species off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State, Brazil, was studied during a program of multidisciplinary research. Ten species belonging to the genera Sagitta, Krohnita and Pterosagitta were identified. S. enflata was the dominant species followed by S.friderici and S. hispida. The species S. enflata, S. hispida, S. tenuis, S. bipunctata and JC pacifica were found in the Shelf water whereas S. serratodentata, S. minima, S. hexaptera and P. draco in the Tropical water. Only S. friderici was found associated to Coastal water. Hydrological conditions affected population structure, size of individuals and abundance.A ocorrência, distribuição, freqüência dos estágios de maturidade e comprimento total do corpo das espécies do filo Chaetognatha foram estudados. As amostras foram obtidas com o auxílio de rede Bongo, nos verões de 1985 - 1987 e invernos de 1986 e 1987, durante o Projeto "Utilização Racional do Ecossistema Costeiro da Região Tropical Brasileira, Estado de São Paulo". Dez espécies foram identificadas, sendo Sagitta enflata, S. friderici e S. hispida as espécies mais abundantes. S. enflata, S. hispida, S. tenuis, S. bipunctata e Krohnita pacifica estão associadas à água de Plataforma enquanto que S. serratodentata, S. hexaptera, S. minima e Pterosagitta draco à água Tropical. Apenas S. friderici mostrou preferência por água Costeira. Diferenças sazonais na estrutura da população, tamanho dos indivíduos, abundância e distribuição estão associados à hidrodinâmica local. Nos verões, os quetognatos apresentaram maior número de estágios maduros nas amostras examinadas, comprimentos maiores e baixa abundância como conseqüência da intrusão da água Central do Atlântico Sul que provocou uma estratificação térmica característica. Em contraposição, nestas amostras, nos invernos, a população é formada por indivíduos de estágios jovens, de comprimentos menores e grande


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Um produto constituido de pó-molhável (PBBS formulado à base de células (60g e de metabólitos (60g de Bacillus subtilis, argila (480g, espalhante (7,92g e água (2400ml, moído e seco, mostrou-se semelhante aos tratamentos com fungicidas recomendados para o controle de Rhizoctonia solani, Aspergillus sp. e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum em sementes de feijão; Pyricularia oryzae e Rhinchosporium sativum em sementes de arroz; e Cercospora kikuchii, Phomopsis phaseoli e Fusarium spp. em sementes de soja. Para Dreschlera oryzae em arroz e Bipolaris sorokiniana, P. oryzae e Alternaria tenuis em sementes de trigo, o tratamento com o PBBS, embora não tenha se igualado ao tratamento com o fungicida padrão, diferiu estatisticamente do tratamento testemunha. A nodulação das raízes de feijão e soja por bactérias simbióticas, fixadoras de nitrogênio, não foi influenciada quando o PBBS foi aplicado simultaneamente ao inoculante contendo Rhyzobium sp. e Bradyrhizobium japonicum, respectivamente. O PBBS também não afetou a emergência das plântulas das culturas testadas.A biological fungicide product containing B. subtilis cells (60 g and metabolites (60g was transformed into a wettable powder formulated with, clay (480 g, surfactant (7,92 g and water (2400 ml.The product showed to be similar to the conventional fungicides used in the control of Rhizoctonia solani, Aspergillus sp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in bean seeds. The control of Pyricularia oryzae and Rhinchosporium sativum in rice seeds and Cercospora kikuchii, Phomopsis phaseoli and Fusarium spp. in soybean seeds was also as efficient as the comercial fungicides. For Dreschlera oryzae in rice seeds and Bipolaris sorokiniana, P. oryzae and Alternaria tenuis in wheat seeds, the treatment with the product, althought not as efficient as the chemical treatment, was statistically distinct from the control. The root nodulation of bean and soybean by nitrogen fixing bacteria, was not affected

  10. On some Palaearctic click beetles deposited in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, 2 (Coleoptera: Elateridae). (United States)

    Németh, T; Platia, G


    One new genus (Roznerathous gen. n.) and 31 new species of Elateridae are described: Athous szalokii sp. n. (Georgia), Agriotes balikesirensis sp. n. (Turkey), Agriotes rozneri sp. n. (Syria), Agriotes sakaryaensis sp. n. (Turkey), Cardiophorus anatolicus sp. n. (Turkey), Cardiophorus aranyos sp. n. (Afghanistan), Cardiophorus burkus sp. n. (Afghanistan), Cardiophorus dicronychoides sp. n. (Afghanistan), Cardiophorus podlussanyi sp. n. (Turkey), Cardiophorus tenuis sp. n. (Armenia), Coptostethus attilai sp. n. (Spain: Canary Isl.), Coptostethus buci sp. n. (Spain: Canary Isl.), Coptostethus kundratai sp. n. (Spain: Canary Isl.), Craspedostethus ferrugineus sp. n. (Iran), Craspedostethus hirticollis sp. n. (Afghanistan), Dicronychus decoroides sp.n. (Iran), Dicronychus diluvii sp. n. (Turkey), Dicronychus fabiani sp. n. (Iran), Dicronychus gurjevae sp. n. (Afghanistan), Dicronychus ilniczkyi sp. n. (Oman), Dicronychus kandaharensis sp. n. (Afghanistan), Dicronychus karolyvigi sp. n. (Iran), Dicronychus podlussanyi sp. n. (Turkey), Dicronychus povolnyi sp. n. (Afghanistan), Dicronychus quadrimaculatus sp. n. (Afghanistan), Glyphonyx occidentalis sp. n. (Afghanistan), Hartenius marocanus sp. n. (Morocco), Hemicrepidius rahmei (Iran) sp. n., Idotarmonides gracilis sp. n. (Turkey), Roznerathous hellenicus sp. n. (Greece), Oedostethus pektusanicus sp. n. (North Korea). Dicronychus marginalis comb. n. and Dicronychus oxypterus comb. n. New distributional data for species of the genera Aeoloides, Agriotes, Ampedus, Cardiohypnus, Cardiophorus, Cidnopus, Craspedostethus, Dicronychus, Drasterius, Haterumelater, Heteroderes, Hypnoidus, Isidus, Limonius, Liotrichus, Melanotus, Pseudocrepidophorus and Zorochros are given. The females of Astanchus ussuriensis (Gurjeva, 1975); Cidnopus macedonicus Cate et Platia, 1989; Peripontius orchymonti Platia, 2008 and the male of Agriotes barkulensis Jagemann, 1942 were unknown at the time of their description, are figured. With 137 figures. 

  11. Calcareous dinoflagellate cysts from the Tithonian - Valanginian Vaca Muerta Formation in the southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina (United States)

    Ivanova, Daria K.; Kietzmann, Diego A.


    The Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous marine sediments of the Andean region show an excellent record of different calcareous microfossils, among which calcareous dinoflagellate cysts stand out. Detailed micropaleontological studies of Vaca Muerta Formation (Early Tithonian - Early Valanginian) in the southern Mendoza Neuquén Basin from three sections are conducted with the aim of establishing a major presence of microfossil representatives from different microfossil groups. The analysis of several thin sections from the outcrops reveals a relatively rich micropaleontological assemblage of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts, as well as levels with poor preserved calpionellids and benthic foraminifera. Particularly, calcareous dinoflagellate cyst includes 24 known species (two of them with two subspecies). Some species with biostratigraphic value of the Tethyan region have been identified also in the Andean region: 1) Committosphaera pulla (Borza) and Parastomiosphaera malmica (Borza) are species known only from Lower Tithonian; 2) Colomisphaera tenuis (Nagy) appears in the latest Early Tithonian; 3) Colomisphaera fortis Řehánek and Stomiosphaerina proxima Řehánek are important markers for the latest Late Tithonian - middle Late Berriasian interval; 4) Stomiosphaera wanneri Borza appears in the middle Late Berriasian; 5) Colomisphaera conferta Řehánek and Colomisphaera vogleri (Borza) appear in the Late Berriasian and marked the Berriasian-Valanginian boundary interval; 6) Carpistomiosphaera valanginiana Borza is a marker for the Lower/Upper Valanginian. More detailed studies of these groups will allow their correlation with Tethyan biozones, and contribute to improve biostratigraphic schemes in the Neuquén Basin.

  12. Molecular Cytogenetics in Digenean Parasites: Linked and Unlinked Major and 5S rDNAs, B Chromosomes and Karyotype Diversification. (United States)

    García-Souto, Daniel; Pasantes, Juan J


    Digenetic trematodes are the largest group of internal metazoan parasites, but their chromosomes are poorly studied. Although chromosome numbers and/or karyotypes are known for about 300 of the 18,000 described species, molecular cytogenetic knowledge is mostly limited to the mapping of telomeric sequences and/or of major rDNA clusters in 9 species. In this work we mapped major and 5S rDNA clusters and telomeric sequences in chromosomes of Bucephalus minimus, B. australis, Prosorhynchoides carvajali (Bucephaloidea), Monascus filiformis (Gymnophalloidea), Parorchis acanthus (Echinostomatoidea), Cryptocotyle lingua (Opisthorchioidea), Cercaria longicaudata, Monorchis parvus (Monorchioidea), Diphterostomum brusinae, and Bacciger bacciger (Microphalloidea). Whilst single major and minor rDNA clusters were mapped to different chromosome pairs in B. minimus and P. acanthus, overlapping signals were detected on a single chromosome pair in the remaining taxa. FISH experiments using major rDNA and telomeric probes clearly demonstrated the presence of highly stretched NORs in most of the digenean taxa analyzed. B chromosomes were detected in the B. bacciger samples hosted by Ruditapes decussatus. Although the cercariae specimens obtained from Donax trunculus, Tellina tenuis, and R. decussatus were in agreement with B. bacciger, their karyotypes showed striking morphological differences in agreement with the proposed assignation of these cercariae to different species of the genus Bacciger. Results are discussed in comparison with previous data on digenean chromosomes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Phytoplankton community and limnology of Chatla floodplain wetland of Barak valley, Assam, North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Laskar H.


    Full Text Available Phytoplankton diversity was investigated over a period of two years (2006 to 2008 in Chatla floodplain wetland in Barak valley, Assam, North-East India. Site 1 and site 2 are two inlets and site 3 is a lentic system associated with vegetation cover of Calamus tenuis and Baringtonia acutangula. The floodplain has a unique hydrology because of the presence of different types of habitats (inlets, fisheries, beels and outlets which maintains a network among the floodplains, rivers and streams. Phytoplankton community composition, density and diversity were studied in relation to environmental variables. All the variables were estimated by following standard methods. Phytoplankton was collected by plankton net and quantitative estimation was made by using Sedgwick Rafter counting cell. Phytoplankton community comprised 53 taxa represented by Chlorophyceae (31, Cyanophyceae (11, Bacillariophyceae (7, Euglenophyceae (1 and Dinophyceae (3. Phytoplankton taxa was dominated by Volvox sp., Nostoc sp., Eunotia sp., Navicula sp., Euglena spp. and density was found highest in site 3 and lowest in site 1. Shannon diversity index (H′ for phytoplankton community varied between 2.4 to 2.65 indicating fairly high species diversity. The varying magnitude of correlationship among environmental variables and phytoplankton species density as shown by Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA indicated that some of the environmental variables (water temperature, transparency, rainfall, nitrate and ammonia are the driving factors for governing the phytoplankton species assemblages in Chatla floodplain wetland. Fluctuation of phytoplankton density and community composition in different habitats indicated various niche apportionment as well as anthropogenic influences.

  14. Acute ecotoxicology of natural oil and gas condensate to coral reef larvae. (United States)

    Negri, Andrew P; Brinkman, Diane L; Flores, Florita; Botté, Emmanuelle S; Jones, Ross J; Webster, Nicole S


    Risks posed by oil spills to coral reefs are difficult to evaluate, partially due to the absence of studies that adequately assess toxicity to relevant coral reef species. Here we experimentally tested the acute toxicity of condensate, representing a fraction of light crude oil, to coral (Acropora tenuis) and sponge (Rhopaloeides odorabile) larvae. The metamorphosis of coral larvae was inhibited at total petroleum aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentrations of water accommodated fractions (WAF) as low as 103 μg l(-1), similar to concentrations detected in seawater following large spills. The sensitivity of coral larvae increased by 40% when co-exposed to UV light that they might encounter in shallow reefal systems. Condensate WAF was more toxic to coral larvae than predicted by summing the toxicity of its main components (benzene, toluene, p-xylene and napthalene). In contrast, the sensitivity of sponge larvae to condensate WAF (>10,000 μg l(-1) TPAH) was far less than coral in the presence and absence of UV, but similar to that of other marine invertebrates. While these results highlight the relative sensitivity of coral larvae to oil, further research is needed to better understand and predict the impacts and risks posed by hydrocarbons to tropical reef systems.

  15. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie


    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  16. The structure and diversity of freshwater diatom assemblages from Franz Josef Land Archipelago: a northern outpost for freshwater diatoms

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    Sergi Pla-Rabés


    Full Text Available We examined diatom assemblages from 18 stream and pond samples in the Franz Josef Land Archipelago (FJL, the most northern land of Eurasia. More than 216 taxa were observed, revealing a rich circumpolar diatom flora, including many undescribed taxa. Widely distributed taxa were the most abundant by cell densities, while circumpolar taxa were the most species rich. Stream and pond habitats hosted different assemblages, and varied along a pH gradient. Diatoma tenuis was the most abundant and ubiquitous taxon. However, several circumpolar taxa such as Chamaepinnularia gandrupii, Cymbella botellus, Psammothidium sp. and Humidophila laevissima were also found in relatively high abundances. Aerophilic taxa were an important component of FJL diatom assemblages (Humidophila spp., Caloneis spp. and Pinnularia spp., reflecting the large and extreme seasonal changes in Arctic conditions. We predict a decrease in the abundance of circumpolar taxa, an increase in local (α- freshwater diatom diversity, but a decrease in regional diversity (circumpolar homogenization as a result of current warming trends and to a lesser extent the increasing human footprint in the region.

  17. Ichnofauna from the Harbans Bed of the Badhaura Formation (Sterlitmakian), Rajasthan, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kantimati G Kulkarni; Vidyadhar D Borkar


    In the first ever systematic study of trace fossils from the Badhaura Formation, the authors described a nesting burrow, which they ascribed to a stomatopod. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: primarily, to document ichnofauna from (post-glacial marine late Palaeozoic rocks of peninsular India) the Badhaura Formation (Sterlitmakian) representing marine rocks deposited following the Late Palaeozoic glaciation and secondly to contribute to the data on post-glacial ichnofauna from constituent continents of the Gondwanaland. Trace fossils described here are from the Harbans Bed, the topmost lithounit of the Badhaura Formation. The ichnofauna includes Arenicolites tenuis, Beaconites isp., Curvolithus isp., Cylindrichnus concentricus, Didymaulichnus lyelli, Ophiomorpha isp., Palaeophycus tubularis, Planolites beverleyensis, P. montanus, Rosselia chonoides, R. socialis, Skolithos linearis, Taenidium cameronensis, Thalassinoides paradoxicus, Thalassinoides isp. and a flask-shaped brood chamber assigned to a stomatopod crustacean. This mixed assemblage is assigned to distal Skolithos ichnofacies and is suggestive of a period of relatively quiet, shallow water conditions of deposition. The ichnofauna, when viewed in context of peri-gondwanic ichnofaunas, mainly consisting of simple tracks and trails, from late Palaeozoic post-glacial deposits of other Gondwanan continents, is interesting due to dominance of domichnia. Profusion of brood chambers along with Thalassinoides in the Badhaura Formation validates the concept of pre-Mesozoic Thalassinoides being non-decapod in origin and suggestive of adaptive convergence.

  18. Coccolithophores from the central Arabian Sea: Sediment trap results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lina P Mergulhao; Rahul Mohan; V S N Murty; M V S Guptha; D K Sinha


    Sediment trap samples collected from a depth of 1018 m in the Central Arabian Sea Trap (CAST) at 14° 28.2′N, 64° 35.8′E were analyzed for temporal variation of coccolithophore fluxes from October 1993 to August 1994.Out of the twenty species of coccolithophores encountered, \\tetit {Gephyrocapsa oceanica,Emiliania huxleyi,Umbilicosphaera sibogae} and Umbellosphaera irregularis were the most abundant.The total coccolithophore fluxes ranged from 28.5 × 106 m−2 d−1 to 50.3 × 106 m−2 d−1 showing seasonality with higher fluxes during the northeast (NE) monsoon and lower fluxes during the spring intermonsoon. The higher fluxes were attributed to the enhancement of primary production in the central Arabian Sea due to southward extent of nutrients from the northeast Arabian Sea by the prevailing surface currents. Similarly, the occurrences of relatively lower coc-colithophore fluxes during the spring intermonsoon and southwest (SW) monsoon were attributed to the low nutrients in the warm, shallow surface mixed layer and downwelling to the south of Findlater Jet respectively in the central Arabian Sea.Some of the coccolithophore species such as E.huxleyi, G.oceanica, Calcidiscus leptoporus and Umbellosphaera tenuis showed signs of dissolution.

  19. Helminth parasites of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from north-central Arkansas. (United States)

    Richardson, D J; Owen, W B; Snyder, D E


    Twenty-three species of helminths (4 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 14 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans) were found in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, pancreas, tongue, urinary bladder, and subcutaneous tissues of 30 live-trapped or hunter-shot raccoons from north-central Arkansas between November 1989 and April 1990. Helminths were not detected in the brain, diaphragm, gallbladder, heart, liver, reproductive system, or trachea. Each raccoon examined was infected with 3 or more of the following helminths: Brachylaima virginiana, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Pharyngostomoides procyonis, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides spp., Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria plica, Capillaria procyonis, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma goblei, Cruzia americana, Dirofilaria tenuis, Dracunculus insignis, Enterobius sp., Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis, Centrorhynchus wardae, Macracanthorhynchus ingens, and Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa. All helminths collected with the exception of D. insignis constitute new geographic distribution records. Occurrences of C. aerophila, C. wardae, and O. tortuosa are new host records. One nymphal pentastome, Porocephalus crotali, was found in the liver of 1 raccoon, constituting a new host record.

  20. Generating viral metagenomes from the coral holobiont

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    Karen Dawn Weynberg


    Full Text Available Reef-building corals comprise multipartite symbioses where the cnidarian animal is host to an array of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, and the viruses that infect them. These viruses are critical elements of the coral holobiont, serving not only as agents of mortality, but also as potential vectors for lateral gene flow, and as elements encoding a variety of auxiliary metabolic functions. Consequently, understanding the functioning and health of the coral holobiont requires detailed knowledge of the associated viral assemblage and its function. Currently, the most tractable way of uncovering viral diversity and function is through metagenomic approaches, which is inherently difficult in corals because of the complex holobiont community, an extracellular mucus layer that all corals secrete, and the variety of sizes and structures of nucleic acids found in viruses. Here we present the first protocol for isolating, purifying and amplifying viral nucleic acids from corals based on mechanical disruption of cells. This method produces at least 50% higher yields of viral nucleic acids, has very low levels of cellular sequence contamination and captures wider viral diversity than previously used chemical-based extraction methods. We demonstrate that our mechanical-based method profiles a greater diversity of DNA and RNA genomes, including virus groups such as Retro-transcribing and ssRNA viruses, which are absent from metagenomes generated via chemical-based methods. In addition, we briefly present (and make publically available the first paired DNA and RNA viral metagenomes from the coral Acropora tenuis.

  1. Technology transfer for the revegetation of phytotoxic, smelter-denuded soils -- The potential use of minimal amelioration and reciprocal transplantation of metal-tolerant grasses at Flin Flon, Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterhalder, K. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology


    Soils in the Sudbury mining and smelting region that have been rendered phytotoxic and barren by acidification and particulate copper and nickel contamination can be detoxified and revegetated by the surface application of ground limestone, an approach referred to as minimal amelioration. Soils at Flin Flon, Manitoba have been similarly denuded, in this case by acidification and particulate copper and zinc contamination. Field plot experiments carried out in Flin Flon, a more northerly location than Sudbury, with a more severe climate, have shown that the surface application of ground limestone to barren soil leads to colonization of birches, poplars and willows, as on the Sudbury barrens. Furthermore, it has been shown that the copper/nickel tolerant ecotype of Tufted Hairgrass (Deschampsia caevpitosa) found on the Sudbury barrens can be successfully transplanted onto the Flin Flon barrens, and that the copper/zinc tolerant ecotype of Browntop (Agrostis tenuis) found on the Flin Flon barrens can be successfully transplanted onto phytotoxic soils in Sudbury. The significance of these findings, and the possibility of extending such technology transfer to similar sites, such as the copper/zinc smelters of the Kola Peninsula in Russia, are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Cialdella


    Full Text Available Nassella es un género americano que, de acuerdo a su actual circunscripción, incluye unas 116 especies, distribuidas desde Canadá hasta Argentina y Chile. Se caracteriza por sus antecios con la lema notablemente convoluta, con corona apical conspicua o inconspicua y la pálea menor que la lema; asimismo, la lema presenta un patrón epidérmico distintivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una sinopsis de las 99 especies de Nassella que crecen en la región austral de América del Sur, comprendiendo la Argentina, Bolivia, sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay. Se proporciona una clave para la identificación de las especies, sobre la base principalmente de caracteres del antecio. Para cada especie se brinda la sinonimia actualizada, distribución geográfica, datos fenológicos, observaciones e ilustraciones. Se acepta a Nassella barbinodis y Nassella linearifolia es un nuevo sinónimo de Nassella caespitosa. Se designan lectotipos para los siguientes taxones: Danthonia nardoides, Piptochaetium collinum, P. gibbum, P. laevissimum, Stipa arechavaletae, S. barbinodis, S. breviculmis, S. calchaquia, S. carettei, S. clarazii var. bulbosa, S. curicoana, S. debilis var. papillosa, S. duriuscula, S. hispida, S. hyalina, S. julietii, S. longiglumis, S. macrathera, S. manicata var. media, S. mendocina, S. pratensis, S. pseudopampagrandensis, S. rupestris, S. tenuis, S. trachysperma, S. trichocaulos y S. uspallatensis. Se designa un neotipo para S. filiculmis.

  3. Community structure and spatial distribution of macrobenthos in the shelf area of the Bering Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianjun; HE Xuebao; LIN Heshan; LIN Junhui; HUANG Yaqin; ZHENG Chengxing; ZHENG Fengwu; LI Rongguan; JIANG Jinxiang


    Field investigations of marine macrobenthos were conducted at ten sites in the Bering Sea in July 2010. Alto-gether 90 species of macrobenthos belonging to 59 families and 78 genera were identified. Among them, 41 polychaetes, 16 mollusks, 23 crustaceans, three echinoderms, two cnidarians, one nemertean, one priapu-lid, two sipunculids, and one echiuran were identified. The average density and biomass of total macrob-enthos were 984 ind./m2 and 1 207.1 g/m2 of wet weight, respectively. The predominant species in the study area were Scoloplos armiger, Eudorella pacifica, Ophiura sarsii, Heteromastus filiformis, Ennucula tenuis, and Harpiniopsis vadiculus by abundance, while the predominant species in this area was Echinarachnius parma by biomass. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis similarity measure) revealed that two impor-tant benthic assemblages in the study area were Community A and Community B. Community A was stable and Community B was unstable, as shown by the Abundance/Biomass Comparisons (ABC) approach. The macrobenthic community structure in the shelf of the Bering Sea was characterized by its high abundance and biomass, high productivity but great heterogeneity.

  4. Comparative ionomics and metabolomics in extremophile and glycophytic Lotus species under salt stress challenge the metabolic pre-adaptation hypothesis. (United States)

    Sanchez, Diego H; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Escaray, Francisco; Erban, Alexander; Kraemer, Ute; Udvardi, Michael K; Kopka, Joachim


    The legume genus Lotus includes glycophytic forage crops and other species adapted to extreme environments, such as saline soils. Understanding salt tolerance mechanisms will contribute to the discovery of new traits which may enhance the breeding efforts towards improved performance of legumes in marginal agricultural environments. Here, we used a combination of ionomic and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolite profilings of complete shoots (pooling leaves, petioles and stems) to compare the extremophile Lotus creticus, adapted to highly saline coastal regions, and two cultivated glycophytic grassland forage species, Lotus corniculatus and Lotus tenuis. L. creticus exhibited better survival after exposure to long-term lethal salinity and was more efficient at excluding Cl⁻ from the shoots than the glycophytes. In contrast, Na+ levels were higher in the extremophile under both control and salt stress, a trait often observed in halophytes. Ionomics demonstrated a differential rearrangement of shoot nutrient levels in the extremophile upon salt exposure. Metabolite profiling showed that responses to NaCl in L. creticus shoots were globally similar to those of the glycophytes, providing little evidence for metabolic pre-adaptation to salinity. This study is the first comparing salt acclimation responses between extremophile and non-extremophile legumes, and challenges the generalization of the metabolic salt pre-adaptation hypothesis.

