WorldWideScience

Sample records for minipigs fed variously

  1. Bone Composition in Male and Female Göttingen Minipigs Fed Variously Restrictedly and near ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P. J. A.; Lemmens, A. G.; Beynen, A. C.;

    2006-01-01

    The current study evaluated the influence of restricted feeding at low and medium levels versus near ad libitum food intake, on the growth and bone development in male and female Göttingen minipigs aged 8 to 43 weeks fed two different types of diets. Diet 1 was a low fat, high fibre diet, whereas...... development, bone volume, and dry matter and ash content of the rib (mg) as compared to males. Also bone mineral concentrations in the femur, expressed as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in mg/cm3, were significantly higher in females as compared to males, as was the Ca:Pi ratio. Bone density measurements...... diet 2 was a high fat, low fibre diet. A higher level of feed intake led to a significant increase in the following parameters: body weight development, bone size (length and width of rib and femur), bone volume (rib), bone (rib) dry matter and ash content (mg), as well as bone density (femur...

  2. Expression profiles of miRNA-122 and its target CAT1 in minipigs (Sus scrofa) fed a high-cholesterol diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2010-01-01

    The Göttingen minipig is an excellent model for studying effects of dietary high-fat intake on obesity. In this study, we analyzed the expression level of microRNA-122 (miRNA-122) and its target mRNA, CAT1, in intact young male minipigs fed either high-cholesterol or standard diet for 11 wk. Mi......RNA-122 and CAT1 are known to be important regulators of lipid metabolism. The weight of the young minipigs was monitored once a week during the feeding period; measurements of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins were recorded at 4 time points (8, 14...... with a decrease in the expression of miRNA-122, confirming the implication of this microRNA in obesity. Gene expression levels of CAT1 did not differ between groups....

  3. Adiponectin induced AMP-activated protein kinase impairment mediates insulin resistance in Bama mini-pig fed high-fat and high-sucrose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Niu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Adipose tissue is no longer considered as an inert storage organ for lipid, but instead is thought to play an active role in regulating insulin effects via secretion adipokines. However, conflicting reports have emerged regarding the effects of adipokines. In this study, we investigated the role of adipokines in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obese Bama mini-pigs. Methods An obesity model was established in Bama mini-pigs, by feeding with high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 30 weeks. Plasma glucose and blood biochemistry levels were measured, and intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed. Adipokines, including adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and glucose-induced insulin secretion were also examined by radioimmunoassay. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, which is a useful insulin resistance marker, was examined by immunoblotting. Additionally, associations of AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adipokines and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index were assessed by Pearce’s correlation analysis. Results Obese pigs showed hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, and insulin resistance. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05 and IL-6 amounts dramatically increased (p<0.05 in obese pigs both in serum and adipose tissue, corroborating data from obese mice and humans. However, circulating resistin and TNF-α showed no difference, while the values of TNF-α in adipose tissue were significantly higher in obese pigs, also in agreement with data from obese humans but not rodent models. Moreover, strong associations of skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adiponectin and HOMA-IR index were obtained. Conclusion AMPK impairment induced by adiponectin decrease mediates insulin resistance in high-fat and high-sucrose diet induction. In addition, Bama mini-pig has the possibility of a conformable

  4. Bone Composition in Male and Female Göttingen Minipigs Fed Variously Restrictedly and near ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P. J. A.; Lemmens, A. G.; Beynen, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    diet 2 was a high fat, low fibre diet. A higher level of feed intake led to a significant increase in the following parameters: body weight development, bone size (length and width of rib and femur), bone volume (rib), bone (rib) dry matter and ash content (mg), as well as bone density (femur...... development, bone volume, and dry matter and ash content of the rib (mg) as compared to males. Also bone mineral concentrations in the femur, expressed as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in mg/cm3, were significantly higher in females as compared to males, as was the Ca:Pi ratio. Bone density measurements...

  5. Growth differences of male and female Gottingen minipigs during ad libitum feeding: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P.J.A.; Madsen, L.W.; Meyer, Otto A.

    2005-01-01

    Even though minipigs have been used in biomedical research for nearly half a century now, no specific nutrient requirements are available. For that reason a series of studies into the nutrient requirements of Gottingen minipigs were carried out. Firstly, a pilot study was carried out to determine...... the ad libitum feed intake (FI) during growth, as a reference for later feed restriction studies. Four male and four female minipigs were fed two types of diet, one standard pig diet (20.6% crude protein; 11.7% crude fat; 13.5 mj/kg DM metabolizable energy) and one diet specially designed for minipigs...

  6. Growth differences of male and female Gottingen minipigs during ad libitum feeding: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P.J.A.; Madsen, L.W.; Meyer, Otto A.

    2005-01-01

    Even though minipigs have been used in biomedical research for nearly half a century now, no specific nutrient requirements are available. For that reason a series of studies into the nutrient requirements of Gottingen minipigs were carried out. Firstly, a pilot study was carried out to determine...... the ad libitum feed intake (FI) during growth, as a reference for later feed restriction studies. Four male and four female minipigs were fed two types of diet, one standard pig diet (20.6% crude protein; 11.7% crude fat; 13.5 mj/kg DM metabolizable energy) and one diet specially designed for minipigs...... backfat thickness. Relative backfat thickness ranged from 5 to 13 cm/100 kg. Females had thicker relative backfat layers than males. Remarkably, no large changes in haematology and clinical chemistry occurred in ad libitum fed Gottingen minipigs as compared to reference values, and no abnormalities other...

  7. Teratology studies in the minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulty, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    The minipig is a suitable species for regulatory teratology testing and may be regarded as an alternative to the rabbit, dog, and primate. The first successful regulatory teratology studies in the minipig were performed in the 1990s. It became clear that minipigs have several benefits over the other non-rodents, as they are purpose-bred for laboratory use, they are sexually mature at approximately 5 months of age, and they produce multiple offspring. The minipig has subsequently gained regulatory acceptance in the teratology testing of new drugs.

  8. Iodine concentrations in milk of dairy cattle fed various amounts of iodine as ethylenediamine dihydroiodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J N; Padgitt, D; McCarthy, B

    1988-12-01

    Due to concerns about high I in milk, the dairy industry has proposed a voluntary standard of 500 micrograms of I/L as the maximum allowable I in milk sold for processing and human consumption. This study was undertaken to determine the amount of ethylenediamine dihydroiodide that could be fed to dairy cattle without exceeding this standard. Various amounts (0 to 45 mg/head per d) of the I compound were fed to a commercial dairy herd for 50 wk. Individual and bulk milk samples were analyzed for total iodine. Milk I in herd bulk milk was directly correlated (r = .92) with the amounts fed. However, the correlation of milk I of individual cows was not as high (r = .66), indicating some individual variation in metabolism and secretion of the I into the mammary gland. Milk production and number of lactations did not correlate with I in milk. Regression analysis indicated that 25 to 30 mg of ethylenediamine dihydroiodide per day can be fed to dairy cattle receiving a diet otherwise low in I without exceeding a 500 micrograms concentration in milk.

  9. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...... on an actual DSR project....

  10. The Young Gottingen Minipig as a Model of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit; Golozoubova, Valeria; Pacini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Gender and sex hormones influence the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans and Gottingen minipigs. The aim of this study was to investigate possible gender differences in the metabolic response to a high energy diet in young Gottingen minipigs as a model of childhood...... Gottingen minipig, and especially the female gender, seems to be a potential model for diet induced childhood/adolescent obesity and metabolic syndrome......./adolescent obesity. Design and Methods: Nine-week-old male and female Gottingen minipigs were fed restrictedly on either a low energy diet (LED) or a high energy diet (HED) for 4 months (n = 5-7). Parameters of interest were fat percentage, visceral fat mass, plasma lipids and glucose tolerance, insulin resistance...

  11. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Venable, John; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  12. Cognitive performance of Gottingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin in serum. However, higher levels of triglycerides were observed for minipigs fed the diets with high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose compared to minipigs fed a standard minipig diet. This might explain the observed impairments in spatial cognition. These findings suggest that high dietary intake of both fat and sugar may impair spatial cognition which could be relevant for mental functioning in humans.

  13. Energy expenditure in chow-fed female non-human primates of various weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kral John G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until now no technology has been available to study energy metabolism in monkeys. The objective of this study was to determine daily energy expenditures (EE and respiratory quotients (RQ in female monkeys of various body weights and ages. Methods 16 socially reared Bonnet Macaque female monkeys [5.5 ± 1.4 kg body weight, modified BMI (length measurement from head to base of the tail = 28.8 ± 6.7 kg/crown-rump length, m2 and 11.7 ± 4.6 years] were placed in the primate Enhanced Metabolic Testing Activity Chamber (Model 3000a, EMTAC Inc. Santa Barbara, CA for 22-hour measurements of EE (kcal/kg and RQ (VCO2/VO2. All were fed monkey chow (4.03 kcal/g ad-libitum under a 12/12 hour light/dark cycle. Metabolic data were corrected for differences in body weight. Results were divided into day (8-hours, dark (12 hours and morning (2-hours periods. Data analysis was conducted utilizing SPSS (Version 13. Results Modified BMI negatively correlated with 22-hour energy expenditure in all monkeys (r = -0.80, p 23 kcal/kg. There were reductions (p 30. The obese group had lower EE (p Conclusion The EMTAC proved to be a valuable tool for metabolic measurements in monkeys. The accuracy and sensitivity of the instrument allowed detection of subtle metabolic changes in relation to energy intake. Moreover, there is an association between a reduction of energy expenditure and a gain in body weight.

  14. Diabetes with poor glycaemic control does not promote atherosclerosis in genetically modified hypercholesterolaemic minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Mashhadi, Rozh H; Bjørklund, Martin M; Mortensen, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    ' weight gain and cholesterol intake. After 49 weeks of high-fat feeding, the major arteries were harvested for a detailed analysis of the plaque burden and histological plaque type. RESULTS: Stable hyperglycaemia was achieved in the diabetic minipigs, while the plasma total and LDL...... atherogenesis in a novel pig model of atherosclerosis, the D374Y-PCSK9 (+) transgenic minipig. METHODS: Nineteen minipigs were fed a cholesterol-enriched, high-fat diet; ten of these pigs were injected with streptozotocin to generate a model of diabetes. Restricted feeding was implemented to control the pigs...... with no alterations in plasma cholesterol or creatinine concentrations did not augment the plaque burden or promote the development of more advanced lesions in this large-animal model of human-like atherosclerosis. This is consistent with clinical studies in patients with type 1 diabetes, indicating...

  15. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Gottingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  16. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  17. Acute methanol toxicity in minipigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorman, D.C.; Dye, J.A.; Nassise, M.P.; Ekuta, J.; Bolon, B.

    1993-01-01

    The pig has been proposed as a potential animal model for methanol-induced neuro-ocular toxicosis in humans because of its low liver tetrahydrofolate levels and slower rate of formate metabolism compared to those of humans. To examine the validity of this animal model, 12 4-month-old female minipigs (minipig YU) were given a single oral dose of water or methanol at 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g/kg body wt by gavage (n = 3 pigs/dose). Dose-dependent signs of acute methanol intoxication, which included mild CNS depression, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency, developed within 0.5 to 2.0 hr, and resolved by 52 hr. Methanol- and formate-dosed pigs did not develop optic nerve lesions, toxicologically significant formate accumulation, or metabolic acidosis. Based on results following a single dose, female minipigs do not appear to be overtly sensitive to methanol and thus may not be a suitable animal model for acute methanol-induced neuroocular toxicosis.

  18. Immune Response and Pasteurella Resistance in Rabbits Fed Diets Containing Various Amounts of Black Cumin Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiela M. El Bagir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The consumption of black cumin (Nigella sativa seed has immunomodulatory and anti-bacterial activity, but in rabbits this had not yet been tested. Approach: In the present studies, rabbits were fed diets without or with black cumin seed and antibody production, phagocytotic activity, hypersensitivity and resistance against Pasteurellosis were assessed. Results: Feeding black cumin seed significantly increased serum concentrations of antibodies in response to intramusculary injected serum bovine albumin. Blood derived from rabbits fed the diets containing either 15 or 20% black cumin seed significantly reduced the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep-blood agar plates. Skin thickness as index of hypersensitivity towards tuberculin was significantly reduced at 48 h after intradermal injection of the agent. Ingestion of black cumin seed significantly extended survival time after intraperitoneal administration of Pasteurella multocida. Conclusion: The feeding of black cumin seed to rabbits stimulated their immune system, but did not enhance inflammation.

  19. Microbial responses to various process disturbances in a continuous hydrogen reactor fed with galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Hee-Deung; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

    2017-02-01

    In this study, microbial responses of a continuous hydrogen reactor fed with galactose have been investigated. Process disturbances reduced H2 production performance as well as large fluctuations in microbial diversity. The peak values of the hydrogen yield (HY) was not influenced greatly during the steady state period, and accounted as 2.01 ± 0.05 and 2.14 ± 0.03 mol/mol galactoseadded, while hydraulic retention time (HRT) was at 12 and 8 h, respectively. Microbial community analysis via 454 pyrosequencing revealed that functional redundancy following changes in the microbial community distribution led to the stability of the fermentation performance. The butyrate to acetate (B/A) ratio well correlated with changes in the microbial community. The energy generation rate and energy yield resulted in the peak values of 134 kJ/L-d and 612 kJ/moladded.

  20. Evaluation of the use of Göttingen minipigs to predict food effects on the oral absorption of drugs in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Martin Lau; Müllertz, Anette; Garmer, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the oral absorption of drugs in minipigs to predict food effects in man. The protocol was based on a previously described model in dogs and further investigated the food source (i.e., US FDA breakfast or a nutritional drink) and food quantities. Two poorly soluble compounds...... in minipigs when compared with humans, within a range from 2.3 to 8.4 h dependent on the food regimen. There were no significant differences in drug absorption between fed and fasted state for the two compounds. The study showed that the dog protocol could not be transferred directly to minipigs, but needs...... were investigated [pravastatin (negative food effect) and atazanavir (positive food effect)] in Göttingen minipigs after seven different food regimens. The gastric emptying rate was evaluated by coadministration of acetaminophen. In short, the results demonstrated longer gastric emptying times...

  1. Age- and Sex-Associated Effects on Acute-Phase Proteins in Göttingen Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Jensen, Søren J.; Ludvigsen, Trine P

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs are a useful model for diseases having an inflammatory component, and the associated use of acute-phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers of inflammation warrants establishment of their reference ranges. The objective of this study was to establish reference values for selected APP...... in Göttingen minipigs and to investigate the effects of age, sex, and various stimuli on these ranges. Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, pig major acute-phase protein (PMAP), albumin, and porcine α-1 acid glycoprotein (PAGP) were evaluated in 4 age groups (6...... in obese pigs without diabetes. In conclusion, reference values for CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, SAA, PAGP and albumin were established for male and female Göttingen minipigs of different ages. These APP were influenced by age and sex, underlining the importance of considering these factors when designing...

  2. Behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs provided with straw in various amounts and frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H V; Lahrmann, H P; Nielsen, M B F; Amdi, C; Hansen, C F

    2014-11-01

    Straw possesses many characteristics that make it attractive to pigs and can therefore be effective in preventing negative penmate-directed behaviours. However, straw is difficult to handle in current vacuum slurry systems under most commercial conditions and can therefore only be used in limited amounts. To occupy pigs effectively, straw must remain attractive to pigs throughout the whole day; hence, have a certain degree of novelty. We investigated the penmate-directed behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs in a production herd, assigned to five experimental treatments: 1×25, 1×50, 1×100, 2×50 and 4×25 g of chopped straw/pig per day, with 20 replicates of each treatment (pen was regarded as experimental unit). Behaviour was observed at two different growth stages; ~40 and 80 kg live weight of the pigs. Activity and exploratory behaviour directed at penmates, straw, pen components and the slatted floor were registered continuously for 15 min of each hour during day time (0600 to 2200 h) by use of video observation of three focal pigs per pen. The pigs were active for about one-third of the day corresponding to ~5 h/day. Of the active time, an average of 7% (35 min) was spent on penmate-directed behaviour. The pigs were more active and increased their straw-directed behaviour when provided with 100 g straw/pig per day compared with 25 and 50 g (Pstraw (P>0.05), and there was no effect on pigs' behaviour when straw provision was increased per day (P>0.05). Pigs became less active and reduced their straw-directed activities when their weight increased from 40 to 80 kg live weight (P0.05). Further, the residual straw results indicated that perhaps a more frequent straw provision could help establish a more even level of fresh available straw during the day. However, the frequent straw provision did not occupy pigs more than one daily allocation did. In conclusion, there was no difference in penmate-directed behaviour of the pigs when given 25 or 50 g of straw

  3. Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in cardiac and vascular remodeling in a novel minipig model of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis induced by consumption of a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongming, Pan; Zhaowei, Cai; Yichao, Ma; Keyan, Zhu; Liang, Chen; Fangming, Chen; Xiaoping, Xu; Quanxin, Ma; Minli, Chen

    2015-01-16

    A long-term high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet leads to insulin resistance (IR), which is associated with inflammation, atherosclerosis (AS), cardiac sympathovagal imbalance, and cardiac dysfunction. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and nuclear factor ĸB (NF-κB) are involved in the development of IR-AS. Thus, we elucidated the pathological molecular mechanism of IR-AS by feeding an HFC diet to Tibetan minipigs to induce IR and AS. Male Tibetan minipigs were fed either a normal diet or an HFC diet for 24 weeks. Thereafter, the minipigs were tested for physiological and biochemical blood indices, blood pressure, cardiac function, glucose tolerance, heart rate variability (HRV), and PPAR-associated gene and protein expression levels. HFC-fed minipigs exhibited IR through increased body weight, fasting blood glucose levels, plasma cholesterol and its composition, and insulin and free fatty acid (FFA) levels; decreased insulin sensitivity; impaired glucose tolerance; and hypertension. Increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, cardiac dysfunction, depressed HRV, and the up-regulation of PPAR expression in the abdominal aorta concomitant with down-regulation in the heart tissue were observed in HFC-fed minipigs. Furthermore, the levels of NF-κBp65, IL-1β, TNF-α, MCP-1, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, MMP-9, and CRP proteins were also significantly increased. These data suggest that HFC-fed Tibetan minipigs develop IR and AS and that PPARs are involved in cardiovascular remodeling and impaired function.

  4. Effects of soybean isoflavones on reproductive parameters in Chinese mini-pig boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiao-xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean isoflavones are structurally similar to mammalian estrogens and therefore may act as estrogen agonists or antagonists. However, it has not been determined if they have any negative effects on reproductive parameters in male livestock. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soybean isoflavones on male reproduction using Chinese mini-pig boars as a model. Fifty Xiang boars were randomly divided into five groups and fed diets containing 0, 125, 250, or 500 ppm soybean isoflavones or 0.5 ppm diethylstilbestrol for 60 days. Results Dietary supplementation with 250 ppm of soy isoflavones markedly increased the testis index (P P P P P P P P P P P Conclusions The results of this study indicate that consumption of soy isoflavones at dietary levels up to 250 ppm did not adversely affect reproductive parameters in Chinese mini-pig boars whereas higher levels of soy isoflavones may adversely affect male reproduction.

  5. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  6. Comparison of sarin and cyclosarin toxicity by subcutaneous, intravenous and inhalation exposure in Gottingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulet, Stanley W; Sommerville, Douglas R; Miller, Dennis B; Scotto, Jacqueline A; Muse, William T; Burnett, David C

    2014-02-01

    Sexually mature male and female Gottingen minipigs were exposed to various concentrations of GB and GF vapor via whole-body inhalation exposures or to liquid GB or GF via intravenous or subcutaneous injections. Vapor inhalation exposures were for 10, 60 or 180 min. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to calculate the median effect levels for severe effects (ECT50 and ED50) and lethality (LCT50 and LD50). Ordinal regression was used to model the concentration × time profile of the agent toxicity. Contrary to that predicted by Haber's rule, LCT50 values increased as the duration of the exposures increased for both nerve agents. The toxic load exponents (n) were calculated to be 1.38 and 1.28 for GB and GF vapor exposures, respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60- and 180-min exposures to vapor GB in male minipigs were 73, 106 and 182 mg min/m(3), respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60 - and 180-min exposures to vapor GB in female minipigs were 87, 127 and 174 mg min/m(3), respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60- and 180-min exposures to vapor GF in male minipigs were 218, 287 and 403 mg min/m(3), respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60- and 180-min exposures in female minipigs were 183, 282 and 365 mg min/m(3), respectively. For GB vapor exposures, there was a tenuous gender difference which did not exist for vapor GF exposures. Surprisingly, GF was 2-3 times less potent than GB via the inhalation route of exposure regardless of exposure duration. Additionally GF was found to be less potent than GB by intravenous and subcutaneous routes.

  7. Spontaneous background pathology in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Gitte; Skydsgaard, Mikala

    2015-02-01

    The Göttingen minipig is gaining increasing popularity as a nonrodent species in nonclinical testing. The Göttingen minipig is easy to handle; has many anatomical and physiological similarities to man; and causes fewer ethical concerns than usage of the traditional nonrodent species, nonhuman primates, and dogs. The increasing usage of the Göttingen minipig has raised the need of appropriate background data. This article summarizes the background pathology of 835 untreated control Göttingen minipigs of both sexes used at CiToxLAB Scantox A/S during the period of 1995 to 2007.

  8. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour...... fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society....

  9. The Aachen Minipig: Phenotype, Genotype, Hematological and Biochemical Characterization, and Comparison to the Göttingen Minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowsky, Kerstin; Ernst, Lisa; Steitz, Julia; Stopinski, Thaddäus; Kögel, Babette; Henger, Anna; Kluge, Reinhart; Tolba, René

    2017-04-22

    The pig is one of the most frequently used large animal models for biomedical research, especially in the field of translational research and surgical models. While standard livestock breeds are used in short-term and acute studies, minipig breeds are the preferred breeds in long-term and chronic studies due to their limited growth and body weight. In consideration of the 3R principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) and the increasing demand, the aim of this study was to generate a new, robust, non-specific-pathogen-free minipig breed, the Aachen minipig. Phenotype, genotype, and hematological as well as clinical chemistry parameters were characterized, and reference values of the Aachen minipig were generated and compared to the values in the commonly used Göttingen minipig. Organ weights of the heart, kidney, liver, lung, spleen, and brain were determined using a laboratory balance. Blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry. Assessment of genetic diversity was performed by microsatellite markers. Nasal swabs were collected from 11 individual minipigs representing 6 races for DNA extraction. DNA was quantified and the identity and origin of the Aachen minipigs at the genomic level was determined by microsatellites. The Aachen minipig established here is based on the Mini-LEWE breed and consists of the Vietnamese potbelly pig, the Schwäbisch Hällisch Landpig, the German Landrace, and the Minnesota minipig. Relative organ weights (lung, heart, kidneys, brain), hematology (hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils), and clinical chemistry parameters (sodium, calcium, chloride, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total bilirubin, total protein, creatine kinase) of the Aachen minipigs and the G

  10. The minipig as a platform for new technologies in toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forster, Roy; Ancian, Philippe; Fredholm, Merete;

    2010-01-01

    The potential of the minipig as a platform for future developments in genomics, high density biology, transgenic technology, in vitro toxicology and related emerging technologies was reviewed. Commercial interests in the pig as an agricultural production species have driven scientific progress...... pigs and humans suggest that minipigs will be useful for the testing of biotechnology products (and possibly for in silico toxicology) and (iii) the minipig is the only non-rodent toxicology model where transgenic animals can be readily generated, and reproductive technologies are well developed...... in the pig. These properties should also make the minipig an interesting model for the testing of biotechnology products. These factors all support the idea that the minipig is well placed to meet the challenges of the emerging technologies and the toxicology of the future; it also seems likely...

  11. Preventive effect of Ibrolipim on suppressing lipid accumulation and increasing lipoprotein lipase in the kidneys of diet-induced diabetic minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of renal lipoprotein lipase (LPL per se in kidney diseases is still controversial and obscure. The purpose of this study was to observe the preventive effects of Ibrolipim, a LPL activator, on lipid accumulation and LPL expression in the kidneys of minipigs fed a high-sucrose and high-fat diet (HSFD. Methods Male Chinese Bama minipigs were fed a control diet or HSFD with or without 0.1 g/kg/day Ibrolipim for 5 months. Body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, lipids, LPL activity, and urinary microalbumin were measured. Renal tissue was obtained for detecting LPL activity and contents of triglyceride and cholesterol, observing the renal lipid accumulation by Oil Red O staining, and examining the mRNA and protein expression of LPL by real time PCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Feeding HSFD to minipigs caused weight gain, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia and microalbuminuria. HSFD increased plasma LPL activity while it decreased the mRNA and protein expression and activity of LPL in the kidney. The increases in renal triglyceride and cholesterol contents were associated with the decrease in renal LPL activity of HSFD-fed minipigs. In contrast, supplementing Ibrolipim into HSFD lowered body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride and urinary albumin concentrations while it increased plasma total cholesterol and HDL-C. Ibrolipim suppressed the renal accumulation of triglyceride and cholesterol, and stimulated the diet-induced down-regulation of LPL expression and activity in the kidney. Conclusions Ibrolipim exerts renoprotective and hypolipidemic effects via the increase in renal LPL activity and expression, and thus the increased expression and activity of renal LPL play a vital role in suppressing renal lipid accumulation and ameliorating proteinuria in diet-induced diabetic minipigs.

  12. Effects of diet-induced obesity on metabolic parameters and reproductive function in female Ossabaw minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Fugate, Annie E; Taibl, Jessica N; Clark, Sherrie G; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Sturek, Michael; Krisher, Rebecca L

    2014-02-01

    This study characterizes the effect of an excess-calorie, high-fat, high-cholesterol, high-fructose diet on metabolic parameters and reproductive function in female Ossabaw minipigs. Cycling sows were fed a hypercaloric, high-fat, high-cholesterol, and high-fructose diet (obese, n = 4) or a control diet (control, n = 5) for 13 mo. During the final 4 mo, ovarian ultrasonography was done, blood was collected, and weights and measures were taken. Pigs then underwent ovarian stimulation. Cycle length and androstenedione, total testosterone, progesterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, insulin, fructosamine, lipid, and glucose levels were measured. In addition, adipose tissue aromatase gene expression was assessed. As compared with control pigs, obese pigs were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic; had elevated total cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels, and demonstrated abdominal adiposity. Visceral adipose tissue of obese pigs, as compared with control pigs, showed increased aromatase gene expression. Obese pigs had longer estrous cycles, higher serum androstenedione, and higher luteal phase serum luteinizing hormone, compared with control pigs. During the luteal phase, obese pigs had more medium, ovulatory, and cystic ovarian follicles, whereas control pigs had more small ovarian follicles. When fed an excess-calorie, high-fat, high-cholesterol, high-fructose diet, female Ossabaw minipigs develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, and abnormal reproductive function. This animal model may be applicable to studies of the effects of obesity on fertility in women.

  13. Absorption of silicon and aluminum by hens fed sodium zeolite A with various levels of dietary cholecalciferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabon, H W; Roland, D A; Bryant, M M; Smith, R C; Barnes, D G; Laurent, S M

    1995-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether 1) serum Si and Al is increased in hens intubated with sodium zeolite A (SZA); and 2) dietary cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) influences the absorption of Si or Al by hens fed SZA. In Experiment 1, hens were intubated at oviposition with 0, 1, or 2 g of SZA. Blood samples were collected from the brachial vein at oviposition, and 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h postoviposition. Serum samples were analyzed for Si and Al. Peak serum Si and Al were observed at 4 and 8 h postoviposition, respectively. In Experiment 2, hens consumed commercial layer diets ad libitum containing five levels of dietary cholecalciferol (100 to 500 IU/kg) with or without .75% SZA for 6 wk. Blood samples were collected at the end of the 6-wk period by cardiac puncture at oviposition. When dietary cholecalciferol was increased from 100 to 200 IU/kg of diet there was an increase (P < .05) in serum Si but not Al. Levels of cholecalciferol above 200 IU/kg did not produce an additional increase in serum Si. The results showed increased (P < .01) serum concentrations of Si and Al for hens intubated with or fed SZA. It was concluded that Si and Al from SZA are absorbed by commercial Leghorn hens, and a possible involvement of Si or Al should be considered in the mechanism of action of SZA associated with improved eggshell quality and bone development.

  14. Minisuíno (minipig na pesquisa biomédica experimental: o Minipig br1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Mario

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes espécies de animais vertebrados e invertebrados têm sido usados em investigação biomédica experimental. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma breve revisão sobre o uso do suíno em pesquisa biomedica e sobre as similaridades da anatomia, fisiologia, bioquímica e imunologia desta espécie com aquelas do homem. É também revisto o desenvolvimento do minipig nos anos 60 e os sucessos obtidos com este modelo animal nas mais diversas áreas da medicina experimental. Finalmente, são descritas as características básicas de uma colônia de minipigs desenvolvida pelo autor (Minipig br1. São descritas as condições de alimentação desses animais, como são mantidos, vacinados e selecionados. Pesam de 10-15 quilos com seis meses de idade e de 30-37 quilos com onze meses. A possível contribuição desse modelo animal para o desenvolvimento da cirurgia experimental e para outras áreas de experimentação animal no país é discutida.

