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Sample records for ministerstva ehnergetiki ssha

  1. Interannual coherent variability of SSTA and SSHA in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Q. Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface height derived from the multiple ocean satellite altimeter missions (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, ERS, Envisat et al. and sea surface temperature from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP over 1993–2008 are analyzed to investigate the coherent patterns between the interannual variability of the sea surface and subsurface in the Tropical Indian Ocean, by jointly adopting Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Extended Associate Pattern Analysis (EAPA methods. Results show that there are two dominant coherent modes with the nearly same main period of about 3–5 yr, accounting for 86 % of the total covariance in all, but 90° phase difference between them. The primary pattern is characterized by a east-west dipole mode associated with the mature phase of ENSO, and the second presents a sandwich mode having one sign anomalies along Sumatra-Java coast and northeast of Madagascar, whilst an opposite sign between the two regions. The robust correlations of the sea surface height anomaly (SSHA with sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA in the leading modes indicate a strong interaction between them, though the highest correlation coefficient appears with a time lag. And there may be some physical significance with respect to ocean dynamics implied in SSHA variability. Analyzing results show that the features of oceanic waves with basin scale, of which the Rossby wave is prominent, are apparent in the dominant modes. It is further demonstrated from the EAPA that the equatorial eastward Kelvin wave and off-equatorial westward Rossby wave as well as their reflection in the east and west boundary, respectively, are important dynamic mechanisms in the evolution of the two leading coherent patterns. Results of the present study suggest that the upper ocean thermal variations on the timescale of interannual coherent with the ocean dynamics in spatial structure and temporal evolution are mainly attributed to the ocean waves.

  2. Identification of low Ca(2+) stress-induced embryo apoptosis response genes in Arachis hypogaea by SSH-associated library lift (SSHaLL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Cai, Tie Cheng; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Shuangbiao; Zheng, Yixiong; Ma, Shiwei; Tang, Ronghua; Varshney, Rajeev K; Zhuang, Weijian

    2016-02-01

    Calcium is a universal signal in the regulation of wide aspects in biology, but few are known about the function of calcium in the control of early embryo development. Ca(2+) deficiency in soil induces early embryo abortion in peanut, producing empty pods, which is a general problem; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, embryo abortion was characterized to be caused by apoptosis marked with cell wall degradation. Using a method of SSH cDNA libraries associated with library lift (SSHaLL), 62 differentially expressed genes were isolated from young peanut embryos. These genes were classified to be stress responses, catabolic process, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, embryo morphogenesis, regulation, etc. The cell retardation with cell wall degradation was caused by up-regulated cell wall hydrolases and down-regulated cellular synthases genes. HsfA4a, which was characterized to be important to embryo development, was significantly down-regulated under Ca(2+) -deficient conditions from 15 days after pegging (DAP) to 30 DAP. Two AhCYP707A4 genes, encoding abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylases, key enzymes for ABA catabolism, were up-regulated by 21-fold under Ca(2+) -deficient conditions upstream of HsfA4a, reducing the ABA level in early embryos. Over-expression of AhCYP707A4 in Nicotiana benthamiana showed a phenotype of low ABA content with high numbers of aborted embryos, small pods and less seeds, which confirms that AhCYP707A4 is a key player in regulation of Ca(2+) deficiency-induced embryo abortion via ABA-mediated apoptosis. The results elucidated the mechanism of low Ca(2+) -induced embryo abortion and described the method for other fields of study.

  3. Pridorozhnaja arhitektura SShA / Jevgeni Ashihmin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ashihmin, Jevgeni

    2007-01-01

    Narva Keskraamatukogus eksponeeritud Ameerika fotograafi ja arhitektuuriajaloolase John Margoliesi fotonäitus "Maanteeäärne arhitektuur Ameerikas" näitab Ameerika pilkupüüdvaid teeäärseid einelaid ja bensiinijaamu

  4. Terminator napal na Konstitutsiju SShA

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    California osariigi kuberneriks valitud Arnold Schwarzenegger on põhjuseks, miks on käivitunud USA põhiseaduse muutmise kampaania. Endine näitleja ei ole sündinud Ameerikas, põhiseadus aga ei luba Ameerika Ühendriikide presidendiks kandideerida immigrantidel

  5. SShA nuzhna silnaja Jevropa / Georg Schwarte

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schwarte, Georg

    2005-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush kohtus Euroopa Komisjoni presidendi Jose Manuel Barroso, EL-i eesistuja Luksemburgi peaministri Jean-Claude Junckeri ja EL-i välispoliitika juhi Javier Solanaga. G. Bush kinnitas kohtumisel, et USA toetab tugevat Euroopa Liitu

  6. Hugo Chaves v otsherednoi raz progrozil SShA

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Naftaeksportöör Venezuela sõlmis 13 Kariibi mere riigiga energeetikakoostöö leppe, mis tugevdas president Hugo Chavezi poliitilist positsiooni USA mõju vastu regioonis. USA ja Venezuela suhetest

  7. Hugo Chaves v otsherednoi raz progrozil SShA

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Naftaeksportöör Venezuela sõlmis 13 Kariibi mere riigiga energeetikakoostöö leppe, mis tugevdas president Hugo Chavezi poliitilist positsiooni USA mõju vastu regioonis. USA ja Venezuela suhetest

  8. Jushtshenko otpravilsja s vizitom v SShA

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Ukraina president Viktor Jushtshenko suundus töövisiidile USA-sse. President külastab kolme linna - Washingtoni, Bostonit ja Chicagot. Visiidi käigus kohtub president USA presidendi George W. Bushi, asepresident Dick Cheney' ja välisminister Condoleezza Rice'iga

  9. Analýza komunikační kampaně ministerstva dopravy "Nemyslíš,zaplatíš".

    OpenAIRE

    Bártlová, Jitka

    2009-01-01

    Diploma thesis - Ministry of Transport communication campaign "Nemyslíš, zaplatíš" analysis - is divided into two parts - theoretical and practical. Theoretical part is concerned in marketing and commercial communication, social marketing and evaluation of communication campaign effectiveness. Practical part refers to BESIP, czech accident statistics and communication campaign "Nemyslíš, zaplatíš" analysis (introduction, communication strategy). Thesis also contains research concerning campai...