  5. Phylogenetic relationship of Lotus uliginosus symbionts with bradyrhizobia nodulating genistoid legumes. (United States)

    Lorite, María J; Videira e Castro, Isabel; Muñoz, Socorro; Sanjuán, Juan


    Lotus species are legumes with potential for pastures in soils with low-fertility and environmental constraints. The aim of this work was to characterize bacteria that establish efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the forage species Lotus uliginosus. A total of 39 isolates were obtained from nodules of L. uliginosus naturally growing in two different locations of Portugal. Molecular identification of the isolates plus the commercial inoculant strain NZP2039 was performed by REP-PCR, 16S rRNA RFLP, and 16S rRNA, glnII and recA sequence analyses. Limited genetic diversity was found among the L. uliginosus symbionts, which showed a close phylogenetic relationship with the species Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The symbiotic nifH, nodA and nodC gene sequences were closely related with the corresponding genes of various Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from Lupinus and other genistoid legumes and therefore were phylogenetically separated from other Lotus spp. rhizobia. The L. uliginosus bradyrhizobia were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in association with L. uliginosus, could nodulate Lotus corniculatus with generally poor nitrogen-fixing efficiency, formed nonfixing nodules in Lotus tenuis and Lupinus luteus roots and were unable to nodulate Glycine soja or Glycine max. Thus, L. uliginosus rhizobia seem closely related to B. japonicum biovar genistearum strains.

  6. Characterization of strains unlike Mesorhizobium loti that nodulate lotus spp. in saline soils of Granada, Spain. (United States)

    Lorite, María J; Muñoz, Socorro; Olivares, José; Soto, María J; Sanjuán, Juan


    Lotus species are forage legumes with potential as pastures in low-fertility and environmentally constrained soils, owing to their high persistence and yield under those conditions. The aim of this work was the characterization of phenetic and genetic diversity of salt-tolerant bacteria able to establish efficient symbiosis with Lotus spp. A total of 180 isolates able to nodulate Lotus corniculatus and Lotus tenuis from two locations in Granada, Spain, were characterized. Molecular identification of the isolates was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) and 16S rRNA, atpD, and recA gene sequence analyses, showing the presence of bacteria related to different species of the genus Mesorhizobium: Mesorhizobium tarimense/Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium chacoense/Mesorhizobium albiziae, and the recently described species, Mesorhizobium alhagi. No Mesorhizobium loti-like bacteria were found, although most isolates carried nodC and nifH symbiotic genes closely related to those of M. loti, considered the type species of bacteria nodulating Lotus, and other Lotus rhizobia. A significant portion of the isolates showed both high salt tolerance and good symbiotic performance with L. corniculatus, and many behaved like salt-dependent bacteria, showing faster growth and better symbiotic performance when media were supplemented with Na or Ca salts.

  7. Ensifer meliloti bv. lancerottense establishes nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and shows distinctive symbiotic genotypes and host range. (United States)

    León-Barrios, Milagros; Lorite, María José; Donate-Correa, Javier; Sanjuán, Juan


    Eleven strains were isolated from root nodules of Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and they belonged to the genus Ensifer, a genus never previously described as a symbiont of Lotus. According to their 16S rRNA and atpD gene sequences, two isolates represented minority genotypes that could belong to previously undescribed Ensifer species, but most of the isolates were classified within the species Ensifer meliloti. These isolates nodulated Lotus lancerottensis, Lotus corniculatus and Lotus japonicus, whereas Lotus tenuis and Lotus uliginosus were more restrictive hosts. However, effective nitrogen fixation only occurred with the endemic L. lancerottensis. The E. meliloti strains did not nodulate Medicago sativa, Medicago laciniata Glycine max or Glycine soja, but induced non-fixing nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris roots. nodC and nifH symbiotic gene phylogenies showed that the E. meliloti symbionts of Lotus markedly diverged from strains of Mesorhizobium loti, the usual symbionts of Lotus, as well as from the three biovars (bv. meliloti, bv. medicaginis, and bv. mediterranense) so far described within E. meliloti. Indeed, the nodC and nifH genes from the E. meliloti isolates from Lotus represented unique symbiotic genotypes. According to their symbiotic gene sequences and host range, the Lotus symbionts would represent a new biovar of E. meliloti for which bv. lancerottense is proposed.

  8. Phosphorus absorption and use efficiency by Lotus spp. under water stress conditions in two soils: A pot experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Castillo


    Full Text Available The response to P and water deficiencies of forage Lotus species has not been sufficiently studied in the Andisol and Vertisol soil orders in Chile's marginal areas. A pot experiment under cover was carried out between October 2007 and March 2008 to study the effects of P and soil water availability (SWA on DM production, P absorption, and P use efficiency in Lotus spp. The experiment included three Lotus (L. corniculatus L., L. tenuis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd., and L. uliginosus Schkuhr species, two soils (Andisol and Vertisol, two contrasting P levels (low and high, and two SWA levels (10% and 100%. A completely randomized design with a 3 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with four replicates was used. Accumulated shoot and root DM, P absorption and efficiency, and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization were measured. Phosphorus absorption was significantly higher in Andisol with 100% SWA and high P in the three species, which was reflected in P efficiency where the species exhibited higher P absorption efficiency (PAE and P utilization efficiency (PUE with low P, and mean of the three species with low P and high SWA. When the P level was low, L. uliginosus showed the highest PAE and L. corniculatus exhibited the highest PUE. Phosphorus efficiency was also influenced by AM colonization since on the average mycorrhization in the three species was significantly higher in the low P treatments. Differences existed among species for DM production, response to P, P absorption, PAE, and PUE.

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of herbicide resistance in creeping bentgrass and colonial bentgrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴明良; 汪炳良; KIMJae-yeoul; LEEJong-min; KIMDoo-hwan


    Embryogenic calli were induced from the seeds of creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis palustris Huds. ) cv. Regent and colonial bentgrass ( Agrostis Tenuis Sibth. F1. Oxen. ) cv. Tiger. The embryogenic calli were precultured on fresh medium for 4-7 days and then co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, LBA4404,which contains plasmid vector-pSBGM harboring bar coding region, synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) coding region and matrix attachment region (MAR) . After 3 days of co-cultivation, the calli were washed thoroughly and transferred to MS medium containing 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D, 12-15 mg/L phosphinothricin (PPT) and 250 mg/L of cefotaxime. After 2-3 months of selection, the actively growing calli of ‘Regent' and ‘Ti-ger' were transferred to MS medium with 12-15 mg/L PPT and 250 mg/L cefotaxime for regeneration. The putative transformants were maintained on MS medium with 3 mg/L PPT for long period but control died within 1 month. After establishing in greenhouse, the transformants also showed strong resistance to 0.4 % of herbi-cide Basta but control plants died within 2 weeks. Under confocal microscope, both young leaves and roots showed significant GFP expression. PCR analysis revealed the presence of a DNA fragment of GFP gene at the expected size (380 bp) in the transformants and its absence in a randomly selected control plant.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of herbicide resistance in creeping bentgrass and colonial bentgrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Embryogenic calli were induced from the seeds of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) cv. Regent and colonial bentgrass (Agrostis Tenuis Sibth. Fl. Oxen.) cv. Tiger. The embryogenic calli were precultured on fresh medium for 4-7 days and then co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, LBA4404, which contains plasmid vector-pSBGM harboring bar coding region, synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) coding region and matrix attachment region (MAR). After 3 days of co-cultivation, the calli were washed thoroughly and transferred to MS medium containing 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D, 12-15 mg/L phosphinothricin (PPT) and 250 mg/L of cefotaxime. After 2-3 months of selection, the actively growing calli of 'Regent' and 'Tiger' were transferred to MS medium with 12-15 mg/L PPT and 250 mg/L cefotaxime for regeneration. The putative transformants were maintained on MS medium with 3 mg/L PPT for long period but control died within 1 month. After establishing in greenhouse, the transformants also showed strong resistance to 0.4% of herbicide Basta but control plants died within 2 weeks. Under confocal microscope, both young leaves and roots showed significant GFP expression. PCR analysis revealed the presence of a DNA fragment of GFP gene at the expected size (380 bp) in the transformants and its absence in a randomly selected control plant.

  11. Acute ecotoxicology of natural oil and gas condensate to coral reef larvae (United States)

    Negri, Andrew P.; Brinkman, Diane L.; Flores, Florita; Botté, Emmanuelle S.; Jones, Ross J.; Webster, Nicole S.


    Risks posed by oil spills to coral reefs are difficult to evaluate, partially due to the absence of studies that adequately assess toxicity to relevant coral reef species. Here we experimentally tested the acute toxicity of condensate, representing a fraction of light crude oil, to coral (Acropora tenuis) and sponge (Rhopaloeides odorabile) larvae. The metamorphosis of coral larvae was inhibited at total petroleum aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentrations of water accommodated fractions (WAF) as low as 103 μg l‑1, similar to concentrations detected in seawater following large spills. The sensitivity of coral larvae increased by 40% when co-exposed to UV light that they might encounter in shallow reefal systems. Condensate WAF was more toxic to coral larvae than predicted by summing the toxicity of its main components (benzene, toluene, p-xylene and napthalene). In contrast, the sensitivity of sponge larvae to condensate WAF (>10,000 μg l‑1 TPAH) was far less than coral in the presence and absence of UV, but similar to that of other marine invertebrates. While these results highlight the relative sensitivity of coral larvae to oil, further research is needed to better understand and predict the impacts and risks posed by hydrocarbons to tropical reef systems.

  12. The hydrozoan fauna (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the peaks of the Ormonde and Gettysburg seamounts (Gorringe Bank, NE Atlantic). (United States)

    Moura, Carlos J


    Twenty-seven species of hydroids were collected from the peaks (35-42 meters depth) of the Gorringe Bank (NE Atlantic) during the oceanographic campaign 'LusoExpedição Olympus 2008'. Twenty-one of these species are new for the Gorringe Bank that now has published records for a total of 37 hydroid species. Lafoeina tenuis, Sertularella ellisii and Clytia hemisphaerica were the most abundant hydroid species collected. Results revealed spatial differences in the composition of species assemblages along the summits of the Gorringe, as only 14 of the species sampled were found both in the Ormonde and Gettysburg seamounts. The large density of algae at the peaks of the seamounts sustain a considerable hydrozoan diversity (23 species), but visibly inhibits the establishment of hydroids to the rocky substrates (only 2 species found). All the known hydrozoan species from the peaks of the Gorringe were exclusively collected during summer, thus sampling in other seasons may reveal further hydrozoan diversity due to seasonal patterns of growth of algae and hydroids. Nevertheless, the reasonably high levels of hydrozoan biodiversity demonstrated only from a small portion the summits of the Gorringe, corroborate its seamounts as 'biodiversity hotspots'. In agreement with previous investigations with shallow-water molluscs and sponges, the shallow-water hydroid fauna of the Gorringe revealed greater biogeographical affinities with the Mediterranean and mainland Portugal. This is the first report of Eudendrium armatum outside of the Mediterranean.

  13. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic study of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. leaves extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leila Mousavi; Rabeta Mohd Salleh; Vikneswaran Murugaiyah; Mohd Zaini Asmawi


    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (O. tenui-florum) leaves used in the traditional medicine management of diabetes in Malaysia. Methods: O. tenuiflorum leaves were extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were evaluated in terms of antidiabetic activity by using acute, subcutaneous glucose tolerance, and sub-chronic tests in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The extracts were also subjected to phytochemical analyses. Results: With an acute dose (1 g/kg), the methanol extracts showed significant reduction (31%) in fasting blood glucose (FBG) of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The FBG-decreasing effect of ethyl acetate extract was more rapid than that of the other extracts;the decreasing rates were 20%after 2 h, 21%after 3 h, and 8%after 5 and 7 h. After 7 h (31%), the effect of methanol extract on FBG was significantly lower than that of metformin. In the subcutaneous glucose tolerance test, only methanol and hexane extracts showed the similarity of metformin in diabetic rats. After 14 days, the effects of these extracts were similar to those of metformin (63.33%). The total flavonoid and phenolic contents of extracts decreased as the polarity of the extraction solvent increased. Conclusions: The results obtained provide support for a possible use of O. tenuiflorum leaves in managing hyperglycemia and preventing the complications associated with it in type 2 diabetic.

  14. Sulfur utilization of corals is enhanced by endosymbiotic algae

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    Ikuko Yuyama


    Full Text Available Sulfur-containing compounds are important components of all organisms, but few studies have explored sulfate utilization in corals. Our previous study found that the expression of a sulfur transporter (SLC26A11 was upregulated in the presence of Symbiodinium cells in juveniles of the reef-building coral Acropora tenuis. In this study, we performed autoradiography using 35S-labeled sulfate ions (35SO4 2− to examine the localization and amount of incorporated radioactive sulfate in the coral tissues and symbiotic algae. Incorporated 35SO4 2− was detected in symbiotic algal cells, nematocysts, ectodermal cells and calicoblast cells. The combined results of 35S autoradiography and Alcian Blue staining showed that incorporated 35S accumulated as sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs in the ectodermal cell layer. We also compared the relative incorporation of 35SO4 2− into coral tissues and endosymbiotic algae, and their chemical fractions in dark versus light (photosynthetic conditions. The amount of sulfur compounds, such as GAGs and lipids, generated from 35SO4 2− was higher under photosynthetic conditions. Together with the upregulation of sulfate transporters by symbiosis, our results suggest that photosynthesis of algal endosymbionts contributes to the synthesis and utilization of sulfur compounds in corals.

  15. Is there a relation between the distribution of heterotrophic flagellates and the zonation of a marine intertidal flat? (United States)

    Tikhonenkov, D. V.; Burkovsky, I. V.; Mazei, Yu. A.


    The species distribution of heterotrophic flagellates has been investigated in accordance with the zonation of the White Sea silty-sandy intertidal flat. In Gryaznaya Bay of the Chernaya River Estuary (Kandalaksha Bay), 64 species and forms of flagellates have been identified. Three species ( Ploeotia tenuis, Salpingoeca tuba, and Thecamonas trahens) are newly recorded for the White Sea. The species diversity, abundance, and biomass of heterotrophic flagellates were the highest in the upper and lower littoral horizons, as compared to the middle littoral and transitional zones. The species composition and community structure of heterotrophic flagellates depend on the local combinations of salinity and Eh rather than on the littoral zone and related sediments and the type and amount of organic material. The heterotrophic flagellate community within the intertidal zone has been subdivided into three groups: 1) species preferring biotopes of higher salinity at lower and upper boundaries of the mid intertidal zone, 2) species tending to silty sediments of the upper intertidal zone with lower salinity and Eh, and 3) species preferring the well-aerated slightly silted sands of the lower intertidal zone.

  16. The absence of protein Y4yS affects negatively the abundance of T3SS Mesorhizobium loti secretin, RhcC2, in bacterial membranes. (United States)

    Mercante, Virginia; Duarte, Cecilia M; Sánchez, Cintia M; Zalguizuri, Andrés; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo; Lepek, Viviana C


    Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 has a functional type III secretion system (T3SS) that is involved in the determination of nodulation competitiveness on Lotus. The M. loti T3SS cluster contains gene y4yS (mlr8765) that codes for a protein of unknown function (Y4yS). A mutation in the y4yS gene favors the M. loti symbiotic competitive ability on Lotus tenuis cv. Esmeralda and affects negatively the secretion of proteins through T3SS. Here we localize Y4yS in the bacterial membrane using a translational reporter peptide fusion. In silico analysis indicated that this protein presents a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, a signal peptide and a canonical lipobox LGCC in the N-terminal sequence. These features that are shared with proteins required for the formation of the secretin complex in type IV secretion systems and in the Tad system, together with its localization, suggest that the y4yS-encoded protein is required for the formation of the M. loti T3SS secretin (RhcC2) complex. Remarkably, analysis of RhcC2 in the wild-type and M. loti y4yS mutant strains indicated that the absence of Y4yS affects negatively the accumulation of normal levels of RhcC2 in the membrane.

  17. The absence of protein Y4yS affects negatively the abundance of T3SS Mesorhizobium loti secretin, RhcC2, in bacterial membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia eMercante


    Full Text Available Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 has a functional type III secretion system (T3SS that is involved in the determination of nodulation competitiveness on Lotus. The M. loti T3SS cluster contains gene y4yS (mlr8765 that codes for a protein of unknown function (Y4yS. A mutation in the y4yS gene favors the M. loti symbiotic competitive ability on Lotus tenuis cv. Esmeralda and affects negatively the secretion of proteins through T3SS. Here we localize Y4yS in the bacterial membrane using a translational reporter peptide fusion. In silico analysis indicated that this protein presents a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domain, a signal peptide and a canonical lipobox LGCC in the N-terminal sequence. These features that are shared with proteins required for the formation of the secretin complex in type IV secretion systems and in the Tad system, together with its localization, suggest that the y4yS-encoded protein is required for the formation of the M. loti T3SS secretin (RhcC2 complex. Remarkably, analysis of RhcC2 in the wild-type and M. loti y4yS mutant strains indicated that the absence of Y4yS affects negatively the accumulation of normal levels of RhcC2 in the membrane.

  18. Biotic control of skeletal growth by scleractinian corals in aragonite-calcite seas.

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    Tomihiko Higuchi

    Full Text Available Modern scleractinian coral skeletons are commonly composed of aragonite, the orthorhombic form of CaCO3. Under certain conditions, modern corals produce calcite as a secondary precipitate to fill pore space. However, coral construction of primary skeletons from calcite has yet to be demonstrated. We report a calcitic primary skeleton produced by the modern scleractinian coral Acropora tenuis. When uncalcified juveniles were incubated from the larval stage in seawater with low mMg/Ca levels, the juveniles constructed calcitic crystals in parts of the primary skeleton such as the septa; the deposits were observable under Raman microscopy. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed different crystal morphologies of aragonite and calcite in a single juvenile skeleton. Quantitative analysis using X-ray diffraction showed that the majority of the skeleton was composed of aragonite even though we had exposed the juveniles to manipulated seawater before their initial crystal nucleation and growth processes. Our results indicate that the modern scleractinian coral Acropora mainly produces aragonite skeletons in both aragonite and calcite seas, but also has the ability to use calcite for part of its skeletal growth when incubated in calcite seas.

  19. Influence of edaphic, climatic, and agronomic factors on the composition and abundance of nitrifying microorganisms in the rhizosphere of commercial olive crops.

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    Joan Caliz

    Full Text Available The microbial ecology of the nitrogen cycle in agricultural soils is an issue of major interest. We hypothesized a major effect by farm management systems (mineral versus organic fertilizers and a minor influence of soil texture and plant variety on the composition and abundance of microbial nitrifiers. We explored changes in composition (16S rRNA gene of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA, bacteria (AOB, and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB, and in abundance of AOA and AOB (qPCR of amoA genes in the rhizosphere of 96 olive orchards differing in climatic conditions, agricultural practices, soil properties, and olive variety. Majority of archaea were 1.1b thaumarchaeota (soil crenarchaeotic group, SCG closely related to the AOA genus Nitrososphaera. Most AOB (97% were identical to Nitrosospira tenuis and most NOB (76% were closely related to Nitrospira sp. Common factors shaping nitrifiers assemblage composition were pH, soil texture, and olive variety. AOB abundance was positively correlated with altitude, pH, and clay content, whereas AOA abundances showed significant relationships with organic nitrogen content and exchangeable K. The abundances of AOA differed significantly among soil textures and olive varieties, and those of AOB among soil management systems and olive varieties. Overall, we observed minor effects by orchard management system, soil cover crop practices, plantation age, or soil organic matter content, and major influence of soil texture, pH, and olive tree variety.

  20. Influence of edaphic, climatic, and agronomic factors on the composition and abundance of nitrifying microorganisms in the rhizosphere of commercial olive crops. (United States)

    Caliz, Joan; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Metsis, Madis; Landa, Blanca B; Casamayor, Emilio O


    The microbial ecology of the nitrogen cycle in agricultural soils is an issue of major interest. We hypothesized a major effect by farm management systems (mineral versus organic fertilizers) and a minor influence of soil texture and plant variety on the composition and abundance of microbial nitrifiers. We explored changes in composition (16S rRNA gene) of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), bacteria (AOB), and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and in abundance of AOA and AOB (qPCR of amoA genes) in the rhizosphere of 96 olive orchards differing in climatic conditions, agricultural practices, soil properties, and olive variety. Majority of archaea were 1.1b thaumarchaeota (soil crenarchaeotic group, SCG) closely related to the AOA genus Nitrososphaera. Most AOB (97%) were identical to Nitrosospira tenuis and most NOB (76%) were closely related to Nitrospira sp. Common factors shaping nitrifiers assemblage composition were pH, soil texture, and olive variety. AOB abundance was positively correlated with altitude, pH, and clay content, whereas AOA abundances showed significant relationships with organic nitrogen content and exchangeable K. The abundances of AOA differed significantly among soil textures and olive varieties, and those of AOB among soil management systems and olive varieties. Overall, we observed minor effects by orchard management system, soil cover crop practices, plantation age, or soil organic matter content, and major influence of soil texture, pH, and olive tree variety.

  1. Three Dimensional Structure of the Mars North Polar Basal Unit from MARSIS data (United States)

    Frigeri, A.; Orosei, R.; Cartacci, M.; Cicchetti, A.; Mitri, G.; Giuppi, S.; Noschese, R.; Picardi, G.; Plaut, J.


    Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) is an orbital subsurface sounder aboard ESA's Mars Express spacecraft . It transmits a low-frequency radar pulse that is capable of penetrating below the surface, and is reflected by subsurface dielectric discontinuities. MARSIS has been used to probe both the south and the north polar caps of Mars, revealing their thickness and structure. We report on the results of a campaign of observations of the north polar ice cap of Mars that took place between May and December 2011 in uniquely favorable conditions and produced data of unprecedented quality. The focus of this work is the so-called Basal Unit, a dark, ice-rich, complexely layered geologic unit lying stratigraphically between the polar layered deposits and the Vastitas Borealis Formation, and extending beneath most of Planum Boreum and Olympia Planitia. The objective of this work is the to study the full three dimensional structure of the Northern Polar Deposit and in particular of the Basal Unit (BU). It was recently found that the BU consists of two markedly different units, called the Rupes Tenuis unit and the Planum Boreum cavi unit. The Rupes Tenuis unit appears to be older, horizontally layered, and lacking erosional contacts. It has been thus interpreted as the result of precipitation and cold-trapping of dust-laden volatiles. The Planum Boreum cavi unit displays cross-bedding, indicating dune accumulation. Bright layers within it are interpreted as being made of ice-cemented dust, while dark layers should consist of weathered basalt fines. It seems likely that, in places, the Planum Boreum cavi unit rests directly on the Vastitas Borealis, without the Rupes Tenuis unit in between. Because the two units in the BU have formed much earlier than the north polar layered deposits, and at some interval from each other, they bear evidence of past climatic conditions that were very different from present, so that they "could potentially be a

  2. Ecology of root-feeding beetles and their associated fungi on longleaf pine in Georgia. (United States)

    Zanzot, James W; Matusick, George; Eckhardt, Lori G


    Root-feeding beetles, particularly of the curculionid subfamilies Scolytinae and Molytinae, are known to be effective vectors of Ophiostomatoid fungi. Infestation by these insects and subsequent infection by the Ophiostomatoid fungi may play an important role in accelerating symptom progression in pine declines. To examine the relationship between beetles and fungi in longleaf pine stands, root-feeding curculionids were collected in pitfall traps baited with ethanol and turpentine for 62 wk, and Ophiostomatoid fungi were isolated from their body surfaces. The most abundant root-feeding beetles captured were Hylastes tenuis, H. salebrosus, Pachylobius picivorus, Hylobius pales, and Dendroctonus terebrans. The number of insects captured peaked in spring and fall, although peaks for different insect taxa did not coincide. The most frequently isolated fungi were Grosmannia huntii, Leptographium procerum, L. terebrantis, and L. serpens. Other Ophiostomatoid fungi recovered included Ophiostoma spp. and Pesotum spp. Insect infestation data suggest that Hylastes spp. share an ecological niche, as do Hb. pales and P. picivorus, because the ratios of their fungal symbionts were similar. The fungi associated with D. terebrans suggest that it did not share habitat with the other principle vectors.

  3. 新疆小麦籽粒黑胚病及病原的致病性研究%The Study on Wheat Black Embryo and It's Pathogenicity of Pathogen in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马德英; 贾菊生; 羌松


    通过对新疆28个县(市)的小麦黑胚病粒进行病原分离,认为引起小麦黑胚病的病原由Alternaria tenuis, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium spp, Cladosporium spp,和Rhizoctonia spp等组成.其中以Alternaria tenuis为主,Bipolaris sorokiniana次之.病原接种和回接试验表明,Alternaria tenuis对小麦的致病性弱,Bipolaris sorokiniana的致病性强,寄主范围广,是引起小麦苗期根腐病的主要病原之一.Bipolaris sorokiniana的pH值范围广,在pH4.6~7.8下,最适宜该菌生长.同时土壤的含盐量对该菌的生长影响显著,0.1%的含盐量促进病原的生长,但10%的含盐量表现出明显的抑制作用.

  4. Taxonomy of quaternary deep-sea ostracods from the Western North Atlantic ocean (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Okahashi, H.; Cronin, T. M.