  15. Ligature-induced peri-implantitis in minipigs revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Stübinger, Stefan; Bucher, Ramon; Kronen, Peter W; Schlottig, Falko; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The ligature-induced defect model still remains the model of first choice to experimentally investigate the cause, effect and treatment approaches of periimplantitis. It was the aim of the present in-vivo trail to revisit the ligature-induced peri-implantitis minipig model regarding its current scientific value and ethical justification in implant research. Materials and methods: Six minipigs were used for the analysis of peri-implant hard and soft tissue structures. Animals were rand...

  16. Tissue content of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 in minipigs after cutaneous synthesis, supplementation and deprivation of vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burild, Anders; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Poulsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the endogenous storages of vitamin D3 after cutaneous vitamin D synthesis compared to oral vitamin D3 supplementation is sparse. Furthermore it is not known whether vitamin D3 can be stored for later use during periods of shortages of vitamin D3. To investigate the endogenous...... storages of vitamin D3 two studies were carried out in Göttingen minipigs. In study 1 one group of minipigs (n=2) was daily exposed to UV light corresponding to 10–20min of midday sun and another group (n=2) of pigs were fed up to 60μg vitamin D3/day corresponding to 3.7–4.4μg/kg body weight.Study 1...... demonstrated that daily UV-exposure of minipigs stimulated the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3 and resulted in increasing serum vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, but also carcasses containing vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3. The vitamin D3 content in adipose tissue from the UV-exposed minipigs...

  17. Survival and changes in the fine structure of selected tissues of Penaeus monodon Fabricius juveniles fed various carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, F.P.; Coloso, R.M.; Tamse, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Penaeus monodon juveniles were reared on semipurified diets containing various carbohydrates (maltose, sucrose, dextrin, molasses, cassava starch, corn starch or sago palm starch). Significant differences were observed between the type as well as the level of carbohydrate in the diet on the survival of the juveniles. Results indicate that there does not seem to be any correlation between survival and the complexity of the carbohydrates.

  18. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in super obese Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Vegge, Andreas; Støckel, Mikael;

    2013-01-01

    and necropsy data were recorded. Results: Five minipigs survived without complications to the end of the study. Four minipigs developed surgical related complications and were euthanized while two minipigs died due to central venous catheter related complications. BW and food intake is reported for the six...

  19. The minipig as a platform for new technologies in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Roy; Ancian, Philippe; Fredholm, Merete; Simianer, Henner; Whitelaw, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The potential of the minipig as a platform for future developments in genomics, high density biology, transgenic technology, in vitro toxicology and related emerging technologies was reviewed. Commercial interests in the pig as an agricultural production species have driven scientific progress in these areas. There is no equivalent economic driver for progress in the dog or the monkey. As a result the available knowledge-bases are much greater for pigs (than for dogs or monkeys) in many areas (physiology, disease, genetics, immunology etc). Fundamental genomic knowledge and phenotypic characterization in regard to the pig is well in advance of the dog or the monkey and basic knowledge of the pig is therefore likely to stay ahead of the other two species. While the emerging technologies are essentially "species neutral" and can in principle be applied to all species, for all the technologies that we examined, basic knowledge and technical capabilities are greater for the pig than the dog or monkey. In concrete terms, in application to safety testing we have seen that: (i) The Göttingen minipig is well positioned for the performance of toxicogenomics studies, (ii) The close sequence homology between pigs and humans suggest that minipigs will be useful for the testing of biotechnology products (and possibly for in silico toxicology) and (iii) the minipig is the only non-rodent toxicology model where transgenic animals can be readily generated, and reproductive technologies are well developed in the pig. These properties should also make the minipig an interesting model for the testing of biotechnology products. These factors all support the idea that the minipig is well placed to meet the challenges of the emerging technologies and the toxicology of the future; it also seems likely that the minipig can be an advantageous model for the testing of biotechnology products.

  20. A minipig model of high-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced diabetes and atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Shoumin; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Zongbao; Kusunoki, Masataka; Lian, Xin; Koike, Tomonari; Fan, Jianglin; Zhang, Qiuju

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a major risk factor of the development of atherosclerosis in humans. However, studies examining mechanisms underlying diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis have been limited by the lack of suitable humanoid animal models. Pigs have a cardiovascular system that is very similar to that of humans and is useful as a model for human physiology and pathophysiology. In this study, we established a new miniature pig model for studying dyslipidaemia and atherosclerosis in diabetes. Chinese Guizhou minipigs were fed a normal control diet or a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFSD) for 6 months. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), insulin and glucose were quantified at monthly intervals. The induction of insulin resistance and dysfunction of the pancreatic β-cell were assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity test. The aortic fatty streak lesions were quantified following lipid staining with Sudan IV. During the feeding period, mild high plasma TC and TG were induced. At the end of 6 months, in HFSD-fed animals, the adipocytes were hypertrophic, fat deposit in the liver was observed, loss of pancreatic β-cells was observed, and the aortic fatty streak lesions were clearly present in the animals' aortas. Our study established that miniature pigs that were fed a HFSD without adding dietary cholesterol developed insulin resistance, mild diabetes and atherosclerotic lesions. HFSD-fed miniature pigs may be good animal models for research on the treatment of diabetic dyslipidaemia complicated with atherosclerosis. PMID:15312127

  1. VX toxicity in the Göttingen minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Jeffrey L; Myers, Todd M

    2016-12-15

    The present experiments determined the intramuscular LD50 of VX in male Göttingen minipigs at two stages of development. In pubertal animals (115 days old), the LD50 of VX was indeterminate, but approximated 33.3μg/kg. However, in sexually mature animals (152 days old), the LD50 was estimated to be only 17.4μg/kg. Signs of nerve agent toxicity in the Göttingen minipig were similar to those described for other species, with some notable exceptions (such as urticaria and ejaculation). Latencies to the onset of sustained convulsions were inversely related to the administered dose of VX in both ages of minipigs. Additionally, actigraphy was used to quantify the presence of tremor and convulsions and, in some cases, was useful for precisely estimating time of death. The main finding indicates that in minipigs, as in other species, even relatively small differences in age can substantially alter the toxicity of nerve agents. Additionally, actigraphy can serve as a non-invasive method of characterizing the tremors and convulsions that often accompany nerve agent intoxication.

  2. Effects of probiotic bacteria on survival, growth and body composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae fed diets with various ifsh meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadi Jamali; Horiye Moghadam; Nafiseh Pariche; Hojatolah Jafaryan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the the effects of the diets containing various fish viscera meal and effects of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus sp., Biifdobacterium sp. and Streptococcus sp.) on the growth, survival and carcass composition of rainbow trout larvae. Methods:Twelve tanks consisting of triplicates for each treatment group were used. Triplicate groups of rainbow trout (176 mg bodyweight) were fed with three diets formulated with viscera meal (VM) derived from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), or VM derived from mullet (Liza saliens and Liza auratus) or commercial diet with in-tank probiotic respectively, and three diets without probiotic 4 times a day at 5%to 6%of body weight for 45 d. Rainbow trout larvae (average individual weight, 176 mg) were randomly distributed with density of 4 fish/L into 18 fiberglass tanks. In probiotic treatments a blend of selected bacteria at 104 CFU/mL were added into rearing tanks four times a day. At the end of the 45-day experiment, growth performance, survival rates and carcass composition of larvae were determined. Results:The results indicated that change to probiotic diets significantly affect growth and survival of rainbow trout larvae (P Conclusions:VM derived from common carp can successfully replace more than half of marine fish meal in formulated diets for rainbow trout. Use of in-tank blends of Lactobacillus sp., Biifdobacterium sp. and Streptococcus sp., can increase survival rates and specific growth rates in rainbow trout larvae.

  3. Changes in performance and bacterial communities in response to various process disturbances in a high-rate biohydrogen reactor fed with galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Park, Jong-Hun; Park, Hee-Deung; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

    2015-01-01

    High-rate biohydrogen production was achieved via hybrid immobilized cells fed with galactose in a continuous reactor system. The hybrid immobilized cells were broken down after 20 days and began to form granules by self-aggregation. The peak hydrogen production rate (HPR) and hydrogen yield (HY) of 11.8 ± 0.6 LH2/L-d and 2.1 ± 0.1 mol H2/molgalactose(added), respectively, were achieved at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8h with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 45 g/L-d. This is the highest yet reported for the employment of galactose in a continuous system. Various process disturbances including shock loading, acidification, alkalization and starvation were examined through bacterial community analysis via pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. The proportion of Clostridia increased during the stable biohydrogen production periods, while that of Bacilli increased when the reactor was disturbed. However, due to the stability of the self-aggregated granules, the process performance was regained within 4-7 days.

  4. Microbiological characterization of a newly established pig breed, Aachen Minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotzki, Elena; Heinrichs, Gerd; Kubícková, Barbara; Ulrich, Rainer G; Denner, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    To alleviate the shortage of human donor organs or tissues for the treatment of organ and tissue failure including diabetes, pigs are considered suitable donor animals. As organs from conventional pigs are usually too large, those from minipigs may be better suited. We recently characterized the Göttingen Minipigs, a breed well characterized concerning the presence of zoonotic microorganisms and found hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in some animals. Here, we characterize another minipig, the Aachen Minipig (AaMP), a pig breed recently established close to the town Aachen in Germany. The animals were tested for the prevalence and expression of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) and the presence of some selected microorganisms, among them HEV, PCMV, and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHVs) using highly sensitive and specific PCR and RT-PCR methods. In addition, we screened for antibodies against HEV and PLHV. PERV-A, PERV-B, and PERV-C sequences were found in the genome of all Aachen Minipigs. HEV RNA was found by real-time RT-PCR in most, and DNA of PCMV, PLHV-2, and PLHV-3 was found by PCR in some animals. The animals were free of eight other microorganisms tested, but some were seropositive for porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Based on medical examinations by veterinarians, the AaMP are in a good health status and seem to harbor only few microorganisms. To improve their status for use as donor pigs in xenotransplantation, the viruses detected might be eliminated by selection of negative animals, Cesarean section, and vaccination. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Ethical implications of using the minipig in regulatory toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John; Bollen, Peter; Grimm, Herwig; Jennings, Maggy

    2010-01-01

    Two key questions are addressed in this article. What are the potential harms to minipigs relative to the harms for dogs and non-human primates and can these harms be reduced more easily in minipigs than in other species? Are there potential benefits resulting from the use of minipigs relative to dogs and non-human primates? In considering the answers to these questions, we present an ethical framework which was developed taking into account the viewpoint of all concerned parties. This ethical matrix provides a framework upon which to identify and explore issues raised by the moral imperative to seek a fair compromise between the differing needs of different interest groups, which includes both the moral agents and the moral patients. The moral agents are the different groups of human stakeholders including society at large, regulatory bodies, industrialists and animal care staff. The moral patients are the laboratory animals, both breeding stock held by the animal supplier, and experimental animals in laboratories. In considering these animals it cannot be assumed that dogs, monkeys and minipigs differ with regard to the pain and suffering that they may experience and undergo when treated in studies designed for safety assessment. On this basis we rejected the argument that minipigs are more acceptable experimental animals than dogs or monkeys despite the fact that their use may prove less offensive to some groups within society at large. Species selection must be made on a case-by-case basis where the benefits are assessed by weighing the scientific evidence relating to the predictivity of the animal model, against the harm that may accrue to the animals both from the test procedures and their lifetime experience within the laboratory environment.

  6. Soy isoflavones modulate adipokines and myokines to regulate lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver of male Huanjiang mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huansheng; Li, Fengna; Xiong, Xia; Kong, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Bin; Yuan, Xiaoxue; Fan, Juexin; Duan, Yefei; Geng, Meimei; Li, Lili; Yin, Yulong

    2013-01-05

    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that soy isoflavones help regulate lipid metabolism, the underlying mechanism has not yet been thoroughly clarified. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of soy isoflavones on the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in different adipose tissue depots, skeletal muscle and liver of male Huanjiang mini-pigs, as well as the expression of adipokines and myokines. A total of 36 male Huanjiang mini-pigs were fed basal diet (control, Con), low-dose soy isoflavones (LSI) and high-dose soy isoflavones (HSI). The results showed that LSI and HSI regulated the expression of genes involved in the anabolism and catabolism of fatty acids in dorsal subcutaneous (DSA), abdominal subcutaneous (ASA) and perirenal (PRA) adipose tissue depots, as well as longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) and liver. LSI and HSI also regulated the expression of adipokines in DSA, ASA and PRA, and the expression of myokines in LDM in male Huanjiang mini-pigs. In addition, soy isoflavones regulated plasma glucose, leptin and adiponectin contents after treatment for two months. Our results indicate that soy isoflavones, by regulating the expression of adipokines and myokines, may regulate the metabolism of lipids and could have potential therapeutic applications in lipid abnormalities.

  7. Dietary soy isoflavones differentially regulate expression of the lipid-metabolic genes in different white adipose tissues of the female Bama mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoli; Li, Lili; Fan, Juexin; Zhang, Bin; Oso, A O; Xiao, Chaowu; Yin, Yulong

    2015-05-22

    Soy isoflavones have been shown to affect lipid metabolism, however the underlying molecular mechanism(s) have not yet been fully understood. The present study, using female Bama mini-pig as a model, examined the effects of soy isoflavones on lipid metabolism and involved gene expression in different white adipose tissues. Female Bama Xiang mini-pigs of 35 days old were fed a basal diet (control, Con), or basal diet supplemented with increasing amounts of soy isoflavones (250, 500, or 1250 mg/kg diet) for 120 days. The results showed that soy isoflavones did not affect the body weight, but decreased the dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSA) mass and increased the mass of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASA) and perirenal adipose tissue (PRA). Besides, soy isoflavones decreased the expression of lipogenic genes and increased the expression of lipolytic genes in DSA, while the opposite effects were observed in ASA and PRA. In addition, the expression of lipoprotein lipase was down regulated in DSA while up regulated in ASA and PRA by soy isoflavones. Moreover, the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) was up regulated in DSA, and down regulated in ASA and PRA by soy isoflavones. Our results suggest that soy isoflavones affected the lipid metabolism in white adipose tissues of Bama mini-pigs in a site-specific manner, which might be mediated through PPARs and ERs regulated gene expression.

  8. Effect of the level of cholecalciferol supplementation of broiler breeder hen diets on the performance and bone abnormalities of the progeny fed diets containing various levels of calcium or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencio, A; Edwards, H M; Pesti, G M

    2005-10-01

    Four experiments were conducted using Ross x Ross chicks hatched from broiler breeder hens fed various levels of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3; 0 to 4,000 IU/kg of diet) to determine the effect of the maternal diet on the performance and leg abnormalities of the progeny. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by the hens at different ages were used in experiments 1 to 4. The studies were conducted in an ultraviolet light-free environment as split plot designs, with Ca levels or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in the chicks' diet as the whole plot, and vitamin D3 in the maternal diet as a subplot. Chicks in experiments 1 and 2 were fed 2 levels of Ca (0.63% or 0.90%) and chicks in experiments 3 and 4 were fed 6 levels of 25-OHD3 (0 to 40 microg/kg of diet). Significant increases in body weight gain (BWG) of the progeny were observed in experiments 1, 2, and 4 as the vitamin D3 level in the maternal diet increased. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by hens fed the highest levels of D3 had the highest tibia ash. Significant reductions in Ca rickets incidence (experiments 1 and 2) and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) incidence (experiment 1) were observed as the level of vitamin D3 in the maternal diet increased. Chicks fed lower levels of Ca had lower BWG and tibia ash and higher incidences of TD and Ca rickets than chicks fed higher levels of Ca. Increasing the level of 25-OHD3 in the chicks' diet significantly improved BWG, tibia ash, and plasma Ca and reduced TD and Ca rickets incidence. An overall evaluation of the study indicates that chicks from hens fed the highest levels of vitamin D3 and fed high levels of Ca or 25-OHD3 had the highest BWG, tibia ash, and plasma Ca, and the lowest incidences of TD and Ca rickets.

  9. Joint Profiling of miRNAs and mRNAs Reveals miRNA Mediated Gene Regulation in the Göttingen Minipig Obesity Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, Caroline M Junker; Alkan, Ferhat; Keinicke, Helle; Jacobsen, Mette J; Gorodkin, Jan; Fredholm, Merete; Cirera, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities are an increasing challenge for both affected individuals and health care systems, worldwide. In obese individuals, perturbation of expression of both protein-coding genes and microRNAs (miRNA) are seen in obesity-relevant tissues (i.e. adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle). miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which have important regulatory roles in a wide range of biological processes, including obesity. Rodents are widely used animal models for human diseases including obesity. However, not all research is applicable for human health or diseases. In contrast, pigs are emerging as an excellent animal model for obesity studies, due to their similarities in their metabolism, their digestive tract and their genetics, when compared to humans. The Göttingen minipig is a small sized easy-to-handle pig breed which has been extensively used for modeling human obesity, due to its capacity to develop severe obesity when fed ad libitum. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed of protein-coding genes and miRNAs in a Göttingen minipig obesity model. Liver, skeletal muscle and abdominal adipose tissue were sampled from 7 lean and 7 obese minipigs. Differential gene expression was investigated using high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on 90 mRNAs and 72 miRNAs. The results revealed de-regulation of several obesity and inflammation-relevant protein-coding genes and miRNAs in all tissues examined. Many genes that are known to be de-regulated in obese humans were confirmed in the obese minipigs and several of these genes have target sites for miRNAs expressed in the opposing direction of the gene, confirming miRNA-mediated regulation in obesity. These results confirm the translational value of the pig for human obesity studies.

  10. The Use of Minipigs for Preclinical Safety Assessment by the Pharmaceutical Industry: Results of an IQ DruSafe Minipig Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleton, Curtis; Brewster, David; Chester, Anne; Clarke, David O; Heining, Peter; Olaharski, Andrew; Graziano, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The use of minipigs in preclinical safety testing of pharmaceuticals is considered an alternative to the more traditional dog and nonhuman primate (NHP) nonrodent species. Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of minipigs are similar enough to humans to consider them as valid nonrodent models for pharmaceutical safety testing. Since the utilization of minipigs was last assessed over 5 years ago, the Preclinical Safety Leadership Group (DruSafe) of the International Consortium for Innovation and Quality in Pharmaceutical Development conducted this survey to provide an updated assessment of the utility, perceived value, and impediments to the use of minipigs in preclinical safety testing. Of the 32 participating members of DruSafe, 15 responded to the survey representing both large and small companies. Respondents indicated that the minipig has been utilized mostly for short-term safety assessment studies with dermal, oral, and parenteral routes of administration. Minipigs are widely accepted as appropriate models for cardiovascular assessments and have been used to a limited extent for reproductive toxicology testing. Overall responses indicated that safety testing for large molecules using this species is relatively low due to a lack of background data, reagents or biomarkers, concerns regarding immune system characterization and poor suitability for developmental toxicity assessments. Most companies utilized contract research organizations for definitive safety toxicity assessment studies. Conclusions of this survey indicate that minipig is an acceptable nonrodent species largely limited to studies using small molecules, primarily dermal products, and results are comparable to those reported 5 years ago.

  11. The minipig as a platform for new technologies in toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Roy; Ancian, Philippe; Fredholm, Merete; Simianer, Henner; Whitelaw, Bruce; RETHINK Project

    2010-01-01

    The potential of the minipig as a platform for future developments in genomics, high density biology, transgenic technology, in vitro toxicology and related emerging technologies was reviewed. Commercial interests in the pig as an agricultural production species have driven scientific progress in these areas. There is no equivalent economic driver for progress in the dog or the monkey. As a result the available knowledge-bases are much greater for pigs (than for dogs or monkeys) in many areas...

  12. An investigation into the extend to which various dietary components, particularly lactose' are related to the incidence of diarrhoea in milk-fed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, G.

    1980-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a serious disturbance of normal gut function, characterized by an excessive water excretion in faeces. The derangement is in particular observed in young, milk-fed calves. In the literature a distiction is usually made between scouring from nutritional factors and that caused by pathoge

  13. An investigation into the extent to which various dietary components, particularly lactose, are related to the incidence of diarrhoea in milk-fed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, G.

    1980-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a serious disturbance of normal gut function, characterized by an excessive water excretion in faeces. The derangement is in particular observed in young, milk-fed calves. In the literature a distiction is usually made between scouring from nutritional factors and that caused

  14. An animal model for oroantral communications : a pilot study with Gottingen minipigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Minnen, B; Stegenga, B; Zuidema, J; Hissink, CE; van Leeuwen, MBM; van Kooten, TG; Bos, RRM

    2005-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to investigate whether the Gottingen minipig is a suitable animal model for creating and closing oroantral communications (OACs) and to test whether these defects can be closed with a biodegradable polyurethane (PU) foam. In three adult minipigs, an OAC was created on bot

  15. Comparative metabolism of cinobufagin in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, minipig, monkey, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Chi; Ning, Jing; Ge, Guang-Bo; Liang, Si-Cheng; Wang, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Bao-Jing; Huang, Shan-Shan; Li, Jing-Kui; Yang, Ling

    2011-04-01

    Cinobufagin (CB), a major bioactive component of the traditional Chinese medicine Chansu, has been reported to have potent antitumor activity. In this study, in vitro metabolism of CB among species was compared with respect to metabolic profiles, enzymes involved, and catalytic efficiency by using liver microsomes from human (HLM), mouse (MLM), rat (RLM), dog (DLM), minipig (PLM), and monkey (CyLM). Significant species differences in CB metabolism were revealed. In particular, species-specific deacetylation and epimerization combined with hydroxylation existed in RLM, whereas hydroxylation was a major pathway in HLM, MLM, DLM, PLM, and CyLM. Two monohydroxylated metabolites of CB in human and animal species were identified as 1α-hydroxylcinobufagin and 5β-hydroxylcinobufagin by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and two-dimensional NMR techniques. CYP3A4 was identified as the main isoform involved in CB hydroxylation in HLM on the basis of the chemical inhibition studies and screen assays with recombinant human cytochrome P450s. Furthermore, ketoconazole, a specific inhibitor of CYP3A, strongly inhibited CB hydroxylation in MLM, DLM, PLM, and CyLM, indicating that CYP3A was responsible for CB hydroxylation in these animal species. The apparent substrate affinity and catalytic efficiency for 1α- and 5β-hydroxylation of CB in liver microsomes from various species were also determined. PLM appears to have K(m) and total intrinsic clearance value (V(max)/K(m)) similar to those for HLM, and the total microsomal intrinsic clearance values for CB obeyed the following order: mouse > dog > monkey > human > minipig. These findings provide vital information to better understand the metabolic behaviors of CB among various species.

  16. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in super obese Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Vegge, Andreas; Støckel, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Background: The specific mechanisms behind weight loss and comorbidity improvements in obese patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate the feasibility of a long-term survival RYGBP model in super obese Göttingen...... and necropsy data were recorded. Results: Five minipigs survived without complications to the end of the study. Four minipigs developed surgical related complications and were euthanized while two minipigs died due to central venous catheter related complications. BW and food intake is reported for the six...... minipigs in order to improve the translational potential relative to current animal models. Methods: Eleven Göttingen minipigs with diet-induced obesity underwent laparoscopic RYGBP and were followed up to 9 months after surgery. Intra-and post-operative complications, body weight (BW), food intake...

  17. Ossification of the frontal sinus in juvenile minipigs following water jet application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Jan-Hendrik; Henkel, Kai-Olaf; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Fulda, Gerhard; Hingst, Volker; Gundlach, Karsten K H

    2006-03-01

    Obliteration of the frontal sinus is a generally accepted management for patients with severe craniofacial trauma in whom the sinus cannot be repaired or adequately drained. Effective obliteration requires complete removal of mucosa, sufficient filling of the sinus cavity as well as effective occlusion of the nasofrontal duct. The use of various filling materials for sinus obliteration has been described and include autologous fat, bone, muscle and lyophilized cartilage. In order to appreciate the advantages of the water-jet scalpel an animal study in 10 juvenile (4 months old) and 10 adult (18 months) minipigs was performed. In 5 juvenile and 5 adult animals the frontal sinus mucosa was removed using the water jet, while in the others bone curettes were used. No occlusion of the frontonasal duct was carried out and no filling material was implanted. All animals were followed-up for 40 days. After sacrifice, radiological, histological and computerized histomorphometrical examinations were carried out. Removal of the mucosa from the sinus was simplified when using the water jet. Previous studies have shown that the selected tissue structures were less traumatized when compared with conventional surgical techniques. In young animals (only) and exclusively following the use of a water-jet scalpel osseous occlusion of the frontal sinus was found at follow-up. Histomorphometric findings revealed a significant increase of bone formation in the frontal sinus area of these animals. Based on these experimental results in a small series of juvenile minipigs the water-jet technique is a faster and less traumatic technique (less blood loss) for osteoplastic surgery of the frontal sinus. Further long-term studies are needed to evaluate the possibilities for applying this technique in post-traumatic craniofacial surgery in man.

  18. Characterisation of gut microbiota in Ossabaw and Gottingen minipigs as models of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Pedersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is an important contributing factor to obesity and obesity related metabolic disorders, known as the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to characterise the intestinal microbiota in two pig models of obesity namely Göttingen minipigs and the Ossabaw minipigs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The cecal, ileal and colonic microbiota from lean and obese Osabaw and Göttingen minipigs were investigated by Illumina-based sequencing and by high throughput qPCR, targeting the 16S rRNA gene in different phylogenetic groups of bacteria. The weight gain through the study was significant in obese Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs. The lean Göttingen minipigs' cecal microbiota contained significantly higher abundance of Firmicutes (P<0.006, Akkermensia (P<0.01 and Methanovibribacter (P<0.01 than obese Göttingen minipigs. The obese Göttingen cecum had higher abundances of the phyla Spirochaetes (P<0.03, Tenericutes (P<0.004, Verrucomicrobia (P<0.005 and the genus Bacteroides (P<0.001 compared to lean minipigs. The relative proportion of Clostridium cluster XIV was 7.6-fold higher in cecal microbiota of obese Göttingen minipigs as compared to lean. Obese Ossabaw minipigs had a higher abundance of Firmicutes in terminal ileum and lower abundance of Bacteroidetes in colon than lean Ossabaw minipigs (P<0.01. Obese Ossabaws had significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella and Lactobacillus and higher abundance of Clostridium in their colon than the lean Ossabaws. Overall, the Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs displayed different microbial communities in response to diet-induced obesity in the different sections of their intestine. CONCLUSION: Obesity-related changes in the composition of the gut microbiota were found in lean versus obese Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs. In both pig models diet seems to be the defining factor that shapes the gut microbiota as observed by changes in different

  19. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI, enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n=3 or without (n=3 pancreatic duct ligation (PL were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C, there was an almost complete pcD (>92% except for potato starch (61.5% which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%. Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  20. Göttingen minipig model of diet-induced atherosclerosis: influence of mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes on lesion severity and markers of inflammation evaluated in obese, obese and diabetic, and lean control animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Trine Pagh; Kirk, Rikke Kaae; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs were fed standard chow (CD), atherogenic diet alone (HFD) or with superimposed mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes (HFD-D). Circulating markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, lipid and glucose......From a pharmacological perspective, readily-available, well-characterized animal models of cardiovascular disease, including relevant in vivo markers of atherosclerosis are important for evaluation of novel drug candidates. Furthermore, considering the impact of diabetes mellitus on atherosclerosis...... in human patients, inclusion of this disease aspect in the characterization of a such model, is highly relevant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes on ex- and in vivo end-points in a diet-induced atherosclerotic minipig model. Castrated male...

  1. Significance of bioindicators to predict survival in irradiated minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Maria; Port, Matthias; Koch, Amory; Gulani, Jatinder; Meineke, Viktor; Abend, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The minipig is emerging as a potential alternative non-rodent animal model. Several biological markers (e.g., blood counts, laboratory parameters, and clinical signs) have been proposed for rapid triage of radiation victims. Here, the authors focus on the significance of bio-indicators for prediction of survivors after irradiation and compare it with human data; the relationship between these biomarkers and radiation dose is not part of this study. Male Göttingen minipigs (age 4-5 mo, weight 9-10 kg) were irradiated (or sham-irradiated) bilaterally with gamma-photons (⁶⁰Co, 0.5-0.6 Gy min⁻¹) in the dose range of 1.6-12 Gy. Peripheral blood cell counts, laboratory parameters, and clinical symptoms were collected up to 10 d after irradiation and analyzed using logistic regression analysis and calculating ROC curves. In moribund pigs, parameters such as decreased lymphocyte/granulocyte counts, increased C-reactive protein, alkaline phosphatase values, as well as increased citrulline values and body temperature, significantly (p 0.8). However, most predictive within the first 3 d after exposure was a combination of decreased lymphocyte counts and increased body temperature observed as early as 3 h after radiation exposure (ROC: 0.93-0.96, p < 0.0001). Sham-irradiated animals (corresponding to "worried wells") could be easily discriminated from dying pigs, thus pointing to the diagnostic significance of this analysis. These data corroborate with earlier findings performed on human radiation victims suffering from severe hematological syndrome and provide further evidence for the suitability of the minipig model as a potential alternative non-rodent animal model.

