WorldWideScience

Sample records for minor highway bridges

  1. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  2. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Enevoldsen, I.

    The present paper worked out as a part of a research project on "Dynamic amplification factor of vehicle loadings on smaller bridges" establishes a two-dimensional spectral description of the road roughness surface based on measurements from a Danish road using so-called Profilograph used by Danish...... to the bridge and the stochastic nature of the surface roughness are included into the model....

  3. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... projects at a minimum, it is necessary to perform accurate estimates of the dynamic amplification factor (defined as the dynamic load effect divided by the static load effect from the vehicles), so this quantity is neither over- nor underestimated. The principal aims of the present paper are to establish...... the numerical models for the mathematical models of the vehicles and the bridge from which the load amplification factors can be estimated assuming that the dynamic parameters of the vehicles and the modal parameters of the bridge are known....

  4. Influence of Surface Irregularities on the Dynamic Response of Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    are included into the model. Based on a Monte Carlo simulation study the mean value and the variational coefficient of several dynamic amplification factors have been calculated assuming the parameters describing the vehicle and the bridge deterministic at characteristic values. The overall conclusion from......In the present paper the effect on the dynamic application factor of bridge response from the surface irregularities is investigated. A numerical 3D model has been formulated for a 48t Scania truck. Further, a characteristic minor highway bridge has been selected, and a numerical FEM-model has been...... formulated. Based on measured data, a 2D spectral description of the road roughness is established which models the deterministic trends in transversal (wheel tracking) as well as longitudinal direction (some long-waved tendency). Further, the bumps/ expansion joints at the approaches to the bridge...

  5. Optimum Maintenance Strategies for Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frangopol, Dan M.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Das, Parag C.;

    As bridges become older and maintenance costs become higher, transportation agencies are facing challenges related to implementation of optimal bridge management programs based on life cycle cost considerations. A reliability-based approach is necessary to find optimal solutions based on minimum...... expected life-cycle costs or maximum life-cycle benefits. This is because many maintenance activities can be associated with significant costs, but their effects on bridge safety can be minor. In this paper, the program of an investigation on optimum maintenance strategies for different bridge types...... is described. The end result of this investigation will be a general reliability-based framework to be used by the UK Highways Agency in order to plan optimal strategies for the maintenance of its bridge network so as to optimize whole-life costs....

  6. International Contribution to the Highway Agency's Bridge Related Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowak, A. S.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    The objective of this paper is to summarize recent contributions of international experts to the research program sponsored by the Highways Agency. An efficient management of existing bridges requires methodology for an accurate evaluation of the actual loads and load carrying capacity and predic......The objective of this paper is to summarize recent contributions of international experts to the research program sponsored by the Highways Agency. An efficient management of existing bridges requires methodology for an accurate evaluation of the actual loads and load carrying capacity...... of reliability models for analysis of bridges subjected to corrosion and fatigue, and reliability-based optimization of maintenance strategies for bridges....

  7. Comparison of Ferry Boat and Highway Bridge Energy Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D. Cottrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger ferries serve a variety of transport needs in the U.S., such as providing vital links across bodies of water, and supplementing highway bridges. In some cases in which there is a ferry connection but no bridge, a bridge would be impractical; in other cases, a bridge might be feasible. The paper compares the energy consumption of ferries and motor vehicles on bridges, to determine which link is more fuel efficient. One finding is that limited data are available on ferry boat fuel consumption: despite there being 208 ferry boat operators in the U.S. as of 2008, only eight were providing energy use data to the National Transit Database. Examinations of three of the systems found that the passenger-MPG of the ferries ranged from 2.61 to 14.00 (1.11 to 5.95 km/L, while that of the motor vehicles on adjacent highway bridge connections ranged from 25.34 to 32.45 (10.77 to 13.79 km/L. Data from the eight systems are used to develop a ferry MPG model. The model is used to show that the Ryer Island and Charles Hall Ferries are less fuel efficient than hypothetical bridges in those locations. The fuel efficiencies and consumptions of the ferries would equal those of motor vehicles on the bridges, however, if smaller vessels were used, and if the frequency of service was reduced.

  8. Fracture Mechanics Prediction of Fatigue Life of Aluminum Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Søren; Agerskov, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Fracture mechanics prediction of the fatigue life of aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined from fracture mechanics analyses and the results obtained have been compared with results from experimental investigations. The fati......Fracture mechanics prediction of the fatigue life of aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined from fracture mechanics analyses and the results obtained have been compared with results from experimental investigations...... against fatigue in aluminum bridges, may give results which are unconservative. Furthermore, it was in both investigations found that the validity of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend on the distribution of the load history in tension and compression....

  9. Fatigue in Aluminum Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Søren; Agerskov, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test...... is normally used in the design against fatigue in aluminum bridges, may give results which are unconservative. The validity of the results obtained from Miner’s rule will depend on the distribution of the load history in tension and compression....

  10. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1999-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in steel highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens...... correspond to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gauge measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Faro Bridges in Denmark. The test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both...... the fracture mechanics analysis and the fatigue test results indicate that Miner's rule, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results that are unconservative. The validity. of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend on the distribution of the load history...

  11. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, J.A.; Vejrum, Tina

    1997-01-01

    In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis.In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series...... to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gage measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Farø Bridges in Denmark.The test series which have been carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both...... the fatigue test results and the fracture mechanics analysis indicate that the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results, which are unconservative. The validity of the results obtained from the linear fatigue damage...

  12. The Damage Effects in Steel Bridges under Highway Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel bridges under highway random loading is studied. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load...... histories, which correspond to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gage measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Farø Bridges in Denmark. Both the results that have been obtained in the test series carried through and the results of fracture mechanics analysis...... indicate that the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results, which are unconservative....

  13. Highway bridge seismic design: summary of FHWA/MCEER project on seismic vulnerability of new highway construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored a large, multi-year project conducted by theMultidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER) titled "Seismic Vulnerability of New HighwayConstruction" (MCEER Project 112), which was completed in 1998. MCEER coordinated the work of many researchers, whoperformed studies on the seismic design and vulnerability analysis of highway bridges, tunnels, and retaining structures.Extensive research was conducted to provide revisions and improvements to current design and detailing approaches andnational design specifications for highway bridges. The program included both analytical and experimental studies, andaddressed seismic hazard exposure and ground motion input for the U.S. highway system; foundation design and soil behavior;structural importance, analysis, and response; structural design issues and details; and structural design criteria.

  14. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes....

  15. Eklutna River at Glenn Highway Bridge, Alaska Cross-Section Survey, 2016 and 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of survey data, plots, photos, and a photo index from a cross section survey of the Eklutna River at the Glenn Highway bridge in Alaska. The...

  16. Identification and Level 1 Damage Detection of the Z24 Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Cantieni, R.

    2001-01-01

    A series of 15 progressive damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case with a relatively large number of sensors. Changes in frequencies, damping ratios and MAC values were determined...

  17. Performance of stress-laminated timber highway bridges in cold climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent laboratory and field data studies on thermal performance of stress-laminated timber highway bridges. Concerns about the reliability of stress-laminated deck bridges when exposed to sub-freezing temperatures triggered several investigations. Two laboratory studies were conducted to study the effects of wood species, preservative, moisture...

  18. Seismic fragility of a highway bridge in Quebec retrofitted with natural rubber isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Siqueira

    Full Text Available This paper presents fragility curves for the evaluation of a highway bridge retrofitted with seismic isolator devices. The object of this study is the Chemin des Dalles bridge over Highway 55 located in Trois-Rivières in Quebec, Canada. A series of synthetic ground motions time histories compatible with eastern Canada are used to capture the uncertainties related to the hazard. The seismic isolator model represents natural rubber bearing placed under the longitudinal girders over the bents and the abutments of the bridge. NRB isolators are placed in these locations to uncouple the movement of the superstructure and the infrastructure, increasing the flexibility of the system and decreasing the forces transmitted to the infrastructure. Finally, a set of fragility curves for the as-built and retrofitted models are compared to evaluate the effectiveness of seismic isolation to decrease the seismic vulnerability of this bridge.

  19. Comparison and calibration of numerical models from monitoring data of a reinforced concrete highway bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. M. de Andrade

    Full Text Available The last four decades were important for the Brazilian highway system. Financial investments were made so it could expand and many structural solutions for bridges and viaducts were developed. In parallel, there was a significant raise of pathologies in these structures, due to lack of maintenance procedures. Thus, this paper main purpose is to create a short-term monitoring plan in order to check the structural behavior of a curved highway concrete bridge in current use. A bridge was chosen as a case study. A hierarchy of six numerical models is shown, so it can validate the bridge's structural behaviour. The acquired data from the monitoring was compared with the finest models so a calibration could be made.

  20. Probabilistic assessment of an aged highway bridge under traffic load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Maljaars, J.; Morales Nápoles, O.; Abspoel, L.

    2012-01-01

    Existing civil infrastructure represents a large economic value. Within the actions applied to the bridges, the traffic load is, in general, the most significant variable action to be considered when the ultimate limit states are under investigation. Consequently, the traffic load models play an imp

  1. Road Bridges and Culverts, MDTA Culverts, Culverts on John F. Kennedy Highway (I95), Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Throughway, Francis Scott Key Bridge, Bay bridge, Nice Bridge, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Road Bridges and Culverts dataset current as of 2010. MDTA Culverts, Culverts on John F. Kennedy Highway (I95), Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Throughway, Francis Scott Key...

  2. Identification of the Swiss Z24 Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the modal identification of the Swiss highway bridge Z24. A series of 15 progressive damage tests were performed on the bridge before it was demolished in autumn 1998, and the ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. In this paper the modal...... properties are identified from the ambient responses by frequency domain decomposition. 6 modes were identified for all 15 damage cases. The identification was carried out for the full 3D data case i.e. including all measurements, a total of 291 channels, a reduced data case in 2D including 153 channels......, and finally, a 1D case including 20 channels. The modal properties for the different damage cases are compared with the modal properties of the undamaged bridge. Deviations for frequencies, damping ratios and MAC values are used as monitoring variables. From these results it can be concluded, that frequencies...

  3. Modal Identification and Damage Detection on a Concrete Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Zhang, Lingmi

    2007-01-01

    As a part of a research project co-founded by the European Community, a series of 15 damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. A dense array of instruments allowed the identification...... of a modal model with a total of 408 degrees of freedom. Six modes were identified in the frequency range from 0 to 16.7 Hz. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique for modal identification of large structures. A second objective...

  4. Modal Identification and Damage Detection on a Concrete Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Zhang, L.

    2002-01-01

    As a part of a research project co-founded by the European Community, a series of 15 damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. A dense array of instruments allowed the identification...... of a modal model with a total of 408 degrees of freedom. Six modes were identified in the frequency range from 0 to 16.7 Hz. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique for modal identification of large structures. A second objective...

  5. Study and Application of Highway Bridge-erecting Machine JQC40A%JQC40A型公路架桥机的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党春太; 叶文

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces advanced bridge-erecting structure with taking beam laterally,bridge-erecting program and the work situation.Development trend of highway bridge-erecting machine in the future in China is predicted.

  6. Field dynamic testing on a Cyprus concrete highway bridge using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votsis, Renos A.; Kyriakides, Nicholas; Tantele, Elia A.; Chrysostomou, Christis Z.; Onoufriou, Toula

    2014-08-01

    The aims of the bridge management authorities are to ensure that bridges fulfil their purpose and functionality during their design life. So, it is important to identify and quantify the deterioration of the structural condition early so that a timely application of an intervention will avoid more serious problems and increased costs at a later stage. A measure to enhance the effectiveness of the existing structural evaluation by visual inspection is instrumental monitoring using sensors. The activities performed in this process belong to the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The SHM offers opportunities for continuous or periodic monitoring on bridges and technological advances allow nowadays the employment of wireless sensors networks (WSN) for this task. A SHM application using WSN was implemented on a multi-span reinforced concrete (RC) highway bridge in Limassol with the objective to study its dynamic characteristics and performance. Part of the specific bridge will be replaced and this offered a unique opportunity for measurements before and after construction so that apparent changes in the dynamic characteristics of the bridge will be identified after the repairing work. The measurements provided indications on the frequencies and mode shapes of the bridge and the response amplitude during the passing of traffic. The latter enabled the investigation of the dependency of the bridge's structural damping to the amplitude of vibration induced by the passing of traffic. The results showed that as the excitation increases the magnitude of modal damping increases as well.

  7. Bathymetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers near St. Louis, Missouri, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Bathymetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, on the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers in the vicinity of 12 bridges at 7 highway crossings near St. Louis, Missouri, in October 2010. A multibeam echo sounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 3,280 to 4,590 feet long and extending across the active channel of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. These bathymetric scans provide a snapshot of the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be used by the Missouri Department of Transportation to assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour.

  8. Seismic fragility analysis of highway bridges considering multi-dimensional performance limit state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi'ang; Wu, Ziyan; Liu, Shukui

    2012-03-01

    Fragility analysis for highway bridges has become increasingly important in the risk assessment of highway transportation networks exposed to seismic hazards. This study introduces a methodology to calculate fragility that considers multi-dimensional performance limit state parameters and makes a first attempt to develop fragility curves for a multispan continuous (MSC) concrete girder bridge considering two performance limit state parameters: column ductility and transverse deformation in the abutments. The main purpose of this paper is to show that the performance limit states, which are compared with the seismic response parameters in the calculation of fragility, should be properly modeled as randomly interdependent variables instead of deterministic quantities. The sensitivity of fragility curves is also investigated when the dependency between the limit states is different. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to describe the vulnerable behavior of bridges which are sensitive to multiple response parameters and that the fragility information generated by this method will be more reliable and likely to be implemented into transportation network loss estimation.

  9. Towards actual brazilian traffic load models for short span highway bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Rossigali

    Full Text Available New live load models for highway bridge design in Brazil are under development by assembling real traffic database, traffic simulations, analytical-numerical modeling of the dynamic interaction between vehicle and structure and statistical extrapolations. This paper presents and discusses the results obtained in the first stages of this work which includes the comparison between the static effects due to the actual traffic of heavy vehicles and those generated by the live load model given in the current national code NBR 7188. It is demonstrated that this live load model is not appropriate to represent the actual traffic effects and may be, in some cases, non-conservative. The present work deals with short span bridges for two lanes single carriageway under free flow traffic scenarios. The representative static effects in these bridges due to the actual traffic of heavy vehicles are obtained by extrapolating its probability density functions to a certain return period. To this purpose, a traffic database was constructed by gathering data from several weighing stations in Brazilian highways which was then applied to perform traffic simulations through a specially developed computational tool.

  10. Development of Product Data Model for Maintenance in Concrete Highway Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kubota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to develop the product data models, in which systematic information is defined for accumulating, exchanging, and sharing in the maintenance of concrete highway bridges. The information requirement and existing issues and solutions were analyzed based on the life cycle and the standardization for sharing. The member data models and business data models that defined design and construction information and accumulated results information were developed. The maintenance business process in which project participants utilize the product data model was described as utilization scenario. The utilization frameworks which define information flow were developed.

  11. Research on the Anticorrosion Coating Under the Paved Layer for Highway Steel Box Bridge Deck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Cheng-jin; MING Tu-zhang; HU Guang-wei; OU Xue-mei; GEN Ou

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion of the anticorrosion coating and the defects of the asphalt concrete paved layer have been investigated on long-span steel box bridge decks. The anticorrosion coating lies in the middle of two entirely different materials: a highway steel box bridge deck and a paved layer, which is used as anticorrosion and waterproof coating for the steel bridge deck. For our study, electrochemical corrosion and pull strength experiments have been selected for the investigation of the corrosion properties of inorganic zinc rich coating, epoxy zinc rich coating and arc sprayed zinc coating. The adhesive strength between the coatings and the panel, and the effect of the coating corrosion on the shear properties of the paved layers including cast asphalt, thermal asphalt mortar, epoxy asphalt and modified asphalt concrete have been investigated. The results show that the adhesive strength between the coatings and the bridge panel is controlled by the method of pre-processing rust removal. Coating by sandblasting has stronger adhesive strength than coating by shot peening. The results also reveal that shear strength of the paved layer is affected by the corrosion product of zinc coating. The arc sprayed zinc coating has stronger shear strength than zinc rich coatings.

  12. Full-scale validation of wireless hybrid sensor on an in-service highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shinae; Dahal, Sushil; Li, Jingcheng

    2013-04-01

    With the rapid development of electrical circuits, Micro electromechanical system (MEMS) and network technology, wireless smart sensor networks (WSSN) have shown significant potential for replacing existing wired SHM systems due to their cost effectiveness and versatility. A few structural systems have been monitored using WSSN measuring acceleration, temperature, wind speed, humidity; however, a multi-scale sensing device which has the capability to measure the displacement has not been yet developed. In the previous paper, a new high-accuracy displacement sensing system was developed combining a high resolution analog displacement sensor and MEMS-based wireless microprocessor platform. Also, the wireless sensor was calibrated in the laboratory to get the high precision displacement data from analog sensor, and its performance was validated to measure simulated thermal expansion of a laboratory bridge structure. This paper expands the validation of the developed system on full-scale experiments to measure both static and dynamic displacement of expansion joints, temperature, and vibration of an in-service highway bridge. A brief visual investigation of bridges, comparison between theoretical and measured thermal expansion are also provided. The developed system showed the capability to measure the displacement with accuracy of 0.00027 in.

  13. Remote monitoring as a tool in condition assessment of a highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantele, Elia A.; Votsis, Renos A.; Onoufriou, Toula; Milis, Marios; Kareklas, George

    2016-08-01

    The deterioration of civil infrastructure and their subsequent maintenance is a significant problem for the responsible managing authorities. The ideal scenario is to detect deterioration and/or structural problems at early stages so that the maintenance cost is kept low and the safety of the infrastructure remains undisputed. The current inspection regimes implemented mostly via visual inspection are planned at specific intervals but are not always executed on time due to shortcomings in expert personnel and finance. However the introduction of technological advances in the assessment of infrastructures provides the tools to alleviate this problem. This study describes the assessment of a highway RC bridge's structural condition using remote structural health monitoring. A monitoring plan is implemented focusing on strain measurements; as strain is a parameter influenced by the environmental conditions supplementary data are provided from temperature and wind sensors. The data are acquired using wired sensors (deployed at specific locations) which are connected to a wireless sensor unit installed at the bridge. This WSN application enables the transmission of the raw data from the field to the office for processing and evaluation. The processed data are then used to assess the condition of the bridge. This case study, which is part of an undergoing RPF research project, illustrates that remote monitoring can alleviate the problem of missing structural inspections. Additionally, shows its potential to be the main part of a fully automated smart procedure of obtaining structural data, processed them and trigger an alarm when certain undesirable conditions are met.

  14. Effect of Ground Motion Directionality on Fragility Characteristics of a Highway Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Banerjee Basu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to incorporate multidimensional effect of the ground motion in the design and response analysis of structures. The motion trajectory in the corresponding multi-dimensional space results in time variant principal axes of the motion and defies any meaningful definition of directionality of the motion. However, it is desirable to consider the directionality of the ground motion in assessing the seismic damageability of bridges which are one of the most vulnerable components of highway transportation systems. This paper presents a practice-oriented procedure in which the structure can be designed to ensure the safety under single or a pair of independent orthogonal ground motions traveling horizontally with an arbitrary direction to structural axis. This procedure uses nonlinear time history analysis and accounts for the effect of directionality in the form of fragility curves. The word directionality used here is different from “directivity” used in seismology to mean a specific characteristic of seismic fault movement.

  15. Low-cost, quantitative assessment of highway bridges through the use of unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberg, Andrew; Kontsos, Antonios; Moon, Franklin; Bartoli, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Many envision that in the near future the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will impact the civil engineering industry. Use of UAVs is currently experiencing tremendous growth, primarily in military and homeland security applications. It is only a matter of time until UAVs will be widely accepted as platforms for implementing monitoring/surveillance and inspection in other fields. Most UAVs already have payloads as well as hardware/software capabilities to incorporate a number of non-contact remote sensors, such as high resolution cameras, multi-spectral imaging systems, and laser ranging systems (LIDARs). Of critical importance to realizing the potential of UAVs within the infrastructure realm is to establish how (and the extent to which) such information may be used to inform preservation and renewal decisions. Achieving this will depend both on our ability to quantify information from images (through, for example, optical metrology techniques) and to fuse data from the array of non-contact sensing systems. Through a series of applications to both laboratory-scale and field implementations on operating infrastructure, this paper will present and evaluate (through comparison with conventional approaches) various image processing and data fusion strategies tailored specifically for the assessment of highway bridges. Example scenarios that guided this study include the assessment of delaminations within reinforced concrete bridge decks, the quantification of the deterioration of steel coatings, assessment of the functionality of movement mechanisms, and the estimation of live load responses (inclusive of both strain and displacement).

  16. NDT evaluation of long-term bond durability of CFRP-structural systems applied to RC highway bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Kenneth C.

    2016-06-01

    The long-term durability of CFRP structural systems applied to reinforced-concrete (RC) highway bridges is a function of the system bond behavior over time. The sustained structural load performance of strengthened bridges depends on the carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates remaining 100 % bonded to concrete bridge members. Periodic testing of the CFRP-concrete bond condition is necessary to sustain load performance. The objective of this paper is to present a non-destructive testing (NDT) method designed to evaluate the bond condition and long-term durability of CFRP laminate (plate) systems applied to RC highway bridges. Using the impact-echo principle, a mobile mechanical device using light impact hammers moving along the length of a bonded CFRP plate produces unique acoustic frequencies which are a function of existing CFRP plate-concrete bond conditions. The purpose of this method is to test and locate CFRP plates de-bonded from bridge structural members to identify associated deterioration in bridge load performance. Laboratory tests of this NDT device on a CFRP plate bonded to concrete with staged voids (de-laminations) produced different frequencies for bonded and de-bonded areas of the plate. The spectra (bands) of frequencies obtained in these tests show a correlation to the CFRP-concrete bond condition and identify bonded and de-bonded areas of the plate. The results of these tests indicate that this NDT impact machine, with design improvements, can potentially provide bridge engineers a means to rapidly evaluate long lengths of CFRP laminates applied to multiple highway bridges within a national transportation infrastructure.

  17. Evaluation of undersized bioretention stormwater control measures for treatment of highway bridge deck runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luell, S K; Hunt, W F; Winston, R J

    2011-01-01

    Two grassed bioretention cells were constructed in the easement of a bridge deck in Knightdale, North Carolina, USA, in October, 2009. One was intentionally undersized ('small'), while the other was full sized ('large') per current North Carolina standards. The large and small cells captured runoff from the 25- and 8-mm events, respectively. Both bioretention cells employed average fill media depths of 0.65 m and internal water storage (IWS) zones of 0.6 m. Flow-proportional, composite water quality samples were collected and analyzed for nitrogen species, phosphorus species, and TSS. During 13 months of data collection, the large cell's median effluent concentrations and loads were less than those from the small cell. The small cell's TN and TSS load reductions were 84 and 50%, respectively, of those achieved by the large cell, with both cells significantly reducing TN and TSS. TP loads were not significantly reduced by either cell, likely due to low TP concentrations in the highway runoff which may have approached irreducible levels. Outflow pollutant loads from the large and small cell were not significantly different from one another for any of the examined pollutants. The small cell's relative performance provides support for retrofitting undersized systems in urbanized areas where there is insufficient space available for conventional full-sized stormwater treatment systems.

  18. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri River near Kansas City, Missouri, June 2–4, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2016-06-22

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, near 8 bridges at 7 highway crossings of the Missouri River in Kansas City, Missouri, from June 2 to 4, 2015. A multibeam echosounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,640 to 1,660 feet longitudinally and extending laterally across the active channel from bank to bank during low to moderate flood flow conditions. These bathymetric surveys indicate the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be useful to the Missouri Department of Transportation as a low to moderate flood flow comparison to help assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods.

  19. Force-based and displacement-based reliability assessment approaches for highway bridges under multiple hazard actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The strength limit state of American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD Bridge Design Specifications is developed based on the failure probabilities of the combination of non-extreme loads. The proposed design limit state equation (DLSE has been fully calibrated for dead load and live load by using the reliability-based approach. On the other hand, most of DLSEs in other limit states, including the extreme events Ⅰ and Ⅱ, have not been developed and calibrated though taking certain probability-based concepts into account. This paper presents an assessment procedure of highway bridge reliabilities under the limit state of extreme event Ⅰ, i. e., the combination of dead load, live load and earthquake load. A force-based approach and a displacement-based approach are proposed and implemented on a set of nine simplified bridge models. Results show that the displacement-based approach comes up with more convergent and accurate reliabilities for selected models, which can be applied to other hazards.

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37 (TOWNTH00290037) on Town Highway 29, crossing Mill Brook, Townshend, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R.L.; Medalie, Laura

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure TOWNTH00290037 on Town Highway 29 crossing Mill Brook, Townshend, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D.

  1. Level II scour analysis for bridge 2 (WODFTH00010002) on Town Highway 1, crossing Hell Hollow Brook, Woodford, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Degnan, James R.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WODFTH00010002 on Town Highway 1 crossing Hell Hollow Brook, Woodford, Vermont (figures 1-8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D.

  2. Seismic vulnerability assessment of a steel-girder highway bridge equipped with different SMA wire-based smart elastomeric isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, Farshad; Shahria Alam, M.

    2016-07-01

    Shape memory alloy wire-based rubber bearings (SMA-RBs) possess enhanced energy dissipation capacity and self-centering property compared to conventional RBs. The performance of different types of SMA-RBs with different wire configurations has been studied in detail. However, their reliability in isolating structures has not been thoroughly investigated. The objective of this study is to analytically explore the effect of SMA-RBs on the seismic fragility of a highway bridge. Steel-reinforced elastomeric isolators are equipped with SMA wires and used to isolate the bridge. Results revealed that SMA wires with a superelastic behavior and re-centering capability can increase the reliability of the bearing and the bridge structure. It was observed that at the collapse level of damage, the bridge isolated by SMA-HDRB has the lowest fragility. Findings also showed that equipping NRB with SMA wires decreases the possibility of damage in the bridge while, replacing HDRB with SMA-HDRB; or LRB with SMA-LRB increases the failure probability of the system at slight, moderate, and extensive limit states.

  3. Field testing of Martlet wireless sensing system on an in-service pre-stressed concrete highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Dong, Xinjun; Wang, Yang

    2016-04-01

    In structural sensing applications, wireless sensing systems have drawn great interest owing to faster installation process and lower system cost compared to the traditional cabled systems. As a new-generation wireless sensing system, Martlet features high-speed data acquisition and extensible layout, which allows easy interfacing with various types of sensors. This paper presents a field test of the Martlet sensing system installed at an in-service pre-stressed concrete highway bridge on SR113 over Dry Creek in Bartow County, Georgia. Four types of sensors are interfaced with Martlet in this test, including accelerometers, strain gages, strain transducers and magnetostrictive displacement sensors. In addition, thermocouples are used to monitor the temperature change of the bridge through the day. The acceleration, strain and displacement response of the bridge due to traffic and ambient excitations are measured. To obtain the modal properties of the bridge, hammer impact tests are also performed. The results from the field test demonstrate the reliability of the Martlet wireless sensing system. In addition, detailed modal properties of the bridge are extracted from the acceleration data collected in the test.

  4. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers on the periphery of Missouri, June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, in the vicinity of 8 bridges at 7 highway crossings of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers on the periphery of Missouri from June 3 to 11, 2014. A multibeam echosounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,525 to 1,640 feet longitudinally, and extending laterally across the active channel from bank to bank during low- to moderate-flow conditions. These bathymetric surveys indicate the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be useful to the Missouri Department of Transportation as a low- to moderate-flow comparison to help assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods.

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 46 (NORWTH00030046) Town Highway 3 (VT132) crossing the Ompompanoosuc River, Norwich, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Scott A.; Song, Donald L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NORWTH00030046 on town highway 3, which is also Vermont State Route 132 crossing the Ompompanoosuc River, Norwich, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, available from VTAOT files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D.

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37 (BARTTH00080037) on Town Highway 8, crossing Willoughby River, Barton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BARTTH00080037 on town highway 8 crossing the Willoughby River, Barton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province

  7. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 22 (WALDTH00180022) on Town Highway 18, crossing Coles Brook, Walden, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WALDTH00180022 on Town Highway 18 crossing Coles Brook also known as Joes Brook, Walden, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 21 (WALDTH00450021) on Town HIghway 45, crossing Joes Brook, Walden, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WALDTH00450021 on Town Highway 45 crossing Joes Brook, Walden, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The VTAOT files state that the stream is Coles Brook, both the USGS and the VTAOT maps state that it is Joes Brook.

  9. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 30, (HUNTTH00220030), on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00220030 on Town Highway 22 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 46 (BRNETH00610046) on Town Highway 61, crossing East Peacham Brook, Barnet, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRNETH00610046 on Town Highway 61 crossing East Peacham Brook, Barnet, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 50 (STARTH00250050) on Town Highway 25, crossing Lewis Creek, Starksboro, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STARTH00250050 on Town Highway 25 crossing Lewis Creek, Starksboro, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 27 (STJOTH00080027) on Town Highway 8, crossing the Sleepers River, St. Johnsbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STJOTH00080027 on Town Highway 8 crossing the Sleepers River, St. Johnsbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 39 (PEACTH00620039) on Town Highway 62, crossing South Peacham Brook, Peacham, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure PEACTH00620039 on Town Highway 62 crossing South Peacham Brook, Peacham, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 16 (GROTTH00170016) on Town Highway 17, crossing the Wells River, Groton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, L.K.; Ivanoff, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure GROTTH00170016 on Town Highway 17 crossing the Wells River, Groton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 34 (CONCTH00110034) on Town Highway 11, crossing Miles Stream, Concord, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CONCTH00110034 on Town Highway 11 crossing Miles Stream, Concord, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 39 (TOPSTH00510039) on Town Highway 51, crossing Tabor Branch Waits River, Topsham, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Severance, Tim

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure TOPSTH00510039 on Town Highway 51 crossing the Tabor Branch Waits River, Topsham, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37, (BRNETH00740037) on Town Highway 74, crossing South Peacham Brook, Barnet, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Severance, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRNETH00740037 on Town Highway 74 crossing South Peacham Brook, Barnet, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 17 (SHEFTH00380017) on Town Highway 38, crossing Miller Run, Sheffield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure SHEFTH00380017 on Town Highway 38 crossing Miller Run, Sheffield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 5 (MORRTH00060005) on Town Highway 6, crossing Bedell Brook, Morristown, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MORRTH00060005 on Town Highway 6 crossing Bedell Brook, Morristown, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 65 (NEWBTH00500065) on Town Highway 50, crossing Peach Brook, Newbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R.L.; Severance, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWBTH00500065 on Town Highway 50 crossing Peach Brook, Newbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  1. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 16, (NEWBTH00500016) on Town Highway 50, crossing Halls Brook, Newbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWBTH00500016 on Town Highway 50 crossing Halls Brook, Newbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (ATHETH00090008) on Town Highway 9, crossing Bull Creek, Athens, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ATHETH00090008 on Town Highway 9 crossing Bull Creek in Athens, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  3. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 39 (STOWTH00160039) on Town Highway 16, crossing Moss Glen Brook, Stowe, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STOWTH00160039 on Town Highway 16 crossing Moss Glen Brook, Stowe, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 71 (WODSTH00050071) on Town Highway 5, crossing Kedron Brook, Woodstock, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S.A.; Ayotte, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WODSTH00050071 on Town Highway 5 crossing Kedron Brook, Woodstock, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 25 (DANVTH00610025) on Town Highway 61, crossing Water Andric Brook, Danville, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Severance, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DANVTH00610025 on Town Highway 61 crossing Water Andric Brook, Danville, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8, (MANCTH00060008) on Town Highway 6, crossing Bourn Brook, Manchester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MANCTH00060008 on Town Highway 6 crossing Bourn Brook, Manchester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  7. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37 (CABOTH00410037) on Town Highway 41, crossing the Winooski River, Cabot, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CABOTH00410037 on Town Highway 41 crossing the Winooski River (also referred to as Coit’s Pond Brook), Cabot, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 4 (RYEGTH00050004) on Town Highway 5, crossing the Wells River, Ryegate, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure RYEGTH00050004 on Town Highway 5 crossing the Wells River, Ryegate, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  9. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 53 (CHESTH01180053) on Town Highway 118, crossing the Williams River, Chester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CHESTH01180053 on Town Highway 118 crossing the Williams River, Chester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (WELLTH00020008) on Town Highway 2, crossing Wells Brook, Wells, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WELLTH00020008 on Town Highway 2 crossing the Wells Brook, Wells, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 23 (WEELTH00210023) on Town Highway 21, crossing Miller Run, Wheelock, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WEELTH00210023 on Town Highway 21 crossing Miller Run, Wheelock, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  12. Multiplexed Bragg grating optical fiber sensors for damage evaluation in highway bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, R. L.; Kodindouma, M. B.; Kersey, A. D.; Davis, M. A.

    1998-04-01

    A multiplexed Bragg grating optical fiber monitoring system is designed and integrated at the construction stage in an experimental full scale laboratory bridge. The test bridge is a 40 ft span non-composite steel girder concrete deck bridge. The network of sensors is used to measure the strain throughout the bridge, with sensors bonded to the tension steel in the slab and attached to the bottom flange of the girders. Resistive strain gages and Bragg grating sensors are placed side by side to compare results. The strain data are obtained for the pristine structure, then damage is introduced at midspan for an exterior girder. Several levels of damage in the form of cuts in one of the girders are imposed with the final cut resulting in a half depth fracture of the girder. The load path in the structure is obtained using the built in sensor system.

  13. Dynamic Vehicle Impact for Safety Assessment of Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    In this paper the dynamic amplification of vehicle load at minor highway bridges is considered for safety assessment of the load carrying capacity of bridges. The considered case is the most critical for bridges, i.e. the simultaneous passage of two heavy trucks. A short description...

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 48 (FFIETH00300048) on Town Highway 30, crossing Wanzer Brook, Fairfield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure FFIETH00300048 on Town Highway 30 crossing Wanzer Brook, Fairfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 6.78-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover upstream of the bridge and on the downstream right bank is primarily pasture. The downstream left bank is forested. In the study area, Wanzer Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 65 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material is cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 111 mm (0.364 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 11, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 30 crossing of Wanzer Brook is a 31-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 28-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 26 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical stone wall abutments with concrete caps and “kneewall” footings. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 20 degrees. A scour hole 1.5 ft deeper than

  15. Standardization of quality control plans for highway bridges in Europe: COST Action TU 1406

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joan R.; Matos, Jose Campos e.

    2017-09-01

    In Europe, as all over the world, the need to manage roadway bridges in an efficient way led to the development of different management systems. Hence, nowadays, many European countries have their own system. Although they present a similar architectural framework, several differences can be appointed. These differences constitute a divergent mechanism that may conduct to different decisions on maintenance actions. Within the roadway bridge management process, the identification of maintenance needs is more effective when developed in a uniform and repeatable manner. This process can be accomplished by the identification of performance indicators and definition of performance goals and key performance indicators (KPI), improving the planning of maintenance strategies. Therefore, a discussion at a European level, seeking to achieve a standardized approach in this subject, will bring significant benefits. Accordingly, a COST Action is under way in Europe with the aim of standardizing the establishment of quality control plans for roadway bridges.

