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Sample records for mink encephalopathy tme

  1. Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of transmissible mink encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis to the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE) and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques as...

  2. Clinical features in prion protein-deficient and wild-type cattle inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are caused by the propagation of a misfolded form (PrP**d) of the normal cellular prion protein, PrP**c. Recently, we have reported the generation and characterization of PrP**C-deficient cattle (PrP-/-) produced by a seq...

  3. Disease-associated prion protein in neural and lymphoid tissues of mink (Mustela vison) inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D A; Harrington, R D; Zhuang, D; Yan, H; Truscott, T C; Dassanayake, R P; O'Rourke, K I

    2012-11-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)). The distribution of PrP(d) within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrP(TME) and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrP(TME) in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrP(TME) in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum, after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrP(TME) was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrP(TME) was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection, with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrP(TME) in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrP(TME) accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrP(TME) in the lymphoid

  4. Use of bovine recombinant prion protein and real-time quaking-induced conversion to detect cattle transmissible mink encephalopathy prions and discriminate classical and atypical L- and H-Type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soyoun; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    Prions are amyloid-forming proteins that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies through a process involving conversion from the normal cellular prion protein to the pathogenic misfolded conformation (PrPSc). This conversion has been used for in vitro assays including serial protein misfolding amplification and real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC). RT-QuIC can be used for the detection of prions in a variety of biological tissues from humans and animals. Extensive work has been done to demonstrate that RT-QuIC is a rapid, specific, and highly sensitive prion detection assay. RT-QuIC uses recombinant prion protein to detect minute amounts of PrPSc. RT-QuIC has been successfully used to detect PrPSc from different prion diseases with a variety of substrates including hamster, human, sheep, bank vole, bovine and chimeric forms of prion protein. However, recombinant bovine prion protein has not been used to detect transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) or to differentiate types of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in samples from cattle. We evaluated whether PrPSc from TME and BSE infected cattle can be detected with RT-QuIC using recombinant bovine prion proteins, and optimized the reaction conditions to specifically detect cattle TME and to discriminate between classical and atypical BSE by conversion efficiency. We also found that substrate composed of the disease associated E211K mutant protein can be effective for the detection of TME in cattle and that wild type prion protein appears to be a practical substrate to discriminate between the different types of BSEs.

  5. Use of bovine recombinant prion protein and real-time quaking-induced conversion to detect transmissible mink encephalopathy prions and discriminate classical and atypical L- and H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prions are amyloid-forming proteins that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies through a process involving conversion from normal cellular prion protein to pathogenic misfolded conformation. This conversion has been used for in vitro assays including serial protein misfolding amplification...

  6. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Atypical Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that affect several mammalian species including human beings. Four animal TSE agents have been reported: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink encephalopath...

  7. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  8. TME (Task Mapping Editor): tool for executing distributed parallel computing. TME user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemiya, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Nobuhiro; Imamura, Toshiyuki

    2000-03-01

    At the Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, a software environment PPExe has been developed to support scientific computing on a parallel computer cluster (distributed parallel scientific computing). TME (Task Mapping Editor) is one of components of the PPExe and provides a visual programming environment for distributed parallel scientific computing. Users can specify data dependence among tasks (programs) visually as a data flow diagram and map these tasks onto computers interactively through GUI of TME. The specified tasks are processed by other components of PPExe such as Meta-scheduler, RIM (Resource Information Monitor), and EMS (Execution Management System) according to the execution order of these tasks determined by TME. In this report, we describe the usage of TME. (author)

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary ...

  10. Lead poisoning in mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, J G

    1962-03-01

    This paper describes a case of lead poisoning in minks. The mink were housed in pens which had been painted with a bridge paint containing lead. They had chewed on the pen and ingested the paint. The animals that did not die were moved to new pens, and vitamin D and calcium gluconate were added to their diets. In three days, a marked improvement was seen in the food and water consumption, and convolutions became less frequent.

  11. Acoustic Ecology of Minke Whales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Calls of minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, off the coast of NE Australia in July of 1997 were recorded utilizing a newly described population, where minke whales maintain long contacts with vessels...

  12. The outcome of rectal cancer after early salvage TME following TEM compared with primary TME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levic, K; Bulut, O; Hesselfeldt, P

    2012-01-01

    difference between two groups of patients in the median number of harvested lymph nodes (P = 0.34), median circumferential resection margin (CRM) (P = 0.99) or the completeness of the mesorectal fascia plane. No local recurrences occurred among the patients with salvage TME, and there were 2 patients (8...

  13. The outcome of rectal cancer after early salvage TME following TEM compared with primary TME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, O; Levic, K; Hesselfeldt, P

    2014-01-01

    difference between two groups of patients in the median number of harvested lymph nodes (P = 0.34), median circumferential resection margin (CRM) (P = 0.99) or the completeness of the mesorectal fascia plane. No local recurrences occurred among the patients with salvage TME, and there were 2 patients (8...

  14. The outcome of rectal cancer after early salvage TME following TEM compared with primary TME: a case-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levic, K; Bulut, O; Hesselfeldt, P; Bülow, S

    2013-08-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows locally complete resection of early rectal cancer as an alternative to conventional radical surgery. In case of unfavourable histology after TEM, or positive resection margins, salvage surgery can be performed. However, it is unclear if the results are equivalent to primary treatment with total mesorectal excision (TME). The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether there is a difference in outcome between patients who underwent early salvage resection with TME after TEM, and those who underwent primary TME for rectal cancer. From 1997 to 2011, early salvage surgery with TME after TEM was performed in 25 patients in our institution. These patients were compared with 25 patients who underwent primary TME, matched according to gender, age (±2 years), cancer stage and operative procedure. Data were obtained from the patients' charts and reviewed retrospectively. No patients received preoperative chemotherapy. Perioperative data and oncological outcome were analysed. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the results between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in median operating time (P = 0.39), median blood loss (P = 0.19) or intraoperative complications (P = 1.00). The 30-day mortality was 8 % (n = 2) among patients who underwent salvage TME after TEM, and no patients died in the primary TME group (P = 0.49). There was no significant difference between two groups of patients in the median number of harvested lymph nodes (P = 0.34), median circumferential resection margin (CRM) (P = 0.99) or the completeness of the mesorectal fascia plane. No local recurrences occurred among the patients with salvage TME, and there were 2 patients (8 %) with local recurrences among the patients with primary TME (P = 0.49). Distant metastasis occurred in one patient (4 %) after salvage TME and in 3 patients (12 %) with primary TME (P = 0.61). The median

  15. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results: We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R 154Q171). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R 154Q171genotype sheep. Conclusions: Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  18. Mink's adaptation to group housing in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2012-01-01

    In this project, we test the hypothesis whether mink populations with a higher social tolerance have been developed in practice and thus are better adapted to housing in stacked cages. The hypothesis has been tested by comparing the level of bite damages and bit marks in mink kept in pairs...... and in mink kept in social groups. In total, the project included 1,191 brown mink housed on four farms in up to five different types of social groups. The result showed that mink in groups had significantly more bite marks than mink kept in pairs, and that mink with bite wounds had significantly more bite...... marks than mink that did not haev bite wounds. Thus, based upon bite mark results, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that mink populations adapted to group housing have been developed. The number of mink that had died or had been removede during the test period, or that had bite wounds at the time...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... that can be corrected . It may also occur as part of a chronic problem from liver disease ... worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer Your Time The Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate ... problem from liver disease that gets worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ...

  2. Bilirubin encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilirubin encephalopathy is a rare neurological condition that occurs in some newborns with severe jaundice . ... Bilirubin encephalopathy (BE) is caused by very high levels of bilirubin. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is created ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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  5. 40 CFR 725.355 - Information to be included in the TME application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or the environment as a result of the test marketing. The TME application must be in writing and must... the microorganism as a result of test marketing, including information regarding duration and route of... for Test Marketing § 725.355 Information to be included in the TME application. (a) To review a TME...

  6. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passey, C.A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Wilson, J.

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1±0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author)

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... your body when your liver isn’t working well, it may affect your brain and cause HE. ... it apparent that the liver is not doing well. These could be the symptoms of Hepatic Encephalopathy ( ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... bad. It sends the good things – such as vitamins and nutrients – into your bloodstream for your body ... for Wife Joyce O. Caregiver for Mother Lynette K. Hepatic Encephalopathy Samantha W. Caregiver for Husband Stan ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if ... with continuous treatment, HE can usually be controlled. So it’s important to tell your doctor about any ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... build-up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more ... build up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) Bruising and bleeding easily Enlarged ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... responsible for the daily needs of another person. Caregivers can be a friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers How You Can Help OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer ... Hepatic Encephalopathy is a short-term problem that can be corrected . It may also occur as part ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  6. Mink kan også have influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Krog, Jesper Schak; Larsen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    , hvis der opstår mistanke om influenza ved obduktionen, eller hvis der er alvorlige langvarige udbrud. For at kunne iværksætte foranstaltninger, der begrænser forekomsten af influenza hos mink, er det nødvendigt at kende udbredelsen af influenzavirus blandt farmede mink i Danmark. Formålet med denne...... minkobduktionskursus, samt vilde mink. Der blev påvist influenza A virus i mink fra otte farme. Genetiske analyser indikerede, at disse virus stammede fra både danske svin og mennesker. For at forebygge udbrud af influenza i farmede mink anbefales det, at undgå kontakt mellem mink og influenzasyge personer, samt sikre...

  7. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distemper Vaccine-Mink. 113.302... Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus... follows: (1) To detect virulent canine distemper virus, each of two distemper susceptible mink or ferrets...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice ... diseases. What are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  10. 40 CFR 725.370 - EPA review of the TME application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unreasonable risk of injury to health and the environment as a result of test marketing. ... Marketing § 725.370 EPA review of the TME application. General procedures for review of all submissions... with test marketing activities after receipt of EPA approval. (c) In approving a TME application, EPA...

  11. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Blomstrom, Anne-Lie

    2015-01-01

    years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (rho = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection.......1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two...

  12. Hashimoto's encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagna, Giacomo; Imperiali, Mauro; Agazzi, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare not well understood, progressive and relapsing multiform disease, characterized by seizures, movement disorders, subacute cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms and responsiveness to steroid therapy. The disorder is generally associated with thyroid ...... diseases and the most common feature is the presence of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb). Patients are usually euthyroid or mildly hypothyroid at presentation. All age groups can be affected. The pathophysiology is still unclear, especially the link between elevated serum TPOAb...... and the encephalopathy. Most reported cases occurred in women and girls. Unspecific symptoms, non-pathognomonic laboratory neurophysiology and neuroimaging features make its diagnosis a real challenge for clinicians.The case of a 16 year old boy, with a clinical picture of HE associated with hypothyroidism...

  13. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: Transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus the same cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bloom, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases, Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease, In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic...

  14. High Prevalence of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-ranging Mink on a Remote Danish Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Christensen, Laurids Siig; Chriél, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes severe disease in farmed mink (Neovison vison) worldwide. In Denmark, AMDV in farmed mink has been confined to the northern part of the mainland since 2002. From 1998 to 2009, samples from 396 free-ranging mink were collected from mainland Denmark......, and a low AMDV antibody prevalence (3% of 296) was found using countercurrent immune electrophoresis. However, on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, a high prevalence (45% of 142 mink) was detected in the free-ranging mink. Aleutian mink disease virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32...... of 49 antibody-positive free-ranging mink on Bornholm, but not in mink collected from other parts of Denmark. Sequence analysis of 370 base pairs of the nonstructural gene of the AMDV of 17 samples revealed two clusters with closest similarity to Swedish AMDV strains....

  15. Måling af stress hos mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Sammendrag Stress indgår som et element ved vurdering af dyrevelfærd. Endvidere kan stress mål anvendes i undersøgelser, hvor forskellige typer af avl, burmiljø og pasning af mink sammenlignes. Men hvad er stress egentlig og hvordan måles det? Er unormal adfærd koblet til stress hos mink? På...... temadagen præsenteres nye resultater og metoder til at vurdere stress hos mink. I en metode måles koncentrationen af nedbrydningsprodukter af hormonet cortisol i gødning fra mink. Der er en række fordele ved denne metode, frem for blodprøvetagning. Forsøg viste, at hovedparten af cortisol udskilles i fæces...... (83 %) frem for i urin (17 %), samt at omsætningen af radioaktivt mærket cortisol ikke er forskellig mellem mink med hhv. lav og høj forekomst af stereotypi. Denne viden kan bruges til bedre at forstå koblingen f.eks. unormal adfærd og stress hos mink....

  16. Analysis of experimental mink enteritis virus infection in mink: in situ hybridization, serology, and histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, S; Lund, E

    1990-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were used in in situ hybridization studies to localize cells containing mink enteritis virus (MEV) virion DNA or MEV replicative-form DNA and mRNA. Following the experimental MEV infection of 3-month-old unvaccinated mink, a significant increase in serum antib...

  17. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine...

  18. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  19. Coccidia infections in Danish farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann

    day (April-October 2016) from bitches and cups on 30 farms (n=335 mink) from South- or North Jutland, or Zealand. Minimum once, 60.9% (n=204) mink excreted Eimeria, 56.7% (n=190) Isospora and 20.9% (n=70) excreted both coccidia. Positive mink were identified on all farms. Eimeria prevalence was higher...... on the Zealand farms (25.4±2.2%, PEimeria prevalence peaked in June-July (12.6%-24.9%), while Isospora prevalence peaked in July-August (12.......1%-27.6%). More cups (19.5%) than bitches (4.6%) were Isospora positive, while Eimeria prevalence was similar for cups (15.7%) and bitches (10.5%). For cups, Eimeria prevalence peaked when cups were 7-11 weeks old and again when 18-24 weeks old. Isospora prevalence peaked in cups 13-15 weeks old. Three Eimeria...

  20. Molecular characterization of the Himalayan mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benkel, Bernhard F.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Farid, Hossain

    2009-01-01

    A rare color variant of the American mink (Neovison vison), discovered on a ranch in Nova Scotia and referred to as the "marbled" variety, carries a distinctive pigment distribution pattern resembling that found in some other species, e.g., the Siamese cat and the Himalayan mouse. We tested...... the hypothesis that the color pattern in question-light-colored body with dark-colored points (ears, face, tail, and feet)-is due to a mutation in the melanin-producing enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) that results in temperature-sensitive pigment production. Our study shows that marbled mink carry a mutation in exon 4...... of the TYR gene (c.1835C > G) which results in an amino acid substitution (p.H420Q). The location of this substitution corresponds to the amino acid position that is also mutated in the TYR protein of the Himalayan mouse. Thus, the marbled variant is more aptly referred to as the Himalayan mink....

  1. Genomics using the Assembly of the Mink Genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Cai, Zexi; Sahana, Goutam

    2018-01-01

    The American Mink’s (Neovison vison) genome has recently been sequenced. This opens numerous avenues of research both for studying the basic genetics and physiology of the mink as well as genetic improvement in mink. Using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) generated marker data for 2,352 Danish farm...... mink runs of homozygosity (ROH) were detect in mink genomes. Detectable ROH made up on average 1.7% of the genome indicating the presence of at most a moderate level of genomic inbreeding. The fraction of genome regions found in ROH varied. Ten percent of the included regions were never found in ROH....... The ability to detect ROH in the mink genome also demonstrates the general reliability of the new mink genome assembly. Keywords: american mink, run of homozygosity, genome, selection, genomic inbreeding...

  2. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  3. WelFur - mink: development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate beha...... mink production seasons: Winter, spring, and autumn, in order to cover the life cycle of mink and proved feasible for a one-day visit.......European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate...

  4. MRI of neonatal encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khong, P.L.; Lam, B.C.C.; Tung, H.K.S.; Wong, V.; Chan, F.L.; Ooi, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in neonatal encephalopathy, including hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, perinatal/neonatal stroke, metabolic encephalopathy from inborn errors of metabolism, congenital central nervous system infections and birth trauma. The applications of advanced MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are emphasized

  5. [Technical background of data collection for parametric observation of total mesorectal excision (TME) in rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bláha, M; Hoch, J; Ferko, A; Ryška, A; Hovorková, E

    Improvement in any human activity is preconditioned by inspection of results and providing feedback used for modification of the processes applied. Comparison of experts experience in the given field is another indispensable part leading to optimisation and improvement of processes, and optimally to implementation of standards. For the purpose of objective comparison and assessment of the processes, it is always necessary to describe the processes in a parametric way, to obtain representative data, to assess the achieved results, and to provide unquestionable and data-driven feedback based on such analysis. This may lead to a consensus on the definition of standards in the given area of health care. Total mesorectal excision (TME) is a standard procedure of rectal cancer (C20) surgical treatment. However, the quality of performed procedures varies in different health care facilities, which is given, among others, by internal processes and surgeons experience. Assessment of surgical treatment results is therefore of key importance. A pathologist who assesses the resected tissue can provide valuable feedback in this respect. An information system for the parametric assessment of TME performance is described in our article, including technical background in the form of a multicentre clinical registry and the structure of observed parameters. We consider the proposed system of TME parametric assessment as significant for improvement of TME performance, aimed at reducing local recurrences and at improving the overall prognosis of patients. rectal cancer total mesorectal excision parametric data clinical registries TME registry.

  6. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  7. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  8. Total mesorectal excision (TME) in rectal patients - experiences of the Lower Silesian Oncology in Wroclaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebenek, M.; Pudelko, M.; Cisarz, K.

    2006-01-01

    The prognosis in rectal cancer has improved significantly with the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME). Therapeutic results have also improved in Poland, but the survival rates are still lower and local recurrences more frequent when compared to western countries. The aim of this study was to show that, unless improperly performed, TME might significantly improve the results of oncological treatment throughout Poland. The clinical records of 370 rectal cancer patients treated surgically at Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Wroclaw between April 1 st , 1998, and May 6 th , 2004 were subjected to retrospective analysis. The material was divided into two groups on the basis of the surgical procedure emploved: 1) TME (n=260, 70%) another (undefined) technique (n=110, 30%). The following parameters were compared between both groups: 1) the percentage of one- and five-year observed survivals, 2) the average time of survival during the initial year surgery (in months), 3) the average time of survival during five years following surgery (in years), 4) the percentage of five-year relative survivals, and 5) the percentage of isolated local recurrences demonstrated during five years following the surgery. The study has shown that both the average survival times during a five-year follow-up and rates of five-year relative survival were significantly better in the series of TME-operated patients, as compared to those who underwent other type of rectal surgery. Fifty-seven patients who underwent TME had achieved five year survival, which corresponds to 63.3% and 81.6% of observed and relative survivals, respectively. In contrast, in the group operated by a non-TME technique, the percentages of observed and relative five year survival amounted to 36.7% and 45.5%, respectively. Moreover, isolated local recurrence developed in 6.7% of the TME-treated patients only, which contrasted with 23% observed in the group in which the old approach was used. Our study proves that

  9. Postvaccination wounds associated predominantly with Arcanobacterium phocae in mink (Neovison vison) at three mink farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Robert J; Buter, Rianne; Sroka, Agnieszka

    2017-04-01

    The emerging skin disease fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma (FENP) has been attributed to infection with Arcanobacterium phocae (ABP). The exact pathogenesis and risk factors of FENP have yet to be elucidated. Three mink from each of three different mink farms (A-C) with postvaccination skin wounds at the vaccination site and six mink from an unaffected mink farm (D) that had used the same vaccine batch and vaccination site (hind leg). All mink from farms A-C had severe necrotizing to necropurulent dermatitis where they were vaccinated intramuscularly in the hind leg. ABP was the sole bacterium cultured from six of nine wounds. Using 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region and BOX-PCR, the ABP isolates from these wounds were indistinguishable from isolates originating from several cases of FENP. This is the first report of FENP-like lesions at the site of vaccination, in the days following the procedure, associated with ABP. At farms with FENP vaccination, procedures should be considered carefully. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Stress influencing production and welfare in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Results linking stress, production and welfare in farmed mink, with special focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, are presented. Interpretation of stress responses are discussed, combining context, neuroendocrine and behavioural indicators. Results from the development and valid......Results linking stress, production and welfare in farmed mink, with special focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, are presented. Interpretation of stress responses are discussed, combining context, neuroendocrine and behavioural indicators. Results from the development...... animals and whether fur-chewing/stereotypic behaviour is associated with hippocampal neurogenesis in mink. Perspectives and suggested future research aiming to improve production and welfare in farmed mink are given....

  11. Review of the application of ergonomics design of trackless mining equipment (TME) - lessons and challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, JP

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available the design of trackless mining equipment (TME) is poor, with improvised seating, poor cabin layouts and sub-standard display instrumentation. This paper will present the key findings of two studies assessing ergonomics risk factors associated with automated...

  12. Hepatitis E Virus Variant in Farmed Mink, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus for which pigs are the primary animal reservoir. To investigate whether HEV occurs in mink in Denmark, we screened feces and tissues from domestic and wild mink. Our finding of a novel HEV variant supports previous findings of HEV variants in a variety...

  13. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient but the daily need for choline in mink has never been determined. Two experiments were performed to evalutate the choline status in mink kits and full-grown mink fed different levels of choline. In the first experiment mink kits were fed a synthetic diet with chol...

  14. Application of qPCR assays for diagnosing causes of viral mink diarrhea. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik

    to diarrhea in mink. Rotavirus is poorly described in mink, but has previously been demonstrated in feces from mink pups with and without clinical signs (Jorgensen et al. 1996). The pathogenicity of these viruses could be related to viral load, virulence and the age of the mink. Therefore, there is a need...

  15. Acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits inoculated with defined isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Aasted, B

    1994-01-01

    of low virulence. The 107 mink kits that survived inoculation with ADV as newborns developed lesions typical of classical Aleutian disease irrespective of the ADV isolate used. The lesions consisted of chronic immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis and infiltrations with mononuclear cells, including...

  16. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  17. Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino sinusitis in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S.; Hammer, A. S.; Høiby, N.

    2017-01-01

    The nasal and sinus cavities in children may serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that cause recurrent and chronic lung infections. This study evaluates whether the mink can be used as an animal model for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis since there is no suitable...... in the infected mink shows features of carbohydrate expression comparable to what has been described in the respiratory system after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in humans. It is suggested that the mink is suitable for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis....

  18. Molecular characterization of H9N2 influenza virus isolated from mink and its pathogenesis in mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li; Chen, Chen; Kai-yi, Han; Feng-xia, Zhang; Yan-li, Zhu; Zong-shuai, Ling; Xing-xiao, Zhang; Shi-jin, Jiang; Zhi-jing, Xie

    2015-03-23

    In mid-August 2013, two H9N2 influenza viruses, named A/mink/Shandong/F6/2013 (Mk/SD/F6/13) and A/mink/Shandong/F10/2013 (Mk/SD/F10/13), were isolated from lung samples of 2 of 45 farmed mink exhibiting respiratory signs in mideastern Shandong province, China. The seroprevalence of antibodies to H9N2 in mink was 20% (53/265). Based on sequence analysis, the eight nucleotide sequences showed 99.7-100% identity between Mk/SD/F6/13 and Mk/SD/F10/13. The HA, NP and NS genes of Mk/SD/F6/13 and Mk/SD/F10/13 were close to A/chicken/Zhejiang/329/2011 (H9N2), the NA and PB1 genes to A/duck/Hunan/S4111/2011 (H9N2), the PA and M genes to A/chicken/Shanghai/C1/2012 (H9N2). However, the PB2 genes had a close relationship with A/Turkey/California/189/66 (H9N2). Based on Sialic acid (SA) receptor detection, a range tissues of the mink demonstrated staining for MAA and/or SNA, and mink could serve as an intermediate host for influenza viruses with pandemic potential for the other animals. Experimental infection of mink demonstrated that mink could be infected by H9N2 influenza viruses and presented mild clinical signs, virus shedding and seroconversion, but no animals died of the disease. It implied that mammalian host-adapted avian H9N2 strains infected mink. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of Epileptic Encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2017-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies represent the most severe epilepsies, with onset in infancy and childhood and seizures continuing in adulthood in most cases. New genetic causes are being identified at a rapid rate. Treatment is challenging and the overall outcome remains poor. Available targeted treatments, based on the precision medicine approach, are currently few. To provide an overview of the treatment of epileptic encephalopathies with known genetic determinants, including established treatment, anecdotal reports of specific treatment, and potential tailored precision medicine strategies. Genes known to be associated to epileptic encephalopathy were selected. Genes where the association was uncertain or with no reports of details on treatment, were not included. Although some of the genes included are associated with multiple epilepsy phenotypes or other organ involvement, we have mainly focused on the epileptic encephalopathies and their antiepileptic treatments. Most epileptic encephalopathies show genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. The treatment of seizures is difficult in most cases. The available evidence may provide some guidance for treatment: for example, ACTH seems to be effective in controlling infantile spams in a number of genetic epileptic encephalopathies. There are potentially effective tailored precision medicine strategies available for some of the encephalopathies, and therapies with currently unexplained effectiveness in others. Understanding the effect of the mutation is crucial for targeted treatment. There is a broad range of disease mechanisms underlying epileptic encephalopathies, and this makes the application of targeted treatments challenging. However, there is evidence that tailored treatment could significantly improve epilepsy treatment and prognosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Mink predation on brown trout in a Black Hills stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacob L.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000’s, declines in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) fishery in Rapid Creek, South Dakota, caused concern for anglers and fisheries managers. We conducted a radio telemetry study in 2010 and 2011 to identify predation mortality associated with mink, using hatchery-reared (2010) or wild (2011) brown trout. Estimated predation rates by mink (Mustela vison) on radio-tagged brown trout were 30% for hatchery fish and 32% for wild fish. Size frequency analysis revealed that the size distribution of brown trout lost to predation was similar to that of other, radio-tagged brown trout. In both years, a higher proportion of predation mortality (83–92%) occurred during spring, consistent with seasonal fish consumption by mink. Predation by mink appeared to be a significant source of brown trout mortality in our study.

  1. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish farmed mink (Mustela vison S.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P; Dietz, H. H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-five mink sera randomly selected from 17 Danish mink farms were evaluated for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the latex agglutination test. Six (3%) sera contained T. gondii antibodies in titres of 1:64 or more. The estimated 3% prevalence means that 300 000...... mink out of a total mink population of ten million might be infected with Toxoplasma gondii. This large number of possible sero-positive mink in Denmark indicates that there exists a potential risk of acquiring toxoplasmosis by pelting mink....

  3. Infection studies in mink with seal-derived morbillivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blixenkrone-Møller, M; Svansson, V; Have, P.

    1989-01-01

    Morbillivirus derived from diseased harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) has characteristics of acute virulent canine distemper virus infection in mink. The infection induced a disease resembling the acute systemic and nervous form of canine distemper.......Morbillivirus derived from diseased harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) has characteristics of acute virulent canine distemper virus infection in mink. The infection induced a disease resembling the acute systemic and nervous form of canine distemper....

  4. Current pathogenetic aspects of hepatic encephalopathy and noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichoż-Lach, Halina; Michalak, Agata

    2013-01-07

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a medical phenomenon that is described as a neuropsychiatric manifestation of chronic or acute liver disease that is characterized by psychomotor, intellectual and cognitive abnormalities with emotional/affective and behavioral disturbances. This article focuses on the underlying mechanisms of the condition and the differences between hepatic encephalopathy and noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious condition that can cause neurological death with brain edema and intracranial hypertension. It is assumed that approximately 60%-80% of patients with liver cirrhosis develop hepatic encephalopathy. This review explores the complex mechanisms that lead to hepatic encephalopathy. However, noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy is not associated with hepatic diseases and has a completely different etiology. Noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a severe occurrence that is connected with multiple pathogeneses.

  5. Current pathogenetic aspects of hepatic encephalopathy and noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Cichoż-Lach, Halina; Michalak, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a medical phenomenon that is described as a neuropsychiatric manifestation of chronic or acute liver disease that is characterized by psychomotor, intellectual and cognitive abnormalities with emotional/affective and behavioral disturbances. This article focuses on the underlying mechanisms of the condition and the differences between hepatic encephalopathy and noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious condition that can cause ne...

  6. Two avian H10 influenza A virus strains with different pathogenicity for mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, L; Hård af Segerstad, C

    1998-01-01

    We compared two strains of avian influenza A viruses of subtype H10 by exposing mink to aerosols of A/mink/Sweden/3,900/84 (H10N4) naturally pathogenic for mink, or A/chicken/Germany/N/49, (H10N7). Lesions in the respiratory tract during the first week after infection were studied and described. Both virus strains caused inflammatory reactions in the lungs and antibody production in exposed mink but only mink/84 virus was reisolated. The lesions caused by mink/84 virus were more severe with higher area density of pneumonia, lower daily weight gain, and more virus in the tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that mink/84 (H10N4), but not chicken/49 virus (H10N7), established multiple cycle replication in infected cells in the mink.

  7. Site fidelity of female minke whales in the Gulf of. St Lawrence, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lopes, Xenia; Bérubé, Martine; Berrow, Simon D.; Larsen, Finn; Haug, Tore; Hoekendijk, Jeroen; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Kot, Brian; Øien, Nils; Oosting, Tom; Pampoulie, Christophe; Ramp, Christian; Robbins, Jooke; Ryan, Conor; Sears, Richard; Simon, Malene; Skaug, H. J.; Verkuil, Yvonne; Vikingsson, G.A.; Witting, Lars; van der Zee, Jurjan; Palsboll, Per

    2017-01-01

    The minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) is a globally-distributed species whose population ecology is poorly understood. Most knowledge about minke whale populations, including gender differences, originates from historical data collected during commercial harvests. Here we present results from

  8. Acoustic Ecology and Remote Acoustic Monitoring of a Minke Whale Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedamke, Jason

    2000-01-01

    Sound is the most effective means of communication in the ocean. A uniquely inquisitive minke whale population on the northern Great Barrier Reef presents an unprecedented research opportunity to study minke acoustics...

  9. Production of mink enteritis parvovirus empty capsids by expression in a baculovirus vector system: a recombinant vaccine for mink enteritis parvovirus in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Alexandersen, Søren; Bloch, B.

    1994-01-01

    The VP-2 gene of mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using MEV DNA isolated from the faeces of a naturally infected mink. Subsequently the VP-2 gene was cloned into a baculovirus expression vector. Recombinant baculo-viruses were isolated and the MEV VP-2...... protein was able to form parvovirus-like particles, which had haemagglutinating properties comparable with the wild-type MEV. The cloned VP-2 gene was sequenced and only five nucleotide differences were found after alignment with the known sequences of the MEV type 1 and type 2 isolates. Surprisingly...

  10. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  11. Responses of mink to auditory stimuli: Prerequisites for applying the ‘cognitive bias’ approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Malmkvist, Jens; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and validate prerequisites for applying a cognitive (judgement) bias approach to assessing welfare in farmed mink (Neovison vison). We investigated discrimination ability and associative learning ability using auditory cues. The mink (n = 15 females) were...... farmed mink in a judgement bias approach would thus appear to be feasible. However several specific issues are to be considered in order to successfully adapt a cognitive bias approach to mink, and these are discussed....

  12. [Hashimoto's encephalopathy and autoantibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    Encephalopathy occasionally occurs in association with thyroid disorders, but most of these are treatable. These encephalopathies include a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with hypothyroidism, called myxedema encephalopathy. Moreover, Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) has been recognized as a new clinical disease based on an autoimmune mechanism associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Steroid treatment was successfully administered to these patients. Recently, we discovered that the serum autoantibodies against the NH2-terminal of α-enolase (NAE) are highly specific diagnostic biomarkers for HE. Further, we analyzed serum anti-NAE autoantibodies and the clinical features in many cases of HE from institutions throughout Japan and other countries. Approximately half of assessed HE patients carry anti-NAE antibodies. The age was widely distributed with 2 peaks (20-30 years and 50-70 years). Most HE patients were in euthyroid states, and all patients had anti-thyroid (TG) antibodies and anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies. Anti-TSH receptor (TSH-R) antibodies were observed in some cases. The common neuropsychiatry features are consciousness disturbance and psychosis, followed by cognitive dysfunction, involuntary movements, seizures, and ataxia. Abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) and decreased cerebral blood flow on brain SPECT were common findings, whereas abnormal findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were rare. HE patients have various clinical phenotypes such as the acute encephalopathy form, the chronic psychiatric form, and other particular clinical forms, including limbic encephalitis, progressive cerebellar ataxia, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)-like form. The cerebellar ataxic form of HE clinically mimics spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and is characterized by the absence of nystagmus, absent or mild cerebellar atrophy, and lazy background activities on EEG. Taken together, these data suggest that the possibility of

  13. Recombinant proteins as vaccines for protection against disease induced by infection with mink astrovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    and polypeptides of the capsid protein of a novel mink astrovirus strain denoted DK7627. Such polynucleotides and polypeptides may be used for the production of vaccines against mink astrovirus which may induce pre-weaning diarrhoea in minks. The invention furthermore relates to vectors, host cells, compositions...

  14. [Covering stoma in anterior rectum resection with TME for rectal cancer in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Grassi, Veronica; Barillaro, Ivan; Cacurri, Alban; Koltraka, Bledar; Coccette, Marco; Sciannameo, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the advisability of covering stoma in Anterior Rectum Resection with TME in elderly patients. A research of both the Ministry of Health and Terni Hospital databases has been conducted so as to collect information about patients with rectal tumor. Such research allowed to identify the amount of patients diagnosed with rectal cancer, the type of intervention, and the average hospitalization time. Between January 1997 and June 2008, 209 patients have undergone chirurgical surgery at Terni hospital's General and Emergency Surgical Clinic. An Anterior Rectum Resection with TME has been performed in 135 patients out of the sample (64.59%). The average hospitalization time of geriatric patients does not show significant differences compared to that of younger patients. An age-cohort analysis has been performed among patients who have been subject to stomia and those who have not. The former have been further split up between those who underwent ileostomy and those subject to colostomy. While ileostomy patients face a similar hospitalization time across all age cohorts, geriatric colostomy patients face longer hospitalizations than younger patients. Patients subject to Anterior Rectum Resection show no meaningful differences, in terms of hospitalization time, across all age cohorts. In geriatric patients the construction of covering stoma has resulted in longer hospitalizations only when a loop colostomy was executed, as opposed to loop ileostomy.

  15. Studies on the pathogenesis of Aleutian disease of mink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Peddinghaus, R.; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, H.; Kalden, J.R.; Trautwein, G.; Ueberschaer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Aleutian disease (AD) of mink most closely resembles systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in man; both are immune complex disease. In experimental AD serum immune complexes are determined by the 125 J-C 1 q-binding test using human C 1 q. Mink (n = 12) infected intraperitoneally with Aleutian disease virus (ADV), grown in fetal mink kidney cells, developed during the course of infection a mean of 125 I-C 1 q serum binding equivalent to 3.62 +- 1.68 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. (aggregated human immunoglobulin). Sera of mink (n = 8) which were infected with ADV grown in L-cells showed a less marked 125 I-C 1 q binding with a mean equivalent to 2.52 +- 1.43 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. In contrast control animals (n = 8) treated with non-ADV-infected mink epidermal fibroblasts or Eagle's minimal essential medium substituted with fetal calf serum only bound 125 I-C 1 q equivalent to 1.02 +- 0.99 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. In mink infected with ADV propagated in fetal mink kidney cells a constant increase in the 125 I-C 1 q serum binding occurred from the 4th to the 7th and 13th week after ADV infection. Mink which were infected with ADV propagated in mouse L-cells exhibited a different pattern of the 125 I-C 1 q serum binding capacity with a sharp increase from the 4th to the 7th week, followed by a decline towards the 13th week post infection. The serum 125 I-C 1 q binding capacity of all experimental animal groups exhibited at different times of the experiment a significant correlation with the presence of hypergammaglobulinaemia and raised ADV-antibody titers. From the data obtained it appears that the 125 I-C 1 q binding test, utilizing human C 1 q, is a suitable method for the detection of circulating serum immune complexes in mink during the course of ADV-infection. (orig.) [de

  16. Investigation of metabolic encephalopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cycle defects is the X-linked recessive disorder, ornithine ... life, or if the child is fed the compounds that they are unable .... as learning difficulties, drowsiness and avoidance of ... Table 2. Laboratory investigation of suspected metabolic encephalopathy. Laboratory .... Clinical approach to treatable inborn metabolic diseases:.

  17. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease.

  18. Encephalopathy and liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, Laia; Cordoba, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) candidates experience frequently episodic or persistent hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, these patients can exhibit neurological comorbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in the pre-transplant period. Assessment of the respective contribution of hepatic encephalopathy or comorbidities in the cognitive manifestations is critical to estimate the neurological benefits of restoring liver function. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy are useful to assess the impact of liver failure or comorbidities. This assessment is critical to decide liver transplant in difficult cases. In the early postoperative period, LT is commonly complicated by a confusional syndrome. The possible role of persisting hepatic encephalopathy in its development has not been clearly established. The origin is usually considered multifactorial and relates to complications following LT, such as infections, rejection, primary liver dysfunction, immunosuppressors, etc.… The diagnosis and treatment is based in the recognition of comorbidities and optimal care of metabolic disturbances. Several studies have demonstrated recovery of cognitive function after LT in patients that have exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. However, some deficits may persist specifically among patients with persistent HE. Other factors present before LT that contribute to a worse neuropsychological outcome after LT are diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption. Long-term after LT, cognitive function may worsen in relation to vascular risk factors.

  19. GRIN2B encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platzer, Konrad; Yuan, Hongjie; Schuetz, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed for a comprehensive delineation of genetic, functional and phenotypic aspects of GRIN2B encephalopathy and explored potential prospects of personalised medicine. METHODS: Data of 48 individuals with de novo GRIN2B variants were collected from several diagnostic and research c...

  20. Stress and stereotypic behaviour in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Jeppesen, Leif Lau; Palme, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether female mink with low (LS) and high (HS) occurrence of stereotypic behaviour differ in their adrenocortical activity in baseline conditions or in response to immobilisation (Experiment 1), handling, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge (Experiment 2) and excretion...... 4-20 h after the handling (P = 0.001). In Experiment 3 (n = 16), the excretion of infused (3)H-cortisol did not differ between LS and HS mink. Stereotypic behaviour is concurrent with higher baseline concentrations of FCM, which cannot be explained by a greater adrenocortical reactivity...... or a different excretion of the circulating cortisol. Instead, we conclude that mink with a high level of stereotypic behaviour have a greater perception of stress, or increased sensitivity to stressors at the pituitary level....

  1. The draft genome sequence of the American mink (Neovison vison) opens new opportunities of genomic research in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zexi; Panitz, Frank; Petersen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic mustelid native to North America. It is an important animal for the fur industry. Although many efforts have been made to locate genes influencing fur quality and color, the lack of a reference genome impedes the search. American mink has...... of Carnivora. Here we present the draft genome sequence of American mink. In our study, a male inbred pearl mink was sequenced by Illumina paired-end and mate pair sequencing. The reads were assembled, which lead to 22,419 scaffolds with an N50 (shortest sequence length at 50% of the genome) of 646,304 bp...

  2. Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger disease)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settanni, F.; Dumont, P.; Casella, C.L.; Pascuzzi, L.; Cecilio, S.; Caldas, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Four patients with variable clinical and tomographic features were diagnosed as having subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger disease). This diagnosis was done based on the presence of subacute progression of focal cerebral deficits, presence of hypertension, systemic vascular disease and dementia. The pathogenesis of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy is unknown; possible mechanism include diffuse ischemia and fluid transudation with subsequent gliosis related to subacute hypertensive encephalopathy. (author)

  3. Genetics Home Reference: glycine encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seizures. As they get older, many develop intellectual disability, abnormal movements, and behavioral problems. Other atypical types of glycine encephalopathy appear later in childhood or adulthood ...

  4. Distribution of Aleutian mink disease virus contamination in the environment of infected mink farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, A; Fernández-Antonio, R; Díaz-Cao, J M; López, G; Díaz, P; Alonso, J M; Morrondo, P; Fernández, G

    2017-05-01

    Control and eradication of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) are a major concern for fur-bearing animal production. Despite notably reducing disease prevalence, current control programs are unable to prevent the reinfection of farms, and environmental AMDV persistence seems to play a major role regarding this issue. In this study 114 samples from different areas and elements of seven infected mink farms were analyzed by qPCR in order to evaluate the environmental distribution of AMDV load. Samples were classified into nine categories, depending on the type of sample and degree of proximity to the animals, the main source of infection. Two different commercial DNA extraction kits were employed in parallel for all samples. qPCR analysis showed 69.3% positive samples with one kit and 81.6% with the other, and significant differences between the two DNA extraction methods were found regarding AMDV DNA recovery. Regarding sample categorization, all categories showed a high percentage of AMDV positive samples (31%-100%). Quantification of positive samples showed a decrease in AMDV load from animal barns to the periphery of the farm. In addition, those elements in direct contact with animals, the street clothes and vehicles of farm workers and personal protective equipment used for sampling showed a high viral load, and statistical analysis revealed significant differences in AMDV load between the first and last categories. These results indicate high environmental contamination of positive farms, which is helpful for future considerations about cleaning and disinfection procedures and biosecurity protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of vocalization and hearing in American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus L.