    Late Quaternary sediments from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1055B, Carolina Slope, western North Atlantic (32??47.041??? N, 76??17.179??? W; 1798m water depth) were examined for deep-sea ostracod taxonomy. A total of 13933 specimens were picked from 207 samples and c. 120 species were identified. Among them, 87 species were included and illustrated in this paper. Twenty-eight new species are described. The new species are: Ambocythere sturgio, Argilloecia abba, Argilloecia caju, Argilloecia keigwini, Argilloecia robinwhatleyi, Aversovalva carolinensis, Bythoceratina willemvandenboldi, Bythocythere eugeneschornikovi, Chejudocythere tenuis, Cytheropteron aielloi, Cytheropteron demenocali, Cytheropteron didieae, Cytheropteron richarddinglei, Cytheropteron fugu, Cytheropteron guerneti, Cytheropteron richardbensoni, Eucytherura hazeli, Eucytherura mayressi, Eucytherura namericana, Eucytherura spinicorona, Posacythere hunti, Paracytherois bondi, Pedicythere atroposopetasi, Pedicythere kennettopetasi, Pedicythere klothopetasi, Pedicythere lachesisopetasi, Ruggieriella mcmanusi and Xestoleberis oppoae. Taxonomic revisions of several common species were made to reduce taxonomic uncertainty in the literature. This study provides a robust taxonomic baseline for application to palaeoceanographical reconstruction and biodiversity analyses in the deep and intermediate-depth environments of the North Atlantic Ocean. ?? The Palaeontological Association, 2009.

  5. Bioprocess design guided by in situ substrate supply and product removal: process intensification for synthesis of (S)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanol. (United States)

    Schmölzer, Katharina; Mädje, Katharina; Nidetzky, Bernd; Kratzer, Regina


    We report herein on bioprocess development guided by the hydrophobicities of substrate and product. Bioreductions of o-chloroacetophenone are severely limited by instability of the catalyst in the presence of aromatic substrate and (S)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanol. In situ substrate supply and product removal was used to protect the utilized Escherichia coli whole cell catalyst based on Candida tenuis xylose reductase during the reaction. Further engineering at the levels of the catalyst and the reaction media was matched to low substrate concentrations in the aqueous phase. Productivities obtained in aqueous batch reductions were 21-fold improved by addition of 20% (v/v) hexane, NAD(+), expression engineering, cell permeabilization and pH optimization. Reduction of 300 mM substrate was accomplished in 97% yield and use of the co-solvent hexane in subsequent extraction steps led to 88% recovery. Product loss due to high catalyst loading was minimized by using the same extractant in bioreduction and product isolation.

  6. Comparative genomics of xylose-fermenting fungi for enhanced biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Kuo, Alan; Sato, Trey K.; Potts, Katlyn M.; Salamov, Asaf A.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Sun, Hui; Clum, Alicia; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Jin, Mingjie; Gunawan, Christa; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E.; Jeffries, Thomas W.; Zinkel, Robert; Barry, Kerrie W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Gasch, Audrey P.


    Cellulosic biomass is an abundant and underused substrate for biofuel production. The inability of many microbes to metabolize the pentose sugars abundant within hemicellulose creates specific challenges for microbial biofuel production from cellulosic material. Although engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use the pentose xylose, the fermentative capacity pales in comparison with glucose, limiting the economic feasibility of industrial fermentations. To better understand xylose utilization for subsequent microbial engineering, we sequenced the genomes of two xylose-fermenting, beetle-associated fungi, Spathaspora passalidarum and Candida tenuis. To identify genes involved in xylose metabolism, we applied a comparative genomic approach across 14 Ascomycete genomes, mapping phenotypes and genotypes onto the fungal phylogeny, and measured genomic expression across five Hemiascomycete species with different xylose-consumption phenotypes. This approach implicated many genes and processes involved in xylose assimilation. Several of these genes significantly improved xylose utilization when engineered into S. cerevisiae, demonstrating the power of comparative methods in rapidly identifying genes for biomass conversion while reflecting on fungal ecology.

  7. Cliona acephala (Porifera: Demospongiae: Clionaida), a new encrusting excavating reef sponge from the Colombian Caribbean belonging to the Cliona viridis species complex. (United States)

    Zea, Sven; López-Victoria, Mateo


    Several groups of sponges are able to excavate galleries and tunnels in calcareous substrata such as limestone rock, shells, calcareous algae and coral skeletons. Within the genus Cliona, some species share the common traits of being brown to olive-green in color, and harboring photosynthetic, unicellular dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). These Cliona spp. have been grouped as the Cliona viridis species complex. Several species of this complex completely encrust the excavated substratum with a thin veneer of tissue and, when colonizing dead exposed parts of live coral colonies, they are able to undermine or overgrow and thus kill live coral tissue as they advance predominantly laterally. In the course of our taxonomic and ecological studies of Caribbean brown to brown-black encrusting Cliona, we found an as yet undescribed species that stands out by having tylostyle megasclere spicules with narrow heads and lacking the usual microsclere spicule complement of spirasters. This species, named and described here Cliona acephala n. sp., has so far been found exclusively in the Santa Marta area, Caribbean coast of Colombia. Previous studies with ITS2 ribosomal DNA showed it to be genetically distinct from other Caribbean encrusting species belonging to the Cliona viridis species complex, vis. Cliona aprica, Cliona caribbaea, Cliona tenuis and Cliona varians, but making it genetically closer to Indo-Pacific Cliona orientalis. An intriguing possibility, to be addressed with further studies, is that C. acephala n. sp. may have been introduced to the Caribbean. However, until proved otherwise, we regard the material presently described as distinct.

  8. Distribution and structure of the upper sublittoral macrobenthic communities of Tróia sand beaches (Setúbal, Portugal) and their relationship with environmental factors. (United States)

    Vale, Maria; Cabral, Henrique; Andrade, Francisco


    The present study dealt with the spatial and temporal variability of the distribution of the upper sublittoral benthic macrofauna of the Tróia peninsula sand beaches and its relationship with abiotic environmental factors. The existence of a relationship between the data set of macrobenthic species distribution and community structure in the Sado estuary (432 individual samples) and the environmental factors in analysis was investigated. Morpho-sedimentary data analysis revealed an environmental gradient, from the marine margin (exposed marine environment) to the estuarine margin (sheltered estuarine environment). Benthic macrofauna analysis showed a gradient of increasing number of individuals, species richness and diversity from the marine margin (Exposed) to the estuarine margin (Sheltered). Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed the dominant patterns in the community structure to be explained by the environmental factors considered, the most important, of which in influencing the spatial and temporal pattern, being beach slope, organic matter and calcium carbonate contents. The structure of the sandy beach communities studied showed a clear dominance of the spatial patterns over the seasonal ones. Four assemblages were defined-(1) an assemblage dominated by Angulus tenuis, on the marine margin of the peninsula; (2) an assemblage dominated by Euclymene sp. and Apseudes latreillei, on the sea-estuary transition area and related to the presence of a Zostera spp. meadow; (3) an assemblage dominated by Glycera sp. and Scoloplos armiger, on the sea-estuary transition area; (4) an assemblage dominated by Notomastus latericeus, Nassarius reticulatus and Cyathura carinata, on the estuarine margin.

  9. Potential biocontrol actinobacteria: Rhizospheric isolates from the Argentine Pampas lowlands legumes. (United States)

    Solans, Mariana; Scervino, Jose Martin; Messuti, María Inés; Vobis, Gernot; Wall, Luis Gabriel


    Control of fungal plant diseases by using naturally occurring non-pathogenic microorganisms represents a promising approach to biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization, and fungal antagonistic activity of actinobacteria from forage soils in the Flooding Pampa, Argentina. A total of 32 saprophytic strains of actinobacteria were obtained by different isolation methods from rhizospheric soil of Lotus tenuis growing in the Salado River Basin. Based on physiological traits, eight isolates were selected for their biocontrol-related activities such as production of lytic extracellular enzymes, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and antagonistic activity against Cercospora sojina, Macrophomia phaseolina, Phomopsis sp., Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium verticilloides. These actinobacteria strains were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and identified by using molecular techniques. The characterization of biocontrol-related activities in vitro showed positive results for exoprotease, phospholipase, fungal growth inhibition, and siderophore production. However, none of the strains was positive for the production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Streptomyces sp. MM140 presented the highest index for biocontrol, and appear to be promising pathogenic fungi biocontrol agents. These results show the potential capacity of actinobacteria isolated from forage soils in the Argentine Pampas lowlands as promising biocontrol agents, and their future agronomic applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. [Helminths in broiler geese fattened in runs]. (United States)

    Busta, J


    The occurrence of helminths in broiler geese was studied in the rapid-fattening technological system in 1974-1978. The birds were kept on grassy run adjacent to water. Helminthological examination was performed in 1065 broilers and the following 16 helminth species were revealed: Notocotylus attenuatus (0.3%), Apatemon gracilis (1.5%), Cotyrulus cornutus (0.1%), Hypoderaeum conoideum (0.1%), Retinometra longicirrosa (3.2%), Drepanidotaenia lanceolata (3.1%), Sobolevicanthus fragilis (0.7%), Diorchis stefanskii (0.8%), Microsomacanthus microsoma (0.9%), Dilepis undula (0.1%), Capillaria caudinflata (0.2%), Capillaria obsignata (7.7%), Amidostomum anseris (3.7%), Trichostrongylus tenuis (0.2%), Ganguleterakis dispar (16.8%), and Heterakis gallinarum (0.4%). Seven of these species were found for the first time in geese in Czechoslovakia (A. gracilis, C. cornutus, H. conoideum, M. microsoma, D. undula, C. caudinflata, and H. gallinarum). The species Dilepis undula has not been recorded in this host species ever before. The extensity and intensity of the invasions, the frequency of monoinvasions and mixed invasions, and the relation of invasion extensity and intensity to the age of the broilers examined were evaluated during the study.

  11. The pickling technology of Shaoxing folk pickles%绍兴民间腌渍菜制作技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴光忠; 郑国江


    In order to inherit and promote traditional pickling technology,the choice of raw materials,technological process,and operating methods of Shaoxing folk pickles are introduced.The eating methods of short-term pickled vegetables,pickled potherb mustard,pterocladia tenuis okam and Chinese mustard green are especially explained in detail.The mechanism of flavor components in pickles is also discussed as well.%为了继承传统老法腌渍菜的制作方法,介绍了绍兴民间制作腌渍菜的原料、工艺流程和操作方法,同时介绍了暴腌菜、佩红菜、鸡毛菜和倒纛菜(冬芥菜)等的制作方法,并说明了绍兴民间腌渍菜的食用方法,论述了腌渍菜中呈味物质的形成机理。

  12. An evaluation of the use of individual grass species in retaining polluted soil and dust particulates in vegetated sustainable drainage devices. (United States)

    Charlesworth, S M; Bennett, J; Waite, A


    A sustainable means of preventing polluted particulates carried in urban storm water entering rivers, groundwater and lakes is by employing vegetated sustainable drainage system (SUDS) devices, or best management practices to trap or biodegrade them. In the UK, a mixture of grass species is recommended for use in devices such as swales or filter strips. However, there is little evidence in support of the efficiency of the individual grasses or mixtures to deal with such contaminated material. A pot-based pollutant retention study was conducted using processed street dust from central Coventry, UK, as a simulated pollutant to be applied in different quantities to a variety of recommended grasses for vegetated SUDS devices. Analysis was conducted on compost cores, roots and shoots for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn). Street dust mainly concentrated in the top compost layer for all grasses with only the finer material migrating down the profile. Analysis of roots indicated little accumulation, with ANOVA statistical tests indicating significant differences in heavy metal concentrations, with less in the compost and more in the shoots. Development of root systems on or near the surface possibly explains increased uptake of heavy metals by some species. Overall Agrostis canina and Poa pratensis showed the greatest accumulations compared to their controls although Agrostis capillaris syn.tenuis and Agrostis stolonifera also demonstrated accumulation potential. On ranking, Agrostis canina and Poa pratensis were highest overall. These rankings will assist in selecting the best grasses to address pollution of the urban environment by contaminated particulates.

  13. Micromorphological study (ultrastructure of lamina surface, seeds, ultrasculpture of pollen grains of Gladiolus L. species (Iridaceae Juss. of Ukrainian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhygalova Svitlana L.


    Full Text Available Micro-morphological characteristics of the four Gladiolus L. species of the Ukrainian flora (G. imbricatus L., G. italicus Mill., G. palustris Gaudin and G. tenuis M. Bieb. as regards leaves, seeds and pollens are presented with this investigation in a detailed way. An examination of the surface structure of the leaves, seeds and pollen grains of the Gladiolus species indicates that the characteristics of the ultrastructure of leaves and of pollen grains are not diagnostic for distinguishing species, but they could be important at genus level (leaves: features such as being amphistomatic, having the same quantity of immersed stomata on both surfaces and having a high stomata index, the presence and localisation of papillae, the shape of epidermal cells; pollen grains: monosulcate type with two operculums. However, the type of surface ultrastructure of the seed coat is a diagnostic feature as at genus level so for species. It can be mentioned that propose the use of features such as the shape and position of the cicatricle, the type of cuticle, the shape and boundaries of cells of testa, and the anticlinal cell walls as diagnostic features at genera level. The shape of seeds, the presence and disposition of wing, the level of the periclinal cell walls of the seed coat and types of relief are additional diagnostic features for distinguishing of Gladiolus species.


    Maskey, James J; Sweitzer, Rick A; Goodwin, Brett J


    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a parasite of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and is also a significant pathogen of moose (Alces alces) and other ungulates. Changes in climate or habitat may facilitate range expansion or increase the prevalence of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer, resulting in increased exposure to susceptible ungulates. We examined 3,730 white-tailed deer during 2002-05 to determine the prevalence and range of meningeal worm infection in North Dakota, US, and investigated whether these had changed since earlier surveys. We used multiple logistic regression to model potential effects of habitat and climate on prevalence in white-tailed deer. We also examined how habitat influences intermediate hosts by comparing gastropod abundance and microclimate among habitat types. Prevalence in deer was 14% statewide, and prevalence and geographic range had increased since the early 1990 s. Natural woodlands provided the best habitat for intermediate hosts, and increases in prevalence of infection in deer may be due to recent patterns in growing-season precipitation. This study has redefined the geographic distribution of meningeal worm infection and increased understanding of how climate and habitat influence the prevalence and distribution of this parasite.

  15. Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: transcriptome analysis of Arma chinensis fed on artificial diet and Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi pupae.

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    Deyu Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insect predator, Arma chinensis, is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Our previous study demonstrated several life history parameters were diminished for A. chinensis reared on an artificial diet compared to a natural food source like the Chinese oak silk moth pupae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis health are unclear. So we utilized transcriptome information to better understand the impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis at the molecular level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 4.79 and 4.70 Gb of the transcriptome from pupae-fed and artificial diet-fed A. chinensis libraries, respectively, and a de novo transcriptome assembly was performed (Trinity short read assembler. This resulted in 112,029 and 98,724 contigs, clustered into 54,083 and 54,169 unigenes for pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis, respectively. Unigenes from each sample's assembly underwent sequence splicing and redundancy removal to acquire non-redundant unigenes. We obtained 55,189 unigenes of A. chinensis, including 12,046 distinct clusters and 43,143 distinct singletons. Unigene sequences were aligned by BLASTx to nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG (E-value <10(-5, and further aligned by BLASTn to nt (E-value <10(-5, retrieving proteins of highest sequence similarity with the given unigenes along with their protein functional annotations. Totally, 22,964, 7,898, 18,069, 15,416, 8,066 and 5,341 unigenes were annotated in nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG and GO, respectively. We compared gene expression variations and found thousands of genes were differentially expressed between pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides abundant genomic data and offers comprehensive sequence information for studying A. chinensis. Additionally, the physiological

  16. Biological agents for whitefly control in Sardinian greenhouse tomatoes. (United States)

    Nannini, M; Foddi, F; Manca, L; Pisci, R; Sanna, F


    To evaluate the effectiveness of alternative options for biocontrol of whiteflies in greenhouse tomatoes, an experiment was carried out during the cropping season 2005-2006 in one of Sardinia's major horticultural districts (S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy). Twelve long-cycle and 17 short-cycle tomato crops (8 autumn and 9 spring crops) were surveyed. All of them were treated for insect pest control at the beginning of the growing season, but in 19 out of 29 cases whitefly natural enemies were also released (BCA greenhouses), at least four weeks after the last treatment. The following release programmes were tested: on autumn crops, 1 Macrolophus caliginosus and 12 Eretmocerus mundus/m2; on long-cycle crops, 1 M. caliginosus (released in autumn or spring) and 24 Encarsia formosa/m2 or 48 E. formosa/m2; on spring crops, 1 M. caliginosus and 24 E. formosa/m2 or 48 E. formosa/m2. The cost of each option was fixed at approximately 0.25 Euros/m2. The remaining greenhouses were maintained as controls (no BCA greenhouses). While whitefly and mirid populations were monitored monthly, whitefly species composition and mortality of immature stages were estimated at least twice during the growing season. On short-cycle autumn crops, the release of M. caliginosus and E. mundus produced negligible results in terms of Bemisia tabaci control. On long-cycle and spring crops, even though in June mortality rates in BCA greenhouses were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher than in no-BCA greenhouses, Trialeurodes vaporariorum population growth was not significantly affected by natural enemies. Among the beneficials tested, E. formosa proved to be the most effective; E. mundus and M. caliginosus did not establish well, probably owing to the persistence of insecticide residues, scarce prey availability and intense plant de-leafing. The presence of indigenous natural enemies of whiteflies was observed in most sites, but in general they contributed little to biological control. The

  17. Screening of Bt isolates with insecticidal activity against Apolygus lucorum (Heteroptera:Miridae)and bioassay of Cry15Aa polypeptides%对绿盲蝽具有杀虫活性Bt菌株的筛选及Cry15Aa蛋白活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学雯; 束长龙; 陆宴辉; 刘春颖; 张杰; 高继国


    Transgenic cotton with cry genes has controlled the main cotton pests (Helicoverpa armigera )effective-ly,however another non target mirid bugs (Heteroptera:Miridae)with sucking mouthparts have increased popu-lation sizes year by year.It has not been reported to the effective insecticidal genes of Bacillus thuringiensis a-gainst Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür),in this study,Bt insecticidal genes and isolates stored in our laboratory were prepared to assay the insecticidal activity against A.lucorum .The cry 15Aa gene which belongs to Mtx in our lab was used to perform the bioassay to A.lucorum ,the result showed that Cry15Aa polypeptides was certain insecticidal activity against A.lucorum .After bioassay against A.lucorum ,twenty A.lucorum toxic Bt isolates were obtained.The LC-MS/MS identification showed these isolates might contains Cry1Aa,Cry1Ab,Cry1Ac, Cry1Ae,Cry1Af,Cry1Ag,Cry1Ah,Cry1Ba,Cry1Be,Cry8Ha and other proteins which are insecticidal to lepi-doptera and coleopteran pests,and four of them contains peptide fragment similar to Cry15Aa which belong to Mtx protein.But subsequence gene identification results indicated that these isolates not contains full length cry 15Aa gene,it suggested that these isolates contains new cry 15 type genes.The results indicated that these Bt i-solates may contain new insecticidal proteins toxic to mirid bugs.The obtaining of novel Bt isolates and the discovery of Cry15Aa with insecticidal activity against A.lucorum are significant to the biological control for A.lucorum .%Bt 棉有效控制了棉田主要害虫棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigera ),然而原来处于次要地位的刺吸式口器害虫盲蝽(Heteroptera:Miridae)为害逐年加重,目前对绿盲蝽(Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür)有效的抗虫基因未见报道。本研究以本实验室保存的 Bt 杀虫基因和菌株为材料,对绿盲蝽进行杀虫活性筛选。利用本实验室先前克隆的Mtx 类杀虫基因 cry15Aa 表达产物进行绿

  18. Dirofilariose: zoonose emergente negligenciada Dirofilariasis: neglected emerging zoonosis

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    Rodrigo Costa da Silva


    Full Text Available A dirofilariose é uma zoonose pouco conhecida causada por Dirofilaria spp., nematódeo mais conhecido como verme do coração dos cães (Dirofilaria immitis, parasita do sistema circulatório desses animais, mas que também pode acometer gatos e o ser humano. Sua ocorrência está intimamente ligada à presença de mosquitos vetores (Aedes spp., Anopheles spp., Culex spp., condições climáticas favoráveis, assim como trânsito entre regiões indenes e endêmicas/epidêmicas. O ser humano pode se infectar com D. immitis (pulmão, Dirofilaria repens (pulmão, subcutâneo e Dirofilaria tenuis (subcutâneo. A fisiopatologia está intimamente ligada à morte do parasita onde, no cão, pode induzir a obstrução de vasos circulatórios e no ser humano produzir uma lesão nodular com intensa reação inflamatória no parênquima pulmonar com formato de moeda observada nas radiografias. Pode ser diagnosticada pelo exame físico, pela detecção de microfilárias na circulação sangüínea, imunoadsorção enzimático (ELISA, alterações radiográficas, ecocardiografia, ultrassonografia e necropsia. Há riscos no tratamento, sendo a prevenção com a utilização de drogas nos animais o método mais eficaz, principalmente em visitas a áreas endêmicas ou epidêmicas, diminuindo-se, assim, o risco para saúde pública devido à disseminação do parasita.Dirofilariasis is an unknown zoonosis, caused by Dirofilaria spp, nematodea most known as dog's heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis, which parasites the vascular system of these animals, but infects cats and human beings too. Its occurrence is highly linked to the presence of mosquitoes (Aedes spp., Anopheles spp., Culex spp., adequate climatic conditions, as well as the transit between infection-free and endemic/epidemic regions. Human beings can be infected by D. immitis (lung, Dirofilaria repens (lung, subcutaneous and Dirofilaria tenuis (subcutaneous. The physiopathology is highly dependent of the

  19. Altitudinal zonation among lizards of the genus Liolaemus: questions answered and unanswered questions Zonación altitudinal en lagartijas del género Liolaemus: preguntas respondidas y pendientes

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    Full Text Available We review factors influencing Liolaemus distributions in the central Chilean Andes and suggest areas of future research. Our previous studies reveal that lizard parasites (ectoparasitic mites and ticks, and the endoparasite Plasmodium do not set Liolaemus altitudinal limits. Thermal tolerances do not appear to limit altitudinal distributions, although cold ambient temperatures dictate that only live-bearing species can occur above 2,400 m elevation. Three Liolaemus species specialize on elevationally restricted microhabitats. Liolaemus tenuis is found exclusively in or at the base of trees, which are typically below 1,800 m. Liolaemus leopardinus specializes on large rocky outcrops found at high altitudes. Liolaemus monticola uses smaller rocks: oviparity set its upper distributional limit on two transects, but on one transect this lizard and its rocky habitat virtually disappeared above 1,500 m. Interspecific competition among Liolaemus appeared unrelated to elevational distribution. We found no instances of parapatric distributions among pairs of Liolaemus species having similar niche requirements. Other researchers have found that predation does not correlate with elevation: its role in determining lizard species distributions depends on both predator and prey identities. We conclude that factors setting distributional limits of Liolaemus species vary depending on individual circumstances in time and space: where physiology may be relevant on one transect, preferred microhabitat availability may be important in anotherRevisamos los factores que influyen sobre las distribuciones de Liolaemus en los Andes del centro de Chile y sugerimos futuras avenidas de investigación. Nuestros estudios previos revelan que los parásitos (garrapatas y ácaros ectoparásitos y el endoparásito Plasmodium no influyen sobre los límites altitudinales de Liolaemus. Las tolerancias térmicas tampoco parecen limitar dichas distribuciones altitudinales, aunque las


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    Ofri Johan


    Full Text Available Kegiatan budi daya karang hias di Indonesia perlu dilakukan untuk menjamin perdagangannya agar berjalan tanpa merusak keanekaragaman dan kondisi terumbu karang. Budi daya karang hias menggunakan rak berupa meja yang terbuat dari paralon PVC yang dinilai sangat ekonomis dan mudah diaplikasikan masyarakat lokal. Pengamatan pertumbuhan hanya dilakukan pada 1 rak masing-masing jenis karang yang dibudidayakan yaitu Acropora sp., Acropora formosa, Acropora humilis, Acropora millepora, Acropora nobilis, dan Seriatopora hystrix. Kegiatan dilakukan pada dua lokasi yaitu Pulau Simakakang-Mentawai, Sumatera Barat dan Gondol, Bali. Pengamatan dilakukan setiap dua bulan dan penelitian dilaksanakan selama 6 bulan. Hasil pengamatan diperoleh tingkat mortalitas pada lokasi Pulau Simakakang diperoleh 5,56% dari 36 sampel yang diukur dari 6 jenis karang dan 6 ulangan, pertambahan panjang jenis A. formosa 0,64 cm/bulan, lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan jenis A. millepora 0,58 cm/bulan dan jenis lain. Karang A. humilis memiliki laju perambatan pada substrat semen dan batang pengikat yang  lebih cepat dari jenis lain. Pada lokasi Gondol, Bali memiliki laju pertambahan panjang karang A. millepora lebih cepat (0,50 cm/bulan dibandingkan dengan jenis A. tenuis (0,43 cm/bulan dan jenis lain berkisar antara 0,21—0,39 cm/bulan.Tingkat kematian 3 koloni (7,1% dari total 42 koloni yang disampling. The culture of ornamental coral is important to be conducted to guarantee the coral trade can be run well without giving impact to coral reef biodiversities and coral reef condition in Indonesia. This cultured using table using nets as a place which is made from PVC pipe. This method can minimize cost comparing with others materials as well as applicable for coastal community. One table can be placed 12 (3x4 substrate with a distance among others of 25 cm, then fragmented coral were tied to that substrates. This activity was carried out in two locations that were Simakakang