  10. "Porazhenije SShA ne budjet porazhenijem jevropeitsev" / Jean-Pierre Hocke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hocke, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    USA-s võimul oleva president G. Bushi juhitav vabariiklaste meeskond viib ellu ameeriklaste moraalse ülemuslikkuse poliitikat võitluses kurjuse üle. USA poliitika Afganistanis, Iraagis ja Lähi-Idas

  11. V gorodahh SShA belõje teper v menshinstve / Catherine Elsworth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elsworth, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Rahvastikuloenduse andmeil on kolmandikus USA kõige tihedamalt asustatud piirkondades valged jäänud vähemusse, suurenenud on etniline mitmekesisus. Muutused on mõnel pool esile kutsunud kohalike võimude rahulolematust. Prognoositakse, et 2050. aastaks moodustavad etnilised vähemused poole kogu USA rahvastikust

  12. Gosdep SShA : mõ ne trebujem immuniteta! / Jevgenija Garanzha

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garanža, Jevgenija, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    USA lõpetas sõjalise abi andmise riikidele, kes ei olnud valmis garanteerima USA sõdurite puutumatust. Eesti võimalusest jätkuvalt sõjalist abi saada räägib Lincoln Bloomfield USA riigisekretariaadist

  13. "Prikljutshenija Elektronika-2" snimut v SSHA : gotovõ nabroski 30 serii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vene populaarse lastefilmi "Elektrooniku seiklused" (1980) režissöör Konstantin Bromberg ja peaosatäitjad, vennad Torsujevid plaanivad filmile järge. Ka vendade ja teiste lapsnäitlejate elust peale filmis osalemist

  14. Diplomat SShA Vuds prizval k borbe s narkotikami / Aleksei Günter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Günter, Aleksei, 1979-

    2008-01-01

    USA suursaadik Afganistanis William Wood tegi kokkuvõtteid 2007. aastast ja nimetas aastat edukaks võitluses terroristidega ja riigi ülesehitamisel ning kutsus üles aktiivsemalt võitlema narkokaubitsejatega

  15. "Porazhenije SShA ne budjet porazhenijem jevropeitsev" / Jean-Pierre Hocke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hocke, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    USA-s võimul oleva president G. Bushi juhitav vabariiklaste meeskond viib ellu ameeriklaste moraalse ülemuslikkuse poliitikat võitluses kurjuse üle. USA poliitika Afganistanis, Iraagis ja Lähi-Idas

  16. V gorodahh SShA belõje teper v menshinstve / Catherine Elsworth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elsworth, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Rahvastikuloenduse andmeil on kolmandikus USA kõige tihedamalt asustatud piirkondades valged jäänud vähemusse, suurenenud on etniline mitmekesisus. Muutused on mõnel pool esile kutsunud kohalike võimude rahulolematust. Prognoositakse, et 2050. aastaks moodustavad etnilised vähemused poole kogu USA rahvastikust

  17. SShA i NATO võrvaliss v liderõ gonki vooruzhenii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Stockholmi rahvusvahelise rahu-uuringute instituudi (SIPRI) raporti kohaselt kasvasid riikide kulutused relvajõududele aastaga 3,5%, sõjalised kulutused on suuremad kui külma sõja ajal. USA sõjalised kulutused ulatuvad 528 miljardi dollarini, kulutustest Iraagi ja Afganistani sõjale. USA, NATO ja Venemaa võidurelvastumise lõpetamise vajadusest

  18. "Rossii dlja SShA net. Nas spissali so stshota" / Sergei Rogov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rogov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    USA ja Kanada Instituudi direktor vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Venemaa ja Ameerika suhteid presidendivalimiste eel ja prognoosib, milliseks need võiksid kujuneda olukorras, kus mõlemal maal on valitud uus liider

  19. Rossija ponimajet SShA glubzhe tshem Zapadnaja Jevropa / Nikolai Zherebtsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zherebtsov, Nikolai

    2002-01-01

    Vene Akadeemia USA ja Kanada Instituudi direktor peab Vene ja USA suhteid viimase saja aasta parimaiks. Ta ennustab ka Baltimaade ja sealse venekeelse elanikkonna, samuti Balti riikide ja Venemaa suhete paranemist peale Baltimaade liitumist NATO-ga. Kommenteerib Vene Föderatsiooninõukogu välisasjade komitee esimees Mihhail Margelov

  20. DIAGNOSTIKA I LEChENIE ZABOLEVANIYa ShchITOVIDNOY ZhELEZY VO VREMYa BEREMENNOSTI I V POSLERODOVOM PERIODE: PO MATERIALAM KLINIChESKIKh REKOMENDATsIY ENDOKRINOLOGIChESKOY ASSOTsIATsII SShA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Рекомендации подготовлены Комитетом эндокринологической ассоциации США в составе: Nobuyuki Amino (представитель Тиреоидологической ассоциации Азии и Океании, Marcos Abalovich (представитель Латиноамериканской тиреоидологической ассоциации, Linda Barbour и Rhoda Cobin (представители Американской ассоциации клинической эндокринологии, Daniel Glinoer (представитель Европейской тиреоидологической ассоциации, Sarah Kilpatrick (представитель Американского общества акушеров и гинекологов, Susan Mandel (представитель Американской тиреоидологической ассоциации, Maureen Malee, Alex Stagnaro-Green и Leslie De Groot (председатели.

  1. Gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly and significant wave height from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2 satellites (NODC Accession 0065055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and Ku Band significant wave height (SWH-KU) observed from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2...

  2. Geostrophic volume transport and eddies in the region of sub-tropical and sub-Antarctic waters south of Madagascar during austral summer (January–February) 2004

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Sudhakar, M.

    to shed out with a developmental tendency of clockwise (anti-clockwise) rotations on right (left) side of these current streams. A positive correlation between SSHA and mixed layer depth (MLD) is confined to the sub-tropical waters, suggesting...

  3. The Kuroshio Transport East of Taiwan and the Sea Surface Height Anomaly from the Interior Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; LIU Qinyu; JIA Yinglai

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the Kuroshio transport to the east of Taiwan and the SSHA(Sea Surface Height Anomaly)field is studied based on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment(WOCE)PCM-1 moored current meter array observation, the satellite altimeter data from the MSLA(Map of Sea Level Anomaly)products merged with the ERS and TOPEX/POSEIDON(T/P)data sets, and the WOCE satellite-tracked drifting buoy data. It is confirmed that the Kuroshio transport across PCM-1 array highly correlates with the SSHA upstream(22°-24°, 121.75°-124°E). The SSHA is not locally generated by the developed Kuroshio meandering but is from the interior ocean and is propagating westward or northwestward. During the period from October 1992 to January 1998, two events of the northwestward propagating negative SSHA occurred, during which the SSHA merged into the Kuroshio and caused the remarkable low transport events in contrast to the normal westward propagating negative SSHA. It is also shown that the lower Kuroshio transport event would be generated in different ways. The negative anomaly in the upstream of PCM-1 array can reduce the Kuroshio transport by either offshore or onshore Kuroshio meandering. The positive anomaly, which is strong enough to detour the Kuroshio, can cause an offshore meandering and a low transport event at the PCM-1 array.