  2. Influence of various amounts of fumaric acid on performance and parameters of the acid-base balance of growing bulls fed with grass or maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remling, Nicole; Hachenberg, Sabrina; Meyer, Ulrich; Höltershinken, Martin; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the potential methane reducer fumaric acid on the fattening performance and acid-base balance of growing bulls fed two different silage types as roughage (maize and grass silage). A total of 62 fattening bulls (German Holstein breed, initial body weight: 266 +/- 42 kg), randomly assigned to eight feeding groups, received four levels of fumaric acid (0, 100, 200 or 300 g/d) at each silage type. The daily feed and water intake and the live weight were measured over the whole testing period of 280 days. In blood samples, blood cells and blood gases as a parameter of acid-base status were analysed. Feed and faeces were collected to determine the apparent nutrient digestibility. Five animals from each group fed maize or grass silage, supplemented with 0 g or 300 g fumaric acid, were slaughtered at 580 kg body weight. After slaughter, rumen fluid pH was measured and dressing percentage was calculated. Neither the total feed intake (8.81 +/- 0.07 kg/d) nor the daily weight gain (1277 +/- 24 g/d) was influenced significantly by treatments. Fumaric acid supplementation did not influence the erythrocyte count or the blood gas concentration. The silage type significantly influenced the apparent digestibility of the whole diet. The dressing percentage was slightly higher (p silage types and addition of organic acids combined with direct measurements of methane.

  3. Experimental articular cartilage repair in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjørn Borsøe; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Olesen, Morten Lykke;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A gold standard treatment for articular cartilage injuries is yet to be found, and a cost-effective and predictable large animal model is needed to bridge the gap between in vitro studies and clinical studies. Ideally, the animal model should allow for testing of clinically relevant...... treatments and the biological response should be reproducible and comparable to humans. This allows for a reliable translation of results to clinical studies.This study aimed at verifying the Göttingen minipig as a pre-clinical model for articular cartilage repair by testing existing clinical cartilage...

  4. Long Term Outcome after Application of the Angio-Seal Vascular Closure Device in Minipigs

    OpenAIRE

    Kabelitz, Lisa; Nonn, Andrea; Nolte, Kay W.; Nikoubashman, Omid; Othman, Ahmed; Heringer, Sarah; Kramer, Martin; Wiesmann, Martin; Brockmann, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Minipigs are frequently used in (neuro-)interventional research. Longitudinal experiments may require repeated vessel access via the femoral artery. Anticoagulation and incompliance of the animals necessitates the use of a vascular closure device (VCD). The effects of the Angio-Seal VCD in minipigs were longitudinally assessed. Minipig (42±8.4 kg body weight) femoral arteries were sealed using the 8F (n = 6) or 6F (n = 7) Angio-Seal VCD. The pre-interventional femoral artery diameter was 5.1±...

  5. Sensory meat quality, ultimate pH values, blood metabolites and carcass parametersin reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. fed various diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was made to study and compare the effects of different diets on sensory meat quality and ultimate pH values in reindeer muscles and to relate stress-induced blood metabolites and carcass parameters to the meat quality traits measured. Altogether 23 female reindeer calves were included in the study. During an adaptation period, all reindeer were allowed free access to a mimicked natural diet containing 80% lichens (lichen diet. On January 28, 8 reindeer (group Cjan were slaughtered. Five reindeer (group C.Mar were allowed continuous free access to the lichen diet throughout the experiment. During 8 days, the other reindeer (groups PL and PS were given the lichen diet, half of the amount offered to the control group, and were then starved for one day. Thereafter, these reindeer were fed 80% commercial reindeer feed (pellets and either 20% lichens (group PL, or 20% silage (group PS for 5 weeks. After this, all animals were slaughtered. The average carcass weight and dressing percentage in the group fed commercial reindeer feed and lichens (PL were higher than in group CMar- Fat registrations were generally higher in groups PL and PS than in the groups Cj2n and CMar- Ultimate pH values in M. triceps brachii and M. longissimus were significantly lower in the group CMST than in PL. The levels of all blood metabolites (urea, ASAT and Cortisol were generally higher in groups PL and PS than in groups Cja„ and CMEF- NO significant differences were found in any of sensory attributes of the meat (monitored according to ISO standards. The present study shows that muscle and fat depots in reindeer can be improved by feeding a diet based on reindeer pellets but suggests that a feeding period of 35 days might be too short to affect the sensory properties of reindeer meat.

  6. Effects of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome on Steroidogenesis and Folliculogenesis in the Female Ossabaw Mini-Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Fugate, Annie E; Taibl, Jessica N; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Sturek, Michael; Bahr, Janice M; Nowak, Romana A; Krisher, Rebecca L

    2015-01-01

    The discrete effects of obesity on infertility in females remain undefined to date. To investigate obesity-induced ovarian dysfunction, we characterized metabolic parameters, steroidogenesis, and folliculogenesis in obese and lean female Ossabaw mini-pigs. Nineteen nulliparous, sexually mature female Ossabaw pigs were fed a high fat/cholesterol/fructose diet (n=10) or a control diet (n=9) for eight months. After a three-month diet-induction period, pigs remained on their respective diets and had ovarian ultrasound and blood collection conducted during a five-month study period after which ovaries were collected for histology, cell culture, and gene transcript level analysis. Blood was assayed for steroid and protein hormones. Obese pigs developed abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, including hyperglycemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Obese pigs had elongated estrous cycles and hyperandrogenemia with decreased LH, increased FSH and luteal phase progesterone, and increased numbers of medium, ovulatory, and cystic follicles. Theca cells of obese, compared to control, pigs displayed androstenedione hypersecretion in response to in vitro treatment with LH, and up-regulated 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 transcript levels in response to in vitro treatment with LH or LH + insulin. Granulosa cells of obese pigs had increased 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 transcript levels. In summary, obese Ossabaw pigs have increased transcript levels and function of ovarian enzymes in the delta 4 steroidogenic pathway. Alterations in LH, FSH, and progesterone, coupled with theca cell dysfunction, contribute to the hyperandrogenemia and disrupted folliculogenesis patterns observed in obese pigs. The obese Ossabaw mini-pig is a useful animal model in which to study the effects of obesity and metabolic syndrome on ovarian function and steroidogenesis. Ultimately, this animal model may be useful toward the

  7. Effects of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome on Steroidogenesis and Folliculogenesis in the Female Ossabaw Mini-Pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie E Newell-Fugate

    Full Text Available The discrete effects of obesity on infertility in females remain undefined to date. To investigate obesity-induced ovarian dysfunction, we characterized metabolic parameters, steroidogenesis, and folliculogenesis in obese and lean female Ossabaw mini-pigs. Nineteen nulliparous, sexually mature female Ossabaw pigs were fed a high fat/cholesterol/fructose diet (n=10 or a control diet (n=9 for eight months. After a three-month diet-induction period, pigs remained on their respective diets and had ovarian ultrasound and blood collection conducted during a five-month study period after which ovaries were collected for histology, cell culture, and gene transcript level analysis. Blood was assayed for steroid and protein hormones. Obese pigs developed abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, including hyperglycemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Obese pigs had elongated estrous cycles and hyperandrogenemia with decreased LH, increased FSH and luteal phase progesterone, and increased numbers of medium, ovulatory, and cystic follicles. Theca cells of obese, compared to control, pigs displayed androstenedione hypersecretion in response to in vitro treatment with LH, and up-regulated 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 transcript levels in response to in vitro treatment with LH or LH + insulin. Granulosa cells of obese pigs had increased 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 transcript levels. In summary, obese Ossabaw pigs have increased transcript levels and function of ovarian enzymes in the delta 4 steroidogenic pathway. Alterations in LH, FSH, and progesterone, coupled with theca cell dysfunction, contribute to the hyperandrogenemia and disrupted folliculogenesis patterns observed in obese pigs. The obese Ossabaw mini-pig is a useful animal model in which to study the effects of obesity and metabolic syndrome on ovarian function and steroidogenesis. Ultimately, this animal model may be

  8. Orosomucoid expression profiles in liver, adipose tissues and serum of lean and obese domestic pigs, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Stagsted, Jan; Christoffersen, Berit Ø.;

    2013-01-01

    , the expression of ORM has not yet been characterized in such pig models. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of ORM1 mRNA in liver, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the abdomen or retroperitoneal abdominal adipose tissue (RPAT) and SAT from the neck......, as well as the serum concentration of ORM protein in three porcine obesity models; the domestic pig, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs.No changes in ORM1 mRNA expression were observed in obese pigs compared to lean pigs in the four types of tissues. However, obese Ossabaw minipigs, but none...... of the other breeds, showed significantly elevated ORM serum concentrations compared to their lean counterparts. Studies in humans have shown that the expression of ORM was unchanged in adipose tissue depots in obese humans with an increased serum concentration of ORM. Thus in this respect, obese Ossabaw...

  9. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination: two methods evaluating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika M J; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe; Skytte, Christina; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2013-06-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test, all minipigs performed 9/12 correct choices or better. Juvenile Göttingen minipigs are able to learn to perform in a spatial hole-board discrimination test as well as in a visual discrimination test, showing an increase in performance over time. Both tests have considerable scope to assess learning and memory of pigs, and we seem to have succeeded in establishing two test systems suitable for performing preclinical toxicity testing in juvenile minipigs.

  10. Long-term reticuloruminal pH dynamics and markers of liver health in early-lactating cows of various parities fed diets differing in grain processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, E; Khol-Parisini, A; Gruber, L; Gasteiner, J; Abdel-Raheem, Sh M; Zebeli, Q

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (La) with or without thermal treatment on reticuloruminal pH dynamics and metabolic activity of the liver in 12 primiparous and 18 multiparous early-lactating dairy cows. All cows were included on d 21 postpartum and sampled until d 90 postpartum. Cows were fed a diet based on differently processed ground barley grain: untreated grain (control diet, CON), or grain treated with 1% La alone for 24 h before feeding (La), or with an additional oven-heating at 55°C for 12 h (LaH). The reticuloruminal pH and temperature were measured via indwelling sensors that allowed for continuous (every 10min) and long-term measurement from d 21 to 80 postpartum. Blood samples were taken on d 21, 40, and 90 of lactation and analyzed for liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, as well as bilirubin, bile acids, and serum amyloid A. Dry matter intake was higher in multiparous cows (20.7±0.27 kg/d) compared with primiparous cows (18.2±0.33 kg/d), but was not affected by dietary treatment. Overall, the relatively short duration (51±5min/d) of reticuloruminal pH pH pH pH readings and shorter periods in which the ruminal pH dropped below the threshold of pH 5.8. The reticuloruminal temperature was not affected by dietary treatment, whereas parity affected the time duration of reticuloruminal temperature >39.5°C, being 60±19min/d shorter in primiparous cows. The measured activities of the liver enzymes AST, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, as well as bilirubin, bile acids, and the acute phase protein serum amyloid A, were not affected by grain feeding. Additionally, only one small effect of parity on investigated serum variables was noticed, showing slightly but significantly higher values of AST in multiparous (80.5±1.4 U/L) compared with primiparous cows (76.0±1.7 U/L). In conclusion, our

  11. EFFECT OF LOW SELENIUM ON CHONDROCYTE DIFFERENTIATION AND DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF COLLAGEN TYPES Ⅰ , Ⅱ AND X IN ARTICULAR CARTILAGE FROM MINI-PIGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective According to the distribution of low selenium areas, low nutrition state of the residents and the affecting cartilage growth and articular cartilage of Kashin-Beck Disease(KBD),the chondrocyte differentia- tion and differential expression of collagen types Ⅰ , Ⅱ and Ⅹ in articular cartilage from Chinese mini-pigs treated with low selenium were investigated in order to gain insight into the effects of these conditions on chondrocyte differ- entiation in KBD cartilage. Mothods Eleven male juvenile mini-pigs, aged from 4 weeks to 6 weeks after birth, were divided into 3 groups. The Se content in the diet of the “low Se” group was 0. 035mg/kg diet, and 0. 175 mg/kg diet in the control. For Se-supplemented group 0. 390mg /kg diet was added. The content of Se in blood was assayed at the beginning and at the end of each experiment. Samples of articular cartilage were taken from the right femur condylus, and collagen types Ⅰ , Ⅱ and Ⅹ in articular cartilage were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results ①All cartilage samples from juvenile mini-pigs fed with low selenium diet revealed a re- duction in type Ⅹ collagen mRNA expression in the hypertrophic chondrocytes as shown by in situ hybridization, and reduced type Ⅹ collagen deposition in the lower hypertrophic zone as shown by immunohistochemistry. ②Addition of selenium to the diet restored the type Ⅹ collagen to normal level. ③Type Ⅱ collagen was evenly distributed over the entire articular cartilage in all experimental and control groups. Type Ⅱ collagen mRNA signals were most prominent in the upper articular layer as well as in the hypertrophic zone in all groups. Type Ⅱ collagen expression was restrict- ed to the zone of endochondral ossification in all experimental groups and the control. Conclusion Low selenium has an down-regulatory role on the synthesis and deposition of collagen type Ⅹ in hypertrophic chondrocytes in articular cartilage of

  12. Critical Analysis of Mottling and its Impact on Various Grades of Paper Substrates Printed under Conventional Sheet Fed Offset, Dry Toner & Liquid Toner Based Digital Print Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendrakumar Anayath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mottle is one of the print quality factors which highly affect the final print in any printing system. Print mottle is without doubt one of the most important factors regarding visual impression of print quality in any printing system. It is usually the result of uneven ink layer or non-uniform ink absorption across the paper surface and it is more prominently visible in middle tone images or areas of uniform colour such as solids and continuous tone screen images. A mottled picture highly makes the picture smudgy and in most of the cases is not acceptable to the end user. It is required to print photographs with high sharpness and consistently from the very first print to the last print. Mottle pictures can also be observed visually and hence it needs utmost care and attention for enhancing the final print quality. Various types of mottles are generally resulted from the surface characteristics of the substrate, the setting and operation of the printing machines, and the behavior & characteristics of the printing ink.

  13. Generation of minipigs with targeted transgene insertion by recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik Ejnar; Johansen, Marianne G; Schmidt, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    Targeted transgenesis using site-specific recombinases is an attractive method to create genetically modified animals as it allows for integration of the transgene in a pre-selected transcriptionally active genomic site. Here we describe the application of recombinase-mediated cassette exchange...... (RMCE) in cells from a Göttingen minipig with four RMCE acceptor loci, each containing a green fluorescence protein (GFP) marker gene driven by a human UbiC promoter. The four RMCE acceptor loci segregated independent of each other, and expression profiles could be determined in various tissues. Using...... minicircles in RMCE in fibroblasts with all four acceptor loci and followed by SCNT, we produced piglets with a single copy of a transgene incorporated into one of the transcriptionally active acceptor loci. The transgene, consisting of a cDNA of the Alzheimer’s disease-causing gene PSEN1M146I driven...

  14. Cholesterol-lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro, ex vivo, and in hamsters and minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajjaj H

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There has been renewed interest in mushroom medicinal properties. We studied cholesterol lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum (Gl, a renowned medicinal species. Results Organic fractions containing oxygenated lanosterol derivatives inhibited cholesterol synthesis in T9A4 hepatocytes. In hamsters, 5% Gl did not effect LDL; but decreased total cholesterol (TC 9.8%, and HDL 11.2%. Gl (2.5 and 5% had effects on several fecal neutral sterols and bile acids. Both Gl doses reduced hepatic microsomal ex-vivo HMG-CoA reductase activity. In minipigs, 2.5 Gl decreased TC, LDL- and HDL cholesterol 20, 27, and 18%, respectively (P Conclusions Overall, Gl has potential to reduce LDL cholesterol in vivo through various mechanisms. Next steps are to: fully characterize bioactive components in lipid soluble/insoluble fractions; evaluate bioactivity of isolated fractions; and examine human cholesterol lowering properties. Innovative new cholesterol-lowering foods and medicines containing Gl are envisioned.

  15. The Use of Minipig in Drug Discovery and Development: Pros and Cons of Minipig Selection and Strategies to Use as a Preferred Nonrodent Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heining, Peter; Ruysschaert, Tristan

    2016-04-01

    The pig was introduced more than 20 years ago in drug development following attempts of finding a species that shares better homology with human than the dog, based on biophysiological parameters. However, miniaturization, standardized breeding, and health status control were required before the pig could find a broader than niche application in pharmaceutical industry. During the years of experience with minipigs in pharmaceutical research and the science evolving rapidly, the selection of a nonrodent animal species for preclinical safety testing became primarily driven by pharmacological (target expression homologous function), pharmacokinetic, and biophysiological considerations. This offered a broad field of application for the minipig, besides the well-established use in dermal projects in all areas of drug development but also in novel approaches including genetically modified animals. In this article, we look at recent approaches and requirements in the optimal selection of a nonrodent model in pharmaceutical development and critically ask how good a choice the minipig offers for the scientist, how did the testing environment evolve, and what are the key requirements for a broader use of the minipig compared to the other well-established nonrodent species like dog or monkey.

  16. Orosomucoid expression profiles in liver, adipose tissues and serum of lean and obese domestic pigs, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Stagsted, Jan; Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Cirera, Susanna; Moesgaard, Sophia G; Sturek, Michael; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2013-02-15

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, and may play an important role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in obesity-induced low-grade inflammation. Even though the pig is a widely used model for obesity related metabolic symptoms, the expression of ORM has not yet been characterized in such pig models. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of ORM1 mRNA in liver, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the abdomen or retroperitoneal abdominal adipose tissue (RPAT) and SAT from the neck, as well as the serum concentration of ORM protein in three porcine obesity models; the domestic pig, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs. No changes in ORM1 mRNA expression were observed in obese pigs compared to lean pigs in the four types of tissues. However, obese Ossabaw minipigs, but none of the other breeds, showed significantly elevated ORM serum concentrations compared to their lean counterparts. Studies in humans have shown that the expression of ORM was unchanged in adipose tissue depots in obese humans with an increased serum concentration of ORM. Thus in this respect, obese Ossabaw minipigs behave more similarly to obese humans than the other two pig breeds investigated.

  17. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs receive

  18. Improvement of cloning efficiency in minipigs using post-thawed donor cells treated with roscovitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seongsoo; Oh, Keon Bong; Kwon, Dae-Jin; Ock, Sun-A; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Im, Gi-Sun; Lee, Sung-Soo; Lee, Kichoon; Park, Jin-Ki

    2013-11-01

    Massachusetts General Hospital miniature pigs (MGH minipigs) have been established for organ transplantation studies across the homozygous major histocompatibility complex, but cloning efficiency of MGH minipigs is extremely low. This study was designed to increase the productivity of MGH minipigs by nuclear transfer of post-thaw donor cells after 1 h co-incubation with roscovitine. The MGH minipig cells were genetically modified with GT KO (alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knock-out) and hCD46 KI (human CD46 knock-in) and used as donor cells. The GT KO/hCD46 KI donor cells were cultured for either 3 days (control group) or 1 h after thawing with 15 μM roscovitine (experimental group) prior to the nuclear transfer. The relative percentage of the transgenic donor cells that entered into G0/G1 was 93.7 % (±2.54). This was different from the donor cells cultured for 1 h with the roscovitine-treated group (84.6 % ±4.6) (P cloning efficiency ranged from 0.74 to 2.54 %. In conclusion, gene-modified donor cells can be used for cloning of MGH minipigs if the cells are post-thawed and treated with roscovitine for 1 h prior to nuclear transfer.

  19. Characterisation of Gut Microbiota in Ossabaw and Göttingen Minipigs as Models of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Sturek, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is an important contributing factor to obesity and obesity related metabolic disorders, known as the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to characterise the intestinal microbiota in two pig models of obesity namely Göttingen...... minipigs and the Ossabaw minipigs. Methods and Findings The cecal, ileal and colonic microbiota from lean and obese Osabaw and Göttingen minipigs were investigated by Illumina-based sequencing and by high throughput qPCR, targeting the 16S rRNA gene in different phylogenetic groups of bacteria. The weight...... gain through the study was significant in obese Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs. The lean Göttingen minipigs’ cecal microbiota contained significantly higher abundance of Firmicutes (Pobese Göttingen minipigs. The obese Göttingen cecum...

  20. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower-finisher swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, D C; Azain, M; Crenshaw, T D; Cromwell, G L; Dove, C R; Kim, S W; Lindemann, M D; Miller, P S; Pettigrew, J E; Stein, H H; van Heugten, E

    2014-11-01

    Grains grown in various regions of the United States vary in their innate or natural Se contents. A regional study evaluated the effects of adding inorganic Se (sodium selenite) or organic Se (Se yeast) to diets with differing innate Se contents. A 2 × 2 + 1 factorial experiment evaluating 2 Se sources (organic or inorganic) at 2 Se levels (0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg) in 18 total replicates (n = 360 total pigs). A basal diet was fed without supplemental Se and served as the negative (basal) control. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block design in 9 states (Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, and Wisconsin) with each station conducting 2 replicates. Pigs were fed from 25 to approximately 115 kg BW. Similar dietary formulations were used at each station, incorporating a common source of trace mineral and Se premixes. Three pigs per treatment in 16 replicates (n = 240) were bled at 55, 85, and 115 kg BW and serum Se and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined. Three pigs (n = 260) from each treatment pen were killed at 115 kg BW and issues (liver, loin, and hair) were analyzed for Se. The corn Se content from the various states ranged from 0.026 to 0.283 mg Se/kg while the soybean meal Se content ranged from 0.086 to 0.798 mg Se/kg. Tissue and serum Se concentrations were greater (P supplemental organic Se was fed, whereas serum GSH-Px was greater (P dietary Se level increased within each state. There was a source × level interaction (P dietary Se level indicating that those states having greater grain natural Se contents also had greater tissue Se concentrations. These results indicate that a large difference in corn and soybean meal Se concentrations exists between states, that the addition of organic or inorganic Se to these grains increased tissue and serum Se in each state, and that organic Se was incorporated at greater concentrations in the loin, liver, and hair tissues of grower

  1. The obese Göttingen minipig as a model of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to induce obesity in the female Göttingen minipig to establish a model of the human metabolic syndrome. Nine- to ten-month-old female Göttingen minipigs received a high-fat high-energy (HFE) diet or a low-fat, low-energy (LFE) diet. The energy contents...... of the metabolic impairments seen in obese humans, and may thus serve as a model of the metabolic syndrome....... with that in pigs of the LFE group (0.13 ± 0.04 mM). Preprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were not affected, but insulin area under the curve during IVGTT was significantly high in the obese animals. Growth hormone (GH) secretion was low in both groups of pigs. The obese minipig shares some...

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility in SPF mini-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun-Yeob [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Back [Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Cheonan, Chungcheongnam-do 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo-Yong [College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ohh, Sang-Jip, E-mail: sjohh@kangwon.ac.k [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility of either soy-based or milk-based diet for specific pathogen-free (SPF) mini-pigs. Gamma irradiation of the diets was done at dosage of 10 kGy with {sup 60}Co whereas autoclaving was executed at 121 {sup o}C for 20 min. Apparent crude protein digestibilities of gamma irradiated diets were higher (p<0.05) than those of autoclaved diets regardless of diet type. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and total carbohydrate in the irradiated diet were higher than those of the autoclaved diet. From the results of nutrient digestibility of mini-pig diets in this study, 10 kGy gamma radiation was suggested as a convenient diet radicidation method that can minimize the decrease in nutrient digestibility on feeding to SPF mini-pigs.

  3. Development of a human rotavirus induced diarrhea model in Chinese mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Tao; Wei, Jing; Guo, Hong-Xia; Han, Jiang-Bo; Ye, Nan; He, Hai-Yang; Yu, Tian-Tian; Wu, Yu-Zhang

    2016-08-21

    To establish a new animal model for the research of human rotavirus (HRV) infection, its pathogenesis and immunity and evaluation of potential vaccines. 5-d, 30-d and 60-d-old Chinese mini-pigs, Guizhou and Bamma, were inoculated with a single oral dose of attenuated strain Wa, G1, G3 of HRV, and PBS (control), respectively, and fecal samples of pigs from 0 to 7 d post infection (DPI) were collected individually. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect HRV antigen in feces. The HRV was tested by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The sections of the intestinal tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to observe the morphologic variation by microscopy. Immunofluorescence was used to determine the HRV in intestinal tissue. HRV particles in cells of the ileum were observed by electron micrography. When inoculated with HRV, mini-pigs younger than 30 d developed diarrhea in an age-dependent manner and shed HRV antigen of the same inoculum, as demonstrated by RT-PCR. Histopathological changes were observed in HRV inoculated mini-pigs including small intestinal cell tumefaction and necrosis. HRV that was distributed in the small intestine was restricted to the top part of the villi on the internal wall of the ileum, which was observed by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Virus particles were observed in Golgi like follicles in HRV-infected neonatal mini-pigs. Guizhou mini-pigs were more sensitive to HRV than Bamma with respect to RV antigen shedding and clinical diarrhea. These results indicate that we have established a mini-pig model of HRV induced diarrhea. Our findings are useful for the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of HRV infection.

  4. Cold-spray coating of hydroxyapatite on a three-dimensional polyetheretherketone implant and its biocompatibility evaluated by in vitro and in vivo minipig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Jang, Hae Lin; Lee, Kyung Mee; Baek, Hae-Ri; Jin, Kyoungsuk; Noh, Jun Hong

    2017-04-01

    PEEK is a bioinert material that does not chemically bind to native bone tissue and thus formation of natural bone-like hydroxyapatite (HA) coating layer on PEEK has been an important challenge to improve biocompatibility and to preserve mechanical property of PEEK. Among various coating techniques, cold-spray coating method is suitable to form stable HA coating layer on PEEK while maintaining their chemical properties, because it can be conducted in relatively low-temperature range. Therefore, in this research, we used cold-spray coating method to form a thick layer of HA on the topographically complex PEEK substrates with periodic ridges on the surface and implanted in iliac bone defects of minipigs which is known to be similar with human body system. In addition, PEEK cage for clinical usage was coated with HA and inserted in the lumbar intervertebral disc space of minipig. We observed higher ALP activity, calcium production, and BSP production of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the HA-coated PEEK implants than the bare PEEK group in in vitro test. In addition, two-dimensional histological analysis and three-dimensional micro CT analysis demonstrated that implantation of complex shape of HA-PEEK hybrid implant in in vivo minipig model resulted sufficient biocompatibility and osseointegration for further clinical applications. Notably, due to the enhanced stability of PEEK cage induced from HA coating layer, osseointegration rate of the small HA blocks loaded inside the PEEK cage was also significantly improved which indicates overall increased fusion rate and adherence of the HA-coated PEEK cage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 647-657, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Elevated dopamine D1 receptor availability in striatum of Göttingen minipigs after electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landau, Anne M.; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Audrain, Héléne

    2017-01-01

    established a novel model of brain stimulation in Göttingen minipigs based on the protocol of ECT applied in humans. With positron emission tomography (PET), we determined a measure of dopaminergic neurotransmission with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist [11C]SCH23390. Seven minipigs were anesthetized......, binding returned towards baseline at 8-10 days. Increased binding was observed in inverse proportion to baseline binding rates. Increased binding to dopamine D1 receptors suggests facilitation of dopaminergic neurotransmission, which may contribute to the therapeutic effects of ECT. Importantly...

  6. Direct gene transfer in the Gottingen minipig CNS using stereotaxic lentiviral microinjections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GLUD, AN; Hedegaard, Claus; nielsen, MS;

    2010-01-01

    We aim to induce direct viral mediated gene transfer in the substantia nigra (SN) of the Gottingen minipig using MRI guided stereotaxic injections of lentiviral vectors encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Nine female Gottingen minipigs were injected unilaterally into the SN with 6...... per 2.5 microliters lentivirus capable of transducing cells and mediating expression of recombinant EGFP. The animals were euthanized after four (n=3) or twenty weeks (n=6). Fresh brain tissue from three animals was used for PCR. The remaining six brains were cryo- or paraffin...

  7. The telencephalon of the Göttingen minipig, cytoarchitecture and cortical surface anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarkam, Carsten Reides; GLUD, AN; Orlowski, Dariusz;

    2016-01-01

    × 36 mm (length, width, height) and weighs around 69 g. The telencephalic part of the Göttingen minipig cerebrum covers a large surface area, which can be divided into a neocortical gyrencephalic part located dorsal to the rhinal fissure, and a ventral subrhinal part dominated by olfactory, amygdaloid...... subcortical structure of the minipig telencephalon is dominated by a prominent ventricular system and large basal ganglia, wherein the putamen and the caudate nucleus posterior and dorsally are separated into two entities by the internal capsule, whereas both structures ventrally fuse into a large accumbens...

  8. PARKINSON’S DISEASE MODELS OF ABNORMAL PROTEIN AGGREGATION IN THE GOTTINGEN MINIPIG CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Landau, Anne M.; Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) animal models are important translational steps toward clinical applications. The Göttingen minipig(GM) has a large gyrencephalic brain (6x5x4cm) that can be examined using conventional scanning modalities. Preclinical neuromodulatory devices can be evaluated ...

  9. Endothelial cell death and intimal foam cell accumulation in the coronary artery of infected hypercholesterolemic minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Saraste, Antti; Hyttel, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) has been suggested to play a role in atherosclerosis. We studied the synergism of hypercholesterolemia with Chlamydia pneumoniae and influenza virus infections on EC morphology and intimal changes in a minipig model. The coronary artery was excised at euthanasia...

  10. Keeping the rhythm -- pro-arrhythmic investigations in isolated Göttingen minipig hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia is a potentially lethal condition. A better prediction and mechanistic understanding of human cardiac arrhythmia is dependent on the development of good animal models. Minipigs are increasingly being used in cardiovascular research and we hypothesize that Langendorff-perfused m...

  11. Ethical implications of using the minipig in regulatory toxicology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, John; Bollen, Peter; Grimm, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    in studies designed for safety assessment. On this basis we rejected the argument that minipigs are more acceptable experimental animals than dogs or monkeys despite the fact that their use may prove less offensive to some groups within society at large. Species selection must be made on a case-by-case basis...