    2013-01-01

    -tested (P=0.004). Large numbers of mink are kept in fur industry farms, and our results are important to the understanding of sound communication, which is part of their natural behaviour. Our results also suggest mink as an interesting model for studying the development of mammalian hearing and its......American mink (Neovison vison) kits are born altricial and fully dependent on maternal care, for which the kits’ vocalizations appear essential. We used auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to determine: (1) hearing sensitivity of adult females from two breeding lines known to differ in maternal...... behaviour and (2) development of hearing in kits 8–52days of age. We also studied sound production in 20 kits throughout postnatal days 1 to 44. Adult female mink had a broad hearing range from 1kHz to above 70kHz, with peak sensitivity (threshold of 20dB SPL) at 8–10kHz, and no difference...

  6. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against mink leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W.S.; Pedersen, Mikael; Gram-Nielsen, S.

    1997-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated against mink leukocytes. One antibody reacted with all T lymphocytes, one with all monocytes and one had platelet reactivity. Under reducing conditions, the T lymphocyte reactive antibody immunoprecipitated 18 kDa, 23 kDa, 25 kDa and 32-40 kDa pol...

  7. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouteux, B. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Muir, D.C.G. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)], E-mail: Derek.Muir@ec.gc.ca; Backus, S. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Born, E.W. [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 570, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Dietz, R. [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Haug, T. [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 6404, N-9294 Tromso (Norway); Metcalfe, T.; Metcalfe, C. [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Oien, N. [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870, N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2008-05-15

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and {sigma}CHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170 {+-} 110 and 41 {+-} 39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800 {+-} 4100 and 1100 {+-} 780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters. - High levels of toxaphene were found in different sub-populations of minke whales from North Atlantic waters.

  8. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouteux, B.; Muir, D.C.G.; Backus, S.; Born, E.W.; Dietz, R.; Haug, T.; Metcalfe, T.; Metcalfe, C.; Oien, N.

    2008-01-01

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and ΣCHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170 ± 110 and 41 ± 39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800 ± 4100 and 1100 ± 780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters. - High levels of toxaphene were found in different sub-populations of minke whales from North Atlantic waters

  9. Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Jørgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis...

  10. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed; Effect of irradiated feed on reproductive performance, growth and fur quality of mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passey, C A; Roy, D; Savoie, L [St. Hyacinthe Food Research Centre, Agriculture (Canada); Malo, R [AgriZo Vet Consultants, St. Hyacinthe, QA (Canada); Wilson, J [J.J. Wilson et Fils, Inc., St. Hyacinthe, QA (Canada)

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1{plus minus}0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author).

  11. Screening of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, M; Moerland, W; Quero, J C; Hop, W C; Krabbe, P F; Schalm, S W

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy adversely affects daily functioning. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of daily life have predictive value for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: The study was performed in 179 outpatients with liver cirrhosis.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria from mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Nanett Kvist; Lassen, Desireé Corvera Kløve; Chriél, Mariann

    2017-01-01

    of antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria isolated from Danish mink during the period 2014-2016. The aim of this investigation was to provide data on antimicrobial resistance and consumption, to serve as background knowledge for new veterinary guidelines for prudent and optimal antimicrobial usage...... and macrolides. Conclusions: The study showed that antimicrobial resistance was common in most pathogenic bacteria from mink, in particular hemolytic E. coli. There is a need of guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials for mink....

  13. Mortality and some biochemical changes in mink (Mustela vison) given sublethal doses of aflatoxin each day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C C; Marth, E H; Shackelford, R M

    1976-10-01

    Two feeding trials were done to study the susceptibility of mink (Mustela vison) to multiple sublethal doses of aflatoxins. In the 1st trial, twenty 3-month-old male mink were divided equally among groups. Each mink in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was given a meatball daily that contained 15, 30, 45, or 0 mug of aflatoxins (B1:G1, 40:60), respectively. All mink in group 3 died between the 25th and the 30th days of the feeding trial. Each mink had ingested 1,035 to 1,480 mug of aflatoxins. Four of the mink in group 2 died almost as soon as did mink in group 3. Four mink in group 1 died between 40 and 59 days after the start of the feeding trial. Generally, a marked increase in plasma cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase activity appeared before mink died. The liver from animals that died of aflatoxicosis showed prominent pathologic changes which included hemorrhages and appearance of pink yellow spots. Histopathologic examination of liver from dead mink revealed fatty infiltration, bile duct proliferation, bile stasis, pseudotubular formation, congestion, and fibrosis. The feeding trial was repeated with 20 mink (8 males and 12 females) that were 1.5 to 2 years old. In this instance, 0, 20, 40, and 60 mug of aflatoxins were administered each day. All treated animals, except 1, were dead within 37 days after the experiment started. The survivor was given the lowest dosage of toxins and died after 52 days by which time 960 mug of aflatoxins were consumed. Plasma cholesterol content and alkaline phosphatase activity generally were similar to those observed in younger mink of the 1st feeding trial.

  14. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data.

  15. Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    Full Text Available Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest, by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE cages than in complex, enriched (E cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs, rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles. Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P = 0.003 than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013. With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures. NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P = 0.037. Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication. Boredom can

  16. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  17. Monitoring chronic infection with a field strain of Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    to detect viral DNA in full blood, organs, faeces and oro-nasal swabs weekly for the first 8 weeks and then biweekly for another 16 weeks after AMDV challenge inoculation of wild type mink. The mink (n=29) was infected and seroconverted 2–3 weeks after AMDV inoculation and AMDV antibodies persisted during...... the maximum experimental period of 24 weeks. Viraemia and faecal excretion of viral DNA was detected in the mink (n=29) at various and intermittent time intervals. Excretion of viral DNA in oro-nasal swabs was detected for 1–8 weeks in 21 mink. This highlights the risk of transmitting AMDV between infected...

  18. Animal prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infive Danish mink (Neovison vison) farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Pedersen, Karl; Hansen, Julie Elvekjær

    /50) of screened healthy Danish mink farms were found positive. LA-MRSA in mink is believed to originate from contaminated slaughter-offal in the mink feed. Objective. The objective of the present study was to identify the animal-prevalence of LA-MRSA in five Danish minkfarms. Materials and Methods. We collected 1......,500 mink carcasses from five Danish mink farms. Farmers were asked to collect 100 mink for each of the three consecutive months following the whelping period (May-July 2017). From each carcass, the right forepaw and a pharyngeal-swab was collected for investigation of MRSA by enrichment, followed...... may be explained by an overall low animal-prevalence in the farm. Another explanation could be the high proportion of young mink kits (15/20) tested. All mink kits were

  19. Intestinal remodelling in mink fed with reduced protein content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke

    2009-01-01

    Low protein intake occurs in humans in relation to diseases, starvation and post-operatively. Low-protein diets may affect the gastrointestinal structure and mechanical function. The aim was to study the passive biomechanical properties and tissue remodelling of the intestine in minks on reduced...... protein diets. Twenty-seven male minks were divided into three groups receiving different protein level in the diet for 6 weeks: High protein level (group H, 55% energy from protein), moderate protein level (group M, 30% energy from protein) and low protein level (group L, 15% energy from protein) (n=9...... groups. Feeding the low-protein diet shifted the stress-strain curves to the right for the circumferential direction, indicating the wall become softer in the circumferential direction. However, no significant difference was observed in the longitudinal direction for any of the intestinal segments...

  20. Animal Personality and Mate Preference in American Mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl

    are unsustainable. Often, prescribed pairs of animals appear to be incompatible and reproductively unsuccessful. This is also a problem in solitary carnivore species, many of which are threatened with extinction. A suggested solution to this problem is to investigate, which male cues and signals the females use...... or cues: olfactory (urine and faeces), size, and behaviour. The latter may represent aspects of animal personality. The background for this is explained in the introduction (Chapter I). In Chapter II, a published article, I present a novel study on aspects of animal personality in the American mink...... aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. These findings highlight the importance of carefully considering the context as well as the limitations of using the shyness-boldness continuum for describing animal personality traits. Chapter III, a manuscript, adds to the knowledge of animal...

  1. Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark

    research has been performed in this field and most published work is more than 25 years old. The studies presented in this thesis aim at elucidating varying aspects of the disease: Article I investigates the relationships of P. aeruginosa isolated from mink hemorrhagic pneumonia using pulsed field gel...... electrophoresis (PFGE) and a commercial typing system based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on chosen strains. The results presented in this article show that 70% of P. aeruginosa isolated from outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink consist of unique strains, while the remaining 30% belongs to either...... in hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa and E. coli in diagnostic material. The distribution of the two pathogens is visualized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two histological patterns were observed in the work presented in Article II; one was very hemorrhagic with few bacteria while...

  2. Projekt skal undersøge MRSA i danske mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Hansen, Julie Elvekjær; Larsen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    MRSA blev for første gang isoleret fra to danske mink, som var indsendt til undersøgelse på DTU Veterinærinstituttet, i 2013. I løbet af 2017 gennemfører DTU Veterinærinstituttet et projekt, som har til formål at klarlægge MRSA-forekomsten og smitteoverførslen på danske minkgårde....

  3. Er genomisk selektion en revolution af avlsarbejdet med mink?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Peer

    2011-01-01

    Genomisk selektion udnytter, at den enkelte mink kan genotypes for tusindvis af genetiske markører. Et dyrs avlsværdi kan skønnes med ret stor sikkerhed på basis af en blod- eller hårprøve, hvor dyrets sæt af genetiske markører bestemmes. Det er altså ikke nødvendigt at registrere minkens egne eg...

  4. DON-induced changes in bone homeostasis in mink dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue and mineral density of long bones in mink dams exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON since one day after mating, throughout gestation (ca. 46 d and lactation to pelt harvesting. Material and Methods: Thirty clinically healthy multiparous minks (Neovison vison of the standard dark brown type were used. After the mating, the minks were randomly assigned into two equal groups: nontreated control group and DON group fed wheat contaminated naturally with DON at a concentration of 1.1 mg·kg-1 of feed. Results: The final body weight and weight and length of the femur did not differ between the groups. However, DON contamination decreased mechanical endurance of the femur. Furthermore, DON reduced the mean relative wall thickness and vertical wall thickness of the femur, while vertical cortical index, midshaft volume, and cross-sectional moment of inertia increased. Finally, DON contamination did not alter bone tissue density, bone mineral density, or bone mineral content, but decreased the values of all investigated structural and material properties. Conclusion: DON at applied concentration probably intensified the process of endosteal resorption, which was the main reason for bone wall thinning and the weakening of the whole bone.

  5. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy (PRES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moron E, Fanny E; Diaz Marchan, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinical Syndrome composed of cephalea, alteration in vision and convulsions, usually observed in patients with sudden elevation of arterial pressure. The imagenologic evidence shows reversible vasogenic brain edema without stroke. Its location is predominantly posterior; it affects the cortex and the subcortical white matter of the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. The treatment with antihypertensive drugs and the removing of immunosupressor medication are generally associated with complete neurological recovery; this is reflected also in the images which return to their basal condition. The untreated hypertension, on the other side, can result in a progressive defect of the autoregulation system of the central nervous system with cerebral hemorrhage, irreversible brain stroke, coma and death

  6. Encephalopathy for prions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colegial, Carlos; Silva, Federico; Perez, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The encephalopathy spongyform for prions are neuro degenerative illness that can be sporadic or transferable, for infectious or hereditary mechanisms. Their investigation has outlined enormous challenges and in the historical journey in search of its cause two doctors have received the Nobel prize of medicine Carleton Gajdusek, for its works in New Guinea where it described the infectious transmission for cannibalistic rites that it took to studies of experimental transmission in chimpanzees and to its theory of the slow virus; later on, Stanley Prusiner developed its experimental works in hamsters, throwing to the neurobiology the prion concept (particles infectious proteinaceous not viral). The paper narrates the history of a patient that died in the San Juan de Dios of Bogota Hospital by cause of this prionic illness and clinical and pathological aspects are discussed

  7. Diabetic encephalopathy: a cerebrovascular disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manschot, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Animal study: The aim was to investigate the role of vascular disturbances in the development of experimental diabetic encephalopathy. We describe the effects of treatment with the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme(ACE)-inhibitor enalapril (treatment aimed at the

  8. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... hepatic encephalopathy that were published during 1979 to 1982 were included. Three trials assessed levodopa, and two trials assessed bromocriptine. The mean daily dose was 4 grams for levodopa and 15 grams for bromocriptine. The median duration of treatment was 14 days (range seven to 56 days). None...

  9. WelFur-mink: on-farm welfare assessment of mink (Neovision vision) - effect of sample size on animal based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur project" in 2009 which is aiming at developing an applicable on farm welfare assessment protocol for mink based on the Welfare Quality® principles. Such a welfare assessment system should possess the following qualities: It should be "high...... measures such as "stereotypy", "tremperament" and "body condition". These measures were in each fo 9 Danish mink farms on approximately 250 adult mink on each farm collected during the nursing season 2011 by a total of 8 observers working in pairs. Descriptive result showed a large between herd variations...

  10. Energy metabolism in young mink kits (Neovison vison) affected by protein and carbohydrate level in the diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Hansen, Niels Enggaard; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    The mink is a strict carnivore and mink diets usually have a high content of protein. The energy metabolism in young minks in the transition period from milk to solid food is not investigated in detail, and the protein requirement is poorly defined. The substrate oxidation can give useful...

  11. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed: Effect of irradiated feed on reproductive performance, growth and fur quality of mink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, C. A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Malo, R.; Wilson, J.

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P = 0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep the animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality.

  12. Modelling growth of five different colour types of mink | Liu | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the growth curve parameters for live weight of standard black, brown, mahogany, Hedlund white and sapphire minks. The data were collected from five colour types in the period from seven days to 24 weeks of age. Three hundred mink (about 60 of each colour types) ...

  13. Albinism in the american mink (Neovison vison) is associated with a tyrosinase nonsense mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud

    2008-01-01

    Albino phenotypes are documented in various species including the American mink. In other species the albino phenotypes are associated with tyrosinase (TYR) gene mutations; therefore TYR was considered the candidate gene for albinism in mink. Four microsatellite markers were chosen in the prodicted...

  14. Passive transfer of antiviral antibodies restricts replication of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Cohn, A.

    1989-01-01

    When mink kits were infected neonatally with a highly virulent strain of Aleutian disease virus (ADV), 100% of both Aleutian and non-Aleutian genotype mink died of interstitial pneumonia characterized by permissive ADV infection of alveolar type II cells. Treatment of infected kits with either mi...

  15. Diurnal activity patterns of farm mink (Mustela vison) subjected to different feeding routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen H

    2008-01-01

    synchronize their daily activity rhythm to the expected time of feeding. In addition, a high feeding motivation appears to be a precondition for circadian anticipatory activity in mink whereas anticipatory activity of mink fed ad libitum or close to ad libitum may be provoked by stimuli from the actual...

  16. Identifying QTL for fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2012-01-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thikness, and density of woll) was performed in a 3-generation population (F2-design). In the parental generation, Nordic wild mink were crossed reciprocally with American short nap mink. Twenty o...

  17. Comparison of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from mink by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, Thomas Holmen

    2003-01-01

    Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical infections in mink were subjected to serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SpeI. A total of 212 isolates of P aeruginosa from the year 1998 to 2001 were included in this study: 168 isolates from mink obtained from 74 farm out...

  18. Mortality in farmed mink: Systematic collection versus arbitrary submissions for diagnostic investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Erik; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Andersen, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of diagnoses of mortality in mink submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL) for diagnostic investigation in the calendar year 1997 was compared with the diagnoses of mortality in all dead mink collected at 4 selected farms (project farms) during the same period. A total...

  19. Pre-slaughter bodyweight and daily gains in mink are independent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natasza

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... larger space and low density of animals might result in increased use of .... Heritability of body length and weight in mink, and the effects of time of birth and litter ... slaughterhouse offal and supplementary folic acid in mink diet.

  20. Can spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics replace minks in digestibility tests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, P.L.; Christensen, B.M.; Munck, L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most relevant but expensive methods of assessing the quality of fish meal is the physiological digestibility test with minks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether spectroscopic and chemical analyses evaluated with chemometrics can replace minks in digestibility tests....... The spectroscopic methods used were the two complementary techniques of fluorescence emission and near-infrared reflectance. The investigation included 54 samples of high-quality fish meal ranging from 89.6 to 93.9 on the mink digestibility index. The investigation also included determination of seven quality...... parameters in the fish meal to substantiate the spectroscopic models on the mink digestibility. These quality parameters include the content of protein, oil, water, water-soluble protein, ash and the biogenic substance cadaverine as well as the titration value. The study demonstrates that the mink...

  1. Effects of group size on behaviour, growth and occurrence of bite marks in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Helene M. K.; Hansen, Steffen W.; Loberg, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of stereotypic behaviours and the activity level in farmed mink when group housed in climbing cages and if group housing increase aggression by assessing the prevalence of bite marks. This was studied in juvenile mink of the colour types...... sunset during six periods of five days each from August-October. After pelting, the leather side of the undried skins were visually inspected for bite marks. Stereotypic behaviours were infrequent (0.1% of observations). Pair housed mink in climbing cages were more "inactive out in cage" than pair housed...... mink in standard cages (p 0.0001), but cage type had no effect on the behaviours "being in nest box", "active out in cage", "interactions with enrichments" or "social interactions" (n.s.). Group sizes of three or four mink increased the behaviours "active out in cage" (P 0.0001) and decreased "being...

  2. The ventricles of the brain in the N. American mink (Mustela vison (Brisson, 1756))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goscicka, D; Stankiewicz, W; Szpinda, M [Akademia Medyczna, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Using anatomical as well as radiographic and tomographic methods, sixty brains of the N. American mink were examined. It was found that the brain consists of four ventricles. Also, it was noted that the posterior horn was missing and that there was the olfactory recess present in the lateral ventricle, a large-size interthalamic connection present in the third ventricle, and a flat, necklace-like bottom in the fourth ventricle. Only recently, this ins and outs of the mink`s anatomical structure have begun to absorb anatomists. Apparently, it is related to the fact that furry animals, among them the mink, are being domesticated as if ``before our eyes``. For this reason and because of the easy access to material, examining of the brain ventricles in the mink was taken up. (author). 14 refs, 13 figs.

  3. Bite marks in mink—Induced experimentally and as reflection of aggressive encounters between mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2014-01-01

    of the brown colour type (N = 140) and the white colour type (N = 60). Twentybrown and 20 white mink (housed in pairs since weaning) were housed individually at theage of 16 weeks. Every second week (at the age of 20, 22, 24, 25 and 28 weeks), four brownand four white mink were subjected to pressure......: (1) experimentally applied pressure on the skin can be recog-nized as bite marks in brown mink at pelting, (2) bite marks are easier to detect on brownmink than on white coloured mink (P ...tFor many years, bite marks have been used as an indicator for aggression in mink productionsystems. However, the validity of bite marks as indicator of aggression has recently beenquestioned. We therefore tested the following hypotheses: (1) experimentally applied pressure to, or penetration of...

  4. Cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations in mink (Mustela vison) from Yukon, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 7A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: mary.gamberg@northwestel.net; Boila, Gail [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Stern, Gary [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Roach, Patrick [Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Suite 300, 300 Main Street, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 2B5 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Mercury (total and methyl), cadmium and selenium concentrations were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissue from mink trapped from the Yukon Territory from 2001-2002. None of these metals was found at levels of toxicological concern. Total mercury averaged 0.66, 0.92 and 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue respectively, while methyl mercury averaged 0.77, 0.85 and 0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} in the same tissues. Selenium averaged 2.07, 1.40 and 0.39 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue, while cadmium was only measured in kidneys and averaged 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1}. All element concentrations are presented on a wet weight basis. Concentrations of total mercury in all tissues were significantly higher in female than male mink, possibly reflecting proportionally greater food consumption by the smaller females. Total mercury concentrations were inversely related to the proportion of mercury present as methylmercury, and positively related to concentrations of selenium, consistent with increasing demethylation of methylmercury, and the formation of mercuric selenide as total concentrations of mercury increased. This relationship was seen most strongly in mink liver, less so in kidneys and not at all in brains where most of the mercury was maintained in the methyl form. There did not appear to be any geographical areas in which mink had obviously higher concentrations of mercury, and there was frequently a relatively large range of mercury levels found in mink from a given trapline. Mink diet may be a factor in this variation. Local environmental levels of cadmium were not reflected in cadmium concentrations in mink tissues. Mercury, cadmium and selenium do not appear to constitute environmental hazards to mink in the Yukon.

  5. Cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations in mink (Mustela vison) from Yukon, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamberg, Mary; Boila, Gail; Stern, Gary; Roach, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (total and methyl), cadmium and selenium concentrations were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissue from mink trapped from the Yukon Territory from 2001-2002. None of these metals was found at levels of toxicological concern. Total mercury averaged 0.66, 0.92 and 0.22 μg g -1 in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue respectively, while methyl mercury averaged 0.77, 0.85 and 0.21 μg g -1 in the same tissues. Selenium averaged 2.07, 1.40 and 0.39 μg g -1 in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue, while cadmium was only measured in kidneys and averaged 0.22 μg g -1 . All element concentrations are presented on a wet weight basis. Concentrations of total mercury in all tissues were significantly higher in female than male mink, possibly reflecting proportionally greater food consumption by the smaller females. Total mercury concentrations were inversely related to the proportion of mercury present as methylmercury, and positively related to concentrations of selenium, consistent with increasing demethylation of methylmercury, and the formation of mercuric selenide as total concentrations of mercury increased. This relationship was seen most strongly in mink liver, less so in kidneys and not at all in brains where most of the mercury was maintained in the methyl form. There did not appear to be any geographical areas in which mink had obviously higher concentrations of mercury, and there was frequently a relatively large range of mercury levels found in mink from a given trapline. Mink diet may be a factor in this variation. Local environmental levels of cadmium were not reflected in cadmium concentrations in mink tissues. Mercury, cadmium and selenium do not appear to constitute environmental hazards to mink in the Yukon

  6. MRI finding of ethylmalonic encephalopathy: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Shi Kyung; Han, Chun Hwan; Rho, Eun Jin

    2002-01-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy is a rare syndrom characterized by developmental delay, acrocyanosis, petechiae, chronic diarrhea, and ethylmalonic, lactic, and methylsuccinic aciduria. We report the MRI finding of ethylmalonic encephalopathy including previously unreported intracranial hematoma

  7. Sepsis Associated Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chaudhry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE is a common but poorly understood neurological complication of sepsis. It is characterized by diffuse brain dysfunction secondary to infection elsewhere in the body without overt CNS infection. The pathophysiology of SAE is complex and multifactorial including a number of intertwined mechanisms such as vascular damage, endothelial activation, breakdown of the blood brain barrier, altered brain signaling, brain inflammation, and apoptosis. Clinical presentation of SAE may range from mild symptoms such as malaise and concentration deficits to deep coma. The evaluation of cognitive dysfunction is made difficult by the absence of any specific investigations or biomarkers and the common use of sedation in critically ill patients. SAE thus remains diagnosis of exclusion which can only be made after ruling out other causes of altered mentation in a febrile, critically ill patient by appropriate investigations. In spite of high mortality rate, management of SAE is limited to treatment of the underlying infection and symptomatic treatment for delirium and seizures. It is important to be aware of this condition because SAE may present in early stages of sepsis, even before the diagnostic criteria for sepsis can be met. This review discusses the diagnostic approach to patients with SAE along with its epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis.

  8. An extended anchored linkage map and virtual mapping for the american mink genome based on homology to human and dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Ansari, S.; Farid, A.

    2009-01-01

    hybridization (FISH) and/or by means of human/dog/mink comparative homology. The average interval between markers is 8.5 cM and the linkage groups collectively span 1340 cM. In addition, 217 and 275 mink microsatellites have been placed on human and dog genomes, respectively. In conjunction with the existing...... comparative human/dog/mink data, these assignments represent useful virtual maps for the American mink genome. Comparison of the current human/dog assembled sequential map with the existing Zoo-FISH-based human/dog/mink maps helped to refine the human/dog/mink comparative map. Furthermore, comparison...... of the human and dog genome assemblies revealed a number of large synteny blocks, some of which are corroborated by data from the mink linkage map....

  9. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F2 design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally with Amer......Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F2 design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally...... with American Black short nap mink. In all, 1082 mink encompassing three generations were used for the analyses. The mink were genotyped for 104 microsatellites covering all 14 autosomes. The QTL analyses were performed by least-square regression implemented in gridqtl software. Genetic and phenotypic...

  10. Consequences of outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark in 2009 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 which was caused by influenza A virus H10N4 of avian origin. In 2009 and 2010 outbreaks of respiratory disease were seen...... in several Danish mink farms. In all of the farms, the clinical symptoms were upper respiratory tract symptoms with sneezing and coughing as the most dominant symptoms. Peracute deaths were seen in mink without any clinical symptoms. Influenza H3N2 was found detected by PCR in the lungs from diseased mink...... and four of these farms used feed medication in three weeks. The farmers, however, noted that the medication had little or no effect. The most plausible way of transmission of the influenza is from the raw untreated pig waste containing lungs used in the production of mink feed. Because the first clinical...

  11. Consequences of outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark in 2009 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    and four of these farms used feed medication in three weeks. The farmers, however, noted that the medication had little or no effect. The most plausible way of transmission of the influenza is from the raw untreated pig waste containing lungs used in the production of mink feed. Because the first clinical......Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 which was caused by influenza A virus H10N4 of avian origin. In 2009 and 2010 outbreaks of respiratory disease were seen...... in several Danish mink farms. In all of the farms, the clinical symptoms were upper respiratory tract symptoms with sneezing and coughing as the most dominant symptoms. Peracute deaths were seen in mink without any clinical symptoms. Influenza H3N2 was found detected by PCR in the lungs from diseased mink...

  12. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  13. An unusual cause of anemia and encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors present here an interesting case of recent onset anemia that was associated with an encephalopathy of the unusual cause.Although severe anemia can theoretically result in anemic hypoxia and can then lead to hypoxic encephalopathy, it is not a primary cause of encephalopathy. More frequently anemia can contribute together with other multiple causes of encephalopathy, such as infections, metabolic abnormalities, trauma, hepatic dysfunction, hypertension, toxins.

  14. Recent advances in hepatic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMorrow, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy describes the array of neurological alterations that occur during acute liver failure or chronic liver injury. While key players in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, such as increases in brain ammonia, alterations in neurosteroid levels, and neuroinflammation, have been identified, there is still a paucity in our knowledge of the precise pathogenic mechanism. This review gives a brief overview of our understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and then summarizes the significant recent advances made in clinical and basic research contributing to our understanding, diagnosis, and possible treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted in May 2017 using “hepatic encephalopathy” as a keyword, and selected manuscripts were limited to those research articles published since May 2014. While the authors acknowledge that many significant advances have been made in the understanding of hepatic encephalopathy prior to May 2014, we have limited the scope of this review to the previous three years only. PMID:29026534

  15. CT and MRI findings of cyclosporine-related encephalopathy and hypertensive encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Houjyou, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    We present the MRI and CT findings of one child with cyclosporine-related encephalopathy, and one child with hypertensive encephalopathy following cyclosporine-related encephalopathy. The imaging findings were shown well on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR images. Cyclosporine-related encephalopathy was distributed predominantly in the posterior white matter. Hypertensive encephalopathy showed similar changes of CT attenuation, but with wider distribution. These two disorders seem to have the same pathogenesis. (orig.)

  16. Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) for rectal cancer: effects on patient-reported quality of life and functional outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedam, T W A; van Ramshorst, G H; Deijen, C L; Elfrink, A K E; Meijerink, W J H J; Bonjer, H J; Sietses, C; Tuynman, J B

    2017-01-01

    Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) has rapidly become an important component of the treatment of rectal cancer surgery. Cohort studies have shown feasibility concerning procedure, specimen quality and morbidity. However, concerns exist about quality of life and ano(neo)rectal function. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate quality of life in patients following TaTME for rectal cancer with anastomosis. Consecutive patients who underwent restorative TaTME surgery for rectal adenocarcinoma in an academic teaching center with tertiary referral function were evaluated. Validated questionnaires were prospectively collected. Quality of life was assessed by the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer's QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29 and low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) scale. Outcomes of the questionnaires at 1 and 6 months were compared with preoperative (baseline) values. Thirty patients after restorative TaTME for rectal cancer were included. Deterioration for all domains was mainly observed at 1 month after surgery compared to baseline, but most outcomes had returned to baseline at 6 months. Social function and anal pain remained significantly worse at 6 months. Major LARS (score >30) was 33% at 6 months after ileostomy closure. No end colostomies were required. TaTME is associated with acceptable quality of life and functional outcome at 6 months after surgery comparable to published results after conventional laparoscopic low anterior resection.

  17. Cognitive skills training in digital era: A paradigm shift in surgical education using the TaTME model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knol, Joep; Keller, Deborah S

    2018-04-30

    Surgical competence is a complex, multifactorial process, requiring ample time and training. Optimal training is based on acquiring knowledge and psychomotor and cognitive skills. Practicing surgical skills is one of the most crucial tasks for both the novice surgeon learning new procedures and surgeons already in practice learning new techniques. Focus is placed on teaching traditional technical skills, but the importance of cognitive skills cannot be underestimated. Cognitive skills allow recognizing environmental cues to improve technical performance including situational awareness, mental readiness, risk assessment, anticipating problems, decision-making, adaptation, and flexibility, and may also accelerate the trainee's understanding of a procedure, formalize the steps being practiced, and reduce the overall training time to become technically proficient. The introduction and implementation of the transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) into practice may be the best demonstration of this new model of teaching and training, including pre-training, course attendance, and post-course guidance on technical and cognitive skills. To date, the TaTME framework has been the ideal model for structured training to ensure safe implementation. Further development of metrics to grade successful learning and assessment of long term outcomes with the new pathway will confirm the success of this training model. Copyright © 2018 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. All rights reserved.

  18. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a competent host for native European parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rondán, F J; Ruiz de Ybáñez, M R; Tizzani, P; López-Beceiro, A M; Fidalgo, L E; Martínez-Carrasco, C

    2017-11-30

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a mustelid native to North America that was introduced in Europe and the former USSR for fur farming. Throughout the last century, accidental or deliberate escapes of mink from farms caused the establishment of stable feral populations. In fact, the American mink is considered an invasive alien species in 28 European countries. The present study evaluates the gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary helminth fauna of the American mink in Galicia (NW Spain) to understand its role as a potential reservoir for parasites affecting other autochthonous mustelids. In the period 2008-2014, fifty American mink (35 males and 15 females) of different ages (22 immature and 28 adults) from the provinces of Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra were captured and sacrificed. Eight parasite species were found (6 nematodes and 2 trematodes) with the following prevalences: Molineus patens (68%), Aonchotheca putorii (54%), Crenosoma melesi (10%), Aonchotheca annulosa (8%), Angiostrongylus daskalovi (6%), Aelurostrongylus spp. (2%), Troglotrema acutum (2%) and an unidentified trematode (2%). Eighty-two per cent of the mink harboured helminths, including 15 animals (30%) infected by only one parasite species, 19 (38%) by two species, 5 (10%) by three species and 2 mink (4%) by four species. All helminth species identified are native to European mustelids. Statistical models were used to evaluate if animal characteristics (age, sex and weight), date and capture area influenced the prevalence, intensity or parasite richness. Statistical differences were detected only in models for intensity of M. patens, A. putorii and C. melesi. This is the first report of Angiostrongylus daskalovi, a cardiopulmonary nematode, and A. annulosa, a gastrointestinal nematode specific of rodents, in American mink. Moreover, although the fluke T. acutum has already been cited in American mink, to our knowledge, the present study represents the first report of this trematode in the

  19. On-farm biosecurity practices and causes of preweaning mortality in Canadian commercial mink kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compo, Nicole; Pearl, David L; Tapscott, Brian; Storer, Amanda; Hammermueller, Jutta; Brash, Marina; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-09-08

    Mink are an important animal commodity group in Canada and excessive kit mortality represents a significant loss to production. National biosecurity standards have been developed for Canadian mink farms, but it is unclear how well these standards have been implemented as there are no studies correlating management practices of mink producers with causes of death in mink kits. To that end, we surveyed Ontario mink producers on their biosecurity and management practices and conducted almost 5660 post mortem examinations on found-dead, preweaned kits to characterize mink farm biosecurity practices and causes of death in preweaned kits. We found that very few biosecurity and management practices were uniformly used by producers, despite good awareness of appropriate practices. Use of personal protective equipment was implemented by fewer than 50% of respondents, while control of mink shed access, disinfection of feed containers after use, and use of a rodent control program were the only practices implemented by greater than 70% of respondents. Only 18% of producers reported regular use of antimicrobials in feed or water, although 91% stated they used antimicrobials for treatment of bacterial diseases on a regular basis. On post mortem examination, no gross abnormalities were noted in 71% of the kits, 45% were thought to be stillborn or aborted, 27% had some form of abnormal fluid distribution in the body, and 2% had a congenital malformation. A subset of 69 gastrointestinal tract samples was submitted for bacterial culture, of which 45 samples yielded sufficient growth. Most interesting was the identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in 11% of samples. The results of this study will provide a benchmark for Canadian mink producers and their veterinarians, defining the areas to which greater attention should be given to ensure more rigorous biosecurity practices are in place. Ultimately, these improvements in practices may contribute to increased mink

  20. Microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of Chernobyl she-minks of different age and immunological state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudenko, V.I.; Podgorskij, V.S.; Ryasenko, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    The quantitative and species characteristics of bacteria and yeast isolated from the food and gastrointestinal tract of she-minks of different age groups and different immunological state have been established. The species composition of bacteria forming the basic and accompanying microflora of small and large intestine of minks is determined. An increase in the quantity of anaerobic (bifidobacteria), microaerophilic (lactic acid bacilli, enterococci) and aerobic (intestinal bacilli) bacteria in the content of the large intestine of minks has been established in comparison with the stomach and small intestine in all examined groups of animals of various age and immunological state

  1. Distance estimation experiment for aerial minke whale surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Witting

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between aerial cue–counting and digital photography surveys for minke whales conducted in Faxaflói Bay in September 2003 is used to check the perpendicular distances estimated by the cue-counting observers. The study involved 2 aircraft with the photo plane at 1,700 feet flying above the cue–counting plane at 750 feet. The observer–based distance estimates were calculated from head angles estimated by angle-boards and declination angles estimated by declinometers. These distances were checked against image–based estimates of the perpendicular distance to the same whale. The 2 independent distance estimates were obtained for 21 sightings of minke whale, and there was a good agreement between the 2 types of estimates. The relative absolute deviations between the 2 estimates were on average 23% (se: 6%, with the errors in the observer–based distance estimates resembling that of a log-normal distribution. The linear regression of the observer–based estimates (obs on the image–based estimates (img was Obs=1.1Img (R2=0.85 with an intercept fixed at zero. There was no evidence of a distance estimation bias that could generate a positive bias in the absolute abundance estimated by cue–counting.

  2. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  3. Canine distemper of vaccine origin in European mink, Mustela lutreola--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Kommonen, C; Rudbäck, E; Anttila, M; Aho, M; Huovilainen, A

    2003-04-02

    Cases of canine distemper (CD) related to vaccination of exotic carnivores extend over three decades and have been described in at least nine different species. Our report describes a case of acute CD in a European mink, Mustela lutreola, vaccinated with live attenuated CD vaccine licensed for use in fur-farmed mink. The male mink died of an acute grey matter disease with an unusually long incubation period. A female vaccinated at the same time showed no obvious signs of illness. The diagnosis was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by subsequent sequencing of the PCR products. The sequenced products of the virus isolated from the mink and of the vaccine batch showed 100% identity. This is the first report in which molecular methods were used to confirm that the disease was caused by the vaccine strain. Based on our findings, it is clearly evident that current CD vaccines cannot be safely used in exotic species.

  4. Rifaximin in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iadevaia MD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Maddalena Diana Iadevaia, Anna Del Prete, Claudia Cesaro, Laura Gaeta, Claudio Zulli, Carmelina LoguercioDepartment of Internistica Clinica e Sperimentale, F Magrassi e A Lanzara, Hepatogastroenterology Unit, Second University of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Hepatic encephalopathy is a challenging complication in patients with advanced liver disease. It can be defined as a neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by portosystemic venous shunting, ranging from minimal to overt hepatic encephalopathy or coma. Its pathophysiology is still unclear, although increased levels of ammonia play a key role. Diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy is currently based on specific tests evaluating the neuropsychiatric state of patients and their quality of life; the severity of hepatic encephalopathy is measured by the West Haven criteria. Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy consists of pharmacological and corrective measures, as well as nutritional interventions. Rifaximin received approval for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in 2010 because of its few side effects and pharmacological benefits. The aim of this work is to review the use and efficacy of rifaximin both in acute and long-term management of hepatic encephalopathy. Treatment of overt hepatic encephalopathy involves management of the acute episode as well as maintenance of remission in those patients who have previously experienced an episode, in order to improve their quality of life. The positive effect of rifaximin in reducing health care costs is also discussed.Keywords: acute hepatic encephalopathy, recurrent hepatic encephalopathy, rifaximin, lactulose, cost, health-related quality of life

  5. Running in a running wheel substitutes for stereotypies in mink (Mustela vison) but does it improve their welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2009-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether access to a running wheel affects the development of stereotypies during restricted feeding and whether selection for high or low levels of stereotypy affects the use of the running wheel. Sixty-two female mink kept in standard cages and selected for high or low...... levels of stereotypy were used. Thirty of these females had access to a running wheel whereas thirty-two female mink had no access to running wheels. The number of turns of the running wheel, behaviour, feed consumption, body weight and the concentration of plasma cortisol were measured during the winter...... period. Mink with access to a running wheel did not perform stereotypic behaviour and mink selected for a high level of stereotypies had more turns in the running wheel than mink selected for low levels of stereotypies. Mink with access to a running wheel used the running wheel for the same amount...

  6. Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) from mink, horse, and man: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhaug, G.; Husby, G.; Husebeck, A.; Sletten, K.