  1. Fermentation of mixed glucose-xylose substrates by engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: role of the coenzyme specificity of xylose reductase, and effect of glucose on xylose utilization

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    Klimacek Mario


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the substantial metabolic engineering effort previously devoted to the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting both the hexose and pentose sugars present in lignocellulose hydrolysates, the productivity of reported strains for conversion of the naturally most abundant pentose, xylose, is still a major issue of process efficiency. Protein engineering for targeted alteration of the nicotinamide cofactor specificity of enzymes catalyzing the first steps in the metabolic pathway for xylose was a successful approach of reducing xylitol by-product formation and improving ethanol yield from xylose. The previously reported yeast strain BP10001, which expresses heterologous xylose reductase from Candida tenuis in mutated (NADH-preferring form, stands for a series of other yeast strains designed with similar rational. Using 20 g/L xylose as sole source of carbon, BP10001 displayed a low specific uptake rate qxylose (g xylose/g dry cell weight/h of 0.08. The study presented herein was performed with the aim of analysing (external factors that limit qxylose of BP10001 under xylose-only and mixed glucose-xylose substrate conditions. We also carried out a comprehensive investigation on the currently unclear role of coenzyme utilization, NADPH compared to NADH, for xylose reduction during co-fermentation of glucose and xylose. Results BP10001 and BP000, expressing C. tenuis xylose reductase in NADPH-preferring wild-type form, were used. Glucose and xylose (each at 10 g/L were converted sequentially, the corresponding qsubstrate values being similar for each strain (glucose: 3.0; xylose: 0.05. The distribution of fermentation products from glucose was identical for both strains whereas when using xylose, BP10001 showed enhanced ethanol yield (BP10001 0.30 g/g; BP000 0.23 g/g and decreased yields of xylitol (BP10001 0.26 g/g; BP000 0.36 g/g and glycerol (BP10001 0.023 g/g; BP000 0.072 g/g as compared

  2. Condensed Tannin Concentrations of Three Lotus Species Grown in Different Environments Contenido de Taninos Condensados en Germoplasma de Tres Especies del Género Lotus en Diferentes Ambientes

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    Hernán Acuña


    Full Text Available Condensed tannins (CT present in Lotus spp., depending on their concentration in the plant, can prevent bloating and improve protein absorption in ruminants. With the objective to know the variability of this characteristic, the CT concentration (% dry matter basis was determined by the butanol-HCl procedure in 13 cultivars of Lotus corniculatus L. (Lc introduced from North and South America and Oceania, 11 accessions of Lotus tenuis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. (Lt, and 22 accessions of Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr (Lu collected in Chile, from 32° to 38° S and 36° to 46° S, respectively. The field experiments, with two randomized complete blocks, were established in autumn 1998, in five different environments in the central-southern zone of Chile (clay soil, sandy soil, and three volcanic soils with different levels of water availability. The herbage sampling was conducted in spring-summer 1999-2000, when the plants were in full flowering. Significant differences between cultivars or accessions were found within each site, in total CT and/or in extractable or protein or fiber bound fractions of CT concentrations. The Lc and Lu genotypes showed high variability, with a range of 4.7 to 8.7% and 6.3 to 11.0%, and means of 6.1 and 8.2%, respectively, of total CT. The Lt general mean was 4.8%, considerably higher than the figures reported in the literature, and had low variability. This information will contribute to select genotypes for the improvement of this species by selection and breedingLos taninos condensados (TC presentes en Lotus spp ., dependiendo de su concentración en la planta, pueden evitar el meteorismo y favorecer la absorción de proteína en rumiantes. Con el objetivo de conocer la variabilidad de esta característica se determinó por el método del butanol-HCl la concentración (% base materia seca de TC en 13 cultivares de Lotus corniculatus L. (Lc introducidos de Norteamérica, Sudamérica y Oceanía, 11 accesiones de Lotus

  3. Macroepizoísmo em Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae Macroepizoites on Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae

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    Vanessa C. Winter


    Full Text Available Um estudo de distribuição dos macroepizóicos foi realizado numa população do caranguejo-aranha Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 proveniente do litoral dos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. O material biológico foi obtido junto aos pescadores, e faz parte do rejeito de pesca. Os caranguejos foram mensurados e os macroepizóicos identificados e contados. Os seguintes macroepizóicos sésseis foram registrados: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia e duas espécies tubícolas de Gammaridea (Crustacea. Além destes organismos ocorreram dois tubos desabitados e quatro animais vágeis. A anêmona C. tricolor foi a espécie mais abundante e freqüente, sendo, provavelmente, utilizada como mecanismo de camuflagem pelo caranguejo. O macroepizoísmo em L. ferreirae está relacionado com a idade ou tamanho do caranguejo, tendo maior incidência naqueles mais velhos ou de maior porte. Entretanto, a densidade dos macroepizóicos por caranguejo se mantém em torno de três. Não há relação entre o macroepizoísmo e o sexo do hospedeiro; somente fêmeas ovígeras utilizam desse recurso mais freqüentemente do que as não-ovígeras. Devido à maior área de fixação, os macroepizóicos colonizam principalmente a carapaça do caranguejo, enquanto nos pereiópodos há predominância de Bryozoa.A study of the distribution of the macroepizoites was carried out on a population of the spider crab Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 from the Southern Brazilian coast. Crabs were obtained from shrimps and fishes by-catch. They were measured, and their macroepizoites were identified and counted. The following sessile macroepizoites were registered: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia and two species

  4. Differences of periphyfic algal community structure in different sections of Fanhe River, Liaoning Province of Northeast China%汎河不同断面着生藻类群落结构差异性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付保荣; 张润洁; 李霞; 惠秀娟; 张楠; 付豪; 张铮; 谢轶


    In dry and rainy seasons of 2011, an investigation was conducted on the species and density of periphytic algal communities in ten sections of Fanhe River located in northern Liaon-ing Province of Northeast China. A total of 47 genera, 25 families, 16 orders, 8 classes, and 6 phyla were identified, with 35 genera in dry season and 32 genera in rainy season. The periphytic algal communities in the River were mainly consisted of diatoms, followed by green algae and blue algae. The average density of the algae was 11.92×10 cell·cm-2 in dry season and 3.75× 10 cell·cm-2 in rainy season. The dominant species in dry season were Synedra ulna, S. acus , Fragilaria brevistriata, F. capucina, Diatoma vulgare, Cymbella qffinis, C. ventricosa, and C. cistula, and those in rainy season were Oscillatoria formosa, O. tenuis, Phormidium sp. , Syne-dra ulna, Gomphonema acuminatum, and Cocconeis placentula. The evaluation with Shannon di-versity index indicated that the water quality of the River was of slight pollution.%于2011年枯水期、丰水期对辽宁省北部况河10个断面的着生藻类的种类、生物密度进行了调查.结果表明:监测到着生藻类6门8纲16目25科47属,其中枯水期监测到35属,丰水期监测到32属;沉河着生藻类群落主要由硅藻组成,其次是蓝藻和绿藻;枯水期汎河各断面着生藻类生物密度平均为11.92×105个·cm-2,丰水期的生物密度平均为3.75×105个·cm-2;枯水期汎河着生藻类的优势种主要有肘状针杆藻(Synedra ulna)、尖针杆藻(S.acus)、短线脆杆藻(Fragilaria brevistriata)、钝脆杆藻(F.capucina)、普通等片藻(Diatoma vulgare)、近缘桥弯藻(Cymbella affinis)、偏肿桥弯藻(C.ventricosa)、箱形桥弯藻(C.cistula);丰水期优势种主要有美丽颤藻(Oscillatoria formosa)、两栖颤藻(O.tenuis)、席藻(Phormidium sp.)、肘状针杆藻(S.ulna)、尖异极藻(Gomphonema acuminatum)、扁圆卵形藻(Cocconeis placentula);Shannon多样

  5. Comunicação avaliação da eficiência dos fungicidas fludioxonil + metalaxyl-m no tratamento de sementes de sorgo Evaluation of the efficiency of the fungicides fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M in the treatment of sorghum seeds

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    Nicésio Filadelfo Janssen de Almeida Pinto


    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência dos fungicidas fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M no controle de fungos associados às sementes de sorgo da cultivar BR 506 e na proteção delas contra fungos do solo. Assim, sementes de sorgo foram tratadas com os seguintes fungicidas (dose em g i.a./100 kg sementes: fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M (2,5 + 1,0, fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M (3,75 + 1,5, fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M incolor (2,5 + 1,0, fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M incolor (3,75 + 1,5 e thiram (140,0. Sementes sem tratamento fungicida constituíram a testemunha. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: sanidade das sementes (papel de filtro com congelamento, emergência de plântulas em solo esterilizado (casa-de-vegetação, emergência em solo com monocultivo de sorgo (casa-de-vegetação e emergência no teste de frio em solo com monocultivo de sorgo (laboratório e casa-de-vegetação. Pelas análises dos resultados (Tukey a 5 %, constatou-se que: 1- O fungicida thiram foi eficiente no controle de Fusarium subglutinans associado às sementes de sorgo, porém, ineficiente no controle de Aspergillus spp.; 2- Os fungicidas fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M, fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M incolor e thiram foram eficientes no controle de Penicillium spp., Alternaria tenuis, Phoma sorghina, Curvularia lunata e Drechslera turcica; 3- Todos os tratamentos fungicidas das sementes incrementaram, em solo esterilizado, a emergência de plântulas de sorgo devido ao controle dos fungos patogênicos associados às sementes, e 4- Todos os tratamentos fungicidas incrementaram, em solo com monocultivo de sorgo, a emergência de plântulas, pela proteção das sementes de sorgo contra fungos de solo.This work was carried out in order to evaluate the efficiency of several fungicides applied as seed dressing in the control of sorghum seedborne fungi and the protection against soilborne fungi. Sorghum seeds of cultivar BR 506 were treated with the following

  6. Myzomolgus sipunculensis sp. nov. (Cyclopoida, Catiniidae, a new copepod associated with sipunculan worms from Brazil Myzomolgus sipunculensis sp. nov. (Cyclopoida, Catiniidae, um novo copépode associado a sipuncúlidos do Brasil

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    Terue C. Kihara


    Full Text Available Catiniid copepods are characterized by the presence of a pedunculate sucker on the antenna. Four genera are currently included in the family Catiniidae: Catinia, Cotylemyzon, Cotylomolgus and Myzomolgus, the most speciose. Within the framework of the Special Research Program "Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Biodiversity of the State of São Paulo - Biota/FAPESP", a new species of Myzomolgus was found as an external associate of Sipunculus nudus and S. phalloides phalloides. The sipunculan worms were collected during the low tide in Araçá Beach, State of São Paulo, Brazil (23º49’02"S, 45º24’19"W. The new species differs from its three congeners, namely M. stupendus from France and M. tenuis and M. orientalis from Korea, by the peculiar ornamentation of the third antennal segment, morphology of mandible and leg 6 and presence of denticulate area between maxillipeds. The description of this new species raises to four the number of catiniid species (one of Catinia and two of Myzomolgus associated with the widely distributed S. nudus. In Brazil, this is the first record of Myzomolgus and the second species associated with sipunculan worms (a new species of Catinia found on S. phalloides phalloides is under description.Os copépodes catiniídeos se caracterizam pela presença de uma ventosa pedunculada na antena. Atualmente, quatro gêneros estão incluídos na família Catiniidae: Catinia, Cotylemyzon, Cotylemolgus e Myzomolgus, o mais especioso. Como parte de um programa especial de pesquisa "Conservação e Uso Sustentável da Biodiversidade do Estado de São Paulo - Biota/FAPESP", uma nova espécie de Myzomolgus foi encontrada associada à superfície externa de Sipunculus nudus e S. phalloides phalloides. Os sipuncúlidos foram coletados na Praia do Araçá, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (23º49’02"S, 45º24’19"W, durante a maré baixa. A nova espécie difere de M. stupendus, da França, e M. tenuis e M. orientalis, ambos da

  7. Composición, abundancia y distribución de las especies de quetognatos del litoral norte del Caribe de México Composition, abundance and chaetognath species distribution in the north littoral of the Mexican Caribbean Sea

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    José N. Álvarez-Cadena


    Full Text Available Se estudiaron la composición y las variaciones de la abundancia de las especies de quetognatos en el litoral norte de Quintana Roo, durante un ciclo anual (enero a diciembre del 2004. Los muestreos se realizaron durante el día, cerca de la superficie, con una red cónica de 0.4 m de diámetro y malla de 330 µm, por 5 min., en 12 estaciones ubicadas desde Puerto Morelos hasta Cancún. Se hicieron mediciones in situ de temperatura y salinidad que mostraron variaciones atípicas relativas a los antecedentes del régimen climático reportado (secas, lluvias y nortes. En cambio, se registraron mejores correlaciones con las zonas de muestreo (lagunar, arrecifal y oceánica. Se capturaron 16,966 m³ quetognatos con un promedio anual de 575 org. /100 m³. Las mayores abundancias fueron en enero (secas y las menores en agosto (lluvias. Se identificaron 11 especies con Ferosagitta hispida como la más abundante (499.6 org./100 m³ = 77% y como especie única en la zona lagunar. Flaccisagitta enflata fue segunda en densidad (80.2 org./100 m³ = 14.6%, la cual fue principalmente abundante en la zona oceánica. Krohnitta pacifica (17.8 org./100 m³ = 3% y Serratosagitta serratodentata (13.2 org./100 m³ = 2.5%, estuvieron mejor representadas en el área arrecifal. Las especies menos abundantes en orden decreciente fueron: Sagitta tenuis, Pterosagitta draco, F. hexaptera, S. friderici, S. helenae, Mesosagitta minima y S. bipunctata que en su conjunto contribuyeron con 12.8 org./100 m³ = 2.3%.Species composition and variations in abundance of chaetognaths from the north of Quintana Roo were carried out from January to December 2004. Sampling was made near surface with a conical net (0.40 m, diameter; 330 µm mesh at 12 stations from Puerto Morelos to Cancun. Temperature and salinity were measured in situ. Weather conditions were atypical with previous reports (dry, rains, nortes. Instead, a better correlation was observed with the environmental conditions

  8. Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota in Chile Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado en Chile

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    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ecology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile, Islas Juan Fern

  9. Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Heteroatom-Substituted 1,4-Naphtho- and Benzoquinones. (United States)

    Deniz, Nahide Gülşah; Ibis, Cemil; Gokmen, Zeliha; Stasevych, Maryna; Novikov, Volodymyr; Komarovska-Porokhnyavets, Olena; Ozyurek, Mustafa; Guclu, Kubilay; Karakas, Didem; Ulukaya, Engin


    In the present paper, we report the synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation as antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic/anticancer agents of N-, S-, O-substituted-1,4-naphtho- and 2,5-bis(amino-substituted)-1,4-benzoquinone derivatives. In the synthesized compounds, antimicrobial activity at low concentrations against Escherichia coli B-906, Staphylococcus aureus 209-P, and Mycobacterium luteum B-917 bacteria and Candida tenuis VKM Y-70 and Aspergillus niger F-1119 fungi in comparison with controls was identified. 2-(N-Diphenylmethylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone 9a was the most potent, with a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 3.9 µg/mL against test culture M. luteum. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antioxidant capacity using the cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. 2,2'-[1-(2-Aminoethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-3,3'-dichloro-bis(1,4-naphthoquinone) 10 showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with a 0.455 CUPRAC-trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) coefficient. Other parameters of antioxidant activity (scavenging effects on OH(·), O2(·-), and H2O2) of these compounds were also determined. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was investigated by employing the sulforhodamine B cell viability assay against A549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), DU145 (prostate), and HT-29 (colon) cancer cell lines. Compound 10 exhibited the most powerful cytotoxic activity at a concentration of 20 µM against all cell lines. In addition to the strongest antioxidant activity of compound 10, it also had lowest IC50 values (activity.

  10. Amino Acids Sequence Based in Silico Analysis of RuBisCO (Ribulose-1,5 Bisphosphate Carboxylase Oxygenase Proteins in Some Carthamus L. ssp.

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    Full Text Available RuBisCO is an important enzyme for plants to photosynthesize and balance carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study aimed to perform sequence, physicochemical, phylogenetic and 3D (three-dimensional comparative analyses of RuBisCO proteins in the Carthamus ssp. using various bioinformatics tools. The sequence lengths of the RuBisCO proteins were between 166 and 477 amino acids, with an average length of 411.8 amino acids. Their molecular weights (Mw ranged from 18711.47 to 52843.09 Da; the most acidic and basic protein sequences were detected in C. tinctorius (pI = 5.99 and in C. tenuis (pI = 6.92, respectively. The extinction coefficients of RuBisCO proteins at 280 nm ranged from 17,670 to 69,830 M-1 cm-1, the instability index (II values for RuBisCO proteins ranged from 33.31 to 39.39, while the GRAVY values of RuBisCO proteins ranged from -0.313 to -0.250. The most abundant amino acid in the RuBisCO protein was Gly (9.7%, while the least amino acid ratio was Trp (1.6 %. The putative phosphorylation sites of RuBisCO proteins were determined by NetPhos 2.0. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RuBisCO proteins formed two main clades. A RAMPAGE analysis revealed that 96.3%-97.6% of residues were located in the favoured region of RuBisCO proteins. To predict the three dimensional (3D structure of the RuBisCO proteins PyMOL was used. The results of the current study provide insights into fundamental characteristic of RuBisCO proteins in Carthamus ssp.

  11. Vegetation establishment on a deposit of zinc mine wastes. (United States)

    Bergholm, J; Steen, E


    Field trials concerning the establishment of plant cover on a deposit of wastes from the Ammeberg zinc mine in central Sweden were carried out during 1976-1985. Different soil conditioners and manures were applied and plant species cultivars were evaluated with regard to plant biomass, vigour, durability and content of zinc, lead and cadmium. Sewage sludge and topsoil led to better establishment of grasses than did municipal waste, straw and hydraulic seeding. After 2 years, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis dominated the swards. Other species (Dactylis glomerata, Bromus inermis, Lolium perenne, Phleum nodosum, Festuca pratensis and F. arundinacea) constituted only a minor part of the stand. After 10 years, F. rubra was the most dominant species, while native Agrostis tenuis had invaded 20-50% of the area within the plots. Merlin was the clearly dominant red fescue cultivar. The concentration of zinc in shoots (616 mg kg(-1) dw) was about 10% of that in the soil. Zinc concentration decreased with increasing biomass above ground. It increased with age in Scots pine needles and was very high in birch leaves. Grasses survived longer than legumes in the zinc sand waste. Among the surviving grasses was a group with high (3800 mg kg(-1) dw) and a group with low (320 mg kg(-1) dw) zinc concentrations. The low group included Merlin red fescue and Sobel creeping bent. The cultivar Merlin contained a much lower zinc concentration than the other cultivars of red fescue (375 and 624 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively). A large amount of root biomass was present in plots with dominating Merlin red fescue (1715 g m(-2)), 97% of which was concentrated in the top 10 cm of the soil. The concentration of zinc in the roots was very high (13 000-25 000 mg kg(-1) dw). Nitrate fertilizer, especially ammonium nitrate, and acidic water (pH 4.3) increased zinc leaching.


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    Full Text Available The rich orthophragminid assemblages from the upper Thanetian and lower Ypresian of Turkey are discussed together with the coeval faunas from Spilecco (N Italy and Beloslav (Bulgaria. Their taxonomy, evolution and biozonation in the Western Tethys are revised. Our biometric study is based mainly on a large number of equatorial sections of megalospheric individuals. We present the emended description of Discocyclina seunesi, D. tenuis, Orbitoclypeus multiplicatus, O. bayani and Asterocyclina taramellii. A new species, Nemkovella stockari is introduced. The evolutionary lineages of Discocyclina seunesi, Orbitoclypeus multiplicatus and O. bayani are restored for the first time by using the consistent size-increase of the megalospheric embryon that also allowed introducing some new subspecies (Discocyclina seunesi beloslavensis, D. s. karabuekensis, Orbitoclypeus multiplicatus kastamonuensis, O. bayani kurucasileensis and O. munieri ponticus. By owing the most complete record of Thanetian and early Ypresian orthophragmines from the Western Tethys (using also data from SW France and the Crimean Peninsula we could reconstruct their early evolution. The chronostratigraphical position of some localities was ascertained from planktic and larger benthic foraminifera, as well as calcareous nannoplankton. In the updated orthophragminid zonation (zones are marked by OZ, OZ 1a corresponds to the early Thanetian, OZ 1b to the middle Thanetian. They are distinguished on the base of the evolution of Discocyclina seunesi. In these zones, only two unribbed species of Discocyclina and Orbitoclypeus each are present. Ribbed Orbitoclypeus, genus Asterocyclina and Nemkovella appeared in the redefined OZ 2 zone belonging to the late Thanetian. Discocyclina archiaci and D. dispansa substituted D. seunesi at about the Paleocene/Eocene boundary. The early Ypresian can be subdivided into the OZ 3 and 4 zones that can be distinguished from each other by the different

  13. Leaf carbon assimilation and molecular phylogeny in Cattleya species (Orchidaceae). (United States)

    Andrade-Souza, V; Almeida, A-A F; Corrêa, R X; Costa, M A; Mielke, M S; Gomes, F P


    We examined leaf CO(2) assimilation and how it varied among species within the orchid genus Cattleya. Measurements of CO(2) assimilation and maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm) were made for mature leaves of nine species using a portable system for photosynthesis measurement and a portable fluorometer. Leaf area was measured with an area meter, and the specific leaf mass was determined. DNA of nine Cattleya species and two species of Hadrolaelia was extracted using the CTAB protocol. Each sample was amplified and sequenced using primers for the trnL gene. The phylogenetic analyses, using neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods, retrieved a group that included Cattleya and Hadrolaelia species, in which the unifoliate species were separated from the bifoliates. The topologies of the two cladograms showed some similarities. However, C. guttata (bifoliate) was placed in the unifoliate clade in the neighbor-joining tree, while C. warneri (unifoliate) was not placed in this clade in the maximum parsimony tree. Most Cattleya species keep the leaf stomata closed from 6 am to 4 pm. We suggest that C. elongata, C. tigrina and C. tenuis have C(3)-crassulacean acid metabolism since they open their stomata around 12 am. The Fv/Fm values remained relatively constant during the measurements of CO(2) assimilation. The same was observed for the specific leaf mass values, although great variations were found in the leaf area values. When the species were grouped using molecular data in the neighbor-joining analysis, no relation was observed with CO(2) assimilation.

  14. Allergy to beer in LTP-sensitized patients: beers are not all the same. (United States)

    Quercia, O; Zoccatelli, G; Stefanini, G F; Mistrello, G; Amato, S; Bolla, M; Emiliani, F; Asero, R


    Most cases of beer allergy reported so far have been associated with hypersensitivity to the non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP). In view of the marked differences in brewing processes we assessed IgE reactivity as well as tolerance to many different beers in an allergic patient. A 45 year-old man hypersensitive to grass pollen, cat dander and Alternaria tenuis with a history of urticaria and dyspnoea after drinking beer and a weak skin reactivity to commercial corn extract was studied. The patient underwent SPT with 36 different brands of beer and an open challenge with those scoring negative was performed. An immunoblot analysis was carried out using 2 SPT-positive beers, 2 SPT-negative beers, and barley, wheat, and maize extracts using both patient's serum and a maize LTP-specific in-house developed polyclonal antibody from rabbit. Further, the immune reactive LTP of one beer was separated by HPLC and the chromatogram was compared to that of purified maize LTP. Beer SPT scored positive in 30/36 cases. The immunoblot analysis showed IgE reactivity at about 10 kDa against the two SPT-positive beers and against maize with both patient's serum and the polyclonal anti-LTP rabbit serum, whereas the two SPT-negative beers, and barley extract scored negative. The immunodetected protein co-migrated with maize LTP. In beer-allergic patients the diagnostic workup may point to the detection of some tolerated products that can be consumed risk-free. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Predation on larval suckers in the Williamson River Delta revealed by molecular genetic assays—A pilot study (United States)

    Hereford, Danielle M.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Burdick, Summer M.


    Predation of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) during larval egress to Upper Klamath Lake from the Williamson River is poorly understood but may be an important factor limiting recruitment into adult spawning populations. Native and non-native piscivores are abundant in nursery wetland habitat, but larval predation has not been directly studied for all species. Larvae lack hard body structures and digest rapidly in predator digestive systems. Therefore, traditional visual methods for diet analysis may fail to identify the extent of predation on larvae. The goals of this study were to (1) use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays developed for Lost River and shortnose suckers to assay predator stomach contents for sucker DNA, and (2) to assess our ability to use this technique to study predation. Predators were captured opportunistically during larval sucker egress. Concurrent feeding trials indicate that most predators—yellow perch (Perca flaverscens), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), blue chub (Gila coerulea), Klamath tui chub (Siphatales bicolor bicolor), Klamath Lake sculpin (Cottus princeps), slender sculpin (Cottus tenuis)—preyed on sucker larvae in the laboratory. However, sucker DNA was not detected in fathead minnow stomachs. Of the stomachs screened from fish captured in the Williamson River Delta, 15.6 percent of yellow perch contained sucker DNA. This study has demonstrated that the application of qPCR and SNP assays is effective for studying predation on larval suckers. We suggest that techniques associated with dissection or detection of sucker DNA from fathead minnow stomachs need improvement.