  4. Sea surface height anomaly and geostrophic circulation variations in the South China Sea from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克修; 马继瑞; 许建平; 韩桂军; 范振华

    2002-01-01

    --The sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and geostrophic circulation in the South ChinaSea (SCS) are studied using TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) altimetry data. The SSHA, which is obtained after tidal correction based on the tidal results from T/P data, is predominated by seasonal alternating monsoons. The results reveal that the SSHA in the central part of the SCS is positive in spring and summer, but negative in autumn and winter. It is also found that the SSHA in the SCS can be approached with the sum of tidal constituents SA and SSA. The geostrophic circulations in the SCS are calculated according to sea surface dynamic topography, which is the sum of SSHA and mean sea surface height. It is suggested that the circulation in the upper layer of the SCS is generally cyclonic and notably western intensified during autumn and winter, while the western intensification is weak during spring and summer. It is also indicated that the Kuroshio intrudes into the northeastern SCS throuth the Luzon Strait in winter. But there is no indication of Kuroshio intruding into the SCS in summer.

  5. Sea surface height anomaly and upper ocean temperature over the Indian Ocean during contrasting monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Anitha; Mitra, A. K.; Mahapatra, D. K.; Momin, I. M.; Rajagopal, E. N.; Basu, Swati

    2016-09-01

    Recent research emphasizes the importance of the oceanic feedback to monsoon rainfall over the Asian landmass. In this study, we investigate the differences in the sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and upper ocean temperature over the tropical Indian Ocean during multiple strong and weak monsoons. Analysis of satellite derived SSHA, sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean reanalysis data reveals that patterns of SSHA, SST, ocean temperature, upper ocean heat content (UOHC) and propagations of Kelvin and Rossby waves differ during strong and weak monsoon years. During strong monsoons positive SSH, SST and UOHC anomalies develop over large parts of north Indian Ocean whereas during weak monsoons much of the north Indian Ocean is covered with negative anomalies. These patterns can be used as a standard tool for evaluating the performance of coupled and ocean models in simulating & forecasting strong and weak monsoons. The rainfall over central India is found to be significantly correlated with SSHA over the regions (Arabian Sea and West central Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal) where SSHA is positively large during strong monsoons. The SST-SSHA correlation is also very strong over the same area. The study reveals that much convection takes place over these regions during strong monsoons. In contrast during weak monsoons, convection takes place over eastern equatorial region. These changes in SST are largely influenced by oceanic Kelvin and Rossby waves. The Rossby waves initiated in spring at the eastern boundary propagate sub-surface heat content in the ocean influencing SST in summer. The SST anomalies modulate the Hadley circulation and the moisture transport thereby contributing to rainfall over central India. Therefore oceanic Kelvin and Rossby waves influence the rainfall over central India.

  6. Modeling a habitat suitability index for the eastern fall cohort of Ommastrephes bartramii in the central North Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xinjun; TIAN Siquan; LIU Bilin; CHEN Yong

    2011-01-01

    The eastern fall cohort of the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, has been commercially exploited by the Chinese squid jigging fleet in the central North Pacific Ocean since the late 1990s. To understand and identify their optimal habitat, we have developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model using two potential important environmental variables - sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) - and fishery data from the main fishing ground (165°-180°E) during June and July of 1999-2003. A geometric mean model (GMM), minimum model (MM) and arithmetic weighted model (AWM) with different weights were compared and the best HSI model was selected using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The performance of the developed HSI model was evaluated using fishery data for 2004. This study suggests that the highest catch per unit effort (CPUE) and fishing effort are closely related to SST and SSHA. The best SST- and SSHA-based suitability index (SI) regression models were SISST-bsed = 0.7SIeffort-SST + 0.3 SICPUE-SST, and SISSHA-based = 0.5SIeffon-SSHA + 0.5SICP,UE-SSHA,respectively, showing that fishing effort is more important than CPUE in the estimation of SI. The bestHSI model was the AWM, defined as HSI=0.3SISST-based+ 0.7SISSHA-based, indicating that SSHA is moreimportant than SST in estimating the HSI of squid. In 2004, monthly HSI values greater than 0.6 coincidedwith the distribution of productive fishing ground and high CPUE in June and July, suggesting that themodels perform well. The proposed model provides an important tool in our efforts to develop forecastingcapacity of squid spatial dynamics.

  7. Pyrolysis of sunflower seed hulls for obtaining bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoni, Andrés I; Bidegain, Maximiliano; Cubitto, María A; Curvetto, Nestor; Volpe, María A

    2015-02-01

    Bio-oils from pyrolysis of as received sunflower seed hulls (SSH), hulls previously washed with acid (SSHA) and hulls submitted to a mushroom enzymatic attack (BSSH) were analyzed. The concentration of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose varied with the pre-treatment. The liquid corresponding to SSH presented a relatively high concentration of acetic acid and a high instability to storage. The bio-oil from SSHA showed a high concentration of furfural and an appreciable amount of levoglucosenone. Lignin was degraded upon enzymatic activity, for this reason BSSH led to the highest yield of bio-oil, with relative high concentration of acetic acid and stability to storage.

  8. Jason-2 Validation Test Report (VTR): Validation of Sea Surface Height Anomaly Precision and Accuracy for Mesoscale Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    SSH ) is of importance. If G is the geoid height above the reference then ( )SSH O R A G (2) Often the geoid height is unknown or contains...The sea surface height anomaly ( SSHA ) is ( )SSHA SSH MDH SL G MDH (3) where MDH is the mean dynamic height or height above the geoid due to...knowledge of the geoid (G) provides the sea surface height (SSH). 4 6378136.3 m and a flattening of 1/298.257. The satellite position

  9. Freshman Orientation Evaluation, Shoreline Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Gordon

    Evaluation of the freshman orientation program at Shoreline Community College (Washington) was approached through the use of several criteria: (l) results of the Brown-Holtzman Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (SSHA), (2) comparison of first-quarter grade averages with orientation program attendance records, (3) the completion of a…

  10. Patterns of upper layer circulation variability in the South China Sea from satellite altimetry using the self-organizing map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yonggang; WEISBERG Robert H; YUAN Yaochu

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of the South China Sea (SCS) circulation variability are extracted from merged satellite altimetry data from October 1992 through August 2004 by using the self-organizing map (SOM). The annual cycle, seasonal and inter-annual variations of the SCS surface circulation are identified through the evolution of the characteristic circulation patterns. The annual cycle of the SCS gener- al circulation patterns is described as a change between two opposite basin-scale SW-NE oriented gyres embedded with eddies: low sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) (cyclonic) in winter and high SSHA (anticyclonic) in summer half year. The transition starts from July--August (January--February) with a high (low) SSHA tongue east of Vietnam around 12°~14° N, which de- velopa into a big anticyclonic (cyclonic) gyre while moving eastward to the deep basin. During the transitions, a dipole structure, cyclonic (anticyclonic) in the north and anticyclonic (cyclonic) in the south, may be formed southeast off Vietnam with a strong zonal jet around 10°~12° N. The seasonal variation is modulated by the interannual variations. Besides the strong 1997/1998 e- vent in response to the peak Pacific El Nino in 1997, the overall SCS sea level is found to have a significant rise during 1999~ 2001, however, in summer 2004 the overall SCS sea level is lower and the basin-wide anticyclonic gyre becomes weaker than the other years.