  16. Modal analysis of a concrete highway bridge: Structural calculations and vibration-based results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, S.; Veerman, R.P.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Knobbe, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the field of civil infrastructure, Structural Health Monitoring systems are implemented more and more frequently with the aim to safeguard the safety and service-life of structures such as bridges and tunnels. Changes in the integrity of the material and/or structural properties of this class of

  17. Modal analysis of a concrete highway bridge: Structural calculations and vibration-based results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, S.; Veerman, R.P.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Knobbe, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the field of civil infrastructure, Structural Health Monitoring systems are implemented more and more frequently with the aim to safeguard the safety and service-life of structures such as bridges and tunnels. Changes in the integrity of the material and/or structural properties of this class of

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 51 (JERITH00590051) on Town Highway 59, crossing The Creek, Jericho, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure JERITH00590051 on Town Highway 59 crossing The Creek, Jericho, Vermont (figures 1– 8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (Federal Highway Administration, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province and the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 10.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the left and right overbanks, upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, The Creek has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.004 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 45 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 58.6 mm (0.192 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 3, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 59 crossing of The Creek is a 33-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 28-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 11, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 26 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the computed opening

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 40 (ROCKTH00140040) on Town Highway 14, crossing the Williams River, Rockingham, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCKTH00140040 on Town Highway 14 crossing the Williams River, Rockingham, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 99.2-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture downstream of the bridge. Upstream of the bridge, the left bank is forested and the right bank is suburban. In the study area, the Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 154 ft and an average bank height of 11 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt and clay to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 45.4 mm (0.149 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 4, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 14 crossing of the Williams River is a 106-ft-long, one-lane covered bridge consisting of two steel-beam spans with a maximum span length of 73 ft (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, April 6, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 94.5 ft. The bridge is supported by a vertical, concrete abutment with wingwalls on the left, a vertical, laid-up stone abutment on the right and a concrete pier. The channel is skewed

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (NEWFTH00010008) on Town Highway 1, crossing Wardsboro Brook, Newfane, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWFTH00010008 on Town Highway 1 crossing Wardsboro Brook, Newfane, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (Federal Highway Administration, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southestern Vermont. The 6.91-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest on the upstream right overbank and downstream left and right overbanks. The surface cover on the upstream left overbank is pasture. In the study area, Wardsboro Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 63 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 95.4 mm (0.313 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 21, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of the Wardsboro Brook is a 32-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 26-foot concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, April 6, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 26.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 45 degrees to the computed opening while the openingskew-to-roadway is 45 degrees

  1. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 21 (MIDBTH00230021) on Town Highway 23, crossing the Middlebury River, Middlebury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MIDBTH00230021 on Town Highway 23 crossing the Middlebury River, Middlebury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 44.8-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is suburban consisting of single houses, each with a lawn, trees, and shrubs on all of the overbank areas bordering the river. In the study area, the Middlebury River has a straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 87 ft and an average channel depth of 11 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 152 mm (0.498 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 18, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 23 crossing of the Middlebury River is a 52-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 49-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 14, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 42.3 feet. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls at each end of the left abutment only. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening. The opening

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 29 (HUNTTH00290029) on Town Highway 29, crossing Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00290029 on Town Highway 29 crossing Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 4.16-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, Cobb Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.024 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 53 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 112.0 mm (0.367 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 25, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 29 crossing of Cobb Brook is a 36-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 30-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 11, 1995) and a wooden deck. The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 27 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway was measured to be 20 degrees. VTAOT records indicate an opening-skew-to-roadway of zero degrees. A scour hole 1.5 ft deeper than

  3. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (ANDOTH00010008) on Town Highway 1, crossing Andover Branch, Andover, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ANDOTH00010008 on Town Highway 1 crossing the Andover Branch, Andover , Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 5.30-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover along the immediate banks, both upstream and downstream of the bridge, is grass while farther upstream and downstream, the surface cover is primarily forest.In the study area, the Andover Branch has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 35 ft and an average bank height of 3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 63.6 mm (0.209 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 27, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 1 crossing of the Andover Branch is a 54-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 51-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 45 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 30 degrees.A scour hole 0.7 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 46 (LINCTH00060046) on Town Highway 6, crossing the New Haven River, Lincoln, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure LINCTH00060046 on Town Highway 6 crossing the New Haven River, Lincoln, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 45.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly suburban and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream of the bridge. The downstream right overbank near the bridge is suburban with buildings, homes, lawns, and pavement (less than fifty percent). The downstream left overbank is brushland while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, the New Haven River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 95 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 120.7 mm (0.396 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 13, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 34 crossing of the New Haven River is a 85-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of an 80-foot steel arch truss (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 14, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 69 feet. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 33 (WWINTH00300033) on Town Highway 30, crossing Mill Brook, West Windsor, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Flynn, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WWINTH00300033 on Town Highway 30 crossing Mill Brook, West Windsor, Vermont (Figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 24.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. Downstream of the bridge is forested. In the study area, Mill Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.004 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 58 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 65.7 mm (0.215 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 5, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 30 crossing of the Mill Brook is a 46-ft-long, one-lane covered bridge consisting of a 40-foot wood-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 23, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 36.3 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete capped laid-up stone abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. The only scour protection measure at

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 27 (WSTOTH00070027) on Town Highway 7, crossing Jenny Coolidge Brook, Weston, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WSTOTH00070027 on Town Highway 7 crossing Jenny Coolidge Brook, Weston, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in southwestern Vermont. The 2.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture downstream of the bridge while upstream of the bridge is forested. In the study area, the Jenny Coolidge Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 51 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 122 mm (0.339 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 20, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 7 crossing of the Jenny Coolidge Brook is a 52-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 50-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, April 7, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 49.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. The legs of the skeleton-type right abutment were exposed approximately 2 feet

  7. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 33 (CONCTH00580033) on Town Highway 58, crossing Miles Stream, Concord, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CONCTH00580033 on Town Highway 58 crossing Miles Stream, Concord, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 17.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. Downstream of the bridge, the right bank is forested and the left bank has shrubs and brush. In the study area, Miles Stream has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 91 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 61.6 mm (0.188 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 15, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 58 crossing of Miles Stream is a 44-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 39-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 24, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 37.4 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with stone fill in front creating spillthrough embankments. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 46 (FFIETH00470046) on Town Highway 47, crossing Black Creek, Fairfield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Flynn, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure FFIETH00470046 on Town Highway 47 crossing Black Creek, Fairfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gathered from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 37.8 mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Black Creek has a meandering channel with a slope of approximately 0.0005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 51 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 0.189 mm (0.00062 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 12, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 47 crossing of Black Creek is a 35-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 31-ft steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 28.0 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, laid-up stone abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately zero degrees to the opening and the opening-skew-toroadway is zero degrees. A scour hole 6.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed just downstream of the

  9. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 13 (LINCTH00010013) on Town Highway 1, crossing Cota Brook, Lincoln, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure LINCTH00010013 on Town Highway 1 crossing Cota Brook, Lincoln, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 3.0-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest along the upstream right bank and brushland along the upstream left bank. Downstream of the bridge, the surface cover is pasture along the left and right banks. In the study area, Cota Brook has an sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ ft, an average channel top width of 30 ft and an average bank height of 2 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 34.7 mm (0.114 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 10, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable due to cut-banks and wide, vegetated point bars upstream and downstream of the bridge. The Town Highway 1 crossing of Cota Brook is a 38-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 36-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 14, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 34.4 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 7H (HUNTTH0001007H) on Town Highway 1, crossing Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH001007H on Town Highway 1 crossing the Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–10). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.In August 1976, Hurricane Belle caused flooding at this site which resulted in road and bridge damage (figures 7-8). This was approximately a 25-year flood event (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1978). The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 4.20-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream of the bridge. Downstream of the bridge is brushland and pasture.In the study area, the Cobb Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 43 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 65.5 mm (0.215 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 24, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of the Cobb Brook is a 23-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 20-foot concrete slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, June 21, 1996). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 33 (HUNTTH00220033) on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00220033 on Town Highway 22 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 8.65-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest except on the downstream right overbank which is pasture. In the study area, Brush Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 42 ft and an average bank height of 3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 76.7 mm (0.252 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 26, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 22 crossing of Brush Brook is a 40-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 23.5-foot concrete slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 36.9 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 35 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 30 degrees. The scour protection measure at the site was type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 31 (JERITH00350031) on Town Highway 35, crossing Mill Brook, Jericho, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure JERITH00350031 on Town Highway 35 crossing Mill Brook, Jericho, Vermont (figures 1– 8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gathered from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province and the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 15.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream of the bridge. The downstream left overbank is pasture. The downstream right overbank is brushland. In the study area, the Mill Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 117 ft and an average bank height of 11 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 81.1 mm (0.266 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 3, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. The Town Highway 35 crossing of the Mill Brook is a 53-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 50-foot steel-beam span with a wooden deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 48 ft. The bridge is supported by a vertical, concrete abutment with wingwalls on the left. On the right, the abutment and wingwalls

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 32 (TUNBTH00600032) on Town Highway 60, crossing First Branch White River, Tunbridge, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure TUNBTH00600032 on Town Highway 60 crossing the First Branch White River, Tunbridge, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 92.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge, while woody vegetation sparsely covers the immediate banks. In the study area, the First Branch White River has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.001 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 82 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to gravel with a median grain size (D50) of 24.4 mm (0.08 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 18, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable, as a result of block failure of moderately eroded banks. The Town Highway 60 crossing of the First Branch White River is a 74-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 71-foot timber thru-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 24, 1994). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 64 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, laid-up stone abutments with upstream wingwalls. The channel is not skewed to the opening

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 15 (BOLTTH00150015) on Town Highway 15, crossing Joiner Brook, Bolton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BOLTTH00150015 on Town Highway 15 crossing Joiner Brook, Bolton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north central Vermont. The 9.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture (lawn) downstream of the bridge and on the upstream right bank. The surface cover on the upstream left bank is shrub and brushland. In the study area, Joiner Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 61 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 43.6 mm (0.143 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 27, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 15 crossing of Joiner Brook is a 39-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 36-foot concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 3, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 34.6 ft. The bridge is supported by nearly vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. A scour hole 1.5 ft deeper than the

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 17 (NEWHTH00200017) on Town Highway 20, crossing Little Otter Creek, New Haven, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWHTH00200017 on Town Highway 20 crossing Little Otter Creek, New Haven, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence Valley physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 10.8-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and wetland basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is shrubland on the downstream right overbank. The surface cover of the downstream left overbank, the upstream right overbank and the upstream left overbank is wetland and pasture. In the study area, Little Otter Creek has a meandering channel with a slope of approximately 0.0007 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 97 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt and clay to cobble. Medium sized silt and clay is the channel material upstream of the approach cross-section and downstream of the exit cross-section. The median grain size (D50) of the silt and clay channel bed material is 1.52 mm (0.005 ft), which was used for contraction and abutment scour computations. From the approach cross-section, under the bridge, and to the exit cross-section, stone fill is the channel bed material. The median grain size (D50) of the stone fill channel bed material is 95.7 mm (0.314 ft). The stone fill median grain size was used solely for armoring computations. The geomorphic assessment at the

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37 (PLYMTH00080037) on Town Highway 8, crossing Broad Brook, Plymouth, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Medalie, Laura

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure PLYMTH00080037 on Town Highway 8 crossing Broad Brook, Plymouth, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gathered from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 5.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, Broad Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 46 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 87.5 mm (0.287 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 3, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable due to cut-banks present on the upstream left bank and the downstream left and right banks. The Town Highway 8 crossing of Broad Brook is a 31-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 28-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 27.0 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. During the Level I assessment, it was

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 4 (DANVTH00010004) on Town Highway 1, crossing Joes Brook, Danville, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DANVTH00010004 on Town Highway 1 crossing Joes Brook, Danville, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 42.5-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture along the upstream and downstream left banks with trees and brush along the immediate banks. The upstream and downstream right banks are forested. In the study area, Joes Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 68 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 80.1 mm (0.263 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 22, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of Joes Brook is a 49-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 45-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 17, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 45 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening and the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. A scour

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 25 (ROCHTH00400025) on Town Highway 40, crossing Corporation Brook, Rochester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCHTH00400025 on Town Highway 40 crossing Corporation Brook, Rochester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, from Vermont Agency of Transportation files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 4.97-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest on the upstream left and right overbanks, and the downstream left overbank. On the downstream right overbank, the surface cover is predominately brushland. In the study area, Corporation Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 37 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 101 mm (0.332 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on April 12, 1995 and Level I and II site visit on July 8, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 40 crossing of Corporation Brook is a 31-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 26-foot steel stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. A scour hole 1

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 21 (MONKTH00340021) on Town Highway 34, crossing Little Otter Creek, Monkton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MONKTH00340021 on Town Highway 34 crossing Little Otter Creek, Monkton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix D of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix C. The site is in the Champlain section of the Saint Lawrence Valley physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 34.1-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin with pasture in the valleys. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of pasture. The most significant tree cover is immediately adjacent to the channel on the right bank downstream. In the study area, Little Otter Creek has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.008 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 92 feet and an average bank height of 6 feet. The predominant channel bed materials are silt and clay. Sieve analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the sample is silt and clay and thus a median grain size by use of sieve analysis was indeterminate. Therefore, the median grain size was assumed to be medium silt with a size (D50) of 0.0310 mm (0.000102 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 19 and June 20, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 34 crossing of Little Otter Creek is a 50-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 26-foot concrete span and three “boiler tube” smooth metal pipe culverts through the left road approach (Vermont Agency of

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 34 (HUNTTH00210034) on Town Highway 21, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00210034 on Town Highway 21 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 6.23-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest. In the study area, Brush Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 43 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 90.0 mm (0.295 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 26, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 21 crossing of Brush Brook is a 28-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 26-foot steel-beam span with a timber deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 25.4 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with a wingwall on the upstream right. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening and the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 5 degrees. A tributary enters Brush Brook on the right bank immediately downstream of the bridge. At the confluence, the

  1. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 13 (SHARTH00040013) on Town Highway 4, crossing Broad Brook, Sharon, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure SHARTH00040013 on Town Highway 4 crossing Broad Brook, Sharon, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 16.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is brushland on the downstream left overbank and row crops on the right overbank, while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. Upstream of the bridge, the overbanks are forested.In the study area, Broad Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 69 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 112 mm (0.369 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on April 11, 1995 and Level II site visit on July 23, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 4 crossing of Broad Brook is a 34-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 31-foot concrete tee beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 23, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 30.1 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37 (DUXBTH00120037) on Town Highway 12, crossing Ridley Brook, Duxbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Ivanhoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DUXBTH00120037 on Town Highway 12 crossing Ridley Brook, Duxbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north central Vermont. The 10.1-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, Ridley Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 67 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 123 mm (0.404 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 1, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 12 crossing of Ridley Brook is a 33-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of five 30-ft steel rolled beams (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 30 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 50 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 20 degrees. A scour hole 2 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the right abutment and downstream

  3. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 45 (BRNETH00070045) on Town Highway 7, crossing the Stevens River, Barnet, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRNETH00070045 on Town Highway 7 crossing the Stevens River, Barnet, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 41.5-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and pasture downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, the Stevens River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 100 ft and an average bank height of 17 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 105 mm (0.344 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 22, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 7 crossing of the Stevens River is a 37-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 34-foot concrete slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 16, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 33 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 20 degrees. The only scour protection measure at

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 47 (PLYMTH00540047) on Town Highway 54, crossing Pinney Hollow Brook, Plymouth, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure PLYMTH00540047 on Town Highway 54 crossing Pinney Hollow Brook, Plymouth, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gathered from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 7.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Pinney Hollow Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 57 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 45.7 mm (0.150 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on March 30, 1995 and Level II site visit on October 2, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 54 crossing of Pinney Hollow Brook is a 30-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 27-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 25.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is not skewed to the opening and the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. Scour protection measures at the site included

  5. 重载交通条件下榆佳高速公路汽车荷载研究%Research on Vehicle Load of Highway Bridges on Yu-Jia Highway under Heavy Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成立涛; 刘宁

    2013-01-01

    榆林至佳县高速公路是陕西省重要的能源运输大通道,重型汽车比例高,交通量大,应用现行规范公路—Ⅰ级汽车荷载进行设计难以满足目标可靠度要求.在对该区域进行交通量调查、研究的基础上,提出适应于该高速公路重载交通特点的桥梁荷载模型.该模型采用车列荷载模式,能直观反映作用于桥梁汽车轴重、总重、轴距等参数,方便桥梁的运营管理,且使桥梁在实际重载交通条件下的安全性和耐久性得到保证.该汽车荷载模型与公路—Ⅰ级的对比分析表明:若采用公路—Ⅰ级汽车荷载乘以放大系数的方法进行设计,会造成不必要的浪费,却未必起到控制设计的目的.采用该汽车荷载进行桥梁设计对总造价影响较小,却能提高公路通行能力.%The highway of Yulin to Jiaxian,with a high proportion of heavy vehicles and large traffic volume,is an important energy transport passage in Shaanxi province.It is hard to meet the reliability requirements using Highway-Ⅰ Class traffic load to design the bridges.A special live load model of highway bridges suitable for the heavy traffic is established after site investigation.The model consists of standard vehicles,which can intuitively reflect the axle loads,gross weight,and wheelbase,etc.,and makes the management of bridge easy and the safty and durability of bridge on heavy traffic to be guaranteed.The comparison between the model and Highway-Ⅰ Class traffic load shows that it will cause in unnecessary waste if using the design method of Highway-Ⅰ Class load multiplied by amplification fator,which will not surely reach the control target.However,this load model has slight effect on overall project cost and can improve the traffic capacity greatly.

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 25 (HARDTH00420025) on Town Highway 42, crossing Lamoille River, Hardwick, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph D.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HARDTH00420025 on town highway 42 crossing the Lamoille River, Hardwick, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge available from VTAOT files was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain physiographic division of north-central Vermont in the town of Hardwick. The 119-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the left banks are covered by pasture and (or) fields. The right bank of Lamoille River is adjacent to Vermont Route 15 near the north edge of the Lamoille River valley. In the study area, the Lamoille River has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.0004 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 89.0 ft and an average channel depth of 8.0 ft. The predominant channel bed material is sand and gravel (D50 is 22.4 mm or 0.0733 ft). In general, the banks have sparse or no woody vegetative cover and the reach was noted to be laterally unstable at the time of the Level I site visit on July 25, 1995. The Level II work was completed on 07/27/95 and the site was revisited on August 16, 1995, just after the August 5-6, 1995 flood on the Lamoille River. Findings from this follow-up visit are presented in Appendix G. The town highway 42 crossing of the Lamoille Riveris a 62-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 60-foot steel- beam span with a concrete deck, supported by vertical abutments with wingwalls on upstream and downstream sides (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written commun., August 24, 1994). The bridge is

  7. Bathymetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri River in Kansas City, Missouri, using a multibeam echo sounder, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Bathymetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, on the Missouri River in the vicinity of nine bridges at seven highway crossings in Kansas City, Missouri, in March 2010. A multibeam echo sounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches that ranged from 1,640 to 1,800 feet long and extending from bank to bank in the main channel of the Missouri River. These bathymetric scans will be used by the Missouri Department of Transportation to assess the condition of the bridges for stability and integrity with respect to bridge scour. Bathymetric data were collected around every pier that was in water, except those at the edge of the water or in extremely shallow water, and one pier that was surrounded by a large debris raft. A scour hole was present at every pier for which bathymetric data could be obtained. The scour hole at a given pier varied in depth relative to the upstream channel bed, depending on the presence and proximity of other piers or structures upstream from the pier in question. The surveyed channel bed at the bottom of the scour hole was between 5 and 50 feet above bedrock. At bridges with drilled shaft foundations, generally there was exposure of the upstream end of the seal course and the seal course often was undermined to some extent. At one site, the minimum elevation of the scour hole at the main channel pier was about 10 feet below the bottom of the seal course, and the sides of the drilled shafts were evident in a point cloud visualization of the data at that pier. However, drilled shafts generally penetrated 20 feet into bedrock. Undermining of the seal course was evident as a sonic 'shadow' in the point cloud visualization of several of the piers. Large dune features were present in the channel at nearly all of the surveyed sites, as were numerous smaller dunes and many ripples. Several of the sites are on or near bends in the river

  8. Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete and Its Application in Highway Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance reactive powder concrete (RPC was prepared with river sand, and the maximum particle size is 1.25 mm, under the 80°C steam curing condition. It is tested completely in terms of strength, uniaxial compressive stress-strain relation, flexural load-deflection relation, and frost resisting durability, and the results indicate that the concrete is suitable to RPC200. The uniaxial compressive stress-strain curve shows a linear-elastic behaviour up to explosive failure, which is different from that of conventional concrete. High postpeak load carrying capacity shows high toughness and reinforcing effect of the steel fibers. The RPC has not only much higher limit strain than conventional concrete, but also excellent frost resisting durability at the fifth day of age exceeding F300. Furthermore, the RPC satisfactorily meets the requirement of practical application for Xialouzi Bridge built with the RPC totally according to the calculation with finite element analysis software MIDAS/Civil. And the static loading testing result suggests that design of the bridge meets the utilization requirements.

  9. Analysis of Highway Bridge Design and New Construction Technology%公路桥梁设计及施工新技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张生霞

    2015-01-01

    本文结合GPS新技术、计算机技术以及混凝土新技术等,并对我国目前公路桥梁设计中使用的新技术进行了分析,提出了一些完善公路桥梁设计以及施工的建议,以供参考。%Combining with the GPS new technology, computer technology and new concrete technology, this paper analyzes the new technology used in the current design of highway bridges in China, and puts forward some sug⁃gestions for improving the design and construction of highway bridges for reference.

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 16 (BURKTH00070016) on Town Highway 7, crossing Dish Mill Brook, Burke, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Severance, Tim

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BURKTH00070016 on Town Highway 7 crossing Dish Mill Brook, Burke, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 6.0-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest except on the left bank upstream which is brushland. In the study area, Dish Mill Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 40 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 94.1 mm (0.309 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 7, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 7 crossing of Dish Mill Brook is a 28-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 24-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 24, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24.8 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 35 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 35 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the left and right

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 4 (MAIDTH00070004) on Town Highway 7, crossing Cutler Mill Brook, Maidstone, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MAIDTH00070004 on Town Highway 7 crossing the Cutler Mill Brook, Maidstone, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 18.1-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is predominantly shrub and brushland. In the study area, the Cutler Mill Brook has a non-incised, meandering channel with local braiding and a slope of approximately 0.004 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 43 ft and an average bank height of 2 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 27.6 mm (0.091 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 19, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable due to large meanders in the channel. The Town Highway 7 crossing of the Cutler Mill Brook is a 25-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 22-foot concrete span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 5, 1994). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 21.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 0 degrees. A scour hole 2.0 ft deeper than

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 17 (LYNDTH00020017) on Town Highway 2, crossing Hawkins Brook, Lyndon, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure LYNDTH00020017 on Town Highway 2 crossing Hawkins Brook, Lyndon, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 7.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest on the left and right upstream overbanks. The downstream left and right overbanks are brushland.In the study area, Hawkins Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 78 ft and an average bank height of 7.3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 46.6 mm (0.153 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 4, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable with the presence of point bars and side bars.The Town Highway 2 crossing of Hawkins Brook is a 49-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 46-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 27, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 43 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 45 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is zero

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 6 (FAYSTH00010006) on Town Highway 1, crossing Shepard Brook, Fayston, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Flynn, Robert H.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure FAYSTH00010006 on Town Highway 1 crossing Shepard Brook, Fayston, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 16.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest. In the study area, Shepard Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 56 ft and an average bank height of 3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 72.6 mm (0.238 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 2, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of the Shepard Brook is a 42-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 40-foot concrete T-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 39.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while the calculated opening-skew-to-roadway is 30 degrees. Scour, 2.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth, was observed along the right abutment during the Level I assessment. The left abutment is

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 19 (SHEFTH00440019) on Town Highway 44, crossing Trout Brook, Sheffield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure SHEFTH00440019 on Town Highway 44 crossing Trout Brook, Sheffield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 3.0-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is grass on the upstream and downstream right overbanks, while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The surface cover of the upstream and downstream left overbanks is shrub and brushland. In the study area, Trout Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 45 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 116 mm (0.381 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 31, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 44 crossing of Trout Brook is a 24-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 22-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1994). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 19.8 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the opening

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 34 (WWINTH00370034) on Town Highway 37, crossing Mill Brook, West Windsor, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WWINTH00370034 on Town Highway 37 crossing Mill Brook, West Windsor, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 16.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture except for the upstream left bank where there is mostly shrubs and brush. In the study area, Mill Brook has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.003 ft/ ft, an average channel top width of 52 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 43.4 mm (0.142 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 5, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. Point bars were observed upstream and downstream of this site. Furthermore, slip failure of the bank material was noted downstream at a cut-bank on the left side of the channel across from a point bar. The Town Highway 37 crossing of Mill Brook is a 37-ft-long, one-lane covered bridge consisting of one 32-foot wood thru-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 23, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 29.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, laid-up stone abutment walls with

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 38 (JERITH0020038) on Town Highway 20, crossing the Lee River, Jericho, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure JERITH00200038 on Town Highway 20 crossing the Lee River, Jericho, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, obtained from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province and the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 12.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover on the upstream and downstream right overbank is pasture while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The surface cover on the upstream and downstream left overbank is forested. In the study area, the Lee River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 89 ft and an average bank height of 14 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 45.9 mm (0.151 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 2, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 20 crossing of the Lee River is a 49-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a steel through truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 12, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 44 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 36 (STOWTH00430036) on Town Highway 43, crossing Miller Brook, Stowe, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STOWTH00430036 on Town Highway 43 crossing the Miller Brook, Stowe, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north central Vermont. The 5.5-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is predominantly forested. In the study area, the Miller Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 43 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 70.4 mm (0.231 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 15, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 43 crossing of the Miller Brook is a 24-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 21-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 21.5 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening and the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is also 10 degrees. The footing on the left abutment was exposed 2.5 ft and the footing on the right abutment was exposed 3.0 ft during

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 21 (MORETH00010021) on Town Highway 1, crossing Cox Brook, Moretown, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MORETH00010021 on Town Highway 1 crossing Cox Brook, Moretown, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north-central Vermont. The 2.85-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is predominantly forested. In the study area, Cox Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 23 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 47.5 mm (0.156 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 18, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of Cox Brook is a 29-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 27-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24.8 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 60 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 40 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the left abutment downstream during the Level I assessment. The

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 31 (HUNTTH00220031) on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00220031 on Town Highway 22 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, obtained from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 5.01-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of trees and brush. In the study area, Brush Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.06 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 44 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from boulder to gravel with a median grain size (D50) of 107.0 mm (0.352 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 25, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 22 crossing of Brush Brook is a 34-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 30-foot steel I-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 31.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 10 degrees. The VTAOT computed opening-skewto-roadway is 2 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 42 (NEWFTH00350042) on Town Highway 35, crossing Stratton Hill Brook, Newfane, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWFTH00350042 on Town Highway 35 crossing Stratton Hill Brook, Newfane, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 1.16-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forested. In the study area, Stratton Hill Brook has an incised, striaght channel with a slope of approximately 0.1 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 36 ft and an average bank height of 8 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 121 mm (0.396 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 20, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 34 crossing of Stratton Hill Brook is a 34-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 32-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, April 6, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 30.8 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with upstream wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. During the Level I assessment, it was observed that the right abutment footing was exposed 1.5 feet. The only scour protection measure at the

  1. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 32 (HUNTTH00220032) on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00220032 on Town Highway 22 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 5.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest except on the downstream right overbank which is pasture. In the study area, Brush Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.05 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 58 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 127 mm (0.416 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 25, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 22 crossing of Brush Brook is a 36-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 34-foot steel-beam span and a timber deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 12, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 35.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls on the left. The channel is skewed approximately 50 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 36 (DUXBTH00040036) on Town Highway 4, crossing Crossett Brook, Duxbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DUXBTH00040036 on Town Highway 4 crossing the Crossett Brook, Duxbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north-central Vermont. The 4.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover on the upstream left overbank is pasture. The upstream and downstream right overbanks are forested. The downstream left overbank is brushland, while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation.In the study area, the Crossett Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.006 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 55 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 51.6 mm (0.169 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 1, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 4 crossing of the Crossett Brook is a 29-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 26-foot concrete slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 26 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 35 degrees to the opening while

  3. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 29 (DORSTH00100029) on Town Highway 10, crossing the Mettawee River, Dorset, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DORSTH00100029 on Town Highway 10 crossing the Mettawee River, Dorset, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Taconic section of the New England physiographic province in southwestern Vermont. The 9.5-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest on the upstream left overbank and the upstream and downstream right overbanks. The downstream left overbank is pasture and brushland. In the study area, the Mettawee River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 66 ft and an average bank height of 8 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 79.0 mm (0.259 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 5, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 10 crossing of the Mettawee River is a 26-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 24-ft steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, September 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24.1 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 45 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. At the

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 67 (MTHOTH00120067) on Town Highway 12, crossing Freeman Brook, Mount Holly, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Severance, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MTHOTH00120067 on Town Highway 12 crossing Freeman Brook, Mount Holly, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 11.4-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forested. In the study area, Freeman Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 51 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 55.7 mm (0.183 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 5, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 12 crossing of Freeman Brook is a 34-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 30-foot prestressed concrete-slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 15, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 29.5 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 50 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. Along the upstream right wingwall, the right abutment and the downstream right wingwall, a scour hole approximately 1.0 to 2.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 20 (BRISTH00270020) on Town Highway 27, crossing Little Notch Brook, Bristol, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRISTH00270020 on Town Highway 27 crossing Little Notch Brook, Bristol, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 8.43-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of pasture with trees, shrubs, and brush along the road embankments and the stream banks, except for the downstream left overbank area. Surface cover on the downstream left overbank is forest with dense undergrowth consisting of vines, shrubs, and brush. In the study area, Little Notch Brook has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.006 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 47 feet and an average bank height of 3 feet. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 66.0 mm (0.216 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 19, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 27 crossing of Little Notch Brook is a 48-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 45-foot steel pony-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 42.8 feet. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 34 (ROCHTH00210034) on Town Highway 21, crossing the White River, Rochester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCHTH00210034 on Town Highway 21 crossing the White River, Rochester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, obtained from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 74.8-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is suburban on the upstream and downstream left overbanks, though brush prevails along the immediate banks. On the upstream and downstream right overbanks, the surface cover is pasture with brush and trees along the immediate banks.In the study area, the White River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.002 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 102 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 74.4 mm (0.244 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 23, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 21 crossing of the White River is a 72-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of 70-foot steel stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 67.0 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15

  7. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 28 (ROCHTH00370028) on Town Highway 37, crossing Brandon Brook, Rochester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCHTH00370028 on Town Highway 37 crossing Brandon Brook, Rochester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from VTAOT files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 8.0-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the upstream left overbank although the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The upstream right overbank and downstream left and right overbanks are forested. In the study area, the Brandon Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 44 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 84.2 mm (0.276 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on April 12, 1995 and Level II site visit on July 8, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 37 crossing of the Brandon Brook is a 33-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 31-foot timber-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 29.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, timber log cribbing abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is zero

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 44 (LINCTH00330044) on Town Highway 33, crossing the New Haven River, Lincoln, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure LINCTH00330044 on Town Highway 33 crossing the New Haven River, Lincoln, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 6.3-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest.In the study area, the New Haven River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 56 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 101.9 mm (0.334 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 10, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 33 crossing of the New Haven River is a 33-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 31-foot timber-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 14, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 29.3 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, wood-beam crib abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees.A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the right abutment during the Level I assessment. The

  9. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 22 (BRADTH00270022) on Town Highway 27, crossing the Waits River, Bradford, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRADTH00270022 on Town Highway 27 crossing the Waits River, Bradford, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, obtained from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 153-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. However, in the vicinity of the study site, the upstream and downstream left banks are suburban and the upstream and downstream right banks are shrub and brushland. In the study area, the Waits River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.0002 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 125 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt and clay to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 0.393 mm (0.00129 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 7, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 27 crossing of the Waits River is a 109-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 104-ft steel-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 16, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 99.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, laid-up stone abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 30 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. No evidence of scour was observed during the Level I assessment

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 18 (SHEFTH00410018) on Town Highway 41, crossing Millers Run, Sheffield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure SHEFTH00410018 on Town Highway 41 crossing Millers Run, Sheffield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 16.2-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is grass upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Millers Run has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 50 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 50.9 mm (0.167 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 1, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable, which is evident in the moderate to severe fluvial erosion in the upstream reach. The Town Highway 41 crossing of the Millers Run is a 30-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 28-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 22.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees to the opening. The computed

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 7 (WALDTH00020007) on Town Highway 2, crossing Coles Brook, Walden, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WALDTH00020007 on Town Highway 2 crossing Coles Brook, Walden, Vermont (figures 1–8). Coles Brook is also referred to as Joes Brook. A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in north-eastern Vermont. The 12.8-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is predominantly shrub and brushland. In the study area, Coles Brook has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.005 ft/

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 1 (BLOOTH00020001) on Town Highway 2, crossing Mill Brook, Bloomfield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Medalie, Laura

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BLOOTH00020001 on town highway 2 crossing Mill Brook, Bloomfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England Upland physiographic province of north-east Vermont in the town of Bloomfield. The 4.85-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the banks have dense woody vegetation coverage. In the study area, Mill Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 28 ft and an average channel depth of 4 ft. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobbles (D50 is 57.3 mm or 0.188 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 6, 1995,

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 23 (WALDTH00060023) on Town Highway 6, crossing Stannard Brook, Walden, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WALDTH00060023 on Town Highway 6 crossing Stannard Brook, Walden, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in eastern Vermont. The 5.61-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the upstream surface cover is shrub and brushland with some trees. The downstream surface cover is forest. In the study area, Stannard Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 54 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 64.0 mm (0.210 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 8, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 6 crossing of Stannard Brook is a 59-ft-long (bottom width), two-lane pipe arch culvert consisting of one 22-foot corrugated plate pipe arch span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 21.9 ft.The pipe arch is supported by vertical, concrete kneewalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. A scour hole 1.5 ft deeper than the mean

  14. Results of repeat bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at the Amelia Earhart Bridge on U.S. Highway 59 over the Missouri River at Atchison, Kansas, 2009-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected six times by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Transportation, in the vicinity of Amelia Earhart Bridge on U.S. Highway 59 over the Missouri River at Atchison, Kansas. A multibeam echosounder mapping system and an acoustic Doppler current meter were used to obtain channel-bed elevations and depth-averaged velocities for a river reach approximately 2,300 feet long and extending across the active channel of the Missouri River. The bathymetric and velocimetric surveys provide a “snapshot” of the channel conditions at the time of each survey, and document changes to the channel-bed elevations and velocities during the course of construction of a new bridge for U.S. Highway 59 downstream from the Amelia Earhart Bridge. The baseline survey in June 2009 revealed substantial scour holes existed at the railroad bridge piers upstream from and at pier 10 of the Amelia Earhart Bridge, with mostly uniform flow and velocities throughout the study reach. After the construction of a trestle and cofferdam on the left (eastern) bank downstream from the Amelia Earhart Bridge, a survey on June 2, 2010, revealed scour holes with similar size and shape as the baseline for similar flow conditions, with slightly higher velocities and a more substantial contraction of flow near the bridges than the baseline. Subsequent surveys during flooding conditions in June 2010 and July 2011 revealed substantial scour near the bridges compared to the baseline survey caused by the contraction of flow; however, the larger flood in July 2011 resulted in less scour than in June 2010, partly because the removal of the cofferdam for pier 5 of the new bridge in March 2011 diminished the contraction near the bridges. Generally, the downstream part of the study reach exhibited varying amounts of scour in all of the surveys except the last when compared to the baseline. During the final survey, velocities throughout the

  15. 公路改扩建小桥病害植筋处理%Treatment of Reinforcement Disease in the Bridge Extension over the Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄谋钊

    2014-01-01

    At present, the concrete protective layer of high-way bridges in reconstruction and extension is often damaged and so the safety of people can be wel guaranteed. This paper analyzed the board body elevation construction technology of highway extension bridge, and the repair measures on bridge reinforcement, including positioning, driling, curing and prot-ection, just for reference for readers.%目前,公路改扩建的小桥经常会出现混凝土保护层受损等病害,给人们的安全出行埋下了很大的隐患。本文分析了公路改扩建小桥的板体抬高施工工艺,并提出了小桥植筋维修措施,包括定位、钻孔、固化和保护等,以供读者参考。

  16. Road Bridges and Culverts, MDTA Culverts, Culverts on John F. Kennedy Highway (I95), Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Throughway, Francis Scott Key Bridge, Bay bridge, Nice Bridge, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described...

  17. Steel bridge deck pavement design index analysis of the highway bridge in Maanshan Yangtze River%马鞍山长江公路大桥钢桥面铺装设计指标分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹成根; 王民; 张昭

    2014-01-01

    对马鞍山长江公路大桥钢桥面铺装技术难点进行了分析,并确定了设计要求。参考国内类似结构的多种大跨径悬索桥钢桥面铺装设计指标,从使用条件、工程实践及试验研究等角度出发,对比分析了钢桥面铺装设计指标。结合该桥整体结构变形和荷载响应特性,制定了钢桥面铺装结构层设计指标。该研究成果对改善钢桥面铺装的结构性能和提高钢桥面铺的使用寿命具有重要的意义。%By analyzing technical difficulties of Maanshan Yangtze River highway bridge steel bridge deck pavement,the design requirements are determined.Considering do-mestic similar structures of long-span steel bridge deck pavement design index of sus-pension bridges,the operation conditions,engineering practice and experimental studies are compared.According to the overall structure deformation,load response characteris-tics,design index for steel bridge deck pavement structure layer,research achievements of scientific improvement are obtained,which can improve the performance and increase the service life of the steel bridge deck pavement structure.This work has important significance.

  18. Influences of high-flow events on a stream channel altered by construction of a highway bridge: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of highway construction on streams in the central Appalachians are a growing concern as new roads are created to promote tourism and economic development in the area. Alterations to the streambed of a first-order stream, Sauerkraut Run, Hardy County, WV, during construction of a highway overpass included placement and removal of a temporary culvert, straightening and regrading of a section of stream channel, and armourment of a bank with a reinforced gravel berm. We surveyed longitudinal profiles and cross sections in a reference reach and the altered reach of Sauerkraut Run from 2003 through 2007 to measure physical changes in the streambed. During the four-year period, three high-flow events changed the streambed downstream of construction including channel widening and aggradation and then degradation of the streambed. Upstream of construction, at a reinforced gravel berm, bank erosion was documented. The reference section remained relatively unchanged. Knowledge gained by documenting channel changes in response to natural and anthropogenic variables can be useful for managers and engineers involved in highway construction projects.