  16. The effect of utilization term on the biomass production, organic matter digestibility and ergosterol content of semi-natural grass stand in the autumn and in winter

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    Jiří Skládanka


    Full Text Available The biomass of dry matter (DM and forage quality of a  grass pasture in the  Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (Czech Republic, situated at an altitude of 553 m a.s.l., was measured in late autumn and in winter in the  period from 2000 to 2003. The semi-natural grass pasture was dominated by Festuca rubra, Taraxacum officinale, Elytrigia repens, Dactylis glomerata, Trisetum flavescens, Poa spp., Agrostis tenuis and Phleum pratense. Biomass production and forage quality were measured in November, December and January after one preparatory cut in June or two preparatory cuts in June and July, and in June and August. Biomass of DM decreased from November to January and ranged, depending on the  year and the  number of preparatory cuts, from 0.37–3.13  t  ha – 1 in November to 0.15–1.36  t  ha – 1 in January. The biomass of DM decreased the  later the  preparatory cut. Organic matter digestibility decreased from November to January, ranging from 0.448–0.606 in November to 0.352–0.578 in January. A delayed preparatory cut resulted in an increased digestibility. Ergosterol concentration increased with the  progressing autumn and winter, ranging from 40–111  mg  kg – 1 DM in November to 110–265  mg  kg – 1 DM in January. Lower ergosterol concentrations were observed after a  late preparatory cut. The results were statistically analysed by ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. The length of the  main use was observed to have a significant effect on biomass of DM, digestibility of organic matter and ergosterol concentration (P < 0.05 in all three years of the  investigation.

  17. Nachträge zum 'Katalog der schweizerischen Spinnen'. 2. Neunachweise von 1993 bis 1999

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    Hänggi, Ambros


    Full Text Available Since the first supplement in 1993 38 species are recorded as new to Switzerland. 14 species are recorded here for the first time for Switzerland: Enoplognatha oelandica (Thorell, 1875; Theridion hemerobium Simon, 1914; Diplocephalus crassilobus (Simon, 1884; Diplocephalus pavesii Pesarini, 1996; Linyphia tenuipalpis Simon, 1884; Porrhomma cambridgei merrett, 1994; Porrhomma rosenhaueri (L.Koch, 1872; Pachygnatha terilis Thaler,1991; Hahnia candida Simon, 1975; Cryptodrassus hungaricus (Balogh, 1935; Zelotes devotus Grimm, 1982; Zelotes hermani (Chyzer, 1897; Zelotes tenuis (L.Koch, 1866; Tmarus stellio Simon, 1875. 24 species were published in other papers and are listed here only to complete the catalogue: Episinus maculipes Cavanna, 1876; Robertus kuehnae Bauchhenss & Uhlenhaut, 1993; Centromerus capucinus (Simon, 1884; Diplocephalus dentatus Tullgren, 1955; Lepthyphantes arenicola Denis, 1964; Lepthyphantes insignis (O.P.-Cambridge, 1913; Lessertia dentichelis (Simon, 1884; Maro lepidus Casemir, 1961; Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826; Pseudomaro aenigmaticus Denis, 1966; Silometopus bonessi Casemir, 1970; Acantholycosa norvegica (Thorell, 1872; Acantholycosa rupicola (Dufour, 1820; Pardosa alacris (C.L.Koch, 1933; Pardosa baehrorum Kronestedt, 1999; Pardosa saltans Töpfer-Hofmann im Druck; Altella biuncata (Miller, 1949; Agroeca inopina O.P.-Cambridge, 1886; Clubiona pseudoneglecta Wunderlich, 1994; Zodarion italicum (Canestrini, 1868; Synaphosus sauvage Ovtsharenko, Levy & Platnick, 1994; Zora parallela Simon, 1878; Thanatus atratus Simon, 1875; Ozyptila pullata (Thorell, 1875. 4 species have to be deleted from the catalogue: Diplocephalus foraminifer (O.P.-Cambridge, 1875; Diplocephalus aff. procer (Simon, 1884 sensu Thaler (1972; Acantholycosa pyrenaea (Simon, 1876; Zodarion gallicum (Simon, 1873. The actual number of known species in Switzerland is 926.

  18. Occurrence and identification of the etiologic agents of plant diseases in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. in the semi-arid region of Paraiba

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    Anne Evelyne Franco de Souza


    Full Text Available Cactus forage (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill., intensely cultivated in dry regions of northeast Brazil, although well adapted to the harsh semi-arid climate is affected by major problems such as pests and diseases, responsible for significant losses in production. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and diversity of the etiologic agents of diseases of cactus cultivated in 38 municipalities in the semi-arid region of Paraiba. The analyses were conducted and processed at the Laboratory of Phytopathology of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, in Areia - PB. Starting from sick cladodes isolations, multiplications and identifications of the found microorganisms were made. The identification of the microorganisms was achieved through observations of the macro and micromorphological characteristics of the cultures and tests of Gram and pathogenicity. Great incidence and diversity of microorganisms was verified in the cacti researched, but the highest occurrence was mainly that of fungus. The fungi of widest occurrence were: Scytallidium lignicola, Alternate tenuis, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cladosporium cladosporides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. opuntiarum, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus niger, Nigrospora sphaerica, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Exserohilum turcicum, Pestalotia pitospora, Rhizopus stolonifer, Rhizoctonia solani and Sphaceloma protearum. A bacterium was also detected that was suspected to belong to the Erwinia sp. strain. Satisfaction of the Postulates of Koch proved the infectious nature of the detected microorganisms. High occurrence of the fungus S. lignicola, an agent of scale rot disease in 100% of the places researched, was observed. This fact is of great concern, since the progression of the disease can cause significant losses in production.

  19. Mortality of rocky mountain elk in Michigan due to meningeal worm (United States)

    Bender, L.C.; Schmitt, S.M.; Carlson, E.; Haufler, J.B.; Beyer, D.E.


    Mortality from cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis caused by the meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been hypothesized to limit elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in areas where elk are conspecific with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Elk were reintroduced into Michigan (USA) in the early 1900s and subsequently greatly increased population size and distribution despite sympatric high-density (???12/km2) white-tailed deer populations. We monitored 100 radio-collared elk of all age and sex classes from 1981-94, during which time we documented 76 mortalities. Meningeal worm was a minor mortality factor for elk in Michigan and accounted for only 3% of mortalities, fewer than legal harvest (58%), illegal kills (22%), other diseases (7%), and malnutrition (4%). Across years, annual cause-specific mortality rates due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis were 0.033 (SE=0.006), 0.029 (SE=0.005), 0.000 (SE=0.001), and 0.000 (SE=0.000) for calves, 1-yr-old, 2-yr-old, and ???3-yr-old, respectively. The overall population-level mortality rate due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis was 0.009 (SE=0.001). Thus, meningeal worm had little impact on elk in Michigan during our study despite greater than normal precipitation (favoring gastropods) and record (???14 km2) deer densities. Further, elk in Michigan have shown sustained population rates-of-increase of ???18%/yr and among the highest levels of juvenile production and survival recorded for elk in North America, indicating that elk can persist in areas with meningeal worm at high levels of population productivity. it is likely that local ecologic characteristics among elk, white-tailed deer, and gastropods, and degree of exposure, age of elk, individual and population experience with meningeal worm, overall population vigor, and moisture determine the effects of meningeal worm on elk populations. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2005.

  20. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora

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    Barna Páll-Gergely


    Full Text Available Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909 were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and G. messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and P. fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n. on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese G. phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of G. phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.

  1. Predicting shifts in parasite distribution with climate change: a multitrophic level approach. (United States)

    Pickles, Rob S A; Thornton, Daniel; Feldman, Richard; Marques, Adam; Murray, Dennis L


    Climate change likely will lead to increasingly favourable environmental conditions for many parasites. However, predictions regarding parasitism's impacts often fail to account for the likely variability in host distribution and how this may alter parasite occurrence. Here, we investigate potential distributional shifts in the meningeal worm, Parelaphostrongylosis tenuis, a protostrongylid nematode commonly found in white-tailed deer in North America, whose life cycle also involves a free-living stage and a gastropod intermediate host. We modelled the distribution of the hosts and free-living larva as a complete assemblage to assess whether a complex trophic system will lead to an overall increase in parasite distribution with climate change, or whether divergent environmental niches may promote an ecological mismatch. Using an ensemble approach to climate modelling under two different carbon emission scenarios, we show that whereas the overall trend is for an increase in niche breadth for each species, mismatches arise in habitat suitability of the free-living larva vs. the definitive and intermediate hosts. By incorporating these projected mismatches into a combined model, we project a shift in parasite distribution accounting for all steps in the transmission cycle, and identify that overall habitat suitability of the parasite will decline in the Great Plains and southeastern USA, but will increase in the Boreal Forest ecoregion, particularly in Alberta. These results have important implications for wildlife conservation and management due to the known pathogenicity of parelaphostrongylosis to alternate hosts including moose, caribou and elk. Our results suggest that disease risk forecasts which fail to consider biotic interactions may be overly simplistic, and that accounting for each of the parasite's life stages is key to refining predicted responses to climate change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Biodiversity and community structural characteristics of macrobenthos in the Chukchi Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianjun; LIN Heshan; HE Xuebao; LIN Junhui; HUANG Yaqin; LI Rongguan; ZHENG Chengxing; ZHENG Fengwu; JIANG Jinxiang


    Field sampling of the macrobenthos from 23 stations in the Chukchi Sea was conducted during the 4th CHI-NARE (Chinese National Arctic Research Expeditions, July-August, 2010). We identified a total of 140 species of macrozoobenthos belonging to nine phyla, which were dominated by polychaetes (66), crustaceans (30), and mollusks (25), followed by echinoderms (9) and others (ten others, including four cnidarians, one oli-gochaete, one sipuncula, one priapulida, two bryozoans, and one urochordata). The dominant species were Aphelochaeta pacifica, Heteromastus filiformis, Nephtys ciliata, Nephtys caeca, Scoletoma fragilis, Golfingia margaritacea, Nuculana pernula, Macoma calcarea, Ennucula tenuis, Macoma inquinata, Musculus discors, Echinarachnius parma, and Ophiura sarsii, so there were more cold-eurythermal boreal immigrants than truly Arctic species (endemics). The average density and biomass (mean ± SD across all stations) of the total macrozoobenthos were (916 ± 907) ind/m2 and (902.9 ± 1 227.7) g/m2 (wet weight), respectively. Relatively high density and biomass were observed in the samples from the northeastern and southern Chukchi Sea. The spatial variation of benthic communities in the study sea area was relatively large;this spatial heteroge-neity has led to high diversity and a patchy distribution pattern in the community structure. Compared to the 1st CHINARE ( July-August, 1999), this investigation revealed different degrees of decreases in the aver-age taxa numbers and the average density, abundance, and biodiversity in the area over the recent decade, which might be associated with global warming, human activities, and sea ice variations.

  3. Salt effects on functional traits in model and in economically important Lotus species. (United States)

    Uchiya, P; Escaray, F J; Bilenca, D; Pieckenstain, F; Ruiz, O A; Menéndez, A B


    A common stress on plants is NaCl-derived soil salinity. Genus Lotus comprises model and economically important species, which have been studied regarding physiological responses to salinity. Leaf area ratio (LAR), root length ratio (RLR) and their components, specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) and specific root length (SRL) and root mass fraction (RMF) might be affected by high soil salinity. We characterised L. tenuis, L. corniculatus, L. filicaulis, L. creticus, L. burtii and L. japonicus grown under different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl) on the basis of SLA, LMF, SRL and RMF using PCA. We also assessed effects of different salt concentrations on LAR and RLR in each species, and explored whether changes in these traits provide fitness benefit. Salinity (150 mm NaCl) increased LAR in L. burtii and L. corniculatus, but not in the remaining species. The highest salt concentration caused a decrease of RLR in L. japonicus Gifu, but not in the remaining species. Changes in LAR and RLR would not be adaptive, according to adaptiveness analysis, with the exception of SLA changes in L. corniculatus. PCA revealed that under favourable conditions plants optimise surfaces for light and nutrient acquisition (SLA and SRL), whereas at higher salt concentrations they favour carbon allocation to leaves and roots (LMF and RMF) in detriment to their surfaces. PCA also showed that L. creticus subjected to saline treatment was distinguished from the remaining Lotus species. We suggest that augmented carbon partitioning to leaves and roots could constitute a salt-alleviating mechanism through toxic ion dilution.

  4. Identifying sites for elk restoration in Arkansas (United States)

    Telesco, R.L.; Van Manen, F.T.; Clark, J.D.; Cartwright, Michael E.


    We used spatial data to identify potential areas for elk (Cervus elaphus) restoration in Arkansas. To assess habitat, we used locations of 239 elk groups collected from helicopter surveys in the Buffalo National River area of northwestern Arkansas, USA, from 1992 to 2002. We calculated the Mahalanobis distance (D2) statistic based on the relationship between those elk-group locations and a suite of 9 landscape variables to evaluate winter habitat in Arkansas. We tested model performance in the Buffalo National River area by comparing the D2 values of pixels representing areas with and without elk pellets along 19 fixed-width transects surveyed in March 2002. Pixels with elk scat had lower D2 values than pixels in which we found no pellets (logistic regression: Wald χ2 = 24.37, P cover, gently sloping ridge tops and valleys, low human population density, and low road densities. To assess the potential for elk–human conflicts in Arkansas, we used the analytical hierarchy process to rank the importance of 8 criteria based on expert opinion from biologists involved in elk management. The biologists ranked availability of forage on public lands as having the strongest influence on the potential for elk–human conflict (33%), followed by human population growth rate (22%) and the amount of private land in row crops (18%). We then applied those rankings in a weighted linear summation to map the relative potential for elk–human conflict. Finally, we used white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densities to identify areas where success of elk restoration may be hampered due to meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) transmission. By combining results of the 3 spatial data layers (i.e., habitat model, elk–human conflict model, deer density), our model indicated that restoration sites located in west-central and north-central Arkansas were most favorable for reintroduction.

  5. [Phytoplankton community structure and assessment of water quality in the middle and lower reaches of Fenhe River]. (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Ai; Feng, Jia; Xie, Shu-Lian


    To understand the distribution of phytoplankton and the water quality in the middle and lower reaches of Fenhe River, 18 sampling sites were selected for specimen collection, species identification and data analysis. The results showed that: (1) There were 298 species of phytoplankton under the membership of 8 divisions and 96 genera, among which, Bacillariophyta was the dominant division, with a total of 127 species of 27 genera, followed by Chlorophyta, with 104 species of 41 genera, and Cyanophyta, with 45 species of 20 genera. Only 22 species of 8 genera belonged to Euglenophyta, Cryptophyta, Pyrrophyta, Chrysophyta and Xanthophyta. The number of species in wet season was higher than that in dry season at all sites. Dominant species included Cyclotella meneghiniana, Synedra acus, Navicula cryptocephala, Nitzschia palea of Bacillariophyta, Chlorella vulgaris of Chlorophyta, Oscillatoria tenuis, O. amphibia of Cyanophyta, most of which were indicator species of alpha- and beta-mesosaprobic type. Cell density was higher in wet season and lower in dry season. (2) Shannon-Wieaver species diversity index ranged from 1 to 3 basically. Margalef species richness index ranged from 0.5 to 2. Pielou evenness index ranged 0.3-0.8. (3) During the wet season, most dominant species of Chlorophyta and Euglenophyta had higher correlation with chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity and ammonia nitrogen. The dominant species of Cyanophyta were greatly influenced by the contents of water temperature and chromium (Cr). The distribution of dominant species of Bacillariophyta was complicatedly related with environmental factors. During the dry season, there was a higher correlation between the members of Cyanophyta and ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, COD. The species of Chlorophyta and Euglenophyta were mainly influenced by the dissolved oxygen and total phosphorus. The bacillariophytes were mainly related with total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, pH and cadmium (Cd). In

  6. Population viability analysis to identify management priorities for reintroduced elk in the Cumberland Mountains, Tennessee (United States)

    Kindall, J.L.; Muller, L.I.; Clark, J.D.; Lupardus, J.L.; Murrow, J.L.


    We used an individual-based population model to perform a viability analysis to simulate population growth (λ) of 167 elk (Cervus elaphus manitobensis; 71 male and 96 female) released in the Cumberland Mountains, Tennessee, to estimate sustainability (i.e., λ > 1.0) and identify the most appropriate options for managing elk restoration. We transported elk from Elk Island National Park, Alberta, Canada, and from Land Between the Lakes, Kentucky, and reintroduced them beginning in December 2000 and ending in February 2003. We estimated annual survival rates for 156 radio-collared elk from December 2000 until November 2004. We used data from a nearby elk herd in Great Smoky Mountains National Park to simulate pessimistic and optimistic recruitment and performed population viability analyses to evaluate sustainability over a 25-year period. Annual survival averaged 0.799 (Total SE = 0.023). The primary identifiable sources of mortality were poaching, disease from meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis), and accidents (environmental causes and unintentional harvest). Population growth given pessimistic recruitment rates averaged 0.895 over 25 years (0.955 in year 1 to 0.880 in year 25); population growth was not sustainable in 100% of the runs. With the most optimistic estimates of recruitment, mean λ increased to 0.967 (1.038 in year 1 to 0.956 in year 25) with 99.6% of the runs failing to be sustainable. We suggest that further translocation efforts to increase herd size will be ineffective unless survival rates are increased in the Cumberland Mountains.

  7. Il Maestro della Commenda di Meldola e la magione ospitaliera di San Giovanni Battista

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    Paolo Cova


    Full Text Available L’intervento propone, attraverso l’indagine di alcuni dipinti di area forlivese, una prima ricostruzione della personalità di un interessante interprete locale del XV secolo, provvisoriamente denominato Maestro della Commenda di Meldola. Lo studio, parte integrante della mia tesi di dottorato, prende le mosse dall’analisi dell’affresco dell’Oratorio di San Giovanni Battista a Meldola, per poi allargarsi ad altre emergenze del territorio circostante, fino ai lacerti pittorici emersi nella chiesa della Santissima Trinità di Forlì. Nella prima parte dell’articolo viene ricostruita la storia dell’Oratorio di San Giovanni Battista presso Villa Fronticelli a Meldola: già magione templare di Santa Maria Biacque, nel 1312, in seguito al processo ai templari, passò alle dipendenze della precettoria dei cavalieri gerosolimitani di San Giovanni di Palareto. La realizzazione dell’affresco deve essere probabilmente inserita all’interno dei lavori di ristrutturazione intrapresi dai giovanniti dopo la metà del XV secolo. Nella seconda parte dell’articolo invece si procede alle indagini tecniche e stilistiche relative alla pittura murale che rappresenta la Madonna col Bambino e San Giovanni Battista. L’affresco mutilo è opera di un interessante maestro che agisce nella sfera del tardogotico locale, mostrando però tenui accenti rinascimentali caratteristici alla pittura forlivese tra sesto e settimo decennio del Quattrocento. Muovendo dalle ricerche di Anna Tambini e Giordani Viroli, attraverso l’analisi di diverse testimonianze del territorio, viene così proposta la ricostruzione di un corpus pittorico caratterizzato da stringenti affinità stilistiche, che, confermando l’appartenenza del suo anonimo pittore ad un milieu stilistico caro ad altri interpreti forlivesi del periodo, come il Maestro di Castrocaro o il Maestro di San Pier Damiani, aiuta ulteriormente a chiarire il panorama artistico romagnolo all’avvento della

  8. Nitrate competition in a coral symbiosis varies with temperature among Symbiodinium clades. (United States)

    Baker, David M; Andras, Jason P; Jordán-Garza, Adán Guillermo; Fogel, Marilyn L


    Many reef-building corals form symbioses with dinoflagellates from the diverse genus Symbiodinium. There is increasing evidence of functional significance to Symbiodinium diversity, which affects the coral holobiont's response to changing environmental conditions. For example, corals hosting Symbiodinium from the clade D taxon exhibit greater resistance to heat-induced coral bleaching than conspecifics hosting the more common clade C. Yet, the relatively low prevalence of clade D suggests that this trait is not advantageous in non-stressful environments. Thus, clade D may only be able to out-compete other Symbiodinium types within the host habitat when conditions are chronically stressful. Previous studies have observed enhanced photosynthesis and fitness by clade C holobionts at non-stressful temperatures, relative to clade D. Yet, carbon-centered metrics cannot account for enhanced growth rates and patterns of symbiont succession to other genetic types when nitrogen often limits reef productivity. To investigate the metabolic costs of hosting thermally tolerant symbionts, we examined the assimilation and translocation of inorganic (15)N and (13)C in the coral Acropora tenuis experimentally infected with either clade C (sub-type C1) or D Symbiodinium at 28 and 30 °C. We show that at 28 °C, C1 holobionts acquired 22% more (15)N than clade D. However, at 30 °C, C1 symbionts acquired equivalent nitrogen and 16% less carbon than D. We hypothesize that C1 competitively excludes clade D in hospite via enhanced nitrogen acquisition and thus dominates coral populations despite warming oceans.

  9. Seasonality and variability of coccolithophore fluxes in response to diverse oceanographic regimes in the Bay of Bengal: sediment trap results. M.V.S. Gupthaa & b, Lina P. Mergulhaoa,*, Daniela Ungerc and V.S.N. Murtyd a National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India b 62, Sagar Society, Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India c Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Fahrenheitstrasse 6, D 28359 Bremen, Germany d National Institute of Oceanography, 176, Lawsons Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam - 530 017, India (United States)

    Medimi, M.


    A study on coccolithophores both in shallow and deep sediment trap samples, collected over a period of one year (January 1992 - December 1992) from three trap locations in the Bay of Bengal were used to understand their production and export processes in relation to diverse oceanographic regimes associated with reversing monsoons. A total of 25 species of coccolithophores were identified, which includes some of the important species, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Florisphaera profunda, Umbellosphaera irregularis, Emiliania huxleyi, Oolithotus antillarum, Umbellosphaera tenuis, Helicosphaera carteri and Calcidiscus leptoporus. The total coccolithophore fluxes increased from the northern to southern Bay of Bengal where G. oceanica, U. sibogae¬ and E. huxleyi were dominant species displaying seasonality with peak fluxes occurring during southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons reflecting their affinity for nutrient-rich waters brought in by river plumes, divergences and cyclonic eddies. U. irregularis, an indicator of oligotrophic/warm water, recorded peak abundance fluxes only during the spring intermonsoon period at all trap locations thus inferring its preference for oligotrophic conditions caused by increased Sea Surface Temperature (SST), stratification and lack of nutrient supply due to weak wind velocities. The deep dwelling species, F. profunda recorded high fluxes during the fall intermonsoon (October/November) in the northern and southern traps and during the spring intermonsoon. The peak fluxes during the spring intermonsoon (April/May) in the central and southern traps indicated the prevalence of a deep nutricline when oligotrophic conditions prevailed at the surface. Interestingly, dissolution was encountered throughout the year evidenced by the presence of corroded coccoliths.

  10. Congruent patterns of connectivity can inform management for broadcast spawning corals on the Great Barrier Reef. (United States)

    Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Riginos, Cynthia; van Oppen, Madeleine J H


    Connectivity underpins the persistence and recovery of marine ecosystems. The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is the world's largest coral reef ecosystem and managed by an extensive network of no-take zones; however, information about connectivity was not available to optimize the network's configuration. We use multivariate analyses, Bayesian clustering algorithms and assignment tests of the largest population genetic data set for any organism on the GBR to date (Acropora tenuis, >2500 colonies; >50 reefs, genotyped for ten microsatellite loci) to demonstrate highly congruent patterns of connectivity between this common broadcast spawning reef-building coral and its congener Acropora millepora (~950 colonies; 20 reefs, genotyped for 12 microsatellite loci). For both species, there is a genetic divide at around 19°S latitude, most probably reflecting allopatric differentiation during the Pleistocene. GBR reefs north of 19°S are essentially panmictic whereas southern reefs are genetically distinct with higher levels of genetic diversity and population structure, most notably genetic subdivision between inshore and offshore reefs south of 19°S. These broadly congruent patterns of higher genetic diversities found on southern GBR reefs most likely represent the accumulation of alleles via the southward flowing East Australia Current. In addition, signatures of genetic admixture between the Coral Sea and outer-shelf reefs in the northern, central and southern GBR provide evidence of recent gene flow. Our connectivity results are consistent with predictions from recently published larval dispersal models for broadcast spawning corals on the GBR, thereby providing robust connectivity information about the dominant reef-building genus Acropora for coral reef managers.