  11. Space-based observation of chlorophyll, sea surface temperature, nitrate, and sea surface height anomaly over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, R. K.; Devi, K. Nanthini

    2017-01-01

    Monthly chlorophyll and sea surface temperature (SST) images were generated using MODIS-Aqua data sets during 2014 and 2015 in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. The in situ data-based nitrate algorithm was used to generate nitrate images by using the satellite-derived chlorophyll and SST images. To link ocean productivity with the sea surface features and sea level anomaly, the Indo-French altimeter mission SARAL-ALTIKA-derived sea surface height anomaly (SSHa) data sets were processed and maps were generated. The monthly average chlorophyll concentration ranged from 0.001 to 3.0 mg m-3, SST ranged from 24 to 32 °C, nitrate concentration ranged from 0.01 to 6.0 μM, and overall SSH anomaly ranged from -52 to +40 cm. Nitrate concentration was observed to be high (3-5 μM) during December-January, possibly due to convective eddies and winter cooling as well as atmospheric aerosols and dust inducing ocean productivity. The nitrate concentration was observed to be associated more with chlorophyll than SST, as nitrate inherently enhances the ocean chlorophyll and productivity, acting as proxy. The SSH anomaly showed irregular features and depicting few eddies, upwelling, and ocean circulation features. The low SSHa was mostly due to high chlorophyll concentration. It was observed that the low SST (∼24-26 °C) is attributed to high chlorophyll concentration (1.5-3.0 mg m-3) over the study area. The lag phase and enhancement in chlorophyll mean during September was due to the decrease in average SST during August. The SSHa showed seasonal trend over the study area during the monsoon period with observation of negative anomaly. Arabian Sea was found to have more negative SSH anomaly monthly mean values than Bay of Bengal. The impact and interrelationship of SSHa indicated better relationship with chlorophyll than with nitrate and SST, as observed from multiple regression analysis. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results between the 2-year monthly data showed that the

  12. Differentiating calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite stones in vivo using dual-energy CT and urine supersaturation and pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Qu, Mingliang; Carter, Rickey E; Leng, Shuai; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Jaramillo, Giselle; Krambeck, Amy E; Lieske, John C; Vrtiska, Terri J; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of urinary stone composition can guide therapeutic intervention for patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) or hydroxyapatite (HA) stones. In this study, we determined the accuracy of noninvasive differentiation of these two stone types using dual-energy CT (DECT) and urine supersaturation (SS) and pH values. Patients who underwent clinically indicated DECT scanning for stone disease and subsequent surgical intervention were enrolled. Stone composition was determined using infrared spectroscopy. DECT images were processed using custom-developed software that evaluated the ratio of CT numbers between low- and high-energy images. Clinical information, including patient age, gender, and urine pH and supersaturation profile, was obtained from electronic medical records. Simple and multiple logistic regressions were used to determine if the ratio of CT numbers could discriminate CaOx from HA stones alone or in conjunction with urine supersaturation and pH. Urinary stones (CaOx n = 43, HA n = 18) from 61 patients were included in this study. In a univariate model, DECT data, urine SS-HA, and urine pH had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.91, P = .016), 0.76 (95% CI 0.61-0.91, P = .003), and 0.60 (95% CI 0.44-0.75, P = .20), respectively, for predicting stone composition. The combination of CT data and the urinary SS-HA had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.79 (95% CI 0.66-0.92, P = .007) for correctly differentiating these two stone types. DECT differentiated between CaOx and HA stones similarly to SS-HA, whereas pH was a poor discriminator. The combination of DECT and urine SS or pH data did not improve this performance. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Design of Novel S-Shaped Quad-Band Antenna for MedRadio/WMTS/ISM Implantable Biotelemetry Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A novel S-shaped quad-band planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) is proposed for implantable biotelemetry in the Medical Device Radiocommunications Service (MedRadio) band (401–406 MHz), Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) band (1427–1432 MHz), and industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands (433-434 MHz and 2.4–2.4835 GHz). The proposed antenna reveals compact dimension of 254 mm3 (10×10×2.45 mm3) and is composed of three substrates and a superstrate, which are constructed from an S-sha...

  14. Sea surface height and transport stream function of the South China Sea from a variable-grid global ocean circulation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏泽勋; 方国洪; 崔秉昊; 方越; 何宜军

    2003-01-01

    A fine-grid model (1/6°) covering the South China Sea (SCS), East China Sea and Japan/East Sea, which is embedded into a coarse-grid (3°) global model, was established to study the SCS circulation. In the present paper, we report the model-produced monthly and annual mean transport stream functions and sea surface heights(SSH) and their anomalies of the SCS. Comparison to the TOPEX/Poseidon data shows that the model-produced monthly sea surface height anomalies (SSHA) are in good agreement with altimeter measurements. Based on the results, the circulation of the SCS, especially the upper layer circulation, is discussed. In the surface layer, the western Philippine Sea water intrudes into the SCS through the Luzon Strait in autumn, winter and spring, but not in summer. However, as far as the whole water column is concerned, the water intrudes into the SCS through the Luzon Strait all the year round. This indicates that in summer the water still intrudes into the SCS in the subsurface and intermediate layers. The area near the northern continental slope of the SCS is dominated by a cyclonic circulation all the year round. The SCS Southern Anticyclonic Gyre, SE Vietnam Off-Shore Current in summertime and SCS Southern Cyclonic Gyre in wintertime are reproduced reasonably. The difference between the monthly averaged SSH and SSHA is significant, indicating the importance of the mean SSH in the SCS circulation.