  12. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) catheter placementfor intragastric dosing studies in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, Peter; Saxtorph, Henrik; Lorentsen, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Oral dosing is widely used to test compounds in minipigs. The procedure of oral dosing by gavage is stressful for the animals and may require up to 3-4 technicians to perform it. In humans, PEG catheters are commonly used to feed patients who are not able to ingest food, and where the placement...

  13. Minipig negative slow wave demonstrates target/nontarget differences in P300 paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse Marie; Lind, Nanna Marie; Moustgaard, Anette Caroline;

    2003-01-01

    The negative slow wave (NSW) is a late component of the event-related potential (ERP) in man modulated like the P300 by the stimulus, the task, and the response demand. Aiming at the development of a minipig model of schizophrenia, we investigated scalp ERPs in an auditory P300 paradigm in six...

  14. Interindividual differences in o,p'-DDD enantiomer kinetics examined in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillana, T; Lindström, V; Eriksson, L; Brandt, I; Bergman, A

    2009-06-01

    Five minipigs were given a single oral dose of a racemic mixture of o,p'-DDD (30 mg kg(-1)b.w., EF=0.49). Blood plasma and subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected for analysis, at different time-points over 180 d. At the end of the experiment also liver, kidney and brain tissue were collected. Low concentrations of o,p'-DDD still remained after 180 d in plasma (mean 0.5+/-0.3 ng g(-1)f.w.) and in adipose tissue (mean 40+/-40 ng g(-1)f.w.). The mean concentrations in liver and kidney were 500+/-300 pg g(-1)f.w. and 90+/-50 pg g(-1)f.w., respectively. The enantiomers of o,p'-DDD were isolated by HPLC and the absolute configuration of the enantiomers were determined by X-ray crystallography and polarimetry as R-(+)-o,p'-DDD and S-(-)-o,p'-DDD. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of o,p'-DDD were determined in plasma, adipose tissue and kidney using GC/ECD equipped with a chiral column. The EFs of o,p'-DDD in the individual minipigs showed large variability, ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 after 24h in plasma and from 0.2 to 0.7 after 90 d in adipose tissue. Hence in two of the minipigs, the S-(-)-o,p'-DDD enantiomer was dominating while the other enantiomer, R-(+)-o,p'-DDD was dominating in three minipigs. We propose that a yet not identified factor related to polymorphism, regulating the metabolism and/or elimination of the enantiomeric o,p'-DDD, is responsible for the differences in enantiomeric retention of the compound in the minipigs.

  15. Characterisation of Gut Microbiota in Ossabaw and Göttingen Minipigs as Models of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Sturek, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is an important contributing factor to obesity and obesity related metabolic disorders, known as the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to characterise the intestinal microbiota in two pig models of obesity namely Göttingen...... in their colon than the lean Ossabaws. Overall, the Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs displayed different microbial communities in response to diet-induced obesity in the different sections of their intestine. Conclusion Obesity-related changes in the composition of the gut microbiota were found in lean versus...... minipigs and the Ossabaw minipigs. Methods and Findings The cecal, ileal and colonic microbiota from lean and obese Osabaw and Göttingen minipigs were investigated by Illumina-based sequencing and by high throughput qPCR, targeting the 16S rRNA gene in different phylogenetic groups of bacteria. The weight...

  16. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole;

    2015-01-01

    in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from...

  17. Interspecies variation in phase I metabolism of bufalin in hepatic microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, minipig, monkey, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jing; Hou, Jie; Wang, Ping; Wu, Jing-Jing; Dai, Zi-Ru; Zou, Li-Wei; Li, Wei; Ge, Guang-Bo; Ma, Xiao-Chi; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    1. Bufalin (BF), one of the major bioactive compounds in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Chansu, has been found with various pharmacological and toxicological effects. This study aims to investigate the species differences in phase I metabolism of BF in hepatic microsomes from human and five common experimental animals. 2. Metabolite profiling demonstrated that two major metabolites were formed in liver microsomes from human and animal species in NADPH-generating system. Two major metabolites were identified as 5β-hydroxyl-bufalin and 3-keto-bufalin, with the help of authentic standards. CYP3A was assigned as the main isoform involved in both 5β-hydroxylation and 3-oxidation in all studied liver microsomes. The apparent kinetic parameters including substrate affinity and catalytic efficiency for 5β-hydroxylation and 3-oxidation of BF were also determined. 3. In summary, CYP3A mediated 5β-hydroxylation and 3-oxidation were two major metabolic pathways of BF in hepatic microsomes from human and five studied animals, but kinetic analysis demonstrated that the intrinsic clearances of these two metabolic pathways were much different among various species. The qualitative and quantitative interspecies study indicated that minipig exhibited the similar metabolic profile, kinetic behaviors and intrinsic metabolic clearances of BF phase I biotransformation in comparison with that of human.

  18. The incidence of congenital malformations and variations in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemann-Laursen, S; Marsden, E; Peter, B; Downes, N; Coulby, D; Grossi, A B

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of the incidence of spontaneous congenital abnormalities is critical for the accurate interpretation of findings in teratogenicity studies in any species. In this paper, results of the examination of 1739 neonatal Göttingen Minipigs are presented. Over the 2-year period under consideration, the incidence of external and visceral malformations was less than 0.2 and 0.1%, respectively. The most common external malformations were syndactyly, limb hyperflexion, domed head and scoliosis. The most common internal malformations were undescended testes, ventricular septal defect, diaphragmatic hernia and atrial septal defects. Pentadactyly and variation in the aortic arch's bifurcation (absent truncus bicaroticus) were the most common variations. These data will help support the use of the Göttingen Minipig as a non-rodent species in embryofetal development studies where concerns persist about the availability of background data.

  19. Significance of Bioindicators for Early Predictions on Diagnosis and Therapy of Irradiated Minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Maria; Port, Matthias; Gulani, Jatinder; Chappell, Mark; Abend, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Decisions on whether to start a therapeutic intervention for management of the Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) should be made early after exposure, and it should be based on readily available clinical signs and laboratory parameters. Here, the authors use the minipig to assess if early prediction of the later developing clinical outcome and necessity of therapeutic interventions can be determined within the first 3 d after exposure and whether it is comparable to human data. Retrospective analysis of data accumulated in the period 2009-2012 was used. Male Göttingen minipigs (age 4-5 mo, weight 9-10 kg) were irradiated (or sham-irradiated) bilaterally with gamma-photons (Co, 0.5-0.6 Gy min) in the dose range of 1.6-12 Gy. Complete blood counts, serum chemistry, and clinical symptoms were collected up to 60 d after irradiation in untreated minipigs. Changes in these early parameters (up to 3 d after exposure) were correlated with later occurrence (10-60 d after irradiation) of (1) hematological severity scores, (2) severe thrombocytopenia, (3) severe neutropenia, as well as need for (4) therapeutic intervention, (5) administration of cytokines/antibiotics, or (6) thrombocyte transfusions. Binary endpoints were analyzed using logistic regression analysis and calculating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Most predictive were decreased lymphocyte counts and increases in body temperature at 3 h after irradiation. These data corroborate earlier findings performed on human radiation victims suffering from severe hematological syndrome and provide further evidence for the suitability of the minipig model as a potential alternative non-rodent animal model.

  20. Characterization of enamel incremental markings and crown growth parameters in minipig molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Horst; Breuer, Friederike; Richards, Alan; Kierdorf, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    We studied the structure and periodicity of regular incremental markings in third molar enamel of minipigs. Light microscopy of ground sections revealed the presence of incremental markings matching the description of laminations. Their number within the section planes closely paralleled crown formation time (CFT) in days reported for minipig third molars, thereby indicating the daily nature of laminations. Spacing of consecutive laminations increased from lowest values in the inner to highest values in the outer enamel, where mean daily secretion rates of about 20 µm were recorded. Mean enamel extension rates determined for deciles along the enamel-dentin junction varied between highest values (155 µm/day) in the most cuspally located and lowest values (19 µm/day) in cervical enamel. Backscattered electron imaging in the SEM revealed the presence of thin, regularly spaced hypermineralized incremental lines in the outer enamel portion. These lines exhibited the same spacing as the laminations and were, thus, likewise regarded as daily incremental markings. Between two successive daily incremental markings, subdaily growth marks were discernible in light microscopic and in BSE-SEM images. These subdaily growth marks closely resembled the (daily) prism-cross striations of human enamel. Supra-daily growth marks were not identified in the minipig enamel. The results of this study parallels previous findings in sheep enamel. It is cautioned that CFT of ungulate teeth may be considerably overestimated if the periodicity established for growth marks in human enamel is uncritically transferred to the analysis of morphologically similar growth marks in ungulate enamel.

  1. Analysis of Serum Cholesterol Efflux Capacity in a Minipig Model of Nonischemic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigazzi, Federico; Adorni, Maria Pia; Puntoni, Mariarita; Sbrana, Francesco; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Pino, Beatrice Dal; Favari, Elda; Recchia, Fabio A; Bernini, Franco; Sampietro, Tiziana

    2017-08-01

    Circulating levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are decreased in patients with heart failure (HF). We tested whether HDL-C serum levels are associated with cardiac contractile dysfunction in a minipig HF model. Blood samples were collected from 13 adult male minipigs: 1) before pacemaker implantation, 2) 10 days after surgery, and 3) 3 weeks after high-rate LV pacing. Serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), an index of HDL functionality, was assessed through four mechanisms: ATP Binding Cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP Binding Cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), Scavenger Receptor-Class B Type I (SR-BI) and Passive Diffusion (PD). HDL-C serum levels significantly decrease in minipigs with HF compared with baseline (p<0.0001). Serum CEC mediated by PD and SR-BI, but not ABCA1 or ABCG1, significantly decrease in animals with HF (p<0.05 and p<0.005, respectively). HDL-C serum levels and partial serum CEC reduction may play a pathophysiological role in the cardiac function decay sustained by high-rate LV pacing, opening new avenues to understand of the pathogenesis of nonischemic myocardial remodeling.

  2. Irradiation induced injury reduces energy metabolism in small intestine of Tibet minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jue Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The radiation-induced energy metabolism dysfunction related to injury and radiation doses is largely elusive. The purpose of this study is to investigate the early response of energy metabolism in small intestinal tissue and its correlation with pathologic lesion after total body X-ray irradiation (TBI in Tibet minipigs. METHODS AND RESULTS: 30 Tibet minipigs were assigned into 6 groups including 5 experimental groups and one control group with 6 animals each group. The minipigs in these experimental groups were subjected to a TBI of 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 Gy, respectively. Small intestine tissues were collected at 24 h following X-ray exposure and analyzed by histology and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. DNA contents in this tissue were also examined. Irradiation causes pathologic lesions and mitochondrial abnormalities. The Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA content-corrected and uncorrected adenosine-triphosphate (ATP and total adenine nucleotides (TAN were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by 2-8 Gy exposure, and no further reduction was observed over 8 Gy. CONCLUSION: TBI induced injury is highly dependent on the irradiation dosage in small intestine and inversely correlates with the energy metabolism, with its reduction potentially indicating the severity of injury.

  3. Growth, body fatty acid composition, immune response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus X O. aureus, fed diets containing various levels of linoleic and linolenic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietary linoleic (LA) and linolenic acids (LN) on growth and immunity of all-male hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus, were evaluated for 10 weeks. Fish fed 0.12% LA + 0% LN had the lowest weight gain (WG) but was not significantly different from diets containing 0.5% LA...

  4. The postnatal development of cerebellar Purkinje cells in the Gottingen minipig estimated with a new stereological sampling technique--the vertical bar fractionator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsing, Jacob; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Nielsen, Rune;

    2006-01-01

    demonstrates that a pronounced postnatal neurogenesis in Purkinje cell number and perikaryon volume is part of the growth and development of the cerebellum in the Gottingen minipig. The Purkinje cells of the Gottingen minipig were found to be substantially large compared with human and represents the largest...

  5. Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarkam, Carsten R; GLUD, AN; Margolin, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig......Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig...

  6. Characterization of cytological changes, IgA, IgG and IL-8 levels and pH value in the vagina of prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen minipigs during an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Grossi, Anette Blak;

    2016-01-01

    minipigs ( n = 10). In sexually mature minipigs ( n = 10), evaluated through an estrous cycle, there was an increase in number of mucosal neutrophils and other leukocytes during estrus. The level of total IgA on the vaginal mucosa increased during diestrus. The level of total IgG showed no significant...... changes through the cycle. The vaginal IgA level in the prepubertal minipigs was similar to the low estrus level in sexually mature minipigs, and the IgG level in prepubertal was similar to the stable level in the sexually mature minipigs....

  7. Anaesthesia, analgesia, and post-surgery care of Göttingen minipigs used for stereotaxic brain surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Meier, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    Our two laboratories have performed PET scannings and neurosurgery using Göttingen minipigs for more than 20 years. While PET scans can be performed with only minimal effects on animal welfare, neurosurgery is mostly a welfare challenge. We would like to present data and manuals, using neurosurgi......Our two laboratories have performed PET scannings and neurosurgery using Göttingen minipigs for more than 20 years. While PET scans can be performed with only minimal effects on animal welfare, neurosurgery is mostly a welfare challenge. We would like to present data and manuals, using...... neurosurgical modalities on Göttingen minipigs: How to improve animal welfare to minimize the risk of euthanasia....

  8. Characterisation of Gut Microbiota in Ossabaw and Göttingen Minipigs as Models of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Sturek, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is an important contributing factor to obesity and obesity related metabolic disorders, known as the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to characterise the intestinal microbiota in two pig models of obesity namely Göttingen...... in their colon than the lean Ossabaws. Overall, the Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs displayed different microbial communities in response to diet-induced obesity in the different sections of their intestine. Conclusion Obesity-related changes in the composition of the gut microbiota were found in lean versus...... obese Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs. In both pig models diet seems to be the defining factor that shapes the gut microbiota as observed by changes in different bacteria divisions between lean and obese minipigs....

  9. Pathological impairments induced by interstitial implantation of 125I Seeds in spinal canal of banna mini-pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zuozhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use a banna mini-pig to set up 125I implantation model, and investigate the consequence of radiation-related impairments. Methods In present study, 125I seeds were implanted into spinal canal of T13 level of spine in banna mini-pigs. After operation, the pigs were raised up to 8 months, behavior changes were recorded within this period. After 8 months, spinal cords were collected for pathological analysis. Results In this study, a 125I brachytherapy animal model had been successfully established, in the model group, the banna pigs' Tarlov scale decreased from 5 to 2.57 ± 0.36, significant cellular impairments were noted by pathological analysis. Conclusions Without any protection and operation improvement, 125I implantation can cause serious histological impairments and moving difficulty for banna mini-pigs; this present research provides an alternative tool to study spinal 125I brachytherapy.

  10. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate....../sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired...... by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin...

  11. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J., E-mail: jessica.j.vamathevan@gsk.com [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Kenny, Steve [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Brown, James R. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA (United States); Huxley-Jones, Julie [UK Platform Technology Sciences (PTS) Operations and Planning, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Min, Jiumeng [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Sanseau, Philippe [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns.

  12. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  13. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MR in diet-induced atherosclerotic minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune F; Ludvigsen, Trine P; Johannesen, Helle H

    2014-01-01

    Novel hybrid 18-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) based positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown promise for characterization of atherosclerotic plaques clinically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the method in a pre-clinical model of diet......-induced atherosclerosis, based on the Göttingen minipig. Using (18)F-FDG PET/MRI the goal was to develop and create a new imaging method in an in vivo animal model for translational studies of atherosclerosis. We used a strategy of multisequence MRI for optimal anatomical imaging of the abdominal aortas of the pigs (n=4...

  14. Chemiluminescent Detection for Estimating Relative Copy Numbers of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus Proviruses from Chinese Minipigs Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haowen; Liu, Ming; Zhou, Bingcong; Deng, Yan; He, Nongyue; Jiang, Hesheng; Guo, Yafen; Lan, Ganqiu; Jiang, Qinyang; Yang, Xiurong; Li, Zhiyang

    2016-06-01

    Chinese Bama minipigs could be potential donors for the supply of xenografts because they are genetically stable, highly inbred, and inexpensive. However, porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) is commonly integrated in pig genomes and could cause a cross-species infection by xenotransplantation. For screening out the pigs with low copy numbers of PERV proviruses, we have developed a novel semiquantitative analysis approach based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and chemiluminescence (CL) for estimating relative copy numbers (RCNs) of PERV proviruses in Chinese Bama minipigs. The CL intensities of PERV proviruses and the housekeeping gene glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were respectively determined with this method, and the RCNs of PERV proviruses were calculated by the equation: RCN of PERV provirus = CL intensity of PERV provirus/CL intensity of GAPDH. The results showed that PERVs were integrated in the genomes of Bama minipigs at different copy numbers, and the copy numbers of PERV-C subtype were greatly low. Two Bama minipigs with low copy numbers of PERV proviruses were detected out and could be considered as xenograft donor candidates. Although only semiquantitation can be achieved, this approach has potential for screening out safe and suitable pig donors for xenotransplantation.

  15. Polymorphism analysis of IGFBP-5 gene exon 1 in Tibet Mini-pig and Junmu No. 1 White pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A; Hao, L L; Fang, X B; Lu, K; Liu, S C; Zhang, Y L

    2014-03-12

    The genetic resources and the mechanism of miniaturization in the Tibet Mini-pig have not been comprehensively studied. Polymorphisms in genes related to the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis have been investigated for years, but few on the polymorphism of IGF-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) in the Tibetan pig. In this study, allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) was used to analyze polymorphisms in exon 1 of the IGFBP-5 gene in two pig breeds, Tibet Mini-pigs and Junmu No. 1 White pigs. A BLAST analysis of the expressed sequence tags in the porcine IGFBP-5 gene revealed that exon 1 of this gene has two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), G188T and G503A. The AS-PCR results demonstrated that in both pig breeds examined, the TT, GT, and GG genotypes existed at the G188T locus, with GT as the most common genotype. At the G503A locus, GG, GA, and AA genotypes existed in Junmu No. 1 White pigs, with the GA genotype as the most frequently occurring. By contrast, at this locus, only the GA and AA genotypes were observed in the Tibetan pigs, and AA was more common than GA. There was a significant difference (P Tibet Mini-pigs than in Junmu No. 1 White pigs. The present study revealed SNPs in exon 1 of IGFBP-5 gene in the Tibet Mini-pig, possibly providing more understanding of the mechanism of miniaturization.

  16. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Although the pig has been introduced as an advanced animal model of genital tract infections in women, almost no knowledge exists on the porcine vaginal microbiota, especially in barrier-raised Göttingen Minipigs. In women, the vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role for a healthy vaginal environ...

  17. Development of induced glioblastoma by implantation of a human xenograft in Yucatan minipig as a large animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevis, Mehrdad; Carozzo, Claude; Bonnefont-Rebeix, Catherine; Belluco, Sara; Leveneur, Olivia; Chuzel, Thomas; Pillet-Michelland, Elodie; Dreyfus, Matthieu; Roger, Thierry; Berger, François; Ponce, Frédérique

    2017-04-15

    Glioblastoma is the most common and deadliest primary brain tumor for humans. Despite many efforts toward the improvement of therapeutic methods, prognosis is poor and the disease remains incurable with a median survival of 12-14.5 months after an optimal treatment. To develop novel treatment modalities for this fatal disease, new devices must be tested on an ideal animal model before performing clinical trials in humans. A new model of induced glioblastoma in Yucatan minipigs was developed. Nine immunosuppressed minipigs were implanted with the U87 human glioblastoma cell line in both the left and right hemispheres. Computed tomography (CT) acquisitions were performed once a week to monitor tumor growth. Among the 9 implanted animals, 8 minipigs showed significant macroscopic tumors on CT acquisitions. Histological examination of the brain after euthanasia confirmed the CT imaging findings with the presence of an undifferentiated glioma. Yucatan minipig, given its brain size and anatomy (gyrencephalic structure) which are comparable to humans, provides a reliable brain tumor model for preclinical studies of different therapeutic METHODS: in realistic conditions. Moreover, the short development time, the lower cyclosporine and caring cost and the compatibility with the size of commercialized stereotactic frames make it an affordable and practical animal model, especially in comparison with large breed pigs. This reproducible glioma model could simulate human anatomical conditions in preclinical studies and facilitate the improvement of novel therapeutic devices, designed at the human scale from the outset. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of chronical myocardial ischemia by adenovirus-mediated hypatocyte growth factor gene transfer in minipigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Biao; ZHANG YouRong; ZHAO Zhong; WU DanLi; YUAN LiZhen; WU Bin; WANG LiSheng; HUANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    Growth factor gene transfer-induced therapeutic angiogenesis has become a novel approach for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. In order to provide a basis for the clinical application of an adeno-virus with hepatocyte growth factor gene (Ad-HGF) in the treatment of myocardial ischemia, we estab-lished a minipig model of chronically ischemic myocardium in which an Ameroid constrictor was placed around the left circumflex branch of the coronary artery (LCX). A total of 18 minipigs were ran-domly divided into 3 groups: a surgery control group, a model group and an Ad-HGF treatment group implanted with Ameroid constrictor. Ad-HGF or the control agent was injected directly into the ischemic myocardium, and an improvement in heart function and blood supply were evaluated. The results showed that myocardial perfusion remarkably improved in the Ad-HGF group compared with that in both the control and model groups. Four weeks after the treatment, the density of newly formed blood vessels was higher and the number of collateral blood vessels was greater in the Ad-HGF group than in the model group. The area of myocardial ischemia reduced evidently and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved significantly in the Ad-HGF group. These results suggest that HGF gene therapy may become a novel approach in the treatment of chronically ischemic myocardium.

  19. Magnesium Alloy for Repair of Lateral Tibial Plateau Defect in Minipig Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Zhang; Xiao Lin; Zhengrong Qi; Lili Tan; Ke Yang; Zhuangqi Hu; Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Bone graft substitutes are widely-studied as alternatives to bone grafts in the clinic.The currently available products are mostly ceramics and polymers.Considerable progress has been made in the study of the biodegradable magnesium alloys,which possess the necessary attributions of a suitable substitute,including an excellent mechanical property.In the present study,a minipig model of a lateral tibial plateau defect was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a magnesium alloy in the repair of a critical-sized defect.The micro-arc oxidation (MAO)-coated ZK60 alloy tablets and medical-grade calcium sulfate pellets were used as the test and control materials,respectively.Bone morphology was monitored by computed tomography after the implantation for 2 and 4 months.It was found that the bone morphology in minipigs following magnesium treatment was similar to that of the normal bone,whereas an abnormal and concave morphology was displayed following the calcium sulfate treatment.The average bone healing rate for the magnesium-treated defects was higher than that of the calcium sulfate-treated defects at the first 4 months following the implantation.Overall,magnesium treatment appeared to improve the defect repair as compared with the calcium sulfate treatment.Thus,the MAO-coated ZK60 alloy appears to be a useful biocompatible bone graft substitute,and further research on its biological activity in vivo is needed.

  20. Bone marrow concentrate for autologous transplantation in minipigs. Characterization and osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herten, M; Grassmann, J P; Sager, M; Benga, L; Fischer, J C; Jäger, M; Betsch, M; Wild, M; Hakimi, M; Jungbluth, P

    2013-01-01

    Autologous bone marrow plays an increasing role in the treatment of bone, cartilage and tendon healing disorders. Cell-based therapies display promising results in the support of local regeneration, especially therapies using intra-operative one-step treatments with autologous progenitor cells. In the present study, bone marrow-derived cells were concentrated in a point-of-care device and investigated for their mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics and their osteogenic potential. Bone marrow was harvested from the iliac crest of 16 minipigs. The mononucleated cells (MNC) were concentrated by gradient density centrifugation, cultivated, characterized by flow cytometry and stimulated into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Cell differentiation was investigated by histological and immunohistological staining of relevant lineage markers. The proliferation capacity was determined via colony forming units of fibroblast and of osteogenic alkaline-phosphatase-positive-cells. The MNC could be enriched 3.5-fold in nucleated cell concentrate in comparison to bone marrow. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a positive signal for the MSC markers. Cells could be differentiated into the three lines confirming the MSC character. The cellular osteogenic potential correlated significantly with the percentage of newly formed bone in vivo in a porcine metaphyseal long-bone defect model. This study demonstrates that bone marrow concentrate from minipigs display cells with MSC character and their osteogenic differentiation potential can be used for osseous defect repair in autologous transplantations.

  1. CYP3A catalyses schizandrin biotransformation in human, minipig and rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y-F; Zhang, Y-Y; Li, J; Ge, G-B; Hu, D; Liu, H-X; Huang, T; Wang, Y-C; Fang, Z-Z; Sun, D-X; Huo, H; Yin, J; Yang, L

    2010-01-01

    Schizandrin is recognized as the major absorbed effective constituent of Fructus schisandrae, which is extensively applied in Chinese medicinal formula. The present study aimed to profile the phase I metabolites of schizandrin and identify the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms involved. After schizandrin was incubated with human liver microsomes, three metabolites were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and their structures were identified to be 8(R)-hydroxyl-schizandrin, 2-demethyl-8(R)-hydroxyl-schizandrin, 3-demethyl-8(R)-hydroxyl-schizandrin, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and (13)C-NMR, respectively. A combination of correlation analysis, chemical inhibition studies, assays with recombinant CYPs, and enzyme kinetics indicated that CYP3A4 was the main hepatic isoform that cleared schizandrin. Rat and minipig liver microsomes were included when evaluating species differences, and the results showed little difference among the species. In conclusion, CYP3A4 plays a major role in the biotransformation of schizandrin in human liver microsomes. Minipig and rat could be surrogate models for man in schizandrin pharmacokinetic studies. Better knowledge of schizandrin's metabolic pathway could provide the vital information for understanding the pharmacokinetic behaviours of schizandrin contained in Chinese medicinal formula.

  2. Surface analysis of an encapsulation membrane after its implantation in mini-pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Marie [Universite Catholique de Louvain, PCPM, Croix du Sud 1, B1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Ulrichs, Karin [University of Wuerzburg Hospital (Germany); Moskalenko, Vasily [University of Wuerzburg Hospital (Germany); Bonneau, Michel [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris (France); Kang, Chantal [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris (France); Belcourt, Alain [Centre Europeen d' Etude du Diabete, Strasbourg (France); Bertrand, Patrick [Universite Catholique de Louvain, PCPM, Croix du Sud 1, B1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)

    2007-03-01

    The biocompatibility of membranes aiming at being a part of a bioartificial pancreas has been tested. For that purpose, we have studied a polycarbonate membrane surface after its implantation in mini-pigs. The membranes were made hydrophilic by an argon plasma surface treatment followed by a dipping in a hydrophilic polymer solution. Two polymers were tested: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). To test their biocompatibility, an encapsulation device for pig Langerhans islets, with external membranes treated as described above, was implanted in different mini-pigs. The pigs received no further treatment. The devices were explanted after in vivo exposure and the membranes were analysed by XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and ToF-SIMS (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry). After this time, the substrate with the PVP or HPMC treatment was still detected on the different samples. The surface treatment signal, however, was attenuated. This is explained by the detection of other components partly covering the surface. XPS and ToF-SIMS analyses revealed the presence of biological molecules on the two faces of the membrane: the outside face in contact with the biological environment and the inside face in contact with the device. ToF-SIMS images show the inhomogeneity of the biological molecules on the membrane surface. In conclusion, biological molecules adhered to the encapsulation membrane surface after implantation but the surface treatments remained unaltered.

  3. Treatment of chronical myocardial ischemia by adenovirus-mediated hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer in minipigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Growth factor gene transfer-induced therapeutic angiogenesis has become a novel approach for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. In order to provide a basis for the clinical application of an adeno- virus with hepatocyte growth factor gene (Ad-HGF) in the treatment of myocardial ischemia, we estab- lished a minipig model of chronically ischemic myocardium in which an Ameroid constrictor was placed around the left circumflex branch of the coronary artery (LCX). A total of 18 minipigs were ran- domly divided into 3 groups: a surgery control group, a model group and an Ad-HGF treatment group implanted with Ameroid constrictor. Ad-HGF or the control agent was injected directly into the ischemic myocardium, and an improvement in heart function and blood supply were evaluated. The results showed that myocardial perfusion remarkably improved in the Ad-HGF group compared with that in both the control and model groups. Four weeks after the treatment, the density of newly formed blood vessels was higher and the number of collateral blood vessels was greater in the Ad-HGF group than in the model group. The area of myocardial ischemia reduced evidently and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved significantly in the Ad-HGF group. These results suggest that HGF gene therapy may become a novel approach in the treatment of chronically ischemic myocardium.

  4. Development of transgenic minipigs with expression of antimorphic human cryptochrome 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Liu

    Full Text Available Minipigs have become important biomedical models for human ailments due to similarities in organ anatomy, physiology, and circadian rhythms relative to humans. The homeostasis of circadian rhythms in both central and peripheral tissues is pivotal for numerous biological processes. Hence, biological rhythm disorders may contribute to the onset of cancers and metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes, amongst others. A tight regulation of circadian clock effectors ensures a rhythmic expression profile of output genes which, depending on cell type, constitute about 3-20% of the transcribed mammalian genome. Central to this system is the negative regulator protein Cryptochrome 1 (CRY1 of which the dysfunction or absence has been linked to the pathogenesis of rhythm disorders. In this study, we generated transgenic Bama-minipigs featuring expression of the Cys414-Ala antimorphic human Cryptochrome 1 mutant (hCRY1(AP. Using transgenic donor fibroblasts as nuclear donors, the method of handmade cloning (HMC was used to produce reconstructed embryos, subsequently transferred to surrogate sows. A total of 23 viable piglets were delivered. All were transgenic and seemingly healthy. However, two pigs with high transgene expression succumbed during the first two months. Molecular analyzes in epidermal fibroblasts demonstrated disturbances to the expression profile of core circadian clock genes and elevated expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, known to be risk factors in cancer and metabolic disorders.