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    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of increasing pollen supply to honey bees (Apis mellifera during the dry season in Caatinga (shrub vegetation of NE Brazil by inducing Mimosa tenui-flora to bloom. The work was carried out from August to December 2012 in Altamira Apícola Apiaries, situat-ed at Limoeiro do Norte – Ceará, Brazil. The experiment comprised three phases: Phase 1 – the amount of wa-ter needed to induce the blooming of Mimosa tenuiflora (T0L, T250L, T500L, T750L and T1000L; Phase 2 – Floral biology and flower visitors; Phase 3 – pollen harvested by the colonies and percentage of M. tenuiflora in the honey bee diet by sampling and comparing pollen loads from colonies placed 20m with those more than 3km away from the induced plants. Results of the Phase 1 showed that the treatments 3, 4 and 5 induced blooming, and T1000L produced a greater number of inflorescences (p <0.05. Blooming reached its peak eight days after induction. Hymenoptera represented more than 95% of floral visitors with Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes and Melipona subnitida as the most frequent bee species. Palynological analyses carried out in phase 3 showed a significant (p<0,05 increment in pollen collection and the participation of M. tenuiflora pollen in the diet of colonies situated 20 meters from the induced plants. Induction of flowering Mimosa tenuiflora increased the supply and collection of pollen by bees in the critical period of the year, minimizing the effect of drought on the colonies.

  12. Predicting North American Scolytinae invasions in the Southern Hemisphere. (United States)

    Lantschner, Maria Victoria; Atkinson, Thomas H; Corley, Juan C; Liebhold, Andrew M


    Scolytinae species are recognized as one of the most important tree mortality agents in coniferous forests worldwide, and many are known invaders because they are easily transported in wood products. Nonnative trees planted in novel habitats often exhibit exceptional growth, in part because they escape herbivore (such as Scolytinae) pressure from their native range. Increasing accidental introductions of forest pest species as a consequence of international trade, however, is expected to diminish enemy release of nonnative forest trees. In this context, there is need to characterize patterns of forest herbivore species invasion risks at global scales. In this study, we analyze the establishment potential of 64 North American Scolytinae species in the Southern Hemisphere. We use climate-based ecological niche models (MaxEnt) to spatially define the potential distribution of these Scolytinae species in regions of the Southern Hemisphere were pines are planted. Our model predicts that all of the pine-growing regions of the Southern Hemisphere are capable of supporting some species of North American Scolytinae, but there are certain "hotspot" regions, southeastern Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and southwestern Australia, that appear to be suitable for a particularly large number of species. The species with the highest predicted risk of establishment were Dendroctonus valens, Xyleborus intrusus, Hylastes tenuis, Ips grandicollis, Gnathotrichus sulcatus, and Ips calligraphus. Given that global commerce is anticipated to continue to increase, we can expect that more Scolytinae species will continue to establish outside their range. Our results provide information useful for identifying a global list of potential invasive species in pine plantations, and may assist in the design of comprehensive strategies aimed at reducing pest establishment in Southern Hemisphere forest plantations. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England: Implications for saline lagoons (United States)

    Joyce, Chris B.; Vina-Herbon, Cristina; Metcalfe, Daniel J.


    Coastal water bodies are a heterogeneous resource typified by high spatial and temporal variability and threatened by anthropogenic impacts. This includes saline lagoons, which support a specialist biota and are a priority habitat for nature conservation. This paper describes the biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England, in order to characterise the distinctiveness of the saline lagoon community and elucidate environmental factors that determine its distribution. Twenty-eight coastal water bodies were surveyed for their aquatic flora and invertebrate fauna and a suite of exploratory environmental variables compiled. Ordination and cluster analyses were used to examine patterns in community composition and relate these to environmental parameters. Biotic variation in the coastal water body resource was high. Salinity was the main environmental parameter explaining the regional distribution of taxa; freshwater and saline assemblages were evident and related to sea water ingress. Freshwater sites were indicated by the plant Myriophyllum spicatum and gastropod mollusc Lymnaea peregra, while more saline communities supported marine and brackish water taxa, notably a range of chlorophytic algae and the bivalve mollusc Cerastoderma glaucum. Site community differences were also related to bank slope and parameters describing habitat heterogeneity. A saline lagoon community was discerned within the matrix of biotic variation consisting of specialist lagoonal species with associated typically euryhaline taxa. For fauna, the latter were the molluscs Abra tenuis and Hydrobia ulvae, and the crustaceans Corophium volutator and Palaemonetes varians, and for flora they were the algae Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha mediterranea, Cladophora spp. and Enteromorpha intestinalis. One non-native polychaete species, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, also strongly influenced community structure within the lagoonal resource. The community was not well defined as specialist and

  14. Condensation patterns of prophase/prometaphase chromosome are correlated with H4K5 histone acetylation and genomic DNA contents in plants. (United States)

    Feitoza, Lidiane; Costa, Lucas; Guerra, Marcelo


    Mitotic prophase chromosome condensation plays an essential role in nuclear division being therefore regulated by highly conserved mechanisms. However, degrees of chromatin condensation in prophase-prometaphase cells may vary along the chromosomes resulting in specific condensation patterns. We examined different condensation patterns (CPs) of prophase and prometaphase chromosomes and investigated their relationship with genome size and distribution of histone H4 acetylated at lysine 5 (H4K5ac) in 17 plant species. Our results showed that most species with small genomes (2C < 5 pg) (Arachis pusilla, Bixa orellana, Costus spiralis, Eleutherine bulbosa, Indigofera campestris, Phaseolus lunatus, P. vulgaris, Poncirus trifoliata, and Solanum lycopersicum) displayed prophase chromosomes with late condensing terminal regions that were highly enriched in H4K5ac, and early condensing regions with apparently non-acetylated proximal chromatin. The species with large genomes (Allium cepa, Callisia repens, Araucaria angustifolia and Nothoscordum pulchellum) displayed uniformly condensed and acetylated prophase/prometaphase chromosomes. Three species with small genomes (Eleocharis geniculata, Rhynchospora pubera, and R. tenuis) displayed CP and H4K5ac labeling patterns similar to species with large genomes, whereas a forth species (Emilia sonchifolia) exhibited a gradual chromosome labeling, being more acetylated in the terminal regions and less acetylated in the proximal ones. The nucleolus organizer chromatin was the only chromosomal region that in prometaphase or metaphase could be hyperacetylated, hypoacetylated or non-acetylated, depending on the species. Our data indicate that the CP of a plant chromosome complement is influenced but not exclusively determined by nuclear and chromosomal DNA contents, whereas the CP of individual chromosomes is clearly correlated with H4K5ac distribution.

  15. Isolation and antifungi mechanismanalysis of some marine actinomyces with antifungal activity.%抗真菌海洋放线菌的分离筛选与抗菌机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马桂珍; 暴增海; 浦寅芳


    从江苏连云港海域采集海水、海泥、漂浮物、海洋动物样品,分离得到15株海洋放线菌.采用平板对峙培养法和打孔法测定放线菌不同菌株对玉米小斑病菌(Bipolaria maydis)、玉米圆斑病菌(Helminthosporium carbonum)、小麦赤霉病菌(Fusarium graminearum)、棉花枯萎病菌(Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum)、雪腐镰刀病菌(Fusarium nivale)、斑点落叶病菌(Alternaria alternata)、小麦根腐病菌(Bipolaris sorokiniana)、细链格孢病菌(Alternaria tenuis)、番茄早疫病菌(Alternaria solani)等植物病原真菌的抑制作用.结果表明:放线菌菌株BM-2、T-6、T-1-1、D-3、XS-X5-3、M-7、X-7对供试的植物病原真菌具有一定的抑制作用.其中BM-2菌株的抑菌作用最强,其发酵液能明显抑制多种植物病原真菌菌丝的生长,同时对细链格孢菌的分生孢子萌发和芽管伸长都有一定的抑制作用.

  16. Tubicolous enteropneusts from the Cambrian period. (United States)

    Caron, Jean-Bernard; Morris, Simon Conway; Cameron, Christopher B


    Hemichordates are a marine group that, apart from one monospecific pelagic larval form, are represented by the vermiform enteropneusts and minute colonial tube-dwelling pterobranchs. Together with echinoderms, they comprise the clade Ambulacraria. Despite their restricted diversity, hemichordates provide important insights into early deuterostome evolution, notably because of their pharyngeal gill slits. Hemichordate phylogeny has long remained problematic, not least because the nature of any transitional form that might serve to link the anatomically disparate enteropneusts and pterobranchs is conjectural. Hence, inter-relationships have also remained controversial. For example, pterobranchs have sometimes been compared to ancestral echinoderms. Molecular data identify enteropneusts as paraphyletic, and harrimaniids as the sister group of pterobranchs. Recent molecular phylogenies suggest that enteropneusts are probably basal within hemichordates, contrary to previous views, but otherwise provide little guidance as to the nature of the primitive hemichordate. In addition, the hemichordate fossil record is almost entirely restricted to peridermal skeletons of pterobranchs, notably graptolites. Owing to their low preservational potentials, fossil enteropneusts are exceedingly rare, and throw no light on either hemichordate phylogeny or the proposed harrimaniid-pterobranch transition. Here we describe an enteropneust, Spartobranchus tenuis (Walcott, 1911), from the Middle Cambrian-period (Series 3, Stage 5) Burgess Shale. It is remarkably similar to the extant harrimaniids, but differs from all known enteropneusts in that it is associated with a fibrous tube that is sometimes branched. We suggest that this is the precursor of the pterobranch periderm, and supports the hypothesis that pterobranchs are miniaturized and derived from an enteropneust-like worm. It also shows that the periderm was acquired before size reduction and acquisition of feeding tentacles, and

  17. Benthic ecology of the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Part I. Environmental characteristics and macrofaunal community structure, 2008-2010 (United States)

    Blanchard, Arny L.; Parris, Carrie L.; Knowlton, Ann L.; Wade, Nicole R.


    Spatial variations of processes driving macrofaunal distributions can arise from interactions among topographic features and oceanographic patterns, and are not understood at small scales in the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Benthic macrofauna and environmental characteristics were measured to determine factors driving macrofaunal distributions as part of a multidisciplinary environmental program in the northeastern Chukchi Sea from 2008 to 2010. Macrofauna were sampled in three study areas, named Klondike, Burger, and Statoil, with a van Veen grab at up to 82 stations each year, as well as an area where marine mammals were seen feeding. The macrofaunal assemblages in all study areas were similar in species-composition with deposit-feeding polychaetes (53% of density and of 26% biomass) and bivalves (15% of density and 52% of biomass) collectively the most prominent groups. Maldane sarsi dominated the polychaetes in terms of both density and biomass, while bivalves were numerically dominated by Ennucula tenuis, but their biomass was dominated by larger species such as Macoma calcarea and Astarte borealis. Exceptions occurred in the marine mammal feeding area that was dominated by amphipods (71% of density and 30% biomass). Average densities were higher in Burger than in Klondike or Statoil, while biomass values were similar between Burger and Statoil, and higher in these two study areas than in Klondike. Overall, the distributions, biomass and density of benthic macrofauna reflect the high volume of production reaching the seafloor in the shallow waters of the Chukchi Sea. Variations in community structure among study areas were correlated with water depth and bottom-water temperature. Short-term temporal differences in community structure covaried with interannual oceanographic variations that may have altered food availability, macrofaunal survival, or larval recruitment. Topographic control over circulation appears to be a primary driver in structuring benthic

  18. Characteristics of the δ ^{15} N_{NO_3 } distribution and its drivers in the Changjiang River estuary and adjacent waters (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Wu, Zaixing; Yuan, Yongquan; Zhou, Peng; Cao, Xihua


    In this study, we conducted investigations in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary and adjacent waters (CREAW) in June and November of 2014. We collected water samples from different depths to analyze the nitrogen isotopic compositions of nitrate, nutrient concentrations (including inorganic N, P, and Si), and other physical and biological parameters, along with the vertical distribution and seasonal variations of these parameters. The compositions of nitrogen isotope in nitrate were measured with the denitrifier method. Results show that the Changjiang River diluted water (CDW) was the main factor aff ecting the shallow waters (above 10 m) of the CREAW, and CDW tended to influence the northern areas in June and the southern areas in November. δ ^{15} N_{NO_3 } values in CDW ranged from 3.21‰-3.55‰. In contrast, the deep waters (below 30 m) were aff ected by the subsurface water of the Kuroshio Current, which intruded into the waters near 31°N in June. The δ ^{15} N_{NO_3 } values of these waters were 6.03‰-7.6‰, slightly higher than the values of the Kuroshio Current. Nitrate assimilation by phytoplankton in the shallow waters of the study area varied seasonally. Because of the favorable temperature and nutrient conditions in June, abundant phytoplankton growth resulted in harmful algae blooms (HABs). Therefore, nitrate assimilation was strong in June and weak in November. The δ ^{15} N_{NO_3 } fractionations caused by assimilation of phytoplankton were 4.57‰ and 4.41‰ in the shallow waters in June and November, respectively. These results are consistent with previous laboratory cultures and in situ investigations. Nitrification processes were observed in some deep waters of the study area, and they were more apparent in November than in June. The fractionation values of nitrification ranged from 24‰-25‰, which agrees with results for Nitrosospira tenuis reported by previous studies.

  19. Seasonal and interannual variations in coccolithophore abundance off Terceira Island, Azores (Central North Atlantic) (United States)

    Narciso, Áurea; Gallo, Francesca; Valente, André; Cachão, Mário; Cros, Lluïsa; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; e Ramos, Joana Barcelos


    In order to characterize the natural coccolithophore community occurring offshore Azores and to determine their annual and interannual patterns, monthly samples were collected, from September 2010 to December 2014, in the photic zone off Terceira Island. The present study revealed a clear seasonal distribution and a considerable interannual variability of the living coccolithophore community. The highest coccolithophore abundances were observed during spring and winter months, especially due to the smaller species Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa ericsonii. In fact, the highest biomass period was registered during April 2011, associated with enhanced abundance of the overcalcified morphotype of E. huxleyi, which was possibly influenced by subpolar waters and subsequent upwelling conditions. The highest abundances of Gephyrocapsa muellerae were recorded during June 2011 and 2014, indicating that this species characterizes the transition between the period of maximum productivity and the subsequent smoother environmental conditions, the first and the later stages of the phytoplankton succession described by Margalef, respectively. During summer to early fall, a gradual decrease of the overall coccolithophore abundance was observed, while the species richness (Margalef diversity index) increased. A subtropical coccolithophore assemblage mainly composed by Umbellosphaera tenuis, Syracosphaera spp., Discosphaera tubifera, Rhabdosphaera clavigera and Coronosphaera mediterranea indicated the presence of surface warmer waters accompanied by reduced mixing and low nutrients concentration. During late fall to winter, the coccolithophore abundance increased again with a concomitant reduction in species diversity. This is potentially linked to low sea surface temperatures, moderate nutrients concentration and surface mixed layer deepening. During 2011, colder and productive waters led to an increase in the total coccolithophore abundances. On contrary, during 2012

  20. [Concentration of allergic fungi spores in the air of flats in Lódź]. (United States)

    Krawczyk, P; Kowalski, M L; Ochecka-Szymańska, A


    The real contribution of moulds to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases remains unknown, although positive skin prick tests and/or specific serum IgE to moki allergens can be detected in 1-5% of atopic patients. A significant problem in assesment of exposure to mould allergens, resulting with difficulty in standarization of methods. The aim of this work was to assess the concentration of spores of 8 mould species in flats inhabited by peoples who Bont show any symptoms of allergy. The Open Petri Dish (OPD) method involving sedimentation of participles contained in the column of air over the dish was used to assess the number of spores in 1 m3 of indoor atmospheres. All colonies were counted, but only 8 mould species implicated in inhaled allergy were identified, ie.: Alternaria tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Helminthosporum halodes, Pullularia pullulans, Penicillium notatam, Rhizopus nigricans, Mucor mucedo, Aspergillus fumigatus. The tests were carried out in 10 flats located in various quarters of the cify of Lodź during three consecutive days of September 1995 between 5:00 pm and 6:04 pm. In analyzing the percentage of spores of each of the eight mould species tested we determined that, independent of fiat and test day, C. herbarum predominated. It is good agreement with the observations of other authors who report that among large quantities of fungi that are detected in late summer, usually C. herbarum spores dominate. This is the season when the incidence of the Cladosporium spores in the atmospheric air increases. Spores of H. halodes were detected least frequently. Our study demonstrated the presence of substantial amounts of mould spores in indoor air of houses in Lódź. The spores belong to species with documented allergenicity, suggesting that they may play a role in development of allergic sensitization in susceptible subjects.

  1. Systematics of Trichoteleia Kieffer and Paridris Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae

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    Elijah Talamas


    Full Text Available Paridris Kieffer and Trichoteleia Kieffer are morphologically similar genera of solitary egg parasitoids with little overlap between their distributions: Paridris is found commonly worldwide with the exceptions of Madagascar, from which a single specimen is known, and New Zealand, from which no records are known; Trichoteleia is endemic to the Malagasy islands. Here we present the first phylogenetic analysis of platygastroid wasps that combines and compares morphological and molecular data. We find the results of the phylogenetic analyses of the two data sources to be largely congruent for the species treated here. Paridris and Trichoteleia are found to be monophyletic, as are two morphologically well-defined species groups within Paridris. Neoparidris Galloway is found to belong within Paridris and is treated as a junior synonym, syn. n. The faunas of Paridris from Africa, Melanesia and the Indo-Malay islands are revised. Fifteen species are described of which 9 are new: Paridris anikulapo Talamas, sp. n. (sub-Saharan Africa; Paridris densiclava (Kieffer, (Seychelles; Paridris bispinosa (Masner, (Gabon; Paridris nigriclava (Kieffer, (Seychelles; Paridris nitidiceps (Kieffer, (Seychelles; Paridris tenuis (Nixon, (sub-Saharan Africa; Paridris trispinosa Talamas & Masner, sp. n., (Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Paridris bifurcata (Dodd, comb. n., (Australia, Papua New Guinea; Paridris mnestros Talamas & Masner, sp. n., (Indonesia, Malaysia; Paridris pantex Talamas, sp. n., (Fiji; Paridris phrikos Talamas & Masner, sp. n., (Fiji; Paridris skolops Talamas & Masner, sp. n., (Fiji; Paridris sulcata Talamas, sp. n., (Vanuatu; Paridris taekuli Talamas & Masner, sp. n., (Australia, Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, New Caledonia, Thailand, Vietnam; Paridris xestos Talamas & Masner, sp. n., (Fiji. Paridris flaviclava (Kieffer, syn. n., and P. nigraticeps (Kieffer, syn. n., are treated as junior synonyms of P

  2. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae: 4. Revision of sect. Dichone

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    P. Goldblatt


    Full Text Available The southern African genus Ixia L. comprises ± 90 species from the winter-rainfall zone of the subcontinent. Ixia sect. Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, one of four sections in the genus and currently including 10 species and three varieties, is distinguished by the following floral characters: lower part of the perianth tube filiform and tightly clasping the style; filaments not decurrent; upper part of the perianth tube short to vestigial; style branches involute-tubular and stigmatic only at the tips; and so-called subdidymous anthers. We review the taxonomy of the section, providing complete descriptions and distribution maps, and a key to the species. I. amethystina Manning & Goldblatt is recognized to be a later synonym of I. brevituba G.J.Lewis. Most collections currently included under that name represent another species, here described as I. rigida. We recognize five additional species in the section: early summer-blooming I. altissima from the Cedarberg; I. bifolia from the Caledon District; I. flagellaris, a stoloniferous species from the Cedarberg; I. simulans from the western Langeberg; and I. tenuis from the Piketberg. We also raise to species rank I. micrandra var. confusa and var. minor, as I. confusa and I. minor respectively. Foliar and associated floral variation in the widespread I. scillaris has led us to recognize two new subspecies among its northern populations, broad leaved subsp. latifolia and the dwarfed, smaller flowered subsp. toximontana; subsp. scillaris is restricted to the immediate southwestern Cape, from Darling to Somerset West. Sect. Dichone now has 17 species and two subspecies.

  3. New approaches to quantifying bioerosion by endolithic sponge populations: applications to the coral reefs of Grand Cayman (United States)

    Murphy, G. N.; Perry, C. T.; Chin, P.; McCoy, C.


    Bioerosion is a critical process on coral reefs, influencing reef structural integrity and complexity and generating significant amounts of sediment. Excavating sponges are important bioeroders, especially in the Caribbean where sponges dominate macroborer communities. However, the contribution of bioeroding sponge communities to total bioerosion on coral reefs is not well understood; census surveys are rarely employed by monitoring agencies, and there is little data on the erosion rates of different species. Here, we investigated bioerosion by two Caribbean sponge species with different growth forms ( Siphonodictyon brevitubulatum—α-form and Cliona tenuis—β-form). We also described new approaches to estimating bioerosion by sponge communities. By categorising the growth form of different species, we applied newly developed bioerosion rates, along with a previously published rate for C. delitrix, to census surveys and use these to estimate bioerosion by sponge communities on Grand Cayman reefs. Results indicate distinct habitat preferences for the two most abundant sponge species, C. tenuis and C. caribbaea. Mean sponge bioerosion across eight sites was 0.1 kg CaCO3 m-2 yr-1. Visible cover by α-growth-form excavating sponges caused a disproportionately high level of bioerosion in comparison with cover by β-growth-form species. Therefore, it is important to consider growth forms and excavation strategies when assessing bioerosion by sponge communities. Our present level of understanding of bioerosion by sponge species is limited, and more research is clearly required. However, the approaches described here can generate instant, meaningful results on sponge abundance and bioerosion and would complement many current benthic monitoring regimes. Furthermore, they create a framework for the provision of data, which is relevant to both coral reef management and to developing our understanding of how bioeroding sponge populations influence reef structure and

  4. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae: 4. Revision of sect. Dichone

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    P. Goldblatt


    Full Text Available The southern African genus Ixia L. comprises ± 90 species from the winter-rainfall zone of the subcontinent. Ixia sect. Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, one of four sections in the genus and currently including 10 species and three varieties, is distinguished by the following floral characters: lower part of the perianth tube filiform and tightly clasping the style; filaments not decurrent; upper part of the perianth tube short to vestigial; style branches involute-tubular and stigmatic only at the tips; and so-called subdidymous anthers. We review the taxonomy of the section, providing complete descriptions and distribution maps, and a key to the species. I. amethystina Manning & Goldblatt is recognized to be a later synonym of I. brevituba G.J.Lewis. Most collections currently included under that name represent another species, here described as I. rigida. We recognize five additional species in the section: early summer-blooming I. altissima from the Cedarberg; I. bifolia from the Caledon District; I. flagellaris, a stoloniferous species from the Cedarberg; I. simulans from the western Langeberg; and I. tenuis from the Piketberg. We also raise to species rank I. micrandra var. confusa and var. minor, as I. confusa and I. minor respectively. Foliar and associated floral variation in the widespread I. scillaris has led us to recognize two new subspecies among its northern populations, broad leaved subsp. latifolia and the dwarfed, smaller flowered subsp. toximontana; subsp. scillaris is restricted to the immediate southwestern Cape, from Darling to Somerset West. Sect. Dichone now has 17 species and two subspecies.

  5. Occurrence and identification of the etiologic agents of plant diseases in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. in the semi-arid region of Paraiba

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    Anne Evelyne Franco de Souza


    Full Text Available Cactus forage (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill., intensely cultivated in dry regions of northeast Brazil, although well adapted to the harsh semi-arid climate is affected by major problems such as pests and diseases, responsible for significant losses in production. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and diversity of the etiologic agents of diseases of cactus cultivated in 38 municipalities in the semi-arid region of Paraiba. The analyses were conducted and processed at the Laboratory of Phytopathology of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, in Areia – PB. Starting from sick cladodes isolations, multiplications and identifications of the found microorganisms were made. The identification of the microorganisms was achieved through observations of the macro and micromorphological characteristics of the cultures and tests of Gram and pathogenicity. Great incidence and diversity of microorganisms was verified in the cacti researched, but the highest occurrence was mainly that of fungus. The fungi of widest occurrence were: Scytallidium lignicola, Alternate tenuis, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cladosporium cladosporides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. opuntiarum, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus niger, Nigrospora sphaerica, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Exserohilum turcicum, Pestalotia pitospora, Rhizopus stolonifer, Rhizoctonia solani and Sphaceloma protearum. A bacterium was also detected that was suspected to belong to the Erwinia sp. strain. Satisfaction of the Postulates of Koch proved the infectious nature of the detected microorganisms. High occurrence of the fungus S. lignicola, an agent of scale rot disease in 100% of the places researched, was observed. This fact is of great concern, since the progression of the disease can cause significant losses in production.

  6. North polar region of Mars: Advances in stratigraphy, structure, and erosional modification (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Skinner, J.A.; Bourke, M.C.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Kolb, E.J.; Okubo, C.H.