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 81 (MARSUS00020081) on U.S. Highway 2, crossing the Winooski River, Marshfield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MARSUS00020081 on U.S. Highway 2 crossing the Winooski River, Marshfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 30 (NEWHTH00050030) on Town Highway 5, crossing the New Haven River, New Haven, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWHTH00050030 on Town Highway 5 crossing the New Haven River, New Haven, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (Federal Highway Administration, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D.The site is in the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence Valley physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 115-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the right bank upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The upstream left bank is also pasture. The downstream left bank is forested.In the study area, the New Haven River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 127 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 20.4 mm (0.067 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 19, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. The stream bends through the bridge and impacts the left bank where there is a cut bank and scour hole.The Town Highway 5 crossing of the New Haven River is a 181-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of four 45-ft concrete tee-beam spans (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 15, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 175.9 ft. The

  1. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 34 (CORITH0050034) on Town Highway 50, crossing the South Branch Waits River, Corinth, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CORITH00500034 on Town Highway 50 crossing the South Branch Waits River, Corinth, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 35.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, the South Branch Waits River has an incised, meandering channel with a slope of approximately 0.005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 63 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 23.7 mm (0.078 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 5, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 50 crossing of the South Branch Waits River is a 56-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 54-foot steel thru-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 24, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 51.5 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with no wingwalls. Stone fill and bank material in front of the abutments create spill-through embankments. The channel is skewed

  2. Design of the Dongjiang River’s Main Bridge on Conghua-Dongguan Highway%从莞高速东江特大桥主桥设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎泽生

    2014-01-01

    The Dongjiang Grand Bridge,1 377 m in length,was built to serve the purpose of allo-wing Conghua-Dongguan Highway to span the Dongjiang River.Its main bridge adopts an 85 m +2 ×138 m +85 m four-span continuous rigid framework.This bridge is regarded as the key project on the line for its complication in formation and difficulty in design and construction.This paper first presents the design of the main bridge’s construction and the structure computation,and then focuses on analysis of the key aspects in terms of the beam bottom line type selection of box girder,prestressed reinforcement’s ar-rangement and mid-span’s deflection before providing strategies for the tailored design.%东江特大桥为从莞高速跨越东江而设,全长1377 m,主桥采用85 m +2×138 m +85 m 4跨连续刚构方案,本桥结构复杂,设计、施工难度大,是全线的重点控制工程。介绍了主桥的构造设计及结构计算,重点对箱梁梁底线型的选取、预应力布置及跨中下挠几个方面进行分析,并提出设计上的对策。

  3. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 39 (RANDTH00730039) on Town Highway 73, crossing the Second Branch White River, Randolph, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Donald L.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure RANDTH00730039 on town highway 73 crossing the Second Branch White River, Randolph, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge available from VTAOT files was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain physiographic province of central Vermont in the town of Randolph. The 53.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the overbanks are covered by pasture except for the upstream right bank which is covered by brush. In the study area, the Second Branch White River has a meandering channel with a slope of approximately 0.001 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 44 ft and an average channel depth of 6 ft. The predominant channel bed material is sand with median grain size (D50) of 0.884 mm (0.0029 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 12, 1994, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. This is because of severe cut-banks both upstream and downstream where mass wasting and block failure of bank material is evident. Furthermore, minimal erosion protection is provided by bank vegetation since woody vegetation cover is sparse. The town highway 73 crossing of the Second Branch White Riveris a 42-ft-long, one-lane

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 32 (FERRTH00190032) on Town Highway 19, crossing the South Slang Little Otter Creek, Ferrisburgh, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure FERRTH00190032 on Town Highway 19 crossing the South Slang Little Otter Creek (Hawkins Slang Brook), Ferrisburg, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence Valley physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 8.00-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of wetlands upstream and downstream of the bridge with trees and pasture on the wide flood plains. In the study area, the South Slang Little Otter Creek has a meandering channel with essentially no channel slope, an average channel top width of 932 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from clay to sand. Sieve analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the sample is coarse silt and clay and thus a medium grain size by use of sieve analysis was indeterminate. The median grain size was assumed to be a course silt with a size (D50) of 0.061mm (0.0002 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 2, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 19 crossing of the South Slang Little Otter Creek is a 45-ft-long, twolane bridge consisting of one 42-foot concrete box-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 11, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 23 (WOLCTH00130023) on Town Highway 13, crossing the Wild Branch of the Lamoille River, Wolcott, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WOLCTH00130023 on Town Highway 13 crossing the Wild Branch Lamoille River, Wolcott, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, collected from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northcentral Vermont. The 27.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the upstream right overbank. The upstream left overbank is brushland. Downstream of the bridge, the surface cover is forested on the right overbank. The downstream left overbank is pasture while the immediate bank has dense woody vegetation. In the study area, the Wild Branch Lamoille River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.009 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 65 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 85.3 mm (0.280 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 17, 1996 indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. The Town Highway 13 crossing of the Wild Branch Lamoille River is a 41-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 39-foot steel girder span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 38 ft. The bridge is supported by

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 28 (STRATH00020028) on Town Highway 2, crossing the West Branch Ompompanoosuc River, Strafford, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STRATH00020028 on Town Highway 2 crossing the West Branch Ompompanoosuc River, Strafford, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gathered from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 25.4-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, the West Branch Ompompanoosuc River has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.002 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 34 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt and clay to cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 20.4 mm (0.0669 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 24, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable, because of moderate fluvial erosion. The Town Highway 2 crossing of the West Branch Ompompanoosuc River is a 31-ft-long, twolane bridge consisting of a 26-foot concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 23, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 45 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-toroadway is 5 degrees. A scour hole 3

  7. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 5 (WOLCTH00150005) on Town Highway 15, crossing the Wild Branch Lamoille River, Wolcott, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WOLCTH00150005 on Town Highway 15 crossing the Wild Branch Lamoille River, Wolcott, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.During the August 1995 and July 1997 flood events, the left roadway was overtopped. Although there was loss of stone fill along the right abutment, the structure withstood both events.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north- central Vermont. The 38.3-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge, while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation.In the study area, the Wild Branch Lamoille River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.006 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 98 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 89.1 mm (0.292 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 17, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 15 crossing of the Wild Branch Lamoille River is a 46-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 43-foot prestressed concrete box-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 33 (TUNBTH00450033) on Town Highway 45, crossing the First Branch White River, Tunbridge, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, E.C.; Severance, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure TUNBTH00450033 on Town Highway 45 crossing the First Branch White River, Tunbridge, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 86.4-mi 2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge, while woody vegetation sparsely covers the immediate banks. In the study area, the First Branch White River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.003 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 68 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to gravel with a median grain size (D50) of 27.1 mm (0.089 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 18, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable due to a cut-bank present on the upstream right bank and a wide channel bar in the upstream reach. The Town Highway 45 crossing of the First Branch White River is a 67-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 54-foot timber thru-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 23, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 53.5 ft. The bridge is supported on the right by a vertical, concrete abutment

  9. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 29 (ROYATH00920029) on Town Highway 92, crossing the First Branch White River, Royalton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROYATH00920029 on Town Highway 92 crossing the First Branch White River, Royalton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 101-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, the First Branch White River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.001 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 81 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 1.18 mm (0.00347 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on July 23, 1996 and Level II site visit on June 2, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 92 crossing of the First Branch White River is a 59-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 57-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 23, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 52.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. A scour hole 4.0 ft deeper than the

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 52 (CHESTH00100052) on Town Highway 10, crossing the South branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CHESTH00100052 on Town Highway 10 crossing the South Branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 4.05-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, the South Branch Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 35 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 82.1 mm (0.269 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 21, 1996, indicated that the reach was unstable, as a result of the moderate bank erosion. The Town Highway 10 crossing of the South Branch Williams River is a 32-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 29-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 31, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 27.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 20 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 63 (MTH0TH00120063) on Town Highway 12, crossing Russell Brook, Mount Holly, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Severance, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MTHOTH00120063 on Town Highway 12 crossing Russell Brook, Mount Holly, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 3.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, Russell Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.0263 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 29 ft and an average bank height of 3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from cobbles to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 97.1 mm (0.318 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 4, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 12 crossing of Russell Brook is a 29-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 26-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 21, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 23.5 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 40 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 35 degrees. During the Level I assessment, it was observed that the upstream left wingwall footing was exposed 0.2 ft, in reference to

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 3 (EASTTH00010003) on Town Highway 1, crossing the East Branch Passumpsic River, East Haven, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure EASTTH00010003 on Town Highway 1 crossing the East Branch Passumpsic River, East Haven, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 50.4-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover on the left bank upstream is forest. On the remaining three banks the surface cover is pasture while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, the East Branch Passumpsic River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.003 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 62 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 61.5 mm (0.187 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 14, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of the East Branch Passumpsic River is a 89-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 87-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 17, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 84.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with sloped stone fill in front that creates a spill through embankment. The

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 17 (RIPTTH00180017) on Town Highway 18, crossing the South Branch Middlebury River, Ripton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure RIPTTH00180017 on Town Highway 18 crossing the South Branch Middlebury River, Ripton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 15.5-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest except on the upstream left bank where it is shrubs and brush. In the study area, the South Branch Middlebury River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 86 ft and an average bank height of 10 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 111 mm (0.364 ft). In addition, there is a bedrock outcrop across the channel downstream of the bridge. The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 10, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 18 crossing of the South Branch Middlebury River is a 61-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 58-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 56.8 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 40 degrees to the

  14. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 16 (RIPTTH00110016) on Town Highway 11, crossing the Middle Branch Middlebury River, Ripton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure RIPTTH00110016 on Town Highway 11 crossing the Middle Branch Middlebury River, Ripton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 6.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of shrubs, brush and trees except for the upstream left bank which is completely forested. In the study area, the Middle Branch Middlebury River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 68 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 97.6 mm (0.320 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 11, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 11 crossing of the Middle Branch Middlebury River is a 44-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 42-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 15, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 40.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 40 degrees to the opening. The opening-skew-to-roadway value from the VTAOT

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 10 (CHESTH00030010) on Town Highway 3 (VT 35), crossing the South Branch of Williams River, Chester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CHESTH00030010 on Town Highway 3 (VT 35) crossing the South Branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 9.44-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest.In the study area, the South Branch Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 67 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 69.0 mm (0.226 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 26-27, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 3 (VT 35) crossing of the South Branch Williams River is a 69-foot-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 67-foot steel-stringer span with a concrete deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 23, 1994). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 64.5 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with spill-through embankments. The channel is skewed approximately 50 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 30 degrees.The scour protection (spill

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 25 (REDSTH00360025) on Town Highway 36, crossing the West Branch Deerfield River, Readsboro, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure REDSTH00360025 on Town Highway 36 crossing the West Branch Deerfield River, Readsboro, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 14.5-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the upstream right bank and forest on the upstream left bank. The surface cover on the downstream right and left banks is primarily grass, shrubs and brush. In the study area, the West Branch Deerfield River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 65 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders, with a median grain size (D50) of 117 mm (0.383 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 1, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 36 crossing of the West Branch Deerfield River is a 59-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 57-foot concrete T-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, September 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 54 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 50

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 6 (BRISVT01160006) on State Highway 116, crossing Little Notch Brook, Bristol, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRISVT01160006 on State Route 116 crossing the Little Notch Brook, Bristol, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  19. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers near St. Louis, Missouri, May 23–27, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2017-09-26

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, near 13 bridges at 8 highway crossings of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers in the greater St. Louis, Missouri, area from May 23 to 27, 2016. A multibeam echosounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,640 to 1,970 feet longitudinally and extending laterally across the active channel from bank to bank during low to moderate flood flow conditions. These bathymetric surveys indicate the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be useful to the Missouri Department of Transportation as a low to moderate flood flow comparison to help assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods.Bathymetric data were collected around every pier that was in water, except those at the edge of water, and scour holes were observed at most surveyed piers. The observed scour holes at the surveyed bridges were examined with respect to shape and depth.The frontal slope values determined for scour holes observed in the current (2016) study generally are similar to recommended values in the literature and to values determined for scour holes in previous bathymetric surveys. Several of the structures had piers that were skewed to primary approach flow, as indicated by the scour hole being longer on the side of the pier with impinging flow, and some amount of deposition on the leeward side, as typically has been observed at piers skewed to approach flow; however, at most skewed piers in the current (2016) study, the scour hole was deeper on the leeward side of the pier. At most of these piers, the angled approach flow was the result of a deflection or contraction of flow caused by a spur dike

  20. Key Techniques for Design of Edong Changjiang River Highway Bridge%鄂东长江公路大桥设计关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明义; 黄冰释; 余俊林; 唐守峰

    2011-01-01

    The main bridge of Edong Changjiang River Highway Bridge is a semi-floating system hybrid girder cable-stayed bridge with double pylons, double cable planes and with a main span 926 m. The main girder of the bridge was designed as the PK (Pasco-Kennewick Bridge) cross section of separated twin boxes, of which the part of the girder for the central span is of the steel box girder, the parts of the girder for the side spans are of the prestressed concrete (PC) box girders and a steel and concrete joint section was set on each side of the central span at a distance of 12. 5 m to the center of a pylon. To ensure a smooth transition between the steel and concrete structure, the multi-cell force transmission structure with PBL shear connectors was used for the joint section. The cable-to-pylon anchorage is the steel anchor box structure built in the column of a pylon. To control the development of concrete cracks in the anchorage zone in the pylon, the prestressing strands of 12φs 15. 24 were set in the concrete pylon wall on the side of the anchorage. To enhance the structural durability and service life, the durability of reinforced concrete and corrosion protection of steel structure were designed and the life cycle cost concept was applide to the design. The inspection and maintenance accesses for all principal components of the bridge were provided and the inspection and maintenance cycles, replacement criteria, workmanship and technical requirements were formulated as well.%鄂东长江公路大桥主桥为主跨926 m的双塔双索面半飘浮体系混合梁斜拉桥,主梁采用分离式双箱PK断面形式,中跨为钢箱梁,边跨为PC箱梁,钢-混凝土结合段设于中跨距桥塔中心12.5m处.为使钢结构与混凝土结构平稳过渡,钢-混凝土结合段采用PBL剪力连接器的多格室传力构造.索塔锚固采用在塔柱内置钢锚箱的构造,为控制锚固区混凝土裂缝开展,在锚固侧混凝土塔壁内设置12(o)s15.24预应力

  1. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri River between Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri, April-May, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, in the vicinity of 10 bridges at 9 highway crossings of the Missouri River between Lexington and Washington, Missouri, from April 22 through May 2, 2013. A multibeam echosounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,640 to 1,840 feet longitudinally and extending laterally across the active channel between banks and spur dikes in the Missouri River during low- to moderate-flow conditions. These bathymetric surveys indicate the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be useful to the Missouri Department of Transportation to assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods. Bathymetric data were collected around every pier that was in water, except those at the edge of water or in very shallow water (less than about 6 feet). Scour holes were present at most piers for which bathymetry could be obtained, except at piers on channel banks, near or embedded in lateral or longitudinal spur dikes, and on exposed bedrock outcrops. Scour holes observed at the surveyed bridges were examined with respect to depth and shape. Although exposure of parts of foundational support elements was observed at several piers, at most sites the exposure likely can be considered minimal compared to the overall substructure that remains buried in channel-bed material; however, there were several notable exceptions where the bed material thickness between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock was less than 6 feet. Such substantial exposure of usually buried substructural elements may warrant special observation in future flood events. Previous bathymetric surveys had been done at all of the

  2. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri River in and into Missouri during summer flooding, July-August 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas and Missouri Departments of Transportation, in the vicinity of 36 bridges at 27 highway crossings of the Missouri River between Brownville, Nebraska and St. Louis, Missouri, from July 13 through August 3, 2011, during a summer flood. A multibeam echo sounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,350 to 1,860 feet and extending across the active channel of the Missouri River. These bathymetric scans provide a "snapshot" of the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be used by the Kansas and Missouri Departments of Transportation to assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods. Bathymetric data were collected around every pier that was in water, except those at the edge of water, in extremely shallow water, or surrounded by debris rafts. Scour holes were present at most piers for which bathymetry could be obtained, except at piers on channel banks, those near or embedded in lateral or longitudinal spur dikes, and those on exposed bedrock outcrops. Scour holes observed at the surveyed bridges were examined with respect to depth and shape. Although exposure of parts of foundational support elements was observed at several piers, at most sites the exposure likely can be considered minimal compared to the overall substructure that remains buried in bed material; however, there were several notable exceptions where the bed material thickness between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock was less than 6 feet. Such substantial exposure of usually buried substructural elements may warrant special observation in future flood events. Previous bathymetric surveys had been done at several of the sites

  3. Investigation on the random vehicle load spectrum of the highway bridge%高速公路桥梁随机车辆荷载谱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋田勇; 罗舟滔; 谢静思; 张家滨

    2015-01-01

    以吉茶高速公路矮寨大桥为工程背景,进行了为期48 h的随机荷载调查与研究。研究结果表明,该桥车辆荷载主要是以第二类小轿车和第七类大型货车为主,其中,小轿车占总车辆的49.51%,大型货车占总车辆的21.56%,其余类型车辆所占的比例均小于10%;第一类至第七类车型的典型车重分别为1646,1451,3572,12395,6974,29104,52832 kg。在此基础上,将每种类型的车辆折算成第七类车大型货车进行分析,从而得到折算后的车辆荷载的时间序列,然后再通过 MATLAB 编程获得车辆荷载的自相关函数和车辆荷载的功率谱密度函数。对折算后服从正态分布的随机车辆数据分别求出其均值和标准差,利用MATLAB 编程来模拟高斯随机过程,最后得到矮寨大桥随机车辆荷载谱。研究成果可为高速公路桥梁的荷载谱编制和耐久性评估提供依据。%48 hours’investigation of traffic flows on Aizhai bridge in the Jicha highway was carried out.The survey revealed the vehicle load was mainly composed of the cars and the large trucks,of which the cars account for 49.5 1%,the large trucks account for 21.56%and the rest account for less than 10% of total vehicles.The typical vehicles’weight of seven categories are 1 646,1 45 1,3 572,12 395,6 974,29 104 and 52 832 kg respectively.And then analysis survey data by converting all classes vehicles’flow into large trucks’flow,the vehicle load time series was obtained,and utilize MATLAB software calculated the power spectral density function and the autocorrelation function.Due to Aizhai Bridge’s random traffic follow normal distribution function,the average value and standard deviation of ran-dom traffic could be found out.The Gauss process was used to describe the vehicle load ran-dom process,eventually the random vehicle load spectrum of Aizhai bridge was obtained. These research achievements can be used as references for the establishment of vehicle

  4. 重载交通公路桥梁设计中关于车辆载荷的分析%Heavy Traffic Highway Bridge Design Analysis of Vehicle Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘星亮

    2014-01-01

    在设计公路桥梁时,最重要的参考依据是车辆的载荷,它与公路桥梁的具体承载能力和经济价值有直接关系。基于此,在设计重载交通公路桥梁的过程中,分析了其与车辆载荷相关的内容。%In the design of roads and bridges, the most important reference is the load of the vehicle, which has a direct relationship with the specific carrying capacity and economic value of highway bridges. Based on this, the process of designing heavy traffic roads and bridges, the analysis of its relevant content and vehicle load.

  5. MS PHD'S: Bridging the Gap of Academic and Career Success Through Educational and Professional Development for Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D.; Vargas, W.; Padilla, E.; Strickland, J.; Echols, E.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Ricciardi, L.; Johnson, A.; Braxton, L.

    2011-12-01

    Historically, there has been a lack of ethnic and gender diversity in the geo-sciences. The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program provides a bridge to young scientists of diverse backgrounds who in turn will impact many. In a process of 3 phases, the program introduces the students to the scientific community through participation in professional and society meetings and networking with scientists and personnel within federal agencies, academic institutions and STEM-based industries. The program builds confidence, offers role models for professional development and provides students support during their education. Upon completion, students achieve a high level of self-actualization and self-esteem combined with individual growth. They become part of a community that continuously provides support and security to each other. This support is tangible through the mentor/mentee relationships which will help with individual growth throughout the mentoring cycle. Having role models and familiar faces to whom mentees can relate to will encourage our students to succeed in the STEM's field. To date, 159 students have participated in the program: 26 have successfully completed their PhD and 56 are currently enrolled in the PhD programs nationwide. The MS PHD'S Program creates a forum of diverse peoples by diverse peoples with diverse interest and strength, where the ongoing goal is to continually raise the bar for each individual. MS PHD'S establishes a nurturing goal-oriented environment for the geo scientist of the future who in turn will make profound contributions on a local, national and global scale. To conclude, MSPHD'S not only bridges the gap of unrepresented minorities in STEM careers, but also generates educational approaches to make the earth system sciences available to more, impacting all.

  6. RESEARCH ON WELDING PROCEDURE OF STEEL TOWER COLUMN OF MAANSHAN YANGTZE RIVER HIGHWAY BRIDGE%马鞍山长江公路大桥钢塔柱焊接工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦国; 刘志刚; 吴江波

    2015-01-01

    马鞍山长江公路大桥钢塔采用Q370qE和Q420qE钢,针对该钢塔使用的中厚板焊接,选择合理的焊接方法、焊接坡口、焊接材料以及焊接工艺参数进行焊接试验,通过焊接工艺评定试验及试验数据分析发现,各项性能均满足设计和相关标准要求。该焊接工艺成功应用于马鞍山长江公路大桥钢塔柱的制作,可供同类桥梁钢结构焊接制作借鉴。%Q370qE and Q420qE steel were adopted for steel tower of Maanshan Yangtze River Highway Bridge . Reasonable welding process , welding groove , welding consumables and welding parameters were selected for medium thickness plate welding and welding test . The results of welding procedure qualification test and data analysis indicated that the properties could meet the requirements of relevant design standards .The selected welding procedure selected has been successfully used in the fabrication of steel tower columns of Maanshan Yangtze River Highway Bridge .This paper provided a reference for the welding fabrication of similar steel bridge projects .

  7. 缆索吊装在高速公路箱形拱桥中的应用%The Application of Hoisting Cable on the Box Arch Bridge of Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓燕

    2013-01-01

    缆索吊装指的是利用悬挂的缆索运输和安装构件的施工方法,本文介绍了缆索吊装在高速公路大跨径拱桥施工中的应用。%The hoisting cable refers to the method of using the suspended cable to transport and instal components in the co-nstruction. This article introduces the hoisting cable applied in the highway construction of long-span arch bridge.

  8. 23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed...

  9. 208国道司庄二号大桥病害分析及加固措施%Diseases analysis and reinforcement measures Sizhuang No. 2 big bridge of 208 national highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芳

    2012-01-01

    在分析208国道司庄二号大桥病害情况的基础上,列举了病害产生原因,通过验算分析提出了桥梁维修加固措施,并根据加固设计进行了加固效果验算,结果表明:加固后提高了新增两铰拱的抗弯承载能力,满足了规范要求。%On the basis of analysing on diseases situations of Sizhuang No. 2 big bridge of 208 national highway, this paper listed the diseases causes, through the checking analysis proposed bridge repair and reinforcement measures, and according to the reinforcement design made rein-forcement checking calculation, the results showed that after reinforcement increased the bending bearing capacity of additional two hinged arch, met the requirements of specification.

  10. 谈加强我省干线公路桥梁养护管理工作%The Study on Strengthening Maintenance Management Work of Trunk Highway Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳

    2011-01-01

    桥梁养护管理是公路养护管理的有机组成,同时也是公路养护管理的一个薄弱环节。从分析我省公路桥梁养护管理工作中存在的问题入手,分别从严格桥梁管理制度等多个方面。论述了对加强公路桥梁养护管理工作的问题与建议。%From several aspects of bridge management system etc.,the paper analyzed the problem of highway bridge maintenance management work, proposed some idea and advice.

  11. 马鞍山长江公路大桥悬索桥先导索过江施工技术%River-Crossing Construction for Pilot Ropes of Suspension Bridge of Maanshan Changjiang River Highway Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李猛; 朱小金

    2015-01-01

    马鞍山长江公路大桥左汊主桥为主跨2×1080 m的三塔两跨悬索桥,主缆牵引系统采用先导索过江架设,先导索设计总长2600 m ,分2段,每段1300 m。针对桥址江面宽、悬索桥需两跨过江、跨越长江“黄金航道”、安全要求高、工期紧等因素,对先导索过江方案进行比选,确定该桥先导索采用飞艇过江牵引方案架设。采用T C08X‐2.4G型遥控氦气飞艇牵引先导索,选用φ2 mm迪尼玛绳作为一级导索,采用被动放索装置的力矩电机被动放出先导索。首先由北岸向中塔飞行过江,形成北跨初级牵引系统;然后由中塔向南岸飞行,形成南跨初级牵引系统;最后由人工和卷扬机配合完成1~5级先导索替换,完成先导索过江。飞艇牵引过程中,进行飞行控制、先导索垂度控制和安全控制,保证先导索飞艇过江顺利实施。实践表明,在长江江面不封航情况下,采用飞艇过江牵引方案可以实现先导索安全可靠过江。%The left main bridge of the Maanshan Changjiang River Highway Bridge is a three‐tower suspension bridge with two main spans each of 1 080 m. The traction system for the main cables was erected by using pilot ropes which needed threading across the river .The pilot rope had a total design length of 2 600 m ,which was divided into two sections ,each measuring 1 300 m . Given the fact that the river is wide at the bridge site ,the suspension bridge needs two main spans to cross the river ,more critically ,the suspension bridge crosses the golden navigation channel of Changjiang River ,its safety requirements are demanding and construction schedule is tight ,it is determined via scheme comparison and selection that the pilot ropes be erected by using airship to guide the ropes to cross the river .The TC08X‐2 .4G remote‐controlled helium airship was adopted to guide the pilot ropes .Theφ2 mm Dyneema rope was used as the first

  12. Safety distance for bearing members of long-span suspension bridge in highway fire%大跨径悬索桥承重构件公路火灾安全距离研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利军; 董晓明; 胡兆同

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the influence of highway fire on long-span suspension bridges and fill in the blank of suspension bridge fire research, combining structure fire analysis, an indirect coupling method was chosen to carry out the thermal-structure coupling analysis. Taking a 300 MW vehicle fire as an example, ANSYS was used to build the fire coordinate model of different section of a typi-cal suspension bridge. On the basis of fire research domestic and abroad, basing on the Ingason H. square growth model and taking the safety distance for cable bearing component of the long-span sus-pension bridge in highway fire as a research object, a numerical simulation for the safety distance of suspender cable and main cable was performed to reduce project risk and ensure the safety and sta-bility of the bridge. A thermal release rate mathematical model which suits highway fire study was put forward; The safety distance model in highway fire was established, and the size of combustion heat source and heat release rate of unit area were determined; With the thermal-structure coupling analysis, the fire safety distance for suspender cable and main cable of different diameters (0. 4 ~1. 0 m) were determined. The research results can provide some scientific basis for the fire resist-ance design of long-span suspension bridges.%为研究公路火灾对大跨径悬索桥带来的影响,弥补悬索桥火灾研究的空白,结合结构火灾分析的特点,确定选择间接耦合法进行热-结构耦合分析。以300 MW 车辆火灾为例,运用 ANSYS 有限元程序,建立了悬索桥不同断面的火灾坐标模型,在总结国内外火灾研究工作的基础上,基于 Ingason H.平方增长模型,以典型的大跨径悬索桥缆索承重构件的公路火灾安全距离为研究对象,以降低工程风险、保证大跨径悬索桥结构的安全性和稳定性为研究目标,对大跨径悬索桥吊索和主缆安全距离进行数值模拟,提出

  13. On the Maintenance and Management of Highway Bridge%公路桥梁养护管理问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴刚

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounds the important significance of road and bridge maintenance management, and analyzes the bridge maintenance problems in bridge engineering construction, and puts forward the measures to improve the maintenance of road and bridge.%文章阐述了道路桥梁养护管理的重要意义,并探析了在桥梁工程建设中面临的桥梁养护问题,提出提高道路桥梁养护的应对措施。

  14. Analysis of Highway Concrete Beam Bridge Life Cycle Design Method and Application%公路混凝土梁式桥全寿命设计方法及应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦辉

    2012-01-01

    目前国内外虽然进行了大量针对桥梁生命周期的专项研究,但关于桥梁全寿命设计体系、各设计过程及相应方法的研究依然匮乏。现阐明了全寿命设计方法的概念、设计原则和设计目标,将桥梁的设计和需求拓展到结构的整个使用寿命期,建立了公路混凝土梁式桥全寿命设计方法的总体框架。同时以一座钢筋混凝土简支梁桥作为背景工程,从桥梁时变可靠性和周期成本优化两个方面入手,将所研究的全寿命设计框架和设计方法进行了具体阐述,并应用于实际混凝土梁式桥项目中,为工程实践提供一定的参考借鉴和设计思路。%Although a great deal of special research on the bridge life cycle has been done at home and abroad, the life cycle design system and the corresponding design methods for bridge are still scarce. The concept of life cycle design methods, design principles and design objectives are clarified. The design of the bridge and needs are expanded to the entire life of the structure. The overall framework of the life cycle design of the highway concrete beam bridge is created in this paper. An example is studied based on simply supported reinforced concrete beam bridge engineering. A life cycle design framework and design method for the life cycle design system of bridge are specifically addressed, according to the two methods including the time-variant reliability and cycle cost optimization for the bridge. The theory is applied to actual concrete beam bridge project for engineering practice to provide references and design ideas.

  15. 谈公路桥梁工程施工中钻孔灌注桩技术的应用%Discussion on the application bored pile technology in highway bridge engineering construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董慧勇

    2015-01-01

    对公路桥梁工程施工中钻孔灌注桩技术进行了介绍,并对钻孔灌注桩施工中测量放线、安装钻孔机、造浆工作、制作钢筋笼等工艺进行了分析,探讨了各工艺环节的施工要求,提出了相应的技术管理措施。%The thesis introduces bored pile technology in highway bridge engineering construction,analyzes its measurement sampling,installa-tion driller,slurry manufacture and steel cage manufacture and other techniques,explores its construction demands,and finally puts forward cor-responding technology management measures.

  16. Road Bridges and Culverts, Highway Culverts, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is...

  17. Policy Safeguards and the Legitimacy of Highway Interdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    strategy of highway interdiction, such as complaints of police misconduct or the public’s perception of unfair law enforcement practices. The...communities continue to express concerns associated with unfair treatment and exposure to police misconduct. The frustration of the minority community about...highway interdiction operations were reviewed by a supervisor with highway interdiction experience. This review is a distinctive advantage for

  18. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  19. Compression Tests of Plain Chloroprene Rubber Bearings of Highway Bridge under Acid Corrosion Condition%硝酸腐蚀条件下公路桥梁板式氯丁橡胶支座受压试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延年; 司月华; 张军; 刘圣杰; 郑怡

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究硝酸腐蚀条件下公路桥梁板式氯丁橡胶支座受压性能的变化规律.方法 采用pH =4.5的硝酸溶液对公路桥梁板式氯丁橡胶支座进行20 d、40d、60 d、80 d、100 d的全浸泡处理,利用5 000 kN的压力试验机进行轴心受压试验,从承载力、极限抗压强度、抗压弹性模量、竖向刚度对腐蚀试件与标准件进行对比分析.结果 经硝酸腐蚀后,氯丁橡胶支座的抗压弹性阶段变短,且破坏更加严重;其承载力、极限抗压强度、抗压弹性模量随处理天数的增加而逐渐下降.结论 采用最小二乘法对使用0 ~50年后的橡胶支座的抗压强度和弹性模量进行分析,其衰减函数及衰减曲线大致符合指数函数的变化规律.%This paper studies compression performance change rules of highway bridge slab neoprene bearing under acid corrosion conditions.Do the full immersion treatment of 20 d,40 d,60 d,80 d,100 d on highway bridge slab neoprene bearing using pH =4.5 nitric acid solution,use 5 000 kN pressure tester for axial compression experiments,and compare the corrosion specimen to standard parts form analyzing bearing capacity,ultimate compressive strength,compressive elastic modulus,the vertical stiffness and so on.The experiment results show that the compressive elastic stage of neoprene bearings becomes shorter and the damage is more serious after the acid corrosion;Its bearing capacity,ultimate compressive strength,compressive elastic modulus gradually decline along with the processing days increasing.Analyze compressive strength and elastic modulus of the rubber bearing which are used for 0 ~ 50 years by using the least square method,its attenuation formula and decay curve are broadly in line with the changing rule of the exponential function.

  20. 地震引发公路桥梁破损成因分析%Causes Analysis of Highway Bridge Damage Due to Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽艳

    2012-01-01

    The expressions of seismic damage of bridge due to earthquake is introduced, the causes of appearing seismic damage is analyzed, specific measures for preventing seismic damage are proposed and suggestions forquakeproof design are proposed.%介绍了地震引发的桥梁震害的表现状态,分析了发生震害的成因,并对震害的防治提出了具体措施,对防震设计提出了建议。

  1. Construction Traffic Organizational of Yingwen Highway “7.10”Damage Treatment by Changing Road to Bridge%映汶高速“7.10”灾损处治路改桥施工交通组织

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强

    2015-01-01

    Firstly summarized and analyzed traffic organization modes and construction types and its implementation steps ,the advantages and disadvantages and the use scopes ;Secondly the design method of highway traffic organization are discussed ;Finally based on Yingwen highway damage treatment of road to bridge engineering ,highway in hit Burma road to bridge construction organization and the traffic organization design and implementation ;Results showed its good economic and social benefits ,and meantime it provided a theoretical basis and engineering for landslide damage treatment of highway rebuilding and reinforcement repair .%汇总、分析各种交通组织方式和施工作业类型及其实施步骤,阐述其优缺点和使用范围;对高速公路交通组织设计方法进行论述;最后依托映汶高速灾损处治路改桥工程,对映汶高速公路路改桥施工组织和交通组织进行设计与实施。结果表明其经济和社会效益良好,为泥石流灾损处治高速公路改建和加固修复提供理论及工程依据。

  2. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.;

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  3. 中朝鸭绿江界河公路大桥耐久性技术研究%Study of Durability Enhancing Techniques for Yalu Boundary River Highway Bridge Connecting China and DPR Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫大伟

    2014-01-01

    The Yalu Boundary River Highway Bridge is a two-pylon steel box girder cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 636 m .The bridge site is located where the climate is harsh in winter and the meteorological condition is complex ,creating challenges for the durability of the bridge .By the combined use of both the theoretical and experimental methods ,a number of studies were conducted ,including the mixing proportion design of the frost-resisting high performance concrete that has high flow state and is able to resist sea water erosion ,the feasibility of - 10 ~ - 5℃ low temperature welding techniques and the externally-installed vibration absorbers for stay ca-bles .The results of the study indicate that the chosen compressive strength ,shrinking behavior , impermeability and frost and thaw resistant performance of concrete all have superior indexes which meet the design requirements .The trial plates were made to take shape by the welding tech-niques applied to real bridges .The tensile strength in the welding joints of trial plates and the yielding strength ,tensile strength and the extension rate after break of the metals in the welding joints could meet the requirements .The feasigility of - 10 ~ - 5 ℃ low temperature welding is proved feasible .And according to the testing results ,the quality control measures for the steel box girder heat preservation ,preheating and other low temperature welding were determined . The pendulum leverage mass vibration dampers featuring the eddy current damping and friction damp -ing for stay cables have sound vibration damping effect and temperature stability .The application of the aforementioned techniques ensures that the bridge has sound durability .%中朝鸭绿江界河公路大桥为主跨636 m 的双塔双索面钢箱梁斜拉桥,桥址处气候严寒,气象条件复杂。为解决桥梁耐久性问题,通过理论与试验相结合的方法,进行高流态耐海水侵蚀的抗冻性高性

  4. Implementation of Bridge Management System on Interurban Bridge in Maluku Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Marasabessy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bridges as transport infrastructures play a vital role in smoothing traffic flows. The success of a bridge in playing its role and serving its function depends on its management. The Directorate General of Highways of the Ministry of Public Work has used a system to manage bridges known as the Bridge Management System (BMS. The system allows a systematic plan and provides a uniform procedure for all bridge operation activities on the national and provincial level. Data from Implementation Agency of National Inter-Urban Roads of Area IX, Northern Maluku in 2011 indicates that the total length of national roads in Maluku Province is 15,238.01 M, with a total of 562 bridges. In Ambon Island, especially, there are 52 bridges totaling 1,176.25 m in length. The study was conducted at several inter-urban bridges in Maluku Province of Ambon Island: Wai Batu Merah, Wai Ruhu, Wai Lawa, Wai Yari and Wai Tua bridges. Assessment of bridge structure conditions was conducted visually to determine the conditions of the existing bridges comprehensively by referring to the Bridge Management System (BMS complemented with a computer-based Bridge Management Information System (BMIS. Condition scores for the five bridges—Wai Batu Merah, Wai Ruhu, Wai Lawa, Wai Yari, and Wai Tua, according to Bridge Management System, are 2, 1, 2, 1, and 2 respectively. The scores of the five bridges indicate that their physical condition can be categorized as good or with minor defects. Based on technical screening, the proposed treatment for Wai Batu Merah, Wai Ruhu, Wai Lawa, dan Wai Tua bridges is the rehabilitation of their sub-elements. As for the Wai Yari Bridge, the treatment will be maintained regularly. The defect repair costs are IDR 149,138,238.00, IDR 81,048,000.00, IDR 174,579,106.10, IDR 79,233,324.01 and IDR 238,323,258.60 for Wai Batu, Wai Ruhu, Wai Lawa, Wai Yari, and Wai Tua Bridges, respectively.