  15. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    Full Text Available We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA and sea surface salinity (SSS. Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch, 2008 (average catch and 2009 (low catch indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially

  16. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and sea surface salinity (SSS). Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM) were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch), 2008 (average catch) and 2009 (low catch) indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially valuable

  17. The “von Karman vortex street” to the west of Big Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUWei; LIUQinyu

    2004-01-01

    Satellite-tracked drifting buoy data and altimetry data are used to study the active vortex field to the west of Big Island. A pair of vortexes were observed at the trajectory of buoy in 1995. The westward propagation of the vortex pair is studied in detail by reproducing the loops of each vortex. The orbital period and radius of the pair of vortex are determined to be 10-11 d and 58-68 km. Two arrays of contra-rotating vortices are displayed in the average sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) field to the west of Big Island. Based on the calculation of the fluid dynamical parameter, the “von Karman vortex street” is proved to be generated to the west of Big Island as the North Equatorial Current impinges upon Big Island from the east. Finally, the analysis of the buoy trajectories in a decade contributes to the conclusion of the pattern of VKVS in a statistical view.

  18. The influence of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on biogeochemistry of carbon in the Arabian Sea during 1997–1998

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V S S Sarma

    2006-08-01

    Data on ocean color chlorophyll (Chl )obtained using Sea-viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS),sea surface temperature (SST)by Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR),and sea surface height (SSH)by TOPEX/POSEIDON were analyzed to examine the influence of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)on the physical and biogeochemical processes with special reference to phytoplankton primary production and air –sea fluxes of carbon dioxide in the Arabian Sea.Positive SST anomalies (SSTA)were found in the Arabian Sea (0.4 to 1.8°C) with higher values in the southwestern Arabian Sea that decreased towards north.The SSH anomalies (SSHA)and turbulent kinetic energy anomalies (TKEA)suggest decreased mixing during the IOD compared to the normal period.Chlorophyll displayed significant negative correlations with SSTA and SSHA in the Arabian Sea.Consistently, Chl showed negative anomalies (low Chl )during the IOD period which could be due to reduced inputs of nutrients.The photic zone integrated primary production decreased by 30%during the IOD period compared to the normal whereas pCO2 levels were higher (by 10-20 atm). However,sea to air fluxes were lower by 10% during the IOD period due to prevailing weaker winds.Primary production seems to be the key process controlling the surface pCO2 levels in the Arabian Sea.In future,the in fluence of IOD on ecosystem structure,export production and bacterial respiration rates are to be probed through in situ time-series observations.

  19. Bay of Campeche circulation: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez de la Cerda, A. M.; Reid, R. O.; DiMarco, S. F.; Jochens, A. E.

    We address four independent sources of observational evidence pertaining to circulation in the Bay of Campeche (BOC), located south of 23°N in the western Gulf of Mexico, with the objective of characterizing its mean circulation, its variability, and the probable forcing thereof. The observational information includes historic hydrographic and dissolved oxygen data, Lagrangian current data, satellite-derived sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), and special observations of marine winds in the BOC. The hydrographic data reveals that the mean surface circulation relative to 425 db and to 800 db includes a weak cyclone with cyclic transport of about 4×106 m3 · s-1. Ten years of near-surface drifter observations shows a statistically meaningful mean cyclonic pattern of current with westward intensification that is consistent with the mean surface dynamic topography relative to 800 db. Observations of mean currents in the BOC at 900 m based on deep floats by G. L. Weatherly and others allows estimation of the current shear from the Lagrangian data and this is geostrophically consistent with that from the dynamic topography relative to 800 m. The mean cyclonic wind stress curl field deduced from two sources of marine wind data indicate a forced Sverdrup transport consistent with that observed. Moreover a seasonal cycle is suggested in the near surface drifter data that is coherent with the seasonal signal in the wind stress curl. Finally, the historic SSHA for a period of over 8 years in the 1990s allows a characterization of the dominant empirical spatial patterns and their temporal variability.

  20. Merging altimeter data with Argo profiles to improve observation of tropical Pacific thermocline circulation and ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Lee, T.; Wang, F.; McPhaden, M. J.; Kessler, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    Meridional thermocline currents play an important role in the recharge and discharge of tropical Pacific warm water during the development and transition of ENSO cycles. Previous analyses have shown large variations of the equatorward meridional thermocline convergence/divergence on ENSO and decadal time scales in the interior ocean. The total convergence/divergence is however unknown due to the lack of long term observation in the western boundary currents. Numerical modelling studies suggested a tendency of compensation between the interior and western boundary currents, but the exact compensation is model dependent. While Argo floats provide reasonable data coverage in the interior ocean, few floats are in the western boundary currents. Recent multi-mission satellite altimeter data and advanced processing techniques have resulted in higher resolution sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) products with better accuracy closer to the coasts. This study utilizes the statistical relationship between Argo dynamic height profiles and altimeter SSHA to calculate geostrophic thermocline currents in both the interior ocean and the western boundary of the tropical Pacific. The derived thermocline currents in the western boundary are validated by a 3.5-year moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurement in the Mindanao Current and by a series of glider surveys (Davis et al. 2012) in the Solomon Sea. The meridional transport timeseries of the interior and western boundary currents in the thermocline show different lead-lag relationships to the Nino 3.4 index. Results will be discussed in the context of recent 2014-2015 El Nino development and the potential contribution to the Tropical Pacific Observing System (TPOS).

  1. On the variability of the flow along the Meso-American Barrier Reef system: a numerical model study of the influence of the Caribbean current and eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Thattai, Deeptha V.; Kjerfve, Björn; Heyman, William D.

    2005-12-01

    A high resolution (3-8 km grid), 3D numerical ocean model of the West Caribbean Sea (WCS) is used to investigate the variability and the forcing of flows near the Meso-American Barrier Reef System (MBRS) which runs along the coasts of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras. Mesoscale variations in velocity and temperature along the reef were found in seasonal model simulations and in observations; these variations are associated with meandering of the Caribbean current (CC) and the propagation of Caribbean eddies. Diagnostic calculations and a simple assimilation technique are combined to infer the dynamically adjusted flow associated with particular eddies. The results demonstrate that when a cyclonic eddy (negative sea surface height anomaly (SSHA)) is found near the MBRS the CC shifts offshore, the cyclonic circulation in the Gulf of Honduras (GOH) intensifies, and a strong southward flow results along the reef. However, when an anticyclonic eddy (positive SSHA) is found near the reef, the CC moves onshore and the flow is predominantly westward across the reef. The model results help to explain how drifters are able to propagate in a direction opposite to the mean circulation when eddies cause a reversal of the coastal circulation. The effect of including the Meso-American Lagoon west of the Belize Reef in the model topography was also investigated, to show the importance of having accurate coastal topography in determining the variations of transports across the MBRS. The variations found in transports across the MBRS (on seasonal and mesoscale time scales) may have important consequences for biological activities along the reef such as spawning aggregations; better understanding the nature of these variations will help ongoing efforts in coral reef conservation and maintaining the health of the ecosystem in the region.