    We have remapped the geology of the north polar plateau on Mars, Planum Boreum, and the surrounding plains of Vastitas Borealis using altimetry and image data along with thematic maps resulting from observations made by the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. New and revised geographic and geologic terminologies assist with effectively discussing the various features of this region. We identify 7 geologic units making up Planum Boreum and at least 3 for the circumpolar plains, which collectively span the entire Amazonian Period. The Planum Boreum units resolve at least 6 distinct depositional and 5 erosional episodes. The first major stage of activity includes the Early Amazonian (???3 to 1 Ga) deposition (and subsequent erosion) of the thick (locally exceeding 1000 m) and evenly-layered Rupes Tenuis unit (Abrt), which ultimately formed approximately half of the base of Planum Boreum. As previously suggested, this unit may be sourced by materials derived from the nearby Scandia region, and we interpret that it may correlate with the deposits that regionally underlie pedestal craters in the surrounding lowland plains. The second major episode of activity during the Middle to Late Amazonian (??? features. Some present-day dune fields may be hundreds of kilometers removed from possible sources along the margins of Planum Boreum, and dark materials, comprised of sand sheets, extend even farther downwind. These deposits also attest to the lengthy period of erosion following emplacement of the Planum Boreum 1 unit. We find no evidence for extensive glacial flow, topographic relaxation, or basal melting of Planum Boreum materials. However, minor development of normal faults and wrinkle ridges may suggest differential compaction of materials across buried scarps. Timing relations are poorly-defined mostly because resurfacing and other uncertainties prohibit precise determinations of surface impact crater densities

  7. Major advance on the interaction mechanism among plants,pest insects and natural enemies in China%植物-害虫-天敌互作机制研究前沿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈峰; 吴孔明; 陈学新


    During 2006 -2010, with support from a grant from the “ National Basic Research Program of China” (973 Program) ( No. 2006CB102000), Chinese entomologists have conducted a lot of researches on the interactions among plants, pest insects and natural enemies. Many outstanding findings have been published in important journals, such as Science, New Phytology and Plant Journal. In this paper, we review major new findings in Chinese entomology over the past 5 years. For example, silencing the OsHI-LOX gene makes rice more susceptible to chewing herbivores but enhances resistance to a phloem-feeder; larval feeding by two sibling species of induced different defensive responses in tobacco; plants release the common chemical (3Z)-hexen-ol to attract parasitic wasps to defend them from insect pests;functional synchronization of biological rhythms exhibits a tritrophic system; ecological trade-offs between jasmonic aciddependent direct and indirect plant defenses exist in tritrophic interactions; elevated CO2 changes interactions between nematodes and tomato genotypes with different JA pathways; and mirid bug outbreaks in multiple crops were correlated with the wide-scale adoption of Bt cotton in China. These results have greatly improved understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between plants, pest insects and their natural enemies.%植物-害虫-天敌之间的三级营养互作关系是当今进化生态学和化学生态学研究领域的前沿课题,也是寻找害虫可持续控制途径的重要基础.自2006年以来,我国昆虫学家在973项目的支持下,围绕害虫、植物、天敌协同进化机理的关键科学问题,以棉花-害虫-天敌、水稻-害虫-天敌和蔬菜-害虫-天敌系统为研究对象开展研究,发现OsHI-LOX参与虫害诱导的水稻茉莉酸(JA)信号途径合成,并通过水稻对二化螟和褐飞虱不同抗性作用的调控;寄主植物烟草受到棉铃虫和烟青虫危害后将被诱导产生化学防御作用,

  8. [Ichthyofauna of karstic wetlands under anthropic impact: the "petenes" of Campeche, Mexico]. (United States)

    Torres-Castro, Ivette Liliana; Vega-Cendejas, María Eugenia; Schmitter-Soto, Juan Jacobo; Palacio-Aponte, Gerardo; Rodiles-Hernández, Rocío


    "Petenes" are small springs and associated streams that drain into wetlands near the coast in karstic areas. We studied composition, distribution, and abundance of the ichthyofauna in Los Petenes region (northwest Campeche). Two petenes displaying different degrees and types of anthropic impact were selected, Hampolol and El Remate. Hampolol has a smaller area but a longer derived stream; it is located within a protected area, but has been invaded by tilapia. El Remate is a popular spa, with no tilapia; it has a larger area but a shorter derived stream. At each "petén", several sites in the main spring, the associated stream, and secondary (temporary) springs were sampled in the rainy and dry seasons. Fishing gear was variable (throw net, gill net, small and large seine nets), but effort was uniform. We recorded temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and depth at each site and season; also, we noted the different types and intensities of anthropic impact (channelization, presence of exotic species, recreational use, etc.) at each petén. We compared the petenes in terms of their environmental quality and fish fauna (composition, distribution, abundance, biomass); we also tested for effects of season and site within each petén. The study found 27 species of fishes, included in 18 genera and eight families, 24 species in Hampolol and 20 in El Remate. The geographical range of 'Cichlasoma' salvini, Rivulus tenuis, Phallichthys fairweatheri, Xiphophorus hellerii, and X maculatus is extended. The dominant species in both seasons was Astyanax (probable hybrids A. aeneus x altior at Hampolol, pure A. altior at El Remate), which contributed most of the abundance and biomass, together with Vieja synspila and Poecilia velifera. A significantly greater overall diversity (H'n=3.31) was recorded in Hampolol compared to El Remate (H'n=2.10). Cluster analysis of sites by species presence allowed distinction of two groupings within each petén: permanent waters (i.e., main

  9. Community Structure of Phytoplankton and Assessment of Algal Diversity in Ze-Qu River of A Tributary of the Yellow River in Spring and Autumn%黄河一级支流泽曲河春秋季浮游植物群落结构及多样性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕琴; 申志新; 刘玉婷


    于2012年春季(4月)和秋季(9月)对黄河一级支流泽曲河的浮游植物群落结构进行了调查,并应用多样性指数H、均匀度指数J、丰富度指数d,对泽曲河进行了多样性评价.结果显示:浮游植物共4门52种(属),以硅藻门最多,37种(属),占71.2%,其次是蓝藻门9种(属),占17.3%,绿藻门5种(属),占9.6%,裸藻门1属,占1.9%.浮游植物优势种为普通等片藻(Diatoma vulgare)、尖针杆藻(Symedra acus)、曲壳藻(Achnanthes sp.)、舟形藻(Navicula sp.)、桥弯藻(Cymbella sp.)、脆杆藻(Fragilaria sp.)、异极藻(Gomphonem sp.)、小环藻(Cyclotella sp.)、小颤藻(Oscillatoria tenuis)、席藻(Phormidium sp.)和小球藻(Chlorella sp.)11种(属),其中硅藻门8种(属),占优势种类的72.7%.浮游植物平均数量23.08×104 L-1,平均生物量0.088 9 mg/L,硅藻数量和生物量分别占总数量的92.3%和总生物量的98.8%,为优势种群.Shannon-Wiener指数平均值2.56,Pielou指数平均值0.79,Marggalef指数平均值0.75.结合浮游植物各项评价指标,得出泽曲河浮游植物群落结构比较稳定,种类分布较为均匀,水体属贫营养型.通过生物多样性指数法对水质进行评价,得出该河段水质属轻度污染.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕琴; 申志新; 刘玉婷; 李柯懋


    于2012年春季(4月)和秋季(10月)对长江上游曲麻莱至玉树段的浮游植物进行初步研究.结果显示:浮游植物共3门62种(属),以硅藻门最多,42种(属),占67.8%,其次是绿藻门11种(属),占17.7%,蓝藻门9种(属),占14.5%.浮游植物优势种为普通等片藻(Diatoma vulgare)、长等片藻(Diatoma elongatum)、尖针杆藻(Synedra acus)、曲壳藻(Achnanthes sp.)、舟形藻(Navicula sp.)、桥弯藻(Cymbella sp.)、脆杆藻(Fragilariasp.)、直链藻(Melosira sp.)、异极藻(Gomphonem sp.)、菱形藻(Hantzchia sp.)、小环藻(Cyclotella sp.)、小颤藻(Oscillatoria tenuis)、席藻(Phormidium sp.)和小球藻(Chlorella sp.)14种,其中硅藻门12种(属),占优势种类的78.6%.浮游植物种类组成的季节变化不明显,春季(4月)和秋季(10月)均以硅藻为优势种群.浮游植物平均数量34.87×104 cells/L,平均生物量0.138 8 mg/L,硅藻数量和生物量分别占87.86%和96.68%,为优势种群.浮游植物现存量表现为春季高于秋季,支流高于干流.Shannon-Wiener指数平均值2.51,Pielou指数平均值0.70,Marggalef指数平均值0.89,Shannon-Wiener指数、Pielou指数和Marggalef指数是秋季高于春季.结合浮游植物各项评价指标,得出长江上游曲麻莱至玉树段浮游植物群落结构比较稳定,种类分布较为均匀,水体属贫营养型,水域生态环境良好.

  11. Spatial distribution of fishes in a Northwest Atlantic ecosystem in relation to risk of predation by a marine mammal. (United States)

    Swain, Douglas P; Benoît, Hugues P; Hammill, Mike O


    1. Numerous studies have shown that, at spatial scales of metres to several kilometres, animals balance the trade-off between foraging success and predation mortality by increasing their use of safer but less profitable habitats as predation risk increases. However, it is less clear whether prey respond similarly at the larger spatiotemporal scales of many ecosystems. 2. We determine whether this behaviour is evident in a large marine ecosystem, the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence (sGSL, 75 000 km(2) ) over a 42-year period. This ecosystem is characterized by a recent increase in the abundance of a large marine predator, the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus Fabricius), by more than an order of magnitude. 3. We compared changes in spatial distribution over the 1971-2012 period between important prey of grey seals (Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.; white hake, Urophycis tenuis Mitchill; and thorny skate, Amblyraja radiata Donovan) and non-prey fishes. 4. Distribution was modelled using generalized additive models incorporating spatially variable effects of predation risk, density dependence and water temperature. Distributions of cod, hake and skate were strongly related to risk of predation by seals, with distribution shifting into lower risk areas as predation risk increased. Non-prey species did not show similar changes in habitat use. Spatial variation in fish condition suggests that these low-risk areas are also less profitable for cod and skate in terms of food availability. The effects of density dependence and water temperature were also important in models, but did not account for the changes in habitat use as the risk of predation increased. 5. These results indicate that these fish are able to assess and respond to spatial variation in predation risk at very large spatial scales. They also suggest that non-consumptive 'risk' effects may be an important component of the declines in productivity of seal prey in this ecosystem, and of the indirect effects at lower

  12. Trophic history of French sub-alpine lakes over the last ~150 years: phosphorus reconstruction and assessment of taphonomic biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Berthon


    Full Text Available Like many lakes worldwide, French sub-alpine lakes (lakes Annecy, Bourget and Geneva have suffered from eutrophication in the mid-20th century. Although restoration measures have been undertaken and resulted in significant reductions in nutrient inputs and concentrations over the last 30 years in all three lakes, the limnological monitoring does not extend back far enough to establish the reference conditions, as defined by the European Water Framework Directive. The over-arching aim of this work was to reconstruct, using a paleolimnological approach, the pre-eutrophication levels and subsequent temporal changes in the lakes trophic status over the last century. The objectives were three-fold: i to test whether fossil diatoms archived in deep sediment cores adequately reflect past changes in the planktonic diatom communities for these deep sub-alpine lakes based on data from lake Geneva; ii to investigate changes in the diatom communities over the last 150 years in the three lakes; and iii to infer the past total phosphorus (TP concentrations of the lakes from a diatom based transfer function. Annual paleolimnological and limnological diatom countings for lake Geneva were strongly correlated over the last 30 years. Most notable differences essentially resulted from both taphonomic and depositional biases, as evidenced by the underestimation of thin skeleton species such as Asterionella formosa and Diatoma tenuis in the paleolimnological dataset and the presence of many benthic taxa.  The fossil diatom records revealed shifts in the communities in the three lakes over time, most of which were changes typically associated with nutrient enrichment. Indeed, in all three lakes, the proportion of Cyclotella spp. was very high before the 1950s, but these species were then replaced by more eutrophic taxa, such as Stephanodiscus spp, by the mid-20th century. From the 1980s, some but not all diatom species typical of re-oligotrophicated conditions (i

  13. 远志皂苷元对新生大鼠海马神经干细胞分化的影响%Effect of Tenuigenin on Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells from Hippocampus of Newborn Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉静; 黄小波; 陈文强; 王宁群


    Objective To observe the effect of tenuigenin on differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). Methods NSCs isolated from newborn (within 24 h) Wistar rats hippocampus were cultivated in vitro with serum free and clone culturing technology. Tenui-genin of different doses (0, 1, 2, 4μg/ml) were added in the medium, and the proliferation and differentiation of the cells were identified with immunofluorescence staining. Results The neural spheres obtained from the hippocampi of newborn rats were positive for Nestin ex-pression, with the potential for further cloning and differentiation into neurons or glial cells. The incidence of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells increased in all the tenuigenin groups compared to the control (P<0.05), while the Nestin positive cells decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion Tenuigenin may promote the differentiation of neural stem cell into nerve cell.%目的:观察远志皂苷元对体外培养的胎鼠海马神经干细胞(NSCs)增殖分化的影响。方法利用无血清DMEM/F12体外培养技术从新生Wistar大鼠大脑海马中培养NSCs,添加不同浓度(0、1、2、4μg/ml)远志皂苷元。应用免疫荧光技术对NSCs及其分化后的细胞进行鉴定。结果培养的NSCs能够表达Nestin,并具有分化为神经元、星形胶质细胞及少突胶质细胞的能力。在同一接种密度条件下,远志皂苷元干预组的Nestin阳性细胞数较对照组减少(P<0.05),神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)和胶质纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)阳性细胞数较对照组增加(P<0.05)。结论远志皂苷元能促进新生大鼠大脑海马NSCs的分化。

  14. Soil acidification and liming in grassland production and grassland soil fertility in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure ČOP


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evidences on grassland soil acidity and liming in relation to soil processes and herbage production. There is also an outline of the present state of soil acidity and acidity-related traits – contents of organic matter (OM, phosphorus (P and potassium (K in Slovene grassland. In grassland, soil acidification is an ongoing process under humid climate conditions. It is mainly driven by leaching of nutrients, net loss of cations due to retention in livestock products, use of physiologically acid fertilizers, acid rain and N2 fixation. This process is reduced by strong pH buffering capacity of the soil and by physiologically basic fertilizers. Acid grassland soils in Slovenia are widely distributed in spite of the fact that 44% of the total land has developed from a carbonate parent material. Of the 1713 grassland soil samples analysed during 2005-2007 45% were regarded as acid ones (pH < 5.5; in KCl, 57% as soils with very low P status (˂ 6 mg P2O5/100 g soil and 22% as soils with very low K status (˂ 10 mg K2O/100 soil. Increased content of soil organic matter was identified for alpine pastures (˃ 10 % OM in 44% of samples, mainly as a result of low decomposition rate. Liming of acid grassland soils did not always reflect in a higher herbage yield. The cause for this inefficiency is plant composition of grassland. Thus, many grassland plants with relatively high production potential have adapted to acid soil conditions. To illustrate the inconsistent liming effect three researches are reviewed. In the first two researches liming along with fertilizer application did not increase the yield comparing to the fertilized control while in the third research the increase amounted 26 %. Liming improves considerably botanical composition of the acid grassland (e.g. sward where Common Bent – Agrostis tenuis Sibth. – prevails and thus indirectly affects palatability and nutritive value of herbage. Grassland liming has a weak

  15. Ictiofauna de sistemas cárstico-palustres con impacto antrópico: los petenes de Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Liliana Torres-Castro


    Full Text Available Los petenes son pequeños manantiales y arroyos asociados que drenan a sistemas palustres en áreas cársticas costeras. Se estudió la composición, distribución y abundancia de la ictiofauna en dos petenes del noroeste de Campeche, en el manantial principal, el arroyo asociado, y pequeños ojos de agua secundarios (temporales, en dos épocas del año. Se registraron variables ambientales y tipos de impacto antrópico en cada petén. Se encontraron en total 27 especies de peces, con extensiones de ámbito de ‘Cichlasoma’ salvini, Rivulus tenuis, Phallichthys fairweatheri, Xiphophorus hellerii y X. maculatus. La especie dominante en ambas épocas fue Astyanax (probables híbridos A. aeneus × altior en Hampolol, A. altior en El Remate. Hubo diferencia significativa en diversidad entre ambos petenes. El análisis de conglomerados diferenció dos agrupaciones dentro de cada petén: aguas permanentes y sitios temporales. Las variables ambientales (excepto salinidad presentaron diferencias significativas por sitio y época; un análisis de correspondencia canónica indicó que la distribución de los conjuntos de peces tuvo influencia de las variables ambientales en ambas temporadas. En términos de composición, los factores históricos juegan un papel en las diferencias ictiológicas entre ambos petenes, sobre todo por lo que concierne a la presencia de híbridos de Astyanax, así como Xiphophorus hellerii en el petén del sur (Hampolol y de Poecilia velifera en el petén del norte (El Remate.Ichthyofauna of karstic wetlands under anthropic impact: the "petenes" of Campeche, Mexico. "Petenes" are small springs and associated streams that drain into wetlands near the coast in karstic areas. We studied composition, distribution, and abundance of the ichthyofauna in Los Petenes region (northwest Campeche. Two petenes displaying different degrees and types of anthropic impact were selected, Hampolol and El Remate. Hampolol has a smaller area but

  16. 江西两种生态类型棉田及棉周边杂草棉盲蝽发生研究%Study on Occurrence of Cotton Lygus in Two Ecological Types of Cotton Fields and Their Surrounding Weeds of Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴华; 田绍仁; 李捷; 杨兆光; 涂祈钧; 乔艳艳


    研究了棉盲蝽在转基因抗虫棉药剂防治与不使用药剂防治上的发生差异,及棉田周边杂草上棉盲蝽发生动态,结果:①不防治类型棉田各棉盲蝽百株虫口总发生量为879头,其中:中黑盲蝽274头,绿盲蝽189头,杂毛合垫盲蝽407头,赣棉淡盲蝽9头,虫种比依次为:31∶22∶46∶1,杂毛合垫盲蝽为优势种;②常规防治类型棉田各棉盲蝽百株虫口总发生量为588头,其中:中黑盲蝽371头,绿盲蝽104头,杂毛合垫盲蝽94头,烟盲蝽17头,赣棉淡盲蝽2头,虫种比依次为:63∶18∶16∶3∶0.3,中黑盲蝽为优势种.9月22日~11月2日棉田边盲蝽杂草寄主和虫口发生量:赣棉淡盲蝽杂草寄主有18种,虫口发生量779头,排位第一;绿盲蝽杂草寄主14种,虫口发生量180头,排第二位;异须单突盲蝽杂草寄主5种,虫口发生量104头,排第三位;其他几种棉盲蝽杂草寄主少发生量小,以小飞蓬杂草发生棉盲蝽种类最多,达6种.%The author studied the occurrence of cotton lygus in transgenic insect - resistant cotton fields (conducting chemical control or not) and their surrounding weeds. The results showed that; ① in the cotton fields without chemical control, the total quantity of cotton lygus per 100 plants was 879 heads, including 274 Adelphocoris suturalis, 189 Apolygus lueorums, 407 Orthotylus flavosparsus and 9 Creontiades bipuanctatus, the population ratio of the four species was 31: 22: 46: 1 , and Orthotylus flavosparsus was the dominant species among them; ② in the conventional control cotton fields, the total quantity of cotton lygus in every one hundred cotton plants was 588 heads, including 371 Adelphocoris suturalis, 104 Apolygus lucorum, 94 Orthotylus flavosparsus, 17 Cyrtopeltis tenuis and 2 Creontiades bipuanctatus, the population ratio of the five species was 63: 18: 16: 3: 0. 3, and Adelphocoris suturalis was the dominant species among them. From September 22 to November 2, the surrounding weed host

  17. Community feature of planktonic algae in artificial beach lake, Dishui Lake%人工滩涂湖泊滴水湖浮游藻类群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立婧; 景钰湘; 吴艳芳; 李娟英; 陈冲; 张饮江


    于2009年3月-2010年2月逐月对中国最大人工滩涂湖泊——滴水湖的浮游藻类群落特征进行研究.利用CANOCO 4.5软件对浮游藻类数据和环境因子数据进行典范对应分析(CCA),以揭示浮游藻类对生态环境的响应.结果表明:全年共检测到浮游藻类186种及变种,隶属于8门92属,其中绿藻门种类最多,其次是蓝藻门和硅藻门;主要优势种为小席藻、微小平裂藻、银灰平裂藻、不定微囊藻、弱细颤藻、啮蚀隐藻、四尾栅藻、扁圆卵形藻;藻类的年均丰度和年均生物量分别为(4552.29±4591.33) ×104 cells·L-1和8.15±6.63 mg·L-1,藻类现存量各月份间差异极显著(P<0.01),但站点间差异不显著;多样性分析显示,藻类物种多样性较好;典范对应分析表明,水温、总氮等是影响滴水湖藻类群落结构的主要因素.%Dishui Lake is the largest artificial beach lake in China. From March 2009 to February 2010, a monthly investigation was conducted on the community feature of planktonic algae in the Lake. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was applied to study the correlations between the algae species diversity and environmental factors by using software CANOCO 4. 5, aimed to reveal the responses of the algae community to the ecological environment of the Lake. A total of 186 species and varieties of planktonic algae were detected, belonging to 92 genera of 8 phyla. Chlorophyta had the most species, followed by Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta. Phorimid-ium tenus, Merismopedia tenuissima, M. glauca, Microcystis incerta, Oscillatoria tenuis, Crypto-monas erosa, Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Cocconeis placentula were the dominant species. The mean annual abundance and biomass of the planktonic algae were (4552. 29±4591.33) × 104 cells · L-1 and 8. 15±6. 63 mg · L-1, respectively. There was a significant difference (P<0.01) in the standing crop of the algae between months, but no remarkable difference was

  18. 凡纳对虾淡化养殖虾池微型浮游生物群落及多样性%Studies on the structure and biodiversity of the microplankton community in Litopenaeus vannamai desalination culture ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查广才; 周昌清; 黄建荣; 何建国; 麦雄伟


    2002年8月15~10月8日,对广东省珠海市斗门凡纳对虾淡化养殖虾池进行调查,虾池平均养殖面积为0.37±0.11hm2 ,水深136±8 cm,虾苗放养密度131±37×104尾/hm2;调查期间虾池水温24.3~33. 6℃, pH值7.1~9.6,早期养殖盐度2‰~3‰,中后期为0,透明度中后期稳定在20cm左右.鉴定浮游植物48属96种,其中绿藻45种,硅藻和裸藻各9种,隐藻2种,甲藻4种.优势种有10种,多为蓝藻,如螺旋藻(Spirulinasp.) 、弯形尖头藻(Raphidiopsis curvata)、小颤藻(Oscillatoria tenuis)、假鱼腥藻(Pseudoanabaena sp.)、针状蓝纤维藻 (Dactylococcopsis acicularis)及水华微囊藻(Microcystis aeruginosa)等,优势种的优势度突出.常见种有30种, 主要是绿藻、硅藻、隐藻,少见种有57种.优势种和常见种多为富营养化水体中的或耐污性的种类.虾池原生动物有29种,其中肉足虫3种,纤毛虫26 种,优势种为毛板壳虫(Coleps hirtus)、卵形前管虫(Prorodon ovum)和旋急游虫(Strombidium spiralis),主要是以藻类为食的A类群,常见种有膜袋虫(Cyclidium sp.) 、小单环栉毛虫(Didinium balbianitnanum)、瓶口虫(Lagynophrya acuminate)、圆筒状拟铃壳虫(Tintinnopsis cylindrata)和钟虫(Vorticella sp.),少见种21种.虾池微型浮游生物种类及多样性养殖早期低,后期增高,浮游植物多样性指数平均为1.95~2.60,原生动物多样性指数平均为1.01~1.67.