  5. 荆岳长江公路大桥索塔锚固钢锚梁结构体系分析%Analysis of Steel Anchor Beam Structural System of Anchorage in Pylon of Jingyue Changjiang River Highway Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家元; 丁望星; 朱世峰

    2015-01-01

    荆岳长江公路大桥主桥为主跨816 m的双塔不对称混合梁斜拉桥,在成桥状态下,索塔锚固采用两端固定的钢锚梁结构体系。为研究钢锚梁平衡斜拉索索力的作用,验证超静定结构体系钢锚梁的合理性,采用ANSYS软件建立索塔锚固区有限元模型,分析钢锚梁施工过程中2种不同的支承体系方案,并通过足尺模型试验研究钢锚梁对斜拉索索力的分配比例。结果表明:斜拉索初张时采用边跨固定、中跨滑动,斜拉索张拉后两端固定结构体系的钢锚梁承担了斜拉索索力水平分力的83.7%,钢锚梁与塔壁对索力水平分力的分配比例为8∶2,该体系能够发挥钢锚梁平衡斜拉索索力的作用,且结构可靠度高。%The main bridge of Jingyue Changjiang River Highway Bridge is a asymmetric span hybrid girder cable‐stayed bridge with double pylons and with a main span of 816 m .The anchor‐age in a pylon of the bridge in completion state is of the steel anchor beam structural system with its two ends being fixed .To study the function of the anchor beam balancing the stay cable forces and to verify the rationality of the anchor beam of the statically indeterminate structural system , the software ANSYS was used to set up the finite element model for the anchorage in the pylon , 2 different support schemes adopted for construction of the anchor beam were analyzed and the ra‐tios of the stay cable forces distributed by the anchor beam were studied by means of the full‐scale model tests .The results of the study show that the anchor beam using the structural system with its side span end being fixed ,its central span end being slide at the time of initial tensioning of the stay cables and with its two ends being fixed after tensioning of the stay cables can bear 83 .7%horizontal component of the stay cable forces and the ratio of the horizontal component distributed by the anchor beam and pylon wall

  6. Concerns and Current Situation for Risk Assessment of Highway Bridges Construction%公路桥梁工程安全风险关注点及风险评估现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰

    2012-01-01

    By summarizing the subjective and objective reasons of risk and collecting the risk concerns dispersed in the different parts of bridge with different influences , to lay the foundation for drawing up the relative estimation and corresponding measures. Apart from analyzing the achievements made in highway engineering risk assessment system , the problems existed in the process of implementing are summarized such as the understanding of the system, the inferior in quality and the examination results not reaching the designated level. At last, we focus on the enforce-ability and guidance in the improving of risk assessment and give a way to solve the problems.%对风险产生的主客观原因进行了归纳总结,将分散在桥梁不同部位、产生不同影响的风险关注点汇集起来,为相关的估测判定、应对措施的制定奠定基础.分析了公路工程风险评估制度所取得的成效,同时也总结了在实施过程中存在的包括对制度的认识、成果质量不足和考核不到位等一些需要改进的问题,最后注重于提高风险评估制度的可执行性和指导性,给出了解决问题的思路.

  7. 武汉天兴洲公铁两用桥主塔爬模设计及应用%Design and Application of Climbing Slipform Formwork in Pylon Tower of Wuhan Tianxingzhou Yangtze River Highway-railway Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁智刚

    2011-01-01

    武汉天兴洲公铁两用桥主塔模板施工采用液压自爬模体系,打破了传统的施工工艺,对施工环境、提高施工工效、安全环保等都有所改善.针对该工程主塔模板施工,施工脚手架采用液压自爬模系统配合木工字梁模板体系,并对爬模体系进行了优化和设计.此外,阐述了模板系统组成及液压自爬架组成,详细介绍了爬模施工方案以及安全规定.体现了液压自爬模及木梁胶合板模板体系用于异型混凝土结构的优越性.%Hydraulic climbing slipform system is used with main tower formwork construction of Wuhan Tianxingzhou Yangtze river highway-railway bridge, the traditional construction technology is changed. The construction environment, construction efficiency, safety and environmental protection is all improved. Based on the construction, construction scaffolding is used with hydraulic climbing slipform system combined with wood H beam formwork system, and auto-climbing formwork system is optimized and designed. In addition, formwork system composition and hydraulic climbing slipform system are expounded. Construction scheme of climbing slipform and safety regulations are introduced in detail. The fact shows that it is reasonable that hydraulic climbing slipform system and timber beam plywood formwork system are used in non-standard concrete structure.

  8. Analysis of Highway Bridge Trafifc Load by a Weigh-in-Motion Approach%基于动态称重的高速桥梁车辆荷载分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢颖

    2016-01-01

    基于安装在高速某三跨连续梁桥上的动态称重系统(WIM)所记录的车辆荷载数据,对车流量、车重、车速、总轴距和车间距进行了分析,得到其统计特性和分布的一般规律。然后,通过广义极值模型(GEV)计算出最大弯矩极值分布,得出实际车辆荷载,并与规范中所规定的荷载进行比较。结果表明:一天中各时段的总交通流量具有很强的潮汐规律性;从车流构成上看,二轴车辆占绝大多数,其次为六轴及以上车辆;实际运行车辆荷载低于设计车辆荷载,实际荷载对桥梁健康状况危害不大。%Basing on data recorded by the Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) system installed in a three span continuous girder bridge at highway, perform analysis of the vehicle flow, weight, speed, wheelbase and interval, as to discover general discipline of their statistical characteristics and distribution. Then, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) model is used to calculate the extreme value distribution of maximum bending moment. The actual vehicle load is compared with the load determined by the regulations. The results show that, traffic flow has a strong tidal regularity; from the aspect of flow composition, dual-axle dominates the largest part, and the six-axle or more dominate the secondary. The actual running vehicle load is lower than the designed, thus brings out little harm to bridge healthy status.

  9. A Hierarchical Analysis of Bridge Decision Makers ... The Role of New Technology Adoption in the Timber Bridge Market: Special Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Bridge design engineers and local highway officials make bridge replacement decisions across the United States. The Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to characterize the bridge material selection decision of these individuals. State Department of Transportation engineers, private consulting engineers, and local highway officials were personally interviewed in...

  10. VT Limited Access Highways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual carriageway, expressway, and partial controlled access highway, is a...

  11. 鸭绿江公路大桥溢油漂移扩散三维数值模拟%Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the drift and diffusion of oil film at the highway bridge in the Yalu River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈士谦; 朱建荣

    2012-01-01

    An improved 3D numerical model ECOM-si, coupled with the drift and diffusion module of oil film, was adopted to simulate the thickness and trace of the oil film after an oil spill accident (100 tons leakage) is occurred at the main pier of the highway bridge in the Yalu River. The model results show that the oil film reaches the water intakes of Sidaogou and Dandong Paper Mill at 0. 9 h and 1. 5 h after the oil spill, experiencing duration of 0. 6 h and 1. 7 h in summer, respectively. The oil film reaches the two places at 1. 2 h and 1. 7 h after the oil spill, experiencing duration of 0. 6 h and 2. 5 h in winter, respectively. No matter in summer or in winter, the oil film will not reach the water intake of Yanwo. Although the river discharge in summer is much larger than the one in winter, the oil film drifts upstream farther in summer than in winter during flood current. The numerical experiment results show that the stronger flood current in summer is only the second reason for the pheonomena, while the wind is its principal reason. The orientation of the river is north-west near upstream the bridge which results in the oil film blocked by the northwest wind in winter, and is almost north-south farer upstream the bridge which results in the oil film pushed forward by the south wind in summer.%应用三维河口海岸海洋数值模式ECOM-si,加入油膜计算模块,模拟在鸭绿江公路大桥主跨航道处溢油事故(溢油量为100 t)发生后油膜的漂移扩散.模拟结果显示,夏季溢油事故发生后油膜分别于0.9h、1.5h后到达四道沟取水口和丹东造纸厂取水口,持续影响时间分别为0.6h和1.7h;冬季溢油事故发生后油膜分别于1.2h、1.7h后到达两地取水口,持续影响时间分别为0.6h和2.5h.冬夏季,油膜均没有到达燕窝取水口.鸭绿江夏季径流量远比冬季径流量大,但涨潮期间油膜上溯距离反而更远.数值试验结果表明,夏季较强的涨潮流是该现象的次要原

  12. 23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the bridge inventory, a sufficiency rating will be assigned to each bridge by the Secretary in accordance with...

  13. 23 CFR 650.807 - Bridges requiring a USCG permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bridges requiring a USCG permit. 650.807 Section 650.807... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.807 Bridges requiring a USCG... improvement or construction of a bridge over navigable waters except for the exemption exercised by FHWA...

  14. Highway Bureau Director on Highway Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINZHIGUO

    2005-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Highway experienced four renovations in the past 40 years and has now been asphalted. For the fourth renovation, some 1.17 billion Yuan was consumed. It is now a modern highway. Extending 2,100 km from Xining of Qinghai to Lhasa of Tibet, it became 1,937 km after re-working. It goes 1,400 km in Qinghai.The Xining-Golmud section crossed many mountains and many rivers,extending 782 km. The Golmud-Lhasa section crosses four mountains—Kunlun Mountains (4,700 meters), Fenghuoshan Mountain (4,800 meters),Tanggula Mountain (5,150 meters above sea level at the mouth) and Nyainqentanggula Mountain, and crossed three rivers---Tongtianhe River, Tutu River and Curmar River with an average elevation of 4,500 meters. The Highway extends 544 km in Tibet. More than 80 percent of goods were transported through the highway.

  15. 23 CFR 650.407 - Application for bridge replacement or rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for bridge replacement or rehabilitation. 650.407 Section 650.407 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Rehabilitation Program § 650.407 Application for bridge replacement or rehabilitation. (a) Agencies...

  16. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210 Section 971.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS... lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  17. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 972.210 Section 972.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS....210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  18. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210 Section 970.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS... Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  19. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210 Section 973.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS... PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system...

  20. VT National Highway System (NHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The National Highway System (NHS) is a network of strategic highways within the United States, including the Interstate Highway System and other roads serving major...

  1. Aerodynamic interaction between road deck and rail deck of separate-type highway-railway bridges and its effect on train running performance%分离式公铁双层桥面相互气动干扰及对列车走行性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永乐; 姜孝伟; 苏洋; 李龙安; 廖海黎

    2016-01-01

    There exists aerodynamic interaction between road deck and rail deck of highway-railway bridges under cross wind.In order to investigate the effect of different height intervals between two decks on train running performance, a separate-type highway-railway concrete box girder bridge was taken as an engineering example.The numerical simulation with CFD and the coupled vibration analysis of a wind-vehicle-bridge system were performed to determine train aerodynamic characteristics and to obtain its dynamic response.The results showed that the height interval between two decks has a major influence on train aerodynamic characteristics and its dynamic response;reducing the height interval leads to increase in the train lift coefficient and its vertical acceleration,and the wheel load reduction ratio increases as well;the effect of height intervals between two decks should receive more attention when selecting the optimal height interval in the design of highway-railway bridges.%横向风作用下公铁两用双层桥的上、下桥面间存在相互的气动干扰,为研究公铁两用组合桥间隔高度对列车走行性的影响,针对某分离式公铁两用混凝土箱梁桥,采用计算流体动力学(CFD)数值模拟和风-车-桥耦合振动研究的方法,分析了上、下桥面间隔高度对列车气动特性和车辆动力响应的影响。分析结果表明,公铁两用组合桥间隔高度对列车的气动特性和动力响应影响显著,间隔高度减小,列车升力系数和竖向加速度显著增大,轮重减载率也随之增大。公铁两用组合桥的设计应考虑间隔高度对列车的影响,以选择合理的间隔高度。

  2. 75 FR 41281 - Bridge Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... ineffective in the case of certain special inspections. For instance, if a highway vehicle strike occasions a... bridge had twice again been struck by a highway vehicle and inspected. This is not realistic, so the..., Preemptive effect. See 74 FR 41573. One commenter questioned whether the provisions in the proposed...

  3. Damage investigation of girder bridges under the Wenchuan earthquake and corresponding seismic design recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianzhong; Peng Tianbo; Xu yan

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of girder bridges on National Highway 213 and the Doujiangyan-Wenchuan expressway after the Wenchuan earthquake showed that typical types of damage included:span collapses due to unseating at expansion joints;shear key failure;and damage of the expansion joint due to the slide-induced large relative displacement between the bottom of the girder and the top of the laminated-rubber bearing.This slide,however,can actually act as a form of isolation for the substructure,and as a result,the piers and foundation of most of the bridges on state route 213 suffered minor damage.The exception was the Baihua Bridge,which suffered severe damage.Corresponding seismic design recommendations are presented based on this investigation.

  4. Seismic fragility analysis of typical pre-1990 bridges due to near- and far-field ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Araliya; Razzaghi, Mehran S.; Jara, José; Varum, Humberto

    2016-03-01

    Bridge damages during the past earthquakes caused several physical and economic impacts to transportation systems. Many of the existing bridges in earthquake prone areas are pre-1990 bridges and were designed with out of date regulation codes. The occurrences of strong motions in different parts of the world show every year the vulnerability of these structures. Nonlinear dynamic time history analyses were conducted to assess the seismic vulnerability of typical pre-1990 bridges. A family of existing concrete bridge representative of the most common bridges in the highway system in Iran is studied. The seismic demand consists in a set of far-field and near-field strong motions to evaluate the likelihood of exceeding the seismic capacity of the mentioned bridges. The peak ground accelerations (PGAs) were scaled and applied incrementally to the 3D models to evaluate the seismic performance of the bridges. The superstructure was assumed to remain elastic and the nonlinear behavior in piers was modeled by assigning plastic hinges in columns. In this study the displacement ductility and the PGA are selected as a seismic performance indicator and intensity measure, respectively. The results show that pre-1990 bridges subjected to near-fault ground motions reach minor and moderate damage states.

  5. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  6. 23 CFR 650.805 - Bridges not requiring a USCG permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bridges not requiring a USCG permit. 650.805 Section 650... OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.805 Bridges not... permit is not required for bridge construction. This determination shall be made at an early stage...

  7. Modeling worldwide highway networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Boas, Paulino R.; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; da F. Costa, Luciano

    2009-12-01

    This Letter addresses the problem of modeling the highway systems of different countries by using complex networks formalism. More specifically, we compare two traditional geographical models with a modified geometrical network model where paths, rather than edges, are incorporated at each step between the origin and the destination vertices. Optimal configurations of parameters are obtained for each model and used for the comparison. The highway networks of Australia, Brazil, India, and Romania are considered and shown to be properly modeled by the modified geographical model.

  8. The I-35W bridge Project Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    How can websites be used to rebuild trust?  In August 2007, the Interstate Highway 35-W bridge in Minneapolis, MN collapsed during rush hour.  Although many people were rescued and casualties were as limited as could be expected due to quick and effective intervention, the image of a major bridge...

  9. 菜园坝公轨两用长江大桥静载试验研究%Static loading tests research about Caiyuanba highway-rail bi-urpose Yangtze River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠丹; 鲁薇薇; 严猛; 李晓斌

    2013-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, fundamental changes have emerged in the design methods and design theory of bridge structure. Yet, there are a lot of factors affecting the quality of a project. In order to test construction quality of the built bridge, taking Caiyuanba Yangtze Bridge as an example, heavy trucks and light rail vehicles have been used to simulate the design loads. Test conditions have been reasonably combined and the static loading tests were made over the real bridge. The tests help to understand the bridge under the real working condition and help to evaluate the construction quality of bridge structure and using safety, which provide scientific basis for the final acceptance of the construction and in-depth exploration.%随着现代科学技术的进步,桥梁结构的设计方法和设计理论都有了根本性的变化,然而影响桥梁工程质量的许多不确定因素仍然存在,为检验建成后的桥梁工程质量,以重庆菜园坝长江大桥为实例,用载重汽车与轻轨车辆同时试验模拟设计荷载,合理的合并试验工况,对实桥进行静载试验,了解桥梁结构在试验荷载作用下的实际工作状态,进而评估桥梁结构的施工质量和使用状况,为竣工验收和深入探索提供科学依据.

  10. The Lincoln Highway in Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This guidebook is on the Lincoln Highway in the state of Utah. Its purpose is to describe as closely as possible the original route of the Highway, the major changes...

  11. Numerical simulation of highway fire transient space temperature field of bearing elements of long-span suspension bridge%大跨径悬索桥缆索承重构件公路火灾的瞬态空间温度场数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利军; 万祥斌; 董晓明

    2015-01-01

    文章在国内外火灾研究工作的基础上,基于Ingason H平方增长模型,提出了适用于公路桥梁火灾研究的热释放率数学模型;根据建立的公路火灾物理模型,通过数值模拟给出公路火灾下悬索桥主缆、吊索表面温度及热流密度随火灾的发展过程而变化的规律公式,并建立了承重构件瞬态空间温度场。同一火灾场景下,不同直径的吊索可以采用相同的瞬态空间温度场;不同直径的主缆在不同位置具有相同的温度θt2时,可以采用相同的瞬态空间温度场。该研究成果可为今后大跨径悬索桥的抗火设计提供科学依据。%By reviewing and analyzing fire studies conducted at home and abroad ,and based on the Ingason H Square Growth Model ,several kinds of thermal release rate mathematical models are put forward ,which are suitable for the fire studies of highway bridges .Based on the established physical model of highway fire ,the trend of how the surface temperature and heat flux density of main and suspender cables of suspension bridge change with fire situation is observed through the numerical simulation .And the transient space temperature field of bearing elements is established .Under the same conditions of fire accident ,the same transient space temperature field can be applied to suspender cables with different diameters ;the same transient space temper‐ature field can be applied to main cables with different diameters when they have the same θt2 at different places .The research results can provide scientific basis for the fire resistance design of long‐span suspension bridge .

  12. 23 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - State Highway Agency Equal Employment Opportunity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... promotions, i.e., advancement of minorities and women to key jobs, new career heights, etc. d. Training. The...). part i—contractor compliance I. Organization and structure. A. Statehighway agency EEO Coordinator... highway agency EEO Coordinator. (Provided organization charts of the State highway agency and of the...

  13. Highways: Interstate, US & State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains lines for all highways in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a USGS 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  14. A Hierarchical Model and Analysis of Factors Affecting the Adoption of Timber as a Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    The Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to characterize the bridge material selection decisions of highway engineers and local highway officials across the United States. State Department of Transportation engineers, private consulting engineers, and local highway officials were personally interviewed in Mississippi, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin to identify...

  15. Reliability Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is partly based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: concrete bridges". It contains the details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability...... profiles. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for concrete bridges. This paper is to some extend based on Thoft-Christensen et. al. [1996], Thoft-Christensen [1996] et. al. and Thoft-Christensen [1996]....

  16. 77 FR 59035 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Bridge Rehabilitation and Restoration in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... of the adjacent pedestrian bridge over Storrow Drive. The project proposes to address the Longfellow... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Bridge Rehabilitation and Restoration in Massachusetts AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Limitations...

  17. 23 CFR 661.55 - How are BIA and Tribal owned IRR bridges inspected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are BIA and Tribal owned IRR bridges inspected? 661... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.55 How are BIA and Tribal owned IRR bridges inspected? BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges are inspected in accordance with 25 CFR...

  18. 23 CFR 661.57 - How is a list of deficient bridges to be generated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is a list of deficient bridges to be generated? 661... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.57 How is a list of deficient bridges to be generated? (a) In consultation with the BIA, a list of deficient BIA IRR bridges will...

  19. Highways of hope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-08-15

    It is hoped that through public-private partnerships between Alpha Natural Resources and Pioneer Group and Virginia Department of Transportation, and between one of these coal companies and Buchanan County, Virginia, Industrial Development Authority a four-lane 'highway of hope' between Lovers Gap and Poplar Gap will be paved and a ridge top connector route will eventually be completed to Bull Gap where it will intersect with the Coalfields Expressway and US 460. The town of Grundy is also looking into strip mining coal from beneath the small mountaintop airport at Lovers Gap and turning it into a regional airport. The article discusses these plans. 4 photos.

  20. Dangerous Bridges' Formation and Transformation of Rural Highway in Taihe County%太和县农村公路危桥的成因与改造的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范兆博

    2012-01-01

    Combining the management and maintenance work of Taihe county rural roads especially with the discordant situation between roads and bridges, the paper explores the methods to transform the dangerous bridges based on the analysis of the damaged causes from the following aspects, plan classification, perfect layout, capital integration, increasing input, clarifying responsibilities, strengthening management so as to promote the management and maintenance work of rural roads to be scientific, standardized and institutionalized. It completely eliminates the bottleneck of rural accessibility work, speeds up the construction of new countryside and promotes the healthy development of the rural economy.%结合太和县农村公路管养工作,尤其是道路与桥梁出现极不和谐的局面等问题,在分析太和县农村公路桥梁损坏原因的基础上,从分类规划、完善布局,整合资金、加大投入,明确责任、加强管理3方面对危桥改造进行思考和探索,以利于推动农村公路管养朝着科学化、规范化和制度化的目标迈进,从而彻底消除农村通达工程的瓶颈,加快社会主义新农村建设步伐,促进农村经济健康发展。

  1. 75 FR 18014 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...: Federal Highway Administration, Kentucky Division: Mr. Greg Rawlings, Transportation Specialist, 330...

  2. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on..., Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield, Illinois 62703, Phone: (217)...

  3. Research on Norm Values of Budgets of Highway Bridge Rehabilitation Projects%公路桥梁加固项目预算编制定额取值问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周列茅

    2012-01-01

    Existing problems of the current budget code and influencing factors of norm values are investigated, which may effectively improve the quality of the budget of bridge reinforcement projects. Meanwhile, the norm values of the pasting steel plates, bonded carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) and bonded rebar are presented. Also, standard of classification to define the technical complexity of a bridge reinforcement project and specific advices for the budget code are proposed. Several actual rehabilitated projects adopted the above methods are analyzed using a cost management system named "Tong-wang". The results show that the new norms values are proved to be a good solution for the budget estimate of rehabilitated projects. It not only provides a reference for the preparation of the budget of rehabilitation projects, also help to further improve the relevant codes.%为了有效提高桥梁加固项目预算的编制质量,针对目前公路加固预算规范的定额取值问题,分析了桥梁加固项目定额取值的影响因素,给出了粘贴钢板、粘贴碳纤维、植筋加固等相关操作工艺的定额取值范围,探讨了桥梁加固项目工程类别技术复杂性的分类及具体形式,并对加固预算规范进行了建议.借助同望造价管理系统,利用上述定额取值方法进行了多个实际加固项目的实证分析.分析结果表明:该定额取值方法解决了加固项目概预算规范部分环节无定额以及技术难度等级无分类的问题,对今后加固项目预算编制提供了参考,有助于进一步完善相关规范.

  4. Assessment of the Reliability of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middleton, C. R.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    a significant shift in emphasis for the highways authorities around the world away from the design of new structures over to maintaining the existing infrastructure. As a result, bridge owners are seeking improved ways of inspecting, assessing, maintaining and repairing their existing stock of bridges...... in the wake of ever increasing traffic loads and volumes, and an ageing population of bridges subject to various mechanisms of deterioration. The goal is to optimise the allocation of limited resources whilst maintaining their bridges in a safe and serviceable condition. Reliability analysis is one tool being...

  5. Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has the responsibility to assure that adequate highway transportation information is available to support its functions and...

  6. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dobre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH is such a software control system. It is designed to assist and automate the use of a highway lane as a reserved lane. The idea is to allow and support drivers to travel at a speed higher, if in return they are willing to pay a small fee to reserve an empty virtual slot on the reserved lane. This slot is valid for a portion and of the highway and a time window, so each driver pays the fee depending thier its travelling needs. In return, drivers are guaranteed a congestion-free travel on that portion. In this paper, we present the proposed architecture of the ILRSH and its subsystems. The system is based on several proposed algorithms designed to assist the drivers, enter or exit the reserved lane, based on real-world driving observations. We present extensive simulation results showing the feasibility of the proposed approach, that can easily be implemented with little costs on already-existing highways, and the increase in traffic efficiency.

  7. 23 CFR 661.35 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for use on BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and non-BIA owned IRR bridges? 661.35 Section 661.35 Highways... RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.35 What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for use on BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and non-BIA owned IRR bridges? (a) Up to 80 percent of the available...

  8. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  9. Scandinavian hydrogen highway partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth, M.; Hansen, J. [H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark); Wennike, F. [Hydrogen Link Denmark Association, Ringkoebing (Denmark)

    2009-07-01

    The Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership (SHHP) was launched in an effort to build hydrogen filling stations in Scandinavian countries by 2012 in order to enable hydrogen powered vehicles to operate and refuel when needed. Three hydrogen refueling stations are currently in operation in Scandinavia to fuel a fleet of 15 hydrogen-fuelled cars. It is anticipated that by the end of 2009, there will be 14 hydrogen refueling stations and more than 70 vehicles in operation. Beyond 2012, the number of filling stations and vehicles is expected to increase significantly through large scale demonstration, where SHHP aims to attract funding from the European Union. The current activities of SHHP are co-funded by national and regional authorities. The SHHP network is funded by Nordic Energy Research.

  10. CONDITION RATING SYSTEM FOR THAILAND'S CONCRETE BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventure H.W. Hadikusumo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bridge Management System is designed to maximise use of available data and determine the optimal strategy to perform necessary improvements to bridges in the most cost-effective manner. This paper provides a condition rating system to meet the requirements of Thailand’s Department of Highways (DOH. A rating system to assess the existing condition of bridges is proposed. Segmental inspection is developed to execute efficient element-level evaluations and collect data that demonstrate deterioration patterns in bridge elements. The paper also describes inspection procedures for field survey execution, which enables observed distresses at the level of sub-elements or members to be allocated. Recommendations from bridge experts reveal that the proposed rating system is robust, implementable in actual practice, and suitable for efficient application in evaluating the nation’s concrete highway bridges. Although the bridge condition rating was developed in response to the specific characteristics of Thailand’s bridges, the proposed methodology can easily be extended to other bridge agencies.

  11. Fragility curves for bridges under differential support motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This paper employs the notion of fragility to investigate the seismic vulnerability of bridges subjected to spatially varying support motions. Fragility curves are developed for four highway bridges in California with vastly different structural characteristics. The input in this analysis consists...

  12. Assessment of the Reliability of Concrete Slab Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges". It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....

  13. National Highway Planning Network (NHPN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NHPN (NTAD 2015) is a Geographical Information System (GIS) database that contains line features representing over 450,000 miles of current and planned highways...

  14. Highway Leasing and Club Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Huneke, William

    2009-01-01

    In recent years financially stressed jurisdictions have attempted to solve their fiscal shortfalls by leasing highways to private companies. The private company pays an upfront fee or promises a regular stream of cash payments in return for operating and collecting tolls from highway users during a fixed term. In a front page article on August 26, The Wall Street Journal described the efforts Pennsylvania was going through to lease the United States’ oldest, major toll road, the Pennsylvania ...

  15. 23 CFR 661.21 - When is a bridge eligible for rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is a bridge eligible for rehabilitation? 661.21... rehabilitation? To be eligible for rehabilitation, the bridge must be considered structurally deficient or functionally obsolete and must be in accordance with 23 CFR part 650.409(a) for bridge rehabilitation. A...

  16. 77 FR 54652 - Draft Program Comment for Common Post-1945 Concrete and Steel Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Bridges AGENCIES: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to issue Program Comment for Common Post-1945 Concrete and Steel Bridges; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Advisory... and steel bridges. The FHWA is requesting comments on the proposed Program Comment. DATES:...

  17. 75 FR 12686 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bullards Ferry Bridge, Coquille River, Bandon, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bullards Ferry Bridge... temporarily changing the drawbridge operation regulation for the U.S. Highway 101 Bullards Ferry Bridge that... Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bullards Ferry Bridge, Bandon, OR, in the Federal Register (74 ] FR 65497...

  18. Study on the technology for highway construction and engineering practices in permafrost regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In order to systemically summarize and integrate technology of highway construction in permafrost regions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,we studied disciplines and mechanisms of formation and development of problems and challenges in highway engineer-ing in high-altitude permafrost regions based on construction experiences for 50 years and on 30 years of research regarding the Qinghai-Tibet and Xikang highways.Embankments,pavements,bridges,and countermeasures for ecosystem protection in per-mafrost regions were the main study objects.We combined extensive analysis of key problems of engineering stability with inter-action between permafrost and highways,theoretical models,indoor tests,and field tests to reveal the interaction between em-bankments,pavements,bridge piles,and permafrost.In this paper,we propose a series of engineering measures for highway sta-bility,design parameters,key indexes for pavement durability in low temperature,relationships between re-freezing time of bridge-pile foundation and strength development as well as ecosystem recovery in high-latitude cold regions;these eventually form a construction technology package for permafrost regions.

  19. Study on the technology for highway construction and engineering practices in permafrost regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShuangJie Wang; JianBing Chen; JiLin Qi

    2009-01-01

    In order to systemically summarize and integrate technology of highway construction in permafrost regions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we studied disciplines and mechanisms of formation and development of problems and challenges in highway engineering in high-altitude permafrost regions based on construction experiences for 50 years and on 30 years of research regarding the Qinghai-Tibet and Xikang highways. Embankments, pavements, bridges, and countermeasures for ecosystem protection in permafrost regions were the main study objects. We combined extensive analysis of key problems of engineering stability with interaction between permafrost and highways, theoretical models, indoor tests, and field tests to reveal the interaction between embankments, pavements, bridge piles, and permafrost. In this paper, we propose a series of engineering measures for highway stability, design parameters, key indexes for pavement durability in low temperature, relationships between re-freezing time of bridge-pile foundation and strength development as well as ecosystem recovery in high-latitude cold regions; these eventually form a construction technology package for permafrost regions.

  20. Evaluation method research on prestressed concrete bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qiao; LIN Yang-zi; REN Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Considering the construction features of prestressed concrete bridge, the comprehensive evaluation method about the bridge damage conditions are studied. Particular attentions are paid on establishing a multi-level evaluation model for damaged prestressed concrete bridge, and the evaluation indices of the model as well as the rating standards are defined in the model. A normal relative function about the evaluation indices of each element is developed to calculate the relative degree, and for each element which is no sub-level elements. When evaluating the elements in sub-item level or index level of the model, the weights of elements that are pertained to one element are adopted, taking account of their deterioration degree. At the same time, the dam-age conditions of bridge are characterized by relative degree, element evaluation scale and structural technology mark of bridge ,so it agrees with Code for Maintenance of Highway Bridges and Culvers.

  1. Seismic response of skewed RC box-girder bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Abdel-Mohti; Gokhan Pekcan

    2008-01-01

    It is critical to ensure the functionality of highway bridges after earthquakes to provide access to important facilities.Since the 1971 San Fernando earthquake,there has been a better understanding of the seismic performance of bridges.Nonetheless,there are no detailed guidelines addressing the performance of skewed highway bridges.Several parameters affect the response of skewed highway bridges under both service and seismic loads which makes their behavior complex.Therefore,there is a need for more research to study the effect of skew angle and other related factors on the performance of highway bridges.This paper examines the seismic performance of a three-span continuous concrete box girder bridge with skew angles from 0 to 60 degrees,analytically.Finite element (FE) and simplified beam-stick (BS) models of the bridge were developed using SAP2000.Different types of analysis were considered on both models such as:nonlinear static pushover,and linear and nonlinear time history analyses.A comparison was conducted between FE and BS,different skew angles,abutment support conditions,and time history and pushover analysis.It is shown that the BS model has the capability to capture the coupling due to skew and the significant modes for moderate skew angles.Boundary conditions and pushover load profile are determined to have a major effect on pushover analysis.Pushover analysis may be used to predict the maximum deformation and hinge formation adequately.

  2. Vibration analysis of the Second Saikai Bridge—a concrete filled tubular (CFT) arch bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mistuhiro; Wu, Qingxiong; Takahashi, Kazuo; Nakamura, Shozo; Furukawa, Kazuyoshi

    2006-02-01

    Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFT) arch bridges have been rapidly developing in China since 1990. Research has focused on the static behavior, thermal stress and erection technique, however, and there has been very little research of natural vibrations and dynamic responses of these bridges. Japan's first CFT arch bridge in highway bridges, the Second Saikai Bridge, is now under construction in Nagasaki Prefecture. Furthermore, this bridge has a pedestrian bridge that is suspended under the girder, which is rare. Therefore, the natural vibration properties are examined, and the influence of pedestrian bridge structure on the natural vibration of main bridge is discussed first. Response analysis under a moving vehicle and pedestrian is carried out, and the response characteristics and response level are clarified. The natural vibrations and responses are compared to those of CFT arch bridges that have been constructed in China. Results show the fine performance of both main bridge and pedestrian bridge of the Second Saikai Bridge.

  3. Untapped Resources, Untapped Labor Pool: Using Federal Highway Funds to Prepare Women for Careers in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegewisch, Ariane; Henrici, Jane; Shaw, Elyse; Hooper, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in highway, street, and bridge construction where employment is projected to grow by more than 20 percent until 2022. Creating sustainable pathways into construction careers fills critical hiring needs for industry while improving economic security for women, as these jobs typically provide family-supporting wages with…

  4. Grady Highway Extension (Ship Creek Crossing) Elmendorf Air Force Base and Fort Richardson, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    DPW Directorate of Public Works DRMO Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office E.O. Executive Order Acronyms and Abbreviations vi...recreation management designation of the proposed road and bridge site is Limited Recreation (open to hiking, skiing, berry picking, birdwatching , and...Environmental Assessment Grady Highway Extension (Ship Creek Crossing) by the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) located on the Base

  5. 78 FR 44137 - Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of a Highway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of..., ``Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of a Highway Bridge Across...; correction. SUMMARY: The comment period end date listed for the Manatee River Draft Environmental...

  6. Synthesis of 2',4'-propylene-bridged (carba-ENA) thymidine and its analogues: the engineering of electrostatic and steric effects at the bottom of the minor groove for nuclease and thermodynamic stabilities and elicitation of RNase H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Xu, Jianfeng; Karimiahmadabadi, Mansoureh; Zhou, Chuanzheng; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti

    2010-11-01

    2',4'-Propylene-bridged thymidine (carba-ENA-T) and five 8'-Me/NH(2)/OH modified carba-ENA-T analogues have been prepared through intramolecular radical addition to C═N of the tethered oxime-ether. These carba-ENA nucleosides have been subsequently incorporated into 15mer oligodeoxynucleotides (AON), and their affinity toward cDNA and RNA, nuclease resistance, and RNase H recruitment capability have been investigated in comparison with those of the native and ENA counterparts. These carba-ENAs modified AONs are highly RNA-selective since all of them led to slight thermal stabilization effect for the AON:RNA duplex, but quite large destabilization effect for the AON:DNA duplex. It was found that different C8' substituents (at the bottom of the minor groove) on carba-ENA-T only led to rather small variation of thermal stability of the AON:RNA duplexes. We, however, observed that the parent carba-ENA-T modified AONs exhibited higher nucleolytic stability than those of the ENA-T modified counterparts. The nucleolytic stability of carba-ENA-T modified AONs can be further modulated by C8' substituent to variable extents depending on not only the chemical nature but also the stereochemical orientation of the C8' substituents: Thus, (1) 8'S-Me on carba-ENA increases the nucleolytic stability but 8'R-Me leads to a decreased effect; (2) 8'R-OH on carba-ENA had little, if any, effect on nuclease resistance but 8'S-OH resulted in significantly decreased nucleolytic stability; and (3) 8'-NH(2) substituted carba-ENA leads to obvious loss in the nuclease resistance. The RNA strand in all of the carba-ENA derivatives modified AON:RNA hybrid duplexes can be digested by RNase H1 with high efficiency, even at twice the rate of those of the native and ENA modified counterpart.

  7. Safety assessment of existing highway bridges and viaducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Steenbergen, R.; Abspoel, L.; Kolstein, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the structural safety of existing br idges and viaducts becomes increasingly important in many countries owing to an increase in traffic loads. Most existing standards, however, are developed for the design of new structures. For this reason, an assessment method for determining th

  8. Emergency Highway Landings in General Aviation and the Possible Role of Media Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Emily; de Voogt, Alex

    2017-05-01

    To examine the causes and factors of airplane landings on highways and the dangers to occupants of vehicles on the ground. The U.S. National Transportation Safety Board online database provided 133 accidents involving a highway landing dating from 2000 to 2013. Supplemental information was sought in online media archives, which reported on 53 of these accidents. Collisions with highway-related objects, other options for landing, and witness accounts were added categories extracted from the narrative statements and media reports. Highway landings occur mostly due to mechanical failures, ineffective preflight or in-flight planning, and fuel exhaustion, in addition to a lack of alternate landing options for a pilot of a fixed-wing aircraft. Most of the landings (N = 108) lead to minor or no injuries at all. A significant proportion of 7 out of 19 collisions with powerlines resulted in a fatality, as opposed to other types of accidents. Collisions with motor vehicles (N = 29) caused minor (N = 23) and serious (N = 2) injuries to people on the ground. Main online media archives covered less than half of all accidents (39.8%). While highway landings are not a recommended landing alternative, mitigation strategies should include a focus on avoiding powerlines and vehicles on the ground. Unfortunately, online media archives are not yet a consistent source of information for general aviation accidents.Holzman E, de Voogt A. Emergency highway landings in general aviation and the possible role of media reports. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):497-499.

  9. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 12: Highway Design, Construction and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 12 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on highway design, construction and maintenance. The purpose and specific objectives of such a program are described. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding…

  10. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  11. The I-35W bridge Project Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    How can websites be used to rebuild trust?  In August 2007, the Interstate Highway 35-W bridge in Minneapolis, MN collapsed during rush hour.  Although many people were rescued and casualties were as limited as could be expected due to quick and effective intervention, the image of a major bridge...... collapsing during rush hour damaged the Minnesota Department of Transportation's reputation and resulted in the loss of public trust for the organization.  The ensuing bridge reconstruction project included a project website intended to rebuild this trust through transparency, community involvement......, and the use of multimodal features.  This paper looks at the I35-W bridge reconstruction project in Minneapolis through web-based communication by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) about the project. The MnDOT bridge reconstruction website will be examined using a combination of 1). Weick...