  2. Observation of baroclinic eddies southeast of Okinawa Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK; Jae-Hun

    2008-01-01

    In the region southeast of Okinawa, during May to July 2001, a cyclonic and an anticyclonic eddy were observed from combined measurements of hydrocasts, an upward-looking moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (MADCP), pressure-recording inverted echo sounders (PIESs), satellite altimetry, and a coastal tide gauge. The hydrographic data showed that the lowest/highest temperature (T) and salinity (S) anomalies from a 13-year mean for the same season were respectively -3.0/+2.5℃ and -0.20/+0.15 psu at 380/500 dbar for the cyclonic/anticyclonic eddies. From the PIES data, using a gravest empirical mode method, we estimated time-varying surface dynamic height (D) anomaly referred to 2000 dbar changing from -20 to 30 cm, and time-varying T and S anomalies at 500 dbar ranging through about ±2 ℃ and ±0.2 psu, respectively. The passage of the eddies caused variations of both satellite-measured sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and tide-gauge-measured sea level anomaly to change from about –20 to 30 cm, consistent with the D anomaly from the PIESs. Bottom pressure sensors measured no variation related to these eddy activities, which indicated that the two eddies were dominated by baro-clinicity. Time series of SSHA map confirmed that the two eddies, originating from the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent region near 20°―30°N and 150°―160°E, traveled about 3000 km for about 18 months with mean westward propagation speed of about 6 cm/s, before arriving at the region southeast of Okinawa Island.

  3. Web-based Altimeter Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, P. S.; Wilson, B. D.; Xing, Z.; Raskin, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a web-based system to allow updating and subsetting of TOPEX data. The Altimeter Service will be operated by PODAAC along with their other provision of oceanographic data. The Service could be easily expanded to other mission data. An Altimeter Service is crucial to the improvement and expanded use of altimeter data. A service is necessary for altimetry because the result of most interest - sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) - is composed of several components that are updated individually and irregularly by specialized experts. This makes it difficult for projects to provide the most up-to-date products. Some components are the subject of ongoing research, so the ability for investigators to make products for comparison or sharing is important. The service will allow investigators/producers to get their component models or processing into widespread use much more quickly. For coastal altimetry, the ability to subset the data to the area of interest and insert specialized models (e.g., tides) or data processing results is crucial. A key part of the Altimeter Service is having data producers provide updated or local models and data. In order for this to succeed, producers need to register their products with the Altimeter Service and to provide the product in a form consistent with the service update methods. We will describe the capabilities of the web service and the methods for providing new components. Currently the Service is providing TOPEX GDRs with Retracking (RGDRs) in netCDF format that has been coordinated with Jason data. Users can add new orbits, tide models, gridded geophysical fields such as mean sea surface, and along-track corrections as they become available and are installed by PODAAC. The updated fields are inserted into the netCDF files while the previous values are retained for comparison. The Service will also generate SSH and SSHA. In addition, the Service showcases a feature that plots any variable from files in netCDF. The

  4. Natural variability of surface oceanographic conditions in the offshore Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Smith, Joseph P.; Werner, Sandra; Chen, Robert; Roffer, Mitchell; Liu, Yanyun; Muhling, Barbara; Lindo-Atichati, David; Lamkin, John; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Enfield, David B.

    2015-05-01

    This work characterizes patterns of temporal variability in surface waters of the central Gulf of Mexico. We examine remote-sensing based observations of sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) and Net Primary Production (NPP), along with model predictions of mixed layer depth (MLD), to determine seasonal changes and long-term trends in the central Gulf of Mexico between the early 1980s and 2012. Specifically, we examine variability in four quadrants of the Gulf of Mexico (water depth >1000 m). All variables show strong seasonality. Chl-a and NPP show positive anomalies in response to short-term increases in wind speed and to cold temperature events. The depth of the mixed layer (MLD) directly and significantly affects primary productivity throughout the region. This relationship is sufficiently robust to enable real-time estimates of MLD based on satellite-based estimates of NPP. Over the past 15-20 years, SST, wind speed, and SSHA show a statistically significant, gradual increase. However, Chl-a and NPP show no significant trends over this period. There has also been no trend in the MLD in the Gulf of Mexico interior. The positive long-term trend in wind speed and SST anomalies is consistent with the warming phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) that started in the mid-90s. This also coincides with a negative trend in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) related to an increase in the frequency of cooler ENSO events since 1999-2000. The results suggest that over decadal scales, increasing temperature, wind speed, and mesoscale ocean activity have offsetting effects on the MLD. The lack of a trend in MLD anomalies over the past 20 years explains the lack of long-term changes in chlorophyll concentration and productivity over this period in the Gulf. Understanding the background of seasonal and long-term variability in these ocean characteristics is

  5. Influence of upper ocean on Indian summer monsoon rainfall: studies by observation and NCEP climate forecast system (CFSv2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Pokhrel, Samir; Rahman, H.; Dhakate, A.; Saha, Subodh K.; Pentakota, S.; Gairola, R. M.

    2016-08-01

    This study explores the role played by ocean processes in influencing Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) and compares the observed findings with National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)-coupled model Climate Forecast System, version 2 (CFSv2). The excess and deficit ISMR clearly brings out the distinct signatures in sea surface height (SSH) anomaly, thermocline and mixed layer depth over north Indian Ocean. CFSv2 is successful in simulating SSH anomalies, especially over Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal region. CFSv2 captures observed findings of SSH anomalies during flood and drought (e.g., Rossby wave propagation which reaches western Bay of Bengal (BoB) during flood years, Rossby wave propagation which did not reach western BoB during drought). It highlights the ability of CFSv2 to simulate the basic ocean processes which governs the SSH variability. These differences are basically generated by upwelling and downwelling caused by the equatorial and coastal Kelvin and Rossby waves, thereby causing difference in SSH anomaly and thermocline, and subsequently modifying the convection centers, which dictates precipitation over the Indian subcontinent region. Since the observed SSH anomaly and thermal structure show distinct characteristic features with respect to strong and weak ISMR variability, the assimilation of real ocean data in terms of satellite products (like SSHA from AVISO/SARAL) bestow great promise for the future improvement.

  6. Dynamics of Eddies in the Southeastern Tropical Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, F.; Ningsih, N. S.; Sofian, I.