  5. Sudden death related to advanced coronary atherosclerosis in mini-pigs. Influence of some drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, L.; Lundholm, L.; Wingren, G. (Department of Pharmacology, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping, Sweden)

    1984-01-01

    Advanced coronary atherosclerosis was produced in 30 mini-pigs by a combination of a hypercholesterolaemic diet and X-irradiation to the precordial region. Within 11-25 weeks after the irradiation, 13 of the 30 animals died a sudden death probably caused by coronary atherosclerosis. The contents of free and ester-bound cholesterol in the right coronary artery were significantly higher in the animals which died spontaneously than in surviving animals. In an untreated group of 12 animals 7 died whereas in a group treated with ..beta..-pyridylcarbinol only 1 out of 5 died. In the coronary arteries, the contents of both free and ester-bound cholesterol were significantly lower in the ..beta..-pyridylcarbinol-treated animals. In a sulfinpyrazontreated group 3 out of 8, and in a metoprolol-treated group 2 out of 5 animals died. None of these drugs reduced the accumulation of cholesterol in the coronary arteries. The rate of sudden death was 26 +- 6% (P<0.05) lower in the combined group of treated animals than in the untreated ones. By regular ECG recordings, signs which could predict the fatal outcome of the experiment were looked for. Although depressed ST segments were present before death in a few animals, this was not a regular phenomenon. It is concluded that advanced coronary atherosclerosis in mini-pigs often leads to sudden death and that this animal model seems suitable for testing the potential therapeutic effects of drugs.

  6. Collagen scaffolds modified with CNTF and bFGF promote facial nerve regeneration in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi; Lu, Chao; Meng, Danqing; Xiao, Zhifeng; Hou, Xianglin; Ding, Wenyong; Kou, Depeng; Yao, Yao; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jiayin; Pan, Juli; Dai, Jianwu

    2014-09-01

    Most experiments of peripheral nerve repair after injury have been conducted in the rodent model but the translation of findings from rodent studies to clinical practice is needed partly because the nerve regeneration must occur over much longer distances in humans than in rodents. The reconstruction of long distance nerve injuries still represents a great challenge to surgeons who is engaged in peripheral nerve surgery. Here we used the functional nerve conduit (collagen scaffolds incorporated with neurocytokines CNTF and bFGF) to bridge a 35 mm long facial nerve gap in minipig models. At 6 months after surgery, electrophysiology assessment and histological examination were conducted to evaluate the regeneration of peripheral facial nerves. Based on functional and histological observations, the results indicated that the functional collagen scaffolds promoted nerve reconstruction. The number and arrangement of regenerated nerve fibers, myelination, and nerve function reconstruction was better in the CNTF + bFGF conduit group than the single factor CNTF or bFGF conduit group. The functional composite conduit, which exhibited favorable mechanical properties, may promote facial nerve regeneration in minipigs effectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Object recognition as a measure of memory in 1-2 years old transgenic minipigs carrying the APPsw mutation for Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Ladewig, Jan; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik;

    2012-01-01

    impairment is the most striking and consistent feature. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of the APPsw transgene on memory of AD minipigs compared with non-transgenic controls at two ages (1–2 years) using the spontaneous object recognition test (SORT), which is based on behavioural...... discrimination of familiar and novel objects. No significant difference between AD minipigs and controls was found when comparing object recognition as a measure of memory. The minipigs did explore the novel object significantly more than the familiar, indicating the expected recognition of the familiar object....... Two different inter-phase intervals were used (IPI: 10–40 min). For both ages, object recognition was evident using 10 min IPI. When using 40 min IPI, object recognition was evident only at age 1 year. Comparing memory of a relatively small group of AD minipigs and controls at two rather young ages...

  8. Extensive changes in innate immune gene expression in obese Göttingen minipigs do not lead to changes in concentrations of circulating cytokines and acute phase proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Moesgaard, S. G.;

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of Göttingen minipigs as models for obesity and obesity-related pathologies is well established. The low-grade inflammation associated with obesity involves a range of innate immune factors; however, to our knowledge, the impact of obesity on innate immune factor expression has...... between adipose tissues and a decreased tissue-specific expression of cytokines and chemokines. In contrast to obese humans, no changes in serum concentrations of haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 6 were found in obese Göttingen minipigs....... not been studied in Göttingen minipigs. Therefore, we studied the expression of innate immune genes in liver and adipose tissues as well as serum concentrations of cytokines and acute phase proteins in obese vs. lean Göttingen minipigs. In the liver, of 35 investigated genes, the expression of nine...

  9. Single port laparoscopic long-term tube gastrostomy in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Vegge, Andreas; Moesgaard, S G

    2015-01-01

    Oral dosing by gavage is often used to test compounds in minipigs. This method is also used for certain nutritional studies that require exact dosing. This procedure may be stressful for the animal and requires the assistance of more than one technician. We investigated whether a gastrostomy tube...... it was evident that the catheter had entered the stomach in the fundus region in 11/12 of the animals. In one animal the catheter had entered the antrum region. None of the animals developed leakage or clinically detectable reactions to the gastrostomy tube. Histopathologically, only discrete changes were...... observed. Single port laparoscopic tube gastrostomy with a locking pigtail catheter is safe, simple and reliable and is an appropriate alternative to, for example, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, when long-term enteral delivery of pharmacological or nutritional compounds is needed. The use...

  10. An Adipose Segmentation and Quantification Scheme for the Abdominal Region in Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleks; Larsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between...... retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes.1 However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs....... The pigs were manually dissected right after the scan, to produce the “ground truth” segmentation. We perform automatic segmentation on a representative slice, which on humans has been shown to correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in the abdomen. The process of automatic fat estimation consists...

  11. Brain Serotonin Transporter Binding In a Minipig Model of Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann

    Objectives: Some of the debilitating non-motor aspects of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are related to the serotonin system1. To investigate the involvement of the brain serotonergic system in a PD animal model, we measured the in vivo binding of [11C]-DASB to the serotonin transporter (SERT......) as a marker of serotonergic neurons. In this study, we use the in vivo capabilities of PET imaging to study serotonin neurotransmission in a minipig model of PD induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of lactacystin, an inhibitor of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Methods: Five female Göttingen......]-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile (11C-DASB), a label of SERT availability. Four pigs then received eight weekly injections of lactacystin dissolved in sterile saline, and one pig received saline alone, directly into the CSF through the access port. They were scanned...

  12. Increased intracranial pressure in mini-pigs exposed to simulated solar particle event radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzari, JK; Muehlmatt, A; Savage, A; Lin, L; Kennedy, AR

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) during space flight have stimulated an area of research in space medicine. It is widely speculated that elevations in ICP contribute to structural and functional ocular changes, including deterioration in vision, which is also observed during space flight. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in OP occurring as a result of ionizing radiation exposure (at doses and dose-rates relevant to solar particle event radiation). We used a large animal model, the Yucatan mini-pig, and were able to obtain measurements over a 90 day period. This is the first investigation to show long term recordings of ICP in a large animal model without an invasive craniotomy procedure. Further, this is the first investigation reporting increased ICP after radiation exposure. PMID:25242832

  13. Age- and sex-associated effects on acute-phase proteins in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø.; Jensen, Søren Juel; Ludvigsen, Trine P.;

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs are a useful model for diseases having an inflammatory component, and the associated use of acute-phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers of inflammation warrants establishment of their reference ranges. The objective of this study was to establish reference values for selected APP......, haptoglobin and PAGP and a decrease in albumin. An acute LPS stimulus increased CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, and SAA; PAGP was unchanged and albumin decreased. Obese pigs with and without diabetes showed increases in CRP and PAGP, albumin decreased, and haptoglobin and SAA were unchanged. PMAP was increased only...... and interpreting studies including aspects of inflammation. In addition, an APP response was verified after both acute and chronic stimuli....

  14. Age- and Sex-Associated Effects on Acute-Phase Proteins in Göttingen Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Jensen, Søren J.; Ludvigsen, Trine P;

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs are a useful model for diseases having an inflammatory component, and the associated use of acute-phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers of inflammation warrants establishment of their reference ranges. The objective of this study was to establish reference values for selected APP......, haptoglobin and PAGP and a decrease in albumin. An acute LPS stimulus increased CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, and SAA; PAGP was unchanged and albumin decreased. Obese pigs with and without diabetes showed increases in CRP and PAGP, albumin decreased, and haptoglobin and SAA were unchanged. PMAP was increased only...... and interpreting studies including aspects of inflammation. In addition, an APP response was verified after both acute and chronic stimuli....

  15. Microdialysis in the femoral head of the minipig and in a blood cloth of human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgehøj, Morten Foged; Emmeluth, Claus; Overgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Microdialysis can detect ischemia in soft tissue. In a previous study, we have shown the development of ischemia in the femoral head removed from patients undergoing total hip replacement. That study also raised some methodological questions that this study tries to answer: what...... is happening in the dead space around the catheter in the drill canal, and is there an equilibrium period after the insertion of the catheter? Material and methods In an ex-vivo study using 5 syringes with 5 mL human blood, a microdialysis catheter was inserted and microdialysis was performed over 3 h....... In an in-vivo study, a drill hole was made in the proximal part of the femur in 6 mature Göttingen minipigs and microdialysis was performed over 3 h. The pigs were kept normoventilated during the experiment. Results The ex-vivo microdialysis results showed that lactate kept a steady level and glucose...

  16. Convergent methods assessing bone growth in an experimental model at dental implants in the minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Anton; Friedmann, Asisa; Grize, Leticia; Obrecht, Marcel; Dard, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Implant dentistry demonstrated its reliability in treating successfully an increased amount of patients with dental implants exhibiting hydrophilic (modSLA) or non-hydrophilic (SLA) surfaces. Objectives of this minipig study consisted in assessing bone regeneration at both types of dental implants in a new experimental model (lateral bone defects) by implementing a convergent analysis approach combining histology and contact radiography. In six adult female minipigs standardized acute alveolar defects were created, then receiving two implants in the mandibles bilaterally (modSLA and SLA, one of each combined with Guided Bone Regeneration). Animals were sacrificed after 28 days of healing. Mid-crestal specimen were analyzed assessing missing BIC to implant shoulder (fBIC); vertical bone growth upon implant surface, bone:tissue ratio and grafting material area occupied by material remnants for GBR sites. Values obtained from both analyses were compared and statistical correlations scrutinized. Although dimensions of mean differences and adjusted means given by radiographic method were lower than histological ones, comparison of different implants yielded similar results. Statistical analyses of correlation and concordance coefficients used to evaluate radiological method of measurement showed high level of concordance (concordance coefficient=0.912 and correlation coefficient=0.939) for fBIC. Similar results were observed for vertical new bone and for remnants of graft. Discrepancies for new bone and for mineralized tissue resulted in concordance coefficient of 0.182 and 0.054. The results indicate that contact X-rays can be used for morphometric assessments regarding defect fill; however, histological staining remains beneficial if greater resolution for distinguishing qualitative differences in the tissues is required.

  17. Repair of articular cartilage defects in minipigs by microfracture surgery and BMSCs transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of minimal invasive repair of cartilage defect by arthroscope-aided microfracture surgery and autologous transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells. Methods: Bone marrow of minipigs was taken out and the bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated and cultured to passage 3. Then 6 minipigs were randomly divided into 2 groups with 6 knees in each group. After the articular cartilage defect was induced in each knee. the left defect received microfracture surgery and was injected with 2. 5 ml BMSCs cells at a concentration of 3×107 cells/ml into the articular cavity; while right knee got single microfracture or served as blank control group. The animals were killed at 8 or 16 weeks, and the repair tissue was histologically and immunohistochemically examined for the presence of type Ⅱ collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) at 8 and 16 weeks. Results:Eight weeks after the surgery, the overlying articular surface of the cartilage defect showed normal color and integrated to adjacent cartilage. And 16 weeks after surgery, hyaline cartilage was observed at the repairing tissues and immunostaining indicated the diffuse presence of this type Ⅱ collagen and GAGs throughout the repair cartilage in the treated defects. Single microfracture group had the repairing of fibro-cartilage, while during the treatment, the defects of blank group were covered with fewer fiber tissues, and no blood capillary growth or any immunological rejection was observed. Conclusion:Microfracture technique and BMSCs transplantation to repair cartilage defect is characterized with minimal invasion and easy operation, and it will greatly promote the regeneration repair of articular cartilage defect.

  18. Highly efficient generation of GGTA1 biallelic knockout inbred mini-pigs with TALENs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jige; Yang, Huaqiang; Fan, Nana; Zhao, Bentian; Ouyang, Zhen; Liu, Zhaoming; Zhao, Yu; Li, Xiaoping; Song, Jun; Yang, Yi; Zou, Qingjian; Yan, Quanmei; Zeng, Yangzhi; Lai, Liangxue

    2013-01-01

    Inbred mini-pigs are ideal organ donors for future human xenotransplantations because of their clear genetic background, high homozygosity, and high inbreeding endurance. In this study, we chose fibroblast cells from a highly inbred pig line called Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer, combining with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and successfully generated α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) gene biallelic knockout (KO) pigs. To validate the efficiency of TALEN vectors, in vitro-transcribed TALEN mRNAs were microinjected into one-cell stage parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos. The efficiency of indel mutations at the GGTA1-targeting loci was as high as 73.1% (19/26) among the parthenogenetic blastocysts. TALENs were co-transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts of BMI with a plasmid containing neomycin gene. The targeting efficiency reached 89.5% (187/209) among the survived cell clones after a 10 d selection. More remarkably 27.8% (58/209) of colonies were biallelic KO. Five fibroblast cell lines with biallelic KO were chosen as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Three miniature piglets with biallelic mutations of the GGTA1 gene were achieved. Gal epitopes on the surface of cells from all the three biallelic KO piglets were completely absent. The fibroblasts from the GGTA1 null piglets were more resistant to lysis by pooled complement-preserved normal human serum than those from wild-type pigs. These results indicate that a combination of TALENs technology with SCNT can generate biallelic KO pigs directly with high efficiency. The GGTA1 null piglets with inbred features created in this study can provide a new organ source for xenotransplantation research.

  19. Highly efficient generation of GGTA1 biallelic knockout inbred mini-pigs with TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jige Xin

    Full Text Available Inbred mini-pigs are ideal organ donors for future human xenotransplantations because of their clear genetic background, high homozygosity, and high inbreeding endurance. In this study, we chose fibroblast cells from a highly inbred pig line called Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer, combining with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and successfully generated α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1 gene biallelic knockout (KO pigs. To validate the efficiency of TALEN vectors, in vitro-transcribed TALEN mRNAs were microinjected into one-cell stage parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos. The efficiency of indel mutations at the GGTA1-targeting loci was as high as 73.1% (19/26 among the parthenogenetic blastocysts. TALENs were co-transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts of BMI with a plasmid containing neomycin gene. The targeting efficiency reached 89.5% (187/209 among the survived cell clones after a 10 d selection. More remarkably 27.8% (58/209 of colonies were biallelic KO. Five fibroblast cell lines with biallelic KO were chosen as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Three miniature piglets with biallelic mutations of the GGTA1 gene were achieved. Gal epitopes on the surface of cells from all the three biallelic KO piglets were completely absent. The fibroblasts from the GGTA1 null piglets were more resistant to lysis by pooled complement-preserved normal human serum than those from wild-type pigs. These results indicate that a combination of TALENs technology with SCNT can generate biallelic KO pigs directly with high efficiency. The GGTA1 null piglets with inbred features created in this study can provide a new organ source for xenotransplantation research.

  20. The prefrontal cortex in the Göttingen minipig brain defined by neural projection criteria and cytoarchitecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsing, J; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Dyrby, Tim

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to delineate the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the Gottingen minipig brain the distribution of reciprocal thalamocortical projections was investigated using anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques and evaluated in relation to the specific cytoarchitectonic organization. Tracers...... were visualized using standard immunohistochemistry or evaluated in vivo using manganese (Mn2+) as an MRI paramagnetic tracer. The in vivo tract tracing turned out to be very sensitive with a high correspondence to the histological labelling. Tracers injected into the mediodorsal thalamus labelled...... connections to different parts of the MD nucleus. Although the granular layer IV, characteristic of primate PFC could not be identified, both cytoarchitectonic and connectional data suggests that the Gottingen minipig has a structurally divided prefrontal cortex. Stereological estimates of PFC volume showed...

  1. Anaesthesia and analgesia in Göttingen minipigs - examples of protocols used for neurosurgery and scanning procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    Neurosurgery in Göttingen minipigs is often a welfare challenge, and therefore, the main goal of my talk will be to discuss how to improve animal welfare during brain surgery and the days following surgery. A combination of inhalation/infusion anaesthesia with opioids such as injections with bupr......Neurosurgery in Göttingen minipigs is often a welfare challenge, and therefore, the main goal of my talk will be to discuss how to improve animal welfare during brain surgery and the days following surgery. A combination of inhalation/infusion anaesthesia with opioids such as injections......, especially ensuring sufficient analgesia and water/food intake during the first hours and days. Compared to neurosurgery, scanning procedures are normally unproblematic from a welfare point of view. However, anaesthesia may influence the results of brain scans, particularly functional scans, such as positron...

  2. Myocardial perfusion of infarcted and normal myocardium in propofol-anesthetized minipigs using 82Rubidium PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Larsen, Bjarke Follin; Kastrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    propofol, used for anesthesia, can influence myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve due to its vasorelaxant effect, and interactions might exist between propofol and used stress agents, potentially affecting the result of the examination. We present cardiac 82Rb-PET studies performed in propofol...... challenges. Animals, which have been anesthetized during PET acquisition, might react differently to used stress medications, and therefore difficulties might exist while evaluating the resulting PET images using standard software packages from commercial vendors optimized for human hearts. Furthermore......-anesthetized minipigs with normal and infarcted myocardium stressed with both adenosine and dipyridamole. Despite the mentioned challenges, we were able to trace the small minipig heart with software designed for human cardiac PET and to achieve blood flow measurements comparable with results in humans with both...

  3. Novel Techniques for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Gottingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    studies.12,15,16,30 The lightly pigmented skin, sparse haircoat, fine intersecting lines of epider- mal sulci, lipid biophysical properties, and...sessing percutaneous absorption exposure to chemical agents.8,11 Percutaneous application of agent represents the most likely real- world threat...any clinical signs and were otherwise SPF for an exhaustive list of viral, bacterial , fungal, and parasitic pathogens. Minipigs were fasted for at

  4. Hematological changes as prognostic indicators of survival: similarities between Gottingen minipigs, humans, and other large animal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Moroni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The animal efficacy rule addressing development of drugs for selected disease categories has pointed out the need to develop alternative large animal models. Based on this rule, the pathophysiology of the disease in the animal model must be well characterized and must reflect that in humans. So far, manifestations of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS have been extensively studied only in two large animal models, the non-human primate (NHP and the canine. We are evaluating the suitability of the minipig as an additional large animal model for development of radiation countermeasures. We have previously shown that the Gottingen minipig manifests hematopoietic ARS phases and symptoms similar to those observed in canines, NHPs, and humans. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We establish here the LD50/30 dose (radiation dose at which 50% of the animals succumb within 30 days, and show that at this dose the time of nadir and the duration of cytopenia resemble those observed for NHP and canines, and mimic closely the kinetics of blood cell depletion and recovery in human patients with reversible hematopoietic damage (H3 category, METREPOL approach. No signs of GI damage in terms of diarrhea or shortening of villi were observed at doses up to 1.9 Gy. Platelet counts at days 10 and 14, number of days to reach critical platelet values, duration of thrombocytopenia, neutrophil stress response at 3 hours and count at 14 days, and CRP-to-platelet ratio were correlated with survival. The ratios between neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets were significantly correlated with exposure to irradiation at different time intervals. SIGNIFICANCE: As a non-rodent animal model, the minipig offers a useful alternative to NHP and canines, with attractive features including ARS resembling human ARS, cost, and regulatory acceptability. Use of the minipig may allow accelerated development of radiation countermeasures.

  5. Extended Microbiological Characterization of Gottingen Minipigs in the Context of Xenotransplantation: Detection and Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A Morozov

    Full Text Available Xenotransplantation has been proposed as a solution to the shortage of suitable human donors. Pigs are currently favoured as donor animals for xenotransplantation of cells, including islet cells, or organs. To reduce the xenotransplantation-associated risk of infection of the recipient the pig donor should be carefully characterised. Göttingen minipigs from Ellegaard are often used for biomedical research and are regularly tested by their vendor for the presence of numerous bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. However, screening for some pathogens transmittable to humans had not been performed.The presence of microorganisms was examined in Göttingen Minipigs by PCR methods. Since zoonotic transmission of porcine hepatitis E virus HEV to humans has been demonstrated, extended search for HEV was considered as a priority. RNA from sera, islet and other cells from 40 minipigs were examined for HEV using different real-time reverse transcription (RT-PCRs, among them two newly established. In addition, sera were examined by Western blot analysis using two recombinant capsid proteins of HEV as antigens. HEV RNA was not detected in pigs older than one year including gilts, but it was detected in the sera of three of ten animals younger than 1 year. Furthermore, HEV was also detected in the sera of three sows six days after delivery and their offspring, indicating vertical transmission of the virus. PCR amplicons were cloned, sequenced and the viruses were found to belong to the HEV genotype (gt 3/4. Anti-HEV immunoglobulins G were detected in one sow and maternal antibodies in her six day old piglet. Since Göttingen minipigs were negative for many xenotransplantation-relevant microorganisms, they can now be classified as safe. HEV may be eliminated from the Ellegaard herd by selection of negative animals and/or by treatment of the animals.

  6. Development of a Model of Sacrocaudal Spinal Cord Injury in Cloned Yucatan MiniPigs for Cellular Transplantation Research

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Research into transplantation strategies to treat spinal cord injury (SCI) is frequently performed in rodents, but translation of results to clinical patients can be poor and a large mammalian model of severe SCI is needed. The pig has been considered an optimal model species in which to perform preclinical testing, and the Yucatan minipig can be cloned successfully utilizing somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, induction of paralysis in pigs poses significant welfare and nursing ch...

  7. Production of hGFAP-DsRed transgenic Guangxi Bama mini-pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L L; Lu, Y Q; Xu, H Y; Yang, X G; Lu, S S; Lu, K H

    2015-12-08

    The mini-pig is a useful animal model for human biomedical research due to its physiological similarity to humans and the ease of handling. In order to optimize the efficiency of production of transgenic Bama mini-pigs through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), we examined the effects of contact inhibition, roscovitine treatment, and serum starvation on the cell cycle synchronization and transgenic cloned embryo development in vivo and in vitro after nuclear transfer. The analysis showed that the rates of G0/G1 stage cells in the contact inhibition (92.11%) and roscovitine treatment groups (89.59%) were significantly higher than in serum starvation group (80.82%). A higher rate of apoptosis was seen in the serum starvation group (14.13%) compared to the contact inhibition and roscovitine treatment groups (6.71 and 2.46% respectively, P transferred to surrogate sows; one pregnancy was established and three embryos from the roscovitine treatment group successfully completed gestation. These results indicate that the roscovitine treatment was more effective at synchronizing transgenic kidney cells in Bama mini-pigs and allowed reconstructed embryos to develop to full term.

  8. Expressed sequence tags analysis of a liver tissue cDNA library from a highly inbred minipig line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN You-nan; TAN Wei-dong; LU Yan-rong; QIN Sheng-fang; LI Sheng-fu; ZENG Yang-zhi; BU Hong; LI You-ping; CHENG Jing-qiu

    2007-01-01

    Background Porcine liver performing efficient physiological functions in the human body is prerequisite for successful liver xenotransplantation. However, the protein differences between pig and human remain largely unexplored. Therefore,we investigated the liver expression profile of a highly inbred minipig line.Methods A cDNA library was constructed from liver tissue of an inbred Banna minipig. Two hundred randomly selected clones were sequenced then analysed by BLAST programme.Results Alignments of the sequences showed 44% encoded previously known porcine genes. Among the 56% unknown genes, sequences of 72 clones had high similarities with known genes of other species and the similarities to human were mostly above 0.80. The other 40 clones showing no similarity to genes in National Centre for Biotechnology Information are newly discovered, expressed sequence tags specific to liver of inbred Banna minipig. Twenty-two of the 200 clones had full length encoding regions, 38 complete 5' terminal sequences and 140 complete 3' terminal sequences.Conclusion These newly discovered expression sequences may be an important resource for research involving physiological characteristics and medical usage of inbred pigs and contribute to matching studies in xenotransplantation.

  9. Correlation Analysis Between Expression Levels of Hepatic Growth Hormone Receptor, Janus Kinase 2, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Genes and Dwarfism Phenotype in Bama Minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haowen; Jiang, Qinyang; Wu, Dan; Lan, Ganqiu; Fan, Jing; Guo, Yafen; Chen, Baojian; Yang, Xiurong; Jiang, Hesheng

    2015-02-01

    Animal growth and development are complex and sophisticated biological metabolic processes, in which genes plays an important role. In this paper, we employed real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to analyze the expression levels of hepatic GHR, JAK2 and IGF-I genes in 1, 30, 180 day of Bama minipig and Landrace with attempt to verify the correlation between the expression of these growth-associated genes and the dwarfism phenotype of Bama minipig. The results showed that the expression levels of these 3 genes in Bama minipigs were down-regulated expressed from 1 day to 30 day, and which was up-regulated expressed in Landrace. The expression levels of the 3 genes on 1, 30, 180 day were prominently higher in Landrace than in Bama minipigs. The significant differences of the 3 genes expression levels on 1 day between this two breeds indicate that different expressions of these genes might occur before birth. It is speculated that the down-regulated expression of the 3 genes may have a close correlation with the dwarfism phenotype of Bama minipig. More investigations in depth of this study is under progress with the help of biochip nanotechnology.

  10. Positive effects of treatment of donor cells with aphidicolin on the preimplantation development of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in Chinese Bama mini-pig (Sus Scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Yu; Dai, Jian-Jun; Wu, Cai-Feng; Gu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Liang; Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Yi-Ni; Wu, Bin; Chen, Hui-Lan; Li, Yao; Chen, Xue-Jin; Zhang, De-Fu

    2012-02-01

    To optimize somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedures in mini-pigs, the present study was designed to examine the effects of donor cell types and aphidicolin (APC) treatment on in vitro development of reconstructed embryos. Oviduct epithelial cells (OEC), ear fibroblast cells (EFC) and cumulus cells (CC) derived from mini-pigs were treated with serum starvation only or serum starvation followed by treatment of 0.1 µg/mL APC. The reconstructed embryos were cultured for 7 days to evaluate their developmental competency. Cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of reconstructed embryos derived from the OEC by APC treatment were significantly higher than the serum starvation (61.82% vs. 56.25%, 24.55% vs. 17.86%; P cell types. Therefore, our results suggest that treatment of CC with serum starvation plus APC prior to nuclear transfer is more suitable in SCNT of mini-pigs.

  11. Nanomechanical properties of bone around cement-retained abutment implants. A minipig study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R.M. de Barros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim The nanomechanical evaluation can provide additional information about the dental implants osseointegration process. The aim of this study was to quantify elastic modulus and hardness of bone around cemented-retained abutment implants positioned at two different crestal bone levels. Materials and methods The mandibular premolars of 7 minipigs were extracted. After 8 weeks, 8 implants were inserted in each animal: crestally on one side of the mandible and subcrestally on the other (crestal and subcrestal groups. Functional loading were immediately provided with abutments cementation and prostheses installation. Eight weeks later, the animals euthanasia was performed and nanoindentation analyses were made at the most coronal newly formed bone region (coronal group, and below in the threaded region (threaded group of histologic sections. Results The comparisons between subcrestal and crestal groups did not achieve statistical relevance; however the elastic modulus and hardness levels were statistically different in the two regions of evaluation (coronal and threaded. Conclusions The crestal and subcrestal placement of cement-retained abutment implants did not affect differently the nanomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. However the different regions of newly formed bone (coronal and threaded groups were extremely different in both elastic modulus and hardness, probably reflecting their differences in bone composition and structure.

  12. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MR in diet-induced atherosclerotic minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune F; Ludvigsen, Trine P; Johannesen, Helle H

    2014-01-01

    -induced atherosclerosis, based on the Göttingen minipig. Using (18)F-FDG PET/MRI the goal was to develop and create a new imaging method in an in vivo animal model for translational studies of atherosclerosis. We used a strategy of multisequence MRI for optimal anatomical imaging of the abdominal aortas of the pigs (n=4......): T1-weighted turbo spin-echo (T1-TSE), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (T2-TSE) and proton density imaging with and without fat saturation. (18)F-FDG PET emission data were collected from a single bed position of the abdominal aorta in 3D mode for either 10 (n=4) or 10 and 20 minutes (n=2) to measure...... glycolysis as given by standardized uptake values (SUV). Ex vivo en face evaluation of aortas from an atherosclerotic animal illustrated plaque distribution macroscopically, compared to a lean control animal. Although T2-TSE weighted imaging was most consistent, no one MRI sequence was preferable...