    1986-01-01

    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) was isolated from mink, horse, and human serum by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration and characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Western blotting followed by autoradiography and N-terminal amino acid analysis. SAA was found in similar quantities in the high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of serum from a patient suffering from systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and mink stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and in somewhat smaller quantities in serum from horses stimulated with Escherichia coli cultures. Only very small quantities were present in normal human controls and not detectable in normal mink and horse. Striking similarities were found between human and mink SAA with respect to molecular weight, isolectric point and degree of heterogeneity, while the molecular weight, isolectric point and degree of heterogeneity, while the molecular weight of horse SAA seemed to be somewhat lower, and no obvious heterogeneity could be demonstrated in this protein using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Immunologic cross-reactivity between SAA from the three species was not found. In contrast to human and horse HDL, mink HDL was found not to contain apoA-II and only minute amounts of apoC proteins. Normal horse HDL also contained additional apoproteins not present in HDL from the other species. N-terminal amino acids analysis of SAA from mink and horse demonstrated the same similarity with the corresponding AA protein as previously reported for human SAA/AA

  7. Ring-testing and field-validation of a terrestrial model ecosystem TME) - An instrument for testing potentially harmful substances: conceptual approach and study design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knacker, T.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Jones, S.E.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Schallnass, H.-J.; Förster, B.; Edwards, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    During spring and summer 1999 a ring-test and field-validation study with an open, intact Terrestrial Model Ecosystem (TME) was conducted at four different European sites (Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Bangor, U.K.; Coimbra, Portugal; Flörsheim, Germany). The objective of the study was to establish a

  8. The TME trial after a median follow-up of 6 years: increased local control but no survival benefit in irradiated patients with resectable rectal carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, K.C.; Marijnen, C.A.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Kranenbarg, E.K.; Putter, H.; Wiggers, T.; Rütten, H.; Pahlman, L.; Glimelius, B.; Leer, J.W.H.; Velde, C.J. van de

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of preoperative short-term radiotherapy in patients with mobile rectal cancer undergoing total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Local recurrence is a major problem in rectal cancer treatment. Preoperative short-term radiotherapy has

  9. The TME trial after a median follow-up of 6 years - Increased local control but no survival benefit in irradiated patients with resectable rectal carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Koen C. M. J.; Marijnen, Corrie A. M.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Kranenbarg, Elma Klein; Putter, Hein; Wiggers, Theo; Rutten, Harm; Pahlman, Lars; Glimelius, Bengt; Leer, Jan Willem; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of preoperative short-term radiotherapy in patients with mobile rectal cancer undergoing total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery. Summary Background Data: Local recurrence is a major problem in rectal cancer treatment. Preoperative short-term radiotherapy has

  10. Ring-testing and field-validation of a terrestrial model ecosystem (TME) - An instrument for testing potentially harmful substances: effects of carbendazim on enchytraeids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, T.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Jones, S.E.; Koolhaas, J.E.; Rodrigues, J.M.L.; Römbke, J.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the fungicide carbendazim (applied in the formulation Derosal®) on enchytraeids were determined in Terrestrial Model Ecosystem (TME) tests and field-validation studies. TMEs consisted of intact soil columns (diameter 17.5 cm; length 40 cm) taken from a grassland or, in one case, from

  11. Ring-testing and field-validation of a terrestrial model ecosystem (TME) - An instrument for testing potentially harmful substances: effects of carbendazim on soil microarthropod communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Römbke, J.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Jones, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the fungicide carbendazim (applied in the formulation Derosal) on soil microarthropod communities was determined in three Terrestrial Model Ecosystem (TME) tests and a field-validation study for a period of 16 weeks after application. TMEs consisted of intact soil columns (diameter

  12. The use of the multivariate Principal Response Curve (PRC) for community analysis: a case study on the effects of carbendazim on enchytraeids in Terrestrial Model Ecosystems (TME).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, T.; Römbke, J.; Schallnass, H.-J.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the fungicide carbendazim (formulation Derosal®) on enchytraeids were determined in Terrestrial Model Ecosystem (TME) tests. TMEs consisted of intact soil columns (diameter 17.5 cm; length 40 cm) taken from three grassland sites (Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Bangor (Wales, England)

  13. Ring-testing and field-validation of a terrestrial model ecosystem (TME) - An instrument for testing potentially harmful substances: effects of carbendazim on nematodes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, T.; Schallnass, H.-J.; Jones, S.E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Koolhaas, J.E.; Rodrigues, J.M.L.; Römbke, J.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the fungicide carbendazim (applied in the formulation Derosal®) on nematodes was determined in Terrestrial Model Ecosystem (TME) tests and field-validation studies. TMEs consisted of intact soil columns (diameter 17.5 cm; length 40 cm) taken from a grassland or, in one case, from an

  14. A test of mink microsatellite markers in the ferret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Christensen, Knud

    2006-01-01

    Short tandem repeats are a source of highly polymorphic markers in mammalian genomes. Genetic variations at these hypervariable loci is extensively used for linkage analysis and to identify individuals, and is very useful for interpopulation and interspecies studies. Fifty-nine microsatellite mar...... that were identical in size to those from mink displayed a high degree of conservation, with some differences at the repeat motif sites. These results could aid cross-utilization of markers between these two species.......Short tandem repeats are a source of highly polymorphic markers in mammalian genomes. Genetic variations at these hypervariable loci is extensively used for linkage analysis and to identify individuals, and is very useful for interpopulation and interspecies studies. Fifty-nine microsatellite...

  15. Wernicke Encephalopathy after Gastrointestinal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Saygi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We herein describe a child operated for acute abdomen who developed Wernickes encephalopathy (WE secondary to prolonged total parenteral nutrition (TPN that lacked vitamin B1 supplementation. The author concluded that surgeons, child neurologists, pediatricians and radiologists need to be aware of the predisposing factors and symptoms of WE. Clinicians need to keep in mind that ophthalmoplegia, ataxia or altered mental status could be findings of WE. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 627-631

  16. IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY OF SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES

    OpenAIRE

    J. Meenupriya

    2013-01-01

    Spongiform encephalopathies, categorized as a subclass of neuro-degenerative diseases and commonly known as prion diseases, are a group of progressive conditions that affect the brain and nervous system of many animals, including humans. Prion diseases are common among cannibalistic communities; further research has revealed that the infected or malformed prion protein (named PrPsc) spreads its virulence to the normal, healthy prion protein (named PrPc) when people consume...

  17. Ketogenic Diet in Epileptic Encephalopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Suvasini; Tripathi, Manjari

    2013-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a medically supervised high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has been found useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. It has been shown to be effective in treating multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we review the use of the ketogenic diet in epileptic encephalopathies such as Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  18. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanat, S.; Shahbaz, N.; Hassan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  19. A study of tobacco carcinogenesis XLVIII. Carcinogenicity of N'-nitrosonornicotine in mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppang, N; Rivenson, A; Reith, A; Dahle, H K; Evensen, O; Hoffmann, D

    1992-11-01

    During tobacco processing and smoking, nicotine and nornicotine give rise to N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), a highly abundant, strong carcinogen. NNN is known to exert carcinogenic activity in mice, rats and hamsters. Major target organs for NNN carcinogenicity in the rat are the esophagus and the nasal mucosa, and in the Syrian golden hamster trachea and nasal mucosa. In comparison with the rat, the mink (Mustela vison) has a markedly expanded nasal mucosa. Therefore, we explored in this study whether the mink could serve as a non-rodent model for nasal carcinogenesis using NNN as the carcinogen. Twenty random-bred mink, beginning at the age of 3 weeks, received twice weekly s.c. injections of NNN, a total dose of 11.9 mM per animal over a 38 week period. All of the 19 mink at risk developed malignant tumors of both the respiratory and the olfactory region of the nose within 3.5 years. In most animals the malignant tumors, primarily esthesioneuroepithelioma, invaded the brain. Remarkably, NNN induced no other tumors in the mink. None of the control animals developed nasal tumors nor tumors at other sites during the 3.5 years of the assay. The historical data from the farm did not reveal any spontaneous occurrence of nasal tumors in mink at any age. This study supports the concept that NNN is a proven carcinogen for multiple species of mammals and that the mink can serve as a non-rodent, non-inbred animal model for nasal carcinogenesis, especially since NNN induces only tumors in the nasal cavity in this species and not at other sites, as it does in mice, rats and hamsters.

  20. Population genetic structure in farm and feral American mink (Neovison vison) inferred from RAD sequencing-generated single nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Pujolar, José Martin

    2015-01-01

    Feral American mink populations (Neovison vison), derived from mink farms, are widespread in Europe. In this study we investigated genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between feral and farm mink using a panel of genetic markers (194 SNP) generated from RAD sequencing data. Sampling incl...

  1. Diagnostic and prognostic factors for acute encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motojima, Yukiko; Nagura, Michiaki; Asano, Yoshitaka; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Takada, Eiko; Sakurai, Yoshio; Moriwaki, Koichi; Tamura, Masanori

    2016-11-01

    Acute encephalopathy has the possibility of sequelae. While early treatment is required to prevent the development of sequelae, differential diagnosis is of the utmost priority. The aim of this study was therefore to identify parameters that can facilitate early diagnosis and prediction of outcome of acute encephalopathy. We reviewed the medical charts of inpatients from 2005 to 2011 and identified 33 patients with febrile status epilepticus. Subjects were classified into an acute encephalopathy group (n = 20) and a febrile convulsion group (n = 13), and the parameters serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ammonia (NH 3 ), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau protein, and CSF interleukin-6 compared between them. Furthermore, the relationship between each parameter and prognosis was investigated in the encephalopathy group. Significant differences in serum AST, ALT, and LDH were observed between the febrile convulsion and acute encephalopathy group. Moreover, a significant difference in serum LDH was noted between the patients with and without developmental regression at the time of hospital discharge in the encephalopathy group. In particular, CSF tau protein was found to be highly likely to indicate progress, with CSF tau protein >1000 pg/dL associated with poor prognosis leading to developmental regression. Serum AST, ALT and LDH may be related to early diagnosis and prognosis, and should be carefully investigated in patients with encephalopathy. CSF tau protein could also be used as an indicator of poor prognosis in acute encephalopathy. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association

  3. True NOTES TME resection with splenic flexure release, high ligation of IMA, and side-to-end hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, John H; Lopez-Acevedo, Nicolas; Krishnan, Barath; Johnson, Matthew N; Montenegro, Grace A; Marks, Gerald J

    2016-10-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) represents the ultimate expression of minimally invasive surgery. We have developed and present here an initial feasibility and safety study of transanal total mesorectal excision (TME) with splenic flexure release, high ligation of the IMA and IMV, and side-to-end coloanal anastomosis with temporary diverting ileostomy for rectal cancer. A program of full NOTES TME resection with release of the splenic flexure, high ligation of the IMA/IMV, with side-to-end coloanal anastomosis was performed transanally from December 2013 to July 2014. Demographics, preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative data were prospectively obtained. Operative components were broken into TME, colonic mobilization, splenic flexure release, IMA/IMV transection, transanal extraction of specimen, and coloanal anastomosis for analysis of performance completion. There were 3 women and 1 man on whom we operated. Mean age was 56 (46-65). Mean BMI was 26 (23.8-30.2). The operation was completed entirely transanally in 2 patients. Transanal component completion of the operation was as follows: TME in 3/4; colonic mobilization in 4/4; splenic flexure release in 3/4; IMA/IMV transection in 3/4; transanal specimen extraction in 4/4; coloanal anastomosis in 4/4. Abdominal time for completion of component parts was: splenic flexure release 4:53 (min:s), IMA/IMV 19:43, completion of TME 13:41. Mean EBL was 194 cc (25-500). Aside from stoma site, there were no abdominal incisions. There were no mortalities. Mesorectum was intact in all 4 patients and with negative circumferential and distal margins. This experience supports the feasibility and safety of a true NOTES TME. The critical anatomic views demonstrated on video affirm the potential of this approach for distal rectal cancer. Colorectal surgery represents the most logical application for NOTES. While highly promising, a great deal of work remains to develop the technique and applicability

  4. Influence of farm, feed-producer and season on incidence of gastrointestinal disorders in Danish farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Erik; Chriél, Mariann; Dietz, Hans H.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of gastrointestinal disorders in mink in Danish farms is presented based on data collected in a longitudinal design. The time at risk was from weaning in June until pelting in November. The occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders after weaning of the mink kits together with the ...

  5. Generalised additive models to investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) spatial density in austral summer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmans, B.W.P.M.; Forcada, J.; Murphy, E.J.; Baar, H.J.W.; Bathmann, U.V.; Fleming, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to characterise the physical environment associated with Antarctic minke whale density in order to understand long-term changes in minke whale distribution and density in open waters of the Southern Ocean during austral summer months. To investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic

  6. Nitrogen and energy balance in growing mink (Mustela vison) fed different levels of bacterial protein meal produced with natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on energy and protein metabolism in growing mink kits. Sixteen male mink kits of the standard brown genotype were randomly fed one of four diets: A control (Diet III) and 60% (...

  7. A comparative, BAC end sequence enabled map of the genome of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benkel, Bernhard F.; Smith, Amanda; Christensen, Knud

    2012-01-01

    In this report we present the results of the analysis of approximately 2.7 Mb of genomic information for the American mink (Neovison vison) derived through BAC end sequencing. Our study, which encompasses approximately 1/1000th of the mink genome, suggests that simple sequence repeats (SSRs...

  8. Are Antarctic minke whales unusually abundant because of 20th century whaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, Kristen C; Anderson, Eric C; Scott Baker, C; Vant, Murdoch; Jackson, Jennifer A; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    Severe declines in megafauna worldwide illuminate the role of top predators in ecosystem structure. In the Antarctic, the Krill Surplus Hypothesis posits that the killing of more than 2 million large whales led to competitive release for smaller krill-eating species like the Antarctic minke whale. If true, the current size of the Antarctic minke whale population may be unusually high as an indirect result of whaling. Here, we estimate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale prior to whaling by sequencing 11 nuclear genetic markers from 52 modern samples purchased in Japanese meat markets. We use coalescent simulations to explore the potential influence of population substructure and find that even though our samples are drawn from a limited geographic area, our estimate reflects ocean-wide genetic diversity. Using Bayesian estimates of the mutation rate and coalescent-based analyses of genetic diversity across loci, we calculate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale to be 670,000 individuals (95% confidence interval: 374,000-1,150,000). Our estimate of long-term abundance is similar to, or greater than, contemporary abundance estimates, suggesting that managing Antarctic ecosystems under the assumption that Antarctic minke whales are unusually abundant is not warranted.

  9. Blood biochemical parameters in male American mink (Neovison vison before and during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Lasota

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at selected blood biochemical parameters in the male American mink before (September-November and during the breeding (January-March season. Blood from 143 Black and Sapphire male mink at one year age was collected. The plasma was assayed for the concentration of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, HDL and LDL fractions, triacylglycerides (TG, and the activity of ALT and AST. Concentrations of glucose, protein, total and HDL/LDL cholesterol, and AST activity were generally slightly higher during the breeding season than during the non-breeding season, but remained within the reference range. In the case of ALT activity and TG concentration, the relations were reversed. The parameters studied in the Sapphire mink showed greater variation, both in- and out of the season. In Black and Sapphire males of the American mink, the studied parameters revealed slightly higher values during the breeding season than the non-breeding season. This will vary depending on the color variety. The decrease in TG concentration during the breeding season may indicate an increased energy demand due to ambient temperature falls, and/or may be a sign of increased energy consumption associated with physical exertion during mating. Consideration should be given to the nutrition of male mink during the breeding season.

  10. Wernicke's encephalopathy after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yoshiyuki

    2018-05-01

    A 76-year-old woman who had been on hemodialysis for 3 years developed ischemic mitral valve insufficiency, tricuspid insufficiency, and chronic atrial fibrillation, and underwent cardiac surgery. On the 4th postoperative day, she experienced a sudden disturbance of consciousness, aphasia, and limb ataxia. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities. Wernicke's encephalopathy was suspected and the patient was given vitamin B1, whereupon her symptoms gradually improved. On the 42nd postoperative day, she was free of neurological symptoms and discharged.

  11. Utilization of milk energy by suckling mink kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Kirsten Bislev

    2004-01-01

    A total of 36 mink dams and their litters of 3, 6 or 9 kits were used for determination of milk intake of the suckling young by means of deuterium dilution technique, and chemical composition of milk and of kit bodies. Measurements were performed during lactation weeks 1-4, each week with 3 dams...... with each litter size. Milk intake was determined over a 48 h measurement period, and by the end of this milk samples were collected and 2 kits (litters of 6 and 9) or 1 kit per litter (litters of 3) were killed for body chemical composition. Based on the results, different models were applied...... for calculation of the energetic efficiency of milk. Dam milk yield increased steadily from week 1 until week 3 but only slightly from week 3 to 4. The increase declined with increasing litter size, and for dams suckling 9 kits the increment from week 3 to week 4 was only 2 g. The dry matter content of milk...

  12. Associations between biosecurity and outbreaks of canine distemper on Danish mink farms in 2012-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers-Jensen, Louise; Agger, Jens Frederik; Hammer, Anne Sofie Vedsted

    2015-01-01

    During 8 months from July 2012 to February 2013, a major outbreak of canine distemper involving 64 mink farms occurred on the Danish peninsula of Jutland. The canine distemper outbreak was associated with exposure of farmed mink to infected wild carnivores and could represent a deficit...... distemper from July 2012 to February 2013. The control group included 54 farms without an outbreak of canine distemper in 2012 or 2013, selected as the closest geographical neighbour to a case farm. The results showed that significantly more control than case farms had vaccinated their mink against canine...... distemper virus. Mortality was only assessed on the case farms, and there was a non-significantly lower mortality on vaccinated farms than on the non-vaccinated farms. Furthermore, the proportion of farms with observations of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inside the farm enclosures were larger for case...

  13. Behaviour of mink kits and dams (Mustela vison) in the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Anne-Line; Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the development of the behaviour of mink kits and dams from the fourth to the eighth respectively seventh week after delivery. The study is based on scan observations of 72 mink dams and their kits at a conventional Danish mink farm. The kits started eating when they were about...... 30 d old. Drinking started almost 2 wk later. During these 2 wk there was a peak in the licking of saliva from the dam and of the inter-litter agonistic behaviour. A causal relationship between experienced thirst and agonistic behaviour is suggested. The kits' sucking declined to only 5% of the time...... budget in the seventh week and the stereotypy frequency of the dams increased to about 4% of the time budget. It is suggested that some dams are frustrated by the forced cohabitation with their nutritionally independent kits already in the seventh week and that this should be taken into account when...

  14. The first draft reference genome of the American mink ( Neovison vison )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zexi; Petersen, Bent; Sahana, Goutam

    2017-01-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America. It’s an important animal for the fur industry. Many efforts have been made to locate genes influencing fur quality and color, but this search has been impeded by the lack of a reference genome. Here we...... present the first draft genome of mink. In our study, two mink individuals were sequenced by Illumina sequencing with 797 Gb sequence generated. Assembly yielded 7,175 scaffolds with an N50 of 6.3 Mb and length of 2.4 Gb including gaps. Repeat sequences constitute around 31% of the genome, which is lower...

  15. Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus scavenge offal from minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whaling operations in Svalbard (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Marie Leclerc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata tissue (mainly blubber was found in the gastrointestinal tracks of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus collected in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. In order to determine whether the sharks were actively hunting the whales, finding naturally dead whales or consuming offal from whaling, we checked the genetic identity of the whale tissue found in the sharks against the DNA register for minke whales taken in Norwegian whaling operations. All of the minke whale samples from the sharks that had DNA of sufficient quality to perform individual identifications were traceable to the whaling DNA register. During whaling operations, the blubber is stripped from the carcass and thrown overboard. The blubber strips float on the surface and are available for surface-feeding predators. This study revealed that Greenland sharks are scavenging this material; additionally, it demonstrates the capacity of this ‘benthic-feeding’ shark to utilize the whole water column for foraging.

  16. Brucella ceti Infection in a Common Minke Whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) with Associated Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Nicholas J; Perrett, Lorraine L; Dawson, Claire; Dagleish, Mark P; Haskins, Gary; Muchowski, Jakub; Whatmore, Adrian M

    2017-07-01

    There are three major lineages of marine mammal strains of Brucella spp.: Brucella ceti ST23, found predominantly in porpoises; B. ceti ST26, in pelagic delphinids and ziphiids; and Brucella pinnipedialis ST24/25, predominantly in seals. The isolation of Brucella spp. in mysticetes has been described only in common minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) in Norway and Scotland. We report a third case of Brucella infection and isolation in a minke whale associated with a large abscess. In contrast to the two previous reports that involved isolates of B. pinnipedialis ST24 or the porpoise-associated B. ceti complex ST23, this case was associated with the dolphin-associated B. ceti ST26. Thus, minke whales can be infected naturally with members of all the distinct major lineages of Brucella associated with marine mammals. This report is unique in that the B. ceti ST26 did not originate from a pelagic delphinid or a beaked whale.

  17. Arcanobacterium phocae infection in mink (Neovison vison), seals (Phoca vitulina, Halichoerus grypus) and otters (Lutra lutra)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nonnemann, Bettina; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    pathological conditions, and from wild seals and otters. In 2015, A. phocae was isolated for the first time in Denmark from outbreaks of dermatitis in mink farms. The outbreaks affected at least 12 farms. Originating from these 12 farms, 23 animals cultured positive for A. phocae. The main clinical findings......Infectious skin disorders are not uncommon in mink. Such disorders are important as they have a negative impact on animal health and welfare as well as on the quality and value of the fur. This study presents the isolation of Arcanobacterium phocae from mink with severe skin lesions and other...... were necrotizing pododermatitis or dermatitis located to other body sites, such as the lumbar and cervical regions. A. phocae could be isolated from skin lesions and in nine animals also from liver, spleen and lung, indicating a systemic spread. The bacterium was also, for the first time in Denmark...

  18. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from Minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Beasley, Val R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  19. MR findings of wernicke encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyun Ki; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Goo; Han, Moon Hee; Park, Sung Ho; Na, Duk Yull; Song, Chi Sung

    1991-01-01

    Seven patients (33 to 58 years old) with clinical diagnoses of Wernicke encephalopathy were examined with MR on either a 2.0T (5 cases) or a 0.5T scanner (2 cases) using spin-echo pulse sequences. In 2 patients, follow-up MR studies were performed 1 and 5 weeks after thiamine (vitamine B1) treatment. Five patients (4 chronic alcoholics and 1 with hyperemesis gravidarum) showed atrophy of both mamillary bodies, along with patchy lesions around the third ventricle, medial thalami, tectum of the midbrain, and periaqueductal gray matter. Another patient with hyperemesis of gravidrum demonstrated only slightly atrophic mamillary bodies, and the last patient with severe vomiting after gastrojejunostomy showed only diencephaic/mesencephalic lesions with apparently normal mamillary bodies. A follow-up MR showed a decrease in previously-noted diencephalic/-/mesencephalic lesions but no change in the size of the mamillary bodies. Diencephalic/mesencephalic lesions were well seen as a high-signal intensity on proton-and T2-weighted axial images, while atrophy of the mamillary bodies was seen best on T1-weighted sagittal images. MR imaging is very useful in demonstrating the characteristic lesions of Wernicke encephalopathy and in evaluating the result of treatment on follow-up study

  20. Continuous intraoperative monitoring of pelvic autonomic nerves during TME to prevent urogenital and anorectal dysfunction in rectal cancer patients (NEUROS): a randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauff, D. W.; Kronfeld, K; Gorbulev, S; Wachtlin, D; Lang, H; Kneist, W

    2016-01-01

    Urinary, sexual and anorectal sequelae are frequent after rectal cancer surgery and were found to be related to intraoperative neurogenic impairment. Neuromonitoring methods have been developed to identify and preserve the complex pelvic autonomic nervous system in order to maintain patients’ quality of life. So far no randomized study has been published dealing with the role of neuromonitoring in rectal cancer surgery. NEUROS is a prospective two-arm randomized controlled multicenter clinical trial comparing the functional outcome in rectal cancer patients undergoing total mesorectal excision (TME) with and without pelvic intraoperative neuromonitoring (pIONM). A total of 188 patients will be included. Primary endpoint is the urinary function measured by the International Prostate Symptom Score. Secondary endpoints consist of sexual, anorectal functional outcome and safety, especially oncologic safety and quality of TME. Sexual function is assessed in females with the Female Sexual Function Index and in males with the International Index of Erectile Function. For evaluation of anorectal function the Wexner-Vaizey score is used. Functional evaluation is scheduled before radiochemotherapy (if applicable), preoperatively (baseline), before hospital discharge, 3 and 6 months after stoma closure and 12 months after surgery. For assessment of safety adverse events, the rates of positive resection margins and quality of mesorectum are documented. This study will provide high quality evidence on the efficacy of pIONM aiming for improvement of functional outcome in rectal cancer patients undergoing TME. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01585727. Registration date is 04/25/2012

  1. Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans H.

    2000-01-01

    "Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females. In this......"Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females...

  2. Genetic characterization of canine distemper virus involved in outbreaks in farmed mink in Denmark 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Struve, T.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Danish farmed mink herds experienced a large outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2012. Full-length sequence analysis (1824 nucleotides) of the variable hemagglutinin (H) gene were performed on 27 viruses collected from mink and on 7 viruses collected from wild foxes. Results of the study showed...... with other European canine distemper viruses and showed the highest level of similarity (99.3 - 99.6 %) to viruses isolated from wild foxes in Germany. The fox should therefore be considered as an important wild life reservoir of canine distemper virus and may also contribute to the transmission of the virus...

  3. Lesions in mink (Mustela vison) infected with giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, T F

    1976-01-01

    Adult Dioctophyma renale occupied the enlarged renal pelvis of the right kidney of naturally infected mink. Lesions in the kidney parenchyma consisted of connective tissue proliferation in the interstitial tissue, tubular atrophy and fibrosis, and periglomerular fibrosis. The luminal surface of the renal pelvis wall was formed of numerous papillae covered with transitional epithelium. The nematodes in the lumen were bathed in an albuminous fluid containing red blood cells, epithelial cells and D. renale eggs. The left (uninfected) kidney was 60% larger than the left kidney of normal mink.

  4. Protein turnover in lactating mink (Mustela vison) is not affected by dietary protein supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    The mink is a strict carnivore and may therefore serve as a model for the cat. Current recommendations for protein supply for lactating mink are based on production experiments with preweaning kit growth as a measure of dietary adequacy (1,2). Recently, nitrogen balance and substrate oxidation have...... in humans (7), growing pigs (8), and growing rats (9). In adult cats, both protein synthesis and breakdown were lower when feeding a low- than when feeding a high-protein diet [20 vs. 70% of metabolizable energy (ME)5 from protein] (10). The objectives of this study were therefore to develop a ¹5N...

  5. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is widespread in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie Elvekjær; Rhod Larsen, Anders; Skov, Robert Leo

    2017-01-01

    was to examine the presence of LA-MRSA in farmed mink. The investigation comprised three different sample types 1) clinical samples from carcasses submitted to the laboratory for diagnostic examination, 2) paws and pharyngeal swabs from healthy animals collected at pelting, and 3) feed samples from mink feed...... farms, including paw samples (29%) and pharyngeal samples (16%). Twenty out of the 108 feed samples from feed producers were positive for LA-MRSA. The dominant spa-types were t034 and t011 associated to CC398, corresponding to the dominant spa-types detected in the Danish pig production, from which...

  6. Computerized tomography in acute toxic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Nobuhiko; Kaneshi, Kunio; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Kurihara, Eiji.

    1983-01-01

    We experienced three cases of acute toxic encephalopathy, including a case of probable Reye syndrome, which had similar and unique CT findings in their acute stage; symmetrical low density area in the thalamus and the dentate nucleus, followed by changes in cerebellar hemispheres and around lateral ventricles. The CT findings, common to probable Reye syndrome and other acute toxic encephalopathy, may suggest the possibility of similar pathogenesis of brain damage in both disorders. The authors propose that present cases are a new subgroup in acute toxic encephalopathy, because of their similar and unique CT features. (author)

  7. No oxygen delivery limitation in hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Keiding, Susanne; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    to choose between cause and effect in three groups of volunteers, including healthy control subjects (HC), patients with cirrhosis of the liver without hepatic encephalopathy (CL), and patients with cirrhosis with acute hepatic encephalopathy. Compared to HC subjects, blood flow and energy metabolism had......Hepatic encephalopathy is a condition of reduced brain functioning in which both blood flow and brain energy metabolism declined. It is not known whether blood flow or metabolism is the primary limiting factor of brain function in this condition. We used calculations of mitochondrial oxygen tension...

  8. A new infectious encephalopathy syndrome, clinically mild encephalopathy associated with excitotoxicity (MEEX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Nozomi; Yoshimaru, Daisuke; Moriyama, Yoko; Yasukawa, Kumi; Takanashi, Jun-Ichi

    2017-09-15

    Acute infectious encephalopathy is often observed in children in East Asia including Japan. More than 40% of the patients remain unclassified into specific syndromes. To investigate the underlying pathomechanisms in those with unclassified encephalopathy, we evaluated brain metabolism by MR spectroscopy. Among seven patients with acute encephalopathy admitted to our hospital from June 2016 to May 2017, three were classified into acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD). The other four showed consciousness disturbance lasting more than three days with no parenchymal lesion visible on MRI, which led to a diagnosis of unclassified encephalopathy. MR spectroscopy in these four patients, however, revealed an increase of glutamine with a normal N-acetyl aspartate level on days 5 to 8, which had normalized by follow-up studies on days 11 to 16. The four patients clinically recovered completely. Among 27 patients with encephalopathy, including the present seven patients, admitted to our hospital from January 2015 to March 2017, seven (26%) were classified into this type, which we propose is a new encephalopathy syndrome, clinically mild encephalopathy associated with excitotoxicity (MEEX). MEEX is the second most common subtype, following AESD (30%). This study suggests that excitotoxicity may be a common underlying pathomechanism of acute infectious encephalopathy, and prompt astrocytic neuroprotection from excitotoxicity may prevent progression of MEEX into AESD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Benchmarking trial between France and Australia comparing management of primary rectal cancer beyond TME and locally recurrent rectal cancer (PelviCare Trial): rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denost, Quentin; Saillour, Florence; Masya, Lindy; Martinaud, Helene Maillou; Guillon, Stephanie; Kret, Marion; Rullier, Eric; Quintard, Bruno; Solomon, Michael

    2016-04-04

    Among patients with rectal cancer, 5-10% have a primary rectal cancer beyond the total mesorectal excision plane (PRC-bTME) and 10% recur locally following primary surgery (LRRC). In both cases, patients 'care remains challenging with a significant worldwide variation in practice regarding overall management and criteria for operative intervention. These variations in practice can be explained by structural and organizational differences, as well as cultural dissimilarities. However, surgical resection of PRC-bTME and LRRC provides the best chance of long-term survival after complete resection (R0). With regards to the organization of the healthcare system and the operative criteria for these patients, France and Australia seem to be highly different. A benchmarking-type analysis between French and Australian clinical practice, with regards to the care and management of PRC-bTME and LRRC, would allow understanding of patients' care and management structures as well as individual and collective mechanisms of operative decision-making in order to ensure equitable practice and improve survival for these patients. The current study is an international Benchmarking trial comparing two cohorts of 120 consecutive patients with non-metastatic PRC-bTME and LRRC. Patients with curative and palliative treatment intent are included. The study design has three main parts: (1) French and Australian cohorts including clinical, radiological and surgical data, quality of life (MOS SF36, FACT-C) and distress level (Distress thermometer) at the inclusion, 6 and 12 months; (2) experimental analyses consisting of a blinded inter-country reading of pelvic MRI to assess operatory decisions; (3) qualitative analyses based on MDT meeting observation, semi-structured interviews and focus groups of health professional attendees and conducted by a research psychologist in both countries using the same guides. The primary endpoint will be the clinical resection rate. Secondary end points will

  10. Benchmarking trial between France and Australia comparing management of primary rectal cancer beyond TME and locally recurrent rectal cancer (PelviCare Trial): rationale and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denost, Quentin; Saillour, Florence; Masya, Lindy; Martinaud, Helene Maillou; Guillon, Stephanie; Kret, Marion; Rullier, Eric; Quintard, Bruno; Solomon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Among patients with rectal cancer, 5–10 % have a primary rectal cancer beyond the total mesorectal excision plane (PRC-bTME) and 10 % recur locally following primary surgery (LRRC). In both cases, patients ‘care remains challenging with a significant worldwide variation in practice regarding overall management and criteria for operative intervention. These variations in practice can be explained by structural and organizational differences, as well as cultural dissimilarities. However, surgical resection of PRC-bTME and LRRC provides the best chance of long-term survival after complete resection (R0). With regards to the organization of the healthcare system and the operative criteria for these patients, France and Australia seem to be highly different. A benchmarking-type analysis between French and Australian clinical practice, with regards to the care and management of PRC-bTME and LRRC, would allow understanding of patients’ care and management structures as well as individual and collective mechanisms of operative decision-making in order to ensure equitable practice and improve survival for these patients. The current study is an international Benchmarking trial comparing two cohorts of 120 consecutive patients with non-metastatic PRC-bTME and LRRC. Patients with curative and palliative treatment intent are included. The study design has three main parts: (1) French and Australian cohorts including clinical, radiological and surgical data, quality of life (MOS SF36, FACT-C) and distress level (Distress thermometer) at the inclusion, 6 and 12 months; (2) experimental analyses consisting of a blinded inter-country reading of pelvic MRI to assess operatory decisions; (3) qualitative analyses based on MDT meeting observation, semi-structured interviews and focus groups of health professional attendees and conducted by a research psychologist in both countries using the same guides. The primary endpoint will be the clinical resection rate. Secondary end

  11. Wildlife Reservoirs of Canine Distemper Virus Resulted in a Major Outbreak in Danish Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriel, Mariann; Struve, Tina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Gitte; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H) was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife contained G at position 530 and Y at position 549; however, three mink viruses had an Y549H substitution. The outbreak viruses clustered phylogenetically in the European lineage and were highly identical to wildlife viruses from Germany and Hungary (99.29% – 99.62%). The study furthermore revealed that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum) contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal reservoir between outbreaks. PMID:24454897

  12. Alien Mink Predation and Colonisation Processes of Rodent Prey on Small Islands of the Baltic Sea: Does Prey Naivete Matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fey, K.; Korpimaki, E.; Banks, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Colonisation, an important part of meta-population dynamics of fragmented populations, depends on both the dispersal ability and the ability to establish in the new habitat. Predation can hinder successful establishment of prey, and where the predation pressure comes from an alien predator, the effects on colonisation might be devastating. We studied the establishment of field voles (Microtus agrestis) inhabiting small islands of the archipelago of the Baltic Sea, SW Finland, under presence and absence of the alien American mink (Mustela vison). We translocated experienced voles from islands with mink, and inexperienced voles from islands from which mink had been removed, to other islands where mink was present or absent. By radio-tracking we studied survival, space and micro habitat use of voles within four weeks after translocation. Survival of voles on mink islands was significantly lower than on mink-free islands, but experienced voles did not survive better than inexperienced voles. Experienced voles were more often located in juniper habitats than inexperienced voles, but they appeared not to gain any survival benefit from altered micro habitat use. This study provides novel evidence, that alien mink predation inhibits establishment of colonising field voles and may thus ultimately induce extinction of voles from the outer archipelago.

  13. Wildlife reservoirs of canine distemper virus resulted in a major outbreak in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Trebbien

    Full Text Available A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife contained G at position 530 and Y at position 549; however, three mink viruses had an Y549H substitution. The outbreak viruses clustered phylogenetically in the European lineage and were highly identical to wildlife viruses from Germany and Hungary (99.29% - 99.62%. The study furthermore revealed that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal reservoir between outbreaks.

  14. Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increased pressure in the skull, prolonged exposure to toxic elements (including solvents, drugs, radiation, paints, industrial chemicals, and certain metals), chronic progressive trauma, poor nutrition, ...

  15. Fundus Findings in Wernicke Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Serlin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wernicke encephalopathy (WE is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome resulting from thiamine (vitamin B1 deficiency, classically characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, confusion, and ataxia. While commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, WE may also occur in the setting of poor nutrition or absorption. We present a 37-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and presented with visual disturbance with bilateral horizontal nystagmus, confusion, and postural imbalance. Fundus examination revealed bilateral optic disc edema with a retinal hemorrhage in the left eye. Metabolic workup demonstrated thiamine deficiency. Her symptoms resolved after thiamine treatment. This case raises the awareness of the possibility of posterior segment findings in WE, which are underreported in WE.

  16. Nonabsorbable disaccharides for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Morgan, Marsha Y

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Nonabsorbable disaccharides (NADs) have been used to treat hepatic encephalopathy (HE) since 1966. However, a Cochrane Review, published in 2004, found insufficient evidence to recommend their use in this context. This updated systematic review evaluates the effects of the NADs...... primary/secondary prevention. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that, compared to placebo/no intervention, NADs had a beneficial effect on HE (relative risk [RR] = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53-0.74, number needed to treat [NNT] = 4) and serious liver-related adverse events such as liver...... with minimal HE. Meta-analyses of the prevention randomized controlled trials showed that NADs prevented the development of HE (RR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.33-0.68, NNT = 6), the risk of developing serious liver-related adverse events (RR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.33-0.70, NNT = 6), and reduced mortality (RR = 0.63, 95% CI 0...

  17. Rapidly Progressive Quadriplegia and Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, DonRaphael; McCorquodale, Donald; Peters, Angela; Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, Gordon; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-11-01

    A woman aged 77 years was transferred to our neurocritical care unit for evaluation and treatment of rapidly progressive motor weakness and encephalopathy. Examination revealed an ability to follow simple commands only and abnormal movements, including myoclonus, tongue and orofacial dyskinesias, and opsoclonus. Imaging study findings were initially unremarkable, but when repeated, they demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina nerve roots, trigeminal nerve, and pachymeninges. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mildly elevated white blood cell count and protein levels. Serial electrodiagnostic testing demonstrated a rapidly progressive diffuse sensory motor axonopathy, and electroencephalogram findings progressed from generalized slowing to bilateral periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. Critical details of her recent history prompted a diagnostic biopsy. Over time, the patient became completely unresponsive with no further abnormal movements and ultimately died. The differential diagnosis, pathological findings, and diagnosis are discussed with a brief review of a well-known yet rare diagnosis.

  18. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: The unknown disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, R; Paredes, I; Munarriz, P M; Paredes, B; Alén, J F

    2017-04-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a neurodegenerative disease produced by accumulated minor traumatic brain injuries; no definitive premortem diagnosis and no treatments are available for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Risk factors associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy include playing contact sports, presence of the apolipoprotein E4, and old age. Although it shares certain histopathological findings with Alzheimer disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy has a more specific presentation (hyperphosphorylated tau protein deposited as neurofibrillary tangles, associated with neuropil threads and sometimes with beta-amyloid plaques). Its clinical presentation is insidious; patients show mild cognitive and emotional symptoms before progressing to parkinsonian motor signs and finally dementia. Results from new experimental diagnostic tools are promising, but these tools are not yet available. The mainstay of managing this disease is prevention and early detection of its first symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Hashimoto's encephalopathy: Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Shun Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Both severe thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism may affect brain function and cause a change in consciousness, as seen with a thyroid storm or myxedema coma. However, encephalopathy may also develop in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases independent of actual thyroid function level, and this is known as Hashimoto's encephalopathy. Although most patients are found to have Hashimoto's thyroiditis, less frequently they have Graves' disease. Clinical manifestations include epilepsy, disturbance of consciousness, cognitive impairment, memory loss, myoclonus, hallucinations, stroke-like episodes, tremor, involuntary movements, language impairment, and gait impairment. Hashimoto's encephalopathy is a relatively rare disease. As a good response can be obtained with corticosteroid therapy, early diagnosis and treatment is very beneficial for patients. Here we report three patients with Hashimoto's encephalopathy with typical manifestations of hallucinations that were associated with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid status, respectively. They all showed a dramatic response to methylprednisolone pulse therapy.

  20. Reversible dementia with psychosis: Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Ramon; Lubman, Dan I; Lloyd, John; Tomlinson, E Bruce; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2006-12-01

    A case of presumed Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is presented. The presentation included memory loss, delusions, functional decline and culminated in a generalized seizure. Anti-thyroid antibodies were detected and symptoms resolved with prednisolone. Patients with HE may present with prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms, attract psychiatric diagnoses and present to psychiatric services. Primarily a diagnosis of exclusion, HE should be considered in cases of encephalopathy in which standard investigations are negative.

  1. STXBP1 encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamberger, Hannah; Nikanorova, Marina; Willemsen, Marjolein H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To give a comprehensive overview of the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of STXBP1 encephalopathy (STXBP1-E) by systematically reviewing newly diagnosed and previously reported patients. METHODS: We recruited newly diagnosed patients with STXBP1 mutations through an international networ......, and the degree of ID. Accordingly, we hypothesize that seizure severity and ID present 2 independent dimensions of the STXBP1-E phenotype. STXBP1-E may be conceptualized as a complex neurodevelopmental disorder rather than a primary epileptic encephalopathy....

  2. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  3. Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. Triveni; Salman Mohammed Sheikh; Deepak Shedde

    2014-01-01

    Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinicopathological syndrome associated with various clinical conditions presenting with headache, encephalopathy, seizure and cortical visual disturbances. Radiological findings in PRES are thought to be due to vasogenic edema predominantly in posterior cerebral hemispheres and are reversible with appropriate management. We present a case of post partum PRES,A 29 year old primigravida of 33 weeks 3 days period of gestation who prese...

  4. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M.; Els, T.

    2001-01-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  5. Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Markakis, M. N.; Vissenberg, K.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous project, we screened the American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library, CHORI-231, for genes potentially involved in various coat colour phenotypes in the American mink. Subsequently, we 454 sequenced the inserts containing these genes and developed microsatellite markers...... for each of these genes. Here, we describe a lack of association between three different ‘roan-type' phenotypes represented by Cross, Stardust and Cinnamon in American mink and six different genes that we considered to be potentially linked to these phenotypes. Thus, c-KIT (HUGO-approved symbol KIT), ATOH...

  6. Chemical and amino acid composition of colostrum and mature milk differ only slightly in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Rikke; Rasmussen, Alice Neess; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    To determine differences in chemical composition between colostrum and mature milk in mink, milk samples were collected from 12 dams as close to the end of parturition as possible (n = 12), and at 24 h (n = 3), 48 h (n = 3) and 1 week (n = 12) postpartum. The milk samples were analysed for dry......, the differences between colostrum and mature milk were less pronounced in the mink than in many other species. Thus, colostrum seems to be of little importance in the mink in conferring passive immunity and hence for kit survival....