    2016-08-01

    A holistic study was done on eddies in the Southeastern Tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) using the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) for 64 years (from 1950 to 2013). The results from the model were verified against the current and the Sea Surface Height Anomaly (SSHA) from Ocean Surface Current Analyses - Real time (OSCAR) and Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic Data (AVISO) respectively. The verification showed that the model simulates the condition in the area of study relatively well. We discovered that the local wind was not the only factor that contributed to the formation of eddies in the area. The difference in South Java Current (SJC) flow compared to the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) and South Equatorial Current (SEC) flow as well as the difference in the relative velocity between the currents in the area led us to suspect that shear velocity may be responsible for the formation of eddies. The results from our model corroborated our prediction about shear velocity. Therefore, we attempted to explain the appearance of eddies in the SETIO based on the concept of shear velocity. By observing and documenting the occurrences of eddies in the area, we found that there are 8 cyclonic and 7 anticyclonic eddies in the SETIO. The distribution and frequency of the appearance of eddies varies, depending on the season.

  7. Application of altimetry data assimilation on mesoscale eddies simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mesoscale eddy plays an important role in the ocean circulation. In order to improve the simulation accuracy of the mesoscale eddies, a three-dimensional variation (3DVAR) data assimilation system called Ocean Variational Analysis System (OVALS) is coupled with a POM model to simulate the mesoscale eddies in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In this system, the sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) data by satellite altimeters are assimilated and translated into pseudo temperature and salinity (T-S) profile data. Then, these profile data are taken as observation data to be assimilated again and produce the three-dimensional analysis T-S field. According to the characteristics of mesoscale eddy, the most appropriate assimilation parameters are set up and testified in this system. A ten years mesoscale eddies simulation and comparison experiment is made, which includes two schemes: assimilation and non-assimilation. The results of comparison between two schemes and the observation show that the simulation accuracy of the assimilation scheme is much better than that of non-assimilation, which verified that the altimetry data assimilation method can improve the simulation accuracy of the mesoscale dramatically and indicates that it is possible to use this system on the forecast of mesoscale eddies in the future.

  8. Response of the Kuroshio Current to Eddies in the Luzon Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jie; LUO De-Hai

    2010-01-01

    The impact of eddies on the Kuroshio Current in the Luzon Strait(LS)area is investigated by using the sea surface height anomaly(SSHA)satellite observation data and the sea surface height(SSH)assimilation data.The influence of the eddies on the mean current depends upon the type of eddies and their relative position.The mean current is enhanced(weakened)as the cyclonic(anticyclonic)eddy becomes slightly far from it,whereas it is weakened(enhanced)as the cyclonic(anticyclonic)eddy moves near or within the position of the mean current;this is explained as the eddy-induced meridional velocity and geostrophic flow relationship.The anticyclonic(cyclonic)eddy can increase(decrease)the mean meridional flow due to superimposition of the eddy-induced meridional flow when the eddy is within the region of the mean current.However,when the eddy is slightly far from the mean current region,the anticyclonic(cyclonic)eddy tends to decrease(increase)the zonal gradient of the SSH,which thus results in weakening(strengthening)of the mean current in the LS region.

  9. Úvaha o vzdělávání v oblasti ochrany obyvatelstva z pohledu nejen historického [Consideration on education in the field of civil protection not just from the historical point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Mazal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Změny ve společnosti se po změně systému nevyhnuly ani skladbě předmětů na školách. Zmizel předmět Branná výchova, která byla většinou součástí předmětu tělesná výchova. Na středních školách se na delší dobu ztratila témata spojená s topografií, přežitím a první pomocí, realizovaná hlavně v kurzech. Některé školy realizovaly vybrané pohybové aktivity, jako byly noční bojové hry, ale často byly omezeny možnostmi školy, učitelů nebo zájmem žáků. Některé obory jako potápění, biatlon a jiné byly rozvíjeny samostatně. Horolezectví se v modifikaci lezení poněkud nelogicky přesunulo z přírody pod střechy škol a hal. Lezení na umělých stěnách je dnes velmi populární a začíná být běžným předmětem. Branná výchova v podstatě neexistuje, ale stále více indicií ukazuje na systémovou chybu, kterou bylo její zrušení. Ve většině vyspělých zemích je civilní ochrana nebo branná výchova stále školním či mimoškolním předmětem, v některých zemích ji realizují ministerstva školství nebo vnitra ve spolupráci se soukromými firmami. Je známo, že čím je sofistikovanější společnost, tím je zranitelnější a náchylnější ke kolapsu. V příspěvku předkládáme několik poznatků vztahujících k historickému vzdělávání v oblasti Ochrany obyvatelstva. [Changes in society after the system change has not avoided neither the school subject structure. The civil education does not exit anymore, but there are more and more evidence pointing on a system error, which was the cancel of the subject. In most developed European countries, the Civil protection or Civil education is still the school or out-of-school subjekct, in some countries it is realized by Ministry of Education or Home Office in cooperation with private companies. In the contribution we introduce some findings connected with historical education in the field of Civil

  10. Challenges in modelling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sedigh Marvasti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms in northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color shows two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. A pronounced anti-correlation between the AVISO sea surface height anomaly (SSHA and chlorophyll is found during the wintertime bloom. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is thus dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. These results were compared against the outputs from three different 3-D Earth System models. We show that two coarse (1° models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6 with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The southern part of the domain is a region with a much sharper thermocline and nutricline relatively close to the surface, in which eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature. We suggest that for the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf.

  11. Remote sensing observations of phytoplankton increases triggered by successive typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhao, Hui; Pan, Jiayi; Devlin, Adam

    2016-11-01

    Phytoplankton blooms in the Western North Pacific, triggered by two successive typhoons with different intensities and translation speeds under different pre-existing oceanic conditions, were observed and analyzed using remotely sensed chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) data, as well as typhoon parameters and CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) profiles. Typhoon Sinlaku, with relatively weaker intensity and slower translation speed, induced a stronger phytoplankton bloom than Jangmi with stronger intensity and faster translation speed (Chl-a>0.18 mg•m‒3 versus ChlaTranslation speed may be one of the important mechanisms that affect phytoplankton blooms in the study area. Pre-existing cyclonic circulations provided a relatively unstable thermodynamic structure for Sinlaku, and therefore cold water with rich nutrients could be brought up easily. The mixed-layer deepening caused by Typhoon Sinlaku, which occurred first, could have triggered an unfavorable condition for the phytoplankton bloom induced by Typhoon Jangmi which followed afterwards. The sea surface temperature cooling by Jangmi was suppressed due to the presence of the thick upper-ocean mixed-layer, which prevented the deeper cold water from being entrained into the upper-ocean mixed layer, leading to a weaker phytoplankton augment. The present study suggests that both wind (including typhoon translation speed and intensity) and pre-existing conditions (e.g., mixedlayer depths, eddies, and nutrients) play important roles in the strong phytoplankton bloom, and are responsible for the stronger phytoplankton bloom after Sinlaku's passage than that after Jangmi's passage. A new typhooninfluencing parameter is introduced that combines the effects of the typhoon forcing (including the typhoon intensity and translation speed) and the oceanic precondition. This parameter shows that the forcing effect of Sinlaku was stronger than that of Jangmi.