  13. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of GH, GHR, and IGF-1 genes in minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.G. Tian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan (TB and Bama (BM miniature pigs are two popular pig breeds that are used as experimental animals in China due to their small body size. Here, we analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in gene fragments that are closely related to growth traits [growth hormone (GH, growth hormone receptor (GHR, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1] in these pig breeds and a large white (LW control pig breed. On the basis of the analysis of 100 BMs, 108 TBs, and 50 LWs, the polymorphic distribution levels of GH, GHR, and IGF-1 were significantly different among these three pig breeds. According to correlation analyses between SNPs and five growth traits - body weight (BW, body length (BL, withers height (WH, chest circumference (CC, and abdomen circumference (AC - three SNP loci in BMs and four SNP loci in TBs significantly affected growth traits. Three SNP sites in BMs and four SNP sites in TBs significantly affected growth traits. SNPs located in the GH gene fragment significantly affected BL and CC at locus 12 and BL at locus 45 in BMs, and also BW, WH, CC, and AC at locus 45 and WH and CC at locus 93 in TBs. One SNP at locus 85 in the BM GHR gene fragment significantly affected all growth traits. All indices were significantly reduced with a mixture of alleles at locus 85. These results provide more information regarding the genetic background of these minipig species and indicate useful selection markers for pig breeding programs.

  14. Transfer of radionuclides from maternal food to the fetus and nursing infants of minipigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmermans, R.; Van Hees, M.; Vandecasteele, C.H.; Vankerkom, J.; Gerber, G.B. (Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium))

    1992-01-01

    Transfer of {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 58}Co, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 88}Y, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 51}Mn, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 95m}Tc, {sup 75}Se, {sup 65}Zn and {sup 133}Gd was investigated in utero and during lactation in minipigs given the radioactive material added to food from day 50 of pregnancy until the end of lactation. The paper presents selected results on Ag, Co, Fe, Sr, Mn, Cs, Ru and Y and Tc. Transfer was highest for Cs and, in haemopoietic tissues, for Fe. Lower transfer was found for Ag, Fe, Mn with some preference for certain tissues (Ag in brain and liver, Mn in pancreas). Sr accumulated almost exclusively in bone and Tc in thyroid with higher concentrations in fetal and infant tissues than in maternal tissues. Lanthanides, Ru and Y were all close to detection limits or below in most maternal or fetal or infant tissues and could be found in bone and, less consistently, in kidney and liver. (author).

  15. The efficacy of an immunoisolating membrane system for islet xenotransplantation in minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tova Neufeld

    Full Text Available Developing a device that protects xenogeneic islets to allow treatment and potentially cure of diabetes in large mammals has been a major challenge in the past decade. Using xenogeneic islets for transplantation is required in light of donor shortage and the large number of diabetic patients that qualify for islet transplantation. Until now, however, host immunoreactivity against the xenogeneic graft has been a major drawback for the use of porcine islets. Our study demonstrates the applicability of a novel immunoprotective membrane that allows successful xenotransplantation of rat islets in diabetic minipigs without immunosuppressive therapy. Rat pancreatic islets were encapsulated in highly purified alginate and integrated into a plastic macrochamber covered by a poly-membrane for subcutaneous transplantation. Diabetic Sinclair pigs were transplanted and followed for up to 90 days. We demonstrated a persistent graft function and restoration of normoglycemia without the need for immunosuppressive therapy. This concept could potentially offer an attractive strategy for a more widespread islet replacement therapy that would restore endogenous insulin secretion in diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppressive drugs and may even open up an avenue for safe utilization of xenogeneic islet donors.

  16. Circulating interleukin-18 as a biomarker of total-body radiation exposure in mice, minipigs, and nonhuman primates (NHP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cam T Ha

    Full Text Available We aim to develop a rapid, easy-to-use, inexpensive and accurate radiation dose-assessment assay that tests easily obtained samples (e.g., blood to triage and track radiological casualties, and to evaluate the radioprotective and therapeutic effects of radiation countermeasures. In the present study, we evaluated the interleukin (IL-1 family of cytokines, IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-33, as well as their secondary cytokines' expression and secretion in CD2F1 mouse bone marrow (BM, spleen, thymus and serum in response to γ-radiation from sublethal to lethal doses (5, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 12 Gy at different time points using the enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting, and cytokine antibody array. Our data identified increases of IL-1β, IL-18, and/or IL-33 in mouse thymus, spleen and BM cells after total-body irradiation (TBI. However, levels of these cytokines varied in different tissues. Interestingly, IL-18 but not IL-1β or IL-33 increased significantly (2.5-24 fold and stably in mouse serum from day 1 after TBI up to 13 days in a radiation dose-dependent manner. We further confirmed our finding in total-body γ-irradiated nonhuman primates (NHPs and minipigs, and demonstrated that radiation significantly enhanced IL-18 in serum from NHPs 2-4 days post-irradiation and in minipig plasma 1-3 days post-irradiation. Finally, we compared circulating IL-18 with the well known hematological radiation biomarkers lymphocyte and neutrophil counts in blood of mouse, minipigs and NHPs and demonstrated close correlations between these biomarkers in response to radiation. Our results suggest that the elevated levels of circulating IL-18 after radiation proportionally reflect radiation dose and severity of radiation injury and may be used both as a potential biomarker for triage and also to track casualties after radiological accidents as well as for therapeutic radiation exposure.

  17. [Harmonic imaging analysis for assessment of morphological changes in mini-pig alveolar bone by normal and increased functional load].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, I E; Zhitkov, M Iu; Loginova, N K; Mokhov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal the mastication forces effect on the microstructure of mandible bone tissue of mini-pigs by Fouirier harmonic imaging analysis of bone sections images of back scattered electrons and assessment of calcium and phosphorous distribution maps obtained by roentgenofluorescence technique. The results showed that by higher functional loads not only the total content of mineral elements in the bone matrix increased but also the of the low-frequency harmonics in the image spectrum indicating structural heterogeneity decrease in bone mineralization.

  18. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah;

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model...... with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high...

  19. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    -titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA...... was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity...

  20. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  1. Osteointegration of PLGA implants with nanostructured or microsized β-TCP particles in a minipig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkova, Julia; Moritz, Niko; Suokas, Esa O; Strandberg, Niko; Leino, Kari A; Laitio, Timo T; Aro, Hannu T

    2014-12-01

    Bioresorbable suture anchors and interference screws have certain benefits over equivalent titanium-alloy implants. However, there is a need for compositional improvement of currently used bioresorbable implants. We hypothesized that implants made of poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) compounded with nanostructured particles of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) would induce stronger osteointegration than implants made of PLGA compounded with microsized β-TCP particles. The experimental nanostructured self-reinforced PLGA (85L:15G)/β-TCP composite was made by high-energy ball-milling. Self-reinforced microsized PLGA (95L:5G)/β-TCP composite was prepared by melt-compounding. The composites were characterized by gas chromatography, Ubbelohde viscometry, scanning electron microscopy, laser diffractometry, and standard mechanical tests. Four groups of implants were prepared for the controlled laboratory study employing a minipig animal model. Implants in the first two groups were prepared from nanostructured and microsized PLGA/β-TCP composites respectively. Microroughened titanium-alloy (Ti6Al4V) implants served as positive intra-animal control, and pure PLGA implants as negative control. Cone-shaped implants were inserted in a random order unilaterally in the anterior cortex of the femoral shaft. Eight weeks after surgery, the mechanical strength of osteointegration of the implants was measured by a push-out test. The quality of new bone surrounding the implant was assessed by microcomputed tomography and histology. Implants made of nanostructured PLGA/β-TCP composite did not show improved mechanical osteointegration compared with the implants made of microsized PLGA/β-TCP composite. In the intra-animal comparison, the push-out force of two PLGA/β-TCP composites was 35-60% of that obtained with Ti6Al4V implants. The implant materials did not result in distinct differences in quality of new bone surrounding the implant.

  2. An adipose segmentation and quantification scheme for the intra abdominal region on minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleksandr; Larsen, Rasmus; Hanson, Lars G.; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2006-03-01

    This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes. However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs. The pigs were manually dissected right after the scan, to produce the "ground truth" segmentation. We perform automatic segmentation on a representative slice, which on humans has been shown to correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in the abdomen. The process of automatic fat estimation consists of three steps. First, the subcutaneous fat is removed with a modified active contour approach. The energy formulation of the active contour exploits the homogeneous nature of the subcutaneous fat and the smoothness of the boundary. Subsequently the retroperitoneal fat located around the abdominal cavity is separated from the visceral fat. For this, we formulate a cost function on a contour, based on intensities, edges, distance to center and smoothness, so as to exploit the properties of the retroperitoneal fat. We then globally optimize this function using dynamic programming. Finally, the fat content of the retroperitoneal and visceral regions is quantified based on a fuzzy c-means clustering of the intensities within the segmented regions. The segmentation proved satisfactory by visual inspection, and closely correlated with the manual dissection data. The correlation was 0.89 for the retroperitoneal fat, and 0.74 for the visceral fat.

  3. Valine pyrrolidide preserves intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and improves abnormal glucose tolerance in minipigs with reduced beta-cell mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Olholm; Rolin, Bidda; Ribel, Ulla;

    2003-01-01

    for type 2 diabetes was evaluated in a new large animal model of insulin-deficient diabetes and reduced beta-cell mass, the nicotinamide (NIA) (67 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (STZ) (125 mg/kg)-treated minipig, using the DPPIV inhibitor, valine pyrrolidide (VP) (50 mg/kg). VP did not significantly affect...

  4. Swine leukocyte antigen class II genes (SLA-DRA, SLA-DRB1, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1) polymorphism and genotyping in Guizhou minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Z; Xia, J H; Xin, L L; Wang, Z G; Qian, L; Wu, S G; Yang, S L; Li, K

    2015-11-30

    The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex harbors highly polymorphic gene clusters encoding glycoproteins that are involved in responses to vaccines, infectious disease, and production performance. Pigs with well-defined SLA class II genes are useful for the study of disease, immunology, and vaccines. In this study, we analyzed four SLA class II genes (SLA-DRA, SLA-DRB1, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1) in 22 founder Guizhou minipigs using a sequence-based typing method. Twelve alleles were detected, compared with the SLA class II allele sequences in the GenBank, and one of twelve alleles was found to be novel in Guizhou minipigs. There are four SLA II haplotypes, and one of them has been previously reported in Meishan pigs. Furthermore, based on sequence information of these alleles, we developed a simple SLA typing method implemented to SLA-typing for unknown offspring of Guizhou minipigs, relying on designed twelve sequence specific primers that could discriminate between each other. According to the combination of sequence-based typing and PCR-SSP, we were able to rapidly check SLA typing of Guizhou breeding stock and identified four SLA haplotypes in the herd. Therefore, SLA-defined Guizhou minipigs will be useful as animal models for xenotransplantation and immunological research.

  5. Human plasma concentrations of five cytochrome P450 probes extrapolated from pharmacokinetics in dogs and minipigs using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Satomi; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cytochrome P450 probes in humans can be extrapolated from corresponding data in cynomolgus monkeys using simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. In the current study, despite some species difference in drug clearances, this modeling methodology was adapted to estimate human plasma concentrations of P450 probes based on data from commonly used medium-sized experimental animals, namely dogs and minipigs. Using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data, the observed plasma concentrations of slowly eliminated caffeine and warfarin and rapidly eliminated omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam in two young dogs were scaled to human oral monitoring equivalents. Using the same approach, the previously reported pharmacokinetics of the five P450 probes in minipigs was also scaled to human monitoring equivalents. The human plasma concentration profiles of the five P450 probes estimated by the simplified human PBPK models based on observed/reported pharmacokinetics in dogs/minipigs were consistent with previously published pharmacokinetic data in humans. These results suggest that dogs and minipigs, in addition to monkeys, could be suitable models for humans during research into new drugs, especially when used in combination with simple PBPK models.

  6. Functional network analysis of obese and lean Göttingen minipigs elucidates changes in oxidative and inflammatory networks in obese pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonen, Harrie C. M.; Moesgaard, Sophia G.; Birck, Malene M.;

    2014-01-01

    animals mainly for known physical traits. On the other hand, functional network analysis revealed new co-segregations, particularly in the domain of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the obese animals that were not present in the lean. Functional networks of lean or obese minipigs could...

  7. The postnatal development of cerebellar Purkinje cells in the Gottingen minipig estimated with a new stereological sampling technique--the vertical bar fractionator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsing, Jacob; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Nielsen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    The postnatal development of total number and perikaryon volume of cerebellar Purkinje cells was estimated in the Gottingen minipig cerebellar cortex using a new stereological approach, the vertical bar fractionator. Data were obtained from the brains of five neonate and five adult female Gotting...

  8. Quantitative [18F]fluorodopa/PET and histology of fetal mesencephalic dopaminergic grafts to the striatum of MPTP-poisoned minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Annette Møller; Danielsen, Erik Hvid; Sørensen, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    The functional restoration of the dopamine innervation of striatum in MPTP-poisoned Göttingen minipigs was assessed for 6 months following grafting of fetal pig mesencephalic neurons. Pigs were assigned to a normal control group and a MPTP-poisoned group, members of which received no further trea...

  9. Comparative biotransformation and disposition studies of nabumetone in humans and minipigs using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet, fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobilis, M; Kopecký, J; Kvetina, J; Svoboda, Z; Pour, M; Kunes, J; Holcapek, M; Kolárová, L

    2003-08-08

    The disposition of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) nabumetone after a single oral dose administration of nabumetone tablets to humans and minipigs was investigated. Nabumetone is a prodrug, which is metabolized in the organism to the principal pharmacodynamically active metabolite -- 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA), and some other minor metabolites (carbonyl group reduction products, O-desmethylation products and their conjugates with glucuronic and sulphuric acids). Standards of the above-mentioned metabolites were prepared using simple synthetic procedures and their structures were confirmed by NMR and mass spectrometry. A simple HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of nabumetone, 6-MNA and the other metabolites was developed, validated and used for xenobiochemical and pharmacokinetic studies in humans and minipigs and for distribution studies in minipigs. Naproxen was chosen as the internal standard (I.S.), both UV (for higher concentrations) and fluorescence detection (for very low concentrations) were used. The identity of the nabumetone metabolites in biological samples was confirmed using HPLC-MS experiments. Pharmacokinetics of nabumetone, 6-MNA and 6-HNA (6-hydroxy-2-naphthylacetic acid) in human and minipig plasma was evaluated and compared. The concentration levels of nabumetone metabolites in urine, bile and synovial fluid were also evaluated.

  10. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers;

    2015-01-01

    is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary...

  11. Familial hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in cloned minipigs created by DNA transposition of a human PCSK9 gain-of-function mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Mashhadi, Rozh H; Sørensen, Charlotte B; Kragh, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    dominant hypercholesterolemia and accelerates atherosclerosis in humans. Using Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition and cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer, we created Yucatan minipigs with liver-specific expression of human D374Y-PCSK9. D374Y-PCSK9 transgenic pigs displayed reduced hepatic low...

  12. Effects of dietary nutrient levels on microbial community composition and diversity in the ileal contents of pregnant Huanjiang mini-pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huawei; Zhu, Qian; Guo, Qiuping; Yin, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian gut microbiota influences various metabolic and physiological processes. Substantial metabolic changes occur during a healthy pregnancy that may be related to microbiota composition dynamics. However, the effect of diet on intestinal microbiota composition and diversity during pregnancy remains unclear. We examined the ileal contents of Huanjiang mini-pigs at two pregnancy stages to determine the effects of dietary nutrient levels on such microbial communities. Animals received either a higher-nutrient (HN) diet formulated to meet US National Research Council requirements or a lower-nutrient (LN) diet that met the Chinese National Feeding Standard recommendations. On day 45 or 75 of pregnancy, sows were euthanized and their ileal contents sampled. Experimental diet and pregnancy stage did not affect ileal bacterial richness or diversity, as determined by Chao1 and ACE species richness measures and Shannon and Simpson indices, respectively. The phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, accounting for 69.99–85.44% and 5.82–15.17% of the total reads, respectively, predominated regardless of diet. At the genus level, diet significantly affected the abundance of Lactobacillus species, which was greater in pigs given HN feed (P < 0.05), but had little impact on that of Megasphaera species (P = 0.096). Pregnancy stage had a minimal effect on Proteobacteria numbers (P = 0.053). The number of bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus decreased, while that of the phylum Proteobacteria, family Enterobacteriaceae, and genus Bacteroides increased between days 45 and 75 of pregnancy. Of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) measured, only propionate levels changed significantly, with higher concentrations observed on day 45 than on day 75. Our findings indicate that Firmicutes and Proteobacteria dominate pregnant sow ileal bacterial profiles. Excepting a tendency for the number of Proteobacteria to increase as pregnancy progressed, pregnancy stage and

  13. Intake and rumen degradation in cattle fed napier grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fed napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum ) supplemented with various levels of ... increasing inclusion level of desmodium (74-90 g/kg 0.75) and sweet potato ... Supplementation improved DM degradation but did not change rumen pH.

  14. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  15. Successful cloning of the Yucatan minipig using commercial/occidental breeds as oocyte donors and embryo recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Jose L; Collins, Bruce; York, Abby; Bischoff, Steve; Sommer, Jeff; Tsai, Shengdar; Petters, Robert M; Piedrahita, Jorge A

    2008-06-01

    The widespread application of porcine SCNT to biomedical research is being hampered by the large adult size (300-600 lbs) of the commercial breeds commonly used for SCNT. The Yucatan minipig, in contrast, has an adult weight of 140-150 lbs and a long history of utility in biomedical research. In order to combine the wide availability of commercial swine with the biomedical value of the Yucatan minipig, we utilized SCNT using the Yucatan as nuclear donors and commercial swine as both oocyte donors and recipients. Of six recipient gilts receiving 631 SCNT embryos, three went to term and delivered seven piglets, four of which survived to adulthood. Additionally, we obtained fetal fibroblasts from a cloned Yucatan and used them for a second round of SCNT. Of three recipients receiving 315 reconstructed embryos, one went to term and delivered three piglets, one of which survived to adulthood. Both microsatellite and D-loop sequence analysis confirmed that all of the piglets generated were nuclear-mitochondrial hybrids carrying Yucatan nuclear DNA and commercial breed mitochondrial DNA. This report shows that it is possible to produce viable Yucatan SCNT clones and opens up the possibility of developing valuable biomedical models in this porcine breed.

  16. Intramuscular priming and intranasal boosting induce strong genital immunity through secretory IgA in minipigs infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eLorenzen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. Intramuscular priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated IFN-ɣ and IL-17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC, we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggest that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general.

  17. Response to Novelty Correlates with Learning Rate in a Go/No-Go Task in Göttingen Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Marie Lind

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Novelty-seeking and harm-avoidance personality traits influence Go/No-go (GNG learning in humans. Animal studies have also indicated a link between response to novelty and spatial discrimination learning. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that learning rate in a GNG task correlates with the behavioral response of Göttingen minipigs to novelty. In a group of 12 minipigs of mixed genders, response to novelty was measured by numbers of contacts with a novel object, and the total duration of exploration of the novel object. These parameters were correlated to individual learning rate in a GNG task. The number of sessions to reach criterion in the GNG task correlated significantly with the number of contacts to a novel object (r = 0.70, p = 0.03, but not with the duration of object exploration (r = 0.29, p = 0.41. Thus, pigs with a low behavioral response to novelty learned the GNG task faster than did pigs with a strong behavioral response to novelty, indicated by the tendency to approach novel objects. We hypothesize that the critical factor in this relation is difference in emotional reactivity rather than difference in motivation for exploration. In conclusion, in addition to ‘cognitive’ ability, ‘temperamental’ factors are likely to influence learning in individual pigs.

  18. Angiogenesis PET Tracer Uptake (68Ga-NODAGA-E[(cRGDyK]2 in Induced Myocardial Infarction in Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rasmussen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is part of the healing process following an ischemic injury and is vital for the post-ischemic repair of the myocardium. Therefore, it is of particular interest to be able to noninvasively monitor angiogenesis. This might, not only permit risk stratification of patients following myocardial infarction, but could also facilitate development and improvement of new therapies directed towards stimulation of the angiogenic response. During angiogenesis endothelial cells must adhere to one another to form new microvessels. αvβ3 integrin has been found to be highly expressed in activated endothelial cells and has been identified as a critical modulator of angiogenesis. 68Ga-NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK]2 (RGD has recently been developed by us as an angiogenesis positron-emission-tomography (PET ligand targeted towards αvβ3 integrin. In the present study, we induced myocardial infarction in Göttingen minipigs. Successful infarction was documented by 82Rubidium-dipyridamole stress PET and computed tomography. RGD uptake was demonstrated in the infarcted myocardium one week and one month after induction of infarction by RGD-PET. In conclusion, we demonstrated angiogenesis by noninvasive imaging using RGD-PET in minipigs hearts, which resemble human hearts. The perspectives are very intriguing and might permit the evaluation of new treatment strategies targeted towards increasing the angiogenetic response, e.g., stem-cell treatment.

  19. Evaluation of the biphasic calcium composite (BCC), a novel bone cement, in a minipig model of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Ye, Jichao; Wang, Peng; Gao, Liangbin; Jiang, Jianming; Wang, Suwei; Shen, Huiyong

    2016-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, which is used as a filler material in vertebroplasty, is one of the major sources of pulmonary embolism in patients who have undergone vertebroplasty. In the present study, we established and evaluated two animal models of pulmonary embolism by injecting PMMA or biphasic calcium composite (BCC) bone cement with a negative surface charge. A total of 12 adults and healthy Wuzhishan minipigs were randomly divided into two groups, the PMMA and BBC groups, which received injection of PMMA bone cement and BBC bone cement with a negative surface charge in the circulation system through the pulmonary trunk, respectively, to construct animal models of pulmonary embolism. The hemodynamics, arterial blood gas, and plasma coagulation were compared between these two groups. In addition, morphological changes of the lung were examined using three-dimensional computed tomography. The results showed that both PMMA and BCC injections induced pulmonary embolisms in minipigs. Compared to the PMMA group, the BCC group exhibited significantly lower levels of arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, blood oxygen pressure, blood carbon dioxide pressure, blood bicarbonate, base excess, antithrombin III and D-dimer. In conclusion, BCC bone cement with a negative surface charge is a promising filler material for vertebroplasty.

  20. The Göttingen minipig® as an alternative non-rodent species for immunogenicity testing: a demonstrator study using the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Geertje J D; Cnubben, Nicole H P; Kuper, C Frieke; Wolthoorn, Jasja; van Meeteren-Kreikamp, Angelique P; Nagtegaal, Machiel M; Doornbos, Robert; Ganderup, Niels-Christian; Penninks, André H

    2013-01-01

    The use of recombinant human proteins for the treatment of several diseases has increased considerably during the last decades. A major safety and efficacy issue of biopharmaceuticals is their potential immunogenicity. To prevent immunogenicity, biotechnology-derived proteins are engineered to be as human-like as possible. Immunogenicity is mainly determined in non-human primates (NHP), as they are considered to be the best predictive animal species for human safety, based on their close relatedness to man. As minipigs are increasingly used in the safety evaluation of (bio)pharmaceuticals, the predictive value of the minipig in immunogenicity testing was evaluated in this study, using anakinra as a model compound. Animals were treated subcutaneously with either placebo, low- (0.5 mg/kg), or high-dose (5 mg/kg) anakinra daily on 29 consecutive days. After the first and last dose, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of anakinra was evaluated. Antibodies directed to anakinra were measured on several time points during the treatment period. Furthermore, hematology, clinical chemistry, body weight, clinical signs, and histopathology of several organs were evaluated. No signs of toxicity were observed upon treatment with anakinra. PK parameters were comparable with those found in human and NHP studies performed with anakinra. All animals developed anti-anakinra antibodies. The results obtained in minipigs were comparable to those observed in monkeys. For anakinra, the predictive value of the minipig for immunogenicity testing was found to be comparable to that seen in NHP. However, more studies evaluating additional biopharmaceutical products are needed to support the use of the minipig as an alternative model for (immuno)toxicity testing, including immunogenicity.

  1. Development of a CT-guided standard approach for tined lead implantation at the sacral nerve root S3 in minipigs for chronic neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foditsch EE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Elena Esra Foditsch,1 Reinhold Zimmermann2 1Urology, Spinal Cord Injury and Tissue Regeneration Center Salzburg, Paracelsus Medical University, 2University Clinic of Urology and Andrology, Salzburg General Hospital, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a controlled approach for sacral neuromodulation (SNM to improve both nerve targeting and tined lead placement, for which a new computed tomography (CT-guided implantation technique was analyzed in minipigs.Materials and methods: This study included five female, adult Göttingen minipigs. In deep sedoanalgesia, the minipigs were placed in an extended prone position. Commercially available SNM materials were used (needle, introduction sheath, and quadripolar tined lead electrode. Gross anatomy was displayed by CT, and the nerves were bilaterally identified. The optimal angles to puncture the S3 foramen, the resulting access path, and the site for the skin incision were defined subsequently. The needle puncture and the tined lead placement were followed by successive CT scans/3D-reconstruction images. Once proper CT-guided placement of the needle and electrode was established, response to functional stimuli was intraoperatively checked to verify correct positioning.Results: Successful bilateral tined lead implantation was performed in four out of five minipigs. Implantation was different from the clinical situation because the puncture was done from the contralateral side at a 30° angle to the midline and 60° horizontal angle to ensure both passage through the foramen and nerve access. Surgery time was 50–150 minutes. Stimulation response comprised a twitch of the perianal musculature and tail rotation to the contralateral side.Conclusion: We have established a new, minimally invasive, highly standardized, CT-guided SNM electrode implantation technique. Functional outcomes are clearly defined and reproducible. All procedures can be

  2. Elevation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6levels in aortic intima of Chinese Guizhou minipigs with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Lin; DING Feng-hua; SHEN Jie; CHEN Qiu-jin; LOU Sheng; FANG Dan-hong; SHEN Wei-feng; ZHANG Qi; PU Li-jin; XU Xue-wei; ZHANG Rui-yan; ZHANG Jian-sheng; HU Jian; YANG Zheng-kun; L(U) An-kang

    2007-01-01

    Background Large animal models with toxin-mediated pancreatic damage have been used extensively in researches with respect to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diabetic complications. The present study aimed to establish Chinese Guizhou minipig models with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and characterize the animal models by analyzing inflammatory cytokine levels in aortic wall, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6).Methods Twenty-two male Chinese Guizhou minipigs (age, 4 to 6 months; weight, 20 kg to 30 kg) were divided into STZ-induced diabetic group (n=12) and control group (n=10). STZ (125 mg/kg) was administrated to induce hyperglycemia and afterwards insulin was used to control fasting blood glucose levels below 10 mmol/L. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and one month after STZ administration and serum concentrations of alanine transaminase, asparagine transaminase, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, lipids and white blood cell count were measured before and six months later. Animals in both groups were euthanized after six months and pancreas was examined immunohistochemically for islet β cells. Aortic intima of diabetic minipigs and controls was analyzed for TNF-α level in tissue conditioned medium by Western blot. TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels in aortic intima were assayed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Significant elevation in serum glucose levels was observed one month and six months after STZ induction (P<0.001) and markedly increased OGTT values were noted, compared with baseline data. The normal pancreas had many irregular sized islets and small clusters of islet β cells, while in pancreas of diabetic minipigs islet β cells almost disappeared. No statistical difference was notified in serum concentrations of biochemical examinations before and six months after STZ induction. Western blot demonstrated

  3. Effect of genetic homogeneity on behavioural variability in an object recognition test in cloned Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Herskin, Mette S.; Ladewig, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    The number of animals used in research should be limited as much as possible. Among cloned animals, genetic variation is minimal and to the extent that behaviour is genetically determined inter-individual variability is expected to be higher among naturally bred animals. However, the cloning...... in these behavioural variables in cloned minipigs is less than in naturally bred control subjects and therefore does not directly support the hypothesis that cloning may be used to replicate animals in order to reduce group size in experimentation animals....... were subjected to a behavioural test of memory, the spontaneous object recognition test, from an early age. At ages 1 and 2 years no evidence of memory decline was found, yet the data showed striking behavioural variability among the cloned groups. The aim of the present study was to investigate...

  4. Pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle eye-blink in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse Marie; Lind, Nanna Marie; Hansen, Axel Kornerup;

    2004-01-01

    by a weak white noise pre-pulse (PP), the interval between the PP and the startle noise stimulus (SNS) determining the degree of inhibition. Aiming at developing a new animal model of schizophrenia, we have investigated the acoustic startle eye-blink and PPI in 10 Göttingen minipigs. The stimuli......Pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a measure of sensorimotor gating which has been frequently shown to be deficient in schizophrenic patients. In humans it is typically measured as the attenuation of the startle eye-blink reflex EMG when a startle eliciting noise is preceded...... and the block design of the stimulation were similar to paradigms used in human research. Initially the startle habituation across trials and blocks, secondarily the PPI at PP to SNS intervals of 30, 60, 120, 220, 520, 1020 and 2020 ms was investigated. One pig out of ten did not have a startle response...