  7. Canine distemper virus DNA vaccination of mink can overcome interference by maternal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is highly contagious and can cause severe disease against which conventional live vaccines are ineffective in the presence of maternal antibodies. Vaccination in the presences of maternal antibodies was challenged by vaccination of 5 days old and 3 weeks old mink kits...

  8. Host response during acute canine distemper virus infections in naive and DNA immunized mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line

    SAMMENDRAG (DANISH SUMMARY) Mink blev inokuleret med to forskellige vildtype hundesygevirus (CDV) stammer fra forskellige genotyper. DK91 stammen repræsenter de europæiske genotyper isoleret efter 1990, mens Snyder Hill stammen repræsenter de gamle amerikanske genotyper isoleret før 1960. De to C...

  9. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Angela K; Sutherland, Chris S; Royle, J Andrew; Hare, Matthew P

    2016-06-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture-recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture-recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km² area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture-recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  10. Effects of dietary protein level on growth, health and physiological parameters in growing-furring mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental p...

  11. The status of the American mink (Neovison vison) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.A.; Hofmeester, T.R.

    2014-01-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a north American mustelid that has been farmed for its fur in Europe since the 1920s. It has been feral in the Netherlands since 1958. This paper discusses its distribution, diet, the indications for reproduction, and whether feral animals are born in the wild

  12. S-phase-dependent cell cycle disturbances caused by Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    We examined replication of the autonomous parovirus Aleutian mink disease parovirus (ADV) in relation to cell cycle progression of permissive Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ADV caused a composite, binary pattern of cell cycle arrest. ADV-induced cell cyc...

  13. Morfologisk og molekylær karakterisering af en eimeriaart fra danske mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2017-01-01

    I perioden april til oktober 2016, blev fæces fra mink (Neovison vison) på 30 danske minkgårde undersøgt med henblik på at fastlægge forekomsten og arterne af Eimeria hos danske mink (Neovison vison). På basis af morfologisk undersøgelse af sporulerede oocyster, blev oocyster som lignede tidligere...... beskrevet art, kaldet E. vison identificeret. Den fundne art var dog en smule mindre end E. vison. Efterfølgende blev oocysterne forsøgt identificeret molekylært og sammenlignet med sekvenser i Genbank. Desværre var der ikke tilgængelige mink sekvenser i GenBank, og den nyligt fundne Eimeria art kaldes...... derfor for Eimeria vison-like. I alt fandtes 2,6% (108/4.141) af de underøgte fæcesprøver positive for E. vison-like oocyster ved mikroskopi, svarende til at 23,9% (78 mink) af minkene udskilte E. vison-like oocyster mindst én gang i undersøgelsesperioden....

  14. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In this study, blood samples and jaws were collected from 2 genotypes of blue mink (n = 289) in order to examine phenotypic expression of specific characteristics of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (C-HS). Blood samples were subjected to differential counts to assess the proportion of abnormal polymorph...

  15. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Angela K.; Sutherland, Christopher S.; Royle, Andy; Hare, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture–recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture–recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km2 area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture–recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  16. Development of a sandwich ELISA for quantification of immunoglobulin G in mink blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Ronja; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, T.

    2016-01-01

    early immunity and thus their resistance against pathogenic agents found in the environment. This study describes a sandwich ELISA for quantification of the concentration of total immunoglobulin G in mink blood. The ELISA was validated with serum samples from females (n=8) and their kits (litters of 4...

  17. Genetic and non-genetic indirect effects for bite mark traits in group housed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    irrespective of relatedness. Kin selection theory predicts that an individual will interact differently with family members vs. non-family members. We showed that mink interact differently either due to sex or the family relationship with their group mates. Our results show that IGEs are very important...

  18. Influenza A Virus Surveillance in the Invasive American Mink (Neovison vison) from Freshwater Ecosystems, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, H; Busquets, N; Fernández-Aguilar, X; Sánchez, A; Ribas, M P; De Pedro, G; Lizarraga, P; Alarcia-Alejos, O; Temiño, C; Cabezón, O

    2017-08-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are negative-sense, single-stranded and segmented RNA viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family that may cause acute respiratory disease in a wide range of birds and mammals. Susceptibility of several species within the family Mustelidae to IAVs has been reported as a result of natural or experimental infections. The objectives of this study were to assess whether free-ranging American mink populations from Northern Spain were infected with IAV and try to define the role of this species in the epidemiology of IAV. Sera from 689 American mink from Northern Spain captured between 2011 and 2014 were tested for the presence of antibodies against IAVs using a commercial competition cELISA. Positive sera were further analysed with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Fifteen of the 689 (2.2%, 1.3-3.6 CI 95% ) of the American minks analysed were ELISA positive. No significant differences were observed between years of capture, provinces, river basins, sexes or ages of the animals. All seropositive sera resulted negative to the panel strains used in the HI assay, showing that the most relevant strains circulating in swine, the most relevant avian subtypes (H5 and H7) and the H10N4 subtype isolated in minks have not been circulating in this free-ranging exotic carnivore from Spain. In the light of these results, the free-range American mink from Northern Spain do not seem to have an important role in the epidemiology of IAVs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Images in Tme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Images in Time offers an interdisciplinary approach to the study of photography and dress and emerges in response to research undertaken under the umbrella term 'Wardrobe'. The book draws together international critical writings from scholars in anthropology, history, social sciences, the humanit......Images in Time offers an interdisciplinary approach to the study of photography and dress and emerges in response to research undertaken under the umbrella term 'Wardrobe'. The book draws together international critical writings from scholars in anthropology, history, social sciences......, the humanities and fashion studies, as well as photographic practitioners and museum curators and archivists, in an attempt to critique and valorise photography as a significant medium in the creation of wider socio-cultural discourse....

  20. Risk factors associated with diarrhea in Danish commercial mink (Neovison vison) during the pre-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Julie Melsted; Agger, Jens Frederik; Dahlin, Christina

    2017-01-01

    the animals and experienced more females with mastitis compared to farmers on control farms. No significant differences in cleaning practices or hygienic measures between case and control farms were found and there were no differences in drinking water quality, bedding material, composition neither of color......Pre-weaning diarrhea in mink, also known as "sticky kits", is a syndrome and outbreaks occur every year on commercial mink farms in all mink producing countries. Morbidity and mortality can be considerable on a farm with huge economic consequences for the farmer as well as compromised welfare...... for the mink kits. Although efforts have been taken to identify etiologic agents involved in outbreaks, the syndrome is still regarded as multifactorial and recurring problems on the same farms draw attention to management and environmental risk factors. In the pre-weaning period from May to June 2015, a case...

  1. Indirect genetic effects contribute substantially to heritable variation in aggression-related traits in group-housed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Bijma, Peter; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the recommendations on group housing of mink (Neovison vison) were adopted by the Council of Europe in 1999, it has become common in mink production in Europe. Group housing is advantageous from a production perspective, but can lead to aggression between animals and thus raises...... a welfare issue. Bite marks on the animals are an indicator of this aggressive behaviour and thus selection against frequency of bite marks should reduce aggression and improve animal welfare. Bite marks on one individual reflect the aggression of its group members, which means that the number of bite marks...... genetic effects contribute to variation in number of bite marks in group-housed mink. Thus, a genetic selection design that includes both direct genetic and indirect genetic effects could reduce the frequency of bite marks and probably aggression behaviour in group-housed mink....

  2. Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Data from: "Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 October 2014 to 30 November 2014....

  3. Additional foraging elements reduce abnormal behaviour – fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Svendsen, Pernille Maj

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether provision of additional appetitive and consummatory elements of foraging reduces baseline stress and abnormal behaviour – in terms of fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink. We studied 200 juveniles (n = 100 females and 100 males) during the 5-month growth......; (iii) CONS, chunky feed (parts up to 42 mm), replacing conventional feed; (iv) BOTH, access to both biting ropes and chunky feed. In growing mink, biting ropes reduced fur-chewing (P = 0.044) and chunky feed reduced stereotypic behaviour (P = 0.038) and fur-chewing in female mink (P = 0.019). During......, stereotypic behaviour was reduced by provision of chunky feed, increasing the consummatory element in daily foraging. Fur-chewing was reduced upon access to either biting ropes or chunky feed in female mink throughout the study. Our findings support frustrated foraging, mainly consummatory, behind abnormal...

  4. Recombinant Newcastle disease viral vector expressing hemagglutinin or fusion of canine distemper virus is safe and immunogenic in minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Gao, Yuwei; Wen, Zhiyuan; Yu, Guimei; Zhou, Weiwei; Zu, Shulong; Bu, Zhigao

    2015-05-15

    Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) infects many carnivores and cause several high-mortality disease outbreaks. The current CDV live vaccine cannot be safely used in some exotic species, such as mink and ferret. Here, we generated recombinant lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota expressing either envelope glycoproyein, heamagglutinine (H) or fusion protein (F), named as rLa-CDVH and rLa-CDVF, respectively. The feasibility of these recombinant NDVs to serve as live virus-vectored CD vaccine was evaluated in minks. rLa-CDVH induced significant neutralization antibodies (NA) to CDV and provided solid protection against virulent CDV challenge. On the contrast, rLa-CDVF induced much lower NA to CDV and fail to protected mink from virulent CDV challenge. Results suggest that recombinant NDV expressing CDV H is safe and efficient candidate vaccine against CDV in mink, and maybe other host species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wernicke's encephalopathy as a complication of gastroparesis after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is a common complication of malnutrition, alcohol abuse and gastric outlet obstruction. We describe a patient who developed Wernicke's encephalopathy secondary to gastroparesis, with no significant evidence of malnutrition, alcohol abuse, or gastric outlet obstruction.

  6. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that results from infection by an unusual transmissible ...

  7. Hypertensive encephalopathy in a patient with neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenburg, MWH; Zweens, MJ; Bink, MTE; Odink, RJ

    1999-01-01

    Neonatal hyperthyroidism may give rise to serious cardiovascular complications. A girl with severe thyrotoxicosis in whom hypertensive encephalopathy developed is described. Conclusion Neonatal thyrotoxicosis can give rise to hypertension and may lead to hypertensive encephalopathy.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions FENIB Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies ( FENIB ) is a disorder that causes progressive ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: STXBP1 encephalopathy with epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources (8 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Epilepsy and Seizure Disorder in Children Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: ... stxbp1 encephalopathy with epilepsy Merck Manual Consumer Version: Seizure Disorders Orphanet: Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy Patient Support and ...

  10. Naturally occurring Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 infection in a Midwest United States mink (Mustela vison) ranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Schwartz, Kent; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Jianqiang; Hildebrandt, Hugh

    2012-03-01

    Influenza A virus (FLUAV) causes acute respiratory disease in humans and a variety of animal species. The virus tends to remain within the species of origin; nonetheless, naturally occurring cross-species transmission of FLUAV has been periodically documented. Multiple cross-species transmissions of FLUAV have been reported from companion animals and captive wild animals, neither of which is historically considered as natural hosts of FLUAV. In the fall of 2010, mink (Mustela vison) inhabiting a 15,000-head mink farm in the Midwest United States experienced persistent severe respiratory distress and nose and/or mouth bleeding. Mink losses averaged approximately 10 animals per day. Six dead mink at 6 months of age were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for diagnostic investigation. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed that all 6 mink had hemorrhagic bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Hemolytic Escherichia coli was isolated from lungs, probably accounting for hemorrhagic pneumonia. All animals tested negative for Canine distemper virus and Aleutian mink disease virus. Interestingly, FLUAV of H1N2 subtype, which contained the matrix gene of swine lineage, was detected in the lungs. Serological follow-up on mink that remained in the ranch until pelting also confirmed that the ranch had been exposed to FLUAV of H1 subtype (δ clade). The case study suggests that FLUAV should be included in the differential diagnosis when mink experience epidemics of respiratory disease. Since the source of FLUAV appeared to be uncooked turkey meat, feeding animals fully cooked ration should be considered as a preventive measure.

  11. Autumn-winter diet of three carnivores, European mink (Mustela lutreola, Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta, in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazón, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the autumn-winter diet of three carnivores (Mustela lutreola, Lutra lutra and Genetta genetta in northern Spain. Diet composition was analysed from 85 European mink, 156 otter and 564 spotted genet fecal samples The European mink diet was based on small mammals (relative frequency of occurrences 38.1%, fish (30.9% and birds (16.7%. Spotted genet consumed mainly small mammals, birds and fruits, whilst otter predated practically only fish (95%. Using Levins’ index, trophic-niche widths in European mink, small-spotted genet and Eurasian otter were 3.76, 3.77 and 1.10, respectively. The trophic niche overlap by Pianka index for autumn-winter was 0.77 for European mink vs. Small-spotted genet, and 0.60 for European mink vs. otter. The average size of brown trout taken by otter was larger than those consumed by European mink.

  12. [Human transmissible subacute spongiform encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, D

    1994-05-01

    Human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are rare chronic subacute degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) which include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Kuru, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), and Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI). CJD can be either inherited or sporadic. All these diseases are always fatal. Neuropathological features are mainly constituted of neuronal vacuolisation, neuronal death, gliosis with hyperastrocytosis; plaques might be evidenced in kuru and GSS. Neither inflammatory syndrome nor demyelination is detectable. No virus like structure could be identified reproducibly. Human TSE are transmissible to non human primates and rodents. Iatrogenic CJD have been described after tissue grafting (cornea, dura mater), neurosurgery, electrophysiology investigation, and treatment with pituitary derived gonadotrophins and growth hormone. Molecular biochemistry of the CNS investigation revealed that a host encoded protein, the prion protein (PrP), accumulates proportionally to the infectious titer: this abnormality is the only detectable hallmark in TSE. Infectious fractions contain no detectable specific nucleic acid, and are mainly constituted of PrP under an isoform which resists to proteinase K digestion (PrP-res). The PrP gene (PRNP) is located on chromosome 20 in humans. Several mutations of this gene have been described in all inherited TSE (CJD, GSS, and IFF). No treatment is available today. Agents inducing TSE (TSA) are not known: several authors claim that TSA are only constituted of PrP-res; others support the hypothesis of a conventional agent with a specific genetic information.

  13. Encephalopathy caused by lanthanum carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, Pilar; Cacharro, Luis Maria; Garcia-Cosmes, Pedro; Rosado, Consolacion; Tabernero, Jose Matias

    2011-06-01

    Lanthanum carbonate is a nonaluminum, noncalcium phosphate-binding agent, which is widely used in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease. Until now, no significant side-effects have been described for the clinical use of lanthanum carbonate, and there are no available clinical data regarding its tissue stores. Here we report the case of a 59-year-old patient who was admitted with confusional syndrome. The patient received 3750 mg of lanthanum carbonate daily. Examinations were carried out, and the etiology of the encephalopathy of the patient could not be singled out. The lanthanum carbonate levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were high, and the syndrome eased after the drug was removed. The results of our study confirm that, in our case, the lanthanum carbonate did cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although lanthanum carbonate seems a safe drug with minimal absorption, this work reveals the problem derived from the increase of serum levels of lanthanum carbonate, and the possibility that it may cross the BBB. Further research is required on the possible pathologies that increase serum levels of lanthanum carbonate, as well as the risks and side-effects derived from its absorption.

  14. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Saulle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is a long-term consequence of single or repetitive closed head injuries for which there is no treatment and no definitive pre-mortem diagnosis. It has been closely tied to athletes who participate in contact sports like boxing, American football, soccer, professional wrestling and hockey. Risk factors include head trauma, presence of ApoE3 or ApoE4 allele, military service, and old age. It is histologically identified by the presence of tau-immunoreactive NFTs and NTs with some cases having a TDP-43 proteinopathy or beta-amyloid plaques. It has an insidious clinical presentation that begins with cognitive and emotional disturbances and can progress to Parkinsonian symptoms. The exact mechanism for CTE has not been precisely defined however, research suggest it is due to an ongoing metabolic and immunologic cascade called immunoexcitiotoxicity. Prevention and education are currently the most compelling way to combat CTE and will be an emphasis of both physicians and athletes. Further research is needed to aid in pre-mortem diagnosis, therapies, and support for individuals and their families living with CTE.

  15. Hashimoto's encephalopathy : epidemiology, pathogenesis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Ramon; Walterfang, Mark; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is a term used to describe an encephalopathy of presumed autoimmune origin characterised by high titres of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies. In a similar fashion to autoimmune thyroid disease, Hashimoto's encephalopathy is more common in women than in men. It has been reported in paediatric, adult and elderly populations throughout the world. The clinical presentation may involve a relapsing and remitting course and include seizures, stroke-like episodes, cognitive decline, neuropsychiatric symptoms and myoclonus. Thyroid function is usually clinically and biochemically normal.Hashimoto's encephalopathy appears to be a rare disorder, but, as it is responsive to treatment with corticosteroids, it must be considered in cases of 'investigation negative encephalopathies'. Diagnosis is made in the first instance by excluding other toxic, metabolic and infectious causes of encephalopathy with neuroimaging and CSF examination. Neuroimaging findings are often not helpful in clarifying the diagnosis. Common differential diagnoses when these conditions are excluded are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, rapidly progressive dementias, and paraneoplastic and nonparaneoplastic limbic encephalitis. In the context of the typical clinical picture, high titres of antithyroid antibodies, in particular antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, are diagnostic. These antibodies, however, can be detected in elevated titres in the healthy general population. Treatment with corticosteroids is almost always successful, although relapse may occur if this treatment is ceased abruptly. Other forms of immunomodulation, such as intravenous immune-globulin and plasma exchange, may also be effective. Despite the link to autoimmune thyroid disease, the aetiology of Hashimoto's encephalopathy is unknown. It is likely that antithyroid antibodies are not pathogenic, but titres can be a marker of treatment response. Pathological findings can suggest an inflammatory process, but features

  16. Branched-chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Koretz, R L; Kjaergard, L L

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  17. Electroencephalography and Brain MRI Patterns in Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabulya, Angela; Lesser, Ronald P; Llinas, Rafael; Kaplan, Peter W

    2016-04-01

    Using electroencephalography (EEG) and histology in patients with diffuse encephalopathy, Gloor et al reported that paroxysmal synchronous discharges (PSDs) on EEG required combined cortical gray (CG) and "subcortical" gray (SCG) matter pathology, while polymorphic delta activity (PDA) occurred in patients with white matter pathology. In patients with encephalopathy, we compared EEG findings and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine if MRI reflected similar pathological EEG correlations. Retrospective case control study of 52 cases with EEG evidence of encephalopathy and 50 controls without evidence of encephalopathy. Review of clinical, EEG and MRI data acquired within 4 days of each other. The most common EEG finding in encephalopathy was background slowing, in 96.1%. We found PSDs in 0% of cases with the combination of CG and SCG abnormalities. Although 13.5% (n=7) had PSDs on EEG; 3 of these had CG and 4 had SCG abnormalities. A total of 73.1% (38/52) had white matter abnormalities-of these 28.9% (11/38) had PDA. PSDs were found with either CG or "SCG" MRI abnormalities and did not require a combination of the two. In agreement with Gloor et al, PDA occurred with white matter MRI abnormalities in the absence of gray matter abnormalities. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2015.

  18. Posterior encephalopathy with vasospasm: MRI and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidauer, S.; Gaa, J.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F.E.; Sitzer, M.; Hefner, R.

    2003-01-01

    Posterior encephalopathy is characterised by headache, impairment of consciousness, seizures and progressive visual loss. MRI shows bilateral, predominantly posterior, cortical and subcortical lesions with a distribution. Our aim was to analyse the MRI lesion pattern and angiographic findings because the pathophysiology of posterior encephalopathy is incompletely understood. We report three patients with clinical and imaging findings consistent with posterior encephalopathy who underwent serial MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and construction of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and four-vessel digital subtraction angiography (DSA). DWI revealed symmetrical subcortical and cortical parieto-occipital high signal. High and also low ADCs indicated probable vasogenic and cytotoxic oedema. On follow-up there was focal cortical laminar necrosis, while the white-matter lesions resolved almost completely, except in the arterial border zones. DSA revealed diffuse arterial narrowing, slightly more marked in the posterior circulation. These findings suggest that posterior encephalopathy may in some cases be due to diffuse, severe vasospasm affecting especially in the parieto-occipital grey matter, with its higher vulnerability to ischemia. Cerebral vasospasm due to digitoxin intoxication, resulting in posterior encephalopathy, has not yet been described previously. (orig.)

  19. Phenozan Influence on the Physiological-Biochemical Parameters of the Young Minks Leading to Their Advanced Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai A. Balakirev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant influence on the physiological-biochemical parameters of productive animals is one of the most important directions in modern animal science. Phenozan is a synthetic antioxidant with high biological activities including those for animals. The positive effects of phenozan on the physiological-biochemical parameters of the mink blood were found. These effects are leading to the intensive growth, strong health, enhancement of the mink fur quality, and so forth. The total amount of the erythrocytes in the mink blood increased by about 4-5% due to phenozan inclusion in the mink diet. Even a more significant increase was found in hemoglobin content in the mink blood and erythrocytes (by about 9.5% and 8.8%, resp. due to phenozan inclusion of 100 mg/day, whereas it was found only by about 6.1–5.3% or 5.5–0.3%, owing to phenozan inclusion of 50 or 150 mg/day. For many other parameters the optimal phenozan concentration was about 100 mg/day per head according to the result obtained for all studied animal groups. Thus, phenozan can be successfully used as a biologically active compound for mink nutrition and is recommended for other farm animals.

  20. Spatial distribution of common Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) as an indication of a biological hotspot in the East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasom; An, Yong Rock; Park, Kyum Joon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Dabin; Joo, Hui Tae; Oh, Young Geun; Kim, Su Min; Kang, Chang Keun; Lee, Sang Heon

    2017-09-01

    The minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) is the most common baleen whale among several marine mammal species observed in Korea. Since a high concentrated condition of prey to whales can be obtained by physical structures, the foraging whale distribution can be an indicator of biological hotspot. Our main objective is verifying the coastal upwelling-southwestern East Sea as a productive biological hotspot based on the geographical distribution of minke whales. Among the cetacean research surveys of the National Institute of Fisheries Science since 1999, 9 years data for the minke whales available in the East Sea were used for this study. The regional primary productivity derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used for a proxy of biological productivity. Minke whales observed during the sighting surveys were mostly concentrated in May and found mostly (approximately 70%) in the southwestern coastal areas (whales was found in recent years, which indicate that the major habitats of mink whales have been shifted into the north of the common coastal upwelling regions. This is consistent with the recently reported unprecedented coastal upwelling in the mid-eastern coast of Korea. Based on high phytoplankton productivity and high distribution of minke whales, the southwestern coastal regions can be considered as one of biological hotspots in the East Sea. These regions are important for ecosystem dynamics and the population biology of top marine predators, especially migratory whales and needed to be carefully managed from a resource management perspective.

  1. Stimulus induced bursts in severe postanoxic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C; Wijers, Elisabeth T; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2016-11-01

    To report on a distinct effect of auditory and sensory stimuli on the EEG in comatose patients with severe postanoxic encephalopathy. In two comatose patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with severe postanoxic encephalopathy and burst-suppression EEG, we studied the effect of external stimuli (sound and touch) on the occurrence of bursts. In patient A bursts could be induced by either auditory or sensory stimuli. In patient B bursts could only be induced by touching different facial regions (forehead, nose and chin). When stimuli were presented with relatively long intervals, bursts persistently followed the stimuli, while stimuli with short intervals (encephalopathy can be induced by external stimuli, resulting in stimulus-dependent burst-suppression. Stimulus induced bursts should not be interpreted as prognostic favourable EEG reactivity. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  3. Full protection in mink against mink enteritis virus with new generation canine parvovirus vaccines based on synthetic peptide or recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J. P.; Kamstrup, Søren; Uttenthal, Åse

    1995-01-01

    Two recently developed vaccines—one based on synthetic peptide and one based on recombinant capsid protein—fully protected dogs against heavy experimental canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. The high sequence homology (>98%) and antigenic similarity between CPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV), feline...... on inactivated virus. Surprisingly, this protection was obtained after only a single injection. Furthermore, the vaccinal dose of 150 μg of conjugated peptide or 3 μg of recombinant VP2 particles per animal, are sufficiently low to be cost-effective and applicable on a large scale....

  4. Utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Niels E

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink kits from small (n = 3), medium (n = 6) and large litters (n = 9) was investigated by using 36 mink dams and their litters for measurements during lactation weeks 1 through 4. Measurements on each dam and litter were...... performed once, hence three dams per litter size each week (n = 9). Individual milk intake of kits was determined, milk samples were collected and kits were killed for determination of amino acid composition. The most abundant amino acids in milk were glutamate, leucine and aspartate making up about 40......% of total amino acids. Branched chained amino acids made up slightly more than 20% and sulphur containing amino acids less than 5% of total milk amino acids. In kit bodies the sum of glutamate, aspartate and leucine made up about 32% of amino acids, branched chain amino acids about 16% and sulphur...

  5. Abortion and mortality in farm mink (Neovison vison) associated with feed-born Clostridium limosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andresen, Lars; Aalbaek, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Disease in mink clinically characterized by abortion and increased mortality among pregnant female mink on 28 Danish farms was observed during April and May 2015. Most of these farms suffered extensive disease problems, including a significant increase in the number of mated females without litters....... Pathological, microbiological and molecular biological methods were applied to investigate the cause of disease. Necropsies of animals found dead revealed fragile and partially dissolved (liquefying) uterine tissue, with the presence of Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria. These slow growing bacteria were...... isolated by anaerobic culturing and identified as Clostridium limosum by both MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All the performed tests for relevant differential diagnoses were negative. Foodborne disease was indicated because all the affected farms were served by the same...

  6. Comparison of American mink embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cell transcriptomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzorov, Aleksei G; Matveeva, Natalia M.; Markakis, Marios Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently fibroblasts of many mammalian species have been reprogrammed to pluripotent state using overexpression of several transcription factors. This technology allows production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with properties similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells....... The completeness of reprogramming process is well studied in such species as mouse and human but there is not enough data on other species. We produced American mink (Neovison vison) ES and iPS cells and compared these cells using transcriptome analysis. RESULTS: We report the generation of 10 mink ES and 22 i......PS cell lines. The majority of the analyzed cell lines had normal diploid chromosome number. The only ES cell line with XX chromosome set had both X-chromosomes in active state that is characteristic of pluripotent cells. The pluripotency of ES and iPS cell lines was confirmed by formation of teratomas...

  7. Evidence for natural recombination between mink enteritis virus and canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A virus was isolated from mink showing clinical and pathological signs of enteritis in China. This virus, designated MEV/LN-10, was identified as mink enteritis virus (MEV based on its cytopathic effect in the feline F81 cell line, the hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, electron microscopy (EM and animal infection experiments. The complete viral genome was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses on the complete MEV/LN-10 genome showed evidence of recombination between MEV and canine parvovirus (CPV. The genome was composed of the NS1 gene originating from CPV while the VP1 gene was of MEV origin. This is the first demonstration of recombination between a CPV and MEV in nature. Our findings not only provide valuable evidence indicating that recombination is an important genetic mechanism contributing to the variation and evolution of MEV, but also that heterogeneous recombination can occur in the feline parvovirus subspecies.

  8. Selection against stereotyped behaviour may have contradictory consequences for the welfare of farm mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Jeppesen, Leif Lau; Malmkvist, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if divergent selection for stereotypic behaviour in mink influences the welfare of the animals. Two breeding lines were used, a high stereotyping line (HSL, N = 139) and a low stereotyping line (LSL, N = 132). Their welfare was assessed on the basis...... of adrenocortical activity (faecal cortisol metabolites, FCM), confident versus fearful temperament, growth and reproduction. The results showed that the LSL performed less stereotypic behaviour and were less active than the HSL. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that: (1) the LSL had lower concentrations......) there was no failure to grow in any line, but on average the body weight in the LSL was higher than that in the HSL. The correlation between stereotypy and confidence in the present study supports earlier findings showing a higher proportion of fearful animals in groups of low stereotyping mink. So, although...

  9. Estimates of the abundance of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata from Faroese and Icelandic NASS shipboard surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Pike

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available North Atlantic Sightings Surveys for cetaceans were carried out Northeast and Central Atlantic in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001. Here we provide estimates of density and abundance for minke whales from the Faroese and Icelandic ship surveys. The estimates are not corrected for availability or perception biases. Double platform data collected in 2001 indicates that perception bias is likely considerable for this species. However comparison of corrected estimates of densityfrom aerial surveys with a ship survey estimate from the same area suggests that ship surveys can be nearly unbiased under optimal survey conditions with high searching effort. There were some regional changes in density over the period but no overall changes in density and abundance. Given the recent catch history for minke whales in this area, we would not expect to see changes in abundance due to exploitation that would be detectable with these surveys.

  10. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  11. Structure and Steroidogenesis of the Placenta in the Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SASAKI, Motoki; AMANO, Yoko; HAYAKAWA, Daisuke; TSUBOTA, Toshio; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; TETSUKA, Masafumi; MIYAMOTO, Akio; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. In the macro- and microscopic observations, the placenta of the Antarctic minke whale was a diffuse and epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion was interdigitated to the endometrium by primary, secondary and tertiary villi, which contained no specialized trophoblast cells such as binucleate cells, and the interdigitation became complicated with the progress of gestation. Furthermore, fetal and maternal blood vessels indented deeply into the trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelium respectively with fetal growth. The minke whale placenta showed a fold-like shape as opposed to a finger-like shape. In both nonpregnant and pregnant uteri, many uterine glands were distributed. The uterine glands in the superficial layer of the pregnant endometrium had a wide lumen and large epithelial cells as compared with those in the deep layer. On the other hand, in the nonpregnant endometrium, the uterine glands had a narrower lumen and smaller epithelial cells than in the pregnant endometrium. In immunohistochemical detection, immunoreactivity for P450scc was detected in most trophoblast cells, but not in nonpregnant uteri, suggesting that trophoblast epithelial cells synthesized and secreted the sex steroid hormones and/or their precursors to maintain the pregnancy in the Antarctic minke whale. PMID:23269486

  12. Multispecies functional response of the minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata based on small-scale foraging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Smout, Sophie; Lindstrøm, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Atlantic minke whales are important predators in the Barents Sea ecosystem; capelin Mallotus villosus, krill Thysanoessa sp. and Meganyctephanes norvegica and herring Clupea harengus are their major prey. Their consumption of commercial species may present an economic problem for the local fishery. In order to estimate this consumption and understand the potential consequences for prey dynamics, it is essential to determine the multispecies functional response of the whales. The parameterisat...

  13. Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy in a patient with liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Hyeong Cheol; Jeong, Taek Geun; Cho, Young Bum; Yang, Bong Joon; Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Haak Cheoul; Cho, Eun-Young

    2011-06-01

    Encephalopathy is a disorder characterized by altered brain function, which can be attributed to various causes. Encephalopathy associated with metronidazole administration occurs rarely and depends on the cumulative metronidazole dose, and most patients with this condition recover rapidly after discontinuation of therapy. Because metronidazole is metabolized in the liver and can be transported by the cerebrospinal fluid and cross the blood-brain barrier, it may induce encephalopathy even at a low cumulative dose in patients with hepatic dysfunction. We experienced a patient who showed ataxic gait and dysarthric speech after receiving metronidazole for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy that was not controlled by the administration of lactulose. The patient was diagnosed as metronidazole-induced encephalopathy, and stopping drug administration resulted in a complete recovery from encephalopathy. This case shows that caution should be exercised when administering metronidazole because even a low dose can induce encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Proteome Alterations in CDV-Infected Mink Lung Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei Tong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a paramyxovirus, causes a severe highly contagious lethal disease in carnivores, such as mink. Mink lung epithelial cells (Mv.1.Lu cells are sensitive to CDV infection and are homologous to the natural host system of mink. The current study analyzed the response of Mv.1.Lu cells to CDV infection by iTRAQ combined with LC–MS/MS. In total, 151 and 369 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were markedly up-regulated or down-regulated, respectively. Thirteen DEPs were validated via real-time RT-PCR or western blot analysis. Network and KEGG pathway analyses revealed several regulated proteins associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway. Further validation was performed by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay, which demonstrated that different CDV strains induced NF-κB P65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Moreover, the results provided interesting information that some identified DEPs possibly associated with the pathogenesis and the immune response upon CDV infection. This study is the first overview of the responses to CDV infection in Mv.1.Lu cells, and the findings will help to analyze further aspects of the molecular mechanisms involved in viral pathogenesis and the immune responses upon CDV infection.

  15. Canine distemper virus DNA vaccination of mink can overcome interference by maternal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent; Pertoldi, Cino; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2015-03-10

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is highly contagious and can cause severe disease against which conventional live vaccines are ineffective in the presence of maternal antibodies. Vaccination in the presences of maternal antibodies was challenged by vaccination of 5 days old and 3 weeks old mink kits with CDV DNA vaccines. Virus neutralising (VN) antibody responses were induced in mink kits vaccinated with a plasmid encoding the haemaglutinin protein (H) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-H) or a combination of the H, fusion (F) and nucleoprotein (N) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-HFN). These DNA vaccinated kits were protected against virulent experimental infection with field strains of CDV. The pCDV-H was more efficient in inducing protective immunity in the presence of maternal antibodies compared to the pCDV-HFN. The results show that DNA vaccination with the pCDV-H or pCDV-HFN (n=4) only given once at 5 days of age induces virus specific immune response in neonatal mink and protection against virulent CDV exposure later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriel, M.

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy and diar......Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy...... diseased. All isolates were serotyped and MICs were determined for nine antimicrobial compounds. Non-haemolytic isolates numbered 147, whereas 63 were haemolytic. Both haemolytic and non-haemolytic isolates were isolated from both healthy and diseased animals. A wide range of serogroups was detected...... among the six mink farms, for tetracycline (0-16.4%. average 21.9), ampicillin (2.9-50.0%. average 23.3), spectinomycin (8.0-35.7%. average 21.9), sulfamethoxazole (8.6-57.7%. average 30.0) and trimethoprim (0-35.7%. average 9.5). Resistance to tetracycline was statistically more prevalent among...

  17. Phytoestrogens alter the reproductive organ development in the mink (Mustela vison)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoekkynen, Ari; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykoenen, Teija; Asikainen, Juha; Haenninen, Sari; Mononen, Jaakko; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reproductive effects of two perorally applied phytoestrogens, genistein (8 mg/kg/day) and β-sitosterol (50 mg/kg/day), on the mink (Mustela vison) at human dietary exposure levels. Parental generations were exposed over 9 months to these phytoestrogens and their offspring were exposed via gestation and lactation. Parents and their offspring were sampled 21 days after the birth of the kits. Sex hormone levels, sperm quality, organ weights, and development of the kits were examined. The exposed females were heavier than the control females at the 1st postnatal day (PND). The control kits were heavier than the exposed kits from the 1st to the 21st PND. Phytoestrogens did not affect the organ weights of the adult minks, but the relative testicular weight of the exposed kits was higher than in the control kits. The relative prostate weight was higher and the relative uterine weight lower in the β-sitosterol-exposed kits than in the control kits. Moreover, the plasma dihydrotestosterone levels were lower in the genistein-exposed male kits compared to the control male kits. This study could not explain the mechanisms behind these alterations. The results indicate that perinatal phytoestrogen exposures cause alterations in the weight of the reproductive organs of the mink kits

  18. Diverse Neurological Manifestations of Lead Encephalopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three patients with lead encephalopathy due to industrial poisoning are presented. They all showed a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations, which mimic other neurological presentations. It is emphasised that lead poisoning still occurs in industry, despite efforts at prevention. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 1721 (1974) ...

  19. Wernicke's Encephalopathy in a Nigerian with Schizophrenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a well-characterized syndrome in alcoholism and malnutrition, little is written of its prevalence or presentation in patients with psychiatric illness. We present a case of a 37-year-old Nigerian male with schizophrenia and malnutrition who presented with delirium and ophthalmoplegia ...

  20. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: Some novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two cases occurred following cerebral anoxia due to accidental strangulation and near-drowning, respectively. The third patient, a child known to have E-β thalassaemia, presented with transient encephalopathy following blood transfusion but involving the anterior brain rather than the posterior part classically described in ...

  1. Wernicke encephalopathy in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallas, Matt; Desai, Jay

    2014-11-01

    Wernicke encephalopathy is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. It is generally considered to be a disease of adult alcoholics. However, it is known to occur in the pediatric population and in non-alcoholic conditions. We searched PubMed with the key words Wernicke, thiamine, pediatric, children and adolescents and selected publications that were deemed appropriate. The global prevalence rates of hunger, poverty and resultant nutrient deprivation have decreased in the 21st century. However, several scenarios which may predispose to Wernicke encephalopathy may be increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents such as malignancies, intensive care unit stays and surgical procedures for the treatment of obesity. Other predisposing conditions include magnesium deficiency and defects in the SLC19A3 gene causing thiamine transporter-2 deficiency. The classic triad consists of encephalopathy, oculomotor dysfunction and gait ataxia but is not seen in a majority of patients. Treatment should be instituted immediately when the diagnosis is suspected clinically without waiting for laboratory confirmation. Common magnetic resonance findings include symmetric T2 hyperintensities in dorsal medial thalamus, mammillary bodies, periaqueductal gray matter, and tectal plate. Wernicke encephalopathy is a medical emergency. Delay in its recognition and treatment may lead to significant morbidity, irreversible neurological damage or even death. This article aims to raise the awareness of this condition among pediatricians.

  2. Hepatic encephalopathy: experimental studies on the pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. de Knegt (Robert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractAims of this thesis: 1. To study, in rabbits, the suitability of experimental acute liver failure and acute hyperammonemia simulating acute liver failure for the study of hepatic encephalopathy and ammonia toxicity. 2. To study glutamate neurotransmission in rabbits with acute liver

  3. Clinical and experimental aspects of hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Groeneweg (Michael)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractHepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatnc syndrome associated with severe liver disease. Clinical symptoms range from minimal changes in mental state and neuromuscular defects to unresponsive coma. 1-' The syndrome of HE can be divided into three major groups: HE associated with

  4. Hepatic encephalopathy: clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is still unsolved. Therapy, therefore, is often insufficient. For the development of effective, new therapies insight into the disease-inducing substrates and the mechanisms of its toxic actions in the central nervous system ·are required. For

  5. Qualifying and quantifying minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Marsha Y; Amodio, Piero; Cook, Nicola A

    2016-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is the term applied to the neuropsychiatric status of patients with cirrhosis who are unimpaired on clinical examination but show alterations in neuropsychological tests exploring psychomotor speed/executive function and/or in neurophysiological variables. There is ......Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is the term applied to the neuropsychiatric status of patients with cirrhosis who are unimpaired on clinical examination but show alterations in neuropsychological tests exploring psychomotor speed/executive function and/or in neurophysiological variables...... analytical techniques may provide better diagnostic information while the advent of portable wireless headsets may facilitate more widespread use. A large number of other diagnostic tools have been validated for the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy including Critical Flicker Frequency......, the Inhibitory Control Test, the Stroop test, the Scan package and the Continuous Reaction Time; each has its pros and cons; strengths and weaknesses; protagonists and detractors. Recent AASLD/EASL Practice Guidelines suggest that the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy should be based on the PHES test...