  12. Intercomparison of three South China Sea circulation models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yan; WANG Dongxiao; ZHOU Weidong; WANG Weiqiang; LIU Xiongbin

    2004-01-01

    Three numerical oceanic circulation models: POM(Princeton ocean model), MICOM(Miami isopycnal coordinates ocean model) and GFDL model, which adopt sigma coordinate, isopycnal coordinate and depth coordinate respectively,are used in the South China Sea(SCS) circulation modeling. Model domain has the same topography, grid resolution,initial conditions and surface boundary conditions. The maximum ocean depth is set as 1000 m. Grid resolution is 0.5°×0.5°.Initial conditions are supplied by climatological temperature and salinity data in January. Climatological wind stress, surface temperature and salinity are used as surface forcing. Lateral boundaries take enclosed boundary conditions artificially. Focusing on the common point of different ocean circulation models, the circulation pattern in winter and summer, sea surface height in the northern SCS, seasonal cycle of the mixed layer thickness in the southem SCS,barotropic stream function in winter are selected to carry out intercomparison. In winter, a strong cyclonic gyre occupies the whole SCS. In summer, a strong anticyclonic gyre occupies the southern SCS and a weak cyclonic gyre occupies the northern SCS. The thickness of the mixed layer shows bimodal features in the southern SCS. Sea surface height anomaly(SSHA) in the northern SCS has an eastward propagating feature, in agreement with the remote sensing observation. Barotropic stream functions indicate that the circulation of the upper ocean is mainly forced by inputting of wind stress curl under closed boundary conditions. In addition, three models also show distinct differences. The basinscale circulation fiom MICOM is distinct. Output of POM has more mesoscale eddies than others. GFDL model seems good at simulating westward intensification.

  13. Satellite Assessment of Bio-Optical Properties of Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrenz, Steven E.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chen, Xiaogang; Tuel, Merritt

    2008-01-01

    The impacts of major tropical storms events on coastal waters include sediment resuspension, intense water column mixing, and increased delivery of terrestrial materials into coastal waters. We examined satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color sensor aboard the Aqua spacecraft following two major hurricane events: Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on 29 August 2005, and Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on 24 September. MODIS Aqua true color imagery revealed high turbidity levels in shelf waters immediately following the storms indicative of intense resuspension. However, imagery following the landfall of Katrina showed relatively rapid return of shelf water mass properties to pre-storm conditions. Indeed, MODIS Aqua-derived estimates of diffuse attenuation at 490 nm (K_490) and chlorophyll (chlor_a) from mid-August prior to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina were comparable to those observed in mid-September following the storm. Regions of elevated K_490 and chlor_a were evident in offshore waters and appeared to be associated with cyclonic circulation (cold-core eddies) identified on the basis of sea surface height anomaly (SSHA). Imagery acquired shortly after Hurricane Rita made landfall showed increased water column turbidity extending over a large area of the shelf off Louisiana and Texas, consistent with intense resuspension and sediment disturbance. An interannual comparison of satellite-derived estimates of K_490 for late September and early October revealed relatively lower levels in 2005, compared to the mean for the prior three years, in the vicinity of the Mississippi River birdfoot delta. In contrast, levels above the previous three year mean were observed off Texas and Louisiana 7-10 d after the passage of Rita. The lower values of K_490 near the delta could be attributed to relatively low river discharge during the preceding months of the 2005 season. The elevated levels off Texas and

  14. Satellite Assessment of Bio-Optical Properties of Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt Tuel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of major tropical storms events on coastal waters include sediment resuspension, intense water column mixing, and increased delivery of terrestrial materials into coastal waters. We examined satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS ocean color sensor aboard the Aqua spacecraft following two major hurricane events: Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on 29 August 2005, and Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on 24 September. MODIS Aqua true color imagery revealed high turbidity levels in shelf waters immediately following the storms indicative of intense resuspension. However, imagery following the landfall of Katrina showed relatively rapid return of shelf water mass properties to pre-storm conditions. Indeed, MODIS Aqua-derived estimates of diffuse attenuation at 490 nm (K_490 and chlorophyll (chlor_a from mid-August prior to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina were comparable to those observed in mid-September following the storm. Regions of elevated K_490 and chlor_a were evident in offshore waters and appeared to be associated with cyclonic circulation (cold-core eddies identified on the basis of sea surface height anomaly (SSHA. Imagery acquired shortly after Hurricane Rita made landfall showed increased water column turbidity extending over a large area of the shelf off Louisiana and Texas, consistent with intense resuspension and sediment disturbance. An interannual comparison of satellite-derived estimates of K_490 for late September and early October revealed relatively lower levels in 2005, compared to the mean for the prior three years, in the vicinity of the Mississippi River birdfoot delta. In contrast, levels above the previous three year mean were observed off Texas and Louisiana 7-10 d after the passage of Rita. The lower values of K_490 near the delta could be attributed to relatively low river discharge during the preceding months of the 2005 season. The elevated levels

  15. Principal Tensor-based Spatial-Temporal Structure Linkage Visualization%基于主张量的时空数据特征驱动可视化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文; 袁林旺; 俞肇元; 闾国年

    2013-01-01

    Focused with the needs of expression and analysis of high dimensional spatio-temporal fields,a spatio-temporal structure analysis and dynamical expression model was constructed based on Principal Tensor analysis. This paper described the definitions, basic operators and the principal tensor decomposing algorithm as well as the procedure of spatio-temporal structure parsing and dynamical expression algorithms for multidimensional feature analysis. The unified organization and storage of multidimensional spatial-temporal data mechanism was constructed based on the multidimensional unified characteristic of tensor structures. And the structure feature parsing and dynamical reconstruction of multidimensional spatio-temporal data were implemented with the help of the principal tensor decomposing method. Then a feature-driven multidimensional-linked visualization mechanism was designed to construct the framework that integrated the processes of multidimensional data representation, characteristics extraction and linkage visualization of spatial temporal field data. The method was verified with the Grid data of Equatorial Pacific Ocean sea surface height abnormity ( SSHA) acquired bysatellite altimetry, including such operations as multidimensional perspective from different dimensions, sub-data extractions, isolation surface drawing and spatio-temporal volume visualization. The temporal and spatial patterns of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation ( ENSO ) event was extracted and reconstructed by the Principal Tensor decomposing and linked visualization were formed with the structures force from the temporal the latitude and the longitude coefficiences. The experiment results suggested that the spatio-temporal structure analysis and dynamical expression model based on the Principal Tensor could well reproduce the spatial-temporal distribution and dynamical evolution characteristics of ENSO events. Our model could effectively support organization, storage, expression and