  5. Dimensional Ridge Preservation with a Novel Highly Porous TiO 2 Scaffold: An Experimental Study in Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tiainen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being considered noncritical size defects, extraction sockets often require the use of bone grafts or bone graft substitutes in order to facilitate a stable implant site with an aesthetically pleasing mucosal architecture and prosthetic reconstruction. In the present study, the effect of novel TiO2 scaffolds on dimensional ridge preservation was evaluated following their placement into surgically modified extraction sockets in the premolar region of minipig mandibles. After six weeks of healing, the scaffolds were wellintegrated in the alveolar bone, and the convex shape of the alveolar crest was preserved. The scaffolds were found to partially preserve the dimensions of the native buccal and lingual bone walls adjacent to the defect site. A tendency towards more pronounced vertical ridge resorption, particularly in the buccal bone wall of the nongrafted alveoli, indicates that the TiO2 scaffold may be used for suppressing the loss of bone that normally follows tooth extraction.

  6. Biological fractionation of stable Ca isotopes in Göttingen minipigs as a physiological model for Ca homeostasis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Alexander; Eisenhauer, Anton; Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2016-12-01

    In order to investigate fractionation of calcium (Ca) isotopes in vertebrates as a diagnostic tool to detect Ca metabolism dysfunction we analyzed the Ca isotopic composition (δ(44/40)Ca = [((44)Ca/(40)Ca)sample/((44)Ca/(40)Ca)reference]-1) of diet, faeces, blood, bones and urine from Göttingen minipigs, an animal model for human physiology. Samples of three groups were investigated: 1. control group (Con), 2. group with glucocorticosteroid induced osteoporosis (GIO) and 3. group with Ca and vitamin D deficiency induced osteomalacia (-CaD). In contrast to Con and GIO whose average δ(44/40)Cafaeces values (0.39 ± 0.13‰ and 0.28 ± 0.08‰, respectively) tend to be lower than their diet (0.47 ± 0.02‰), δ(44/40)Cafaeces of -CaD (-0.27 ± 0.21‰) was significantly lower than their δ(44/40)Cadiet (0.37 ± 0.03‰), but also lower than δ(44/40)Cafaeces of Con and GIO. We suggest that the low δ(44/40)Cafaeces of -CaD might be due to the contribution of isotopically light Ca from gastrointestinal fluids during gut passage. Assuming that this endogenous Ca source is a common physiologic feature, a fractionation during Ca absorption is also required for explaining δ(44/40)Cafaeces of Con and GIO. The δ(44/40)Caurine of all groups are high (>2.0‰) reflecting preferential renal reabsorption of light Ca isotopes. In Göttingen minipigs we found a Ca isotope fractionation between blood and bones (Δ(44/40)Cablood-bone) of 0.68 ± 0.15‰.

  7. Obesogenic diets have deleterious effects on fat deposits irrespective of the nature of dietary carbohydrates in a Yucatan minipig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Melissa; Val-Laillet, David; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri

    2016-09-01

    The effects of digestible carbohydrates, fructose in particular, on the development of metabolic disturbances remain controversial. We explored the effects of prolonged consumption of high-fat diets differing in their carbohydrate source on fat deposits in the adult Yucatan minipig. Eighteen minipigs underwent computed tomographic imaging and blood sampling before and after 8 weeks of three isocaloric high-fat diets with different carbohydrate sources (20% by weight for starch in the control diet, glucose or fructose, n=6 per diet). Body adiposity, liver volume, and fat content were estimated from computed tomographic images (n=18). Liver volume and lipid content were also measured post mortem (n=12). We hypothesized that the quantity and the spatial distribution of fat deposits in the adipose tissue or in the liver would be altered by the nature of the carbohydrate present in the obesogenic diet. After 8 weeks of dietary exposure, body weight (from 26±4 to 58±3 kg), total body adiposity (from 38±1 to 47±1%; P<.0001), liver volume (from 1156±31 to 1486±66 mL; P<.0001), plasma insulin (from 10±1 to 14±2 mIU/L; P=.001), triacylglycerol (from 318±37 to 466±33 mg/L; P=.005), and free-fatty acids (from 196±60 to 396±59 μmol/L; P=.0001) increased irrespective of the carbohydrate type. Similarly, the carbohydrate type did not induce changes in the spatial repartition of the adipose tissue. Divergent results were obtained for fat deposits in the liver depending on the investigation method. In conclusion, obesogenic diets alter adipose tissue fat deposits and the metabolic profile independently of the nature of dietary carbohydrates.

  8. The influence of direct laser metal sintering implants on the early stages of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Naiwen; Liu, Xiangwei; Cai, Yanhui; Zhang, Sijia; Jian, Bo; Zhou, Yuchao; Xu, Xiaoru; Ren, Shuai; Wei, Hongbo; Song, Yingliang

    2017-01-01

    High failure rates of oral implants have been reported in diabetic patients due to the disruption of osseointegration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct laser metal sintering (DLMS) could improve osseointegration in diabetic animal models. Surface characterizations were carried out on two types of implants. Cell morphology and the osteogenic-related gene expression of MG63 cells were observed under conditions of DLMS and microarc oxidation (MAO). A diabetes model in mini-pigs was established by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg), and a total of 36 implants were inserted into the mandibular region. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histologic evaluations were performed 3 and 6 months after implantation. The Ra (the average of the absolute height of all points) of MAO surface was 2.3±0.3 µm while the DLMS surface showed the Ra of 27.4±1.1 µm. The cells on DLMS implants spread out more podia than those on MAO implants through cell morphology analysis. Osteogenic-related gene expression was also dramatically increased in the DLMS group. Obvious improvement was observed in the micro-CT and Van Gieson staining analyses of DLMS implants compared with MAO at 3 months, although this difference disappeared by 6 months. DLMS implants showed a higher bone-implant contact percentage (33.2%±11.2%) at 3 months compared with MAO group (18.9%±7.3%) while similar results were showed at 6 months between DLMS group (42.8%±10.1%) and MAO group (38.3%±10.8%). The three-dimensional environment of implant surfaces with highly porous and fully interconnected channel and pore architectures can improve cell spreading and accelerate the progress of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs.

  9. Functional network analysis of obese and lean Göttingen minipigs elucidates changes in oxidative and inflammatory networks in obese pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonen, Harrie C. M.; Moesgaard, Sophia G.; Birck, Malene M.

    2014-01-01

    to large variation and insufficient statistical power. The purpose of this study was to perform a correlation matrix analysis of multiple multi-scale parameters describing co-segregation of traits in order to identify differences between lean and obese minipigs. More than 40 parameters, ranging from......The Göttingen minipig model of obesity is used in pre-clinical research to predict clinical outcome of new treatments for metabolic diseases. However, treatment effects often remain unnoticed when using single parameter statistical comparisons due to the small numbers of animals giving rise...... physical, cardiovascular, inflammatory and metabolic markers were measured in lean and obese animals. Correlation matrix analysis was performed using permutation test and bootstrapping at different levels of significance. Single parameter comparisons yielded significant differences between lean and obese...

  10. Evaluation of the novel 5-HT4 receptor PET ligand [11C]SB207145 in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Lind, Nanna M; Gillings, Nic;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT(4)) receptor binding in the minipig brain with positron emission tomography (PET), tissue homogenate-binding assays, and autoradiography in vitro. The cerebral uptake and binding of the novel 5-HT(4) receptor radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 in vivo...... autoradiographic 5-HT(4) receptor distribution resembles the human 5-HT(4) receptor distribution with the highest binding in the striatum and no detectable binding in the cerebellum. We found that in the minipig brain [(11)C]SB207145 follows one-tissue compartment kinetics, and the simplified reference tissue...... model provides stable and precise estimates of the binding potential in all regions. The binding potentials calculated for striatum, midbrain, and cortex from the PET data were highly correlated with 5-HT(4) receptor concentrations determined in brain homogenates from the same regions, except...

  11. The Fed's Year of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark C.; Niederjohn, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to: (1) Examine the historical development of the Federal Reserve System; (2) Provide background on Ben Bernanke, the new Fed chairman; (3) Explain the basic tools of monetary policy used by the Fed; (4) Examine the causes of the Great Depression, a topic of special interest to Bernanke; and (5) Provide some key…

  12. Improvement in the repair of defects in maxillofacial soft tissue in irradiated minipigs by a mixture of adipose-derived stem cells and platelet-rich fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanzheng; Niu, Zhanguo; Xue, Yan; Yuan, Fukang; Fu, Yanjie; Bai, Nan

    2014-10-01

    To find out if adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), alone or combined, had any effect on the repair of maxillofacial soft tissue defects in irradiated minipigs, ASC were isolated, characterised, and expanded. Twenty female minipigs, the right parotid glands of which had been irradiated, were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 each: those in the first group were injected with both ASC and PRF (combined group), the second group was injected with ASC alone (ASC group), the third group with PRF alone (PRF group), and the fourth group with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) (control group). Six months after the last injection, the size and depth of each defect were assessed, and subcutaneous tissues were harvested, stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and examined immunohistologically and for apoptosis. Expanded cells were successfully isolated and identified. Six months after injection the defects in the 3 treated groups were significantly smaller (p<0.001) and shallower (p<0.001) than those in the control group. Those in the combined group were the smallest and shallowest. Haematoxylin and eosin showed that the 3 treated groups contained more subcutaneous adipose tissue than the control group, and also had significantly greater vascular density (p<0.001) and fewer apoptotic cells (p<0.001). Both ASC and PRF facilitate the repair of defects in maxillofacial soft tissue in irradiated minipigs, and their combined use is more effective than their use as single agents.

  13. Transgenic Wuzhishan minipigs designed to express a dominant-negative porcine growth hormone receptor display small stature and a perturbed insulin/IGF-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feida; Li, Yong; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Xingju; Liu, Chuxin; Tian, Kai; Bolund, Lars; Dou, Hongwei; Yang, Wenxian; Yang, Huanming; Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Du, Yutao

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic mitogen with widespread influence on cellular growth and differentiation as well as on glucose and lipid metabolism. GH binding to the growth hormone receptor (GHR) on hepatocytes prompts expression of insulin growth factor I (IGF-1) involved in nutritionally induced compensatory hyperplasia of pancreatic β-cell islets and insulin release. A prolonged hyperactivity of the IGF-1/insulin axis in the face of insulinotropic nutrition, on the other hand, can lead to collapse of the pancreatic islets and glucose intolerance. Individuals with Laron syndrome carry mutations in the GHR gene resulting in severe congenital IGF-1 deficiency and elevated GH serum levels leading to short stature as well as perturbed lipid and glucose metabolism. However, these individuals enjoy a reduced prevalence of acne, cancer and possibly diabetes. Minipigs have become important biomedical models for human conditions due to similarities in organ anatomy, physiology, and metabolism relative to humans. The purpose of this study was to generate transgenic Wuzhishan minipigs by handmade cloning with impaired systemic GHR activity and assess their growth profile and glucose metabolism. Transgenic minipigs featuring overexpression of a dominant-negative porcine GHR (GHR(dm)) presented postnatal growth retardation and proportionate dwarfism. Molecular changes included elevated GH serum levels and mild hyperglycemia. We believe that this model may prove valuable in the study of GH functions in relation to cancer, diabetes and longevity.

  14. MODEL STUDY OF THE DOUBLE FED MACHINE WITH CURRENT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lyapin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with modeling results of the double fed induction machine with current control in the rotor circuit. We show the most promising applications of electric drives on the basis of the double fed induction machine and their advantages. We present and consider functional scheme of the electric drive on the basis of the double fed induction machine with current control. Equations are obtained for creation of such machine mathematical model. Expressions for vector projections of rotor current are given. According to the obtained results, the change of the vector projections of rotor current ensures operation of the double fed induction machine with the specified values of active and reactive stator power throughout the variation range of sliding motion. We consider static characteristics of double fed machine with current control. Energy processes proceeding in the machine are analyzed. We confirm the operationpossibility of double fed induction machine with current controlin the rotor circuit with given values of active and reactive stator power. The presented results can be used for creation of mathematical models and static characteristics of double fed machines with current control of various capacities.

  15. Development of a model of sacrocaudal spinal cord injury in cloned Yucatan minipigs for cellular transplantation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji-Hey; Piedrahita, Jorge A; Jackson, Lauren; Ghashghaei, Troy; Olby, Natasha J

    2010-12-01

    Research into transplantation strategies to treat spinal cord injury (SCI) is frequently performed in rodents, but translation of results to clinical patients can be poor and a large mammalian model of severe SCI is needed. The pig has been considered an optimal model species in which to perform preclinical testing, and the Yucatan minipig can be cloned successfully utilizing somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, induction of paralysis in pigs poses significant welfare and nursing challenges. The present study was conducted to determine whether Yucatan SCNT clones could be used to develop an SCI animal model for cellular transplantation research. First, we demonstrated that transection of the sacrocaudal spinal cord in Yucatan SCNT clones produces profound, quantifiable neurological deficits restricted to the tail. We then established that neurospheres could be isolated from brain tissue of green fluorescence protein (GFP) transfected SCNT clones. Finally, we confirmed survival of transplanted GFP-expressing neural stem cells in the SCI lesion and their differentiation into glial and neuronal lineages for up to 4 weeks without immunosuppression. We conclude that this model of sacrocaudal SCI in Yucatan SCNT clones represents a powerful research tool to investigate the effect of cellular transplantation on axonal regeneration and functional recovery.

  16. Effects of Chronic Consumption of Sugar-Enriched Diets on Brain Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Adult Yucatan Minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Melissa; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Meurice, Paul; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    Excessive sugar intake might increase the risk to develop eating disorders via an altered reward circuitry, but it remains unknown whether different sugar sources induce different neural effects and whether these effects are dependent from body weight. Therefore, we compared the effects of three high-fat and isocaloric diets varying only in their carbohydrate sources on brain activity of reward-related regions, and assessed whether brain activity is dependent on insulin sensitivity. Twenty-four minipigs underwent 18FDG PET brain imaging following 7-month intake of high-fat diets of which 20% in dry matter weight (36.3% of metabolisable energy) was provided by starch, glucose or fructose (n = 8 per diet). Animals were then subjected to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine peripheral insulin sensitivity. After a 7-month diet treatment, all groups had substantial increases in body weight (from 36.02±0.85 to 63.33±0.81 kg; Paddictive-like behavioral correlates of these brain functional characteristics. PMID:27583555

  17. Therapeutic effect of topical application of curcumin during treatment of radiation burns in a mini-pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joongsun; Park, Sunhoo; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jang, Won-Seok; Lee, Sun-Joo; Son, Yeonghoon; Rhim, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Soong In; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2016-12-30

    Curcumin protects the skin against radiation-induced epidermal damage and prevents morphological changes induced by irradiation skin, thereby maintaining the epidermal thickness and cell density of basal layers. In this study, the effects of topical curcumin treatment on radiation burns were evaluated in a mini-pig model. Histological and clinical changes were observed five weeks after radiation exposure to the back (⁶⁰Co gamma-radiation, 50 Gy). Curcumin was applied topically to irradiated skin (200 mg/cm²) twice a day for 35 days. Curcumin application decreased the epithelial desquamation after irradiation. Additionally, when compared to the vehicle-treated group, the curcumin-treated group showed reduced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-kappaB. Furthermore, irradiation prolonged healing of biopsy wounds in the exposed area, whereas curcumin treatment stimulated wound healing. These results suggest that curcumin can improve epithelial cell survival and recovery in the skin and therefore be used to treat radiation burns.

  18. Application of immunohistochemistry in stereology for quantitative assessment of neural cell populations illustrated in the Gottingen minipig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stereology is the study of estimating geometric quantities. When successfully applied, the combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC and stereology eliminates intra- and interobserver variability for cell type identification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We propose a method to validate existing antibody based cell type markers for stereological application. Comparison was made on the 100-days-old Göttingen minipig (G-mini neocortex between estimates of total neuron number derived from Giemsa staining using morphological criteria and immunohistochemistry-based cell counting with NeuN. The mean total neuron numbers estimated by the two staining methods were not significantly different. Estimated quantities, including glial cell number, neocortical volume, cell densities and glial-to-neuron ratio were also presented. Additionally, we assessed other commonly used glial markers and discussed how to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these markers for stereological estimation of cell number. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The concordance in quantitative estimates of total neuron number derived from NeuN- and Giemsa-stained sections provides evidence for the sensitivity and specificity of NeuN as a neuronal marker in the G-mini. Although time-consuming, quantitative validation of IHC should always be considered in stereological studies if there is doubt of the sensitivity, specificity, or reproducibility of cell type markers. Inaccurate staining may cause both over- and underestimation of the total cell number and inflict considerable limitation when analyzing the results.

  19. Identification of combined conjugation of nabumetone phase I metabolites with glucuronic acid and glycine in minipig biotransformation using coupling high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Česlová, Lenka; Holčapek, Michal; Nobilis, Milan

    2014-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was applied for the analysis of nabumetone metabolites during the biotransformation in minipigs. In addition to known phase I metabolites, the identification of phase II metabolites was achieved on the basis of their full-scan mass spectra and subsequent MS(n) analysis using both positive-ion and negative-ion ESI mode. Some phase I metabolites are conjugated with both glucuronide acid and glycine, which is quite unusual type of phase II metabolite not presented so far for nabumetone. These metabolites were found in small intestine content, but they were absent in minipigs urine.

  20. Quantitative [18F]fluorodopa/PET and histology of fetal mesencephalic dopaminergic grafts to the striatum of MPTP-poisoned minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Annette Møller; Danielsen, Erik Hvid; Sørensen, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    , and again at 3 and 6 months postsurgery, all animals were subjected to quantitative [18F]fluorodopa PET scans and testing for motor impairment. At the end of 6 months, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing neurons were counted in the grafts by stereological methods. The MPTP poisoning persistently reduced......The functional restoration of the dopamine innervation of striatum in MPTP-poisoned Göttingen minipigs was assessed for 6 months following grafting of fetal pig mesencephalic neurons. Pigs were assigned to a normal control group and a MPTP-poisoned group, members of which received no further...

  1. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10 among Enterococcus faecalis microorganisms colonizing the intestine of mini-pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Laugesen, D.; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2002-01-01

    A new animal model, the streptomycin-treated mini-pig, was developed in order to allow colonization of defined strains of Enterococcus faecalis in numbers sufficient to study plasmid transfer. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible pCF10 plasmid between streptomycin-resistant strains of E. faecalis OG...... until the end of the experiment. These observations showed that even in the absence of selective tetracycline pressure, plasmid pCF10 was transferred from ingested E. faecalis cells to other E. faecalis organisms already present in the intestinal environment and that the plasmid subsequently persisted...

  2. Hydrolysis of phytic acid by intrinsic plant and supplemented microbial phytase (Aspergillus niger) in the stomach and small intestine of minipigs fitted with re-entrant cannulas. 3. Hydrolysis of phytic acid (IP6) and occurrence of hydrolysis products (IP5, IP4, IP3 and IP2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, C; Lantzsch, H J; Drochner, W

    2001-12-01

    Hydrolysis of phytate in the stomach and the small intestine as influenced by intrinsic plant (wheat) and supplemented microbial phytase (Aspergillus niger) were investigated with six minipigs (40-50 kg initial body weight) fitted with re-entrant cannulas in the duodenum, 30 cm posterior to the pylorus (animals 1, 4, 5 and 6) and ileocecal re-entrant cannulas, 5 cm prior the ileocecal junction (animals 1, 2 and 3), respectively. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) diet 1, a corn-based diet [43 U phytase/kg dry matter (DM)]; (2) diet 2, diet 1 supplemented with microbial phytase (818 U/kg DM); and (3) diet 3, a wheat-based diet (1192 U/kg DM). At 07 30 h and 19 30 h, each animal was fed 350 g diet mixed with 1050 ml de-ionized water. Digesta were collected continuously and completely during a 12-h period after feeding. Mean hydrolysis rates of IP6 in the stomach as measured at the proximal duodenum of animals 1, 4, 5 and 6 were 9.0, 77.2 and 66.2% for diet 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Microbial phytase was much more effective in phytate hydrolysis than wheat phytase. Mean IP6 hydrolysis rates of the respective diets in the stomach and small intestine as measured at the distal ileum of animals 1, 2 and 3 were 19.0, 62.6 and 64.6% and were lower than treatment means of the stomach only. Differences existed between experimental animals with respect to their ability to hydrolyse IP6 in the stomach independent of the presence and source of dietary phytase. Considerable amounts of hydrolysis products occurred in both the duodenal and ileal digesta when diets 2 and 3 were fed; however, only traces were determined after ingestion of diet 1. Independent of dietary treatment, four IP5 isomers were detected, but in different amounts.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of the adrenocorticolytic compounds 3-methylsulphonyl-DDE and o,p'-DDD (mitotane) in Minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansson, Veronica; Cantillana, Tatiana; Hovander, Lotta; Bergman, Ake; Ljungvall, Karl; Magnusson, Ulf; Törneke, Karolina; Brandt, Ingvar

    2008-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of the adrenocorticolytic drug candidate 3-Methylsulphonyl-DDE (3-MeSO2-DDE) and the anticancer drug o,p'-DDD (mitotane) were studied in Göttingen minipigs. The animals were given 3-MeSO2-DDE or o,p'-DDD as single oral doses (30 mg/kg). Concentrations in plasma and subcutaneous fat were measured by gas chromatography at different time points during 180 days. Maximal plasma concentrations appeared within 24 h for both compounds, but were about 2 times higher for 3-MeSO2DDE. o,p'-DDD plasma concentrations declined rapidly to low levels during 4 days. 3-MeSO2-DDE also decreased rapidly, but remained at high concentrations throughout the study. In fat, 3-MeSO2-DDE reached about 25-fold higher levels than o,p'-DDD at 30 days, and both substances were eliminated slowly from this tissue. 3-MeSO2-DDE liver concentrations were about 18-fold higher than those in plasma at 180 days. In contrast, o,p'-DDD liver and plasma levels were about equal at 180 days. o,p'-DDD had roughly 45 times larger CL/F than 3-MeSO2-DDE, confirming that the elimination of this compound was more rapid. Both compounds were characterised by their localisation and retention in fat tissue, and the individual size of the fat stores clearly determined the plasma concentrations. It is concluded that although 3-MeSO2-DDE is an interesting candidate for therapeutic use due to its potential characteristics to specifically target adrenocortical tumour cells the slow elimination of the compound might make it challenging to design appropriate dosage regimes.

  4. Comparison of changes over time in leukocyte counts in Yucatan minipigs irradiated with simulated solar particle event-like radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Steven Wan, X.; Muehlmatt, Amy; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    During a major solar particle event (SPE), astronauts in space are at risk of exposure to an increased dose of proton radiation. The whole body distribution of the absorbed SPE proton dose is inhomogeneous, and such an inhomogeneous SPE proton dose can be simulated by electron radiation. Using Yucatan minipigs as an animal model, we compared the time courses of leukocyte count changes after exposure to proton simulated SPE (pSPE) radiation or electron simulated SPE (eSPE) radiation. The results demonstrated that the time required after irradiation to reach the lowest leukocyte counts was generally comparable between the pSPE and eSPE radiation exposures. However, the leukocyte count often recovered faster after electron irradiation compared to proton irradiation at the corresponding doses. In addition, the radiation dose required to achieve comparable magnitudes of leukocyte count decrease was higher in the eSPE animals than for the pSPE animals. In conclusion, based on the magnitude of the decrease and the time required to reach the lowest leukocyte counts after irradiation, the pSPE radiation was more effective than the eSPE radiation in reducing the peripheral leukocyte counts. Lymphocytes appeared to be the most sensitive type of leukocytes in response to either type of SPE radiation. It is particularly noteworthy that following exposure to pSPE radiation at the skin doses >5 Gy, the neutrophils do not recover from the radiation damage at times up to 30 days, and the neutrophils have not recovered to their baseline levels even at 90 days post-irradiation. These results suggest a marked difference in the ability of the neutrophils to recover from pSPE radiation compared with the results observed for eSPE radiation.

  5. Impaired APP activity and altered Tau splicing in embryonic stem cell-derived astrocytes obtained from an APPsw transgenic minipig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa J. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of familial juvenile onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD often fail to produce diverse pathological features of the disease by modification of single gene mutations that are responsible for the disease. They can hence be poor models for testing and development of novel drugs. Here, we analyze in vitro-produced stem cells and their derivatives from a large mammalian model of the disease created by overexpression of a single mutant human gene (APPsw. We produced hemizygous and homozygous radial glial-like cells following culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs isolated from embryos obtained from mated hemizygous minipigs. These cells were confirmed to co-express varying neural markers, including NES, GFAP and BLBP, typical of type one radial glial cells (RGs from the subgranular zone. These cells had altered expression of CCND1 and NOTCH1 and decreased expression of several ribosomal RNA genes. We found that these cells were able to differentiate into astrocytes upon directed differentiation. The astrocytes produced had decreased α- and β-secretase activity, increased γ-secretase activity and altered splicing of tau. This indicates novel aspects of early onset mechanisms related to cell renewal and function in familial AD astrocytes. These outcomes also highlight that radial glia could be a potentially useful population of cells for drug discovery, and that altered APP expression and altered tau phosphorylation can be detected in an in vitro model of the disease. Finally, it might be possible to use large mammal models to model familial AD by insertion of only a single mutation.

  6. The stress response and exploratory behaviour in Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa): Relations to sex and social rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Sarah J J; Martin, Gerard M; Walsh, Carolyn J

    2015-12-01

    According to the coping styles hypothesis, an individual demonstrates an integrated behavioural and physiological response to environmental challenge that is consistent over time and across situations. Individual consistency in behavioural responses to challenge has been documented across the animal kingdom. Comparatively few studies, however, have examined inter-individual variation in the physiological response, namely glucocorticoid and catecholamine levels, the stress hormones secreted by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, respectively. Variation in coping styles between individuals may be explained in part by differences in social rank and sex. Using 20 Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) we: (1) investigated the existence of consistent inter-individual variation in exploratory behaviour and the hormonal stress response, and tested for correlations as predicted by the coping styles hypothesis; and (2) evaluated whether inter-individual behavioural and hormonal variation is related to social rank and sex. Salivary stress biomarkers (cortisol, alpha-amylase, chromogranin A) were assessed in the presence and absence of a stressor consisting of social isolation in a crate for 10 min. Principal components analysis on a set of behavioural variables revealed two traits, which we labelled exploratory tendency and neophobia. Neither exploratory tendency nor neophobia predicted the physiological stress response. Subordinate pigs exhibited higher catecholamine levels compared to dominant conspecifics. We observed sex differences in the repeatability of salivary stress markers and reactivity of the stress systems. The results do not provide support for the existence of behavioural-physiological coping styles in pigs. Sex is an important determinant of the physiological stress response and warrants consideration in research addressing behavioural and hormonal variation.

  7. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by spleen helps rapidly predict the dose level after total body irradiation in a Tibetan minipig model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu Jue; Gu, Wei Wang [Southern Medical University, Department of Laboratory Animal Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Wu, Shao Jie; Guo, Kun Yuan; Chen, Chi [Southern Medical University, Department of Hematology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Xie, Qiang; Cai, Liang [Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Department of Oncology and PET/CT, Guangdong Provincial Corp Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zou, Fei [Southern Medical University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate whether {sup 18}F- FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate the rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation doses after a nuclear accident. Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomised into a control group (n = 3) and treatment groups (n = 45). {sup 18}F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) were carried out before total body irradiation (TBI) and at 6, 24 and 72 h after receiving TBI doses ranging from 1 to 11 Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were also collected for histological examination, apoptosis and blood analysis. Mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) of the spleen showed significant differences between the experimental and the control groups. Spleen SUV at 6 h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.97 (P < 0.01). Histological observations showed that damage to the splenic lymphocyte became more severe with an increase in the radiation dose. Moreover, apoptosis was one of the major routes of splenic lymphocyte death, which was also confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. In the Tibetan minipig model, radiation doses have a close relationship with the {sup 18}F-FDG uptake of the spleen. This finding suggests that {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation doses. (orig.)

  8. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of red blood cells from Göttingen minipig following whole-body vapor exposure to VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, C E; McGuire, J M; Hulet, S W; Burnett, D C; Gaviola, B I; Jakubowski, E M; Thomson, S A

    2008-01-01

    A method to detect fluoride ion generated O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (VX-G) in Göttingen minipig red blood cells (RBC) following whole-body exposure to VX vapor utilizing a gas chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (GC-MS-MS) has been developed. Dose-response curves for VX exposure were generated after applying the fluoride ion reactivation assay to the RBC fraction of serially collected whole blood samples that were taken after whole-body exposures that varied in both duration and concentration. GC-MS-MS analysis of minipig RBC samples following 180-min exposures at two different concentrations was a more precise indicator for severity of exposure than the analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition for the same samples. AChE enzyme activity recovered faster than indicated by the apparent elimination rate of VX-G. GC-MS-MS analyses of RBC samples following VX exposure demonstrate this technique has both adequate sensitivity and specificity to indicate the severity of exposure.