  6. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  7. CT diagnosis of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiang; Ma Jiwei; Wu Lide

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore CT characteristics of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), and to improve the accuracy of CT diagnosis. Methods: 50 cases of neonatal asphyxia in perinatal period diagnosed as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy by CT was analyzed. Results: The main manifestation of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is cerebral edema and intracranial hemorrhage. Focal or diffuse hypo-dense lesion and hyper-dense area in various location and morphology were seen on CT images. (1) Localized diffuse hypo-dense area in 1 or 2 cerebral lobe were found in 17 cases, and the lesions were localized in frontal lobe (n=6), in frontotemporal lobe (n=5), and in temporo-occipital lobe (n=6). (2) Hypo-density region involving more than three cerebral lobes were found in 18 cases, and abnormalities were found in frontotemporal and parietal lobe (n=8), accompanying with subarachnoid hemorrhage (n=2); in frontal, temporal and occipital lobe (n=6), in which cerebral hemorrhage was complicated (n=1); and in other cerebral lobe (n=4). (3) Diffuse low-density region in all cerebral lobe were found in 15 cases, in which subarachnoid hemorrhage was complicated in 4 cases, and ventricular hemorrhage was found in 2 case. Conclusion: CT imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and has shown its clinical value

  8. Associations between biosecurity and outbreaks of canine distemper on Danish mink farms in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregers-Jensen, Louise; Agger, Jens Frederik; Hammer, Anne Sofie Vedsted; Andresen, Lars; Chrièl, Mariann; Hagberg, Emma; Jensen, Mette Kragh; Hansen, Mette Sif; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Struve, Tina

    2015-09-30

    During 8 months from July 2012 to February 2013, a major outbreak of canine distemper involving 64 mink farms occurred on the Danish peninsula of Jutland. The canine distemper outbreak was associated with exposure of farmed mink to infected wild carnivores and could represent a deficit in biosecurity on the mink farms. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and association of specific biosecurity measures with the outbreak. The study was carried out in an epidemiological case-control design. The case group consisted of the 61 farms, which had a confirmed outbreak of canine distemper from July 2012 to February 2013. The control group included 54 farms without an outbreak of canine distemper in 2012 or 2013, selected as the closest geographical neighbour to a case farm. The results showed that significantly more control than case farms had vaccinated their mink against canine distemper virus. Mortality was only assessed on the case farms, and there was a non-significantly lower mortality on vaccinated farms than on the non-vaccinated farms. Furthermore, the proportion of farms with observations of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inside the farm enclosures were larger for case farms, indicating that the control farms had a better biosecurity or were not equally exposed to canine distemper virus. Generally, all farms had very few specific precautions at the gate entrance in respect to human visitors as well as animals. The use of biosecurity measures was very variable in both case and control farms. Not using plastic boot covers, presence of dogs and cats, presence of demarcated area for changing clothes when entering and leaving the farm area and presence of hand washing facilities significantly lowered the odds of the farm having a canine distemper virus outbreak. The results of the study indicate that consistent use of correct vaccination strategies, implementation of biosecurity measures and limiting human and animal access to the mink farm can be

  9. Wernicke’s encephalopathy following hyperemesis gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Pourali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: ″Wernicke’s Korsakoff″ syndrome is the most important complication of severe thiamine deficiency. The term refers to two different syndromes, each representing a different stage of the disease. Wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE is an acute syndrome requiring emergent treatment to prevent death and neurologic morbidity. Korsakoff syndrome (KS refers to a chronic neurologic condition that usually occurs as a consequence of WE. It is a rare complication of hyperemesis gravidarum that confusion, ocular signs, and gait ataxia are the most prevalent symptoms, respectively. Typical brain lesions of wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE are observed at autopsy in 0.4 to 2.8 percent of the general population in the western world and the majority of affected patients are alcoholic. The prevalence of wernicke’s encephalopathy lesions seen on autopsy was 12.5% of alcohol abusers in one report. Among those who with alcohol-related death, it has been reported to be even higher, 29 to 59%. The aim of this study was to report a case of wernicke’s encephalopathy following hyperemesis gravidarum. Case Presentation: A 28-year-old-pregnant woman in 19th weeks of gestation referred to the hospital with hyperemesis, gait ataxia, and dysarthria before that she had hyperemesis gravidarum with weight loss and unresponsive to outpatient and inpatient medical therapy. MRI showed hyperdense lesion around thalamus which was characteristic of wernicke’s encephalopathy. Rapid improvement in patient’s condition occurred after high dose thiamine infusion. Conclusion: In hyperemesis gravidarum, presence of either symptoms of ocular or mental disorder or ataxia must be considered to rule out and appropriate treatment of Wernicke’s syndrome which can cause maternal and fetal death.

  10. Water baths for farmed mink: intra-individual consistency and inter-individual variation in swimming behaviour, and effects on stereotyped behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MONONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Swimming behaviour and effects of water baths on stereotyped behaviour in farmed mink (Mustela vison were studied in three experiments. The singly-housed mink had access from their home cages to extra cages with 20.5 litre water baths. Two short-term experiments aimed to investigate how quickly adult and juvenile mink start using and how consistently they use water baths over 10 days, and whether the extent of the use correlates between dams and their females kits. A four-month experiment was designed to compare the development of stereotyped behaviour in juvenile mink housed with and without swimming opportunity. The behavioural analyses were based on several 24-hour video recordings carried out in all three experiments. There were obvious inter-individual differences and intra-individual consistency in swimming frequency and time. Farmed mink’s motivation to swim can be assessed in short-term experiments, and measurement of water losses from the swimming baths and use of instantaneous sampling with 10 min sampling intervals provide quite reliable measures of the amount of swimming. The bath use of the juveniles correlated with that of their dams, indicating that an individual mink’s eagerness to swim may have a genetic component. The lower amount of stereotyped behaviour in mink housed with water baths indicates that long-term access to baths may alleviate frustration in singly-housed juvenile farmed mink.;

  11. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison) with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to augment infection with...

  12. Coronavirus infection in mink (Mustela vison). Serological evidence of infection with a coronavirus related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, P; Moving, V; Svansson, V

    1992-01-01

    Antibodies to a transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)-related coronavirus have been demonstrated in mink sera by indirect immunofluorescence, peroxidase-linked antibody assays and immunoblotting. This is the first serological evidence of a specific coronavirus infection in mink. The putative...

  13. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose...... had higher concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in plasma than male mink....

  14. Autism spectrum disorder and epileptic encephalopathy: common causes, many questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Siddharth; Sahin, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies represent a particularly severe form of epilepsy, associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, including impaired social-communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors that are the hallmarks of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the genetic landscape of epileptic encephalopathies is growing and demonstrates overlap with genes separately implicated in ASD. However, many questions remain about this connection, including whether epileptiform activity itself contributes to the development of ASD symptomatology. In this review, we compiled a database of genes associated with both epileptic encephalopathy and ASD, limiting our purview to Mendelian disorders not including inborn errors of metabolism, and we focused on the connection between ASD and epileptic encephalopathy rather than epilepsy broadly. Our review has four goals: to (1) discuss the overlapping presentations of ASD and monogenic epileptic encephalopathies; (2) examine the impact of the epilepsy itself on neurocognitive features, including ASD, in monogenic epileptic encephalopathies; (3) outline many of the genetic causes responsible for both ASD and epileptic encephalopathy; (4) provide an illustrative example of a final common pathway that may be implicated in both ASD and epileptic encephalopathy. We demonstrate that autistic features are a common association with monogenic epileptic encephalopathies. Certain epileptic encephalopathy syndromes, like infantile spasms, are especially linked to the development of ASD. The connection between seizures themselves and neurobehavioral deficits in these monogenic encephalopathies remains open to debate. Finally, advances in genetics have revealed many genes that overlap in ties to both ASD and epileptic encephalopathy and that play a role in diverse central nervous system processes. Increased attention to the autistic features of monogenic epileptic encephalopathies is warranted for

  15. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: relationship to age and parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y; Evans, R Douglas; Evans, Hayla E

    2008-11-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink.

  16. A cross-sectional field study on potential associations between feed quality measures and usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Struve, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Feed quality is generally assumed to affect health status in animal production. In previous studies, the feed producer has been found to affect the occurrence of gastrointestinal disease and antimicrobial use in Mink (Neovison vison). Mink are fed with moist, freshly produced feed, based...... on perishable ingredients. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effect of specific feed parameters on antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was cross-sectional, including 1472 mink herds, responsible for 97% of oral antimicrobials prescribed for Danish mink during the study period......, 2012-2014. Data were obtained from the national veterinary prescription database (VetStat), Kopenhagen Fur database, and the Voluntary Feed Control (Mink producers Organization). All feed batches subject to feed control were included. A multi-variable variance analysis was carried out analysing...

  17. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 8: Experimental study of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on reproductive success in mink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbrook, R.S.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Lewis, L.

    1999-01-01

    As a component of an ecological risk assessment of Poplar Creek (located on the Oak Ridge Reservation [ORR]) and the Clinch River (a large river-reservoir system), fish from Poplar Creek, the Clinch River, and Atlantic Ocean were fed to ranch mink to evaluate reproductive success. Five diets, each composed of 75% fish and 25% normal ranch mink chow, were prepared. Two diets served as reference diets and contained 75% Atlantic Ocean fish or 75% Clinch River fish collected above the ORR. The fish portion of the remaining three diets contained 25, 50, and 75% fish collected from Poplar Creek and 50, 25, and 0% ocean fish, respectively. Five mink groups (eight females and two males each) were each fed one of the prepared diets for 196 days. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were determined in diets and various mink tissues, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was determined in liver tissue, and reproductive success was evaluated. Concentrations of PCB were greatest in the diet composed of 75% Poplar Creek fish and in tissues from mink fed this diet and their offspring. There was a trend toward decreased adult female and kit weights and reduced mean litter size in mink fed diets containing 75% Poplar Creek fish; however, at 6 weeks of age, kit survival was similar among diet groups. Liver EROD activity significantly increased in adult female mink fed 50 and 75% Poplar Creek fish diets. Estimated dietary concentrations of PCBs were similar to or slightly lower than concentrations associated with adverse effects in experimentally dosed mink. Mercury (Hg) concentrations previously reported in these same mink were below that associated with adverse effects, and there was no indication of additive or synergistic effects from exposure to PCBs plus Hg. It is unlikely that population-level reproductive effects would be observed in mink consuming fish from Poplar Creek on the ORR

  18. The Thompson Encephalopathy Score and Short-Term Outcomes in Asphyxiated Newborns Treated With Therapeutic Hypothermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsen, Patricia; Jansen-van der Weide, Martine C.; Groenendaal, Floris; Onland, Wes; van Straaten, Henrika L. M.; Zonnenberg, Inge; Vermeulen, Jeroen R.; Dijk, Peter H.; Dudink, Jeroen; Rijken, Monique; van Heijst, Arno; Dijkman, Koen P.; Cools, Filip; Zecic, Alexandra; van Kaam, Anton H.; de Haan, Timo R.

    2016-01-01

    The Thompson encephalopathy score is a clinical score to assess newborns suffering from perinatal asphyxia. Previous studies revealed a high sensitivity and specificity of the Thompson encephalopathy score for adverse outcomes (death or severe disability). Because the Thompson encephalopathy score

  19. Association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozian, R.; Faramarzpur, M.; Rahimi, E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The knowledge on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) contribution in the pathology of the liver and biliary tract diseases in human is very limited. The aim of this study was to assess the probable association between H. pylori seropositivity and hepatic encephalopathy. Methodology: This is a case control study conducted through three groups, cirrhotics with hepatic encephalopathy (HE), cirrhotics without HE and healthy controls. All subjects were examined serologically for determination of IgG class antibodies to H. pylori based on ELISA technique. Results: H. pylori seropositivity was present in 88% cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy, 86% cirrhotics without hepatic encephalopathy and 66% healthy controls. Conclusion: According to our results, H. pylori seropositivity rate in cirrhotic patients with or without hepatic encephalopathy was higher than healthy controls. But H. pylori seropositivity rate was not significantly different among cirrhotics with hepatic encephalopathy and those without it.

  20. Comparison of histological lesions in acute hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Boye, Mette; Høiby, N.

    2013-01-01

    also occurred in farmed mink. The purpose of this study was to compare histological lesions of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with both P. aeruginosa and E. coli in mink, including a description of tissue distribution of pathogens, in an attempt to differentiate between the 2 disease entities......, as P. aeruginosa was most often found surrounding blood vessels and lining the alveoli, while E. coli showed a more diffuse distribution in the lung tissue. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa often elicited a very hemorrhagic response in the lung, while infection with E. coli was associated with a higher......Hemorrhagic pneumonia can be a major cause of mortality in farmed mink in the fall. In its classic form, hemorrhagic pneumonia is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In recent years, however, outbreaks of this type of pneumonia that are associated with hemolytic Escherichia coli have...

  1. Genomic selection in mink yield higher accuracies with a Bayesian approach allowing for heterogeneous variance than a GBLUP model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Trine Michelle; Su, Guosheng; Cai, Zexi

    2018-01-01

    by sequencing. Four live grading traits and four traits on dried pelts for size and quality were analysed. GWAS analysis detected significant SNPs for all the traits. The single-trait Bayesian model resulted in higher accuracies for the genomic predictions than the single-trait GBLUP model, especially......The accuracy of genomic prediction for mink was compared for single-trait and multiple-trait GBLUP models and Bayesian models that allowed for heterogeneous (co)variance structure over the genome. The mink population consisted of 2,103 brown minks genotyped with the method of genotyping...... for the traits measured on dried pelts. We expected the multiple-trait models to be superior to the single trait models since the multiple-trait model can make use of information when traits are correlated. However, we did not find a general improvement in accuracies with the multiple-trait models compared...

  2. Does aetiology of neonatal encephalopathy and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy influence the outcome of treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintyre, Sarah; Badawi, Nadia; Blair, Eve; Nelson, Karin B

    2015-04-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy, a clinical syndrome affecting term-born and late preterm newborn infants, increases the risk of perinatal death and long-term neurological morbidity, especially cerebral palsy. With the advent of therapeutic hypothermia, a treatment designed for hypoxic or ischaemic injury, associated mortality and morbidity rates have decreased. Unfortunately, only about one in eight neonates (95% confidence interval) who meet eligibility criteria for therapeutic cooling apparently benefit from the treatment. Studies of infants in representative populations indicate that neonatal encephalopathy is a potential result of a variety of antecedents and that asphyxial complications at birth account for only a small percentage of neonatal encephalopathy. In contrast, clinical case series suggest that a large proportion of neonatal encephalopathy is hypoxic or ischaemic, and trials of therapeutic hypothermia are specifically designed to include only infants exposed to hypoxia or ischaemia. This review addresses the differences, definitional and methodological, between infants studied and investigations undertaken, in population studies compared with cooling trials. It raises the question if there may be subgroups of infants with a clinical diagnosis of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in whom the pathobiology of neonatal neurological depression is not fundamentally hypoxic or ischaemic and, therefore, for whom cooling may not be beneficial. In addition, it suggests approaches to future trials of cooling plus adjuvant therapy that may contribute to further improvement of care for these vulnerable neonates. © The Authors. Journal compilation © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Molecular & Genetic Investigation of Tau in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0399 TITLE: Molecular & Genetic Investigation of Tau in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John F...Include area code) October 2015 Annual Report 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 Molecular & Genetic Investigation of Tau in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy John... encephalopathy (CTE), but the underlying molecular changes remain unclear. Here, biochemical and genetic studies that deepen our understanding of the

  4. Diffusion MR findings in cyclosporin-A induced encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Kubilay; Minareci, Ozenc; Donmez, Fuldem; Tuzun, Umit; Atamer, Tanju

    2004-01-01

    Cyclosporin encephalopathy is a well-known entity, which is clinically characterized by altered mental status, vision problems, focal neurological deficits and seizures. The exact pathophysiology of the cyclosporin encephalopathy has not yet been defined. We report the diffusion-weighted MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy findings in a case of cyclosporin encephalopathy. The white-matter lesions with reversible restricted diffusion supported the hypothesis of reversible vasospasm induced by the cyclosporin. (orig.)

  5. Risk factors associated with diarrhea in Danish commercial mink (Neovison vison) during the pre-weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Julie Melsted; Agger, Jens Frederik; Dahlin, Christina; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Struve, Tina; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2017-06-29

    Pre-weaning diarrhea in mink, also known as "sticky kits", is a syndrome and outbreaks occur every year on commercial mink farms in all mink producing countries. Morbidity and mortality can be considerable on a farm with huge economic consequences for the farmer as well as compromised welfare for the mink kits. Although efforts have been taken to identify etiologic agents involved in outbreaks, the syndrome is still regarded as multifactorial and recurring problems on the same farms draw attention to management and environmental risk factors. In the pre-weaning period from May to June 2015, a case control study was carried out on 30 Danish mink farms. Data concerning management, biosecurity, hygiene, feed consumption, antibacterial prescription and production efficiency were analyzed. The proportion of 1-year old females, farm size (total number of females), energy supply per female in the late gestation period, and dogs accessing the farm area were significantly associated with being a case farm. Case farms were prescribed almost twice the amount of antibacterials per gestational unit (female and litter) as in control farms. Farmers on case farms spent significantly more time nursing and treating the animals and experienced more females with mastitis compared to farmers on control farms. No significant differences in cleaning practices or hygienic measures between case and control farms were found and there were no differences in drinking water quality, bedding material, composition neither of color types nor in management regarding litter equalization. Results from this study showed an association between the occurrence of pre-weaning diarrhea on mink farms and parity profile, farm size and feeding intensity in the gestational period. The access of dogs to the farm area was a significant risk factor, but needs further clarification.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a "phiKMV-like" bacteriophage and its therapeutic effect on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhui Cao

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the "phiKMV-like Viruses" group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization.

  7. Case of hepatic encephalopathy induced by thortrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirato, H.; Kudo, N.; Takita, K. (Nakatori Hospital, Akita (Japan))

    1980-09-01

    A case of hepatic encephalopathy induced by thorotrast injected as a contrast 40 years before was reported. The patient was a 64-year-old man with severe liver dysfunction, and had psychic and neurological symptoms, and hyperammonemia. There was a relationship between ammonium concentration in blood and psychic and neurological symptoms. Electroencephalogram showed three phases waves peculiar to hepatic coma intermittently. Thorotrast in the liver was detected by radiological methods and in vivo measurement of the radioactivity. From the above-mentioned result, this disease was diagnosed as hepatic encephalopathy induced by long-term sedimentation of thorotrast without complication of malignant tumors. Because of the concurrent presence of cerebral infarction, the diagnosis was difficult to make.

  8. Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus in Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a case of a 64-year-old male with a history of liver failure presenting with altered mental status, initially diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy but ultimately diagnosed with nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE by electroencephalogram (EEG. NCSE is a difficult diagnosis to make, given no clear consensus on diagnostic criteria. Especially in the intensive care unit setting of persistent altered mental status with no clear etiology, NCSE must be considered in the differential diagnosis, as the consequences of delayed diagnosis and treatment can be substantial. EEG can be useful in the evaluation of patients with hepatic encephalopathy who have persistently altered levels of consciousness despite optimal medical management. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:372–374.

  9. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  10. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  11. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy and Meat Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Hester J. T.; Knight, Richard S. G.

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) comprise a wide-ranging group of neurodegenerative diseases found in animals and humans. They have diverse causes and geographical distributions, but have similar pathological features, transmissibility and, are ultimately, fatal. Central to all TSEs is the presence of an abnormal form of a normal host protein, namely the prion protein. Because of their potential transmissibility, these diseases have wide public health ramifications.

  12. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccine-induced immunity protected the natural host against disease development.

  13. Evolutionary analysis of whole-genome sequences confirms inter-farm transmission of Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagberg, Emma Elisabeth; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Larsen, Lars E

    2017-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a frequently encountered pathogen associated with mink farming. Previous phylogenetic analyses of AMDV have been based on shorter and more conserved parts of the genome, e.g. the partial NS1 gene. Such fragments are suitable for detection but are less useful...... direction of spread. It was however impossible to infer transmission pathways from the partial NS1 gene tree, since all samples from the case farms branched out from a single internal node. A sliding window analysis showed that there were no shorter genomic regions providing the same phylogenetic resolution...

  14. Farmers’ perception of stable schools as a tool to improve management for the benefit of mink welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt I. F.; Anneberg, Inger; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore farmers' perception of stable schools as a tool to improve management for the benefit of mink welfare. Stable schools are knowledge exchange between farmers working towards a common goal, being able to give practical advice to each other. The concept is based......, and that motivation for working towards a common goal is very important for the process of common learning among the farmers. The uniform production system at mink farms gives special challenges in how to work with the different subjects to ensure farmer ownership of the process. The farmers did not see the seasonal...

  15. The welfare of farmed mink should be easy to assess in a correct way and lead to animal welfare improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    A three year PhD-study in assessment of mink welfare has contributed with methods and knowledge on how to get the welfare assessments as efficient and correct as possible and how to use the assessments in order to increase the welfare of the animals. The study found, that it might be possible...... periods have the same effect of date of assessment. The study also found that mink farmers are generally positive towards the structural way of working in stable schools and that including a discussion of the WelFur results related to the different farms in a stable school will make the feedback...

  16. BLOOD BIOMARKERS FOR EVALUATION OF PERINATAL ENCEPHALOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Marshall Graham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in identification of brain injury after trauma shows many possible blood biomarkers that may help identify the fetus and neonate with encephalopathy. Traumatic brain injury shares many common features with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Trauma has a hypoxic component, and one of the 1st physiologic consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury is apnea. Trauma and hypoxia-ischemia initiate an excitotoxic cascade and free radical injury followed by the inflammatory cascade, producing injury in neurons, glial cells and white matter. Increased excitatory amino acids, lipid peroxidation products and alteration in microRNAs and inflammatory markers are common to both traumatic brain injury and perinatal encephalopathy. The blood-brain barrier is disrupted in both leading to egress of substances normally only found in the central nervous system. Brain exosomes may represent ideal biomarker containers, as RNA and protein transported within the vesicles are protected from enzymatic degradation. Evaluation of fetal or neonatal brain derived exosomes that cross the blood-brain barrier and circulate peripherally has been referred to as the liquid brain biopsy. A multiplex of serum biomarkers could improve upon the current imprecise methods of identifying fetal and neonatal brain injury such as fetal heart rate abnormalities, meconium, cord gases at delivery, and Apgar scores. Quantitative biomarker measurements of perinatal brain injury and recovery could lead to operative delivery only in the presence of significant fetal risk, triage to appropriate therapy after birth and measure the effectiveness of treatment.

  17. Inflammatory Macrophages Promotes Development of Diabetic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beiyun; Miao, Ya; Zhao, Zhe; Zhong, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease are often associated with each other, whereas the relationship between two diseases is ill-defined. Although hyperglycemia during diabetes is a major cause of encephalopathy, diabetes may also cause chronic inflammatory complications including peripheral neuropathy. Hence the role and the characteristics of inflammatory macrophages in the development of diabetic encephalopathy need to be clarified. Diabetes were induced in mice by i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Two weeks after STZ injection and confirmation of development of diabetes, inflammatory macrophages were eliminated by i.p. injection of 20µg saporin-conjugated antibody against a macrophage surface marker CD11b (saporin-CD11b) twice per week, while a STZ-treated group received injection of rat IgG of same frequency as a control. The effects of macrophage depletion on brain degradation markers, brain malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, superoxidase anion-positive cells and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. Saporin-CD11b significantly reduced inflammatory macrophages in brain, without affecting mouse blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose responses and beta cell mass. However, reduced brain macrophages significantly inhibited the STZ-induced decreases in brain MDA, catalase and superoxidase anion-positive cells, and the STZ-induced decreases in brain NO. Inflammatory macrophages may promote development of diabetic encephalopathy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Origin and implications of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, H

    1996-04-01

    All spongiform encephalopathies in animals, including humans, are slow developing infectious diseases. The current working theory links the origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to the feeding of cattle with meat and bone meal prepared from scrapie-infected sheep remains. Recycling of cattle meat and bones (MBM) essentially resulted in the selection of a single strain from the "wild type", a mixture of 20 strains. The BSE agent is easily transmitted through ingestion, with some evidence of vertical transmission. Paradoxically, cattle have selected a major new strain which appears to be more virulent than an unselected strain found in scrapie sheep. The same strain of BSE agent is implicated in the occurrence of spongiform encephalopathy in domestic cats, tiger, and some exotic species of ruminants in zoos. The properties of BSE and its spread into cattle are still disputed. Since our understanding of the disease and its transmissibility in humans must await observations that will be made over some years to come, it is important to keep a reasonable perspective and ensure that any speculative comment is consistent with fact. In risk assessment in such circumstances, it is tempting give too much credence to persuasive parallels when direct relevant information is not available. On the other hand, it would also not be wise to assume that the disease will die by itself and will have no effect on humans.

  19. Acid-base status and cardiovascular function in mink (Mustela vison) anaesthetized with ketamine/midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamberg, S; Svendsen, P; Johansen, B

    1996-01-01

    Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and blood acid-base status were determined in 18 adult female mink (mean (+/- SEM) body weight 1052 +/- 34 g) during long-term anaesthesia with either controlled ventilation (n=12) or spontaneous respiration (n=6). Surgical anaesthesia was induced by intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride (Ketaminol Vet, 40.0 +/- 1.7 mg/kg) and midazolam hydrochloride (Dormicum 2.8 +/- 0.1 mg/kg) and maintained for at least 5 h by continuous intravenous infusion of this drug combination in 0.9% saline. For all animals, the mean rates of infusion of ketamine and midazolam were 48.4 +/- 1.6 and 1.61 +/- 0.12 mg/h, respectively. Following continuous infusion of the anaesthetics in isotonic saline, at a rate of 20 ml/h, a moderate 'dilution acidosis' developed, which could be corrected by replacement of part of the saline with sodium bicarbonate to a final concentration of approximately 25 mmol NaHCO3 per litre. However, when the animals were allowed to breathe spontaneously, an increase in heart rate and a combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis occurred, due to severe respiratory depression. Apart from these effects and a few cases of increased salivation, no adverse effects over time were observed on the arterial blood acid-base status and cardiovascular function of the animals during ketamine/midazolam anaesthesia. It is concluded that the procedure described for long-term anaesthesia in mink is convenient and safe for acute physiological experiments in this species, provided normal body temperature and pulmonary gas exchange is sufficiently maintained. Thus, the need for an adequately controlled artificial ventilation is strongly emphasized. Finally, a proposal for the composition of an intravenous solution, containing ketamine and midazolam hydrochloride, and sodium bicarbonate in saline, suitable for long-term anaesthesia in adult mink is presented.

  20. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Aleutian mink disease virus isolates in north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xue; Liu, Dongxu; Li, Jianming; Shi, Kun; Zeng, Fanli; Zong, Ying; Liu, Yi; Sun, Zhibo; Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Yadong; Du, Rui

    2018-05-01

    Aleutian mink disease is the most important disease in the mink-farming industry worldwide. So far, few large-scale molecular epidemiological studies of AMDV, based on the NS1 and VP2 genes, have been conducted in China. Here, eight new Chinese isolates of AMDV from three provinces in north-east China were analyzed to clarify the molecular epidemiology of AMDV. The seroprevalence of AMDV in north-east China was 41.8% according to counterimmuno-electrophoresis. Genetic variation analysis of the eight isolates showed significant non-synonymous substitutions in the NS1 and VP2 genes, especially in the NS1 gene. All eight isolates included the caspase-recognition sequence NS1:285 (DQTD↓S), but not the caspase recognition sequence NS1:227 (INTD↓S). The LN1 and LN2 strains had a new 10-amino-acid deletion in-between amino acids 28-37, while the JL3 strain had a one-amino-acid deletion at position 28 in the VP2 protein, compared with the AMDV-G strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on most of NS1 (1755 bp) and complete VP2 showed that the AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their pathogenicity or geographic origin. Local and imported ADMV species are all prevalent in mink-farming populations in the north-east of China. This is the first study to report the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in north-east China based on most of NS1 and the complete VP2, and further provides information about polyG deletions and new variations in the amino acid sequences of NS1 and VP2 proteins. This report is a good foundation for further study of AMDV in China.

  1. Outbreak tracking of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) using partial NS1 gene sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Pia; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Hagberg, E. E.

    2017-01-01

    . However, in 2015, several outbreaks of AMDV occurred at mink farms throughout Denmark, and the sources of these outbreaks were not known. Partial NS1 gene sequencing, phylogenetic analyses data were utilized along with epidemiological to determine the origin of the outbreaks. The phylogenetic analyses...... not be excluded. This study confirmed that partial NS1 sequencing can be used in outbreak tracking to determine major viral clusters of AMDV. Using this method, two new distinct AMDV clusters with low intra-cluster sequence diversity were identified, and epidemiological data helped to reveal possible ways...

  2. Removal of American mink increases the success of simulated nests in linear habitat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padyšáková, E.; Šálek, Martin; Poledník, L.; Sedláček, František; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2009), s. 225-230 ISSN 1035-3712 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:GA MŽP(CZ) SE/620/1/03; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D3/60/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mink * nest predation * introduction * allien species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.222, year: 2009

  3. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Themudo, G. E.; Jelsbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to determine the genetic and geographical relationship among outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia by pulsed field gel electrophoresis typing of P. aeruginosa isolates. Furthermore, chosen isolates were typed by a commercial genotyping method based on single nucleotide polymorphisms...... (SNPs) and compared to a larger dataset of human and environmental origin. The bacterial isolates were obtained from diagnostic samples from 2002-2009 and contained 164 isolates from 95 outbreaks on 90 farms. Our results show that most outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink are caused by distinct...

  4. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy characterized by parallel use of the continuous reaction time and portosystemic encephalopathy tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, M M; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Vilstrup, H

    2015-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a frequent complication to liver cirrhosis that causes poor quality of life, a great burden to caregivers, and can be treated. For diagnosis and grading the international guidelines recommend the use of psychometric tests of different modalities (computer...... based vs. paper and pencil). To compare results of the Continuous Reaction time (CRT) and the Portosystemic Encephalopathy (PSE) tests in a large unselected cohort of cirrhosis patients without clinically detectable brain impairment and to clinically characterize the patients according to their test...

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Mink (Neovison vison) Skin Reveals the Key Genes Involved in the Melanogenesis of Black and White Coat Colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingchao; Xu, Chao; Liu, Zongyue; Yue, Zhigang; Liu, Linling; Yang, Tongao; Cong, Bo; Yang, Fuhe

    2017-09-29

    Farmed mink (Neovison vison) is one of the most important fur-bearing species worldwide, and coat colour is a crucial qualitative characteristic that contributes to the economic value of the fur. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in coat colour regulation, Illumina/Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to catalogue the global gene expression profiles in mink skin with two different coat colours (black and white). RNA-seq analysis indicated that a total of 12,557 genes were differentially expressed in black versus white minks, with 3,530 genes up-regulated and 9,027 genes down-regulated in black minks. Significant differences were not observed in the expression of MC1R and TYR between the two different coat colours, and the expression of ASIP was not detected in the mink skin of either coat colour. The expression levels of KITLG, LEF1, DCT, TYRP1, PMEL, Myo5a, Rab27a and SLC7A11 were validated by qRT-PCR, and the results were consistent with RNA-seq analysis. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of two coat colours in mink skin. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying skin physiology and melanogenesis in mink and will provide a foundation for future studies.

  6. Probiotics for people with hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Rohan; McGee, Richard G; Riordan, Stephen M; Webster, Angela C

    2017-02-23

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a disorder of brain function as a result of liver failure or portosystemic shunt or both. Both hepatic encephalopathy (clinically overt) and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (not clinically overt) significantly impair patient's quality of life and daily functioning, and represent a significant burden on healthcare resources. Probiotics are live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, may confer a health benefit on the host. To determine the beneficial and harmful effects of probiotics in any dosage, compared with placebo or no intervention, or with any other treatment for people with any grade of acute or chronic hepatic encephalopathy. This review did not consider the primary prophylaxis of hepatic encephalopathy. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, conference proceedings, reference lists of included trials, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform until June 2016. We included randomised clinical trials that compared probiotics in any dosage with placebo or no intervention, or with any other treatment in people with hepatic encephalopathy. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We conducted random-effects model meta-analysis due to obvious heterogeneity of participants and interventions. We defined a P value of 0.05 or less as significant. We expressed dichotomous outcomes as risk ratio (RR) and continuous outcomes as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 21 trials with 1420 participants, of these, 14 were new trials. Fourteen trials compared a probiotic with placebo or no treatment, and seven trials compared a probiotic with lactulose. The trials used a variety of probiotics; the most commonly used group of probiotic was VSL#3, a proprietary name for a group of eight probiotics. Duration of administration

  7. The urinary metabolome in female mink (Mustela neovison) shows distinct changes in protein and lipid metabolism during the transition from diapause to implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The mink exhibit an obligatory diapause. The metabolic changes during the transition from diapause to implantation and established pregnancy are currently unknown. Objectives The study aimed to characterize changes in the urinary metabolome in mink during the period from mating...... to early gestation and to identify the metabolites involved. Methods Urine samples were collected from 56 female mink on March 24, April 8, and April 15, covering the period from mating to early pregnancy. The urine samples were subjected to non-targeted LC-MS metabolomics. Processed data were evaluated...

  8. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-01-01

    was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterized as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species......Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterized as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum...

  9. Normalization of the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To construct normal values for the tests of the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) and evaluate the prevalence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) among Turkish patients with liver cirrhosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-five healthy subjects and sixty patients with liver ...

  10. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for acute and chronic hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Kjaergard, L L; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is unknown. It has been suggested that liver failure leads to the accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition which may progress to coma. Several trials have assessed benzodiazepine receptor...... antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy, but the results are conflicting....

  11. Radiographical findings in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwir, Saleh; Hal, Hassan; Veith, Joshua; Schreibman, Ian; Kadry, Zakiyah; Riley, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication encountered in patients with liver cirrhosis. Hepatic encephalopathy is not reflected in the current liver transplant allocation system. Correlation was sought between hepatic encephalopathy with findings detected on radiographic imaging studies and the patient's clinical profile. A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients with cirrhosis, who presented for liver transplant evaluation in 2009 and 2010. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, ejection fraction less than 60% and who had a TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting) procedure or who did not complete the evaluation were excluded. Statistical analysis was performed and variables found to be significant on univariate analysis (P encephalopathy group (n = 58) and a control group (n = 59). Univariate analysis found that a smaller portal vein diameter, smaller liver antero-posterior diameter, liver nodularity and use of diuretics or centrally acting medications showed significant correlation with hepatic encephalopathy. This association was confirmed for smaller portal vein, use of diuretics and centrally acting medications in the multivariate analysis. A decrease in portal vein diameter was associated with increased risk of encephalopathy. Identifying patients with smaller portal vein diameter may warrant screening for encephalopathy by more advanced psychometric testing, and more aggressive control of constipation and other factors that may precipitate encephalopathy. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited.

  12. The Spectrum of Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C.; Stein, Thor D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Hall, Garth; Wojtowicz, Sydney M.; Baugh, Christine M.; Riley, David O.; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Cormier, Kerry A.; Jacobs, Matthew A.; Martin, Brett R.; Abraham, Carmela R.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Reichard, Robert Ross; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Goldstein, Lee E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive tauopathy that occurs as a consequence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. We analysed post-mortem brains obtained from a cohort of 85 subjects with histories of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury and found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in 68 subjects: all males, ranging…

  13. Branched-chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Dam, Gitte; Les, Iñigo

    2015-01-01

    -chain amino acids (BCAA) versus control interventions has evaluated if BCAA may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of BCAA versus any control intervention for people with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials through...

  14. Branched-chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Dam, Gitte; Les, Iñigo

    2017-01-01

    -chain amino acids (BCAA) versus control interventions has evaluated if BCAA may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy. Objectives: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of BCAA versus any control intervention for people with hepatic encephalopathy. Search methods: We identified trials through...

  15. Early Recognition of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Through FDDNP PET Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    characteristic distribution is felt to be the cardinal pathologic feature of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. This project will examine whether FDDNP PET...chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Pathological series have indicated that a characteristic feature of CTE is accumulation of tau protein in the...3. Accomplishments: Major goals: Upon receiving approval from the Human Research Protection Office, enrollment of participants began in March , 2015

  16. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate whether the dams experienced stress/had a different motivation to be reunited with the litter after7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Cortisol Metabolites)and dam behaviour including calls the first week after separation (D0: Day of removal, D1: next......The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is, however, known about dam stress...... and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim...

  17. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    =46) or standard cages (2.550 cm², n=44). Behavioural observations were made four weeks before birth until kits were nine weeks old with one-zero sampling during two hours before feeding. During week 1-4 after females had given birth they were mostly recorded in the nest box and there were......The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n...... no differences between cage types. Week 5-8 after giving birth females in climbing cages were less in the nest box, less active out in the cage and had fewer abnormal behaviours, but were on the platforms and more inactive out in the cage. In the bottom cage females were more often walking, grooming and inactive...

  18. Wildlife Reservoirs of Canine Distemper Virus Resulted in a Major Outbreak in Danish Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, Tina

    2014-01-01

    A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus...

  19. The effects of feed restriction on physical activity, body weight, physiology, haematology and immunology in female mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if adult mink females characterised as having a high or low residual feed intake (RFI) differed in their response to feed restriction with regard to activity, body weight loss and physiological parameters. For RFI-High, the activity was higher prior...

  20. [Evaluation of the immune response after vaccination against distemper at a mink (Mustela vison) farm in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jar, A M; Ramayo, L G; Stempler, A; Goldman, L H; Mundo, S L

    2010-01-01

    Distemper virus causes a disease affecting minks with respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological and skin symptoms and showing high morbidity and mortality, mainly among puppies. It is controlled through immunization, using vaccines that are supplied for mink use. The aim of this work was to determine the seroneutralization titer against the distemper virus at a mink farm in Argentina. The antibody kinetics obtained after vaccination in 27 adult animals, as well as the duration of colostrum-transferred antibodies in 10 puppies were determined. All vaccinated adult minks showed protective titers up to at least 3 months after vaccination, and 37.5% significantly reduced their antibody levels, 12 months after vaccination. Only 20% of the puppies showed protective levels of colostrum-transferred antibodies at the age of 7 weeks, while non-detectable levels of antibodies were found when puppies reached 11 weeks old. Vaccination performed in these puppies at the age of 13 weeks, elicited protective seroneutralization titers. These results show that vaccination induces a satisfactory humoral immune response in our environment, and support the convenience of vaccinating dams annually before the beginning of the breeding season. The vaccination plan in puppies is also discussed.

  1. Feed efficiency and body weight growth throughout growing-furring period in mink using random regression method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    days of age for 2139 male mink and the same number of females. Cumulative feed intake was calculated six times with three weeks interval based on daily feed consumption between weighing’s from 105 to 210 days of age. Heritability estimates for RFI increased by age from 0.18 (0.03, standard deviation...

  2. Effects of dietary protein level on nutrients digestibility and reproductive performance of female mink (Neovison vison during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkui Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether nutrient digestibility and reproductive performance of pregnant mink (Neovison vison were affected by different dietary protein levels. One hundred and twenty female mink were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving diets of fresh material with different protein levels. The dietary protein levels, expressed as percentage of dry matter (DM, were 32, 36, 40 and 44% respectively. These values corresponded to average 320, 360, 400 and 440 g protein/kg DM, respectively. Results were as follows. All of crude protein digestibility, nitrogen (N intake, N retention increased along with dietary protein level increasing. Low protein level (32% significantly reduced the above indicators (P < 0.05. DM digestibility and ether extract digestibility were not affected by dietary protein level. Results of mated females, barren females, kids per litter, live born kids per mated female, birth survival rate, and birth weight showed that mink achieved optimal reproductive performance when dietary protein level was 36%. In conclusion, dietary protein was anticipated to significantly influence some nutrients' utilization. Adopting the appropriate dietary protein level allow better reproduction performance. The most preferable reproductive performance was achieved when diet contained 275.5 g digestible protein per kg DM for female mink in gestation.

  3. Testing the WelFur assessment protocol for mink on-farm in three seasons of production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2011-01-01

    principles and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured at the farm. Based on validity, reliability and feasibility 22 measures have been selected for use in the three seasons of mink production: 1. Breeders during winter, 2. Dams with kits during spring, and 3. Juveniles during growth in the autumn, in order...

  4. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...

  5. Ferro-manganese encrustation on the tympanic bulla of a minke whale from Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    Ear bone of a minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) was collected from 5200 m water depth with thin coating of Fe-Mn oxide on its surface. The Fe-Mn coating material was similar in nature and ratios Mn/Fe and Cu + Ni/Co were closely comparable...

  6. Identification of biosecurity measures and spatial variables as potential risk factors for Aleutian disease in Danish mink farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Houe, Hans; Agger, Jens Frederik Gramstrup

    2012-01-01

    Disease Virus. These factors account for 35% of the variation of the infection status of mink farms located in Vendsyssel during 2009. These results indicate that only a coordinated effort from the farmers in the area will succeed in eradicating the disease from Denmark, because individual farms that have...