  12. Highway Reaches Out to Chengtang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAIXIANGDONG

    2003-01-01

    Chengtang Town,tucked away on the Chinese border between the Xigaze area and Nepal,is known for high mountains and deep ravines,People there still live on slash and burn farming.Latest news is that a highway is being built to that part of the world.

  13. Highway Companies Deny Windfall Profits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Securities Daily

    2011-01-01

    @@ There is no denying that the real estate industry sees huge profits, but it is hard to imag-ine that the gross profits of highway companies have reached a very high level, becoming another typical industry of huge profits.The sky-high road toll is attracting more and more public concerns about the seemingly low-profile and stable industry.

  14. Lessons in bridge damage learned from the Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. Phillip Yen; Genda Chen; Mark Yashinski; Youssef Hashash; Curtis Holub; Wang Kehai; GuoXiaodong

    2009-01-01

    A strong earthquake occurred in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China, on May 12, 2008. Shortly after the earthquake, the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center of the Federal Highway Administration, in partnership with the Research Institute of Highways, the Ministry of Communication of China, led a reconnaissance team to conduct a post-earthquake bridge performance investigation of the transportation system in the earthquake affected areas. The U.S.transportation system reconnaissance team visited the area during July 20-24, 2008. This paper presents the findings and lessons learned by the team.

  15. Highway runoff quality in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu Desta, Mesfin; Bruen, Michael; Higgins, Neil; Johnston, Paul

    2007-04-01

    Highway runoff has been identified as a significant source of contaminants that impact on the receiving aquatic environment. Several studies have been completed documenting the characteristics of highway runoff and its implication to the receiving water in the UK and elsewhere. However, very little information is available for Ireland. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of highway runoff from major Irish roads under the current road drainage design and maintenance practice. Four sites were selected from the M4 and the M7 motorways outside Dublin. Automatic samplers and continuous monitoring devices were deployed to sample and monitor the runoff quality and quantity. More than 42 storm events were sampled and analysed for the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, 16 US EPA specified PAHs, volatile organic compounds including MTBE, and a number of conventional pollutants. All samples were analysed based on the Standard Methods. Significant quantities of solids and heavy metals were detected at all sites. PAHs were not detected very often, but when detected the values were different from quantities observed in UK highways. The heavy metal concentrations were strongly related to the total suspended solids concentrations, which has a useful implication for runoff management strategies. No strong relationship was discovered between pollutant concentrations and event characteristics such as rainfall intensity, antecedent dry days (ADD), or rainfall depth (volume). This study has demonstrated that runoff from Irish motorways was not any cleaner than in the UK although the traffic volume at the monitored sites was relatively smaller. This calls for a site specific investigation of highway runoff quality before adopting a given management strategy.

  16. Pervious concrete fill in Pearl-Chain Bridges: Using small-scale results in full-scale implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Truelsen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pearl-Chain Bridge technology is a new prefabricated arch solution for highway bridges. This study investigates the feasibility of pervious concrete as a filling material in Pearl-Chain Bridges. The study is divided into two steps: (1) small-scale tests where the variation in vertical void distri...

  17. Bridge scour countermeasure assessments at select bridges in the United States, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudunake, Taylor J.; Huizinga, Richard J.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2017-05-23

    In 2009, the Federal Highway Administration published Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 23 (HEC-23) to provide specific design and implementation guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures. However, the effectiveness of countermeasures implemented over the past decade following those guidelines has not been evaluated. Therefore, in 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, began a study to assess the current condition of bridge-scour countermeasures at selected sites to evaluate their effectiveness. Bridge-scour countermeasures were assessed during 2014-2016. Site assessments included reviewing countermeasure design plans, summarizing the peak and daily streamflow history, and assessments at each site. Each site survey included a photo log summary, field form, and topographic and bathymetric geospatial data and metadata. This report documents the study area and site-selection criteria, explains the survey methods used to evaluate the condition of countermeasures, and presents the complete documentation for each countermeasure assessment.

  18. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Peeters, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method...

  19. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Peeters, B.; Hermans, L.

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method...

  20. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  1. A Generalized Mathematical Model for the Fracture Problem of the Suspended Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to answer dangling fracture problems of highway, the suspended pavement equivalent for non - suspended pavement, through the special boundary conditions has been suspended highway stress field of expression, in accordance with the 3D fracture model of crack formation, and establish a vacant, a general mathematics model for fracture problems of highway and analysis in highway suspended segment weight and vehicle load limit of highway capacity of Pu For overturning road inPu is less than the force of carrying more than compared to the work and fruit Bridge Hydropower Station Road engineering examples to verify suspended highway should force field expressions for the correctness and applicability. The results show that: when the hanging ratio R 0. 243177 limits of Pu design axle load 100kN. When the vertical crack in the vacant in the direction of length greater than 0. 1, the ultimate bearing capacity is less than the design axle load 100kN; when the hanging ratio R is less than 0. 5, the road to local fracture, the ultimate bearing capacity of suspended stress field expressions in solution; when the hanging ratio is greater than or equal to 0. 5, the road does not reach the limit bearing capacity of the whole body; torque shear surface of the effect is far less than the bending moments on shear planes.

  2. 75 FR 59787 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Agency Actions on the Proposed Highway in New Hampshire'' in the Federal Register at 72 FR 30047-01 for... Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) . 6. Social and Economic: Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000(d..., Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low Income Populations;...

  3. State-of-the-art of long-span bridge engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Haifan; GE Yaojun

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the state-of-the-art of long-span bridge engineering in China with emphases on recent long-span bridge projects,bridge deck configuration and material,design codes of long-span bridges and improvement of aerodynamic performance.The recent long-span bridge projects include thirty-eight completed suspension bridges,cable-stayed and arch bridges with a main span over 400 m,and eighteen major bridges are under construction.The bridge deck configuration and material,with prestressed concrete decks,steel-concrete composite decks and steel box decks together with several popular cross-sections,are presented.The third part briefly outlines four design codes,including static and dynamic design for highway long-span bridges,and the recent engineering experiences gained from several aerodynamic vibration control projects of long-span bridges are shared in the last part.

  4. Wireless Smart Sensor Network System Using SmartBridge Sensor Nodes for Structural Health Monitoring of Existing Concrete Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviña, J. R.; Uy, F. A.; Carreon, J. D.

    2017-06-01

    There are over 8000 bridges in the Philippines today according to the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH). Currently, visual inspection is the most common practice in monitoring the structural integrity of bridges. However, visual inspections have proven to be insufficient in determining the actual health or condition of a bridge. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) aims to give, in real-time, a diagnosis of the actual condition of the bridge. In this study, SmartBridge Sensor Nodes were installed on an existing concrete bridge with American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Type IV Girders to gather vibration of the elements of the bridge. Also, standards on the effective installation of SmartBridge Sensor Nodes, such as location and orientation was determined. Acceleration readings from the sensor were then uploaded to a server, wherein they are monitored against certain thresholds, from which, the health of the bridge will be derived. Final output will be a portal or webpage wherein the information, health, and acceleration readings of the bridge will be available for viewing. With levels of access set for different types of users, the main users will have access to download data and reports. Data transmission and webpage access are available online, making the SHM system wireless.

  5. A network of field test sites as a platform for research on engineering and management of the highway transportation infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, A. Emin; Frangopol, Dan M.; Ghasemi, Hamid; Shenton, Harry W.; Shinozuka, Masanobu; Madanat, Samar

    2004-07-01

    An effort is currently underway to create an Engineering Research Consortium Initiative (ERCI) focused on engineering and management of the highway transportation infrastructure. The goal of the ERCI will be to provide administrative and logistical support for a coordinated, problem-focused research program on the highway transportation infrastructure system. The cornerstone of the initiative will be field test-sites. Example sites might include major long span bridges, sample populations of operating bridges, decommissioned bridges, a regional network of highways and bridges, various types of pavement and geotechnical structures, or a major transportation hub serving a metropolitan area. Sites would be instrumented to collect a broad range of engineering (structural, geotechnical, hydraulic), human (traffic) and natural (climatological, seismological) response data. The field sites would be networked to provide real-time access to test facilities across the country; a secure central repository would be established for collecting data from the sites. The data and information gathered from these sites would be used by engineers and scientists to study the complex interactions and cause-and-effect relations of the various engineered, human and natural components of the highway hyper-system. A major research thrust of the ERCI will be security of the highway infrastructure system, with particular emphasis on bridges. The National Science Foundation and the Federal Highway Administration are expected to provide funding for the program through a joint agency initiative. Two workshops were recently held with experts from around the world to discuss the plans for the ERCI. The paper provides more details on the ERCI and the status of the effort to date.

  6. Lead Isotopes in Highway Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M.; Lau, S.; Green, P. G.; Stenstrom, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopes have been used extensively to study the provenance of lead pollution on air, water, and sediments. In this study, we measured Pb isotopes and Pb aqueous concentration in highway runoff in three west Los Angeles sites. Those three sites, part of a long-term study sponsored by the California Department of Transportation, represent small catchment areas, and host heavy traffic. In addition, there were no inputs of sand or salt to the highway because the sites are almost completely impervious and also due to the lack of snow to be controlled. Highway runoff from the three sites was collected for 7 storms during the 2004-2005 Winter. Grab samples were collected every 15 minutes during the first hour, and hourly afterwards. A total of 202 samples were collected and filtered into five size fractions (100μm). Aqueous concentration of Pb range from 0.08μg/L to 46.95μg/L (7.98±10.89μg/L) and it is not correlated with any of the lead isotope ratios. The 208Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 1.983 to 2.075 (2.024±0.026) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 208Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). However, the 208Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils yield 2.060±0.021 and it is statistically different from the ratios obtained for the highway runoff. This hints that the lead present in highway runoff does not come from local soils. The 207Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 0.804 to 0.847 (0.827±0.011) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 207Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). Surprisingly, there is also no statistical difference with the 207Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils (0.833±0.009).

  7. US Highway 395 Widen Median and Shoulder and Install Rumble Strips Project Environmental Assessment, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-16

    steel highway structures, moving engine parts Copper Metal plating, bearing and bushing wear, moving engine parts, brake lining wear, fungicide and...entire bridge structure and its pillars and guardrails with a new bridge; pillar removal requires excavation. Temporary access roads may be needed to...Mojave Chevron Lucerne Valley 516 10 Western Mojave Nevada Solar One - NV 400 ** Northeastern Mojave Copper Mountain North - NV 1,400 30

  8. Permanent Deformation of Highway Subgrade Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and preliminary testing performed on a subgrade soil, a testing methodology for repeated load testing was established. This testing protocol was verified using data from subgrade soil. The successful application of this testing protocol on the two subgrade soils proves that it can provide consistent, reliable results. A power model was used to fit the accumulated axial strain over load repetitions with the first hundred cycles excluded from the data set. A number of factors influencing the accumulation of permanent deformation were investigated. The results indicate that confining pressure, load frequency and density are relatively minor contributors to deformation accumulation. Moisture content, deviator stress and first cycle freeze-thaw are major factors governing permanent deformation. The effects of stress history resulting from staged loading are dependent upon the level of applied deviator stress. The interpretation of the rich and consistent deformation data derived from this testing protocol provide valuable insights for transportation engineers relative to the design, construction, operation and maintenance strategy of highway subgrades as well as railway roadbeds.

  9. Design of Earthquake Resistant Bridges Using Rocking Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Barthes, Clement Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Transportation (CalTrans) is urging researchers and contractors to develop the next generation highway bridge design. New design solutions should favor the use of modular construction techniques over conventional cast-in-place reinforced concrete in order to reduce the cost of the projects and the amount of constructions on site. Earthquake resistant bridges are designed such that the columns are monolithically connected to the girder and the foundations. Hence, d...

  10. 23 CFR 650.411 - Procedures for bridge replacement and rehabilitation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Rehabilitation Program § 650.411 Procedures for bridge replacement and rehabilitation projects. (a) Consideration... the State to the Secretary in accordance with 23 CFR part 630, subpart A Federal-Aid Programs... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for bridge replacement and...

  11. 75 FR 73962 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition; Illinois River, Seneca, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition; Illinois River, Seneca... temporary safety zone on the Illinois River near Seneca, Illinois. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Illinois River due to the demolition of the Seneca Highway Bridge. This...

  12. Impact of Plastic Hinge Properties on Capacity Curve of Reinforced Concrete Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Shatarat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pushover analysis is becoming recently the most practical tool for nonlinear analysis of regular and irregular highway bridges. The nonlinear behaviour of structural elements in this type of analysis can be modeled through automated-hinge or user-defined hinge models. The nonlinear properties of the user-defined hinge model for existing highway bridges can be determined in accordance with the recommendations of the Seismic Retrofit Manual by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-SRM. Finite element software such as the software SAP2000 offers a simpler and easier approach to determine the nonlinear hinge properties through the automated-hinge model which are determined automatically from the member material and cross section properties. However, the uncertainties in using the automated-hinge model in place of user-defined hinge model have never been addressed, especially for existing and widened bridges. In response to this need, pushover analysis was carried out for four old highway bridges, of which two were widened using the same superstructure but with more attention to seismic detailing requirements. The results of the analyses showed noticeable differences in the capacity curves obtained utilizing the user-defined and automated-hinge models. The study recommends that bridge design manuals clearly ask bridge designers to evaluate the deformation capacities of existing bridges and widened bridges using user-defined hinge model that is determined in accordance with the provisions of the FHWA-SRM.

  13. PROBLEMS ARE CAUSED TO CHANGE TYPICAL TEMPORARY LOADS AC FOR BRIDGES CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Salamakhin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of new temporal normative loads of high-way bridges, the determination of dynamic coefficient and the problems of the using these loads in calculation of endurance and determination of remaining resource of elements of bridge structures.

  14. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  15. Mineral bridges in nacre revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Checa, Antonio G; Willinger, Marc-Georg

    2012-01-01

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200 nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (> 100 nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (< 60 nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such.

  16. Residential satisfaction close to highways : The impact of accessibility, nuisances and highway adjustment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Tillema, Taede; Sussman, Joseph; Arts, Jos

    In this paper we focus on gaining insight into the residential satisfaction of households near highways, based on survey data collected among 1225 respondents in the Netherlands living within 1000 m from a highway. Ordinal regression was used to study the impact of highway externalities on

  17. Residential satisfaction close to highways : The impact of accessibility, nuisances and highway adjustment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Tillema, Taede; Sussman, Joseph; Arts, Jos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we focus on gaining insight into the residential satisfaction of households near highways, based on survey data collected among 1225 respondents in the Netherlands living within 1000 m from a highway. Ordinal regression was used to study the impact of highway externalities on residenti

  18. Study on energy consumption evaluation of mountainous highway based on LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Lunlin; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Yongqing

    2017-06-01

    For the system to understand the road construction energy consumption process, this paper selects a typical mountainous highway in the south, using the theory and method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantitatively study the energy consumption of the whole process of highway raw materials production, construction and operation. The results show that the energy consumption in the raw material production stage is the highest, followed by the highway operation and construction stage. The energy consumption per unit of tunnel engineering, bridge engineering, roadbed engineering and pavement engineering in the construction phase are 2279.00 tce, 1718.07 tce, 542.19 tce and 34.02 tce, and in operational phase, 85.44% of electricity consumption comes from tunnel ventilation and lighting. Therefore, in the bridge and tunnel construction process, we should promote energy-saving innovation of the construction technology and mechanical equipment, and further strengthen the research and development of tunnel ventilation, lighting energy-saving equipment and intelligent control technology, which will help significantly reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of the life cycle of highway.

  19. Determination of design axle loads for bridges from measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Morales Napoles, O.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the new Eurocode 1 was introduced dealing with traffic load on bridges. In order to establish the National Annex for the design traffic load, measurements of the traffic load were carried out in several highways in The Netherlands using the Weigh In Motion system. The goal was to assure

  20. Determination of design axle loads for bridges from measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Morales Napoles, O.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the new Eurocode 1 was introduced dealing with traffic load on bridges. In order to establish the National Annex for the design traffic load, measurements of the traffic load were carried out in several highways in The Netherlands using the Weigh In Motion system. The goal was to assure th

  1. Pollution transport from a highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lygren, E.; Gjessing, E.; Berglind, L.

    1984-02-15

    In Norway a considerable amount of pavement dust is produced during a year, particularly during the winter season when studded tires are used on vehicles. The asphalt wear when using tires is estimated to be 20-50 g/km/vehicle. This matter will partly be deposited on the road surface and partly be transported through the atmosphere to the surrounding area together with other motor traffic pollutants. A 3 year programme, sponsored by the Norwegian Road Directorate, was aimed also at characterizing the nature and the fate of the particulate matter from a highway. The characterization included studies on particle-size distribution, heavy metal concentration and contents of organic micropollutants, such as PAH. It was found that a major part of the pollutants from a highway was deposited 5-25 m from the road. Further it was observed that an essential part of the pollutants were 'produced' through the snow accumulation period and released during the spring period. The period of snowmelt thus gave the most important effects on the surface water. (A.V.)

  2. Detection of Subsurface Defects in Concrete Bridge Deck Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonchang Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The integrity of deck joints in highway bridges plays a major role to determine overall performance of bridge system. As the bridge maintenance program, the defects in deck joints have historically been detected by conventional non-destructive testing and evaluation methods such as visual inspection, chain-dragging and by the detecting sounds under the traffic. Future bridge maintenance challenges will demand the development of techniques and procedures to detect and monitor such defects before they become apparent. Approach: Two non-destructive methods; namely Ground Penetration Radar (GPR and Seismic Properties Analyzer (SPA were employed to assess the integrity of deck joins installed in North Carolina bridges. Results: The results obtained with the GPR and SPA allows to quantify the subsurface defects in bridge deck joints. Conclusion: The practical application and limitations of each method are discussed in this study.

  3. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars

    During the years 1996-2006, the Division of Highways and Transportation in the former county of Funen gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine as de-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor...

  4. Engineering geology as applied to highway construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Leonard M.

    1955-01-01

    A geologic study of the site for a relocated segment of State Highway 93 northwest of Denver Colo., was made by by the Engineering Geology Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey as a demonstration of the applicability of geologic mapping to problems of highway construction. The relocated segment provides access to the Rocky Flats plant of the Atomic Energy Commission.  

  5. A Study on Supply Model of Rural Highways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dexiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural highway has a significant impact to build a moderately prosperous society in all aspects, and it is an important critical infrastructure to build harmonious society. Highway has its own economics attributes, and rural highway also has its own characteristics. This paper combines with rural highway characteristics to analyze the supply model and problems of rural highway. It summarizes several mixed supply models of rural highways.

  6. Alaska Highway bibliography, 3rd edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    . The military need for the Alaska Highway and Canol pipeline declined at the end of World War II. In 1946, Canada officially accepted responsibility for maintaining and developing the Yukon portion of the Alaska Highway. The Alaska Highway affected both First Nations and non-First Nations peoples immediately...... the 1920s and 1930s a small but vocal group of “builders” began to campaign for a highway, either a coastal or inland route, to improve the northwest’s economic base. With the impending threat of war in the late 1930s, there was an increasing awareness by the American and Canadian governments....... The impacts included an increased awareness of the world outside of the Yukon, imported ideas and technology, improved health care, highway transportation, telecommunications, and the development of more mining and tourist-related industries....

  7. Computational Intelligence in Highway Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Pribyl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Highway management systems are used to improve safety and driving comfort on highways by using control strategies and providing information and warnings to drivers. They use several strategies starting from speed and lane management, through incident detection and warning systems, ramp metering, weather information up to, for example, informing drivers about alternative roads. This paper provides a review of the existing approaches to highway management systems, particularly speed harmonization and ramp metering. It is focused only on modern and advanced approaches, such as soft computing, multi-agent methods and their interconnection. Its objective is to provide guidance in the wide field of highway management and to point out the most relevant recent activities which demonstrate that development in the field of highway management is still important and that the existing research exhibits potential for further enhancement.

  8. Comparison of Two Independently Developed Bridge Weigh-In-Motion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Eugene J.; Znidaric, Ales; Dempsey, Anthony T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment in which 2 independently developed bridge weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems are tested and compared, both for accuracy and durability. The systems, an Irish prototype still under development and a commercially available American system, were tested on a bridge in Slovenia. 11 statically pre-weighted trucks were each driven over the bridge several times at a range of typical highway speeds. Accuracies for axle and gross vehicle weights are presented within the fr...

  9. HOV on the information highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Sick of rush-hour traffic jams? Tired of bottlenecks that keep you from getting where you want to go? Frustrated by sluggish drivers who tie you up on your way to work? The National Science Foundation (NSF) is hoping to put scientists back in the fast lane—of the Internet, that is.The recent boom in the popularity of the Internet has brought traffic on some parts of the information highway to a crawl. Since all packets of information sent across the Internet are treated equally, e-mail love letters and playful web browsing can interfere with scientific data transfers and high-performance on-line experiments and conferences.

  10. State Maintained Highways in Louisiana, UTM Zone 15 NAD83, LDOTD (2007) [state_highways_ldotd_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset represents the state maintained road network of Louisiana. The dataset includes Interstates, US highways, and Louisiana State Highways. This dataset was...

  11. Experimental evaluation and field implementation of FRP bridge deck modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woraphot Prachasaree

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Construction of highway bridge decks using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composite deck and superstructuremodules in lieu of concrete decks has proven to be feasible. However, FRP’s are not widely accepted yet despite theirbenefits such as non-corrosiveness, higher strength to weight ratio, and better fatigue resistance than conventional materials.Lack of wider usage of FRP material is mainly attributed to the absence of: 1 standardized test procedures, 2 designspecifications, and 3 construction procedures. The higher initial cost is also inhibiting bridge engineers in selecting FRPmodules as highway bridge super structural systems.Implementation of FRP composites technology for highway bridge decks leads to higher safety and lower life cyclecosts. Significant ongoing research and development of FRP deck modules as illustrated herein, has proven to enhancedeck module properties in developing FRP modules with enhanced structural performance.Prodeck 4 is one such multicellular deck that was recently developed, and extensively evaluated for static and fatigueloads, and its response results are presented herein. From rigorous testing, it was concluded that Prodeck 4 could resistAASHTO HS 25 loading with maximum stringer spacing of 48 inches. This led to construction of two bridges (one in Ohioand other in West Virginia using Prodeck 4 as decking.

  12. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  13. 公轨两用部分斜拉桥耦合振动分析与行车舒适度评价%Analysis for Coupling Vibration and Evaluation for Comfort Degree of Driving on Part of Stayed-cable Bridges for both Highway Traffic and Light-rail Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿波; 袁佩; 尚军年

    2014-01-01

    以重庆东水门长江大桥为研究对象,建立车桥耦合动力系统,对其振动响应及行车舒适度进行研究。采用多刚体结构模拟车辆,空间杆系单元模拟桥梁,分别计算桥梁耦合轻轨车、桥梁耦合汽车、桥梁耦合轻轨车及汽车的动力响应,并对桥上轻轨车及汽车的行车舒适度作出评价。结果表明,轻轨车和汽车的行车舒适度均满足要求。%With Chongqing Dongshuimen Yangtze River Bridge as the object of research, this paper establishes a vehicle-bridge coupling dynamic system and studies its response to vibration and comfort degree of driving. The paper adopts multi-rigid-body structures to simulate vehicles and spatial link elements to simulate bridges, calculates dynamic responses of bridge coupling light-rail vehicles and automotives, respectively, and evaluates the comfort degree of driving of light -rail vehicles and automotives on bridges. The results show that the comfort degree of driving of both light-rail vehicles and automotives satisfies the requirements.

  14. Hazardous Material / Waste Site Assessment: US 701 Bridge Replacement Project Over the Great Pee Dee River, Pee Dee River Overflow, and Lake Yauhannah Horry & Georgetown Counties, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record is an unpublished report evaluating the hazardous material / waste management impacts of a future bridge replacement project on highway 701 at Yauhannah...

  15. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 13: Traffic Engineering Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 13 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic engineering services. The introduction outlines the purposes and objectives of Highway Safety Program Standard 13 and the Highway Safety Program Manual. Program development and…

  16. Dynamic test and finite element model updating of bridge structures based on ambient vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of bridge structures are the basis of structural dynamic response and seismic analysis,and are also an important target of health condition monitoring.In this paper,a three-dimensional finite-element model is first established for a highway bridge over a railroad on No.312 National Highway.Based on design drawings,the dynamic characteristics of the bridge are studied using finite element analysis and ambient vibration measurements.Thus,a set of data is selected based on sensitivity analysis and optimization theory;the finite element model of the bridge is updated.The numerical and experimental results show that the updated method is more simple and effective,the updated finite element model can reflect the dynamic characteristics of the bridge better,and it can be used to predict the dynamic response under complex external forces.It is also helpful for further damage identification and health condition monitoring.

  17. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Department of Transportation receive funding to execute the research component of the program in order to... Marine Highway under this program. In crafting this definition, the Department of Transportation was...

  18. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  19. Highway travel time estimation with data fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Soriguera Martí, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a simple, innovative approach for the measurement and short-term prediction of highway travel times based on the fusion of inductive loop detector and toll ticket data. The methodology is generic and not technologically captive, allowing it to be easily generalized for other equivalent types of data. The book shows how Bayesian analysis can be used to obtain fused estimates that are more reliable than the original inputs, overcoming some of the drawbacks of travel-time estimations based on unique data sources. The developed methodology adds value and obtains the maximum (in terms of travel time estimation) from the available data, without recurrent and costly requirements for additional data. The application of the algorithms to empirical testing in the AP-7 toll highway in Barcelona proves that it is possible to develop an accurate real-time, travel-time information system on closed-toll highways with the existing surveillance equipment, suggesting that highway operators might provide...

  20. Geometric Design of Highways in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Baričević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the criteria, standards, and engineeringprocedures used to design principal elements of the highwayalignment, highway cross sections, and adjacent roadside environment.Development of a comprehensive highway design focuseson the establishment of travel lane configuration, alignmentlocation, and all dimensions related to the highway crosssection. A three-dimensional physical location is determinedthrough calculation of a horizontal and vertical alignment ofthe highway centerline, based on a variety of operational considerations.The results of these activities are refe"ed to as thegeometric design and represent all the visible features of a highwayor street. The first and major portion of the paper deals withthe design of motor-vehicle facilities. Specific design elementsare described and discussed with respect to design methodology.

  1. 2004 Alaska highway invasive plants pilot survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We investigated the distribution and abundance of non-native invasive plants along a section of the Alaska Highway adjacent to Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge, 20...

  2. Minority Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, R [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2005-02-25

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the

  3. Stories About Highways in Tibet (Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BENGYI

    2005-01-01

    After the Xikang-Tibet Highway and the Qinghai-Tibet Highway were opened to traffic, other highways were constructed including the Xinjiang-Tibet Highway extending from Yecheng in Xinjiang to Ngari in Tibet, the Lhasa-Yadong Highway, the Lhasa-Zetang Highway, the Xigaze-Tingri Highway and the Heihe-Qamdo Highway. Sand and stone may only have covered these roads,but they were an embryonic form of modem transportation in Tibet and served as a solid foundation for development of modem highways. Until 1959, before the Democratic Reform in Tibet, the overall length of highways totaled 5,648 kilometers, creating a primary Tibetan road network with Lhasa as the center.

  4. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...... Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe)....

  5. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  6. Ambient Modal Testing of the Vestvej Bridge using Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, A.

    This paper presents an ambient vibration study of the Vestvej Bridge. The bridge is a typically Danish two-span concrete bridge which crosses a highway. The purpose of the study is to perform a pre-investigation of the dynamic behavior to obtain information for the design of a demonstration project...... concerning application of vibration based inspection of bridges. The data analysis process of ambient vribration testing of bridges has traditionally been based on auto and cross spectral densities estimated using an FFT algorithm. In the pre-analysis state the spectral densities are all averaged to obtain...... the averaged spectral densities(ASD). From the ASD the eigenfrequencies of the structure can be identified. This information can be used in the main analysis, where alle modal parameters are extracted from the spectral densities. Due to long cabling and low response levels (small ambient loads) the response...

  7. Ambient Modal Testing of the Vestvej Bridge using Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an ambient vibration study of the Vestvej Bridge. The bridge is a typically Danish two-span concrete bridge which crosses a highway. The purpose of the study is to perform a pre-investigation of the dynamic behavior to obtain information for the design of a demonstration project...... concerning application of vibration based inspection of bridges. The data analysis process of ambient vribration testing of bridges has traditionally been based on auto and cross spectral densities estimated using an FFT algorithm. In the pre-analysis state the spectral densities are all averaged to obtain...... the averaged spectral densities(ASD). From the ASD the eigenfrequencies of the structure can be identified. This information can be used in the main analysis, where alle modal parameters are extracted from the spectral densities. Due to long cabling and low response levels (small ambient loads) the response...

  8. Assessment of seismic performance of skew reinforced concrete box girder bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Pekcan, Gokhan

    2013-12-01

    The seismic vulnerability of highway bridges remains an important problem and has received increased attention as a consequence of unprecedented damage observed during several major earthquakes. A significant number of research studies have examined the performance of skew bridges under service and seismic loads. The results of these studies are particularly sensitive to modeling assumptions in view of the interacting parameters. In the present study, three-dimensional improved beam-stick models of two-span highway bridges with skew angles varying from 0° to 60° are developed to investigate the seismic response characteristics of skew box girder bridges. The relative accuracy of beam-stick models is verified against counterpart finite element models. The effect of various parameters and conditions on the overall seismic response was examined such as skew angle, ground motion intensity, soil condition, abutment support conditions, bridge aspect ratio, and foundation-base conditions. The study shows that the improved beam-stick models can be used to conduct accurate nonlinear time history analysis of skew bridges. Skew angle and interacting parameters were found to have significant effect on the behavior of skewed highway bridges. Furthermore, the performance of shear keys may have a predominant effect on the overall seismic response of the skew bridges.

  9. Sustainable Waste Management for Green Highway Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Nur Illiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green highway initiative is the transportation corridors based on sustainable concept of roadway. It incorporates both transportation functionality and ecological requirements. Green highway also provides more sustainable construction technique that maximizes the lifespan of highway. Waste management is one of the sustainable criterias in the elements of green highway. Construction of highway consumes enormous amounts of waste in term of materials and energy. These wastes need to be reduce to sustain the environment. This paper aims to identify the types of waste produced from highway construction. Additionally, this study also determine the waste minimization strategy and waste management practiced.. This study main focus are construction and demolition waste only. The methodology process begin with data collection by using questionnaire survey. 22 concession companies listed under Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia acted as a respondent. The questionnaires were distributed to all technical department staffs. The data received was analyzed using IBM SPSS. The results shows the most production of waste is wood, soil, tree root and concrete. The least production of waste is metal. For waste minimization, the best waste minimization is reuse for all type of waste except for tree root and stump. Whereas, the best waste management is providing strategic plan. The least practice for waste management is recording the quantity of waste.

  10. First-passage probability of the deflection of a cable-stayed bridge under long-term site-specific traffic loading

    OpenAIRE

    Naiwei Lu; Mohammad Noori; Yang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Long-span bridges suffer from higher traffic loads and the simultaneous presence of multiple vehicles, which in conjunction with the steady traffic growth may pose a threat to the bridge safety. This study presents a methodology for first-passage probability evaluation of long-span bridges subject to stochastic heavy traffic loading. Initially, the stochastic heavy traffic loading was simulated based on long-term weigh-in-motion measurements of a highway bridge in China. A computational frame...

  11. 76 FR 1664 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 99 (Segment G)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 99 (Segment G... relate to a proposed highway project, Grand Parkway (State Highway 99) Segment G, from Interstate Highway... the following highway project in the State of Texas: Grand Parkway (State Highway 99) Segment G from...

  12. Incorporation of nondestructive evaluation in Pontis Bridge Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadavi, Ahmad

    1998-03-01

    The highway system in the United States includes nearly 577,000 bridges, the majority of which were built during two major bridge building periods -- just before World War II (1930s) and in the first two decades of the Cold War (1950s and 1960s). Given the age and increased usage of these bridges over the years, many now require substantial maintenance to satisfy their desired level of service. The complex task of allocating scarce funds for the repair, maintenance, and rehabilitation of this large number of bridges led to the development of several optimization studies and two major bridge management system, namely BRIDGIT and Pontis. Pontis has emerged as the system of choice for all states in the Nation. At this time over 40 highway agencies continue to license, evaluate and implement the current AASHTOWARE Program, Pontis V. 3.2. However, all data currently required by Pontis to assess the structural stability and resulting suggestions for repair and maintenance of bridges are based on visual inspection and judgement. Consequently, all suggestions are based on that visual inspection. This paper discusses development of a plan for how non-destructive evaluation (NDE) data can be used to provide more information than visual inspection.

  13. Highway Surveying. Instructor's Guide for an Adult Course. Highway Technicians Program Unit III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimmano, Ralph; Kacharian, John C.

    The revised instructor's guide, which is part of the New York State Highway Technician's Program to provide needed technicians and engineers by upgrading people in the lower-level technician jobs, is geared toward the improvement of technical skills and knowledge in highway surveying. In view of the shortage of qualified technicians and engineers…

  14. A bridge network maintenance framework for Pareto optimization of stakeholders/users costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orcesi, Andre D., E-mail: andre.orcesi@lcpc.f [Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees, Section Durabilite des Ouvrages d' Art, 58 boulevard Lefebvre, F-75732 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Cremona, Christian F., E-mail: Christian.Cremona@developpement-durable.gouv.f [Commissariat General au Developpement Durable, Direction de la recherche et de l' innovation, Tour Pascal B, F-92055, La Defense Cedex (France)

    2010-11-15

    For managing highway bridges, stakeholders require efficient and practical decision making techniques. In a context of limited bridge management budget, it is crucial to determine the most effective breakdown of financial resources over the different structures of a bridge network. Bridge management systems (BMSs) have been developed for such a purpose. However, they generally rely on an individual approach. The influence of the position of bridges in the transportation network, the consequences of inadequate service for the network users, due to maintenance actions or bridge failure, are not taken into consideration. Therefore, maintenance strategies obtained with current BMSs do not necessarily lead to an optimal level of service (LOS) of the bridge network for the users of the transportation network. Besides, the assessment of the structural performance of highway bridges usually requires the access to the geometrical and mechanical properties of its components. Such information might not be available for all structures in a bridge network for which managers try to schedule and prioritize maintenance strategies. On the contrary, visual inspections are performed regularly and information is generally available for all structures of the bridge network. The objective of this paper is threefold (i) propose an advanced network-level bridge management system considering the position of each bridge in the transportation network, (ii) use information obtained at visual inspections to assess the performance of bridges, and (iii) compare optimal maintenance strategies, obtained with a genetic algorithm, when considering interests of users and bridge owner either separately as conflicting criteria, or simultaneously as a common interest for the whole community. In each case, safety and serviceability aspects are taken into account in the model when determining optimal strategies. The theoretical and numerical developments are applied on a French bridge network.

  15. Minority Language Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  16. Glaciers along proposed routes extending the Copper River Highway, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Three inland highway routes are being considered by the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities to connect the community of Cordova in southcentral Alaska to a statewide road system. The routes use part of a Copper River and Northwest Railway alignment along the Copper River through mountainous terrain having numerous glaciers. An advance of any of several glaciers could block and destroy the roadway, whereas retreating glaciers expose large quantities of unconsolidated, unvegetated, and commonly ice-rich sediments. The purpose of this study was to map historical locations of glacier termini near these routes and to describe hazards associated with glaciers and seasonal snow. Historical and recent locations of glacier termini along the proposed Copper River Highway routes were determined by reviewing reports and maps and by interpreting aerial photographs. The termini of Childs, Grinnell, Tasnuna, and Woodworth Glaciers were 1 mile or less from a proposed route in the most recently available aerial photography (1978-91); the termini of Allen, Heney, and Schwan Glaciers were 1.5 miles or less from a proposed route. In general, since 1911, most glaciers have slowly retreated, but many glaciers have had occasional advances. Deserted Glacier and one of its tributary glaciers have surge-type medial moraines, indicating potential rapid advances. The terminus of Deserted Glacier was about 2.1 miles from a proposed route in 1978, but showed no evidence of surging. Snow and rock avalanches and snowdrifts are common along the proposed routes and will periodically obstruct the roadway. Floods from ice-dammed lakes also pose a threat. For example, Van Cleve Lake, adjacent to Miles Glacier, is as large as 4.4 square miles and empties about every 6 years. Floods from drainages of Van Cleve Lake have caused the Copper River to rise on the order of 20 feet at Million Dollar Bridge.

  17. Market definition studies for photovoltaic highway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Prospects for solar electric power in applications related to highways within the continental United States are examined. Principal prospective users are found to be the highway departments of the various states. Economic analysis is employed to demonstrate that suitable applications can occur when powering apparatus such as signs, crossing signals, or instruments which consume less than 100 watts on the average, provided they are located at least one-half mile from existing utility power. Such applications are projected to occur two or three times per state per year. Attitudes of highway officials toward possible use of solar power are sampled and described. Although falling photovoltaic cell prices are expected to have little effect on sales potential here, methods for federal stimulation of this market are discussed.