  19. Effects of Sulfate on the Community Structure of Phytoplankton in Freshwater%硫酸盐对淡水浮游藻类群落结构的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟远; 樊娟; 刘春光; 庄源益


    In order to promote the understanding of sulfate enrichnment on the growth and .sucession of phytoplanktion cotomunities in eutrophic freshwater body laboratory experiment of phytoplankton in a landscapc water body was conducted.Three treatment groups were set up in experiment:cantroal (G0),step by step enrichmenl (G1) and eurichmet at a time (G2). The resolt indicated that the addition of sulfate promoted the increase of Chloropbyta species and biomass, while inhibited the growth of native Cyanobacteria and diatom species. Species and biomass. of G0, G1 group were similar and much higher than those of G2 group. Avcrage biomass of G0, Gland G2 group was 98.46, 96.09 and 81.19 mg·L~(-1) , respectively. C0 group was almost always dominated by Cyanobacteria species such as P. corium and O. amphibia, dominant species in G1 and G2 groups changed from Cyannbacteria species to Chlorophyta species including S. quadricauda, G. radiate and S. obliqus. Compared with that of control group GO (1.49±0.32),the average community diversity indices of G1 (1.70 ±0.1g)and G2 groups ( 1.68±0.40) were elevated.%为了解硫酸盐含量增加对富营养化淡水水体藻类生长及群落演替的影响,对天津市某景观水体藻类进行了室内模拟试验研究.按硫酸盐投加方式分设对照组(G0)、逐步投加组(G1)和一次性投加组(G2).结果表明,向水中投加一定浓度硫酸盐可以抑制原有蓝藻和硅藻生长,而绿藻种类和生物量增加.G0和G1组的种类数和生物量相近但是大于G2组.G0、G1和G2组的平均总生物量分别为98.46、96.09和81.19 mg·L~(-1).对照组几乎始终是皮状席藻(P.corium)和两栖颤藻(0.amphibia)等蓝藻为第一优势种,而投加硫酸盐的G1和G2组优势种从皮状席藻和小颤藻(0.tenuis)等蓝藻向四尾栅藻(S.quadricauda)、放射多芒藻(G.radiate)和斜生栅藻(S.obliqus)等绿藻演替.群落平均多样性指数与对照组G0(1.49±0.32)相比,投加硫酸盐的G1(1.70±0

  20. 一种快速、特异性检测小麦中链格孢菌(Alternaria alternata)的巢式 PCR 方法%A Rapid and Specific Nest-PCR Method for Detection of Alternaria alternata in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦召; 李巧云; 段宗彪; 姜玉梅; 牛吉山


    为建立检测小麦中链格孢菌(Alternaria alternata )的方法,从河南省小麦黑胚籽粒上分离得到7个优势 A.alternata 病原菌株,对其 rDNA 的内部转录间隔区序列(ITS)进行测序,序列比较表明,分离到的病原菌株与 GenBank 公布的 A.alternata 的 ITS 区序列一致性达到99%~100%。根据 Alternaria 属菌株(A.alternata、A.tenuis、A.tenuissima)和麦类根腐离蠕孢菌(Bipolaris sorokiniana )的 ITS 序列比对结果,设计出1对 A.alternata 特异性引物 Aa1F/Aa1R。利用多种河南省小麦的主要病原真菌对该引物的特异性进行验证,只有在 A.alternata 中能特异性地扩增出1条443 bp 的 DNA 片段。以真菌通用引物 ITS1/ITS4为外侧引物、特异性引物Aa1F/Aa1R 为内侧引物进行巢式 PCR 扩增,能检测到 A.alternata DNA 的最低质量浓度为50 pg/μL。因此,建立的巢式 PCR 方法能够快速、特异地检测小麦中的 A.alternata。%The aim of this study was to establish a method for detection of Alternaria alternata in wheat.Seven dominating isolates of A.alternata from wheat black point grains in Henan province were collected,and then their internal transcribed spacer(ITS)regions in rDNA were sequenced, and the sequence analysis showed that the ITS sequences were highly similar among isolates of A.alternata isolated in this study and in GenBank by 99%-100%.According to the comparative result of ITS sequences of Alternaria spp.(A.alternate,A.tenuis,A.tenuissima)and Bipolaris sorokiniana,a pair of primers,namely Aa1F and Aa1R,were designed.Specificity of the primers was tested with several major fungal pathogens of wheat in Henan province,and a 443 bp specific DNA fragment could be amplified only from A.alternata.A rapid and specific nest-PCR method for detection of A.alternata in wheat was established with fungal universal primers ITS1/ITS4 as the outer primers and Aa1F/Aa1R as the inner primers

  1. Ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community composition in the nitrifying biofilter of Recirculating Aquaculture System%循环海水养殖系统硝化滤器中氨氧化微生物分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长发; 姚敬元; 袁瑗; 刘卫东


    the information of AOB using 16S rRNA gene cloning is more than using amoA gene cloning.We used GenBank BLAST to search for best matches for the obtained sequences,the AOB in the nitrification biofilter were much closed to Nitrosomonas cryotolerans,Nitrosomonas oligotropha,Nitrosospira tenuis,Nitrosomonas marina with 100% of similarity and Nitro-somonas aestuarii with 87% of similarity.The AOB in the nitrification biofilter of RAS belong to the β-subclass of Proteobacteria,Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira.Nitrosospira-like sequences were detected.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王原; 苏珊·E·埃文斯


    The past fifteen years have witnessed an acceleration in the study of Chinese fossil amphibians and squamates. Sixteen ( 15 new) amphibian and twenty-two ( 11 new) squamate species have been reported across China, including the oldest Chinese tetrapod Sinostega pani from the Late Devonian of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the large stereospondyl amphibian Yuanansuchus laticeps from the Middle Triassic of Hubei Province, Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous lissamphibians ( e. G. , the anurans Callobatrachus sanyanensis and Mesophryne beipiaoensis, the caudates Jeholotriton paradoxus and Laccotriton subsolanus) from Northeast China, Paleogene lizards (e. G., Brevidensilacerta xichuanensis and Tinosaurus yuanquensis) from North China, and numerous lizards from the Late Cretaceous of Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia) Autonomous Region. Some previously described taxa have been revised, especially those of the Jehol Biota (e. G. , Yabeinosaurus tenuis, long considered a small gracile lizard, but shown to be a large robust genus with all previous specimens juvenile). New important paleoherpetological localities have been discovered, such as Sihetun, Lujiatun of Beipiao City and Shuikouzi of Huludao City in Liaoning Province, Paozhanggou of Fengning County in Hebei Province, and Daohugou of Ningcheng County and Bayan Mandahu of Urad Houqi in Nei Mongol Autonomous Region. Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous amphibians and lizards from China have provided important information on the origin and early evolution of relevant groups, but phylogenetic studies on these taxa are at a preliminary stage.%过去15年中,我国的化石两栖类和有鳞类研究取得了加速进展.共报道了16种两栖类和22种有鳞类,其中15种两栖类和11种有鳞类为新种,包括我国最古老的四足动物宁夏晚泥盆世的潘氏中国螈,湖北中三叠世的大型全椎两栖类宽头远安鲵,东北晚侏罗世/早白垩世的多种滑体两栖类(如无尾类三燕丽蟾和北票中蟾,有

  3. Art in Paleontology: The Example of Manfred Reichel (United States)

    Leria, M.; Ferràndez-Cañadell, C.


    this ability to elaborate vivid restorations of pterosaurus and extinct birds, such as Archaeopteryx. This study is based on a revision of the scientific papers by Manfred Reichel, along with some of the work done by his students related to the foraminiferal research. In addition, the examination of the collection of Reichel's drawings and casts held by the Natural History Museum in Basel, as well as interviews with his family and students were highly helpful to understand how he applied his artistic skills to teaching and research. From this study, we can assess the significance of visual education on micropaleontologists, arguing that classical convention in drawing is still and irreplaceable tool in natural sciences. Illustration of the test, scale 1:50, of Praealveolina cretacea tenuis. (Manfred Reichel, 1937. Étude sur les Alvéolines, Mémoires de la Société paléontologique Suisse, Vol. LIX, plate XI, fig. IIa)

  4. Host cell and expression engineering for development of an E. coli ketoreductase catalyst: Enhancement of formate dehydrogenase activity for regeneration of NADH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mädje Katharina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic NADH or NADPH-dependent reduction is a widely applied approach for the synthesis of optically active organic compounds. The overall biocatalytic conversion usually involves in situ regeneration of the expensive NAD(PH. Oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide, catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (EC; FDH, presents an almost ideal process solution for coenzyme regeneration that has been well established for NADH. Because isolated FDH is relatively unstable under a range of process conditions, whole cells often constitute the preferred form of the biocatalyst, combining the advantage of enzyme protection in the cellular environment with ease of enzyme production. However, the most prominent FDH used in biotransformations, the enzyme from the yeast Candida boidinii, is usually expressed in limiting amounts of activity in the prime host for whole cell biocatalysis, Escherichia coli. We therefore performed expression engineering with the aim of enhancing FDH activity in an E. coli ketoreductase catalyst. The benefit resulting from improved NADH regeneration capacity is demonstrated in two transformations of technological relevance: xylose conversion into xylitol, and synthesis of (S-1-(2-chlorophenylethanol from o-chloroacetophenone. Results As compared to individual expression of C. boidinii FDH in E. coli BL21 (DE3 that gave an intracellular enzyme activity of 400 units/gCDW, co-expression of the FDH with the ketoreductase (Candida tenuis xylose reductase; XR resulted in a substantial decline in FDH activity. The remaining FDH activity of only 85 U/gCDW was strongly limiting the overall catalytic activity of the whole cell system. Combined effects from increase in FDH gene copy number, supply of rare tRNAs in a Rosetta strain of E. coli, dampened expression of the ketoreductase, and induction at low temperature (18°C brought up the FDH activity threefold to a level of 250 U/gCDW while reducing the XR activity by

  5. Sponges of the Permian Upper Capitan Limestone Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and Texas (United States)

    Rigby, J.K.; Senowbari-Daryan, B.; Liu, H.


    parva. Among the ceractinomorphid Aporata, the family Thaumastocoeliidae Ott, 1967 is represented by Sollasia ostiolata Steinmann, 1882, and Girtyocoelia beedei (Girty, 1908b). The sclerospongiid Guadalupiidae Termier and Termier, in Termier, et al., 1977a, which includes the family Guadalupiidae Girty, 1908a, is represented by the species Guadalupia zitteliana Girty, 1908a, and Guadalupia explanata (King, 1943), Lemonea cylindrica (Girty, 1908a), Lemonea conica Senowbari-Daryan, 1990, Lemonea polysiphonata Senowbari-Daryan, 1990, and the new species Lemonea exaulifera and Lemonea micra. The Calcarea are represented within the subclass Aspiculata Rigby and Senowbari-Daryan, 1996a, and order Inozoida Rigby and Senowbari-Daryan, 1996a, by the Auriculospongiidae Termier and Termier, 1977a, which includes the large Gigantospongia discoforma Rigby and Senowbari-Daryan, 1996b. and Cavusonella caverna Rigby, Fan, and Zhang, 1989b. Also included are the Peronidellidae Wu, 1991, represented by the species Peronidella cf. P. rigbyi Senowbari-Daryan, 1991, Peronidella(?) delicata new species, and Minispongia constricta (Girty, 1908a), and the new genus and species Bicoelia guadalupensis. The family Virgulidae Termier and Termier, 1977a, is redefined to include the genus Virgola and the species Virgola neptunia (Girty, 1908a), and Virgola rigida (Girty, 1908a,). The family Polysiphonellidae Wu, 1991, (not Polysiphonellidae Belyaeva in Boiko, et al., 1991) is interpreted to include most of the subfamilies originally included by Rigby and Senowbari-Daryan (1996a) in the Virgulispongiidae. The sponge Grossotubinella parallela Rigby, Fan, and Zhang, 1989b is included there in the Preeudinae, with Pseudovirgula tenuis Girty, 1908a. Heliospongid demosponges are represented in the Upper Capitan by Heliospongia ramosa Girty, 1908b, Heliospongia vokesi King, 1943, and Neoheliospongia(?) cf. N. typica Deng, 1981. Fossils of unknown taxonomy, possibly sponges, hydrozoans or algae, are incl

  6. Taxonomic review of the New World spider genus Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 (Araneae, Clubionidae). (United States)

    Saturnino, Regiane; Bonaldo, Alexandre Bragio


    (Gertsch, 1941) is synonimized with E. multinotata; E. dorothea (Gertsch, 1935) with E. wheeleri; E. exempta (Gertsch & Davis, 1940) with E. placida and E. vulnerata (Kraus, 1955) with E. calcarata. The drawings in the original descriptions of E. kawitpaaia (Barrion & Litsinger, 1995) and E. turongdaliriana (Barrion & Litsinger, 1995) are sufficiently informative to exclude these species from Elaver but not to accurately establish its generic affiliation. Thus, until the types become available for examination, these species must remain as Clubionidae incertae sedis. Heterochemmis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) is synonymized with Elaver and Heterochemmis mutatus Gertsch & Davis,1940 is recognized as a junior synonym of Elaver mirabilis n. comb., the type species of Heterochemmis. New records are presented for E. valvula, E. balboae, E. brevipes (Keyserling, 1891), E. grandivulva and E. lutescens (Schmidt, 1971). Two species described by Franganillo, E. tenera (Franganillo, 1935) and E. tenuis (Franganillo, 1935), are considered species inquirendae.

  7. Relationship between Community Structure of Phytoplankon and Water Quality in Yeyahu Lake, Beijing%北京野鸭湖浮游植物群落结构与水质关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文丽; 刘均平; 王晓星; 杜桂森; 洪剑明


    2011年4~11月,调查北京野鸭湖4个采样区6个采样点浮游植物的种类组成,计算其密度和生物多样性指数,分析浮游植物群落指标与水质理化参数的关系,利用修正卡尔森指数及群落多样性指数等进行了水质综合评价.结果表明,2011年4~11月,4个采样区共发现8门116种藻类,其中绿藻门、硅藻门和裸藻门占76.72%.浮游植物的群落结构、密度和多样性指数季节变化较大.在夏、秋季水温较高时,浮游植物种类较丰富,其中,以绿藻门(40.73%)最多,其次为硅藻门(26.96%)和蓝藻门(17.56%).春季和冬季水温较低,浮游植物种类比较少,但仍然是绿藻门和硅藻门植物占主导.各采样区的浮游植物细胞密度之和,在6月达到最大值,为36 119.9×104 cells/L,最低值出现在11月,为5 209.75× 104cells/L.浮游植物细胞密度在夏季和秋季较大,与浮游植物种类组成的季节变化具有一致性,即随着水温的升高和水中营养盐的增加,浮游植物的种类和细胞密度都在增加,且都是蓝藻占绝对优势,其次为绿藻.Ⅰ区~Ⅳ区浮游植物的年平均细胞密度分别为4 881.36× 104cells/L、1 015.22× 104 cells/L、4 875×104 cells/L和2 466× 104 cells/L,其中,绿藻门和蓝藻门植物细胞密度占浮游植物总细胞密度的99.81%,优势种为小颤藻(Oscillatoria tenuis)、大螺旋藻(Spirulina major)、微小色球藻(Chroococcus minutus)和蓝纤维藻(Dactylococcopsis acicularis).野鸭湖浮游植物的Shannon-Wiener指数、Pielou均匀度指数变化规律一致.野鸭湖春季和冬季水质相对较好,夏季和秋季水质相对较差.Shannon-Wiener指数和Pielou均匀度指数呈显著正相关(P<0.01),说明野鸭湖浮游植物物种多样性指数的变化,很可能是由于浮游植物群落均匀度的变化而不是由于其种类数的变化.野鸭湖浮游植物的生物多样性较高.4个采样区的多样性指数及均

  8. Pathogens, nutritional deficiency, and climate influences on a declining moose population (United States)

    Murray, D.L.; Cox, E.W.; Ballard, W.B.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Lenarz, M.S.; Custer, T.W.; Barnett, T.; Fuller, T.K.


    Several potential proximate causes may be implicated in a recent (post-1984) decline in moose (Alces alces andersoni) numbers at their southern range periphery in northwest Minnesota, USA. These causes include deleterious effects of infectious pathogens, some of which are associated with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), negative effects of climate change, increased food competition with deer or moose, legal or illegal hunting, and increased predation by gray wolves (Canis lupus) and black bears (Ursus americanus). Long-standing factors that may have contributed to the moose decline include those typically associated with marginal habitat such as nutritional deficiencies. We examined survival and productivity among radiocollared (n = 152) adult female and juvenile moose in northwest Minnesota during 1995–2000, and assessed cause of death and pathology through carcass necropsy of radiocollared and non-radiocollared animals.Aerial moose surveys suggested that hunting was an unlikely source of the numerical decline because the level of harvest was relatively low (i.e., approx. 15% / 2 yr) and the population usually grew in years following a hunt. The majority of moose mortalities (up to 87% of radiocollared moose [n = 76] and up to 65% of non-radiocollared moose [n = 84]) were proximally related to pathology associated with parasites and infectious disease. Liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) infections apparently constituted the greatest single source of mortality and caused significant pathology in the liver, thoracic and peritoneal cavities, pericardial sac, and lungs. Mortality due to meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) was less prevalent and was manifested through characteristic neurological disease. Several mortalities apparently were associated with unidentified infectious disease, probably acting in close association with malnutrition. Bone-marrow fat was lower for moose dying of natural causes than those dying of anthropogenic factors or

  9. Superficial Pathogenic Fungi in Shanwei High School Students%汕尾市中学生浅部真菌病致病性真菌菌种分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢瑶新; 吴伟芬; 庄建波


    -like fungi (4.13%),21 strains of Aspergillus(3.10%),24 strains of Alternaria tenuis(3.54%),and 19 strains of Penicillium(2.80%).Twenty-nine cases(4.28%)had mixed infection.Conclusion Tin-ea corporis is the commonest type and dermatophytes are the predominant pathogens in Shanwei high school students.However,other fungal infections show an obvious rising trend.

  10. Panel Discussion: Life in the Cosmos (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.


    Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) probe has found that both the North and South Polar Caps of Mars are approximately 3.5 km thick and are composed almost entirely of water ice. In winter, a thin dry ice layer covers the caps, but it sublimates directly to CO2 in the spring. The ESA Mars Express Orbiter images reveal Rupes Tenuis to be a vast snow-laden region on the southern edge of the Martian North Polar Cap. The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit found alkaline volcanic rocks in the Gusev Crater and the Phoenix Mars Lander has shown that the soil of Mars is much more alkaline than previously expected. The Phoenix Mars Lander has also made direct observations of frozen and liquid water on Mars. It is known that microorganisms from Alaska, Siberia and Antarctica can remain alive frozen in permafrost or ice for long periods of time. These discoveries increase the possibility that the Labeled Release Experiment may have discovered life on Mars during the Viking Mission and provide strong impetus for the return of life detection experiments to Mars. Changes in the spin rate of Saturn's moon Titan indicate that it may also harbor a 300 km thick liquid water ocean beneath its icy crust. The NASA/ESA/Italian Space Agency Cassini Spacecraft has imaged geysers containing water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide and organics erupting from the "tiger stripe" regions near the South Pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The high temperatures observed, the water vapor and large number of ice particles expelled suggest that a liquid water lake may exist beneath the "tiger stripe" ice cracks of Enceladus. The NASA Deep Impact probe found the surface temperature of comet 9P/Temple 1 at 1.5 AY was slightly above the ice/water phase change temperature (273 K). This suggests melting of water ice near the comet surface. A spectrometer the spacecraft detected a mixture of clay and carbonate minerals (that form in the presence of liquid water) streaming off the comet after the collision with the

  11. Panel Discussion: Life in the Cosmos (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.


    Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) probe has found that both the North and South Polar Caps of Mars are approximately 3.5 km thick and are composed almost entirely of water ice. In winter, a thin dry ice layer covers the caps, but it sublimates directly to CO2 in the spring. The ESA Mars Express Orbiter images reveal Rupes Tenuis to be a vast snow-laden region on the southern edge of the Martian North Polar Cap. The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit found alkaline volcanic rocks in the Gusev Crater and the Phoenix Mars Lander has shown that the soil of Mars is much more alkaline than previously expected. The Phoenix Mars Lander has also made direct observations of frozen and liquid water on Mars. It is known that microorganisms from Alaska, Siberia and Antarctica can remain alive frozen in permafrost or ice for long periods of time. These discoveries increase the possibility that the Labeled Release Experiment may have discovered life on Mars during the Viking Mission and provide strong impetus for the return of life detection experiments to Mars. Changes in the spin rate of Saturn's moon Titan indicate that it may also harbor a 300 km thick liquid water ocean beneath its icy crust. The NASA/ESA/Italian Space Agency Cassini Spacecraft has imaged geysers containing water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide and organics erupting from the "tiger stripe" regions near the South Pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The high temperatures observed, the water vapor and large number of ice particles expelled suggest that a liquid water lake may exist beneath the "tiger stripe" ice cracks of Enceladus. The NASA Deep Impact probe found the surface temperature of comet 9P/Temple 1 at 1.5 AY was slightly above the ice/water phase change temperature (273 K). This suggests melting of water ice near the comet surface. A spectrometer the spacecraft detected a mixture of clay and carbonate minerals (that form in the presence of liquid water) streaming off the comet after the collision with the

  12. A systematic revision of Operclipygus Marseul (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Caterino


    . panamensis (Wenzel & Dybas, 1941], O. sejunctus group [O. depressus (Hinton, 1935, O. itoupe sp. n., O. juninensis sp. n., O. pecki sp. n., O. punctiventer sp. n., O. sejunctus (Schmidt, 1896 comb. n., O. setiventris sp. n.], O. mortavis group [O. ecitonis sp. n., O. mortavis sp. n., O. paraguensis sp. n.], O. dytiscoides group [O. carinisternus sp. n., O. crenulatus sp. n., O. dytiscoides sp. n., O. quadratus sp. n.], O. dubitabilis group [O. dubitabilis (Marseul, 1889, O. yasuni sp. n.], O. angulifer group [O. angulifer sp. n., O. impressifrons sp. n.], O. dubius group [O. andinus sp. n., O. dubius (Lewis, 1888, O. extraneus sp. n., O. intermissus sp. n., O. lunulus sp. n., O. occultus sp. n., O. perplexus sp. n., O. remotus sp. n., O. validus sp. n., O. variabilis sp. n.], O. hospes group [O. assimilis sp. n., O. belemensis sp. n., O. bulbistoma sp. n., O. callifrons sp. n., O. colombicus sp. n., O. communis sp. n., O. confertus sp. n., O. confluens sp. n., O. curtistrius sp. n., O. diffluens sp. n., O. fusistrius sp. n., O. gratus sp. n., O. hospes (Lewis, 1902, O. ibiscus sp. n., O. ignifer sp. n., O. impositus sp. n., O. incisus sp. n., O. innocuus sp. n., O. inquilinus sp. n., O. minutus sp. n., O. novateutoniae sp. n., O. praecinctus sp. n., O. prominens sp. n., O. rileyi sp. n., O. subterraneus sp. n., O. tenuis sp. n., O. tiputinus sp. n.], O. farctus group [O. atlanticus sp. n., O. bidessois (Marseul, 1889, O. distinctus (Hinton, 1935, O. distractus (Schmidt, 1896 comb. n., O. farctissimus sp. n., O. farctus (Marseul, 1864, O. gilli sp. n., O. impressistrius sp. n., O. inflatus sp. n., O. latemarginatus (Bickhardt, 1920 comb. n., O. petrovi sp. n., O. plicatus (Hinton, 1935 comb. n., O. prolixus sp. n., O. punctifrons sp. n., O. proximus sp. n., O. subrufus sp. n.], O. hirsutipes group [O. guianensis sp. n., O. hirsutipes sp. n.], O. hamistrius group [O. arquus sp. n., O. campbelli sp. n., O. chiapensis sp. n., O. dybasi sp. n., O. geometricus (Casey, 1893 comb. n


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩; 曾波; 孙晓燕; 吴忠兴


    dominated community of phytoplankton in winter. Yet different water types have changed with seasons differently: (1) with the decreasing of velocity of flow and the changes of water types from natural riverine zone to analogous lacustrine zone, the dominant species of water column changed from Bacillariphyta to Chlorophyta and the dominance degree index of Chlorophyta increased to 0.62, in the meanwhile the proportion also raised gradually and went up to 67.8% in analogous lacustrine zone in spring (March, 2010). In September, 2009, the proportion Cyanophyta increased to 52.6% and at the time of September, 2010, the proportion of Cyanophyta in phytoplankton even soar to 63.8% becoming main species. Such as Oscillatoria tenuis Ag whose dominance degree index was significant higher than any other species. Although Bacillariphyta were put one at an absolute predominance in all the water columns during winter, the abundance of algae in Chlorophyta in analogous lacustrine zone was larger than any other water types. (2) The mean Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the main stream was 2.43, and the variation in analogous lacustrine zone was in summer and autumn>winter>spring. On the contrary, the index was the lowest in winter in natural riverine zone and transition zone. The evenness index changed between 0.52 and 0.85 and the evenness in spring was lower than any other seasons. Contrast previous studies, we can indicate that the water quality of he main stream of the Three Gorges Reservoir of Chongqing may become worse during these years and we should pay more attention to this trend and try to prevent it.%为了分析三峡库区长江干流重庆段因蓄水产生的三类不同水体(自然河流型、过渡型、类湖泊型)对浮游植物的影响,分别于不同季节和蓄水期对水体浮游植物进行了群落调查,结果显示各群落指标仍呈现亚热带河流型水库的.季节变化趋势:春季绿藻、隐藻占优势,夏季蓝藻所占比例增加,冬季硅

  14. Development of allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma: 4-5year follow-up study of preschool children%学龄前儿童变应性鼻炎发展趋势及与哮喘相关性的五年纵向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓬鹏; 张亚梅; 张杰


    between AR and asthma.Methods Two hundred and fourty-eight children with AR (AR group) and 217 non-AR children (non-AR group)were surveyed using a questionnaire and examined by otolaryngologists with skin prick test (SPT) between 2006 and 2007.Among them,63 children were asked to return to hospital to participate in a routine ENT examination and SPT for common inhalant allergens.All statistical analysis was performed by a professional statistician using SPSS 17.0 statistical software.Results Two hundred and sixteen questionnaires were acquired in AR group and 156 questionnaires were acquired in non-AR group.(1) The remission of AR occurred in 37.0% (80/216) 5-years later,70.0% (56/80) children who had remission of AR symptoms received the correct medication; there was only 49.3% (67/136) children who had nonremission of AR symptoms received the correct medication,and there was a statistically significant difference (x2 =0.114,P =0.736).(2) Asthma prevalence was increased from 12.5% (27/216) to 14.8% (32/216) in AR group children,there was no statistically significant difference (x2 =-0.491,P =0.484).The prevalence of asthma was increased slightly from 2.6% (4/156) to 3.2% (5/156) in no-AR group children,there was no statistically significant difference (x2 =0.114,P =0.736).When asthma in AR group children had tendency of remission,AR could also be controlled,and there was a statistically significant difference (x2 =5.423,P < 0.05).(3) The total number of sensitization allergen decreased compared to the originally test.Dermatophagoidesfarina was the most common allergen in our survey,while in the originally test,Alternaria tenuis was the most common allergen.There was agedependent tendency to sensitize to new classes of allergens was present in children with AR,the number of children sensitized to fungal was minimum.Conclusions Remission of AR in preschool children occurred in 37.0% 5 years later.There is a strong relationship between childhood AR and