  7. Severity of Expert-Identified Behavioural Responses of Humpback Whale, Minke Whale, and Northern Bottlenose Whale to Naval Sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivle, L.D.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Cure, C.; Isojunno, S.; Wensveen, P.J.; Lam, F.P.A.; Visser, F.; Kleivane, L.; Tyack, P.L.; Harris, C.M.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled exposure experiments using 1 to2 kHz sonar signals were conducted with 11 humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), one minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and one northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) during three field trials from 2011 to 2013. Ship approaches without

  8. Mink S38G Gene Polymorphism and Atrial Fibrillation in the Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis of 1871 Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mink gene S38G polymorphism in the β-subunit of slow activating component of the delayed rectifier potassium channel current potassium channel has been associated with increased atrial fibrillation (AF risk. However, the individual studies results were still controversial. To investigate the association of Mink S38G gene polymorphisms with AF, a meta-analysis including 1871 subjects from six individual studies was conducted. Mink S38G gene polymorphism was significantly related to AF under allelic (OR: 1.380, 95% CI: 1.200–1.600, P<0.00001, recessive (OR: 1.193, 95% CI: 1.033–1.377, P=0.017, dominant (OR: 1.057, 95% CI: 1.025–1.089, P<0.00001, additive (OR: 1.105, 95% CI: 1.036–1.178, P=0.002, homozygous (OR: 1.128, 95% CI: 1.068–1.191, P<0.00001, and heterozygous genetic models (OR: 1.078, 95% CI: 1.014–1.146, P=0.016. A significant association between Mink S38G gene polymorphism and AF risk was found. G allele carriers may predispose to AF.

  9. A first estimate of the amino acid requirement for milk production of the high-producing female mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, R; Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    Thirty mink dams nursing litters of six kits were assigned to one of three dietary treatments [high protein (HP), medium protein (MP) and low protein (LP)], fed ad libitum for 4 week from parturition, to investigate the effects of protein supply on milk yield and milk composition in order to esti...

  10. Short-term effect of oral amoxicillin treatment on the gut microbial community composition in farm mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Laura Meier; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andresen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    It is well documented that antibiotics have pronounced modulatory effects on the intestinal bacterial community of both humans and animals, with potential health consequences. The gut microbiota of mink has however attracted little attention due to low bacterial load and fast gastrointestinal...

  11. Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of rifaximin for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, Nina; Krag, Aleksander; Gluud, Lise L

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a complex disease entity ranging from mild cognitive dysfunction to deep coma. Traditionally, treatment has focused on a reduction of ammonia through a reduced production, absorption, or clearance. Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable antibiotic, which reduces the production of ...... and safety of long-term treatment with rifaximin and evaluate effects of combination therapy with lactulose and branched-chain amino acids for patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy is a complex disease entity ranging from mild cognitive dysfunction to deep coma. Traditionally, treatment has focused on a reduction of ammonia through a reduced production, absorption, or clearance. Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable antibiotic, which reduces the production...... of ammonia by gut bacteria and, to some extent, other toxic derivatives from the gut. Clinical trials show that these effects improve episodes of hepatic encephalopathy. A large randomized trial found that rifaximin prevents recurrent episodes of hepatic encephalopathy. Most patients were treated...

  12. Reversible cortical blindness in a case of hepatic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kanti Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy is a frequent and often fatal manifestation of chronic liver disease. The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is believed to be multifactorial including impaired blood-brain barrier function, imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in cortex, accumulation of various toxic and false neurotransmitters, and lack of nutrients like oxygen and glucose. Signs and symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy varies and commonly ranges from personality changes, disturbed consciousness, sleep pattern alternation, intellectual deterioration, speech disturbances, asterixis to frank coma and even death. Reversible or transient cortical blindness is rare manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy. It may even precede the phase of altered consciousness in such patients. Very few similar cases have been reported worldwide. Hence, we would like to report a case of transient cortical blindness in a patient of hepatic encephalopathy.

  13. Some aspects of morphogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tumanskiy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the literary data and conducted large-scale research it was ascertained that diabetes mellitus raises the risk of cerebral stroke in 2-6 times, the risk of transitional ischemic attacks in 3 times in comparison with the same risk in the general population [3]. Diabetic encephalopathy in its pure form can be found in 80.7% of patients with diabetes mellitus of the 1st type, its development is caused mainly by ineffective metabolic control of autoregulation of cerebral blood flow [4]. Mixed encephalopathy is prevailed among patients with diabetes mellitus of the 2nd type; lacunar heart attack is more often developed among this category of patients [5], multiple focus of ischemic affection of white substance – leukoaraiosis regarded as the areas of increased level of water, gliosis, and demyelination of white substance is often registered [6]. Pathogeny of diabetic encephalopathy hasn’t been studied properly. It is known that it is a multifactor effect in the development of which the main role is led by the vascular dysfunction with the reduction of blood supply and ischemia of brain tissue, as well as direct toxic influence of hyperglycemia and disorder of trophism of nerve tissue [7]. Microangiopathy and macroangiopathy acquire the special meaning in encephalopathy development among patients with diabetes mellitus. The evidence of microangiopathy and macroangiopathy is identified by the disease course and prognosis. On the ultrastructural level the changes of vessel microcircular movement are registered on the 1st month of the experimental alloxan diabetes. During electronic microscopy the thickening of basal membrane of capillaries as well as their dissection is observed. In micro vessels such phenomena as precipitation of lipoproteids, raising of the synthesis of collagen (the second type, dystrophic changes of endotheliocytes, and lowering of micropinocytosis can be found [11,12,13,14]. As the severity of diabetes mellitus

  14. Hepatic encephalopathy: current challenges and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaminathan M

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mirashini Swaminathan,1 Mark Alexander Ellul,2 Timothy JS Cross1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, 2Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE is a common complication of liver dysfunction, including acute liver failure and liver cirrhosis. HE presents as a spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms ranging from subtle fluctuating cognitive impairment to coma. It is a significant contributor of morbidity in patients with liver disease. HE is observed in acute liver failure, liver bypass procedures, for example, shunt surgery and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and cirrhosis. These are classified as Type A, B and C HE, respectively. HE can also be classified according to whether its presence is overt or covert. The pathogenesis is linked with ammonia and glutamine production, and treatment is based on mechanisms to reduce the formation and/or removal of these compounds. There is no specific diagnostic test for HE, and diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, excluding other causes and use of clinical tests that may support its diagnosis. Many tests are used in trials and experimentally, but have not yet gained universal acceptance. This review focuses on the definitions, pathogenesis and treatment of HE. Consideration will be given to existing treatment, including avoidance of precipitating factors and novel therapies such as prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, laxatives, branched-chain amino acids, shunt embolization and the importance of considering liver transplant in appropriate cases. Keywords: hepatic encephalopathy, pathogenesis, treatment, lactulose, rifaximin, probiotics, covert hepatic encephalopathy

  15. Memantine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist improves hyperammonemia-induced encephalopathy and acute hepatic encephalopathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, B. A.; Maas, M. A.; Daalhuisen, J.; Quack, G.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor overactivity in two different experimental rat models of encephalopathy: subacute encephalopathy caused by severe hyperammonemia in portacaval-shunted rats (AI-PCS rats) and acute hepatic

  16. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  17. Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder

    2015-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis...... and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood...

  18. Biomarkers of multiorgan injury in neonatal encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Saima; Molloy, Eleanor J

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major contributor to neurodevelopmental deficits including cerebral palsy in term and near-term infants. The long-term neurodevelopmental outcome is difficult to predict with certainty in first few days of life. Multiorgan involvement is common but not part of the diagnostic criteria for NE. The most frequently involved organs are the heart, liver, kidneys and hematological system. Cerebral and organ involvement is associated with the release of organ specific biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. These biomarkers may have a role in the assessment of the severity of asphyxia and long-term outcome in neonates with NE.

  19. Advances in ammonia metabolism and hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeters, P.B.; Wilson, J.H.P.; Meijer, A.J.; Holm, E.

    1988-01-01

    There are four main 'parts' within the book: the first is devoted to peripheral and hepatic ammonia metabolism, the urea cycle, acid base status and its regulation; part two addresses animal models in liver failure, GABA-ergic neurotransmission and its relevance in hepatic failure; a third part concerns neurochemistry including brain ammonia metabolism, serotonin metabolism and energy status, in vivo evaluated with modern techniques like infusion of compounds labeled with stable or radioactive isotopes and with NMR, while the last section provides a description of the determination of ammonia and the treatment of encephalopathy with established but also with experimental techniques. refs.; figs.; tabs

  20. Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder

    2015-01-01

    and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood......Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis...

  1. [Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder; Bülow, Hans Henrik

    2015-11-23

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood pressure test.

  2. Cardiovascular dysfunction in infants with neonatal encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Armstrong, Katey

    2012-04-01

    Severe perinatal asphyxia with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy occurs in approximately 1-2\\/1000 live births and is an important cause of cerebral palsy and associated neurological disabilities in children. Multiorgan dysfunction commonly occurs as part of the asphyxial episode, with cardiovascular dysfunction occurring in up to a third of infants. This narrative paper attempts to review the literature on the importance of early recognition of cardiac dysfunction using echocardiography and biomarkers such as troponin and brain type natriuretic peptide. These tools may allow accurate assessment of cardiac dysfunction and guide therapy to improve outcome.

  3. [Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) toxic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signaté, A; Olindo, S; Chausson, N; Cassinoto, C; Edimo Nana, M; Saint Vil, M; Cabre, P; Smadja, D

    2009-03-01

    Ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) can induce severe intoxication in subjects with chronic renal failure. Oxalate plays a key role in the neurotoxicity of star fruit. We report the cases of two patients with unknown chronic renal insufficiency who developed severe encephalopathy after ingestion of star fruit. The two patients developed intractable hiccups, vomiting, impaired consciousness and status epilepticus. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging showed cortical and thalamic hyperintense lesions related to epileptic status. They improved after being submitted to continuous hemofiltration which constitutes the most effective treatment during the acute phase.

  4. Analysis of Factors Influencing Fur Quality in Minks of Standard, Pastel, Platinum and White Hedlunda Colour Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Socha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The work aimed at the analysis of the factors that influence conformation traits, included animal size and fur quality traits in four colour types of mink: standard, pastel, platinum and white Hedlunda. The data concerns the evaluation of animal conformation traits in the period of three years. The analysis of variance of particular traits indicates statistically significant effect of the year of birth, colour type and animal sex on the majority of analysed traits. Higher means of license evaluation were obtained by males in majority of the traits. Statistic analysis of body weight showed that the highest body weight characterized males of platinum and white Hedlunda colour types. Minks of standard and pastel colour types were characterised by lower body weight. The mean body weight of males was 2581.17g and of females 1401.42g (there is a clear sexual dimorphism in minks. Minks of white Hedlunda colour type were characterised by the highest means of colour purity, both males and females. Other colour types obtained lower means. The best fur quality characterised platinum minks. Variability of traits, measured by variability coefficient, had the highest values in animal weight (in grams and ranged from 6.0 to 32.0%. Variability of total number of scores ranged from 2.00 to 8.20%. Positive phenotypic correlations were the highest between body size (in points and total number of scores (0.676, while the lowest were obtained between body size (in points and fur quality (–0.178.

  5. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Karlsson, Karl Ae; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The current study analyzed the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to the control and regulation of sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the minke whale, a mysticete cetacean. While odontocete cetaceans sleep in an unusual manner, with unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS) and suppressed REM sleep, it is unclear whether the mysticete whales show a similar sleep pattern. Previously, we detailed a range of features in the odontocete brain that appear to be related to odontocete-type sleep, and here present our analysis of these features in the minke whale brain. All neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals and the harbor porpoise were present in the minke whale, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems, and the GABAergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (274,242) and noradrenergic (203,686) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (277,604), are markedly higher than other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. Small telencephalic commissures (anterior, corpus callosum, and hippocampal), an enlarged posterior commissure, supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic cells, and an enlarged peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex of the minke whale, all indicate that the suite of neural characteristics thought to be involved in the control of USWS and the suppression of REM in the odontocete cetaceans are present in the minke whale. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2018-2035, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Combined robotic transanal total mesorectal excision (R-taTME) and single-site plus one-port (R-SSPO) technique for ultra-low rectal surgery-initial experience with a new operation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Ngu, James Chi-Yong; Tong, Yiu-Shun; Chen, Chia-Che

    2017-02-01

    Robot-assisted rectal surgery is gaining popularity, and robotic single-site surgery is also being explored clinically. We report our initial experience with robotic transanal total mesorectal excision (R-taTME) and radical proctectomy using the robotic single-site plus one-port (R-SSPO) technique for low rectal surgery. Between July 2015 and March 2016, 15 consecutive patients with ultra-low rectal lesions underwent R-taTME followed by radical proctectomy using the R-SSPO technique by a single surgeon. The clinical and pathological results were retrospectively analyzed. The median operative time was 473 (range, 335-569) min, and the estimated blood loss was 33 (range, 30-50) mL. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 12 (range, 8-18). The median distal resection margin was 1.4 (range, 0.4-3.5) cm, and all patients had clear circumferential resection margins. We encountered a left ureteric transection intraoperatively in one patient, and another patient required reoperation for postoperative adhesive intestinal obstruction. There was no 30-day mortality. R-taTME followed by radical proctectomy using the R-SSPO technique for patients with low rectal lesions is technically feasible and safe without compromising oncologic outcomes. However, there were considerable limitations and a steep learning curve using current robotic technology.

  7. Prions and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntes Polona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are a unique group of neurodegenerative diseases of animals and humans, which always have a fatal outcome and are transmissible among animals of the same or different species. Scope and Approach. The aim of this work is to review some recent data about animal TSEs, with the emphasis on their causative agents and zoonotic potential, and to discuss why the surveillance and control measures over animal TSEs should remain in force. Key Findings and Conclusions. We still have incomplete knowledge of prions and prion diseases. Scrapie has been present for a very long time and controlled with varied success. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE emerged unnoticed, and spread within a few years to epidemic proportions, entailing enormous economic consequences and public concerns. Currently, the classical BSE epidemic is under control, but atypical cases do, and probably will, persist in bovine populations. The Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD of the cervids has been spreading in North America and has recently been detected in Europe. Preventive measures for the control of classical BSE remain in force, including the feed ban and removal of specified risk materials. However, active BSE surveillance has considerably decreased. In the absence of such preventive and control measures, atypical BSE cases in healthy slaughtered bovines might persist in the human food chain, and BSE prions might resurface. Moreover, other prion strains might emerge and spread undetected if the appropriate preventive and surveillance measures were to cease, leaving behind inestimable consequences.

  8. Probiotics in management of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Barjesh Chander; Singh, Jatinderpal

    2016-12-01

    Gut microflora leads to production of ammonia and endotoxins which play important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). There is relationship between HE and absorption of nitrogenous substances from the intestines. Probiotics play a role in treatment of HE by causing alterations in gut flora by decreasing the counts of pathogen bacteria, intestinal mucosal acidification, decrease in production and absorption of ammonia, alterations in permeability of gut, decreased endotoxin levels and changes in production of short chain fatty acids. Role of gut microbiota using prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics have been evaluated in the management of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), overt HE and prevention of HE. Many studies have shown efficacy of probiotics in reduction of blood ammonia levels, treatment of MHE and prevention of HE. However these trials have problems like inclusion of small number of patients, short treatment durations, variability in HE/MHE related outcomes utilized and high bias risk, errors of systematic and random types. Systematic reviews also have shown different results with one systematic review showing clinical benefits whereas another concluded that probiotics do not have any role in treatment of MHE or HE. Also practical questions on optimal dose, ideal combination of organisms, and duration of treatment and persistence of benefits on long term follow-up are still to be clarified. At present, there are no recommendations for use of probiotics in patients with HE.

  9. Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy: An Underrecognized Clinicoradiologic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiujuan; Wu, Wei; Pan, Wei; Wu, Limin; Liu, Kangding; Zhang, Hong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare but distinctive type of acute encephalopathy with global distribution. Occurrence of ANE is usually preceded by a virus-associated febrile illness and ensued by rapid deterioration. However, the causal relationship between viral infections and ANE and the exact pathogenesis of ANE remain unclear; both environmental and host factors might be involved. Most cases of ANE are sporadic and nonrecurrent, namely, isolated or sporadic ANE; however, few cases are recurrent and with familial episodes. The recurrent and familial forms of ANE were found to be incompletely autosomal-dominant. Further the missense mutations in the gene encoding the nuclear pore protein Ran Binding Protein 2 (RANBP2) were identified. Although the clinical course and the prognosis of ANE are diverse, the hallmark of neuroradiologic manifestation of ANE is multifocal symmetric brain lesions which are demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The treatment of ANE is still under investigation. We summarize the up-to-date knowledge on ANE, with emphasis on prompt diagnosis and better treatment of this rare but fatal disease. PMID:25873770

  10. Septic encephalopathy and septic encephalitis‬‬.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Simone C; Eiffert, Helmut; Brück, Wolfgang; Nau, Roland

    2017-02-01

    During the last two decades, septic encephalopathy (SE) was recognized as a clinically relevant problem with a high prevalence in patients at admission and during their hospital stay. SE is a condition associated with increased mortality and morbidity such as long-term cognitive impairment. Areas covered: This review illustrates the pathophysiology of sepsis-associated encephalopathy and encephalitis involving blood-brain-barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation caused by endothelial and microglial activation by endogenous or pathogen-derived compounds, hypoxia by impaired microvascular regulation and septic shock as well as imbalance of neurotransmitters. The continuum between septic-embolic and septic-metastatic encephalitis and SE is underlined by histological findings. The options of technical examinations and biomarkers to diagnose SE are discussed together with established therapeutic options as well as current experimental approaches. Expert commentary: An outlook for clinicians is provided including promising diagnostic approaches by means of new imaging techniques. Clinical trials with drugs already established for other indications such as statins, erythropoietin and minocycline are warranted in the future.

  11. The why and wherefore of hepatic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover VPB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vijay PB Grover, Joshua M Tognarelli, Nicolas Massie, Mary ME Crossey, Nicola A Cook, Simon D Taylor-Robinson Liver Unit, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Hepatic encephalopathy is a common neuropsychiatric abnormality, which complicates the course of patients with liver disease. It was probably first described by Hippocrates over 2000 years ago, who said that "those whose madness arises from phlegm are quiet and neither shout nor make a disturbance, while those whose madness arises from bile shout, play tricks and will not keep still, but are always up to some mischief". He was presumably describing the differences between patients with pneumonia and acute liver failure. Despite the fact that the syndrome was probably first recognized thousands of years ago, the exact pathogenesis still remains unclear. Furthermore, a precise definition of the syndrome is lacking, as are definitive methods of diagnosing this condition. It is important as both patients with cirrhosis and the general population with whom they interact may be affected as a consequence. At a minimum, the individual may be affected by impaired quality of life, impaired ability to work, and slowed reaction times, which are relevant to the population at large if affected individuals operate heavy machinery or drive a car. Pathogenic mechanisms, diagnostic tools, and treatment options are discussed. Keywords: hepatic encephalopathy, cirrhosis, ammonia, pathology, treatment, rifaximin, lactulose

  12. Anatomy of the late radiation encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Reuck, J; vander Eecken, H

    1975-01-01

    The clinico-pathological data and the topography of the lesions were determined in 13 cases of late radiation encephalopathy. In one case the arterial vascularisation was studied by the translucidation technique after filling of the blood vessels with a colloidal barium sulphate solution. The radiation lesions consisted of areas of focal necrosis and of diffuse demyelination and necrosis of the deep cerebral structures and the brain stem. Demyelination was predominantly present in cases of late appearance of the neurological symptoms while necrosis was found in cases with a short latency period. The cerebral cortex and the arcuate fibres were always the most preserved structures. The topography of the focal lesions in the cerebral hemispheres and in the brain stem corresponded well to the vascular supply areas of the deep perforating arteries, while the diffuse lesions always had a predominant distribution in the periventricular arterial end- and border-zones. These observations were also confirmed by a post mortem angiographic study. The present report argues once more for a vascular aetiology as cause of the late radiation encephalopathy.

  13. The Frequency and Severity of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities in Infants with Mild Neonatal Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brian H; Neil, Jeffrey; Morey, JoAnn; Yang, Edward; Silvera, Michelle V; Inder, Terrie E; Ortinau, Cynthia

    2017-08-01

    To assess and contrast the incidence and severity of abnormalities on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia. This retrospective cohort studied infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia at a single tertiary neonatal intensive care unit between 2013 and 2015. Two neuroradiologists masked to the clinical condition evaluated brain MRIs for cerebral injury after therapeutic hypothermia using the Barkovich classification system. Additional abnormalities not included in this classification system were also noted. The rate, pattern, and severity of abnormalities/injury were compared across the grades of neonatal encephalopathy. Eighty-nine infants received therapeutic hypothermia and met study criteria, 48 with mild neonatal encephalopathy, 35 with moderate neonatal encephalopathy, and 6 with severe neonatal encephalopathy. Forty-eight infants (54%) had an abnormality on MRI. There was no difference in the rate of overall MRI abnormalities by grade of neonatal encephalopathy (mild neonatal encephalopathy 54%, moderate neonatal encephalopathy 54%, and severe neonatal encephalopathy 50%; P= .89). Basal ganglia/thalamic injury was more common in those with severe neonatal encephalopathy (mild neonatal encephalopathy 4%, moderate neonatal encephalopathy 9%, severe neonatal encephalopathy 34%; P = .03). In contrast, watershed injury did not differ between neonatal encephalopathy grades (mild neonatal encephalopathy 36%, moderate neonatal encephalopathy 32%, severe neonatal encephalopathy 50%; P = .3). Mild neonatal encephalopathy is commonly associated with MRI abnormalities after therapeutic hypothermia. The grade of neonatal encephalopathy during the first hours of life may not discriminate adequately between infants with and without cerebral injury noted on MRI after therapeutic hypothermia

  14. Wernicke encephalopathy in a patient with liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Zhao, Yanling; Wei, Zhenman; Chen, Jing; Yan, Lilong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early recognition and diagnosis of Wernicke encephalopathy is pivotal for the prognosis of this medical emergency, especially in patients with liver failure which predisposes individuals to develop hepatic encephalopathy. For these patients, distinguishing between hepatic encephalopathy and Wernicke encephalopathy is a challenge in real-world clinical practice. A male patient with 21-year medical history of liver cirrhosis presented diarrhea and ascites. One month before this visit, he was noted to have poor appetite and progressive fatigue. After admission, although several major symptoms, including diarrhea, ascites, hyponatremia, and hypoproteinemia, were greatly improved through appropriate treatments, his laboratory indicators were not changed much. His appetite was not reversed at discharge. On the 5th day after discharge, the patient suddenly became reluctant to speak and did not remember the recent happenings. Simultaneously, unsteady gait and strabismus occurred. On the basis of clinical manifestations and brain magnetic resonance imaging scan results, the patient was diagnosed as Wernicke encephalopathy and these relative symptoms were resolved after intravenous vitamin B1. To our knowledge, this is the second case report of Wernicke encephalopathy developing in a critically ill cirrhotic patient without hepatocellular carcinoma or operative intervention. Wernicke encephalopathy may be underdiagnosed in these patients and this case raises physicians’ awareness of its possible onset. PMID:27399058

  15. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenavic, Katherine [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Champoux, Louise [Service Canadien de la Faune Environnement Canada, 1141 Route de l' Eglise, c.p. 10100, Sainte-Foy, QC G1V 4H5 (Canada)], E-mail: louise.champoux@ec.gc.ca; Mike, O' Brien [Furbearers and Upland Game, Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, NS B4N 4E5 (Canada)], E-mail: obrienms@gov.ns.ca; Daoust, Pierre-Y. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of P.E.I., 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: daoust@upei.ca; Evans, R. Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Evans, Hayla E. [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: hevans@trentu.ca

    2008-11-15

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations.

  16. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y.; Evans, R. Douglas; Evans, Hayla E.

    2008-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations

  17. Current concepts in the assessment and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cash, W J

    2012-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is defined as a metabolically induced, potentially reversible, functional disturbance of the brain that may occur in acute or chronic liver disease. Standardized nomenclature has been proposed but a standardized approach to the treatment, particularly of persistent, episodic and recurrent encephalopathy associated with liver cirrhosis has not been proposed. This review focuses on the pathogenesis and treatment of HE in patients with cirrhosis. The pathogenesis and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in fulminant hepatic failure is quite different and is reviewed elsewhere.

  18. Portal hemodynamics in chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi, Motohide; Igarashi, Masahiko; Hino, Shinichi; Takayasu, Kenichi; Goto, Nobuaki; Musha, Hirotaka; Ohnishi, Kunihiko; Okuda, Kunio

    1985-01-01

    A portal hemodynamic study was made in 7 consecutive patients with chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy by percutaneous transhepatic catheterization of the portal vein and injecting contrast medium into the superior mesenteric vein or by superior mesenteric arterial portography in comparison with patients without encephalopathy studied by percutaneous catheterization of these veins. It is suggested that chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy is a result of a large collateral route shunting a large proportion of the superior mesenteric venous blood into systemic circulation, and that development of such collaterals precludes formation of large esophageal varices. (Auth.)

  19. Dengue viral infections as a cause of encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavige G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and poor prognostic factors associated with high mortality in dengue encephalopathy. Fifteen patients with confirmed dengue infections, who developed encephalopathy, were recruited from two tertiary care hospitals in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Among the factors that contributed to encephalopathy were: Acute liver failure (73%, electrolyte imbalances (80% and shock (40%. Five (33.3% patients developed seizures. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was seen in five (33.3%. Secondary bacterial infections were observed in 8 (53.3% of our patients. The overall mortality rate was 47%.

  20. Longitudinal Analysis of Residual Feed Intake in Mink using Random Regression with Heterogeneous Residual Variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    Heritability of residual feed intake (RFI) increased from low to high over the growing period in male and female mink. The lowest heritability for RFI (male: 0.04 ± 0.01 standard deviation (SD); female: 0.05 ± 0.01 SD) was in early and the highest heritability (male: 0.33 ± 0.02; female: 0.34 ± 0.......02 SD) was achieved at the late growth stages. The genetic correlation between different growth stages for RFI showed a high association (0.91 to 0.98) between early and late growing periods. However, phenotypic correlations were lower from 0.29 to 0.50. The residual variances were substantially higher...

  1. Molecular diagnostics of aleutian mink disease virus: applied use of next generation sequencing and phylogenetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagberg, Emma Elisabeth

    based either on partial or entire genes, or on pure epidemiological data. Thus, when initiating this project, little was known about AMDV’s total genomic diversity and how the virus was spread between farms. Recent advances in the field of molecular diagnostics have made high throughput tools...... could contribute to the elucidation of AMDV transmission between farms and improve molecular diagnostics. During the first phase of this project a method for performing whole genome sequencing of AMDV was developed. This protocol enabled the sequencing of a large number of in vivo infectious AMDV......-estimates. Altogether, the work presented in this thesis provides a contribution to the molecular diagnostics of AMDV, enables us better to understand the virus’ evolutionary behaviour in the context of mink farming, and is anticipated to be of value for more accurately tracing back in time the emergence of future...

  2. Balancing of protein and lipid intake by a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Mustela vison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayntz, David; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Sørensen, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many herbivores and omnivores can balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable environments. Carnivores, however, are widely believed to optimize their rates of prey capture and energy intake rather than balancing nutrients. We tested nutrient balancing in captive...... target) of the two macronutrients. When given only one food of fixed nutrient composition, mink balanced macronutrient intake relative to the intake target, without showing the excessive energy intake on diets with a low percentage of protein and energy deficit on diets with a high percentage of protein...... previously reported for herbivores and omnivores, including humans. This demonstration of nutrient balancing in a carnivorous mammal indicates that the capacity for nutrient balancing is a more general phenomenon across trophic levels than was hitherto believed to be the case...

  3. [Introduction of species and microevolution: the European beaver, raccoon dog, and American mink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, N P; Korablev, M P; Korablev, P N

    2011-01-01

    Nine skull samples of the beaver Castor fiber, six samples of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides, and six samples of the American mink Neovison vison were studied using phenetic and craniometric methods. Analysis of the phenofund structure suggests that in all of the studied species the emergence of novel character variations does not lead to their fixation with a significant frequency. Considerable morphological variability emerges in the contact zone of different autochtonous populations, of wild and breeding forms, as well as in geographically and reproductively isolated small groups of individuals. Morphological differences of introduced animals fit into the conception of species polymorphism and are smoothed over when separate colonies merge into metapopulations, which does not lead to the emergence of novel stable taxa.

  4. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Díez-León

    Full Text Available Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration' as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential: highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We

  5. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: contributions from the Boston University Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, David O; Robbins, Clifford A; Cantu, Robert C; Stern, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with repetitive brain trauma (RBT). Initially described in boxers, CTE has now been found in other contact sport athletes with a history of RBT. In recent years, there has been tremendous media attention regarding CTE, primarily because of the deaths of high profile American football players who were found to have CTE upon neuropathological examination. However, the study of CTE remains in its infancy. This review focuses on research from the Centre for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy (CSTE) at Boston University. This study reviews the formation of the CSTE, major CSTE publications and current ongoing research projects at the CSTE. The neuropathology of CTE has been well-described. Current research focuses on: methods of diagnosing the disease during life (including the development of biomarkers), examination of CTE risk factors (including genetic susceptibility and head impact exposure variables); description of the clinical presentation of CTE; development of research diagnostic criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome; and assessment of mechanism and pathogenesis. Current research at the BU CSTE is aimed at increasing understanding of the long-term consequences of repetitive head impacts and attempting to begin to answer several of the unanswered questions regarding CTE.

  6. A pre-post test evaluation of the impact of the PELICAN MDT-TME Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cath; Sippitt, Joanna M; Collins, Gary; McManus, Chris; Richardson, Alison; Dawson, Jeremy; Richards, Michael; Ramirez, Amanda J

    2010-06-29

    The PELICAN Multidisciplinary Team Total Mesorectal Excision (MDT-TME) Development Programme aimed to improve clinical outcomes for rectal cancer by educating colorectal cancer teams in precision surgery and related aspects of multidisciplinary care. The Programme reached almost all colorectal cancer teams across England. We took the opportunity to assess the impact of participating in this novel team-based Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members. The impact of participating in the programme on team members' self-reported job stress, job satisfaction and team performance was assessed in a pre-post course study. 333/568 (59%) team members, from the 75 multidisciplinary teams who attended the final year of the Programme, completed questionnaires pre-course, and 6-8 weeks post-course. Across all team members, the main sources of job satisfaction related to working in multidisciplinary teams; whilst feeling overloaded was the main source of job stress. Surgeons and clinical nurse specialists reported higher levels of job satisfaction than team members who do not provide direct patient care, whilst MDT coordinators reported the lowest levels of job satisfaction and job stress. Both job stress and satisfaction decreased after participating in the Programme for all team members. There was a small improvement in team performance. Participation in the Development Programme had a mixed impact on the working lives of team members in the immediate aftermath of attending. The decrease in team members' job stress may reflect the improved knowledge and skills conferred by the Programme. The decrease in job satisfaction may be the consequence of being unable to apply these skills immediately in clinical practice because of a lack of required infrastructure and/or equipment. In addition, whilst the Programme raised awareness of the challenges of teamworking, a greater focus on tackling these issues may have improved working lives further.

  7. A Case of Valproate Induced Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjit Tarafdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36-years-old man on phenytoin, levetiracetam, and sodium valproate presented with acute confusion. Routine investigations including serum valproate and phenytoin concentration were normal. His serum ammonia concentration was raised. His valproate was held and 2 days later he recovered with concordant normalisation of serum ammonia concentration. Urea acid cycle disorder was ruled out, and a diagnosis of valproate induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy (VHE was made. Asymptomatic hyperammonemia occurs in 15–50% of valproate-treated patients, and while the true incidence of VHE is not known, it is a recognized complication of sodium valproate treatment. VHE typically presents acutely with impaired consciousness, lethargy, and vomiting. Valproate concentrations may be in the therapeutic range, and liver function tests are typically “normal.” Treatment for VHE consists of ceasing valproate and providing supportive care. Some have advocated carnitine replacement.

  8. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is characterized by the following symptoms: seizures, impaired consciousness and/or vision, vomiting, nausea, and focal neurological signs. Diagnostic imaging includes examination by magnetic resonance (MR and computed tomography (CT, where brain edema is visualized bi-laterally and symmetrically, predominantly posteriorly, parietally, and occipitally. Case report. We presented a 73-year-old patient with the years-long medical history of hipertension and renal insufficiency, who developed PRES with the symptomatology of the rear cranium. CT and MR verified changes in the white matter involving all lobes on both sides of the brain. After a two-week treatment (antihypertensive, hypolipemic and rehydration therapy clinical improvement with no complications occurred, with complete resolution of changes in the white matter observed on CT and MR. Conclusion. PRES is a reversible syndrome in which the symptoms withdraw after several days to several weeks if early diagnosis is made and appropriate treatment started without delay.

  9. Transcranial electrostimulation in patients with alcoholic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barylnik Yu.B.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The method of transcranial electrostimulation (TES was used for treating patients with alcoholic encephalopathy against the background of the basic treatment, which includes nootropics, normotimics, soporifics, over-all strengthening therapy and other devices. The course of treatment consisted of 10 daily procedures lasting for 30 minutes. The TES influence was evaluated according to the clinical state, the neurologic status, including EEG (electroencephalogram, the psychometric scales were also used for evaluating the manifestation of depression, anxiety and working memory in comparison with appropriate indices in the control group of patients, who were being treated by the traditional method. TES led to normalization of health state, neurologic status and vegetative innervation, the reduction in pathologic inclination, which corresponded to general improvement of the state of patients, EEG indices and psychometric scales

  10. Myoclonic encephalopathy after exposure to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Pere; Nogué, Santiago; Vilchez, Daniel; Salvadó, Elisa; Casal, Amparo; Logroscino, Giancarlo

    2008-12-01

    Trichloroethylene is a widely-used industrial solvent that is absorbed through the digestive or respiratory tracts or cutaneously. It has a selective tropism for the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and may cause death due to cardiac arrest or neurological sequelae. We present the case of a 25-yr-old women who was exposed to trichloroethylene in the workplace for 18 months and who developed a disabling myoclonic encephalopathy. Non-toxicological causes were excluded. Although the exposure ceased, the disease progressed with thalamic and cerebellar involvement. The patient, who had only a partial response to symptomatic treatment, suffered severe limitations in the activities of daily living and was registered as permanently disabled due to a work-related disability.

  11. Cooling for newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Susan E; Berg, Marie; Hunt, Rod; Tarnow-Mordi, William O; Inder, Terrie E; Davis, Peter G

    2013-01-31

    Newborn animal studies and pilot studies in humans suggest that mild hypothermia following peripartum hypoxia-ischaemia in newborn infants may reduce neurological sequelae without adverse effects. To determine the effect of therapeutic hypothermia in encephalopathic asphyxiated newborn infants on mortality, long-term neurodevelopmental disability and clinically important side effects. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group as outlined in The Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2007). Randomised controlled trials evaluating therapeutic hypothermia in term and late preterm newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy were identified by searching the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2007), previous reviews including cross-references, abstracts, conferences, symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal handsearching. We updated this search in May 2012. We included randomised controlled trials comparing the use of therapeutic hypothermia with standard care in encephalopathic term or late preterm infants with evidence of peripartum asphyxia and without recognisable major congenital anomalies. The primary outcome measure was death or long-term major neurodevelopmental disability. Other outcomes included adverse effects of cooling and 'early' indicators of neurodevelopmental outcome. Four review authors independently selected, assessed the quality of and extracted data from the included studies. Study authors were contacted for further information. Meta-analyses were performed using risk ratios (RR) and risk differences (RD) for dichotomous data, and weighted mean difference for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 11 randomised controlled trials in this updated review, comprising 1505 term and late preterm infants with moderate/severe encephalopathy and evidence of intrapartum asphyxia

  12. Leucine metabolism in patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhee, A.S.; Kassouny, M.E.; Matthews, D.E.; Millikan, W.

    1986-01-01

    A primed continuous infusion of [ 15 N, 1- 13 C]leucine was used to determine whether increased oxidation and/or protein synthesis of leucine occurs in patients with cirrhosis. Five controls and patients were equilibrated on a metabolic balance diet [0.6 g protein per kg ideal body weight (IBW)]. An additional four patients were equilibrated in the same manner with the same type of diet with a protein level of 0.75 g per kg IBW. Plasma leucine and breath CO 2 enrichments were measured by mass spectrometry. Protein synthesis and leucine metabolism were identical in controls and patients when both were fed a diet with 0.6 g protein/kg IBW. Results indicate that systemic derangements of leucine metabolism are not the cause of Hepatic Encephalopathy

  13. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus disguising as hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Min; Lee, Sung Wook; Han, Sang Young; Baek, Yang Hyun; Ahn, Ji Hye; Choi, Won Jong; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Sang Ho; Yoon, Byeol A

    2015-04-28

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus has become an important issue in modern neurology and epileptology. This is based on difficulty in definitively elucidating the condition and its various clinical phenomena and on our inadequate insight into the intrinsic pathophysiological processes. Despite nonconvulsive status epilepticus being a situation that requires immediate treatment, this disorder may not be appreciated as the cause of mental status impairment. Although the pathophysiology of nonconvulsive status epilepticus remains unknown, this disorder is thought to lead to neuronal damage, so its identification and treatment are important. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with liver cirrhosis presenting an altered mental status. We report a case of a 52-year-old male with liver cirrhosis presenting an altered mental status. He was initially diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy but ultimately diagnosed with nonconvulsive status epilepticus by electroencephalogram.

  14. Hypertension as the trigger for posterior reversible encephalopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neuro ..... rise of blood pressure instead of the sustained levels of hypertension in these patients. .... high prevalence and more extensive imaging findings. Am J Kidney ...

  15. Hepatic encephalopathy in acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guan-Huei

    2015-10-01

    The presence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) within 4 weeks is part of the criteria for defining acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The pathophysiology of HE is complex, and hyperammonemia and cerebral hemodynamic dysfunction appear to be central in the pathogenesis of encephalopathy. Recent data also suggest that inflammatory mediators may have a significant role in modulating the cerebral effect of ammonia. Multiple prospective and retrospective studies have shown that hepatic encephalopathy in ACLF patients is associated with higher mortality, especially in those with grade III-IV encephalopathy, similar to that of acute liver failure (ALF). Although significant cerebral edema detected by CT in ACLF patients appeared to be less common, specialized MRI imaging was able to detect cerebral edema even in low grade HE. Ammonia-focused therapy constitutes the basis of current therapy, as in the treatment of ALF. Emerging treatment strategies focusing on modulating the gut-liver-circulation-brain axis are discussed.

  16. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-associated Encephalopathy Successfully Treated with Corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Takashi; Nakamagoe, Kiyotaka; Tamaoka, Akira

    2017-11-01

    The encephalopathy that occurs in association with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli), has a high mortality rate and patients sometimes present sequelae. We herein describe the case of a 20-year-old woman who developed encephalopathy during the convalescent stage of HUS caused by E.coli O26. Hyperintense lesions were detected in the pons, basal ganglia, and cortex on diffusion-weighted brain MRI. From the onset of HUS encephalopathy, we treated the patient with methylprednisolone (mPSL) pulse therapy alone. Her condition improved, and she did not present sequelae. Our study shows that corticosteroids appear to be effective for the treatment of some patients with HUS encephalopathy.

  17. [Follow-up of newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Biarge, M; Blanco, D; García-Alix, A; Salas, S

    2014-07-01

    Hypothermia treatment for newborn infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy reduces the number of neonates who die or have permanent neurological deficits. Although this therapy is now standard of care, neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy still has a significant impact on the child's neurodevelopment and quality of life. Infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy should be enrolled in multidisciplinary follow-up programs in order to detect impairments, to initiate early intervention, and to provide counselling and support for families. This article describes the main neurodevelopmental outcomes after term neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. We offer recommendations for follow-up based on the infant's clinical condition and other prognostic indicators, mainly neonatal neuroimaging. Other aspects, such as palliative care and medico-legal issues, are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal or neonatal infection: association with neonatal encephalopathy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenster, Meike; Bonifacio, Sonia L; Ruel, Theodore; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Tam, Emily W; Partridge, John Colin; Barkovich, Anthony James; Ferriero, Donna M; Glass, Hannah C

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal infection may potentiate brain injury among children born preterm. The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal and/or neonatal infection are associated with adverse outcomes among term neonates with encephalopathy. This study is a cohort study of 258 term newborns with encephalopathy whose clinical records were examined for signs of maternal infection (chorioamnionitis) and infant infection (sepsis). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between infection, pattern, and severity of injury on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging, as well as neurodevelopment at 30 mo (neuromotor examination, or Bayley Scales of Infant Development, second edition mental development index encephalopathy, chorioamnionitis was associated with a lower risk of brain injury and adverse outcomes, whereas signs of neonatal sepsis carried an elevated risk. The etiology of encephalopathy and timing of infection and its associated inflammatory response may influence whether infection potentiates or mitigates injury in term newborns.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: MECP2-related severe neonatal encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Stroke: Encephalopathy Information Page National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Microcephaly Information Page Educational Resources (8 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Seizures Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 1 (EIEE1) is a seizure disorder characterized by a type of seizure known as ... 2 links) Health Topic: Developmental Disabilities Health Topic: Epilepsy Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) ...