  18. Global monitoring concept for bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeister, Konrad; Santa, Ulrich

    2000-06-01

    Knowledge of the integrity of in-service structures on a continuous time basis is an ultimate objective for owners and maintenance authorities. The development of a life extension and/or replacement strategy for highway structures is a crucial point in an effective bridge management system. A key component of such a bridge management system is a means of surveillance techniques and determining the condition of an existing structure within the normative and budgetary constraints. Recent advances in sensing technologies and material/structure damage characterization combined with current developments in computations and communications have resulted in a significant interest in developing diagnostic technologies for monitoring the integrity of and for the detection of damages of structures. To identify anomalies and deterioration processes, it is essential to understand the relationships between the signal measurements and the real occurred phenomena. Therefore, the comparison of measured and calculated data in order to tune and validate the mechanical and numerical model assumptions is an integral part of any system analysis. Finally, the interpreted results of all measurements should be the basis for the condition assessment and the safety evaluation of a structure to facilitate replacement and repair decisions.

  19. COUPLING VIBRATION OF VEHICLE-BRIDGE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炎; 黄小清; 马友发

    2004-01-01

    By applying the sinusoidal wave mode to simulate the rugged surface of bridge deck,accounting for vehicle-bridge interaction and using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, a coupling vibration model of vehicle-bridge system was developed. The model was solved by mode analyzing method and Runge-Kutta method, and the dynamic response and the resonance curve of the bridge were obtained. It is found that there are two resonance regions, one represents the main resonance while the other the minor resonance, in the resonance curve. The influence due to the rugged surface, the vibration mode of bridge, and the interaction between vehicle and bridge on vibration of the system were discussed. Numerical results show that the influence due to these parameters is so significant that the effect of roughness of the bridge deck and the mode shape of the bridge can't be ignored and the vehicle velocity should be kept away from the critical speed of the vehicle.

  20. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Peeters, B.; Hermans, L.

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method......, the stochastic subspace method for estimation of state space systems and the prediction error method for estimation of Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector models. It is not the entention to elect a winner among the four methods, but more to emphasize the different advantages of each of the methods....

  1. [Environmental, social, and roadway vulnerability in accidents involving transportation of hazardous products: a case study of the BR-101 highway between Osório and Torres in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Maria Auxiliadora Cannarozzo; Nodari, Christine Tessele; Pereira, Kimberllyn Rosa da Silva

    2016-09-19

    This study aimed to assess the environmental and social vulnerability and identify critical highway stretches for accidents involving transportation of hazardous products on the BR-101 highway between the cities of Osório and Torres in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The study's approach consisted of a multiple-criteria analysis combining highway safety analysis and environmental and social vulnerability analysis in the occurrence of accidents with hazardous products, plus cartographic analysis techniques. Thirty-eight kilometers of the highway showed high vulnerability, of which 8 kilometers with critical vulnerability, associated with bridges over rivers, water uptake points, a tunnel, environmental preservation areas, and an urban area. These stretches should be prioritized when developing action plans for accident mitigation and development of public policies for this highway. This proved to be an unprecedented approach when compared to existing studies and a potentially useful tool for decision-making in emergency operations.

  2. Highway Capacity Loss Induced by Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Mohammed Alhassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rainfall on capacity reduction on highways has been investigated. Traffic data was generated for both wet and dry conditions. The data analysis showed that the highway section studied was operating in free flow region. A 2.7% capacity loss was obtained for the road. It is argued that no traffic instability could arise from this situation if the state of traffic remains in the free flow regime. However, in the event of the coincidence of fixed bottlenecks and rainfall, instabilities arising from that could lead to further capacity loss.

  3. Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / For Patients / Patient Information Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding What are the possible causes of minor rectal bleeding? Hemorrhoids Anal fissures Proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) ...

  4. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from traffic-induced bridge vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigney, Michaël; Siegert, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    This paper focuses on energy harvesting from traffic-induced vibrations in bridges. Using a pre-stressed concrete highway bridge as a case study, in situ vibration measurements are presented and analysed. From these results, a prototype of a cantilever piezoelectric harvester is designed, tested and modelled. Even though the considered bridge vibrations are characterized by small amplitude and a low frequency (i.e. below 15 Hz), it is shown that mean power of the order of 0.03 mW can be produced, with a controlled voltage between 1.8 and 3.6 V. A simple model is proposed for theoretical prediction of the delivered power in terms of traffic intensity. This model shows good agreement with the experimental results and leads to a simple but effective design rule for piezoelectric harvesters to be used on bridges.

  5. Stories About Highways in Tibet (Ⅳ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BENGYI

    2005-01-01

    Tibet's First International Highway The China-Nepal Highway is Tibet's only international highway. It extends 1,036 krn from Lhasa to Kathmandu, capital of Nepal. The Tibetan section extends 827 km. Construction of the highway lasted 10 years. Between March 1951 and October 20, 1955, the Lhasa-Xigaze Highway was constructed, bringing to an end a history of the Xigaze region possessing no proper roads. In 1955 the 90-km Xigaze-Gyangze section was constructed, being opened to traffic in October 1955. In 1956, the Lhasa-Yadong Highway was constructed, extending 547 km. In 1958, the Xigaze-Tingri Highway was completed, followed in 1960 by the Lhasa-Burang Highway.

  6. 78 FR 53497 - Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Request for public comment on..., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Office of Regional Operations and Program...

  7. Bragg grating structural sensing system for bridge monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, Raymond M.; Alavie, A. Tino; Maaskant, Robert; Ohn, Myo M.; Karr, Shawn E.; Huang, Shang Yuan

    1994-09-01

    Corrosion of steel within bridges and other large concrete structures has become a serious problem and consequently there is growing interest in replacing the steel within such structures with carbon fiber based composite materials. The first highway bridge in the world to use carbon fiber composite prestressing tendons was constructed and opened to the public in the fall of 1993. This two span bridge was also unique in another respect, it is the first highway bridge in the world to have been built with a set of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors structurally integrated into several of its precast concrete deck support girders. A four-channel fiber laser sensor demodulation system that was rugged, compact and transportable was developed for this project. This demodulation system monitored the changes in the internal strain on all three types (steel and two types of carbon fiber composite) of prestressing tendons over several months. The same structurally integrated fiber optic sensing system has also been used to measure the change in the internal strain within the deck girders arising from both static and dynamic loading of the bridge with a large truck.

  8. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Alaska highway system: Chapter C in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1968-01-01

    The great earthquake that struck Alaska about 5:36 p.m., Alaska standard time, Friday, March 27, 1964 (03:36:1.3.0, Greenwich mean time, March 28, 1964), severely crippled the highway system in the south-central part of the State. All the major highways and most secondary roads were impaired. Damage totaled more than $46 million, well over $25 million to bridges and nearly $21 million to roadways. Of the 204 bridges in south-central Alaska, 141 were damaged; 92 were severely damaged or destroyed. The earthquake damaged 186 of the 830 miles of roadway in south-central Alaska, 83 miles so severely that replacement or relocation was required. Earthquake damage to the roadways and bridges was chiefly by (1) seismic shaking, (2) compaction of fills as well as the underlying sediments, (3) lateral displacement of the roadway and bridges, (4) fractures, (5) landslides, (6) avalanches, (7) inundation by seismic sea waves, (8) scouring by seismic sea waves, (9) regional tectonic subsidence, causing inundation and erosion by high tides in subsided areas. The intensity of damage was controlled primarily by the geologic environment (including the depth of the water table) upon which the highway structures rested, and secondarily by the engineering characteristics of the structures. Structures on bedrock were only slightly damaged if at all, whereas those on unconsolidated sediments were slightly to severely damaged, or were completely destroyed by seismic shaking. The low-lying areas underlain by saturated sediments, such as the Snow River Crossing and Turnagain Arm sections of the Seward-Anchorage Highway, were the most severely damaged stretches of the highway system in south-central Alaska. At Snow River and Turnagain Arm, the sediments underlying the roadway are fine grained and the water table is shallow. These factors were responsible for the intense damage along this stretch of the highway. All the bridges on the Copper River Highway except for one on bedrock were

  9. Risk based bridge data collection and asset management and the role of structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; Bush, Simon; Henning, Theunis; McCarten, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Bridges are critical to the operation and functionality of the whole road networks. It is therefore essential that specific data is collected regarding bridge asset condition and performance, as this allows proactive management of the assets and associated risks and more accurate short and long term financial planning. This paper proposes and discusses a strategy for collection of data on bridge condition and performance. Recognizing that risk management is the primary driver of asset management, the proposed strategy prioritizes bridges for levels of data collection including core, intermediate and advanced. Individual bridges are seen as parts of wider networks and bridge risk and criticality assessment emphasizes bridge failure or underperformance risk in the network context. The paper demonstrates how more reliable and detailed data can assist in managing network and bridge risks and provides a rationale for application of higher data collection levels for bridges characterized by higher risk and criticality. As the bridge risk and/or criticality increases planned and proactive integration of structural health monitoring (SHM) data into asset management is outlined. An example of bridge prioritization for data collection using several bridges taken from a national highway network is provided using an existing risk and criticality scoring methodology. The paper concludes with a discussion on the role of SHM in data collection for bridge asset management and where SHM can make the largest impacts.

  10. Washington State Department of Transportation Bridge Maintenance and Inspection Guidance for Protected Terrestrial Species

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Protected wildlife species that utilize the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) bridges and structures may be susceptible to impacts from routine maintenance and inspection activities. In response to community-driven concerns related to the conservation of protected terrestrial species and due to the lack of existing guidance for bridge related activities, WSDOT expanded their Highway Maintenance Environmental Compliance Guidance for Protected Terrestrial Species to include ...

  11. OML-Highway within the framework of SELMAGIS. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Becker, T.; Ketzel, M.; Loefstroem, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H. (Aarhus Univ., National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark)); Lorentz, H. (Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer (Germany))

    2010-06-15

    This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution concentration levels at receptor points along a highway road network, while SELMAGIS is a framework for calculating and representing air pollutant emissions and concentrations in a geographical information system (GIS). (author)

  12. OML-Highway within the framework of SELMAGIS. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Becker, T.; Ketzel, M.; Loefstroem, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H. (Aarhus Univ., National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark)); Lorentz, H. (Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer (Germany))

    2010-06-15

    This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution concentration levels at receptor points along a highway road network, while SELMAGIS is a framework for calculating and representing air pollutant emissions and concentrations in a geographical information system (GIS). (author)

  13. 76 FR 6690 - Highway Systems; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stefan Natzke, National Systems and Economic Development Team, (202... document can be used to cross reference this action with the Unified Agenda. List of Subjects in 23 CFR...)(1), and footnote 1 to read as follows: Sec. 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional...

  14. Highway Traffic Safety Manpower Functions Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    The purpose of the project, "Revision and Update of Traffic Safety Manpower Training Program Development Guide," was to develop the HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY MANPOWER FUNCTIONS GUIDE. This document provides an organizational schema illustrating the functions essential to be performed and the interrelationship of these functions to carry out…

  15. Traffic Flow Control In Automated Highway Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Luis; Horowitz, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    This report studies the problem of traffic control in the Automated Highway System (AHS) hierarchical architecture of the California PATH program. A link layer controller for the PATH AHS architecture is presented. It is shown that the proposed control laws stabilize the vehicular density and flow around predetermined profiles.

  16. 77 FR 37093 - Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ..., Guideline No. 6 Codes and Laws, Guideline No. 16 Management of Highway Incidents (formerly Debris Hazard... activities statewide. Highway Safety Program Guideline No. 16 Management of Highway Incidents (Formerly... program should provide at a minimum that: A. Traffic Incident Management programs are effective and...

  17. Explaining residential moving intentions : the case of highway locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Heinen, Eva; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper Structural Equation Modeling is used to test a theoretical framework to explain the impact of highway externalities (i.e. accessibility and nuisance) on moving intentions of people living close to highways. We aimed to study whether highway externalities (alongside other contextual fac

  18. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  19. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 10: Traffic Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 10 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic records. The purpose and specific objectives of a traffic records program are discussed. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding a traffic records…

  20. Analytical Investigation of Bridge Seismic Vulnerability in Wenchuan Earthquake%汶川地震桥梁易损性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈力波; 郑凯锋; 庄卫林; 马洪生; 张建经

    2012-01-01

    为了评估汶川地区公路桥梁系统地震损失风险,基于汶川地震桥梁震害调查,建立了桥梁地震易损性统计模型.采用修正后的汶川地震衰减模型,对桥址处地震动参数PGA进行了估算.假设易损性函数为双参数对数正态分布函数,采用两种不同的统计方法并结合震害调查,运用极大似然法对参数进行估计,得到轻微破坏、中等破坏、严重破坏、完全损毁4种损伤状态对应的桥梁地震易损性曲线.依据桥梁类型和桥梁线形对全体桥梁样本进行分类,针对分类后的桥梁样本子集建立各自独立的地震易损性曲线.对统计结果进行拟合优度检验,结果显示显著性水平在10%以下,计算得到的易损性函数不能被拒绝.%In order to evaluate the seismic loss risk of highway bridge systems in Wenchuan area, Sichuan, China, statistical seismic vulnerability models of bridges were established based on the collected bridge damage data from the Wenchuan earthquake. A modified Wenchuan earthquake attenuation model was developed for estimating the ground motion parameter, i. e- , peak ground acceleration ( PGA) , at various bridge sites. Two-parameter lognormal distribution functions were assumed to be suitable for developing fragility functions. Combined with the surveyed earthquake damage data, two different statistical models were then used to estimate the parameters based on the maximum likelihood method, and the bridge seismic fragility curves corresponding to four damage states (including minor, moderate, major, and collapse) were generated. According to the type and configuration of bridges, the surveyed bridge samples were categorized and distinct fragility curves of the sub-sample bridges were established- Goodness of fit test of the statistical results was carried out. The results show that the fragility functions cannot be rejected under the 10% significance level.

  1. Numerical analysis of dynamic response of vehicle–bridge coupled system on long-span continuous girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To systematically study the vehicle–bridge coupled dynamic response and its change rule with different parameters, a vehicle model with seven degrees of freedom was built and the total potential energy of vehicle space vibration system was deduced. Considering the stimulation of road roughness, the dynamic response equation of vehicle–bridge coupled system was established in accordance with the elastic system principle of total potential energy with stationary value and the “set-in-right-position” rule. On the basis of the self-compiled Fortran program and bridge engineering, the dynamic response of long-span continuous girder bridge under vehicle load was studied. This study also included the calculation of vehicle impact coefficient, evaluation of vibration comfort, and analysis of dynamic response parameters. Results show the impact coefficient changes with lane number and is larger than the value calculated by the “general code for design of highway bridges and culverts (China”. The Dieckmann index of bridge vibration is also related to lane number, and the vibration comfort evaluation is good in normal conditions. The relevant conclusions from parametric analyses have practical significance to dynamic design and daily operation of long-span continuous girder bridges in expressways. Safety and comfort are expected to improve significantly with further control of the vibration of vehicle–bridge system.

  2. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...

  3. Highway deicing salt dynamic runoff to surface water and subsequent infiltration to groundwater during severe UK winters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Michael O; Cuthbert, Mark O; Gamble, Richard; Connon, Lucy E; Pearson, Andrew; Shepley, Martin G; Davis, John

    2016-09-15

    Dynamic impact to the water environment of deicing salt application at a major highway (motorway) interchange in the UK is quantitatively evaluated for two recent severe UK winters. The contaminant transport pathway studied allowed controls on dynamic highway runoff and storm-sewer discharge to a receiving stream and its subsequent leakage to an underlying sandstone aquifer, including possible contribution to long-term chloride increases in supply wells, to be evaluated. Logged stream electrical-conductivity (EC) to estimate chloride concentrations, stream flow, climate and motorway salt application data were used to assess salt fate. Stream loading was responsive to salt applications and climate variability influencing salt release. Chloride (via EC) was predicted to exceed the stream Environmental Quality Standard (250mg/l) for 33% and 18% of the two winters. Maximum stream concentrations (3500mg/l, 15% sea water salinity) were ascribed to salt-induced melting and drainage of highway snowfall without dilution from, still frozen, catchment water. Salt persistance on the highway under dry-cold conditions was inferred from stream observations of delayed salt removal. Streambed and stream-loss data demonstrated chloride infiltration could occur to the underlying aquifer with mild and severe winter stream leakage estimated to account for 21 to 54% respectively of the 70t of increased chloride (over baseline) annually abstracted by supply wells. Deicing salt infiltration lateral to the highway alongside other urban/natural sources were inferred to contribute the shortfall. Challenges in quantifying chloride mass/fluxes (flow gauge accuracy at high flows, salt loading from other roads, weaker chloride-EC correlation at low concentrations), may be largely overcome by modest investment in enhanced data acquisition or minor approach modification. The increased understanding of deicing salt dynamic loading to the water environment obtained is relevant to improved

  4. A Study on Assessment Method of Traffic Load Effect of Bridge in Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pan; Dajian, Han

    2010-05-01

    Because of overloading usually occur in highway in China today, it is found that the traffic load and the load effects given by Specification for Inspection and Evaluation of Load-bearing Capacity of Highway Bridge[1] cannot be adequately estimated. Especially, the extreme values in a service period can not be predicted. In this paper, a model is first developed for a better estimation of the actual traffic flow, as well as the service load effect level of a bridge. Based on a five-day collection data of the vehicle samples passing through the exit of Guangyuan to Shahe of the North-Ring Highway in Guangzhou, The Qiaole Bridge of the highway is taken as an example to illustrate the assessment model. Then, a threshold model is applied to estimate the tail distribution of the maximum load effect of a fleet. And threshold point process is used to infer the maximum value distribution for prediction of the load effect level of the bridge in a future time period. Finally, a 0.95 quantile is obtained to compare with the result given by specification[1]. The results show that the assessment method proposed in this paper is valid and feasible.

  5. A study on traffic weaving segment level of service on Malaysia urban highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Rohaya; Sadullah, Ahmad Farhan Mohd

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research is to observe weaving problems, analyze the capacity of the weaving segment and to identify the behavior of the Malaysian driver at urban freeway weaving segment. Field data collected during non - peak hours at km. 138.6-138.2 (north bound) Seberang Jaya: Penang Bridge, km.16.8 to km.17.0 Sunway Mentari: Damansara-Puchong Highway and km.21.4 to km.21.9 Puchong Intan: Damansara-Puchong Highway. These segments behave as a bottleneck during peak hour. The data collected are traffic volume, vehicle composition and the road geometry. The drivers behavior pattern at the freeway weaving segment is observed. This research analyses by two different methodologies, the first analysis is by referring to the US Highway Capacity Manual 2010 and the second analysis through a modified method to suit the local traffic composition. The consideration of motorcycle and light heavy vehicle in the analysis lead to a different evaluation of weaving segment capacity. The analysis results show a slight difference between both methods. LOS, weaving speed and density prediction by the modified method is slightly higher than the HCM method. These results, suggest that the numbers of light heavy vehicle and motorcycle contribute to the amount of traffic volume because the value factors of Passenger Car Equivalent (PCE). The adoption of the widely used method without taking consideration of local traffic condition, might lead to improper road planning or design or road operation management.

  6. OML-Highway within the framework of SELMAGIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias;

    This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbüro Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution concentr......This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbüro Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution...... concentration levels at receptor points along a highway road network, while SELMAGIS is a framework for calculating and representing air pollutant emissions and concentrations in a geographical information system (GIS)...

  7. Study on longitudinal wind load calculation method of cables for cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Minshan; Zhang Xigang; Zhu Bin; Hou Bin; Liu Changpeng

    2009-01-01

    Along with the expanding of span of cable-stayed bridge, wind load becomes a more and more important controlling factor for bridge the design. A very large proportion of the wind load acting on cables has exceeded that acting on deck. There was not any detailed prescript in Chinese code for calculation of longitudinal wind load on cables due to lack of theoretical research and experiment, and conservative simplified calculation was adopted during design, which leads to conservative and uneconomical design of structures. To resolve this problem, cable force experiment was carried out during the design of Sutong Bridge. By comparing with international research results, the calculation formula of longitudinal wind drag coefficient for cables was advanced to fill the blank of bridge wind resistant code of China, and has already been adopted in the Highway Bridge Wind Resistant Design Code (JTG/T D60-01-2004) with great significance for bridge engineering.

  8. Bridges in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ang-Kun; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    A bridge in a graph is an edge whose removal disconnects the graph and increases the number of connected components. We calculate the fraction of bridges in a wide range of real-world networks and their randomized counterparts. We find that real networks typically have more bridges than their completely randomized counterparts, but very similar fraction of bridges as their degree-preserving randomizations. We define a new edge centrality measure, called bridgeness, to differentiate the importance of a bridge in damaging a network. We find that certain real networks have very large average and variance of bridgeness compared to their degree-preserving randomizations and other real networks. Finally, we offer an analytical framework to calculate the bridge fraction and average bridgeness for uncorrelated random networks with arbitrary degree distributions.

  9. Expected damages of retrofitted bridges with RC jacketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, O.; Jara, J. M.; Jara, M.; Olmos, B. A.

    2015-07-01

    The bridge infrastructure in many countries of the world consists of medium span length structures built several decades ago and designed for very low seismic forces. Many of them are reinforced concrete structures that according to the current code regulations have to be rehabilitated to increase their seismic capacity. One way to reduce the vulnerability of the bridges is by using retrofitting techniques that increase the strength of the structure or by incorporating devices to reduce the seismic demand. One of the most common retrofit techniques of the bridges substructures is the use of RC jacketing; this research assesses the expected damages of seismically deficient medium length highway bridges retrofitted with reinforced concrete jacketing, by conducting a parametric study. We select a suite of twenty accelerograms of subduction earthquakes recorded close to the Pacific Coast in Mexico. The original structures consist of five 30 m span simple supported bridges with five pier heights of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 20 and 25 m and the analyses include three different jacket thickness and three steel ratios. The bridges were subjected to the seismic records and non-linear time history analyses were carried out by using the OpenSEEs Plataform. Results allow selecting the reinforced concrete jacketing that better improves the expected seismic behavior of the bridge models.

  10. Mathematical design of a highway exit curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdemirli, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    A highway exit curve is designed under the assumption that the tangential and normal components of the acceleration of the vehicle remain constant throughout the path. Using fundamental principles of physics and calculus, the differential equation determining the curve function is derived. The equation and initial conditions are cast into a dimensionless form first for universality of the results. It is found that the curves are effected by only one dimensionless parameter which is the ratio of the tangential acceleration to the normal acceleration. For no tangential acceleration, the equation can be solved analytically yielding a circular arc solution as expected. For nonzero tangential acceleration, the function is complicated and no closed-form solutions exist for the differential equation. The equation is solved numerically for various acceleration ratios. Discussions for applications to highway exits are given.

  11. Accumulation of Pollutants in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This PhD study deals with issues related to water and pollutant transport from highway surfaces caused by rain. It is essential in the study to apply methods and models in which improvements in relation to removal of pollutants can be identified and to be able to predict the yearly discharges...... of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from an arbitrary detention pond to the natural environment. The present thesis is a part of a co-operation between the Danish Road Directorate (Vejdirektoratet) and Aalborg University and is founded in the Danish construction act for new highways...... single rain event. From the hindcast results it is possible to calculate mean water and pollutant loads. This method is commonly used in urban drainage systems for capacity analysis or for prediction of CSO's. The challenge is to develop a simplified and still accurate description of flow and transport...

  12. Ecological stability of Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhibin; XU Xinwen; LEI Jiaqiang; LI Shengyu

    2006-01-01

    The Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt,located in hinterland of Taklimakan Desert, is irrigated by underground saline water, with three to thirty gram per litter mineral degrees. The sustainability and stability are affected by multifarious stress.The structural and functional characteristics of shelterbelt are studied to probe into correlation between environment and shelterbelt. On basis, decision analysis is applied to study ecological stability of the Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt, to screen out limited factors, to establish general index system, and to evaluate the stability of the shelterbelt nowadays.Finally, the concept of ecological stability is utilized to manage the artificial ecosystem. The results show that the artificial ecosystem is relatively flimsy, whose stability can be increased by adjusting stand structure and improving the nutrient cycle.

  13. Alaska Highway bibliography, 3rd edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    Since the early 20th century various schemes were considered for the construction of roads, trails or railways 71 to link the Yukon, northern British Columbia and Alaska to the “outside.” These schemes were motivated by economic interests, including mining, lumber and tourism concerns. During the....... The impacts included an increased awareness of the world outside of the Yukon, imported ideas and technology, improved health care, highway transportation, telecommunications, and the development of more mining and tourist-related industries....... land route to Alaska for defence purposes. The military was not interested in developing or planning a highway for the civilian needs of the future. The chosen route ran from Edmonton to Whitehorse, then on to Fairbanks. The U.S. Army and U.S. Public Roads Administration (PRA) roughed out a “pioneer...

  14. The influence of tollbooths on highway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng

    2002-09-01

    We study the effects of tollbooths on the traffic flow. The highway traffic is simulated by the Nagel-Schreckenberg model. Various types of toll collection are examined, which can be characterized either by a waiting time or a reduced speed. A first-order phase transition is observed. The phase separation results a saturated flow, which is observed as a plateau region in the fundamental diagram. The effects of lane expansion near the tollbooth are examined. The full capacity of a highway can be restored. The emergence of vehicle queuing is studied. Besides the numerical results, we also obtain analytical expressions for various quantities. The numerical simulations can be well described by the analytical formulas. We also discuss the influence on the travel time and its variance. The tollbooth increases the travel time but decreases its variance. The differences between long- and short-distance travelers are also discussed.

  15. Approximating Mexican highways with slime mould

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Chapa-Vergara, Sergio V; Asomoza-Palacio, Rene; Stephens, Christopher R

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by unaided eye. During its foraging behavior the cell spans spatially distributed sources of nutrients with a protoplasmic network. Geometrical structure of the protoplasmic networks allows the plasmodium to optimize transport of nutrients between remote parts of its body. Assuming major Mexican cities are sources of nutrients how much structure of Physarum protoplasmic network correspond to structure of Mexican Federal highway network? To find an answer undertook a series of laboratory experiments with living Physarum polycephalum. We represent geographical locations of major cities by oat flakes, place a piece of plasmodium in Mexico city area, record the plasmodium's foraging behavior and extract topology of nutrient transport networks. Results of our experiments show that the protoplasmic network formed by Physarum is isomorphic, subject to limitations imposed, to a network of principle highways. Ideas and results of the paper may contribute tow...

  16. The Full Cost of Intercity Highway Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson; David Gillen

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we review the theoretical and empirical literature on the cost structure of the provision of intercity highway transportation and specify and estimate our own cost functions . We develop a full cost model which identifies the key cost components and then estimate costs component by component: user costs, infrastructure costs, time and congestion costs, noise costs, accident costs, and pollution costs. The total long run average cost is $0.34 per vehicle kilometer traveled. The s...

  17. Sound absorption mapping of highway noise barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Grosso, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Sound propagation from highway to the urban areas can be reduced using noise barriers. The general computational modeling takes typically into account sound ray lines, reflection and diffraction, although the absorption distribution over the surface in not considered. The sound absorption coefficient can be calculated using a PU probe, by the impedance measured “in situ” close by the surface. Well known methods are available on the market for estimating the sound absor...

  18. Biological evaluation of Trans-African highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Kayem, Anne V. D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-African highway network is a unique concept of integrated development of transport corridors spanning all African countries and providing landlocked countries access to seaports. The planned road system is still maturing and just partially complete, thus giving us a chance to play with different scenarios of its growth and to consider potential alternative transport networks. We study the evolving transport network in the African continent with a groundbreaking technique of imitating growing transport networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent the major urban areas of Africa with a source of nutrients, inoculate a piece of the slime mould in Cairo and allow the mould to span all urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We then compare the slime mould networks with existing and planned highway corridors. We found that slime mould provides a good approximation of the Trans-African highway network, with some roads of Eastern Africa delineated by P. polycephalum in a larger number of laboratory experiments. We demonstrate direct matches between protoplasmic tubes and Trans-Sahelian as well as Lagos-Mombasa corridors. Finally we analyse the bio-logic of transport network development in families of generalised Physarum graphs.

  19. Effective flow resistivity of highway pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Judith L; Read, David R

    2013-12-01

    In the case of highway traffic noise, propagating sound is influenced by the ground over which it travels, whether it is the pavement itself or the ground between the highway and nearby communities. Properly accounting for ground type in modeling can increase accuracy in noise impact determinations and noise abatement design. Pavement-specific effective flow resistivity values are being investigated for inclusion in the Federal Highway Administration Traffic Noise Model, which uses these values in the sound propagation algorithms and currently applies a single effective flow resistivity value to all pavement. Pavement-specific effective flow resistivity values were obtained by applying a modified version of the American National Standards Institute S1.18 standard. The data analysis process was tailored to allow for increased sensitivity and extraction of effective flow resistivity values for a broad range of pavements (sound absorptive to reflective). For porous pavements (sound absorptive), it was determined that examination of the measured data can reveal influence from an underlying structure. Use of such techniques can aid in the design of quieter pavements.

  20. Next generation seismic fragility curves for California bridges incorporating the evolution in seismic design philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Karthik Narayan

    Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the seismic risk to highway bridges is crucial in pre-earthquake planning, and post-earthquake response of transportation systems. Such assessments provide valuable knowledge about a number of principal effects of earthquakes such as traffic disruption of the overall highway system, impact on the regions’ economy and post-earthquake response and recovery, and more recently serve as measures to quantify resilience. Unlike previous work, this study captures unique bridge design attributes specific to California bridge classes along with their evolution over three significant design eras, separated by the historic 1971 San Fernando and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes (these events affected changes in bridge seismic design philosophy). This research developed next-generation fragility curves for four multispan concrete bridge classes by synthesizing new knowledge and emerging modeling capabilities, and by closely coordinating new and ongoing national research initiatives with expertise from bridge designers. A multi-phase framework was developed for generating fragility curves, which provides decision makers with essential tools for emergency response, design, planning, policy support, and maximizing investments in bridge retrofit. This framework encompasses generational changes in bridge design and construction details. Parameterized high-fidelity three-dimensional nonlinear analytical models are developed for the portfolios of bridge classes within different design eras. These models incorporate a wide range of geometric and material uncertainties, and their responses are characterized under seismic loadings. Fragility curves were then developed considering the vulnerability of multiple components and thereby help to quantify the performance of highway bridge networks and to study the impact of seismic design principles on the performance within a bridge class. This not only leads to the development of fragility relations

  1. Experimental Study of Properties of Pervious Concrete used for Bridge Superstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2014-01-01

    -Chain Bridges are a new patented bridge technology consisting of a number of Super-Light Deck elements, which are post-tensioned to create an arch bridge used for example for highways. The present study investigates how pervious concrete can be applied as a stabilizing filling materi-al between the arch...... substructure and the wearing course. One pervious concrete mixture contain-ing air entrainment is designed and tested. The tests include investigations of compaction meth-ods, compressive strength, stiffness, frost resistance and permeability....

  2. Effect of the Length of Traffic Flow Records on the Estimate of a Bridge Service Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krejsa Jan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The service life of bridges is significantly affected by fatigue of used material induced by heavy vehicles. Therefore, precise determination of the vehicle weight is of crucial importance for the calculation of fatigue damage and the prediction of the bridge serviceability. This paper investigates accuracy of the determination of fatigue depending on the length of traffic flow recording. The presented data were obtained from the measurements carried out on a bridge of the Prague Highway Ring. The analysis reveals that the optimal length of traffic recording is about 30 days.

  3. 广乐高速公路马渡互通桥工程8m以上大溶洞施工技术%Over eight meters large karst cave construction technology of GuangLe highway exchange bridge engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福恩; 牛紫龙

    2011-01-01

    马渡枢纽互通桥工程8 m以上大型溶洞共有23个,其中有全填充13个、半充填7个和无充填3个.勘察揭露充填物质多为黏性土、砂、灰岩碎块及卵石土.岩溶发育情况显示岩溶顶板厚度小、洞体高度大,且充填不好,在受到外力作用情况下,可造成顶板塌落、地面发生塌陷,对于结构稳定性和桩基施工影响较大.施工中,全填充溶洞采取注浆加固处理;半填充溶洞采取先注浆加固,后对未填充部分灌注低标号细石混凝土处理;未填充溶洞全部灌注低标号细石混凝土处理,取得了良好的效果.%Madu communication bridge engineering has twenty three karst cave over eight meters, including the filling 13,half filled seven and no filling 3. Investigation revealed filling material is clayey soil,sand and gravel soils and limestone pieces. Karst development situation of karst thickness, that dongti height, and filling in the external force, by circumstance, can cause the roof collapsing,collapsing,for structural stability and pile foundation construction. Construction of the karst grouting reinforcement to fill;half filled cave after grouting strengthening, take part in not filled perfusion label fine stone concrete processing;no filling cave perfusion label fine stone concrete processing. Achieved good effect.

  4. Office of Minority Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Office of Minority Health A A A En Español Newsroom Contact Us Search: About OMH What We Do Resource ... History Leadership Regional Staff State Minority Health Contacts Offices of Minority Health at HHS Advisory Committee Committees ...

  5. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  6. Microtremor analysis to test the durability of Jumoyo Bridge, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmantyo, Arga; Setiawan, Muhammad Ragil; Wahyudi

    2016-02-01

    Jumoyo Bridge is one of bridges connecting the main highways of Magelang-Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The bridge durability test was conducted to determine self-frequency and motion direction of the bridge's particles. Measurements were performed in two circumstances, namely when the location was crowded and deserted to be passed by vehicles. Measurements points consisted of six points along Jumoyo Bridge, and one point above the ground level near the bridge. Obtaining the movement of particles and HVSR spectrum, the data analysis was conducted by using Geopsy software. The self-frequency values of the bridge were calculated based on HVSR spectrum. The process of selecting signal (windowing) was performed manually on the ambient signals. The self-frequency values of the bridge obtained were in the range of 2.74 to 2.95 Hz, with the amplitude were 0.48 to 1.63 mm. The bridge's particle motion in vertical direction have trending N-S, while in horizontal direction tends to SW-NE. The ground's frequency value around the bridge was 0.79 Hz. Based on these results, it can be said that Jumoyo Bridge has resistance towards the resonance danger of the ground. For the next measurement, it needs to measure the stresses that occur to obtain more complete analysis.

  7. Optimum Design of Highway Excavation Slope Angle: Evidence from Dawu Section of Jingzhu Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The optimum design of the highway excavation slope angle is one of the most important problems to the highway construction and to the slope improvement. The Dawu Section of Jingzhu (Beijing-Zhuhai) Highway is taken as an example to illustrate the study method for excavation slope angle design.The analysis of the engineering condition from different angles with different factors shows that the stability of the slope is calculated by using residual pushing force and the Sarma method. Then the sensitive analysis of the slope stability is conducted by using residual pushing force method. Finally, the optimum angle of design is presented on the precondition of ensuring the whole stability of slope and the economic reasonability. The study results show that the most sensitive factors are the shear strength parameter and t he seismic force, and that the optimum excavation slope angle is 60°.``

  8. Thermal Effect of the Cable-Stayed Bridge Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hai-long; Li Jun; Liu Chang-guo; Jiang Tian-hua; Wei jun

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the thermal effect of the cable-stayed bridge tower based on full time accurate measurement and finite element analysis on Xiantao Hanjiang River Highway Bridge. The measured results and the displacement variation of top tower show that the tower rotates periodically when it is exposed in sunshine. But the tower column will not decline when there is no sunshine. In spite of in winter or in summer, the period when the tower column changed smallest is from 0∶00 am to 5∶00 am. The time period when the tower column has maximum deviation lags behind the time when the tower column has maximum temperature difference, and this phenomenon is obvious in winter. The conclusions also have directive value in predicting the tower deformations and their directions in construction control of cable-stayed bridge, and in verifying the finite element program.

  9. Anatomical Study Of Minor Alterations In Neonate Vocal Folds.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Rezende Silva; Almiro José Machado Júnior; Agrício Nubiato Crespo

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the existe...

  10. Methodology for the assessment of scour at bridge sites in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.; Waite, Loyd A.

    1994-01-01

    A field inspection methodology, a scour- susceptibility ranking procedure, and a data base management system were developed for the Missouri Highway and Transportation Department to use for scour inspection and assessment at bridges throughout the State. Because scour can cause bridge failure, federal statute mandates that the approximately 4,700 state-owned bridges over water be assessed for scour-related problems. The Missouri Scour Assessment Field Form was developed so that bridge inspectors from the Missouri Highway and Transportation Department could collect data at a bridge site quickly and thoroughly. The arrangement of the form allows inspectors to collect specific quantitative data at each area with a minimum of wasted steps. The Missouri Bridge Scour data base was developed to store and manipulate scour data collected during field inspections. Scour data in the data base can be updated, printed, and tabulated with other records using several criteria. A potential scour index and an observed scour index are calculated within the data base for each bridge site. The data base also may have multiple entries for a single site, providing versatility whereby recent inspections may be compared with earlier inspections to document long-term trends and changes.

  11. Distributed strain monitoring for bridges: temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Ryan; Hoult, Neil A.

    2014-03-01

    To better manage infrastructure assets as they reach the end of their service lives, quantitative data is required to better assess structural behavior and allow for more informed decision making. Distributed fiber optic strain sensors are one sensing technology that could provide comprehensive data for use in structural assessments as these systems potentially allow for strain to be measured with the same accuracy and gage lengths as conventional strain sensors. However, as with many sensor technologies, temperature can play an important role in terms of both the structure's and sensor's performance. To investigate this issue a fiber optic distributed strain sensor system was installed on a section of a two span reinforced concrete bridge on the TransCanada Highway. Strain data was acquired several times a day as well as over the course of several months to explore the effects of changing temperature on the data. The results show that the strain measurements are affected by the bridge behavior as a whole. The strain measurements due to temperature are compared to strain measurements that were taken during a load test on the bridge. The results show that even a small change in temperature can produce crack width and strain changes similar to those due to a fully loaded transport truck. Future directions for research in this area are outlined.

  12. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  13. 78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise... types used in Federal-aid highway traffic noise analyses. Current highway traffic noise analyses rely on... suggestions on whether and how to include additional pavement types in Federal-aid highway traffic...

  14. Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taizhou Bridge lies between Taizhou, Zhenjiang and Changzhou City in Jiangsu Province. The total length of Taizhou Bridge is 62.088 kin. The whole line is designed by freeway codes with six lanes in two directions. The wholeinvestment is 9.37 billion RMB and the planned construction duration is 5.5 years. The main bridge crossing the Yangtze River is a continuous three-pylon two-span suspension bridge with the main span of 1 080 m. The bridge system is realized for the first time and ranks first in the world until now.

  15. Behavior of FRP Link Slabs in Jointless Bridge Decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Saber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigated the use of fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP grid for reinforcement in link slabs for jointless bridge decks. The design concept of link slab was examined based on the ductility of the fiberglass-reinforced plastic grid to accommodate bridge deck deformations. The implementation of hybrid simulation assisted in combining the experimental results and the theoretical work. The numerical analyses and the experimental work investigated the behavior of the link slab and confirmed its feasibility. The results indicated that the technique would allow simultaneous achievement of structural need, lower flexural stiffness of the link slab approaching the behavior of a hinge, and sustainability need of the link slab. The outcome of the study supports the contention that jointless concrete bridge decks may be designed and constructed with fiberglass-reinforced plastic grid link slabs. This concept would also provide a solution to a number of deterioration problems associated with bridge deck joints and can be used during new construction of bridge decks. The federal highway administration provided funds to Louisiana Department of Transportation through the innovative bridge research and development program to implement the use of FRP grid as link slab.

  16. Evaluating vehicular-induced bridge vibrations for energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Matthew; Fasl, Jeremiah; Samaras, Vasilis A.; Wood, Sharon; Helwig, Todd; Lindenberg, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Highway bridges are vital links in the transportation network in the United States. Identifying possible safety problems in the approximately 600,000 bridges across the country is generally accomplished through labor-intensive, visual inspections. Ongoing research sponsored by NIST seeks to improve inspection practices by providing real-time, continuous monitoring technology for steel bridges. A wireless sensor network with a service life of ten years that is powered by an integrated energy harvester is targeted. In order to achieve the target ten-year life for the monitoring system, novel approaches to energy harvesting for use in recharging batteries are investigated. Three main sources of energy are evaluated: (a) vibrational energy, (b) solar energy, and (c) wind energy. Assessing the energy produced from vehicular-induced vibrations and converted through electromagnetic induction is the focus of this paper. The goal of the study is to process acceleration data and analyze the vibrational response of steel bridges to moving truck loads. Through spectral analysis and harvester modeling, the feasibility of vibration-based energy harvesting for longterm monitoring can be assessed. The effects of bridge conditions, ambient temperature, truck traffic patterns, and harvester position on the power content of the vibrations are investigated. With sensor nodes continually recharged, the proposed real-time monitoring system will operate off the power grid, thus reducing life cycle costs and enhancing inspection practices for state DOTs. This paper will present the results of estimating the vibration energy of a steel bridge in Texas.

  17. DRAFT MODEL FOR CREATING A FINANCIAL INDICATORS OF BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Strelcova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a problem of developing, defining and applying budgetary indicators of engineering constructions, and particularly bridges. It is a draft of a Model for development of budgetary indicators of bridge construction in the pre-investment phase of a project. It could, according to classification and evaluation in terms of criteria and search for the most accurate valuation unit of complex structures such as bridge construction, serve investors and public administration authorities for rapid investment planning and professional control of completed buildings. Such a unique tool has never been developed in the Czech Republic so far. Bridges as buildings complement any landscape and in the outer parts of cities, they often establish a viewpoint. They belong among important parts of any highway or expressway. Without them, it would be impossible to establish grade-separated crossings with other roads - roads, railway lines or sections of rivers. They are also important in overcoming obstacles of natural and artificial character such as deep valleys, lakes, or steep mountainsides. The aim of the paper is to analyse a current state of the valuation of bridges and the subsequent establishment and validation of the Model for the development of budgetary indicators of the bridge construction.

  18. Evaluation Behavior of Qing Shan Concrete Bridge under Static Load Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem K. Hussain

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes and evaluates the state of Qing Shang Bridge. The deterioration of bridge can be summarized due to increased internal forces may be a result of higher loading or due to the sever climatic and environmental weathers changes, bridges need reinforcement because damage due to external factors which reduced the cross-sectional resistance to external loads. The assessment of traffic loading on bridges is subject to large levels of uncertainty. While some allowance is provided in design codes for variable traffic conditions, they are conservative to allow for generalization at a safe level. Also this article identify the design demands of Qing Shan bridge which is located in China/ Heilongjiang Province, He gang - Nen Jiang Road 303 provincial highway, Wu Da Lian Chi area, is an important bridge in the urban areas. The investigation program was include the observation and evaluate the damage in T-section concrete beams , box girder bridges section in additional evaluate the whole state of bridges under static load test, the use of Finite Element Analysis was preferred method to study the behavior of concrete. Furthermore the load test program includes the main beams of bridge. The test results show that the bridge in general structural condition is good. T beam girder of the span No. 10 was tested for static load and need to be strengthening. The concrete box girder shows good state of condition, and no seriously damage effects.

  19. The optimization of concrete mixtures for use in highway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Mohamadreza

    Portland cement concrete is most used commodity in the world after water. Major part of civil and transportation infrastructure including bridges, roadway pavements, dams, and buildings is made of concrete. In addition to this, concrete durability is often of major concerns. In 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) estimated that an annual investment of 170 billion on roads and 20.5 billion for bridges is needed on an annual basis to substantially improve the condition of infrastructure. Same article reports that one-third of America's major roads are in poor or mediocre condition [1]. However, portland cement production is recognized with approximately one cubic meter of carbon dioxide emission. Indeed, the proper and systematic design of concrete mixtures for highway applications is essential as concrete pavements represent up to 60% of interstate highway systems with heavier traffic loads. Combined principles of material science and engineering can provide adequate methods and tools to facilitate the concrete design and improve the existing specifications. In the same manner, the durability must be addressed in the design and enhancement of long-term performance. Concrete used for highway pavement applications has low cement content and can be placed at low slump. However, further reduction of cement content (e.g., versus current specifications of Wisconsin Department of Transportation to 315-338 kg/m 3 (530-570 lb/yd3) for mainstream concrete pavements and 335 kg/m3 (565 lb/yd3) for bridge substructure and superstructures) requires delicate design of the mixture to maintain the expected workability, overall performance, and long-term durability in the field. The design includes, but not limited to optimization of aggregates, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), chemical and air-entraining admixtures. This research investigated various theoretical and experimental methods of aggregate optimization applicable for the reduction of cement content

  20. OPTIMIZING HIGHWAY PROFILES FOR INDIVIDUAL COST ITEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Dabbour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the current practice, vertical alignment of a highway segment is usually selected by creating a profile showing the actual ground surface and selecting initial and final grades to minimize the overall cut and fill quantities. Those grades are connected together with a parabolic curve. However, in many highway construction or rehabilitation projects, the cost of cut may be substantially different from that of fill (e.g. in extremely hard soils where blasting is needed to cut the soil. In that case, an optimization process will be needed to minimize the overall cost of cut and fill rather than to minimize their quantities. This paper proposes a nonlinear optimization model to select optimum vertical curve parameters based on individual cost items of cut and fill. The parameters selected by the optimization model include the initial grade, the final grade, the station and elevation of the point of vertical curvature (PVC, and the station and elevation of the point of vertical tangency (PVT. The model is flexible to include any design constraints for particular design problems. Different application examples are provided using the Evolutionary Algorithm in Microsoft Excel’s Solver add-in. The application examples validated the model and demonstrated its advantage of minimizing the overall cost rather than minimizing the overall volume of cut and fill quantities.

  1. CAUSES OF HIGHWAY FAILURES IN NIGERIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. NDEFO OKIGBO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the road networks in the developing countries of Africa are in deplorable conditions. Nigeria being one of these countries is not an exception. The conditions of the roads in Nigeria were examined. The causes of these conditions of the roads in Nigeria were articulated and their effects to the citizen, government and theeconomy of the country were highlighted and solutions to these problems given in the form of recommendations that will remedy the situation. Some of the identified causes were; poor design and construction, poor maintenance of already built highways, use of low quality materials in construction, poor workmanship and poorsupervision of construction work and the plying of heavy traffic that were not meant for the road on the road. Some of the recommendations to remedy the situation are; Use of the appropriate design of the roads, avoiding unnecessary congestion of the roads with traffic especially heavy traffics that were not meant for the roads inthe first place, prompt maintenance of the roads, application of suitable construction material in the construction of the roads, applying appropriate tests to the soil in road construction, use of qualified engineering personnel in road construction and the application of sanctions for highway failures.

  2. Fracture of highway and airport pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsamooj, D. V.

    1993-03-01

    Existing solutions for the stresses in a cracked slab containing a crack and supported by an elastic foundation are extended to obtain the stress intensity factor (SIF) for a crack in a pavement subjected to moving vehicular loads. In the existing solutions the stresses can be obtained only for a uniform bending stress (before the crack occurs) along the crack surface. For pavements subjected to moving vehicular loads, the stress distribution along the crack surface is not uniform and the approximation of a uniform stress is often unsatisfactory. The present work extends the above solutions to cover more realistic loading of highway and airport pavements. This facilitates the application of the principles of fracture mechanics to the fatigue crack propagation and fracture of pavements. Beginning with a part-through semi-elliptical starter crack, the crack is assumed to grow under load and the SIF is presented at various stages of crack growth, from the starter crack into a short through-crack that eventually becomes a very long through-crack. Some examples of the fracture of typical rigid and flexible highway and airport pavements are presented to show the need to consider fracture in the design of pavements.

  3. Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2004-05-08

    The transportation sector includes many subcategories--for example, on-highway, off-highway, and non-highway. Use of fuel for off-highway purposes is not well documented, nor is the number of off-highway vehicles. The number of and fuel usage for on-highway and aviation, marine, and rail categories are much better documented than for off-highway land-based use. Several sources document off-highway fuel use under specific conditions--such as use by application (e.g., recreation) or by fuel type (e.g., gasoline). There is, however, no single source that documents the total fuel used off-highway and the number of vehicles that use the fuel. This report estimates the fuel usage and number of vehicles/equipment for the off-highway category. No new data have been collected nor new models developed to estimate the off-highway data--this study is limited in scope to using data that already exist. In this report, unless they are being quoted from a source that uses different terminology, the terms are used as listed below. (1) ''On-highway/on-road'' includes land-based transport used on the highway system or other paved roadways. (2) ''Off-highway/off-road'' includes land-based transport not using the highway system or other paved roadways. (3) ''Non-highway/non-road'' includes other modes not traveling on highways such as aviation, marine, and rail. It should be noted that the term ''transportation'' as used in this study is not typical. Generally, ''transportation'' is understood to mean the movement of people or goods from one point to another. Some of the off-highway equipment included in this study doesn't transport either people or goods, but it has utility in movement (e.g., a forklift or a lawn mower). Along these lines, a chain saw also has utility in movement, but it cannot transport itself (i.e., it must be carried) because it does not have wheels. Therefore

  4. 75 FR 17829 - Motorcyclist Advisory Council to the Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Motorcyclist Advisory Council to the Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of advisory committee. SUMMARY: This document announces the eighth meeting of the Motorcyclist Advisory Council to the Federal...

  5. 77 FR 24560 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of public symposium. SUMMARY: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is announcing...

  6. 75 FR 55628 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements: Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Office of Crash Avoidance Standards...

  7. Analysis of water surface and flow distribution for the design flood at a proposed highway crossing of the Sabine River near Tatum, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, J.J.; Myers, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The hydraulic effects of the proposed Texas Highway 43 crossing of the Sabine River near Tatum, Texas, were determined on the basis of results from a two-dimensional finite-element surface-water-flow model. In planning the replacement crossing by the Texas State Department of Highways and Public Transportation, approximations of apportionment of flow among the openings and velocities within the openings were of concern. The model was used to simulate flow in the river floodplain system for the proposed design, an alternate design, and for the natural condition. The proposed bridge design by the State Department of Highways and Public Transportation consisted of a 320-foot main channel opening, four left overflow bridges with widths of 120, 320, 320, and 280 feet, and one right overflow opening with a width of 440 feet. The alternate design consisted of a 950-foot main channel opening, three left overflow bridges with widths of 320, 320, and 280 feet, and one right overflow opening with a width of 200 feet. Preliminary one-dimensional computations were used as an aid in establishing the boundary conditions for the two-dimensional analysis.

  8. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR...

  9. 49 CFR 325.35 - Ambient conditions; highway operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambient conditions; highway operations. 325.35... Ambient conditions; highway operations. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the microphone... § 325.23. (2) The measured ambient level must be 10 dB(A) or more below that level specified in §...

  10. 14 CFR 93.68 - General rules: Seward Highway segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General rules: Seward Highway segment. 93.68 Section 93.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Area § 93.68 General rules: Seward Highway segment. (a) Each person operating an airplane in the...

  11. 23 CFR 200.9 - State highway agency responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administration. (2) Section 162a of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 (section 324, title 23 U.S.C.) requires... requirements of section 162a of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 have been added to its assurances. (3)...

  12. Mathematical model of transportation flow dynamics on a multilane highway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazurin, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a microscopic model for the dynamics of a transportation flow based on cellular automata with improved lane changing rules. With this model, we study the influence of crossing transportation flows on the throughput of a multilane highway. For a two-lane highway with an exit, we obtain spa

  13. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 7: Traffic Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 7 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic courts, their purpose and objectives. Federal authority in the area of traffic courts are described. Program development and operations (a study of courts trying traffic cases, a…

  14. New highway development in the Netherlands: a residents' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of new highway development from a residents’ perspective. Data were collected by questionnaire in two residential areas, Son and Uden, both situated along the new A50 highway in the Netherlands. The objectives of this study are: 1) to analyse the extent to which h

  15. Non-destructive inspection protocol for reinforced concrete barriers and bridge railings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintakunta, Satish R.; Boone, Shane D.

    2014-02-01

    Reinforced concrete highway barriers and bridge railings serve to prevent errant vehicles from departing the travel way at grade separations. Despite the important role that they play in maintaining safety and their ubiquitous nature, barrier inspection rarely moves beyond visual inspection. In August 2008, a tractor-trailer fatally departed William Preston Lane, Jr. Memorial Bridge after it dislodged a section of the bridge barrier. Investigations following the accident identified significant corrosion of the anchor bolts attaching the bridge railing to the bridge deck. As a result of the information gathered during its investigation of the accident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made recommendations to the Federal Highway Administration concerning Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of concrete bridge railings. The Center for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, VA is currently evaluating feasibility of using four technologies - ground penetrating radar (GPR), ultrasonic pulse-echo, digital radiography and infrared thermal imaging methods to develop bridge inspection methods that augment visual inspections, offer reliable measurement techniques, and are practical, both in terms of time and cost, for field inspection work. Controlled samples containing predefined corrosion levels in reinforcing steel were embedded at barrier connection points for laboratory testing. All four NDE techniques were used in the initial phase I testing. An inspection protocol for detecting and measuring the corrosion of reinforced steel embedded in the anchorage system will be developed as part of phase II research. The identified technologies shall be further developed for field testing utilizing a structure with a barrier in good condition and a structure with a barrier in poor condition.

  16. Jumping from the Brooklyn Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R J; Pizzi, W F; Richman, H; Tiefenbrun, J

    1987-07-01

    In an attempt to identify factors contributing to survival of free fall and impact, we evaluated the records of four patients who survived a jump from the Brooklyn Bridge into the East River in New York Harbor between 1977 and 1985. All four patients were male and ranged in age from 22 to 67 years. They had free falls of between 41.0 and 48.8 meters. All of the patients were brought to the hospital within 24 minutes of entering the water. Three of the four had emergency surgical treatment and the fourth patient had only minor injuries. All four patients survived the suicide attempts. The length of the hospital stay ranged from two to 26 days.

  17. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  18. Bridge Crossing Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-07

    Requirement BCS Computer-controlled hydraulic actuation system to impart simulated crossing loads on an entire bridge structure undergoing fatigue test ...structure. Bridge test site with prepared embankments corresponding to the span and bank condition requirements of the bridge under test Conduct real...Center (AEC). (5) Sample size and number of crossings required. The number of required simulated crossings to conduct fatigue testing per the

  19. Characterization of water-quality and bed-sediment conditions in Currituck Sound, North Carolina, prior to the Mid-Currituck Bridge construction, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2015-12-24

    The North Carolina Turnpike Authority, a division of the North Carolina Department of Transportation, is planning to make transportation improvements in the Currituck Sound area by constructing a two-lane bridge from U.S. Highway 158 just south of Coinjock, North Carolina, to State Highway 12 on the Outer Banks just south of Corolla, North Carolina. The results of the Final Environmental Impact Study associated with the bridge and existing roadway improvements indicated potential water-quality and habitat impacts to Currituck Sound related to stormwater runoff, altered light levels, introduction of piles as hard substrate, and localized turbidity and siltation during construction.

  20. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  1. Bridging the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska; Murdock, Karen; Schmidt, Iben Julie

    2015-01-01

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures. Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ve...

  2. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska;

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  3. Simulation of flow and evaluation of bridge scour at Horse Island Chute Bridge near Chester, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.; Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.

    2001-01-01

    The evaluation of scour at bridges throughout the State of Missouri has been ongoing since 1991, and most of these evaluations have used one-dimensional hydraulic analysis and application of conventional scour depth equations. Occasionally, the conditions of a site dictate that a more thorough hydraulic assessment is required. To provide the hydraulic parameters required to determine the potential scour depths at the bridge over Horse Island Chute near Chester, Illinois, a two-dimensional finite-element surface-water model (FESWMS-2DH) was used to simulate flood flows in the vicinity of the Missouri State Highway 51 crossing of the Mississippi River and Horse Island Chute. The model was calibrated using flood-flow information collected during the 1993 flood. A flood profile along the Illinois side of the Mississippi River on August 5, 1993, with a corresponding measured discharge of 944,000 cubic feet per second was used to calibrate the model. Two additional flood-flow simulations were run: the flood peak that occurred on August 6, 1993, with a maximum discharge of 1,000,000 cubic feet per second, and the discharge that caused impending overtopping of the road embankment in the vicinity of the Horse Island Chute bridge, with a discharge of 894,000 cubic feet per second (impendent discharge). Hydraulic flow parameters obtained from the simulations were applied to scour depth equations to determine general contraction and local pier and abutment scour depths at the Horse Island Chute bridge. The measured discharge of 944,000 cubic feet per second resulted in 13.3 feet of total combined contraction and local pier scour at Horse Island Chute bridge. The maximum discharge of 1,000,000 cubic feet per second resulted in 15.8 feet of total scour and the impendent discharge of 894,000 cubic feet per second resulted in 11.6 feet of total scour.

  4. Interaction study of permafrost and highway along Qinghai-Xizang Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingbai; (吴青柏); SHI; Bin; (施; 斌); LIU; Yongzhi; (刘永智)

    2003-01-01

    Eight monitoring sites are set along the Qinghai-Xizang Highway (QXH) to investigate the characteristics and process of interaction between permafrost and highway, including the upper and down boundaries of active layer under natural surface, seasonally freezing-thawing depth under asphalt pavement, permafrost table temperature and roadbed stability. The investigation results show that the changes of active layer thickness and permafrost table temperature under asphalt pavement are greater than these under natural surface due to the absorbing heat action and less evaporation of asphalt pavement, as a result, the engineering geological problems such as thaw settlement and frost heave present frequently along QXH line and produce the adverse impact on roadbed stability.

  5. Evaluation of the New Jersey Digital Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Jeng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the usefulness of the New Jersey Digital Highway (NJDH, www.njdigitalhighway.org and its portal structure. The NJDH intends to provide an immersive and user-centered portal for New Jersey history and culture. The research recruited 145 participants and used a Web-based questionnaire that contained three sections: for everyone, for educators, and for curators. The feedback on the usefulness of the NJDH was positive and the portal structure was favorable. The research uncovered several reasons why some collections did not want to or could not participate. The findings also suggested priorities for further development. This study is one of the few on the evaluation of cultural heritage digital library.

  6. Autoimmunity and the highway to diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, P

    1997-02-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an immunopathological condition involving loss of beta cell function, but views of how this arises are confusing and contradictory. For example, studies with non-obese diabetic mice implicate abnormal cytokine production in disease pathogenesis, but give little insight into how this arises. Many genetic and environmental risk factors have been described, but no single factor predicts the development of disease. Moreover, the prevalence of auto-antibodies suggests an autoimmune aetiology, but no antigen is recognized by all individuals. As an aid to understanding how IDDM develops, this review considers the risk factors as distinct starting points on a journey, and reviews current literature in search of the point where the roads from each origin merge into a highway to diabetes.

  7. Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging for bridge inspection. Phase II, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, P.F.; Del Grande, N.K.; Schaich, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Developing and implementing methods of effective bridge rehabilitation is a major issue for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The nation spends $5 billion annually to replace, rehabilitate or construct new bridges. According to the National Bridge Inventory, over 100,000 U.S. bridges are structurally deficient. About 40,000 of these bridges have advanced deck deterioration. The most common causes of serious deck deterioration is delamination. Delaminations result when steel reinforcements within the bridge deck corrode, creating gaps that separate the concrete into layers. A reliable inspection technology, capable of identifying delaminations, would represent a power new tool in bridge maintenance. To date, most bridge inspections rely on human interpretation of surface visual features of chain dragging. These methods are slow, disruptive, unreliable and raise serious safety concerns. Infrared thermal imaging detects subsurface delaminations and surface clutter, which is introduced by foreign material on the roadway. Typically, foreign material which is not always evident on a video tape image, produces a unique IR reflectance background unlike the thermal response of a subsurface delamination. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging to identify and remove nonthermal IR reflectance backgrounds from foreign material on the roadway. DBIR methods improve the performance of IR thermal imaging by a factor of ten, compared to single-band infrared (SBIR) methods. DBIR thermal imaging allows precise temperature measurement to reliably locate bridge deck delaminations and remove wavelength-dependent emissivity variations due to foreign material on the roadway.

  8. Interracial Bridging Social Capital among Students of a Multicultural University in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Ezhar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the influence of interracial socialization and race on interracial bridging social capital among Malaysian students of a multicultural Malaysian public university was examined. Results reveal a narrowed level of interracial bridging social capital among the students. The minority Chinese and the majority Malays do not differ in…

  9. Interracial Bridging Social Capital among Students of a Multicultural University in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Ezhar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the influence of interracial socialization and race on interracial bridging social capital among Malaysian students of a multicultural Malaysian public university was examined. Results reveal a narrowed level of interracial bridging social capital among the students. The minority Chinese and the majority Malays do not differ in…

  10. Forensic aspects of the highway crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, P W

    1983-01-01

    It can be stated that patterns of injury in highway crashes can often be related to specific design and damage features of the vehicle. The restraint systems designed to attenuate injury may also, under severe crash circumstances, produce trauma. Problems may arise as to identification of vehicular drivers. It behooves the pathologist concerned with the necropsy of crash victims and the physician responsible for treating crash victims to become familiar with the pathogenesis of injuries. Such knowledge can be utilized in the recommendation for improvement of vehicles to render them more crashworthy. Awareness of the various mechanisms of injury in vehicle crashes also enhances the diagnostic skill of the initial treating physician when he or she is confronted with a crash victim in the emergency department. Ideally, when the victim arrives at the hospital, the emergency room physician should be supplied with the details of the crash including the type of vehicle, position within the vehicle, use or nonuse of restraint systems, and the direction of the impact. When a fatality results from a car crash, ideally the autopsy pathologist should inspect the vehicle or at least view pictures of the exterior and interior of the vehicle to help establish the pathogenesis of injury in a specific collision. Unfortunately, because of time constraints, this ideal is not always achieved. Because of the considerable volume of civil and criminal litigation resulting from highway crashes, there is a need for competent medical expertise to help both the plaintiff and the defendent. The pathologist involved in forensic work and the treating physician play a particularly important role in the judicial arena.

  11. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems...

  12. THE APPLICATION OF GROUND PENETRATING RADAR IN THE HIGHWAY ROAD BED INVESTIGATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Chong; CHEN Chao; XU Shun-fang

    2004-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a new nondestructive geophysical method for road quality investigation. In this article, a section of the highway joints with the third Yangtze Bridge in Wuhan have been investigated using the RAMAC/GPR system developed by the MAL? GeoScience Company. Various antennas with different frequency were used in the exploration. And the data gathered by the unshielded antenna with frequency in 400 MHz is very well. Then the field data was processed using methods such as trace equalization, F-K filtering, deconvolution filtering and so on. Through the processing, the GPR profile shows the underground structure more clearly. From the processed GPR profile, the sinking and slipping condition of the roadbed can be easily found. Most parts of the roadbed are well, but several parts of the roadbed have sunken or slipped seriously. Contrasts to the shallow seismic section, the GPR profile accords with it very well. It indicates that the GPR method is available and has the high efficiency in the highway roadbed investigation.

  13. Dynamic characterization and damage detection in the I-40 bridge over the Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Baker, W.E.; Bell, T.M.; Cone, K.M.; Darling, T.W.; Duffey, T.A.; Eklund, A.; Migliori, A.

    1994-06-01

    In the 1960`s and 1970`s over 2500 bridges were built in the U.S. with a design similar to those on Interstate 40 over the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, New Mexico. These bridges were built without structural redundancy and typically have only two plate girders carrying the entire dead and live loads. Failure of either girder is assumed to produce catastrophic failure of the bridge, hence these bridges are referred to as fracture-critical bridges. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have provided funds to New Mexico State University (NMSU) through the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department (NMSH&TD) and The Alliance For Transportation Research (ATR) for evaluation and testing of the existing fracture critical bridges over the Rio Grande. Because the 1-40 bridges over the Rio Grande were to be razed during the summer of 1993, the investigators were able to introduce simulated fatigue cracks, similar to those observed in the field, into the structure in order to test various damage identification methods and to observe the changes in load paths through the structure caused by the cracking. To support this research effort, NMSU contracted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform experimental modal analyses, and to develop experimentally verified numerical models of the bridge. Scientists from the LANL`s Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group (P-10) applied state-of-the-art sensors and data acquisition software to the modal tests. Engineers from the LANL`s Advanced Engineering Technology Group (MEE-13) conducted ambient and forced vibration tests to verify detailed and simplified finite element models of the bridge. Forced vibration testing was done in conjunction with engineers from Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) who provided and operated a hydraulic shaker.

  14. Translating Climate Projections for Bridge Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Takle, E. S.; Krajewski, W.; Mantilla, R.; Quintero, F.

    2015-12-01

    A bridge vulnerability pilot study was conducted by Iowa Department of Transportation (IADOT) as one of nineteen pilots supported by the Federal Highway Administration Climate Change Resilience Pilots. Our pilot study team consisted of the IADOT senior bridge engineer who is the preliminary design section leader as well as climate and hydrological scientists. The pilot project culminated in a visual graphic designed by the bridge engineer (Figure 1), and an evaluation framework for bridge engineering design. The framework has four stages. The first two stages evaluate the spatial and temporal resolution needed in climate projection data in order to be suitable for input to a hydrology model. The framework separates streamflow simulation error into errors from the streamflow model and from the coarseness of input weather data series. In the final two stages, the framework evaluates credibility of climate projection streamflow simulations. Using an empirically downscaled data set, projection streamflow is generated. Error is computed in two time frames: the training period of the empirical downscaling methodology, and an out-of-sample period. If large errors in projection streamflow were observed during the training period, it would indicate low accuracy and, therefore, low credibility. If large errors in streamflow were observed during the out-of-sample period, it would mean the approach may not include some causes of change and, therefore, the climate projections would have limited credibility for setting expectations for changes. We address uncertainty with confidence intervals on quantiles of streamflow discharge. The results show the 95% confidence intervals have significant overlap. Nevertheless, the use of confidence intervals enabled engineering judgement. In our discussions, we noted the consistency in direction of change across basins, though the flood mechanism was different across basins, and the high bound of bridge lifetime period quantiles exceeded

  15. Investigation of chloride induced corrosion of bridge pier and life-cycle repair cost analysis using fiber reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Dinesh

    Bridges are the long term investment of the highway agencies. To maintain the required service level throughout the life of a bridge, a series of maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation (MRℝ) works can be performed. To investigate the corrosion deterioration and maintenance and repair practices in the bridge pier columns constructed in chloride-laden environment, a questionnaire survey was conducted within the 50 state Departments of Transportation (DOTs). Based on the survey data, two corrosion deterioration phases were identified. They were corrosion crack initiation phase and corrosion propagation phase. The data showed that the mean corrosion crack initiation phase for bridge pier column having cover of 50 mm, 75 mm, and 100 mm was 18.9 years, 20.3 years, and 22.5 years, respectively. The corrosion propagation phase starts after the corrosion crack initiation. The corrosion propagation is defined in a single term, corrosion damage rate, measured as percentage of area damaged due to corrosion cracking, spalling, and delamination. From the survey, the corrosion damage rate was found 2.23% and 2.10% in the bridge pier columns exposed to deicing salt water and exposed to tidal splash/spray, respectively. For this study, two different corrosion damage rates were proposed before and after the repair criteria for minor damage repair as practiced by DOTs. This study also presents the collected data regarding the corrosion effectiveness of using sealers and coatings, cathodic protection, corrosion inhibitors, carbon fiber/epoxy composites, and glass fiber/epoxy composites as maintenance and repair technique. In this study, the cost-effectiveness of wrapping carbon fiber/epoxy composites and glass fiber/epoxy composites in bridge pier columns constructed in a chloride-laden environment was investigated by conducting life-cycle cost analysis. As a repair work, externally bonded two layer of carbon fiber/epoxy and glass fiber/epoxy composites were installed by wet

  16. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  17. An Innovative Strategy for Maintenance of Highway Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Choudhary, Dr. P. K. Agarwal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Highway pavement are deteriorating fast due to lack of timely maintenance, leading to higher vehicle operating costs, increasing number of accidents etc. Thus, timely maintenance of the highway pavement is essential. Because, once pavements start to deteriorate; they deteriorate rapidly beyond the point where maintenance is effective. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a strategy for maintenance of pavement in a huge highway network. In this study, an innovative strategy for maintenance of highway pavement is proposed. A two stage maintenance strategy is proposed. In stage I, it is proposed to determine priority of highway sections. In Stage II, priority of various maintenance activities to be carried out on various sections will be determined. Maintenance priority of the pavement is based on importance of the road sections, present road conditions, and future road conditions. The methodology proposed in this study is illustrated with the help of example of some hypothetical highway network consisting of 4 sections. Analysis results indicated that the proposed strategy is considered to be more rational, innovative & logical. Some strategies for maintenance of urban roads are also presented in this study. Therefore, it is expected that this study will be useful for maintenance of huge highway network in India and thus will be useful for preserving huge asset of pavement infrastructure.

  18. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...

  19. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  20. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  1. Health monitoring data analysis and comparison of prototype and laboratorial model for long-span cable-stayed bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ou; Ou, Jinping

    2009-03-01

    Since 2004, Shandong Binzhou Yellow River highway bridge health monitoring (SHM) system has started to operate. Abundance data has been acquired during these years. To make full use of these data, a 1/40 scale laboratorial model has been built based on the design information of Shandong Binzhou Yellow River highway bridge. And a health monitoring system of the laboratorial model, which included loading system, local response monitoring subsystem and global response monitoring subsystem, has been designed and implemented. The dynamic performance of bridge model and prototype has been compared and the error analysis has been provided also. The numeric simulation of cable damage localization utilizing damage location vectors (DLVs) has been demonstrated. And the results indicated that using DLVs to localize the cable damage is feasible and accurate. The goal of these efforts is to utilize the convenience of the laboratorial environment to obtain the structural information in ideal state which is hard to get in field.

  2. BCDC Minor Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — An administrative permit can be issued for an activity that qualifies as a minor repair or improvement in a relatively short period of time and without a public...

  3. Minority Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  4. Minority Veteran Report 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  5. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  6. Neptune: Minor Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    All but one of Neptune's minor satellites orbit within or just outside its ringsystem; the exception is the distant object Nereid. Some of them are betterdescribed as `mid-sized' rather than `minor', but are included under thisheading as little is known of them. The inner four, with approximatediameters, are Naiad (60 km), Thalassa (80 km), Despina (150 km) and Galatea(160 km). The first three lie...

  7. Mechanism of Geogrid Reinforced Soil at Bridge Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Guangle; LUO Rong; CHEN Congxin

    2007-01-01

    Using Geogrid-Reinforced Soil (GRS) we studied the working mechanism and design method of GRS at bridge approach with high backfill by field experiment. In a highway section where the height of backfill is 13.5 meters, geogrids were used at two bridge approaches to address the bumping problems. Some soil pressure cells were used to measure the normal and lateral soil pressure at different locations in the roadbed. The experimental results indicate that geogrids in geogrid-reinforced soil (GRS) could produce an uplift force, the closer the location to the abutment, the larger the uplift force, and the reduction of measured soil pressures compared with theoretical values was the largest at the bottom of roadbed, less at the top than at the bottom, and the least in the mid-height of roadbed than at the bottom. These findings are different from those of the traditional greogrid-reinforced subgrade design method.

  8. Wake-up transceivers for structural health monitoring of bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumberg, T.; Kokert, J.; Younesi, V.; Koenig, S.; Reindl, L. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this article we present a wireless sensor network to monitor the structural health of a large-scale highway bridge in Germany. The wireless sensor network consists of several sensor nodes that use wake-up receivers to realize latency free and low-power communication. The sensor nodes are either equipped with very accurate tilt sensor developed by Northrop Grumman LITEF GmbH or with a Novatel OEM615 GNSS receiver. Relay nodes are required to forward measurement data to a base station located on the bridge. The base station is a gateway that transmits the local measurement data to a remote server where it can be further analyzed and processed. Further on, we present an energy harvesting system to supply the energy demanding GNSS sensor nodes to realize long term monitoring.

  9. Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete and Its Application in Highway Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Junwei Song; Shuhua Liu

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance reactive powder concrete (RPC) was prepared with river sand, and the maximum particle size is 1.25 mm, under the 80°C steam curing condition. It is tested completely in terms of strength, uniaxial compressive stress-strain relation, flexural load-deflection relation, and frost resisting durability, and the results indicate that the concrete is suitable to RPC200. The uniaxial compressive stress-strain curve shows a linear-elastic behaviour up to explosive failure, which is ...

  10. Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete and Its Application in Highway Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Junwei Song; Shuhua Liu

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance reactive powder concrete (RPC) was prepared with river sand, and the maximum particle size is 1.25 mm, under the 80°C steam curing condition. It is tested completely in terms of strength, uniaxial compressive stress-strain relation, flexural load-deflection relation, and frost resisting durability, and the results indicate that the concrete is suitable to RPC200. The uniaxial compressive stress-strain curve shows a linear-elastic behaviour up to explosive failure, which is ...

  11. Electronic Highway or Weaving Loom? Thinking about Conferencing Technologies for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Elizabeth J.

    Information highways are high speed data networks used to transport information and link people together. As more limitations of and problems with the information highway ("potholes") become apparent, the highway metaphor may have to be revisited, and the information highway must be examined with a critical eye. Distance educators…

  12. 23 CFR 500.204 - TMS components for highway traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false TMS components for highway traffic data. 500.204 Section... for highway traffic data. (a) General. Each State's TMS, including those using alternative procedures... highway traffic data shall include the testing of equipment used in the collection of the data....

  13. Finite element analysis of the I-40 bridge over the Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, P.A.; Jauregui, D.V.; Vigil, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s numerous bridges were built in the US with a design similar to those on Interstate 40 (I-40) over the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have provided funds to New Mexico State University (NMSU) through the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department (NMSH and TD) and The Alliance For Transportation Research (ATR) for evaluation and testing of the existing fracture-critical bridges over the Rio Grande. Because the I-40 Bridges over the Rio Grande were to be razed during the summer of 1993, the investigators were able to introduce damage into the structure in order to test various damage identification methods and to observe the changes in load paths through the structure caused by the cracking. To support this research effort, NMSU contracted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform experimental modal analyses, and to develop experimentally verified numerical models of the bridge. A previous report (LA-12767-MS) summarizes the results of the experimental modal analyses. This report summarizes the numerical analyses of the bridges and compares the results of these analyses to the experimental results.