  1. Cerebral CT appearances of toxic encephalopathy of tetramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wenlong; Wu Aiqin; Xu Chongyong; Ying Binyu; Hong Ruizhen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cerebral CT appearances of toxic encephalopathy of tetramine and improve the recognition on this disease. Methods: Four cases of toxic encephalopathy of tetramine were collected and their cerebral CT appearances were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Cerebral CT appearances in acute phase (within 8 days): (1) cerebral edema in different degree. CT abnormalities consisted of cortical hypodensities and complete loss of gray-white matter differentiation. The CT value were in 11-13 HU, and to be watery density in serious case, (2) subarachnoid hemorrhage. It demonstrated the signs of poisoning hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in chronic phase. Conclusion: The cerebral CT appearances of toxic encephalopathy of tetramine had some character in acute phase and it can predict the serious degree of intoxication, but there was no characteristic findings in chronic phase

  2. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in Our Setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Zubair, U. B.; Mumtaz, H.; Yousaf, M. A.; Muhammad, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the clinical presentation and neuroimaging abnormalities in a series of patients diagnosed as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome at Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Case series study. Place and Duration: Study was carried out at Military Hospital Rawalpindi form December 01st, 2011 to May 31st, 2012. Patients and Methods: Study included all the cases of the Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) admitted in the wards and intensive care unit (ITC). Neuroimaging was done and all the studies were reviewed by independent neuroradiologist. Different clinical and laboratory variables were also studied and correlated with neuroimaging. Follow up ws done to look for the prognosis. Results: Of the seven patients labelled as PRES two were male and five were female. Two patients were over 50 years of age, out of them one was male and one was female. One patient had end stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN), one had eclampsia, one had pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and one had just uncontrolled HTN. Peak spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in 5 cases was 210 mm of Hg, four of which had seizures. Rest two had spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) of 160 out of which one developed seizures. Total out of 7, 5 experienced seizures and altered conscious state, rest two only had confusion. One patient had papilloedema. Follow up was done after 06 weeks, 02 patients died, 05 remained alive and symptoms of PRES had vanished. Conclusion: PRES is a neurological emergency, presents with a variety of symptoms and has a specific neuroimaging pattern. Early recognition and prompt treatment result in a good neurological outcome. (author)

  3. Neuroimmunomodulators in neuroborreliosis and Lyme encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Elizabeth A; Pacheco-Quinto, Javier; Herdt, Aimee R; Halperin, John J

    2018-01-11

    Lyme encephalopathy, characterized by non-specific neurobehavioral symptoms including mild cognitive difficulties, may occur in patients with systemic Lyme disease and is often mistakenly attributed to CNS infection. Identical symptoms occur in innumerable other inflammatory states and may reflect the effect of systemic immune mediators on the CNS. Multiplex immunoassays were used to characterize the inflammatory profile in serum and CSF from Lyme and non-Lyme patients with a range of symptoms to determine if there are specific markers of active CNS infection (neuroborreliosis), or systemic inflammatory mediators associated with neurobehavioral syndromes. CSF CXCL13 was elevated dramatically in confirmed neuroborreliosis (n=8) and to a lesser extent in possible neuroborreliosis (n=11) and other neuroinflammatory conditions (n=44). Patients with Lyme (n=63) or non-Lyme (n=8) encephalopathy had normal CSF findings, but had elevated serum levels of IL-7, TSLP, IL-17A, IL-17F, and MIP-1α/CCL3. CSF CXCL13 is a sensitive and specific marker of neuroborreliosis in individuals with Borrelia-specific intrathecal antibody (ITAb) production. However, CXCL13 does not distinguish individuals strongly suspected of having neuroborreliosis, but lacking confirmatory ITAb, from those with other neuroinflammatory conditions. Patients with mild cognitive symptoms occurring during acute Lyme disease, and/or following appropriate treatment, have normal CSF but elevated serum levels of T-helper 17 markers and T-cell growth factors. These markers are also elevated in non-Lyme disease patients experiencing similar symptoms. Our results support that in the absence of CSF abnormalities, neurobehavioral symptoms are associated with systemic inflammation, not CNS infection or inflammation, and are not specific to Lyme disease. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Contrast-induced encephalopathy following cardiac catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Roberto; Simon, Neil; Markus, Romesh; Muller, David Wm; Kathir, Krishna

    2017-08-01

    To describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) following cardiac catheterization. CIE is an acute, reversible neurological disturbance directly attributable to the intra-arterial administration of iodinated contrast medium. The PubMed database was searched and all cases in the literature were retrieved and reviewed. 52 reports of CIE following cardiac catheterization were found. Encephalopathy, motor and sensory disturbances, vision disturbance, opthalmoplegia, aphasia, and seizures have been reported. Transient cortical blindness is the most commonly reported neurological syndrome, occurring in approximately 50% of cases. The putative mechanism involves disruption of the blood brain barrier and direct neuronal injury. Contrast-induced transient vasoconstriction has also been implicated. Symptoms typically appear within minutes to hours of contrast administration and resolve entirely within 24-48 hr. Risk factors may include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, the administration of large volumes of iodinated contrast, percutaneous coronary intervention or selective angiography of internal mammary grafts, and previous adverse reaction to iodinated contrast. Characteristic findings on cerebral imaging include cortical and sub-cortical contrast enhancement on computed tomography (CT). Imaging findings in CIE may mimic subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral ischemia; the Hounsfield scale on CT and the apparent diffusion coefficient on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful imaging tools in distinguishing these entities. In some cases, brain imaging is normal. Prognosis is excellent with supportive management alone. CIE tends to recur, although re-challenge with iodinated contrast without adverse effects has been documented. CIE is an important clinical entity to consider in the differential diagnosis of stroke following cardiac catheterization. Given that prognosis is

  5. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  6. Late onset arginase deficiency presenting with encephalopathy and midbrain hyperintensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby Varkey Maramattom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urea cycle disorders (UCD are very rare metabolic disorders that present with encephalopathy and hyperammonemia. Of the UCDs, Arginase deficiency (ARD is the rarest and presents in childhood with a progressive spastic diplegia or seizures. Acute presentation in adulthood is extremely unusual. [1] We present the first case of adult onset ARD presenting with encephalopathy and diffusion weighted MRI findings that resembled a moustache in the midbrain.

  7. Hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sook Ja; Choi, Yun Sun; Shin, Chung Ho; Cho, Sung Bum; Cho, Jae Min; Kim, Hyun Sook; Han, Tae Il; Yoon, Yong Kyu

    2001-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) is a sudden-onset symptom complex that involves multisystem failure and includes encephalopathy, shock, coma, convulsions, prerenal azotemia, hepatic dysfunction, and bleeding coagulopathy and progressive thrombocytopenia in previously healthy infants and children. Its radiologic findings have rarely been reported, and it has not been described in Korea. We present a case of clinically diagnosed HSES, and include the CT and MRI findings

  8. Early progressive encephalopathy in boys and MECP2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankirawatana, P; Leonard, H; Ellaway, C; Scurlock, J; Mansour, A; Makris, C M; Dure, L S; Friez, M; Lane, J; Kiraly-Borri, C; Fabian, V; Davis, M; Jackson, J; Christodoulou, J; Kaufmann, W E; Ravine, D; Percy, A K

    2006-07-11

    MECP2 mutations mainly occur in females with Rett syndrome. Mutations have been described in 11 boys with progressive encephalopathy: seven of nine with affected sisters and two de novo. The authors report four de novo occurrences: three pathogenic and one potentially pathogenic. Common features include failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency, microcephaly, and abnormal motor control. MECP2 mutations should be assessed in boys with progressive encephalopathy and one or more of respiratory insufficiency, abnormal movements or tone, and intractable seizures.

  9. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. RESULTS: Here, we...... report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each...... consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library...

  10. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2017-01-01

    increased growth (P=0.026). Nest box temperature had little effect on early kit survival and growth, which could be due to dams’ additional maternal behaviour. Therefore, we cannot confirm that temperature is the primary reason for kit mortality, under the conditions of plenty straw access for maternal nest......We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams...... building. Instead, prenatal and/or parturient litter size is the primary factor influencing early kit vitality. The results indicate that the focus should be on litter size and dam welfare around the times of gestation and birth to increase early kit survival in farmed mink....

  11. Surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Johnson, Chad; Vanderloo, J.P.; Aiken, Judd M.; Hamir, A.N.; Hoover, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin, for TSE infection using the IDEXX HerdChek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the collected mammals tested positive using the ELISA, but these were negative when tested by Western blot. While our sample sizes permitted high probabilities of detecting TSE assuming 1% population prevalence in several common scavengers (93%, 87%, and 87% for raccoons, opossums, and coyotes, respectively), insufficient sample sizes for other species precluded similar conclusions. One cannot rule out successful cross-species TSE transmission to scavengers, but the results suggest that such transmission is not frequent in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin. The need for further surveillance of scavenger species, especially those known to be susceptible to TSE (e.g., cat, American mink, raccoon), is highlighted in both a field and laboratory setting.

  12. Frequency of helicobacter pylori antibodies in porto-systemic encephalopathy,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethar, G.H.; Ahmed, R.; Afsar, S.; Zuberi, B.F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the frequency of Helicobacter pylori antibodies in patients presenting with porto-systemic encephalopathy due to liver disease. Patients and Methods: During the study period, seventy-six patients of porto-systemic encephalopathy due to liver diseases was selected. These subjects were evaluated for hepatic encephalopathy grade, modified Child-Pugh classification and were managed according to the standard practices. These patients were evaluated for Helicobacter (H. pylori) antibody status by ELlSA (Abbott Laboratories) method. Results: Out of 76 patients studied and tested for H. pylori antibodies, 48(63.2%) were males and 28(36.8%) were females with age ranging between 17 and 85 years. Out of 76 patients who presented with porto-systemic encephalopathy, 59(77.6%) had a positive H. pylori antibody test. Thirty-five of these were males and 24 were females. A significant number of patients who presented with higher grade of encephalopathy were H. pylori antibody positive (p<0.001). Conclusion: In this study, frequency of H. pylori antibodies was significantly high in patients of porto-systematic encephalopathy. (author)

  13. Analysis of Factors Influencing Fur Quality in Minks of Standard, Pastel, Platinum and White Hedlunda Colour Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Socha; Dorota Kołodziejczyk; Ewa Kondraciuk; Danuta Wójcik; Aldona Gontarz

    2010-01-01

    The work aimed at the analysis of the factors that influence conformation traits, included animal size and fur quality traits in four colour types of mink: standard, pastel, platinum and white Hedlunda. The data concerns the evaluation of animal conformation traits in the period of three years. The analysis of variance of particular traits indicates statistically significant effect of the year of birth, colour type and animal sex on the majority of analysed traits. Higher means of license eva...

  14. Effect of HMB and 2-Ox administered during pregnancy on bone properties in primiparous and multiparous minks (Neivison vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue density of long bones in primiparous and multiparous dams of minks supplemented with β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB and/or 2-oxoketoglutarate (2-Ox during gestation. Powdered 2-Ox was given at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg b.w. separately or simultaneously with HMB, which was administered at the daily dosage of 0.02 g/kg b.w. The study demonstrates for the first time that administration of 2-Ox and/or HMB to dams markedly influences bone tissue density and the mechanical and geometrical properties of mother`s bones in minks. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the supplementation was more effective in the thoracic limb, which was comprehensively used in contrast to the pelvic limb. The mechanical parameters and bone tissue density significantly increased in the humerus in multiparous minks. Only such diet may provide satisfactory production results in the animals. Nutritional deficiencies occurring during pregnancies may trigger body`s own reserves to cover the bone mass increase in developing foetuses and support milk production. This can prevent regeneration of dams’ organisms, which negatively affects their reproductive performance. 2-Ox or HMB may be regarded as a protective metabolite when administered orally to minks, counteracting the negative influences of pregnancy and lactation periods on bones condition. Both simultaneous treatment with 2-Ox and HMB and their separate administration were equally effective.

  15. Characterization of the env gene and long terminal repeat of molecularly cloned Friend mink cell focus-inducing virus DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, A; Sakai, K; Kitamura, N; Nakanishi, S; Niwa, O; Matsuyama, M; Ishimoto, A

    1984-01-01

    The highly oncogenic erythroleukemia-inducing Friend mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) virus was molecularly cloned in phage lambda gtWES.lambda B, and the DNA sequences of the env gene and the long terminal repeat were determined. The nucleotide sequences of Friend MCF virus and Friend spleen focus-forming virus were quite homologous, supporting the hypothesis that Friend spleen focus-forming virus might be generated via Friend MCF virus from an ecotropic Friend virus mainly by some deletions. ...

  16. Fatty acid alterations caused by PCBs (Aroclor 1242) and copper in adipose tissue around lymph nodes of mink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaekelae, R.; Hyvaerinen, H.

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid composition was determined in adipose tissue surrounding the mesenteric lymph nodes of mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: 1 mg Aroclor 1242 in food day -1 for 28 days) and/or copper (62 mg kg -1 food). These specific adipose tissues are known to have functional relationships with lymphocytes, and proliferation of cultured lymphocytes is influenced by the quality of fatty acids available in media. In six experimental groups the diet was based on freshwater fish, and in two groups it was based on marine fish. These basal diets differed in terms of fatty acid composition and content of fat-soluble vitamins A 1 and E. The fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids (PL) responded to PCBs more than that of triacylglycerols (TG). The effects of copper were small. In female minks fed a diet of freshwater fish, the proportion of highly unsaturated fatty acids in PL decreased by 5 wt.% due to PCBs, and the acids seemed to be replaced by monounsaturated fatty acids (9 wt.% increase of total). This decrease of highly unsaturated fatty acids in PL was milder in minks on the marine fish diet rich in fat-soluble vitamins. In TG of minks on the marine diet, however, PCBs decreased the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). The possibility that these alterations in the fatty acid metabolism of adipose tissue supporting the lymph nodes affect immune function during PCB exposure should be studied further. Interestingly, the quality of the fish diet affected the magnitude of the alterations. The fatty acid responses may also differ between males and females. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Andrzej; Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates.

  18. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Zalewski

    Full Text Available Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55, genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates.

  19. Current state of knowledge of hepatic encephalopathy (part IV): Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy by liver support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Tarek

    2017-04-01

    Hepatic Encephalopathy is a devastating complication of End-Stage Liver Disease. In its severe grades it requires extra intervention beyond the standard medical approaches. In this article were view the role of liver support systems in managing hepatic encephalopthy.

  20. Species Identification of Fox-, Mink-, Dog-, and Rabbit-Derived Ingredients by Multiplex PCR and Real-Time PCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingqing; Xiang, Shengnan; Wang, Wenjun; Zhao, Jinyan; Xia, Jinhua; Zhen, Yueran; Liu, Bang

    2018-05-01

    Various detection methods have been developed to date for identification of animal species. New techniques based on PCR approach have raised the hope of developing better identification methods, which can overcome the limitations of the existing methods. PCR-based methods used the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as well as nuclear DNA sequences. In this study, by targeting nuclear DNA, multiplex PCR and real-time PCR methods were developed to assist with qualitative and quantitative analysis. The multiplex PCR was found to simultaneously and effectively distinguish four species (fox, dog, mink, and rabbit) ingredients by the different sizes of electrophoretic bands: 480, 317, 220, and 209 bp. Real-time fluorescent PCR's amplification profiles and standard curves showed good quantitative measurement responses and linearity, as indicated by good repeatability and coefficient of determination R 2  > 0.99. The quantitative results of quaternary DNA mixtures including mink, fox, dog, and rabbit DNA are in line with our expectations: R.D. (relative deviation) varied between 1.98 and 12.23% and R.S.D. (relative standard deviation) varied between 3.06 and 11.51%, both of which are well within the acceptance criterion of ≤ 25%. Combining the two methods is suitable for the rapid identification and accurate quantification of fox-, dog-, mink-, and rabbit-derived ingredients in the animal products.

  1. Outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: molecular characterization of the viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    that the virus was a human/swine reassortant, with the H and N gene most related to human H3N2 viruses circulating in 2005. The remaining 6 genes were most closely related to H1N2 influenza viruses circulating in Danish swine. This virus had not previously been described in swine, mink or humans. PCRs assays...... specifically targeting the new reassortant were developed and used to screen influenza positive samples from humans and swine in Denmark with negative results. Thus, there was no evidence that this virus had spread to humans or was circulating in Danish pigs. In 2010 and 2011, influenza virus was again...... diagnosed in diseased mink in a few farms. The genetic typing showed that the virus was similar to the pandemic H1N1 virus circulating in humans and swine. The H3N2 virus was not detected in 2010 and 2011. Taken together, these findings indicate that mink is highly susceptible for influenza A virus of human...

  2. Outbreaks of Influenza A Virus in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: Molecular characterization of the involved viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    mink farms with respiratory symptoms. Full-genome sequencing showed that the virus was a human/swine reassortant, with the H and N gene most related to human H3N2 viruses circulating in 2005. The remaining 6 genes were most closely related to H1N2 influenza viruses circulating in Danish swine....... This virus had not previously been described in swine, mink nor humans. PCRs assays specifically targeting the new reassortant were developed and used to screen influenza positive samples from humans and swine in Denmark with negative results. Thus, there was no evidence that this virus had spread to humans...... or was circulating in Danish pigs. In 2010 and 2011, influenza virus was again diagnosed in diseased mink in a few farms. The genetic typing showed that the virus was similar to the pandemic H1N1 virus circulating in humans and swine. The H3N2 virus was not detected in 2010 and 2011. Taken together, these findings...

  3. Performance of the hepatic encephalopathy scoring algorithm in a clinical trial of patients with cirrhosis and severe hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassanein, T.; Blei, A.T.; Perry, W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The grading of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is based on a combination of indicators that reflect the state of consciousness, intellectual function, changes in behavior, and neuromuscular alterations seen in patients with liver failure. METHODS: We modified the traditional West Haven...... criteria (WHC) to provide an objective assessment of the cognitive parameters to complement the subjective clinical ratings for the performance of extracorporeal albumin dialysis (ECAD) using a molecular adsorption recirculating system in patients with cirrhosis and severe (grade III / IV) encephalopathy...

  4. Role of hepatic de novo lipogenesis in the development of fasting-induced fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Harris, Lora; Dick, Morag; Pal, Catherine; Lei, Sha; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2012-10-28

    American mink (Neovison vison) develop fatty liver quickly in response to food deprivation, which results in preferential mobilisation of n-3 PUFA. The altered n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in the liver may activate the endocannabinoid system resulting in increased lipid synthesis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of feeding intensity (80 or 120% RDA), dietary fat source (n-3, n-6 or n-9 fatty acids (FA)) and short-term fasting (1-7 d) on hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and the development of fatty liver in mink. Significantly elevated expression of mRNA encoding for acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and FA synthase (FAS) was observed in the liver of mink fasted for 5-7 d, while upon re-feeding for 28 d after a 7 d food deprivation, DNL returned to pre-fasting levels. The females had a higher expression of ACC-1 and FAS mRNA than the males. In the non-fasted animals, dietary fat source and feeding intensity had significant effects on ACC-1 mRNA. The highest levels were observed in the mink fed the rapeseed oil (n-9) diet at 80% RDA, while the lowest levels were seen when the same diet was fed at 120% RDA. For FAS, the highest gene expression was seen in the fasted mink fed at 80% RDA and the lowest in the non-fasted mink fed at 80%. It is concluded that short-term food deprivation induces hepatic lipidosis in mink and that during this process, hepatic DNL further exacerbates liver fat accumulation.

  5. Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Knud

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison. The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs, representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the

  6. Topiramate increases the risk of valproic acid-induced encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Young; Kim, Dong Wook; Chu, Kon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Moon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sang Kun

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic encephalopathy is a rare but serious complication of valproic acid (VPA) therapy that usually presents with impaired consciousness or increased seizure frequency. Although it has been suggested that topiramate (TPM) increases the risk of VPA-induced encephalopathy, the additional risk in patients receiving TPM therapy has not been evaluated. We reviewed all adult patients who took VPA between January 2005 and February 2009 at the Seoul National University Hospital and identified patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy based on clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) data. Information on sex, age, serum ammonia level, serum VPA level, liver function test, and EEG was collected from patient registry and medical data. We enrolled 8,372 patients who received VPA therapy and 1,236 patients who received VPA/TPM combination therapy. We identified 11 patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy (0.13%), 7 of whom received a combination therapy of VPA and TPM. The odds ratio of VPA-induced encephalopathy with TPM over that without TPM was 10.16. There were no significant differences in sex distribution, number of antiepileptic agents, ammonia level, VPA serum level, underlying diseases, dosage of VPA, duration of VPA treatment, treatment of encephalopathy, and outcomes between the two groups. Our study showed that the prevalence of VPA-induced encephalopathy is approximately 0.1% among patients treated with VPA and that the risk of this condition, although still low, can increase by approximately 10 times in the presence of TPM therapy. Based on these results, we suggest that TPM should be carefully used in patients receiving VPA treatment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Studies on the pathogenesis of Aleutian disease of mink. X. demonstration of immune complexes by the /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding test after experimental infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Peddinghaus, R [Kali-Chemie Pharma G.m.b.H., Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Experimentelle Pathologie; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, H [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Klinische Immunologie und Bluttransfusionswesen; Kalden, J R [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Klinische Immunologie; Trautwein, G; Ueberschaer, S [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pathologie

    1980-01-01

    Aleutian disease (AD) of mink most closely resembles systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in man; both are immune complex disease. In experimental AD serum immune complexes are determined by the /sup 125/J-C 1 q-binding test using human C 1 q. Mink (n = 12) infected intraperitoneally with Aleutian disease virus (ADV), grown in fetal mink kidney cells, developed during the course of infection a mean of /sup 125/I-C 1 q serum binding equivalent to 3.62 +- 1.68 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. (aggregated human immunoglobulin). Sera of mink (n = 8) which were infected with ADV grown in L-cells showed a less marked /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding with a mean equivalent to 2.52 +- 1.43 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. In contrast control animals (n = 8) treated with non-ADV-infected mink epidermal fibroblasts or Eagle's minimal essential medium substituted with fetal calf serum only bound /sup 125/I-C 1 q equivalent to 1.02 +- 0.99 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. In mink infected with ADV propagated in fetal mink kidney cells a constant increase in the /sup 125/I-C 1 q serum binding occurred from the 4th to the 7th and 13th week after ADV infection. Mink which were infected with ADV propagated in mouse L-cells exhibited a different pattern of the /sup 125/I-C 1 q serum binding capacity with a sharp increase from the 4th to the 7th week, followed by a decline towards the 13th week post infection. The serum /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding capacity of all experimental animal groups exhibited at different times of the experiment a significant correlation with the presence of hypergammaglobulinaemia and raised ADV-antibody titers. From the data obtained it appears that the /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding test, utilizing human C 1 q, is a suitable method for the detection of circulating serum immune complexes in mink during the course of ADV-infection.

  8. The Thompson Encephalopathy Score and Short-Term Outcomes in Asphyxiated Newborns Treated With Therapeutic Hypothermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsen, Patricia; Jansen-van der Weide, Martine C; Groenendaal, Floris; Onland, Wes; van Straaten, Henrika L M; Zonnenberg, Inge; Vermeulen, Jeroen R.; Dijk, Peter H; Dudink, Jeroen; Rijken, Monique; van Heijst, Arno; Dijkman, Koen P; Cools, Filip; Zecic, Alexandra; van Kaam, Anton H; de Haan, Timo R

    BACKGROUND: The Thompson encephalopathy score is a clinical score to assess newborns suffering from perinatal asphyxia. Previous studies revealed a high sensitivity and specificity of the Thompson encephalopathy score for adverse outcomes (death or severe disability). Because the Thompson

  9. Genetics Home Reference: SCN8A-related epilepsy with encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources (6 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Epilepsy and Seizure Disorder in Children Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: ... related epilepsy with encephalopathy Merck Manual Consumer Version: Seizure Disorders Orphanet: Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy Patient Support and ...

  10. Hyperemesis gravidarum complicated by Wernicke encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Güney

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wernicke encephalopathy (WE is a potentially fatal but reversible medical emergency. WE usually remains unrecognized in obstetric patients. Aim of the present study is to report a rare case of hyperemesis gravidarum that is complicated by WE. CASE: A 29 years-old, gravida 2, para 1 woman was admitted to Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Süleyman Demirel University in 2007 with an one week history of convulsions and confusion. The patient had nausea and vomiting accompanied by weight loss of 8 kg since she was pregnant. Symptoms of nausea and vomiting became severe in the last weeks. The patient had ataxia, nystagmus, confusion and general muscle weakness. Laboratory examinations were normal, except potassium levels (2.4 mmol/l and ketonuria. There was no diagnosed lesion in the radiological examinations. The patient was diagnosed as WE, and she had replacement therapy with potassium and thiamine for 7 seven days. The patient responded well and was discharged. CONCLUSION: Hyperemesis gravidarum may cause WE which can be diagnosed clinically. Thiamine should be supplemented to pregnant women with prolonged vomiting to prevent development of WE.

  11. Neuroinflammation in hepatic encephalopathy: mechanistic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Arumugam R; Rama Rao, Kakulavarapu V; Norenberg, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major neurological complication of severe liver disease that presents in acute and chronic forms. While elevated brain ammonia level is known to be a major etiological factor in this disorder, recent studies have shown a significant role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic HE. This review summarizes the involvement of ammonia in the activation of microglia, as well as the means by which ammonia triggers inflammatory responses in these cells. Additionally, the role of ammonia in stimulating inflammatory events in brain endothelial cells (ECs), likely through the activation of the toll-like receptor-4 and the associated production of cytokines, as well as the stimulation of various inflammatory factors in ECs and in astrocytes, are discussed. This review also summarizes the inflammatory mechanisms by which activation of ECs and microglia impact on astrocytes leading to their dysfunction, ultimately contributing to astrocyte swelling/brain edema in acute HE. The role of microglial activation and its contribution to the progression of neurobehavioral abnormalities in chronic HE are also briefly presented. We posit that a better understanding of the inflammatory events associated with acute and chronic HE will uncover novel therapeutic targets useful in the treatment of patients afflicted with HE.

  12. Prognostic Assessment in Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita García-Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE is a common complication of liver failure that is associated with poor prognosis. However, the prognosis is not uniform and depends on the underlying liver disease. Acute liver failure is an uncommon cause of HE that carries bad prognosis but is potentially reversible. There are several prognostic systems that have been specifically developed for selecting patients for liver transplantation. In patients with cirrhosis the prognosis of the episode of HE is usually dictated by the underlying precipitating factor. Acute-on-chronic liver failure is the most severe form of decompensation of cirrhosis, the prognosis depends on the number of associated organ failures. Patients with cirrhosis that have experienced an episode of HE should be considered candidates for liver transplant. The selection depends on the underlying liver function assessed by the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD index. There is a subgroup that exhibits low MELD and recurrent HE, usually due to the coexistence of large portosystemic shunts. The recurrence of HE is more common in patients that develop progressive deterioration of liver function and hyponatremia. The bouts of HE may cause sequels that have been shown to persist after liver transplant.

  13. Resveratrol in Patients with Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Malaguarnera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy (MHE is characterized by an impairment of social interaction, emotional behavior, sleep disorders, physical and mental symptoms, and diminished Quality of Life (QoL. The aim of our study is evaluating the potential liver health promoting a perspective of Resveratrol (RV activities and evaluate whether RV treatment may improve health related quality of life (HRQL and reduce depression and anxiety in patients with MHE. Methods: We evaluated depression using the Beck Depression Inventory test, anxiety with State-trait anxiety inventory test, quality of life through SF-36 test, and ammonia serum levels in 70 MHE patients that were randomized into two groups. Results: In the comparison between RV group and placebo group we observed a decrease in Back Depression Inventory (BDI (p < 0.001, in State-trait anxiety inventory (STAI (p < 0.001, and improve in physical function (p < 0.001, in role physical (p < 0.05, in body pain (p < 0.05, in general health (p < 0.001, in vitality (p < 0.05, and in social function (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Resveratrol showed efficacy in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and ammonia serum levels, and improved the quality of life Of MHE patients.

  14. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, L J M; Vromans, M E W; Dolstra, C H; Bossers, A; van Zijderveld, F G

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrP(Sc) was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer's patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrP(Sc) accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrP(Sc) accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion. In the central nervous system, PrP(Sc) was first detected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the nervus Vagus in the medulla oblongata and in the intermediolateral column in the spinal cord segments T7-L1. At subsequent time points, PrP(Sc) was seen to spread within the lymphoid system to also involve all non-gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In the enteric nervous system, further spread of PrP(Sc) involved the neural plexi along the entire gastrointestinal tract and in the CNS the complete neuraxis. These findings indicate a spread of the BSE agent in sheep from the enteric nervous system through parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord.

  15. The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C.; Stein, Thor D.; Kiernan, Patrick T.; Alvarez, Victor E.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive brain trauma is associated with a progressive neurological deterioration, now termed as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Most instances of CTE occur in association with the play of sports, but CTE has also been reported in association with blast injuries and other neurotrauma. Symptoms of CTE include behavioral and mood changes, memory loss, cognitive impairment and dementia. Like many other neurodegenerative diseases, CTE is diagnosed with certainty only by neuropathological examination of brain tissue. CTE is a tauopathy characterized by the deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) protein as neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic tangles and neurites in striking clusters around small blood vessels of the cortex, typically at the sulcal depths. Severely affected cases show p-tau pathology throughout the brain. Abnormalities in phosphorylated 43 kDa TAR DNA-binding protein are found in most cases of CTE; beta-amyloid is identified in 43%, associated with age. Given the importance of sports participation and physical exercise to physical and psychological health as well as disease resilience, it is critical to identify the genetic risk factors for CTE as well as to understand how other variables, such as stress, age at exposure, gender, substance abuse and other exposures, contribute to the development of CTE. PMID:25904048

  16. The mechanisms and treatment of asphyxial encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eWassink

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute post-asphyxial encephalopathy occurring around the time of birth remains a major cause of death and disability. The recent seminal insight that allows active neuroprotective treatment is that even after profound asphyxia (the primary phase, many brain cells show initial recovery from the insult during a short latent phase, typically lasting approximately 6 h, only to die hours to days later after a secondary deterioration characterized by seizures, cytotoxic edema, and progressive failure of cerebral oxidative metabolism. Although many of these secondary processes are potentially injurious, they appear to be primarily epiphenomena of the ‘execution’ phase of cell death. Animal and human studies designed around this conceptual framework have shown that moderate cerebral hypothermia initiated as early as possible but before the onset of secondary deterioration, and continued for a sufficient duration to allow the secondary deterioration to resolve, has been associated with potent, long-lasting neuroprotection. Recent clinical trials show that while therapeutic hypothermia significantly reduces morbidity and mortality, many babies still die or survive with disabilities. The challenge for the future is to find ways of improving the effectiveness of treatment. In this review, we will dissect the known mechanisms of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in relation to the known effects of hypothermic neuroprotection.

  17. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurodegenerative proteinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmela Tartaglia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE is described as a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease believed to result from multiple concussions. Traditionally, concussions were considered benign events and although most people recover fully, about 10% develop a post-concussive syndrome with persisting neurological, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. CTE was once thought to be unique to boxers, but it has now been observed in many different athletes having suffered multiple concussions as well as in military personal after repeated blast injuries. Much remains unknown about the development of CTE but its pathological substrate is usually tau, similar to that seen in Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The aim of this perspective is to compare and contrast clinical and pathological CTE with the other neurodegenerative proteinopathies and highlight that there is an urgent need for understanding the relationship between concussion and the development of CTE as it may provide a window into the development of a proteinopathy and thus new avenues for treatment.

  18. Painless thyroiditis complicating with hypercalcemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewjitcharoen, Yotsapon; Lumlertgul, Nuttha

    2012-01-01

    Severe hypercalcemia has rarely been reported in patients with hyperthyroidism. Although the pathogenesis is not clear; it is believed to be due to activation of osteoclasts resulting in excessive bone resorption. To recognize the unusual cause of hypercalcemia from painless thyroiditis, which could manifest with transient hyperthyroidism in the early stage. A 70-year-old woman presented with watery diarrhea, nausea and vomiting and significant weight loss for two months. Initially, she was misdiagnosed as having Graves'disease from her clinical presentation and thyroid function tests. Oral propylthiouracil was given to treat hyperthyroidism. However two weeks after discharge, she developed altered consciousness due to severe hypercalcemia. After combined treatment of hypercalcemia and severe hyperthyroidism, her symptoms resolved quickly. Later on, her thyroid function tests switched to subclinical hypothyroid at two months after initial presentation. No concurrent pathological conditions could be found to explain the other causes of hypercalcemia. Therefore, painless thyroiditis complicated with severe hypercalcemia was subsequently diagnosed based on her clinical course. Hypercalcemic encephalopathy is an uncommon manifestation of hyperthyroidism that should be kept in mind in patients who demonstrated clinical pictures of hyperthyroidism and alteration of consciousness. Moreover the present case emphasizes the consideration of painless thyroiditis as a differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism because anti-thyroid medications were not indicated in this condition.

  19. Pathogenetic aspects of alcoholic encephalopathy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchetinin S.G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is considered to be the most common exogenous toxins, causing encephalopathy. The defeat of almost all parts of the nervous system should be assigned to the special features of ethanol. Neurophysiological mechanisms of development of substance dependence are based in the stem and limbic structures of the brain that are involved in ensuring the regulation of emotional state, mood, motivation sphere, psychophysical tone of human behavior in general and its adaptation to the environment. Stress or disruption of the normal functioning of these structures can lead to the formation of abstinence syndrome, affective disorders in remission and craving for alcohol. Dopaminergic and opioid (endorphin system play an important role in the genesis of various mental and motor disorders. In some way alcohol dependence can be regarded as an endorfinodefitsitnoe disease with a pathogenetic point of view. Activating of opioidereal system by trans-cranial electrical stimulation promotes the restoration of disturbed emotional, cognitive and autonomic functions, reduces craving for alcohol and in that way increases the effectiveness of rehabilitation treatment

  20. Evaluation and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Current Status and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal bu...

  1. Diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy with magentic resonance imaging; With special reference to portal system encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Etsuo; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Kadota, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Makoto; Kuriyama, Keiko; Kuroda, Chikazumi (Osaka Prefectural Center for Adult Diseases (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    Cranial magnetic resonance (MR) images were examined in 16 patients with liver cirrhosis. The findings of MR imaging were correlated with portal-systemic collateral vessel shown on angiograms. In 9 of 16 patients, basal ganglia was hyperintense compared with white matter on T1-weighted images. These 9 patients had portal-systemic collateral vessel 10 mm or more in diameter that was suppied by superior mesenteric vein (SMV), and 4 of the 9 patients had portal-systemic encephalopathy on angiograms. In the remaining 7 patients, no hyperintense lesions were seen in basal ganglia relative to white matter on T1-weighted images; angiography revealed that 2 patients had portal-systemic collateral vessel that was supplied by SMV but was 5 mm or less in diameter, 3 had bood supplies from splenic vein, and 2 had no collateral vessel. There was no change in signal intensity on T2-weighted images. In conclusion, a large portal-systemic collateral vessel supplied by SMV may be shown as a high intensity lesion in basal ganglia, thus making it possible to diagnose hepatic encephalopathy even if there was no psychoneurologic symptoms or signs. (N.K.).

  2. Seeing more clearly through the fog of encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Peter W; Sutter, Raoul

    2013-10-01

    Patients with acute confusional states (often referred to as encephalopathy or delirium) pose diagnostic and management challenges for treating physicians. Encephalopathy is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate, and the diagnosis rests on clinical grounds but may also be supported by the finding of electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence for diffuse cerebral dysfunction. The myriad cerebral transmitter and metabolic disruptions are generated by systemic organ system failures, principal among which are those of the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, and endocrine system, along with the effects of exogenous toxins and medications. In most cases, several of these organ failures together contribute to the confusional state, frequently in the context of a diffuse cerebral atrophy that affects the aging brain. This special issue of the Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology is dedicated to exploring the electrophysiology of these conditions. It reviews the pathophysiology, psychiatric manifestations, clinical and imaging correlations of the many causes and types of encephalopathy. A literature review of the EEG abnormalities in the various types of encephalopathy provides an overview that ranges from paraneoplastic causes, through organ system failures, postcardiorespiratory arrest, to postoperative delirium. The issue is supplemented by tables of relevant clinical correlations, graphs, Venn diagrams, and the use of mathematical modeling used to explain how defects in the neuronal interplay might generate the EEG patterns seen in encephalopathy. We hope that this assembly will act as a springboard for further discussion and investigation into the EEG underpinnings, clinical correlations, diagnosis. and prognostication of these common and morbid disturbances of brain function.

  3. Recent advances in hepatic encephalopathy [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Liere

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy describes the array of neurological alterations that occur during acute liver failure or chronic liver injury. While key players in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, such as increases in brain ammonia, alterations in neurosteroid levels, and neuroinflammation, have been identified, there is still a paucity in our knowledge of the precise pathogenic mechanism. This review gives a brief overview of our understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and then summarizes the significant recent advances made in clinical and basic research contributing to our understanding, diagnosis, and possible treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted in May 2017 using “hepatic encephalopathy” as a keyword, and selected manuscripts were limited to those research articles published since May 2014. While the authors acknowledge that many significant advances have been made in the understanding of hepatic encephalopathy prior to May 2014, we have limited the scope of this review to the previous three years only.

  4. The relationship between plasma free fatty acids and experimentally induced hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. J.; Bosman, D. K.; Jörning, G. G.; de Haan, J. G.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in the rat have been investigated in order to study the postulated relationship between plasma free fatty acids concentration (C6 - C22:0) and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy. As a model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy, porta caval shunted

  5. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This action will allow interested... importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy...

  6. The vomeronasal system of the mink, Mustela vison. I. The vomeronasal organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, I; Cifuentes, J M; Quinteiro, P S; Caballero, G

    1994-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the mink is restricted to the area of the Fissura palatina and thus always topographically related to the Ductus incisivus (DI). The VNO and DI have also a functional relation because the vomeronasal duct ends in the incisive duct. On the other hand, as the DI has its mouth in the Papilla incisiva there is a communication between the VNO and the oral cavity. The vomeronasal cartilage, approximately in 1/6 of its length, wraps completely the parenchyma of the VNO whose main structure is the vomeronasal duct, with two different epithelia: sensory receptor in the medial wall, and respiratory in the lateral one. Nevertheless the variations of epithelia belong to the segment of the duct because in its rostral and caudal parts the medial and lateral epithelia are very similar. Branches and tubular PAS positive glands stand out in three points: superior, inferior and medial areas of the vomeronasal duct in which they end. An important number of vessels, mainly veins of different diameter, are located around the duct, while the nervous fibers are close to the medial wall of the duct and very easy to identify in the caudal third of the organ. Two immunohistochemical techniques were used to identify the nerve fibers and the receptor cells.

  7. Separating the mink dam from the litter at 7 or 8 weeks after delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is known about the maternal motivation...... around the time of separation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of separating the dam from the litter, using brown first-parity dams (N=374) randomly assigned within each date of delivery to two treatment groups: The dam was taken away from the litter either at day 49 ±1 (7w, N=185) or at day 56 ±1...... (8w, N=189) after birth. The aim was to investigate whether the dams had a different motivation to take care of the litter after 7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Corticsol Metabolites) and dam calls the first week after separation. The two treatment...

  8. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim...... was to investigate whether the dams experienced stress/had a different motivation to be reunited with the litter after7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Cortisol Metabolites)and dam behaviour including calls the first week after separation (D0: Day of removal, D1: next.......024). We interpret these results as a higher maternal motivation in dams at 7 weeks than at 8 weeks after birth. Additionally, the separation-induced calling in dams decreased with increasing litter size (P = 0.022). Thus in addition to litter age, the size of the litter is important for the maternal...

  9. Expression of mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus-related transcripts in AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Laigret, F.; Rodi, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used a synthetic 16-base-pair mink cell focus-forming (MCF) env-specific oligomer as radiolabeled probe to study MCF murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related transcripts in brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and thymus tissues of AKR mice ranging from 5 weeks to 6 months (mo) of age. Tissue-specific expression of poly(A) + RNAs was seen. In addition, all the tissues tested contained 3.0-kb messages. The transcription of these MCF-related mRNAs was independent of the presence of ecotropic and xenotropic MuLVs. In general, expression of the MCF env-related transcripts appeared to peak at 2 mo of age; these messages were barely detectable in brain, kidney, liver, and spleen tissues after 2 mo and in thymus tissue after 4 mo of age. All of the subgenomic MCF env-related mRNAs appeared to contain the 190-base-pair cellular DNA insert, characteristic of the long terminal repeats associated with endogenous MCF env-related proviruses. No genomic-size (8.4-kb) transcripts corresponding to endogenous MCF-related proviruses were detected. An 8.4-kb MCF env-related mRNA was first seen at 3 mo of age, exclusively in thymus tissue. This species most likely represents the first appearance of a recombinant MCF-related MuLV genome. The transcripts which were detected in thymus tissue might be involved in the generation of leukemogenic MCF viruses

  10. Late development of homoeothermy in mink (Mustela vison) kits - a strategy for maximum survival rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, M P

    2006-01-01

    and after the experiments and evaporative water losses (EWL) were calculated. When exposed to L temperature, single kits responded with a very low HE until 29 days of age, and groups of kits until 14 days of age. It was not until they reached an age of approximately 6 weeks that single kits showed a clear...... thermoregulatory response to the L temperature by increased HE, whereas groups of kits showed increased HE from 29th day onwards. When kept at H temperature, HE was low initially, but all kits showed elevated HE at 8 days of age, and the metabolic rate was similar for single kits and kits huddling in groups....... Evaporative water losses was higher among single than among groups of kits and slightly lower but more variable for animals at L than at H temperature. It was concluded that mink kits develop functional homoeothermy at an age of close to 6 weeks and that the failure of very young kits to thermoregulate...

  11. Roles of three amino acids of capsid proteins in mink enteritis parvovirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yaping; Su, Jun; Wang, Jigui; Zhang, Xiaomei; Hou, Qiang; Bian, Dawei; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-15

    Virulent mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) strain MEV-LHV replicated to higher titers in feline F81 cells than attenuated strain MEV-L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the VP2 gene of MEV-LHV, MEV-L and other strains in GenBank revealed two evolutionary branches separating virulent and attenuated strains. Three residues, 101, 232 and 411, differed between virulent and attenuated strains but were conserved within the two branches. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP2 gene of infectious plasmids of attenuated strain MEV-L respectively replacing residues 101 Ile and 411 Ala with Thr and Glu of virulent strains (MEV-L I101T and MEV-L A411E) increased replication efficiency but still to lower levels than MEV-LHV. However, viruses with mutation of residue 232 (MEV-L I232V and MEV-L I101T/I232V/A411E) decreased viral transcription and replication levels. The three VP2 residues 101, 232 and 411, located on or near the capsid surface, played different roles in the infection processes of MEV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Developmental changes in the skull morphology of common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Gen; Kato, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    We investigated growth-related and sex-related morphological changes in the skulls of 144 North Pacific common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Measurement was conducted at 39 points on the skull and mandible to extract individual allometric equations relating the length and zygomatic width of the skull. The results revealed no significant differences in skull morphology by sex except for width of occipital bone. The size relative to the skull of the anatomical parts involved in feeding, such as the rostrum and mandible, increased after birth. In contrast, the sensory organs and the anatomical regions involved in neurological function, such as the orbit, tympanic bullae, and foramen magnum, were fully developed at birth, and their relative size reduced over the course of development. This is the first study to investigate developmental changes in the skull morphology using more than 100 baleen whale specimens, and we believe the results of this study will contribute greatly to multiple areas of baleen whale research, including taxonomy and paleontology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Metabolic and growth response of mink (Neovison vison) kits until 10 weeks of age when exposed to different dietary protein provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Caroline; Fink, Rikke; Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank

    2012-01-01

    to solid feed. The capacity to regulate the rate of gluconeogenesis was even more limited in young mink kits than in adult dams. However, young mink kits can regulate protein oxidation in response to dietary protein supply, probably by adapting the size of the liver and kidneys to the level of protein......Growth performance and metabolism were investigated in mink kits (n = 210) exposed to the same dietary treatment as their dams (n = 30), i.e. high (HP; 61% of metabolisable energy, ME), medium (MP; 48% of ME) or low (LP; 30% of ME) protein supply, from birth until 10 weeks of age. The kits were...... the heaviest. After transition to solid feed MP kits weighed most at nine weeks of age (p age, the kits fed the LP diet retained less (p

  14. A Critical Case of Wernicke's Encephalopathy Induced by Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Ju Kang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wernicke’s encephalopathy is a reversible but potentially critical disease caused by thiamine deficiency. Most patients complain of symptoms such as ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and confusion. Heavy alcohol drinking is commonly associated with the disease, but other clinical conditions also can provoke it. In pregnant women, hyperemesis gravidarum can lead to the depletion of body thiamine due to poor oral intake and a high metabolic demand. We report a case of Wernicke’s encephalopathy following hyperemesis gravidarum in a 36-year-old female at 20 weeks of pregnancy, who visited our hospital because of shock with vaginal bleeding. This case suggests that although the initial presentation may include atypical symptoms (e.g., shock or bleeding, Wernicke’s encephalopathy should be considered, and thiamine replacement should be performed in pregnant women with neurologic symptoms and poor oral intake.

  15. Colectomy for porto-systemic encephalopathy: is it still topical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rym Ennaifer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE is a common long term complication of porto-systemic shunt. We report herein the case of a 59-year-old man with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis treated successfully 9 years earlier with distal splenorenal shunt for uncontrolled variceal bleeding. In the last year, he developed a severe and persistent hepatic encephalopathy secondary to the shunt, which was resistant to medical therapy. As liver transplantation was not available and obliteration of the shunt was hazardous, we performed subtotal colectomy in order to reduce ammonia production. This therapeutic option proved successful, as the grade of encephalopathy decreased and the patient improved. Our experience indicates that colonic exclusion should be considered as an option in the management of HE refractory to medical treatment in highly selected patients when liver transplantation is not available or even as a bridge given the long waiting time on lists.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in a case of Wernicke's encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnan, L.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Berlot, G.

    1998-01-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is an uncommon disorder caused by a thiamine deficiency which is clinically characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and disturbances of consciousness, each finding being variably present. The disease is caused by malnutrition or malabsorption, and is often associated with prolonged alcohol intake, neoplasm and extensive inflammatory processes of the digestive tract and parenteral hyperalimentation-induced gastrointestinal mucosal atrophy. Clinical diagnosis can be elusive and MRI may be the only imaging technique able to detect the cerebral lesions, whose type and distribution are characteristic of the Wernicke's encephalopathy, whereas CT is positive only in exceptional cases. We report a case of a 56-year-old woman who developed a Wernicke's encephalopathy 1 month after a colonic resection with signal intensity changes located in the mammillary bodies and in the medial thalamic nuclei. (orig.)

  17. Research progress of BOLD-functional MRI of hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Ling; Zhang Longjiang; Lu Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from behavior abnormality, conscious disorder and even coma, is a consequence of liver dysfunction in both acute and chronic hepatic diseases. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) refers to a subgroup of cirrhotic patients without clinical overt hepatic encephalopathy symptoms hut with abnormalities in neuro -cognitive functions. HE/MHE can have a far-reaching impact on quality of life and prognosis. The exact neuropathology mechanism was still unclear. Recently, functional MRI (fMRI) has been increasingly applied for investigating the neuro-pathophysiological mechanism of HE. This paper will review the fMRI research applied on uncovering the neuropathology mechanism of HE. (authors)

  18. EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH CONTINUOUS SPIKES-WAVES ACTIVITY DURING SLEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Belousova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author represents the review and discussion of current scientific literature devoted to epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes-waves activity during sleep — the special form of partly reversible age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, characterized by triad of symptoms: continuous prolonged epileptiform (spike-wave activity on EEG in sleep, epileptic seizures and cognitive disorders. The author describes the aspects of classification, pathogenesis and etiology, prevalence, clinical picture and diagnostics of this disorder, including the peculiar anomalies on EEG. The especial attention is given to approaches to the treatment of epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikeswaves activity during sleep. Efficacy of valproates, corticosteroid hormones and antiepileptic drugs of other groups is considered. The author represents own experience of treatment this disorder with corticosteroids, scheme of therapy and assessment of efficacy.

  19. Clinical and radiological features of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qiu LI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the diagnosis and treatment of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. Methods  The clinical and imaging data of 3 cases of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy were summarized and analyzed for the purpose of improving the acumen in diagnosis and treatment. Results All the 3 patients showed relatively mild clinical symptoms, and they were misdiagnosed in different degrees during the treatment, but their clinical symptoms were improved by rapid and effective antihypertensive therapy. Cerebral CT and MRI scans revealed extensive abnormal signals in brain stem, with or without supratentorial lesions and brain stem hemorrhage. The lesions as revealed by imaging were improved significantly after treatment. Conclusions Clinical-radiographic dissociation is the classic feature of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. The clinical symptoms and lesions as shown by imaging could be improved after active treatment. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.06.03

  20. Acute Infantile Encephalopathy Predominantly Affecting The Frontal Lobes (AIEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raha, Sarbani; Udani, Vrajesh

    2012-12-01

    Acute Infantile Encephalopathy Predominantly Affecting the Frontal Lobes (AIEF) is a relatively recent described entity. This article includes case reports of two patients who had bifrontal involvement during acute febrile encephalopathy. Case 1 describes a 1-y-old boy who presented with hyperpyrexia and dialeptic seizures. Imaging revealed significant bilateral frontal lobe involvement while serology proved presence of Influenza B infection. Over a period of one wk, he recovered with significant cognitive decline and perseveratory behavior. Another 6-y-old boy presented with language and behavioral problems suggestive of frontal dysfunction after recovering from prolonged impairment of consciousness following a convulsive status epilepticus. Bilateral superior frontal lesions with gyral swelling was evident on neuroimaging. These cases are among the very few cases of AIEF described in recent literature and the article also reviews this unique subtype of acute encephalopathy.

  1. Potentially modifiable factors contributing to sepsis-associated encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, Romain; de Montmollin, Etienne; Poujade, Julien; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maïté; Souweine, Bertrand; Darmon, Michael; Mariotte, Eric; Argaud, Laurent; Barbier, François; Goldgran-Toledano, Dany; Marcotte, Guillaume; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Jamali, Samir; Lacave, Guillaume; Ruckly, Stéphane; Mourvillier, Bruno; Timsit, Jean-François

    2017-08-01

    Identifying modifiable factors for sepsis-associated encephalopathy may help improve patient care and outcomes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective multicenter database. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) was defined by a score on the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) sepsis at ICU admission, of whom 1341 (53%) had sepsis-associated encephalopathy. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, site of infection, and type of admission, the following factors remained independently associated with sepsis-associated encephalopathy: acute renal failure [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.67], hypoglycemia 10 mmol/l (aOR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.72), hypercapnia >45 mmHg (aOR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.53-2.38), hypernatremia >145 mmol/l (aOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.48-3.57), and S. aureus (aOR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.05-2.25). Sepsis-associated encephalopathy was associated with higher mortality, higher use of ICU resources, and longer hospital stay. After adjusting for age, comorbidities, year of admission, and non-neurological SOFA score, even mild alteration of mental status (i.e., a score on the GCS of 13-14) remained independently associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% CI 1.09-1.76). Acute renal failure and common metabolic disturbances represent potentially modifiable factors contributing to sepsis-associated encephalopathy. However, a true causal relationship has yet to be demonstrated. Our study confirms the prognostic significance of mild alteration of mental status in patients with sepsis.

  2. Risk factors and outcome of Shigella encephalopathy in Bangladeshi children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Afroze

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although, Shigella encephalopathy, a serious extra-intestinal complication of shigellosis, significantly increases the risks of death, data are very limited on predicting factors particularly related to electrolyte profiles in children below five years of age with Shigella encephalopathy. Our objective was to determine the clinical as well as laboratory predicting factors and outcome of children with Shigella encephalopathy.In this unmatched case-control design, children aged 2-59 months having a positive stool culture for Shigella and who had their serum electrolytes been done from July 2012 to June 2015 were studied. Children with Shigella encephalopathy, defined as having abnormal mentation, constituted the cases, and those without encephalopathy constituted the controls. During the study period, we identified a total of 541 children less than five years of age, who had Shigella in their stool culture. Only 139 children fulfilled the study criteria and among them 69 were cases and 70 were controls. The cases more often had fatal outcome compared to the controls (7% vs. 0%, P = 0.02. In logistic regression analysis, the cases were independently associated with shorter duration (1.2 ± 0.4 days of diarrhea prior to admission, dehydrating diarrhea, sepsis and hyponatremia (p<0.05 for all. Among 139 Shigella isolates, S. flexneri (88/139, 63% and S. sonnei(34/139, 24% were the dominant species. S. dysenteriae was not isolated throughout the study period. S.sonnei was more frequently isolated from the cases (24/69, 35% than the controls (10/70, 14%, whereas the isolation of S. flexneri was comparable between the groups (40/69, 58% vs 48/70, 69%. A total of 94 (67.6% isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, 84 (60.4% to ciprofloxacin, 66/138 (48% to ampicillin, 5 (3.5% to ceftriaxone, 17 (12.2% to mecillinum and 35 (25% to azithromycin.The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the children with Shigella encephalopathy

  3. Diffusion weighted MR imaging of acute Wernicke's encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae-Ick; Kim, Joong-Seok; Park, Soung-Kyeong; Kim, Beum-Saeng; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Yang, Dong-Won

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of Wernicke's encephalopathy in which diffusion-weighted MR images demonstrated symmetrical hyperintense lesions in the paraventricular area of the third ventricles and medial thalami. Apparent diffusion coefficient mapping showed isointensity in the aforementioned areas. Diffusion-weighted MR images may provide evidence of vasogenic edema associated with thiamine deficiency, proven in the histopathology of experimental animals. In addition, diffusion-weighted MRI has many advantages over T2 or FLARE-weighted brain MRI in detecting structural and functional abnormalities in Wernicke's encephalopathy

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy: Early Diagnosis in Pediatric Patients With Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    DARA, Naghi; SAYYARI, Ali-Akbar; IMANZADEH, Farid

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Dara N, Sayyari AA, Imanzadeh F. Hepatic Encephalopathy: Early Diagnosis in Pediatric Patients With Cirrhosis. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1):1-11.ObjectiveAs acute liver failure (ALF) and chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) continue to increase in prevalence, we will see more cases of hepatic encephalopathy.Primary care physician are often the first to suspect it, since they are familiar with the patient’s usual physical and mental status. This serious complic...

  5. Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid deficiency in dialysis encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, V P; Perry, T L; Price, J D; Reeve, C E; Godolphin, W J; Kish, S J

    1985-02-01

    We measured levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the CSF and in the autopsied brain of patients with dialysis encephalopathy. GABA concentrations were low in the CSF of three of five living patients. Mean GABA content was reduced by 30 to 50% in five brain regions (frontal, occipital, and cerebellar cortex, caudate nucleus, and medial dorsal thalamus) in five fatal cases. GABA content was normal in brain regions where GABA is characteristically reduced in Huntington's disease. Choline acetyltransferase activity was diminished (by 25 to 35%) in cerebral cortex of the dialysis encephalopathy patients.

  6. MRI findings in acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy resulting from decompensated chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureka, Jyoti; Jakkani, Ravi Kanth; Panwar, Sanuj

    2012-06-01

    Hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a type of metabolic encephalopathy with diversified etiology. Hyperammonemia is the end result of several metabolic disorders such as congenital deficiencies of urea cycle enzymes, hepatic encephalopathy, Reye's syndrome and other toxic encephalopathies. Non-specific clinical presentation poses a great challenge in early diagnosis of this entity. Irrespective of the underlying etiology, hyperammonemia causes a distinctive pattern of brain parenchymal injury. The cingulate gyrus and insular cortex are more vulnerable to this type of toxic insult. Characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings in combination with laboratory parameters can help to differentiate this entity from other metabolic encephalopathy and thus aiding in early diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Evaluation and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal burden on caregivers. The diagnosis remains largely clinical, with the exclusion of possible other causes for the altered mental status. Current treatment strategies include nonabsorbable disaccharides and antibiotics. This review will focus on the diagnosis, management and clinical impact of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:27377741

  8. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance, mortality rate and clinical blood parameters in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B.M.; Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 35% to 15% of metabolizable energy (ME) and dietary fat levels ranging in a reciprocal fashion from 47% to 67% of ME, and a constant dietary carbohydrate level of 18% of ME were investigated in male mink kits in the growing-furring period. Growth...... performance, mortality rate, hepatic fatty infiltration, weights of body and liver, relative weight of liver, haematocrit values, plasma activities of alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT) and creatine-kinase (CK), and plasma concentrations of chemical parameters were studied...

  9. Estradiol stimulates glycogen synthesis whereas progesterone promotes glycogen catabolism in the uterus of the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Kole; Rose, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Glycogen synthesis by mink uterine glandular and luminal epithelia (GE and LE) is stimulated by estradiol (E 2 ) during estrus. Subsequently, the glycogen deposits are mobilized to near completion to meet the energy requirements of pre-embryonic development and implantation by as yet undetermined mechanisms. We hypothesized that progesterone (P 4 ) was responsible for catabolism of uterine glycogen reserves as one of its actions to ensure reproductive success. Mink were treated with E 2 , P 4 or vehicle (controls) for 3 days and uteri collected 24 h (E 2 , P 4 and vehicle) and 96 h (E 2 ) later. To evaluate E 2 priming, mink were treated with E 2 for 3 days, then P 4 for an additional 3 days (E 2 →P 4 ) and uteri collected 24 h later. Percent glycogen content of uterine epithelia was greater at E 2 + 96 h (GE = 5.71 ± 0.55; LE = 11.54 ± 2.32) than E 2 +24 h (GE = 3.63 ± 0.71; LE = 2.82 ± 1.03), and both were higher than controls (GE = 0.27 ± 0.15; LE = 0.54 ± 0.30; P glycogen content (GE = 0.61 ± 0.16; LE = 0.51 ± 0.13), to levels not different from controls, while concomitantly increasing catabolic enzyme (glycogen phosphorylase m and glucose-6-phosphatase) gene expression and amount of phospho-glycogen synthase protein (inactive) in uterine homogenates. Interestingly, E 2 →P 4 increased glycogen synthase 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and hexokinase 1mRNA and protein. Our findings suggest to us that while E 2 promotes glycogen accumulation by the mink uterus during estrus and pregnancy, it is P 4 that induces uterine glycogen catabolism, releasing the glucose that is essential to support pre-embryonic survival and implantation. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. [Leigh's encephalopathy (subacute necrotizing encephalopathy). Documentation of its evolution through neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J A; González-Ferrer, S; Martínez, C; Prieto-Carrasquero, M; Delgado, W; Mora La Cruz, E

    1996-09-01

    A 30 months-old boy developed bilateral nistagmus, tremor, gait disturbance, hypotonia and disartria. The diagnose of Leigh encephalopathy was suggested on the basis of clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory findings. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at an early stage revealed bilateral and symmetric lesions in the putamen, appearing as hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images. Twelve months later a relatively large hypertense area in the posterior brainstem was observed. At this stage, the patient exhibited marked deterioration, dystonic manifestations, rigidity and respiratory disturbances. He died 6 months later for respiratory arrest during bronconeumonic infection. We believe MRI is a valuable means to allow assessment of the evolution of the disease.

  11. Rare and unusual ... or are they? Less commonly diagnosed encephalopathies associated with systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Allison L; Lewis, Steven L

    2009-04-01

    Encephalopathy due to hepatic or renal failure, electrolyte disturbances, or the administration of benzodiazepines and narcotics is commonly encountered, well reviewed in the literature, and, therefore, not usually missed. This article focuses on encephalopathies that were previously well described but may be overlooked by modern clinicians, as well as those that are still taught in the classroom but seldom thought of in practice. Due to the presumed relative rarity of these cases and emphasis on the well-memorized "classic" clinical presentations, these often treatable, and perhaps not so rare, encephalopathies due to systemic medical illness may go undiagnosed and untreated. Pancreatic encephalopathy, Wernicke's encephalopathy, and pellagra encephalopathy are reviewed in detail; cefepime and ifosfamide encephalopathies are discussed as examples of specific medication-induced encephalopathies. Septic encephalopathy, central pontine myelinolysis, and fat embolism syndrome are briefly reviewed. The encephalopathies reviewed have the potential for devastating neurological consequences if recognition and, therefore, treatment are delayed. Clinical improvement for many of these syndromes depends on prompt intervention. This article highlights some representative examples of less-commonly diagnosed metabolic and toxic encephalopathies.

  12. Acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy with features on diffusion-weighted images: Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ja Young; Yu, In Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a rare toxic encephalopathy caused by accumulated plasma ammonia. A few literatures are reported about MRI findings of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy. It is different from the well-known chronic hepatic encephalopathy. The clinical symptom and MRI findings of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy can be reversible with proper treatment. Acute hepatic encephalopathy involves the cingulate cortex, diffuse cerebral cortices, insula, bilateral thalami on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery. Acute hepatic encephalopathy might mimic hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy because of their similar predominant involving sites. We experienced 2 cases of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy consecutively. They showed restricted diffusion at the cingulate cortex, cerebral cortices, insula, and bilateral dorsomedial thalami on DWI. One patient underwent acute fulminant hepatitis A, the other patient with underlying chronic liver disease had acute liver failure due to hepatotoxicity of tuberculosis medication. In this report, we presented the characteristic features of DWI in acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy. In addition, we reviewed articles on MRI findings of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy.

  13. Acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy with features on diffusion-weighted images: Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Yu, In Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a rare toxic encephalopathy caused by accumulated plasma ammonia. A few literatures are reported about MRI findings of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy. It is different from the well-known chronic hepatic encephalopathy. The clinical symptom and MRI findings of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy can be reversible with proper treatment. Acute hepatic encephalopathy involves the cingulate cortex, diffuse cerebral cortices, insula, bilateral thalami on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery. Acute hepatic encephalopathy might mimic hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy because of their similar predominant involving sites. We experienced 2 cases of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy consecutively. They showed restricted diffusion at the cingulate cortex, cerebral cortices, insula, and bilateral dorsomedial thalami on DWI. One patient underwent acute fulminant hepatitis A, the other patient with underlying chronic liver disease had acute liver failure due to hepatotoxicity of tuberculosis medication. In this report, we presented the characteristic features of DWI in acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy. In addition, we reviewed articles on MRI findings of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy.

  14. Chromosomal mapping of canine-derived BAC clones to the red fox and American mink genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukekova, Anna V; Vorobieva, Nadegda V; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Yudkin, Dmitry V; Trut, Lyudmila N; Andre, Catherine; Galibert, Francis; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    High-quality sequencing of the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) genome has enabled enormous progress in genetic mapping of canine phenotypic variation. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), another canid species, also exhibits a wide range of variation in coat color, morphology, and behavior. Although the fox genome has not yet been sequenced, canine genomic resources have been used to construct a meiotic linkage map of the red fox genome and begin genetic mapping in foxes. However, a more detailed gene-specific comparative map between the dog and fox genomes is required to establish gene order within homologous regions of dog and fox chromosomes and to refine breakpoints between homologous chromosomes of the 2 species. In the current study, we tested whether canine-derived gene-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones can be routinely used to build a gene-specific map of the red fox genome. Forty canine BAC clones were mapped to the red fox genome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Each clone was uniquely assigned to a single fox chromosome, and the locations of 38 clones agreed with cytogenetic predictions. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of FISH mapping for construction of a whole-genome gene-specific map of the red fox. The further possibility of using canine BAC clones to map genes in the American mink (Mustela vison) genome was also explored. Much lower success was obtained for this more distantly related farm-bred species, although a few BAC clones were mapped to the predicted chromosomal locations.

  15. Reproductive parameters of critically endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiik, Kairi; Maran, Tiit; Nemvalts, Kristel; Sandre, Siiri-Lii; Tammaru, Toomas

    2017-06-01

    Founding captive populations is often the last chance for saving endangered species from extinction. Ensuring successful reproduction is typically most critical for the maintenance of captive populations, with purposeful selection of individuals for breeding being one of the crucial aspects. Comparable cross-species data on the determinants of reproduction success are most useful for solving problems in captive species programs. In the present study, we provide an overview of a 20-year captive breeding program of the critically endangered European mink. The mating season starts in March, reaching its peak in the middle of April. The average gestation length was 43.8days (mode 43), the mean litter size being 4.4 (mode 4). Litter size and cub survival were negatively correlated with maternal age but this effect was entirely due to the lower performance of the females over 4 years of age. Female body weight also showed a positive correlation with litter size, with the weight itself having increased by 10% during the 20- year period. We did not find any signs of a cost of reproduction: the number of litters the female had delivered earlier in her life did not have an effect on her litter size in the focal year. Beyond the effect of age and size, individual females did not differ in litter sizes. Consistently, we found the heritability of litter size to be low. We conclude that, when selecting females for breeding, there is little need to consider aspects other than genetic relatedness crucial for avoiding progressive inbreeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke′s encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushree Sangita Behura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Wernicke′s encephalopathy (WE is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1 deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion, oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia. Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning, which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. Materials and Methods: In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. Discussion: As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs ( global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings, the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases.Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but

  17. Celiac crisis presenting with status epilepticus and encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Nadia M; Bracken, Julia M; Chandratre, Sonal R

    2014-12-01

    Celiac crisis is a life-threatening presentation of celiac disease which is described in the context of classic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of diarrhea, leading to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Neurologic manifestations are atypical symptoms of celiac crisis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published report on seizure or encephalopathy as the presenting manifestation of celiac crisis. We describe a 2-year-old boy presenting with acute status epilepticus and lethargy. Prior to presentation, he had mild abdominal distention and intermittent diarrhea. Laboratory analysis revealed hyponatremia, anemia, hypocalcemia, transaminitis, and hyperglycemia. Electroencephalography revealed severe diffuse encephalopathy, and complete infectious work-up was negative. Initial brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal; however, repeat imaging showed osmotic demyelination syndrome. Given the history of GI symptoms and hyperglycemia, celiac serology was obtained revealing elevated tissue transglutaminase, and a diagnosis was confirmed by Marsh 3c lesions in the duodenum. He significantly improved with steroid therapy in addition to adequate nutrition, fluids, and initiation of a gluten-free diet. We report herein on the first case of celiac crisis presenting with status epilepticus and encephalopathy in the absence of profound GI symptoms. Our case suggests that celiac crisis should be considered in the differential of seizures and encephalopathy in children.

  18. [Subacute encephalopathy with epileptic seizures in an alcoholic patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozian, R; Otto, F G

    2000-09-01

    We introduce a case of a 66 year-old male with chronic alcoholism who suffered from confusion, Wernicke-aphasia and epileptic seizures. Several EEG revealed periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. The patient's case resembles the symptoms of a subacute encephalopathy with epileptic seizures which can occur in alcoholics.

  19. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for acute and chronic hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Kjaergard, L L; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is unknown. It has been suggested that liver failure leads to the accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition which may progress to coma. Several trials have assessed benzodiazepine receptor...

  20. Antithyroperoxidase Antibodies in Encephalopathy : Diagnostic Marker or Incidental Finding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dontje, B.; Van Santen, H. M.; Niermeijer, J. M.; Schonenberg-Meinema, D.; Van Trotsenburg, A. S P

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute encephalopathy who are thoroughly examined for an underlying diagnosis and in whom infectious, metabolic, and malignant causes are excluded can form a true diagnostic dilemma. If antithyroperoxidase antibodies (anti-TPO abs) are present, the diagnosis steroid responsive

  1. About pathognomonic images: an infrequent case of acute encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grasso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The occurrence of acute encephalopathy is a dramatic clinical dilemma when usual diagnostic techniques (blood tests, cerebral CT and cerebrospinal fluid analysis show no abnormalities. CLINICAL CASE We describe a case of a 73 years old man admitted in our Internal Medicine Unit for acute diarrhoea with vomiting and fever who developed a prolonged gastrointestinal dysmotility syndrome with poor nutritional intake. Although a parenteral support was provided, he developed acute encephalopathy followed by hypotension and lactic acidosis without evidence of renal and hepatic disease or glycemic alterations. Likewise, no cerebral CT and cerebrospinal fluid alterations were found. Conversely, cerebral MRI showed marked and diffuse DP-2 and FLAIR hyperintensity of the mesencephalic tectal plate, of the periaqueductal area, and of the periventricular region of the third ventricle including the median thalamic area. These MRI descriptions were considered pathognomonic of Wernicke encephalopathy. Thus, the immediate use of ev thiamine was followed by a prompt and complete recovery of neurological, hemodinamic and metabolic conditions. CONCLUSIONS Non-alcoholic Wernicke encephalopathy is a rare and dramatic clinical event with high mortality. In this context, brain MRI is the best diagnostic tool providing a typical picture.

  2. A case of chronic Wernicke's encephalopathy: A neuropsychological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudman, Erik; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Postma, Albert; Wijnia, Jan W.; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman was referred to our Korsakoff Center because of extensive cognitive problems following acute Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE). She had a relatively short history of alcohol abuse and was found lying on the floor in her home by her son. After 5 days without treatment, she was

  3. GRIN1 Mutations in Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Yokohama City University and other medical centers in Israel and Japan reported mutations on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors subunit GRIN1 (GluN1 identified in patients with nonsyndromic intellectual disability and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy.

  4. Coenzyme Q-responsive Leigh's encephalopathy in two sisters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldergem, L. van; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Mauro, S. Di; Sindelar, P.J.; Musumeci, O.; Janssen, A.J.M.; Delberghe, X.; Martin, J.J.; Gillerot, Y.

    2002-01-01

    A 31-year-old woman had encephalopathy, growth retardation, infantilism, ataxia, deafness, lactic acidosis, and increased signals of caudate and putamen on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Muscle biochemistry showed succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex II-III) deficiency. Both clinical

  5. STXBP1 encephalopathy: A neurodevelopmental disorder including epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamberger, H.; Nikanorova, M.; Willemsen, M.H.; Accorsi, P.; Angriman, M.; Baier, H.; Benkel-Herrenbrueck, I.; Benoit, V.; Budetta, M.; Caliebe, A.; Cantalupo, G.; Capovilla, G.; Casara, G.; Courage, C.; Deprez, M.; Destree, A.; Dilena, R.; Erasmus, C.E.; Fannemel, M.; Fjaer, R.; Giordano, L.; Helbig, K.L.; Heyne, H.O.; Klepper, J.; Kluger, G.J.; Lederer, D.; Lodi, M.; Maier, O.; Merkenschlager, A.; Michelberger, N.; Minetti, C.; Muhle, H.; Phalin, J.; Ramsey, K.; Romeo, A.; Schallner, J.; Schanze, I.; Shinawi, M.; Sleegers, K.; Sterbova, K.; Syrbe, S.; Traverso, M.; Tzschach, A.; Uldall, P.; Coster, R. van; Verhelst, H.; Viri, M.; Winter, S.; Wolff, M.; Zenker, M.; Zoccante, L.; Jonghe, P. De; Helbig, I.; Striano, P.; Lemke, J.R.; Moller, R.S.; Weckhuysen, S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To give a comprehensive overview of the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of STXBP1 encephalopathy (STXBP1-E) by systematically reviewing newly diagnosed and previously reported patients. METHODS: We recruited newly diagnosed patients with STXBP1 mutations through an international network

  6. Update on the Therapeutic Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Linda Skibsted; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common and devastating complication to chronic liver disease. In this paper, we summarize the latest research and evidence of both conventional and up-coming treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses report beneficial effects of lactulose...

  7. In vitro adsorption of possible aetiological factors of hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamuleau, R. A.; Schoemaker, L. P.; Smit, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    Four different adsorbents (activated charcoal, XAD-4, a strong base anion and a strong acid cation-exchange resin) were tested in vitro for their capacity to remove substances that may be important in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. Separate columns packed with one of these adsorbents

  8. Case Report: Hypertensive encephalopathy with CT confirmation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is a clinical syndrome that occurs infrequently in children and is often underdiagnosed. We review four patients with HE and describe their clinical presentation and radiological findings on computed tomography (CT). Our cases demonstrate typical features on CT and correlate clinically ...

  9. Hypothermia therapy for newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia reduces cerebral injury and improves the neurological outcome secondary to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. It has been indicated for asphyxiated full-term or near-term newborn infants with clinical signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). A search was performed for articles on therapeutic hypothermia in newborns with perinatal asphyxia in PubMed; the authors chose those considered most significant. There are two therapeutic hypothermia methods: selective head cooling and total body cooling. The target body temperature is 34.5 °C for selective head cooling and 33.5 °C for total body cooling. Temperatures lower than 32 °C are less neuroprotective, and temperatures below 30 °C are very dangerous, with severe complications. Therapeutic hypothermia must start within the first 6h after birth, as studies have shown that this represents the therapeutic window for the hypoxic-ischemic event. Therapy must be maintained for 72 h, with very strict control of the newborn's body temperature. It has been shown that therapeutic hypothermia is effective in reducing neurologic impairment, especially in full-term or near-term newborns with moderate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Therapeutic hypothermia is a neuroprotective technique indicated for newborn infants with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced neuroimaging techniques for the term newborn with encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth John; Miller, Steven Paul

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period and of long-term neurodevelopmental disability in survivors. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques now play a major role in the clinical care of newborns with encephalopathy and in research addressing this important condition. From conventional magnetic resonance imaging, typical patterns of injury have been defined in neonatal encephalopathy. When applied in contemporary cohorts of newborns with encephalopathy, the patterns of brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging distinguish risk factors, clinical presentation, and risk of abnormal outcome. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging provide novel perspectives on neonatal brain metabolism, microstructure, and connectivity. With the application of these imaging tools, it is increasingly apparent that brain injury commonly occurs at or near the time of birth and evolves over the first weeks of life. These observations have complemented findings from trials of emerging strategies of brain protection, such as hypothermia. Application of these advanced magnetic resonance techniques may enable the earliest possible identification of newborns at risk of neurodevelopmental impairment, thereby ensuring appropriate follow-up with rehabilitation and psychoeducational resources.

  11. HHV-6 symptoms in central nervous system. Encephalitis and encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinari, Satoshi; Hamano, Shinichiro

    2007-01-01

    Described is the present knowledge of central nervous symptoms, mainly encephalitis and encephalopathy, caused by the primary infection of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) in the pediatric field. Discovery of HHV-6 is in 1986, the virus, normally latent, has a high nervous affinity, and most infants are infected until the age of 3 years. Encephalitis and encephalopathy caused by the primary infection can be derived from direct viral invasion in nervous system or secondary like that through angitis. Most of early clinical symptoms are febrile convulsion. Imaging of the head by MRI particularly with diffusion weighted imaging and by cerebral blood flow SPECT with 123 I-infetamine (IMP) is important for classification of encephalitis and encephalopathy by HHV-6: Four types of them are defined according to the area of lesion observed in abnormal images, the basal nuclei-diencephalon-brainstem, frontal lobe-dominant one, cerebral hemisphere and diffusive one. Further reviewed are the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis together with other HHV-6 related problems like infection in neonate, temporal lobe epilepsy and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. Current topics are related with activation of latent HHV-6. Despite numerous findings, many remain to be elucidated in acute encephalitis and encephalopathy which are most important in pediatrics. (R.T.)

  12. Laboratory examinations of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in Denmark during 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre

    The aim of this report is to give detailed information on the diagnostic examination on trans-missible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) performed in Denmark during 2016. The present annual report is the 21st on this topic published by the National Veterinary Institute, Technical University...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy: Early Diagnosis in Pediatric Patients With Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DARA, Naghi; SAYYARI, Ali-Akbar; IMANZADEH, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Objective As acute liver failure (ALF) and chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) continue to increase in prevalence, we will see more cases of hepatic encephalopathy. Primary care physician are often the first to suspect it, since they are familiar with the patient’s usual physical and mental status. This serious complication typically occurs in patients with severe comorbidities and needs multidisciplinary evaluation and care. Hepatic encephalopathy should be considered in any patient with acute liver failure and cirrhosis who presents with neuropsychiatric manifestations, decrease level of consciousness (coma), change of personality, intellectual and behavioral deterioration, speech and motor dysfunction. Every cirrhotic patient may be at risk; potential precipitating factors should be addressed in regular clinic visits. The encephalopathy of liver disease may be prominent, or can be present in subtle forms, such as decline of school performance, emotional outbursts, or depression. “Subtle form” of hepatic encephalopathy may not be obvious on clinical examination, but can be detected by neurophysiologic and neuropsychiatric testing. PMID:24665321

  14. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a adult female

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    occipital regions. Atypical imaging finding of contrast enhancement of lesion can occur, but is less common. A 20‑year‑old primiparous lady presented with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ...

  15. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a adult female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typical imaging findings characteristically involve the white matter bilaterally in the parieto-occipital regions. Atypical imaging finding of contrast enhancement of lesion can occur, but is less common. A 20-year-old primiparous lady presented with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, ...

  16. Hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to suture line breakdown after bladder operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogerd, W; Zoetmulder, F A; Moffie, D

    1990-01-01

    A patient is described with a severe encephalopathy and hyperammonemia in absence of liver dysfunction, attributed to urine absorption into the systemic circulation due to suture line breakdown after bladder dome resection. At autopsy characteristic Alzheimer type II astrocytes were found in the basal ganglia.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... encephalopathy type 1 typically appears in infancy or early childhood, although some people do not develop the condition ... status and number of prior infections, may also influence risk. Related ... it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What are the different ways in which a ...

  18. Pathophysiological aspects of acute hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutz, N.E.P.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to elucidate the pathogenesis of acute hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In order to study acute HE, plasma and brain concentrations were measured of ammonia, aminoacids, lactate and polyamines as well as brain energy rich phosphates. In addition new techniques of brain research were developed and applied. 277 refs.; 29 figs.; 18 tabs

  19. Metformin inhibits glutaminase activity and protects against hepatic encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ampuero

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the influence of metformin use on liver dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy in a retrospective cohort of diabetic cirrhotic patients. To analyze the impact of metformin on glutaminase activity and ammonia production in vitro. METHODS: Eighty-two cirrhotic patients with type 2 diabetes were included. Forty-one patients were classified as insulin sensitizers experienced (metformin and 41 as controls (cirrhotic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without metformin treatment. Baseline analysis included: insulin, glucose, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, TNFr2, AST, ALT. HOMA-IR was calculated. Baseline HE risk was calculated according to minimal hepatic encephalopathy, oral glutamine challenge and mutations in glutaminase gene. We performed an experimental study in vitro including an enzymatic activity assay where glutaminase inhibition was measured according to different metformin concentrations. In Caco2 cells, glutaminase activity inhibition was evaluated by ammonia production at 24, 48 and 72 hours after metformina treatment. RESULTS: Hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed during follow-up in 23.2% (19/82: 4.9% (2/41 in patients receiving metformin and 41.5% (17/41 in patients without metformin treatment (logRank 9.81; p=0.002. In multivariate analysis, metformin use [H.R.11.4 (95% CI: 1.2-108.8; p=0.034], age at diagnosis [H.R.1.12 (95% CI: 1.04-1.2; p=0.002], female sex [H.R.10.4 (95% CI: 1.5-71.6; p=0.017] and HE risk [H.R.21.3 (95% CI: 2.8-163.4; p=0.003] were found independently associated with hepatic encephalopathy. In the enzymatic assay, glutaminase activity inhibition reached 68% with metformin 100 mM. In Caco2 cells, metformin (20 mM decreased glutaminase activity up to 24% at 72 hours post-treatment (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Metformin was found independently related to overt hepatic encephalopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high risk of hepatic encephalopathy. Metformin inhibits glutaminase

  20. Distinct transmissibility features of TSE sources derived from ruminant prion diseases by the oral route in a transgenic mouse model (TgOvPrP4 overexpressing the ovine prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noël Arsac

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with a misfolded form of host-encoded prion protein (PrP. Some of them, such as classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle (BSE, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME, kuru and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, are acquired by the oral route exposure to infected tissues. We investigated the possible transmission by the oral route of a panel of strains derived from ruminant prion diseases in a transgenic mouse model (TgOvPrP4 overexpressing the ovine prion protein (A136R154Q171 under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter. Sources derived from Nor98, CH1641 or 87V scrapie sources, as well as sources derived from L-type BSE or cattle-passaged TME, failed to transmit by the oral route, whereas those derived from classical BSE and classical scrapie were successfully transmitted. Apart from a possible effect of passage history of the TSE agent in the inocula, this implied the occurrence of subtle molecular changes in the protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres following oral transmission that can raises concerns about our ability to correctly identify sheep that might be orally infected by the BSE agent in the field. Our results provide proof of principle that transgenic mouse models can be used to examine the transmissibility of TSE agents by the oral route, providing novel insights regarding the pathogenesis of prion diseases.