  14. Hydrologic Analysis and Two-Dimensional Simulation of Flow at State Highway 17 crossing the Gasconade River near Waynesville, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, the U.S. Geological Survey determined hydrologic and hydraulic parameters for the Gasconade River at the site of a proposed bridge replacement and highway realignment of State Highway 17 near Waynesville, Missouri. Information from a discontinued streamflow-gaging station on the Gasconade River near Waynesville was used to determine streamflow statistics for analysis of the 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods at the site. Analysis of the streamflow-gaging stations on the Gasconade River upstream and downstream from Waynesville indicate that flood peaks attenuate between the upstream gaging station near Hazelgreen and the Waynesville gaging station, such that the peak discharge observed on the Gasconade River near Waynesville will be equal to or only slightly greater (7 percent or less) than that observed near Hazelgreen. A flood event occurred on the Gasconade River in March 2008, and a flood measurement was obtained near the peak at State Highway 17. The elevation of high-water marks from that event indicated it was the highest measured flood on record with a measured discharge of 95,400 cubic feet per second, and a water-surface elevation of 766.18 feet near the location of the Waynesville gaging station. The measurements obtained for the March flood resulted in a shift of the original stage-discharge relation for the Waynesville gaging station, and the streamflow statistics were modified based on the new data. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow model was used to simulate flow conditions on the Gasconade River in the vicinity of State Highway 17. A model was developed that represents existing (2008) conditions on State Highway 17 (the 'model of existing conditions'), and was calibrated to the floods of March 20, 2008, December 4, 1982, and April 14, 1945. Modifications were made to the model of existing conditions to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Gasconade

  15. Highway Construction Management%公路施工管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2015-01-01

    In the highway construction, the construction process should be scientific, reasonable management, and in the latter do a good job in the maintenance work, to ensure the quality of the highway. Based on this, this paper analyzes the highway construction management, in order to promote the sustainable development of highway engineering in China.%在公路施工前,应当对施工过程进行科学、合理的管理,并在工程后期做好养护工作,保证公路的质量.基于此,对公路施工管理进行了分析,以促进我国公路工程的可持续发展.

  16. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...... been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds....... The results also show that the accumulation rates for the heavy metals depend significantly on the relative pond area (pond area divided by catchment area). The conclusion is that the mass balances of heavy metals and PAHs in highway ponds can be estimated with acceptable accuracy from a combination of short...

  17. Photonic Technologies for Ultra-High-Speed Information Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchoule, S; Lèfevre, R.; Legros, E.;

    1999-01-01

    The ACTS project HIGHWAY (AC067) addresses promising ultra-high speed optoelectronic components and system technologies for 40 Gbit/s time-division-multiplexed (TDM) transport systems. Advanced 40 Gbit/s TDM system lab demonstrators are to be realized and tested over installed field fiber testbed....... This paper reviews the current status of 40 Gbit/s TDM components and subsystem technologies achieved in HIGHWAY. The results of HIGHWAY 40 Gbit/s TDM systems and field tests will be reported in a subsequent paper. (C) 1999 Academic Press.......The ACTS project HIGHWAY (AC067) addresses promising ultra-high speed optoelectronic components and system technologies for 40 Gbit/s time-division-multiplexed (TDM) transport systems. Advanced 40 Gbit/s TDM system lab demonstrators are to be realized and tested over installed field fiber testbeds...

  18. Highway vehicle systems contractors coordination meeting. Seventeenth summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts was prepared for each of the 62 papers presented at the Contractors' Coordination meeting on highway vehicle systems. One paper had previously appeared in DOE's data base.

  19. Road and Street Centerlines - MO 2010 Highway Patrol Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This is a representation of current Missouri Highway Patrol Districts. Derived from TIGER/Line Files this shapefile and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  20. Analysis of potential highway routes to Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathisan, S.K.; Parentela, E.M.; Lee, M.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    States have been provided the authority to designate routes for the transport of highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials. The state of Nevada is currently evaluating alternative routes for such designation. This paper provides a preliminary assessment of potential system impacts of Nevada`s highway route designation for the shipment of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLRW) to the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A potential route being evaluated by Nevada was used to specify routing constraints for highway shipments to Yucca Mountain. Individual routes were determined for shipments from each origin using the HIGHWAY model for unconstrained and constrained routing scenarios. Results of the analysis indicate that the imposition of the routing constraint would result in increased travel times and shipment distances. These increases range from about 1.25 percent to about 80 percent. However, the magnitude of such increases is highly dependent on the geographic location of the origin.

  1. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., landside infrastructure maintenance savings, improved safety, and added system resiliency. Additional... and performance. (3) Involved Parties. Provide the organizational structure of the parties... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor represents...

  2. Hanford Reach - Highway 24 Homestead Reclamation Project 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Highway 24 Homestead project is a multi-year reclamation effort in part designed to address habitat degradation and hazardous fuels issues in part caused by past...

  3. Hanford Reach - Highway 24 Homestead Reclamation Project 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Highway 24 Homestead project is a multi-year reclamation effort in part designed to address habitat degradation and hazardous fuels issues in part caused by past...

  4. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  5. Research on Collapse Process of Cable-Stayed Bridges under Strong Seismic Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to present the collapse process and failure mechanism of long-span cable-stayed bridges under strong seismic excitations, a rail-cum-road steel truss cable-stayed bridge was selected as engineering background, the collapse failure numerical model of the cable-stayed bridge was established based on the explicit dynamic finite element method (FEM, and the whole collapse process of the cable-stayed bridge was analyzed and studied with three different seismic waves acted in the horizontal longitudinal direction, respectively. It can be found from the numerical simulation analysis that the whole collapse failure process and failure modes of the cable-stayed bridge under three different seismic waves are similar. Furthermore, the piers and the main pylons are critical components contributing to the collapse of the cable-stayed bridge structure. However, the cables and the main girder are damaged owing to the failure of piers and main pylons during the whole structure collapse process, so the failure of cable and main girder components is not the main reason for the collapse of cable-stayed bridge. The analysis results can provide theoretical basis for collapse resistance design and the determination of critical damage components of long-span highway and railway cable-stayed bridges in the research of seismic vulnerability analysis.

  6. Experimental verification of bridge seismic damage states quantified by calibrating analytical models with empirical field data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swagata Banerjee; Masanobu Shinozuka

    2008-01-01

    Bridges are one of the most vulnerable components of a highway transportation network system subjected to earthquake ground motions.Prediction of resilience and sustainability of bridge performance in a probabilistic manner provides valuable information for pre-event system upgrading and post-event functional recovery of the network.The current study integrates bridge seismic damageability information obtained through empirical,analytical and experimental procedures and quantifies threshold limits of bridge damage states consistent with the physical damage description given in HAZUS.Experimental data from a large-scale shaking table test are utilized for this purpose.This experiment was conducted at the University of Nevada,Reno,where a research team from the University of California,Irvine,participated.Observed experimental damage data are processed to idemify and quantify bridge damage states in terms of rotational ductility at bridge column ends.In parallel,a mechanistic model for fragility curves is developed in such a way that the model can be calibrated against empirical fragility curves that have been constructed from damage data obtained during the 1994 Northridge earthquake.This calibration quantifies threshold values of bridge damage states and makes the analytical study consistent with damage data observed in past earthquakes.The mechanistic model is transportable and applicable to most types and sizes of bridges.Finally,calibrated damage state definitions are compared with that obtained using experimental findings.Comparison shows excellent consistency among results from analytical,empirical and experimental observations.

  7. A Practical Model for Deformation Prediction of Highway Subgrade Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports a practical constitutive relation for highway subgrade soils. The proposed model is derived based on the laboratory repeated-load testing of four subgrade soils. Statistical parameters generally used in the power model of subgrade permanent strain are expanded into material constants with engineering significance. The constitutional relation reported in this paper can be used in the mechanistic-based pavement design of highway flexible pavements and railroad tracks.

  8. Highway increases concentrations of toxic metals in giant panda habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying-Juan; Chen, Yi-Ping; Maltby, Lorraine; Jin, Xue-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The Qinling panda subspecies (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis) is highly endangered with fewer than 350 individuals inhabiting the Qinling Mountains. Previous studies have indicated that giant pandas are exposed to heavy metals, and a possible source is vehicle emission. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As in soil samples collected from sites along a major highway bisecting the panda's habitat were analyzed to investigate whether the highway was an important source of metal contamination. There were 11 sites along a 30-km stretch of the 108th National Highway, and at each site, soil samples were taken at four distances from the highway (0, 50, 100, and 300 m) and at three soil depths (0, 5, 10 cm). Concentrations of all metals except As exceeded background levels, and concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cd decreased significantly with increasing distance from the highway. Geo-accumulation index indicated that topsoil next to the highway was moderately contaminated with Pb and Zn, whereas topsoil up to 300 m away from the highway was extremely contaminated with Cd. The potential ecological risk index demonstrated that this area was in a high degree of ecological hazards, which were also due to serious Cd contamination. And, the hazard quotient indicated that Cd, Pb, and Mn especially Cd could pose the health risk to giant pandas. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the highway was the main source of Cd, Pb, and Zn and also put some influence on Mn. The study has confirmed that traffic does contaminate roadside soils and poses a potential threat to the health of pandas. This should not be ignored when the conservation and management of pandas is considered.

  9. The brief talk of X128 shui -da line yuliang bridge strengthening engineering construction management%浅谈 X128水大线渔梁桥加固工程建设管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瓦庆标

    2016-01-01

    随对我局管养的 X128水大线渔梁桥加固工程建设管理进行简单的阐述。%With the rapid development of Chinese social economy,the development of?highway transportation is also ad-vanced rapidly,and the bridge number is also increased.A large number of highway bridges?were founded in 60,70s in our province,under the function of increasing vehicle load,the technical state rapid decreased,soon the level of bridge de-veloped from class one or two to the three or four or even five,which was a threat to people's lives and property safety,and the bridge collapse accident sometimes happened.The paper mainly conduct a Simple exposition on the X128 Shui -Da line Yuliang Bridge strengthening engineering construction management.

  10. Sand harm in taklimakan Desert highway and sand control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANZhiwen; WANGTao; SUNQingwei; DONGZhibao; WANGXunming

    2003-01-01

    Reputed as a wonderful achievement of the world’s highway construction history,the Taklimakan Desert highway is nor facing serious sand drift encroachment problems due to its 447-km-long passage of sand sea consisting of crescent dunes,barchan chains,compound transverse dune ridges and complex megadunes.To solve some technical problems in the protection of the highway from sang drift encroachment,desert experts have been conducting the theoretical and applied studies on sand movement laws;causes,severities and time-space differentiation of sand drift damages;and control ways including mechanical,chemical and biological measures.In this paper the authors give an overall summry on the research contents and recent progress in the control of sand drift damages in China and hold that the theoretical researc results and practices in the prevention of sand drift encroachment on the cross-desert highway represnt a breakthrough and has an cpoch-making significance.Since the construction of protective forest along the cross-desert highway requires large amount of ground water,what will be its environmental consequence and whether it can effectively halt sand drift encroachment on the highway forever are the questions to be studied urgently.

  11. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  12. State's First Bridge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Article with details on the state's first bridge that crossed the Noxubee River adjacent to the Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Boundary. Details also included...

  13. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  14. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  15. Sex Trafficking of Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jessica L; Kaplan, Dana M; Barron, Christine E

    2017-04-01

    Sex trafficking is an increasingly recognized global health crisis affecting every country and region in the world. Domestic minor sex trafficking is a subset of commercial sexual exploitation of children, defined as engagement of minors (<18 years of age) in sexual acts for items of value (eg, food, shelter, drugs, money) involving children victimized within US borders. These involved youth are at risk for serious immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Continued efforts are needed to improve preventive efforts, identification, screening, appropriate interventions, and subsequent resource provision for victimized and high-risk youth.

  16. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    to a specific group. The question never posed is, if there is a point and in that case at what point the group can actually talk about being autonomous. Is there a minimum in the number of special rights and procedures that has to be reached in order for the package of rights to qualify as ‘granting autonomy...... in the cultural, educational, religious and social sectors which have of course are exercised in a limited territory; however, do not threaten the state's sovereignty in the same way as independent political decisions could do. How far minority rights have the same dimensions, will be another issue. Minorities...

  17. Probabilistic model for bridge structural evaluation using nondestructive inspection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Francisco; Lopez, Jose Alfredo; Balankin, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    A bridge management system developed for the Mexican toll highway network applies a probabilistic-reliability model to estimate load capacity and structural residual life. Basic inputs for the system are the global inspection data (visual inspections and vibration testing), and the information from the environment conditions (weather, traffic, loads, earthquakes); although, the model takes account for additional non-destructive testing or permanent monitoring data. Main outputs are the periodic maintenance, rehabilitation and replacement program, and the updated inspection program. Both programs are custom-made to available funds and scheduled according to a priority assignation criterion. The probabilistic model, tailored to typical bridges, accounts for the size, age, material and structure type. Special bridges in size or type may be included, while in these cases finite element deterministic models are also possible. Key feature is that structural qualification is given in terms of the probability of failure, calculated considering fundamental degradation mechanisms and from actual direct observations and measurements, such as crack distribution and size, materials properties, bridge dimensions, load deflections, and parameters for corrosion evaluation. Vibration measurements are basically used to infer structural resistance and to monitor long term degradation.

  18. Germ Cell Intercellular Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Michael P.; Iwamori, Tokuko; Buchold, Gregory M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Stable intercellular bridges are a conserved feature of gametogenesis in multicellular animals observed more than 100 years ago, but their function was unknown. Many of the components necessary for this structure have been identified through the study of cytokinesis in Drosophila; however, mammalian intercellular bridges have distinct properties from those of insects. Mammalian germ cell intercellular bridges are composed of general cytokinesis components with additional germ cell–specific factors including TEX14. TEX14 is an inactive kinase essential for the maintenance of stable intercellular bridges in gametes of both sexes but whose loss specifically impairs male meiosis. TEX14 acts to impede the terminal steps of abscission by competing for essential component CEP55, blocking its interaction in nongerm cells with ALIX and TSG101. Additionally, TEX14-interacting protein RBM44, whose localization in stabile intercellular bridges is limited to pachytene and secondary spermatocytes, may participate in processes such as RNA transport but is nonessential to the maintenance of intercellular bridge stability. PMID:21669984

  19. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado Jr, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The first Scandinavian bridge with a span of more than 500 m was the Lillebælt Suspension Bridge opened to traffic in 1970.Art the end of the 20th century the longest span of any European bridge is found in the Storebælt East Bridge with a main span of 1624 m. Also the third longest span in Europe...... is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...... m is the longest among cable-stayed bridges for both road and railway traffic....

  1. Creep and shrinkage effects on integral abutment bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuswamy, Sivakumar

    Integral abutment bridges provide bridge engineers an economical design alternative to traditional bridges with expansion joints owing to the benefits, arising from elimination of expensive joints installation and reduced maintenance cost. The superstructure for integral abutment bridges is cast integrally with abutments. Time-dependent effects of creep, shrinkage of concrete, relaxation of prestressing steel, temperature gradient, restraints provided by abutment foundation and backfill and statical indeterminacy of the structure introduce time-dependent variations in the redundant forces. An analytical model and numerical procedure to predict instantaneous linear behavior and non-linear time dependent long-term behavior of continuous composite superstructure are developed in which the redundant forces in the integral abutment bridges are derived considering the time-dependent effects. The redistributions of moments due to time-dependent effects have been considered in the analysis. The analysis includes nonlinearity due to cracking of the concrete, as well as the time-dependent deformations. American Concrete Institute (ACI) and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) models for creep and shrinkage are considered in modeling the time dependent material behavior. The variations in the material property of the cross-section corresponding to the constituent materials are incorporated and age-adjusted effective modulus method with relaxation procedure is followed to include the creep behavior of concrete. The partial restraint provided by the abutment-pile-soil system is modeled using discrete spring stiffness as translational and rotational degrees of freedom. Numerical simulation of the behavior is carried out on continuous composite integral abutment bridges and the deformations and stresses due to time-dependent effects due to typical sustained loads are computed. The results from the analytical model are compared with the

  2. Highway Traffic Incident Detection using High-Resolution Aerial Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M.M. Kahaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As vehicle population increases, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS become more significant and mandatory in today’s overpopulated world. Vital problems in transportation such as mobility and safety of transportation are considered more, especially in metropolitans and highways. The main road traffic monitoring aims are: the acquisition and analysis of traffic figures, such as number of vehicles, incident detection and automatic driver warning systems are developed mainly for localization and safety purposes. Approach: The objective of this investigation was to propose a strategy for road extraction and incident detection using aerial images. Real time extraction and localization of roadways in an satellite image is an emerging research field which can applied to vision-based traffic controlling and unmanned air vehicles navigation. Results: The results of the proposed incident detection algorithm show that it has good detection performance, the maximum angle of vehicles applied for incidet detection is 45 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  3. RELEASE OF MINORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Laurenţiu DUMBRAVĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The sanctioning of minors provided in a whole new Criminal Code is kinder to those applying to one category of criminal penalties, namely educational measures. This change occurred after finding the need to recover and straightening of juvenile offenders with their age-specific means and without coming into contact with major people that could adversely affect behavior.

  4. PATTERNS OF MINORITY RELATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUSTER, TROY S.; MACK, RAYMOND W.

    ACCORDING TO SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND BIOLOGISTS, ALL RACES ARE EQUAL IN ABILITY, NEVERTHELESS, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION EXISTS WHEN THE CULTURE OF A SOCIETY ALLOWS PEOPLE TO EXPRESS THEIR AGRESSIONS IN A SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE WAY. ONE WAY TO DEFINE GROUP BOUNDARIES IS TO SINGLE OUT A CHARACTERISTIC OF A MINORITY GROUP AND TO INSTITUTIONALIZE THIS…

  5. Minority Language Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Onderwijs in alochtone levende talen. At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, an exploratory study was carried out of minority Language teaching for primary school pupils. This exploratory study in seven municipalities not only shows the way in which

  6. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that

  7. Sexual minorities seeking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tracey L; Emanuel, Kristen; Bradford, Judith

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for services between July 1, 1997 and December 31, 2000 at Fenway Community Health in Boston, MA. Data are based on clients' self-reports and clinician assessments of clients' presenting problem, relevant developmental history, prior mental health and substance abuse treatment, current reports of emotional/psychological symptoms, and areas of impaired functioning. Although substance abuse and suicidal ideation were commonly reported problems, other concerns were more frequently reported. High percentages of lesbians and bisexual women reported relationship concerns and lack of adequate social networks; rates of depression and anxiety based on clinicians' assessments were also high. Overall, lesbians and bisexual women did not differ in the issues they brought to treatment or level or types of impairment. Compared with previous community survey samples, however, study participants appeared to be healthier than general, non-clinical samples of self-identified lesbians, possibly reflecting the special characteristics of sexual minority women who seek treatment in specialized community sites such as the Fenway. Although patients who come to these sites may not represent the more general population of sexual minority women, community health centers known to serve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals may be fruitful access points for studying the mental health status and treatment needs of sexual minority women.

  8. The Deformation of Overburden Soil and Interaction with Pile Foundations of Bridges Induced by Normal Faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang-Chun; Li, Chien-Hung; Chan, Pei-Chen; Lin, Ming-Lang

    2017-04-01

    According to the investigations of well-known disastrous earthquakes in recent years, ground deformation induced by faulting is one of the causes for engineering structure damages in addition to strong ground motion. Most of structures located on faulting zone has been destroyed by fault offset. Take the Norcia Earthquake in Italy (2016, Mw=6.2) as an example, the highway bridge in Arquata crossing the rupture area of the active normal fault suffered a quantity of displacement which causing abutment settlement, the piers of bridge fractured and so on. However, The Seismic Design Provisions and Commentary for Highway Bridges in Taiwan, the stating of it in the general rule of first chapter, the design in bridges crossing active fault: "This specification is not applicable of making design in bridges crossing or near active fault, that design ought to the other particular considerations ".This indicates that the safty of bridges crossing active fault are not only consider the seismic performance, the most ground deformation should be attended. In this research, to understand the failure mechanism and the deformation characteristics, we will organize the case which the bridges subjected faulting at home and abroad. The processes of research are through physical sandbox experiment and numerical simulation by discrete element models (PFC3-D). The normal fault case in Taiwan is Shanchiao Fault. As above, the research can explore the deformation in overburden soil and the influences in the foundations of bridges by normal faulting. While we can understand the behavior of foundations, we will make the bridge superstructures into two separations, simple beam and continuous beam and make a further research on the main control variables in bridges by faulting. Through the above mentioned, we can then give appropriate suggestions about planning considerations and design approaches. This research presents results from sandbox experiment and 3-D numerical analysis to simulate

  9. Prizing on Paths: A PTAS for the Highway Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Grandoni, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    In the highway problem, we are given an n-edge line graph (the highway), and a set of paths (the drivers), each one with its own budget. For a given assignment of edge weights (the tolls), the highway owner collects from each driver the weight of the associated path, when it does not exceed the budget of the driver, and zero otherwise. The goal is choosing weights so as to maximize the profit. A lot of research has been devoted to this apparently simple problem. The highway problem was shown to be strongly NP-hard only recently [Elbassioni,Raman,Ray-'09]. The best-known approximation is O(\\log n/\\log\\log n) [Gamzu,Segev-'10], which improves on the previous-best O(\\log n) approximation [Balcan,Blum-'06]. In this paper we present a PTAS for the highway problem, hence closing the complexity status of the problem. Our result is based on a novel randomized dissection approach, which has some points in common with Arora's quadtree dissection for Euclidean network design [Arora-'98]. The basic idea is enclosing the ...

  10. A speed-flow relationship model of highway traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; LI Wei; REN Gang

    2005-01-01

    In the view that the generally used speed-flow relationship model is insufficient in the traffic analysis under over-saturated conditions, this paper first establishes the theoretical models of speed flow relationship for each highway class based upon a large number of traffic data collected from the field. Then by analyzing the traffic flow dissipation mechanism under peak hour over-saturated traffic conditions, the speed flow relationship model structures for each highway class are reviewed under different traffic load conditions. Through curve-fitting of large numbers of observed data, functional equations of general speed-flow relationship models for each highway class under any traffic load conditions are established. The practical model parameters for each highway class under different design speeds are also put forward. This model is successful in solving the speed-forecasting problem of the traffic flow under peak hour over-saturated conditions. This provides the theoretical bases for the development of projects related to highway network planning, economic analysis, etc.

  11. Deicing chemicals as source of constituents of highway runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The dissolved major and trace constituents of deicing chemicals as a source of constituents in highway runoff must be quantified for interpretive studies of highway runoff and its effects on surface water and groundwater. Dissolved constituents of the deicing chemicals-sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and premix (a mixture of sodium and calcium chloride)-were determined by analysis of salt solutions created in the laboratory and are presented as mass ratios to chloride. Deicing chemical samples studied are about 98 and 97 percent pure sodium chloride and calcium chloride, respectively: however, each has a distinct major and trace ion constituent signature. The greatest impurity in sodium chloride road sail samples was sulfate, followed by calcium, potassium, bromide, vanadium, magnesium, fluoride, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. The greatest impurity in the calcium chloride road salt samples was sodium, followed by potassium, sulfate, bromide, silica, fluoride. strontium, magnesium, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. Major constituents of deicing chemicals in highway runoff may account for a substantial source of annual chemical loads. Comparison of estimated annual loads and first flush concentrations of deicing chemical constituents in highway runoff with those reported in the literature indicate that although deicing chemicals are not a primary source of trace constituents, they are not a trivial source, either. Therefore, deicing chemicals should be considered as a source of many major and trace constituents in highway and urban runoff.

  12. Accident prediction model for public highway-rail grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pan; Tolliver, Denver

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused on roadway accident frequency analysis, but relatively little research has examined safety evaluation at highway-rail grade crossings. Highway-rail grade crossings are critical spatial locations of utmost importance for transportation safety because traffic crashes at highway-rail grade crossings are often catastrophic with serious consequences. The Poisson regression model has been employed to analyze vehicle accident frequency as a good starting point for many years. The most commonly applied variations of Poisson including negative binomial, and zero-inflated Poisson. These models are used to deal with common crash data issues such as over-dispersion (sample variance is larger than the sample mean) and preponderance of zeros (low sample mean and small sample size). On rare occasions traffic crash data have been shown to be under-dispersed (sample variance is smaller than the sample mean) and traditional distributions such as Poisson or negative binomial cannot handle under-dispersion well. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare various alternate highway-rail grade crossing accident frequency models that can handle the under-dispersion issue. The contributions of the paper are two-fold: (1) application of probability models to deal with under-dispersion issues and (2) obtain insights regarding to vehicle crashes at public highway-rail grade crossings.

  13. Application and challenges of big data in quality monitoring of highway engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xianglin; Zhou, Chunrong

    2017-03-01

    Generation of big data brings opportunities and challenges to quality monitoring technologies of highway engineering. Big data of highway engineering quality monitoring is featured by typical "4V" characteristics. In order to deeply analyze application of big data in quality monitoring of highway engineering, the paper discusses generation, processing processes, key technologies as well as other aspects of big data of highway engineering quality monitoring. The paper analyzes storage structure, computing courses and data visualized processing processes of the big data of highway engineering quality monitoring and points out the problems and challenges encountered by application of big data in quality monitoring of highway engineering.

  14. Development of the applicability of simplified Henry's method for skewed multicell box-girder bridges under traffic loading conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iman MOHSENI; A.R.Khalim RASHID

    2012-01-01

    Concrete precast multicell box-girder (MCB) bridges combine aesthetics with torsional stiffness perfectly.Previous analytical studies indicate that currently available specifications are unable to consider the effect of the twisting moment (torsional moment) on bridge actions.In straight bridges the effect of torsion is negligible and the transverse reinforced design is governed by other requirements.However,in the case of skewed bridges the effect of the twisting moment should be considered.Therefore,an in-depth study was performed on 90 concrete MCB bridges with skew angles ranging from 0° to 60°.For each girder the bridge actions were determined under the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) live load conditions.The analytical results show that torsional stiffness and live load positions greatly affected the bridges' responses.In addition,based on a statistical analysis of the obtained results,several skew correction factors are proposed to improve the precision of the simplified Henry's method,which is widely used by bridge engineers to predict bridge actions.The relationship between the bending moment and secondary moments was also investigated and it was concluded that all secondary actions increase with an increase in skewness.

  15. Life-Cycle Monitoring of Long-Span PSC Box Girder Bridges through Distributed Sensor Network: Strategies, Methods, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM has attracted much attention in recent years, which enables early warnings of structural failure, condition assessments, and rational maintenance/repair strategies. In the context of bridges, many long-span steel bridges in China have been installed with the SHM systems; however, the applications of the SHM in prestressed concrete (PSC bridges are still rather limited. On the other hand, the PSC box girder bridges are extensively used in highway and railway systems and premature damage of these bridges is often reported, resulting in considerable maintenance and/or replacement costs. First, this paper presents a state-of-art review on the SHM of long-span PSC bridges. Monitoring strategies, methods, and previous applications for these bridges are summarized and discussed. In order to well capture the behavior of the bridge during its whole life and to maximize the use of sensors, a life-cycle monitoring strategy is proposed, in which the sensor layout is determined according to requirements for construction monitoring, completion test, and in-service monitoring. A case study is made on a three-span PSC box girder bridge in China. The system configuration, sensor layout, and data communications, and so forth, are presented. The up-to-date monitored structural responses are analyzed and compared with the design values.

  16. Applications of infrared thermography for nondestructive testing of fatigue cracks in steel bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Izumi, Yui; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Mizokami, Yoshiaki; Kawabata, Sunao

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, fatigue crack propagations in aged steel bridge which may lead to catastrophic structural failures have become a serious problem. For large-scale steel structures such as orthotropic steel decks in highway bridges, nondestructive inspection of deteriorations and fatigue damages are indispensable for securing their safety and for estimating their remaining strength. As conventional NDT techniques for steel bridges, visual testing, magnetic particle testing and ultrasonic testing have been commonly employed. However, these techniques are time- and labor- consuming techniques, because special equipment is required for inspection, such as scaffolding or a truck mount aerial work platform. In this paper, a new thermography NDT technique, which is based on temperature gap appeared on the surface of structural members due to thermal insulation effect of the crack, is developed for detection of fatigue cracks. The practicability of the developed technique is demonstrated by the field experiments for highway steel bridges in service. Detectable crack size and factors such as measurement time, season or spatial resolution which influence crack detectability are investigated.

  17. External Costs to Parties Involved in Highway Traffic Accidents: The Perspective of Highway Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores highway travellers’ willingness to pay (WTP for external costs caused by traffic accidents. There are a number of further external costs, the paper focuses on two externalities: air pollution and time delays. Data collection was performed using the face-to-face survey method, and the surveys were carried out at highway rest areas. Air pollution and time delays were divided into three levels of severity (light, moderate and severe to obtain the interviewees’ WTP according to each level of severity. The result of this study demonstrates that there are many samples with zero WTP because penalties for pollution caused by traffic accidents are not currently enforced in Taiwan. Thus, the spike model was adopted in this study to overcome any estimation error that might be caused by excessive NT$0 WTP samples. The results show that variables such as age, education, income and willingness to participate in activities of environmental protection have a positive effect on WTP for air pollution, whereas variables such as occupation, travel purpose, traveller identity, travel time and travel distance have a significantly positive effect on WTP for time delays. WTP for nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is NT$8862–11,502/metric ton (US$1 = NT$30 and WTP for carbon dioxide (CO2 is NT$1070–2693/metric ton. Moreover, WTP for time delays is NT$960–1320/h. The findings of this study not only demonstrate WTP for air pollution and time delays in the minds of parties to traffic accidents but also help to provide agencies with a basis to formulate applicable penalties in the future.

  18. The aesthetic composite bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, R A

    1997-01-01

    New developments are constantly introduced in the search for the optimal treatment modality to restore a single anterior tooth. The patient attention has shifted to aesthetics of the restoration, biocompatibility of the dental materials utilized, conservative preparation of the teeth to be restored, and the retention of intact adjacent dentition. The learning objective of this article is to review the methods currently utilized and to present a recently introduced treatment modality--the two-component bridge, which combines the strength and resiliency of composite resin with the aesthetic advantages of porcelain. The technology of the material is reviewed, the predominantly lingual tooth preparation procedures are outlined, and the bridge try-in is described. The advantages of the two-component bridge are presented along with the contraindications and suggestions of careful case selection. Three cases with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors in youthful patients are presented to supplement the theoretical outline and to describe and illustrate the clinical procedure.

  19. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  20. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified...... as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority...... a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account and teach in local languages. Creating stronger links between home...

  1. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  2. The highway capacity manual a conceptual and research history

    CERN Document Server

    Roess, Roger P

    2014-01-01

    Since 1950, the Highway Capacity Manual has been a standard used in the planning, design, analysis, and operation of virtually any highway traffic facility in the United States. It has also been widely used abroad, and has spurred the development of similar manuals in other countries. The twin concepts of capacity and level of service have been developed in the manual, and methodologies have been presented that allow highway traffic facilities to be designed on a common basis, and allow for the analysis of operational quality under various traffic demand scenarios. The manual also addresses related pedestrian, bicycle, and transit issues.   This book details the fundamental development of the concepts of capacity and level of service, and of the specific methodologies developed to describe them over a wide range of facility types. The book is comprised of two volumes. Volume 1 (this book) focuses on the development of basic principles, and their application to uninterrupted flow facilities: freeways, multila...

  3. Design and analysis of highway windmill electric generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Mashyal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with designing a portable highway wind turbine, which is to be contribute towards the global trend in wind energy production in a feasible way. Wind turbines are traditionally employed in rural areas; the main goal the work is to design a wind turbine that can be used in cities. In particular, the turbines will use the wind draft created by vehicles on the highway to generate electricity. The idea is to offset the amount of pollution created by burning fossil fuels by introducing a potential source of clean energy. As the automobiles moves from highways/expressways, there is a creation of pressure column on both the sides of the road. This pressure column is created due to imbalance of high pressure/low pressure energy band created by the automobiles. Due to this pressure band wind flow and create pressure thrust. The pressure thrust is sufficient to generate electricity through designed wind turbine.

  4. Abandoned Highway Sections: an Opportunity for Requalification Landscape Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Moretti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With technology constantly improving, modern highways can nowadays be built through terrains where construction used to be either technically infeasible or too costly. While this results in faster connections and shorter commuting times, it leaves the abandoned historic routes behind without any use. This workshop was aimed at developing solutions for the requalification of abandoned highway sections, focusing on the example of the Autostrada del Sole which bypasses the little town of Vado, Bologna. A concept of converting the section into a Sole Park - a park which offers both relaxation and amusement elements - was developed in order to attract visitors from the neighboring villages and the high-speed highway. Within this context, potential locations for lookouts were identified, giving stunning vistas of the Tuscan-Emilian landscape.

  5. Effect of abutment modeling on the seismic response of bridge structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ady Aviram; Kevin R.Mackie; Bozidar Stojadinovic

    2008-01-01

    Abutment behavior significantly influences the seismic response of certain bridge structures.Specifically in the case of short bridges with relatively stiff superstructures typical of highway overpasses,embankment mobilization and inelastic behavior of the soil material under high shear deformation levels dominate the response of the bridge and its column bents.This paper investigates the sensitivity of bridge seismic response with respect to three different abutment modeling approaches.The abutment modeling approaches are based on three increasing levels of complexity that attempt to capture the critical components and modes of abutment response without the need to generate continuum models of the embankment,approach,and abutment foundations.Six existing reinforced concrete bridge structures,typical of Ordinary Bridges in California,are selected for the analysis.Nonlinear models of the bridges are developed in OpenSees.Three abutment model types of increasing complexity are developed for each bridge,denoted as roller,simplified,and spring abutments.The roller model contains only single-point constraints.The spring model contains discrete representations of backfill,bearing pad,shear key,and back wall behavior.The simplified model is a compromise between the efficient roller model and the comprehensive spring model.Modal,pushover,and nonlinear dynamic time history analyses are conducted for the six bridges using the three abutment models for each bridge.Comparisons of the analysis results show major differences in mode shapes and periods,ultimate base shear strength,as well as peak displacements of the column top obtained due to dynamic excitation.The adequacy of the three abutment models used in the study to realistically represent all major resistance mechanisms and components of the abutments,including an accurate estimation of their mass,stiffness,and nonlinear hysteretic behavior,is evaluated.Recommendations for abutment modeling are made.

  6. Minority Language Protection in Italy. Linguistic minorities and the Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, Aline

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the Italian case of minority language protection in the media. After providing a general introduction to the development of the protection of minority languages in Europe in general and of minority language broadcast media in Italy in particular, the article focuses on the ro

  7. Brief Analysis on Highway Construction and Urban Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; XU; Zhongxiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of studying influence of means of transportation on urban distribution and form,this paper focuses on influence of highway on modern urban areas. Results show that construction of highway accelerates urbanization,forms organic traffic network connecting large, medium and small cities and towns,and promotes development of modern urban agglomeration. Finally,it presents rational ideas of strengthening planning,integrating urban and rural development,preventing blind expansion of urban areas,and building ecological and garden cities.

  8. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  9. BUILDING "BRIDGES" WITH QUALITY ASSURANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

  10. Use of FBG sensors for bridge structural monitoring and traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponero, Michele A.; Colonna, Danilo; Gruppi, Marco; Pallotta, Massimo; Salvadori, Robert

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes an application of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors devoted to both health monitoring of road bridge structures and traffic load monitoring. The ultimate aim of the application is the remote continuous monitoring of the structures, with real time acquisition of the dynamic and quasi-static deformations inferred by both the road traffic and the daily and seasonal thermal variations. A Fiber Bragg Grating network composed of 24 sensors has been installed on the bridge on the Po river of the 'A21 Torino Brescia' Italian Highway. The bridge is a concrete structure, and sensors are applied on various rebar components. The sensors were installed directly on the rebars, adopting a special technique specifically developed for permanent concrete embedding. An extensive data acquisition program is in progress with the aim of both health monitoring and in transit lorry weighing. Results are discussed and planned future work is presented.

  11. 泥石流地段桥涵设计探讨%Analysis of Bridge Design in Debris Flow District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑彩平

    2013-01-01

    Xinjiang is the area that often occurs debris flow. Bridge installed debris flow area is inevitable with the develop-ment of highway traffic in our country. Combining with highway rebuilding project S212 line Tuergate-Wuqia section, the pa-per discussed bridge design for the debris flow section and put forward specific treatment measures.%  新疆属泥石流多发地区,随着我国公路交通事业的发展,泥石流地区桥涵的设置是不可避免的。文章结合S212线吐尔尕特—乌洽段公路改建工程,重点对泥石流地段桥涵设计进行探讨,并提出具体处理措施。

  12. The Bridges Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnen, Elizabeth; Klie, Judy

    This report describes BRIDGES, an employment equity special measures training program developed by the City of Toronto (Ontario, Canada). It was designed to help women employees move from their traditional jobs into trades, technical or operation (TTO) jobs within their own organization. The program is a combination of classroom sessions, shop…

  13. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  14. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  15. DOE Information Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    DOE Information Bridge, a component of EnergyFiles, provides free, convenient, and quick access to full-text DOE research and development reports in physics, chemistry, materials, biology, environmental sciences, energy technologies, engineering, computer and information science, renewable energy, and other topics. This vast collection includes over 43,000 reports that have been received and processed by OSTI since January 1995.

  16. Bridge over troubled water?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2008-01-01

    The problem of integrating non-Western immigrants into Western welfare states is the focus of this paper. To address this issue, we suggest a social capital approach in which we apply the conceptual pair of bridging social capital (BR), which connects an individual to the broader social structure...

  17. Looking Beyond the Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Rosholm, Michael

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the stepping-stone effect of temporary agency employment on unemployed workers. Using the timing-of-events approach, we not only investigate whether agency employment is a bridge into regular employment but also analyze its effect on post-unemployment wages...

  18. Bridging the Technological Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazow, Robert; And Others

    The aim of "Bridging the Technological Gap" (BTG), a federally funded demonstration project, is to use microcomputer technology in the rehabilitation of the psychiatrically disabled. Through the use of a custom designed microcomputer software package, clients receive remediation in areas of specific cognitive and behavioral deficits. The project…

  19. Building Bridges to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  20. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas-fueled off-highway motorcycles: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled off-highway motorcycles: THCE... operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....