  9. rAAV-mediated overexpression of sox9, TGF-β and IGF-I in minipig bone marrow aspirates to enhance the chondrogenic processes for cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, J; Rey-Rico, A; Venkatesan, J K; Schmitt, G; Madry, H; Cucchiarini, M

    2016-03-01

    Administration of therapeutic gene sequences coding for chondrogenic and chondroreparative factors in bone marrow aspirates using the clinically adapted recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector may provide convenient, single-step approaches to improve cartilage repair. Here, we tested the ability of distinct rAAV constructs coding for the potent SOX9, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) candidate factors to modify marrow aspirates from minipigs to offer a preclinical large animal model system adapted for a translational evaluation of cartilage repair upon transplantation in sites of injury. Our results demonstrate that high, prolonged rAAV gene transfer efficiencies were achieved in the aspirates (up to 100% for at least 21 days) allowing to produce elevated amounts of the transcription factor SOX9 that led to increased levels of matrix synthesis and chondrogenic differentiation and of the growth factors TGF-β and IGF-I that both increased cell proliferation, matrix synthesis and chondrogenic differentiation (although to a lower level than SOX9) compared with control (lacZ) condition. Remarkably, application of the candidate SOX9 vector also led to reduced levels of hypertrophic differentiation in the aspirates, possibly by modulating the β-catenin, Indian hedgehog and PTHrP pathways. The present findings show the benefits of modifying minipig marrow concentrates via rAAV gene transfer as a future means to develop practical strategies to promote cartilage repair in a large animal model.

  10. Advances on chronic heart failure in minipig models%小型猪慢性心力衰竭模型研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应陈艇; 樊紫瑜; 牛小龙

    2016-01-01

    慢性心力衰竭是一种复杂的心血管综合征,建立合适的慢性心力衰竭动物模型是研究慢性心力衰竭发病机制及相关药物治疗的关键。小型猪因其在病理生理、解剖结构等方面更接近人类,故建立小型猪慢性心力衰竭模型已成为研究热点。目前较成熟的小型猪慢性心力衰竭模型制备方法主要有心肌梗死型、前负荷过载型、后负荷过载型、药源型和心动过速型等。%Chronic heart failure(CHF) is a complex cardiovascular syndrome.The establishment of an appropri⁃ate animal model of CHF is crucial for the study of pathogenesis and pharmacotherapy in CHF.Porcine models of chronic heart failure have became imperative because minipig is closer to human in physiopathology and anatomy. In recent years,the commonly used methods of minipig models of CHF are myocardial infarction,volume over⁃load,pressure overload,drug⁃induced and ventricular rapid pacing.

  11. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abo OMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.

  12. [Efficacy and mechanism of local delivery of rapamycin and rapamycin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles on coronary restenosis of injury-stenosis model of minipigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, L F; Yin, Y P; Cui, Y L; Chen, L F; Zeng, Y; Huang, C L; Zhu, W L; Song, C X; Zhang, H; She, M P; Yang, J

    2016-01-05

    To determine whether intramural administration of rapamycin (RPM)-loaded polylactic-polyglycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) can reduce intimal thickening and affect the mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 and p27(kipl) in a coronary injury-stenosis model of minipigs. Twenty eight minipigs were randomly separated into four groups: saline group (n=7), blank PLGA NPs group (5.0 mg/ml)(n=7), RPM group (1.0 mg/ml)(n=7), and RPM-PLGA NPs(5.0 mg/ml)group (n=7), respectively. Different treatments were intracoronary locally delivered via a Dispatch™ catheter for 10 minutes. Serial angiography was performed pre-and post-modeling 30 days and the percent stenosis degree was assessed. Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining, Weigert's resorcin fuchsin staining and picric acid-sirius red staining were used for morphometric analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), MMP-2, and TIMP-2 at early and late time points, respectively. The expression of p27(kip1) mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization staining. Data from 21 minipigs had been collected at the end of the experiment with 6, 4, 5, and 6 from the former mentioned 4 groups, respectively. For the instant injury index, there was no significant difference among the four groups. The percent stenosis degree of RPM-PLGA NPs group was significantly lower than that of the other three groups respectively (all Pstenosis degree and shows excellent acute procedural results in the minipig interventional coronary artery oversized balloon injury model. The results from minipig model further support that this approach could be a potential clinical procedure for vascular proliferative disease.

  13. Testování Fed modelu

    OpenAIRE

    Hříbalová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    Diploma Thesis focuses on Fed Model testing and its credibility on market data. The research is based on Gordon Model and Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), it explains, what the basic features of the Fed Model are and describes its derivation from Gordon Model. The Thesis shows possible Fed Model limitation. It uses the US market, Great Britain and Germany 1979 -- 2011 data to demonstrate validity of the model. Eventually possible reasons of Fed Model development in period 2002 -- 2011 are ...

  14. The Potential Application of Hairless Guinea Pigs as a Replacement for the Yucatan Mini-pig in Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    was fed a standard guinea pig diet and given treats of cranberries and orange juice . Food was withheld for 12 hours prior to surgery, water was...electric clippers and then gently cleansed with surgical scrub and warm water. To assess the second goal of evaluating the animal’s ability to

  15. Joint profiling of miRNAs and mRNAs reveals miRNA mediated gene regulation in the Göttingen minipig obesity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Caroline M. Junker; Alkan, Ferhat; Keinicke, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities are an increasing challenge for both affected individuals and health care systems, worldwide. In obese individuals, perturbation of expression of both protein-coding genes and microRNAs (miRNA) are seen in obesity-relevant tissues (i.e. adipose tissue, liver and skel......Obesity and its comorbidities are an increasing challenge for both affected individuals and health care systems, worldwide. In obese individuals, perturbation of expression of both protein-coding genes and microRNAs (miRNA) are seen in obesity-relevant tissues (i.e. adipose tissue, liver....... In contrast, pigs are emerging as an excellent animal model for obesity studies, due to their similarities in their metabolism, their digestive tract and their genetics, when compared to humans. The Göttingen minipig is a small sized easy-to-handle pig breed which has been extensively used for modeling human...

  16. Osseointegration of KrF laser hydroxylapatite films on Ti6A14V alloy by mini-pigs: loaded osseointegration of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinek, Miroslav; Himmlova, Lucia; Grivas, Christos

    1999-05-01

    Aim of study was to evaluate osseointegration of the KrF laser hydroxyapatite coated titanium alloy Ti6Al4V dental implants. For deposition KrF excimer laser in stainless- steel deposition chamber was used. Thickness of HA films were round 1 μm . Mini-pigs were used in this investigation. Implants were placed vertically into the lower jaw. After 14 weeks unloaded osseointegration the metal ceramic crowns were inserted. the experimental animals were sacrificed (1 year post insertion). The vertical position of implants was controlled with a radiograph. Microscopical sections were cut and ground. Sections were viewed using microscope with CCD camera. 1 year osseointegration in lower jaw confirmed by all implants presence of newly formed bone around the all implants. Laser-deposited coating the layer of fibrous connective tissue was seen only seldom. In the control group (titamium implant without cover) the fibrous connective tissue was seen between implant and newly formed bone.

  17. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against......Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig...... animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1...

  18. Quantitative autoradiography of ligands for dopamine receptors and transporters in brain of Göttingen minipig: comparison with results in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minuzzi, Luciano; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Bender, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    The pig has been used as animal model for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of dopamine (DA) receptors and pharmacological perturbations of DA neurotransmission. However, the binding properties of DA receptors and transporters in pig brain have not been characterized in vitro. Therefore......, the saturation binding parameters of [3H]SCH 23390 for DA D1 receptors and [3H]raclopride for DA D2/3 receptors were measured by quantitative autoradiography in cryostat sections from brain of groups of 8 week old and adult female Göttingen minipigs. The magnitudes of Bmax and Kd for these ligands were similar...... in young and old pigs, and were close to those reported for rat and human brain. Furthermore, gradients in the concentrations of D1 and D2/3 sites in striatum measured in vitro agreed with earlier findings in PET studies. However, the dopamine transporter (DAT) ligand [3H]GBR12935 did not bind in pig brain...

  19. Dietary supplementation with N-carbamylglutamate increases the expression of intestinal amino acid transporters in weaned Huanjiang mini-pig piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Fu, D Z; Kong, X F; Wang, W C; Yang, X J; Nyachoti, C M; Yin, Y L

    2013-06-01

    Weaning is associated with reduced intestinal absorptive capacity in piglets. Our previous study indicated that dietary supplementation with N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) enhanced growth performance and improved intestinal function in weaned piglets. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with NCG may increase the growth performance of weaned piglets by regulating the expression of intestinal nutrient transporters, thus enhancing nutrient absorption. Twenty-four Huanjiang mini-pig piglets weaned at 21 d of age (3.17 ± 0.21 kg average BW) were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments consisting of a basal diet and the basal diet with 0.1% NCG supplementation for a 14-d period with 6 pens per treatment and 1 male and 1 female per pen. On d 14, 1 piglet was randomly selected from each pen for blood and tissue sampling. Dietary NCG supplementation enhanced (P < 0.05) growth rate and the efficiency of feed use in weaned Huanjiang mini-pig piglets. The NCG-supplemented diet increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression levels of Slc6a19, Slc7a9, and Slc1a1 and the protein abundance of ASCT2, B(0)AT1, b(0,+)AT, y(+)LAT1, and EAAC1 in the jejunum. Furthermore, the contents of low density lipoprotein, ammonia, urea nitrogen, and AA as well as the activity of alkaline phosphatase in plasma were all altered (P < 0.05) by supplementation with NCG. These findings indicate that dietary supplementation with NCG may improve intestinal absorptive function in weaned piglets by increasing the expression of AA transporters in the intestine.

  20. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  1. 转HJC-1和G6-EPSPS基因大米对五指山小型猪免疫指标的影响%Effects of rice genetically modified with HJC-1 and G6-EPSPS genes on immunological parameters in Wuzhishan minipigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞; 王静; 姜文玲; 曾强; 刘洪亮

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of rice genetically modified with HJC—1 and G6—EPSPS genes on immunological parameters in Wuzhishan minipigs. Methods The minipigs were fed with diet containing rice genetically modified with HJC-1 and G6-EPSPS genes and 9746 rice at a rate of 70% and 0%[genetically modified (GM) group, 9746 group and control group] respectively for 30 days, the general behavior, allergic symptoms and body weight were observed. At the beginning and end of experiment, the serum immunological parameters and the levels of trypsin and chymotrypsin in feces were tested. Immune organs were taken for calculating their organ coefficients and the levels of intestinal histamine were determined. Results During the experiment, the minipigs exhibited free movements without diarrhea or death. There were no adverse effects on body weight or immune organ coefficients in GM group and 9746 group. No significant differences in serum IgG, IgE, histamine and cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 between GM group and control group were observed before and after the experiment. Serum histamine and IFN-γ in 9746 group were higher compared with that in control group (P<0.05), but no significant differences in other parameters were observed. Compared with control group, no significant differences in intestinal histamine and levels of trypsin and chymotrypsin in feces were observed in both GM group and 9746 group. Conclusion In present study, no adverse effects were observed in immunological parameters in Wuzhishan minipigs treated with diet containing rice genetically modified with HJC-1 and G6-EPSPS genes.%目的 探讨转HJC-1和G6-EPSPS基因抗虫耐草甘膦大米对五指山小型猪免疫指标的影响,观察其是否具有免疫毒性和潜在致敏性.方法 分别用含70%转HJC-1和G6-EPSPS基因大米饲料、含70% 9746亲本大米饲料、常规基础饲料,连续喂饲五指山小型猪30 d,观察动物一般行为表现、过敏症状和

  2. Increase of ADAM10 level in coronary artery in-stent restenosis segments in diabetic minipigs: high ADAM10 expression promoting growth and migration in human vascular smooth muscle cells via Notch 1 and 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify major proteins in the pathogenesis of coronary artery in-stent restenosis (ISR in diabetic minipigs with sirolimus-eluting stenting, and to investigate the roles of key candidate molecules, particularly ADAM10, in human arterial smooth muscle cells (HASMCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: The stents were implanted in the coronary arteries of 15 diabetic and 26 non-diabetic minipigs, and angiography was repeated at six months. The intima of one vascular segment with significant ISR and one with non-ISR in diabetic minipigs were isolated and cultured in conditioned medium (CM. The CM was analyzed by LC-MS/MS to uncover proteins whose levels were significantly increased (≥ 1.5-fold in ISR than in non-ISR tissues. After literature searching, we focused on the identified proteins, whose biological functions were most potentially related to ISR pathophysiology. Among them, ADAM10 was significantly increased in diabetic and non-diabetic ISR tissues as compared with non-ISR controls. In cell experiments, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of ADAM10 promoted growth and migration of HASMCs. The effects of ADAM10 were more remarkable in high-glucose culture than in low-glucose culture. Using shRNA and an inhibitor of γ-secretase (GSI, we found that the influences of ADAM10 were in part mediated by Notch1 and notch 3 pathway, which up-regulated Notch downstream genes and enhanced nuclear translocation of the small intracellular component of Notch1 and Notch3. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified significantly increased expression of ADAM10 in the ISR versus non-ISR segment in diabetic minipigs and implicates ADAM10 in the enhanced neointimal formation observed in diabetes after vascular injury.

  3. Fat and carbohydrate content in the diet induces drastic changes in gene expression in young Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Caroline M.Junker; Figueiredo Cardoso, Tainã; Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul

    2017-01-01

    impact of diet interventions, it is very important to investigate the molecular mechanisms driving the diet-induced phenotypic changes in relevant tissues. However, studying these effects in humans is difficult due to ethical concerns in doing interventions and obtaining tissue samples and good animal......In human health, there is interest in developing specific diets to reduce body weight. These studies are mainly focused on phenotypic changes induced in blood measurements, i.e., triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and insulin, and on physical changes, i.e., body weight and BMI. To evaluate the biological...... the initial stages of diet-induced metabolic changes. Half of them were fed a high-fat/cholesterol, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet, and the other half were fed a low- fat/cholesterol, high-carbohydrate (LFHC) diet. After 13 weeks, the HFLC group weighted less and had dyslipidemia compared to the LFHC group...

  4. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: maria.moroni@usuhs.edu [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ngudiankama, Barbara F. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Christensen, Christine [Division of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Olsen, Cara H. [Biostatistics Consulting Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Owens, Rossitsa [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lombardini, Eric D. [Veterinary Medicine Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand); Holt, Rebecca K. [Veterinary Science Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Whitnall, Mark H. [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  5. Impulse Testing of Corporate-Fed Patch Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neil F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel method for detecting faults in antenna arrays. The method, termed Impulse Testing, was developed for corporate-fed patch arrays where the element is fed by a probe and is shorted at its center. Impulse Testing was devised to supplement conventional microwave measurements in order to quickly verify antenna integrity. The technique relies on exciting each antenna element in turn with a fast pulse (or impulse) that propagates through the feed network to the output port of the antenna. The resulting impulse response is characteristic of the path through the feed network. Using an oscilloscope, a simple amplitude measurement can be made to detect faults. A circuit model of the antenna elements and feed network was constructed to assess various fault scenarios and determine fault-detection thresholds. The experimental setup and impulse measurements for two patch array antennas are presented. Advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed along with applications to other antenna array topologies

  6. Various / Barry Witherden

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Witherden, Barry

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Various. John Keys (organ), Andrew Angus (bass). Vasari Singers / Jeremy Backhouse". EMI Eminence 7243 5 65 903 2. 74:09 DDD. Plaadil ka A. Pärdi "Summa", "The Beautitudes", "Seven Magnificat Antiphons"

  7. Various Actions for Pregeometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazawa, H.

    1991-08-01

    Various actions for pregeometry are presented and compared. The ``space-field identity'' which equates the n-beins to the derivatives of fundamental scalars is derived from a simple action but seems to be too restrictive to be practical.

  8. Various / Barry Witherden

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Witherden, Barry

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Various. John Keys (organ), Andrew Angus (bass). Vasari Singers / Jeremy Backhouse". EMI Eminence 7243 5 65 903 2. 74:09 DDD. Plaadil ka A. Pärdi "Summa", "The Beautitudes", "Seven Magnificat Antiphons"

  9. Development of a combined radiation and full thickness burn injury minipig model to study the effects of uncultured adipose-derived regenerative cell therapy in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, Philippe; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Gonzalez, Andreina; Berard, Felipe; Weber, Waylon; Zafra, Diana; Alfonso, Zeni; Zhao, Sherry; Tenenhaus, Mayer; Fraser, John K

    2017-03-01

    To develop an approach that models the cutaneous healing that occurs in a patient with full thickness thermal burn injury complicated by total body radiation exposure sufficient to induce sub-lethal prodromal symptoms. An assessment of the effects of an autologous cell therapy on wound healing on thermal burn injury with concomitant radiation exposure was used to validate the utility of the model. Göttingen minipigs were subjected to a 1.2 Gy total body irradiation by exposure to a 6 MV X-ray linear accelerator followed by ∼10 cm(2) full thickness burns (pre-heated brass block with calibrated spring). Three days after injury, wounds were excised to the underlying fascia and each animal was randomized to receive treatment with autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRC) delivered by local or intravenous injection, or vehicle control. Blood counts were used to assess radiation-induced marrow suppression. All animals were followed using digital imaging to assess wound healing. Full-thickness biopsies were obtained at 7, 14, 21 and 30 days' post-treatment. Compared to animals receiving burn injury alone, significant transient neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were observed in irradiated subjects with average neutrophil nadir of 0.79 × 10(3)/μl (day 15) and platelet nadir of 60 × 10(3)/μl (day 12). Wound closure through a combination of contraction and epithelialization from the wound edges occurred over a period of approximately 28 days' post excision and treatment. Re-epithelialization was accelerated in wounds treated with ADRC (mean 3.5-fold increase at 2 weeks post-treatment relative to control). This acceleration was accompanied by an average 67% increase in blood vessel density and 30% increase in matrix (collagen) deposition. Similar results were observed when ADRC were injected either directly into the wound or by intravenous administration. Although preliminary, this study provides a reproducible minipig model of thermal burn

  10. Studies on Construction and Transfer of Cloned Minipig Embryos%小型猪克隆胚的构建及胚胎移植研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴建军; 张德福; 李垚; 顾晓龙; 张廷宇; 吴彩凤; 张树山; 吴斌; 陈会兰; 陈学进

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish the somatic cell nuclear transfer technology of minipig and provide technical support for studies of transgenic animal models. Methods Using somatic cell nuclear transfer techniques, nuclear transfer was finished with fetal fibroblast cells and ear fibroblast cells (donor cells) from minipig and Fengjing pig respectively. Embryo transfer was carried out using the two kinds of reconstructed embryos. Result There were no significant differences between the two kinds of donor cells in vitro development (P>0.05). Chemical activation after electric fusion could partially improve the blastocyst rates, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Four healthy cloned piglets were borned after embryos transfer by the mixture of the two kinds reconstructed embryos. Microsatellite identification of cloned piglets showed whole same with their donor cells in heredity, and had nothing to do with their surrogate sows. Conclusion The method of our study group could be used to produce clone pigs.%目的 建立小型猪的体细胞核移植技术,为开展转基因小型猪动物模型研究提供技术支撑.方法 应用体细胞核移植技术,以小型猪胎儿成纤维细胞和枫泾猪耳成纤维细胞作为供体细胞进行体细胞核移植,并将两种重构胚混合后进行胚胎移植.结果 两种供体细胞在体外发育能力上无显著差异(P>0.05);电融合后进行化学激活能部分提高囊胚发育率,但差异不显著(P>0.05).两种方法生产的小型猪和枫泾猪克隆胚胎混合后,经胚胎移植均能顺利产下4只健康后代.经微卫星亲缘关系鉴定,克隆猪100%与供体细胞相同,与代孕母猪无关.结论 建立的克隆平台能够用于克隆猪的生产.

  11. Repeated measurements of P retention in ponies fed rations with various Ca:P ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, D A; Schaafstra, F J W C; Wouterse, H; Everts, H; Estepa, J C; Aguilera-Tejero, E; Beynen, A C

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether feeding rations rich in P for a period of up to 42 d induces a positive P balance in adult ponies. Biochemical bone markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH; intact as well as whole PTH) were measured to obtain clues as to the effect of P loading on bone meta

  12. A cellular automata model for simulating fed-batch penicillin fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Naigong; Ruan Xiaogang

    2006-01-01

    A cellular automata model to simulate penicillin fed-batch fermentation process(CAPFM)was established in this study,based on a morphologically structured dynamic penicillin production model,that is in turn based on the growth mechanism of penicillin producing microorganisms and the characteristics of penicillin fed-batch fermentation.CAPFM uses the three-dimensional cellular automata as a growth space,and a Moore-type neighborhood as the cellular neighborhood.The transition roles of CAPFM are designed based on mechanical and structural kinetic models of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes.Every cell of CAPFM represents a single or specific number of penicillin producing microorganisms,and has various state.The simulation experimental results show that CAPFM replicates the evolutionary behavior of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes described by the structured penicillin production kinetic model accordingly.

  13. Enhanced phenylpyruvic acid production with Proteus vulgaris in fed-batch and continuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

    2016-01-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid is a deaminated form of phenylalanine and is used in various areas such as development of cheese and wine flavors, diagnosis of phenylketonuria, and to decrease excessive nitrogen accumulation in the manure of farm animals. However, reported phenylpyruvic acid fermentation studies in the literature have been usually performed at shake-flask scale with low production. In this study, phenylpyruvic acid production was evaluated in bench-top bioreactors by conducting fed-batch and continuous fermentation for the first time. As a result, maximum phenylpyruvic acid concentrations increased from 1350 mg/L (batch fermentation) to 2958 mg/L utilizing fed-batch fermentation. Furthermore, phenylpyruvic acid productivity was increased from 48 mg/L/hr (batch fermentation) to 104 and 259 mg/L/hr by conducting fed-batch and continuous fermentation, respectively. Overall, this study demonstrated that fed-batch and continuous fermentation significantly improved phenylpyruvic acid production in bench-scale bioreactor production.

  14. Fed-Batch Feeding Strategies for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    of the differences in the interfacial and bulk concentrations of the enzyme. The model is then used to evaluate various feeding strategies to improve the enzymatic biodiesel production. The feeding strategies investigated, gave insight into how the methanol should be fed to potentially mitigate enzyme deactivation...... while improving the biodiesel yield. The best experimental results gave a yield of 703 .76 g FAME L-1 and a reactor productivity of 28.12 g FAME L-1 h-1. In comparison, to reach the same yield, the optimised two step feeding strategy took 6.25 hours less, which equates to an increase the reactor...

  15. Various Viewpoints on Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Bonita; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

  16. The effect of various avocado oils on skin collagen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werman, M J; Mokady, S; Nimni, M E; Neeman, I

    1991-01-01

    The effects of various avocado oils on collagen metabolism in skin were studied in growing rats fed diets containing 10% (w/w) of the tested oils. Rats fed the unrefined avocado oil extracted with hexane from the intact fruit, its unsaponifiables or the avocado seed oil, showed significant increases in soluble collagen content in skin, though total collagen content was not affected. The increased soluble collagen content appears to be a consequence of the inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity. The active factor was found to be present in the unrefined avocado oil and probably originated from the avocado seed, since collagen metabolism was affected only by fractions which contained lipids fraction from the seed. In comparison rats fed the refined or unrefined soybean oils showed no effects.

  17. Osseointegration of loaded dental implant with KrF laser hydroxylapatite films on Ti6Al4V alloy by minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Himmlova, Lucia; Jelinek, Miroslav; Grivas, Christos

    2001-04-01

    This study was performed with the objective of evaluating osseointegration of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V dental implants coated with hydroxylapatite (HA) deposited by a KrF laser. For this a KrF excimer laser and stainless-steel deposition chamber were used. The thickness of the HA films was approximately 1 micrometers . IN this investigation experimental animals minipigs were used; the implants were placed vertically into the lower jaw. After 14 weeks of unloaded osseointegration, metal-ceramic crowns were inserted and, at the same time, fluorescent solution was injected into the experimental animals. Six months after insertion of crowns the animals were sacrificed. The vertical position of the implants was checked by a radiograph. Microscopic sections were cut and ground, and the sections were examined under polarized and fluorescent light using a microscope with a charge coupled device camera. The six month long osseointegration in the lower jaw has confirmed the presence of newly formed bone around all the implants. In the experimental group, which had a laser-deposited coating, the layer of fibrous connective tissue was seen only randomly. In the control group (titanium implant without a cover) the fibrous connective tissue between the implant and the newly formed bone was observed more frequently, but this difference was not significant.

  18. Gastric mucosal electrical potential difference and blood flow during high FFA/albumin ratios in anaesthetized Göttingen mini-pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bülow, J B; Madsen, J;

    1988-01-01

    . The gastric blood flow was measured with the radioactive microsphere technique: at basal conditions, during high FFA/albumin ratios, and after normalization of the plasma lipids. The antrum p.d., expressed with gastric lumen negative, decreased during the increased FFA/albumin ratios; from -25 +/- 3 mV to -17......The gastric blood flow and the gastric mucosal potential difference (p.d.) was studied in anaesthetized Göttingen mini-pigs under normal conditions and during increased FFA/albumin ratios. The antrum mucosal p.d. was measured continuously with a newly developed intragastric microelectrode principle...... +/- 4 mV, (P less than 0.05). A further reduction to -12 +/- 3 mV (P less than 0.05) was observed during the normalization of the FFA/albumin ratios. The antrum and corpus mucosal blood flow values were reduced by 37 and 26% during the increased FFA/albumin ratios, and the gastric mucosal blood flow...

  19. Accuracy of Bone Measurements in the Vicinity of Titanium Implants in CBCT Data Sets: A Comparison of Radiological and Histological Findings in Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gröbe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this animal study was the determination of accuracy of bone measurements in CBCT (cone-beam computed tomography in close proximity to titanium implants. Material and Methods. Titanium implants were inserted in eight Göttingen minipigs. 60 implants were evaluated histologically in ground section specimen and radiologically in CBCT in regard to thickness of the buccal bone. With random intercept models, the difference of histologic measurements and CBCT measurements of bone thickness was calculated. Results. The mean histological thickness of the buccal bone was 5.09 mm (CI 4.11–6.08 mm. The four raters measured slightly less bone in CBCT than it was found in histology. The random effect was not significant (p value 1.000. Therefore, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was 98.65% (CI 100.00–96.99%. Conclusion. CBCT is an accurate technique to measure even thin bone structures in the vicinity of titanium implants.

  20. Angiogenesis PET Tracer Uptake (68Ga-NODAGA-E[(cRGDyK)]₂) in Induced Myocardial Infarction in Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Follin, Bjarke; Kastrup, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is part of the healing process following an ischemic injury and is vital for the post-ischemic repair of the myocardium. Therefore, it is of particular interest to be able to noninvasively monitor angiogenesis. This might, not only permit risk stratification of patients following myo...... RGD-PET in minipigs hearts, which resemble human hearts. The perspectives are very intriguing and might permit the evaluation of new treatment strategies targeted towards increasing the angiogenetic response, e.g., stem-cell treatment....... myocardial infarction, but could also facilitate development and improvement of new therapies directed towards stimulation of the angiogenic response. During angiogenesis endothelial cells must adhere to one another to form new microvessels. αvβ₃ integrin has been found to be highly expressed in activated...... endothelial cells and has been identified as a critical modulator of angiogenesis. (68)Ga-NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK)]₂ (RGD) has recently been developed by us as an angiogenesis positron-emission-tomography (PET) ligand targeted towards αvβ₃ integrin. In the present study, we induced myocardial infarction in Göttingen...

  1. Determination of 7α-OH cholesterol by LC-MS/MS: Application in assessing the activity of CYP7A1 in cholestatic minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Changhong; Yin, Taijun; Shatzer, Katherine; Burrin, Douglas G; Cui, Liwei; Tu, Yifan; Hu, Ming

    2016-07-01

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to determine 7α-OH cholesterol in liver microsome. This method was convenient and fast with high specificity and sensitivity. Briefly, a gradient elution was performed on a Synergi polar-C18 column (50×4.6mm i.d., 3μm). The mobile phase (consisting of 0.1% HCOOH solution and acetonitrile) eluted in gradient at a flow rate of 1ml/min. MS detection was operated on APCI (+) mode; the MRM transitions for 7α-OH cholesterol and D7-cholesterol (I.S.) were 385.1≥159.1 and 376.4≥266.3, respectively. The linear response range of 7α-OH cholesterol was covered from 1.563 to 100.0ng/ml. All of the validation items meet the requirement of FDA guidance for bioanalytical method validation. This method was applied to enzymatic studies for determination of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylation activity catalyzed by CYP7A1 in the cholestatic minipigs liver microsomes.

  2. Nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and growth performance of sheep fed different silages with or without concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sohail H; Shahzad, Muhammad Aasif; Nisa, Mahr; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2011-04-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americannum) silages with or without concentrate on nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and weight gain in Sipli sheep. Six experimental diets were formulated having 100% maize silage (MS), maize silage and concentrate as 50:50 (MSC), 100% sorghum silage (SS), sorghum silage and concentrate as 50:50 (SSC), 100% millet silage (MiS) and millet silage and concentrate as 50:50 (MiSC), respectively. For this purpose, 24 Sipli lambs were randomly allotted to six experimental diets in a completely randomized design for 90 days, four lambs per diet. The results indicated that among various silage diets, lambs fed MS diet consumed higher dry matter (DM) than those fed SS and MiS diets. Likewise, lambs offered MSC had higher dry matter intake than those fed SSC and MiSC diets. Crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) consumed by the lambs also followed the similar trend. Higher DM, CP and NDF digestibilities were also observed in lambs fed MS and MSC diets than those fed SS, SSC, MiS and MiSC diets. Overall digestibilities of DM, CP and NDF were higher in experimental diets containing silage with concentrate. Lambs fed MS diet had 2.79 g/day and 4.45 g/day higher N retention than those fed SS and MiS, respectively. Similarly, lambs fed MSC diet had 2.24 g/day and 5.12 g/day higher N retention than those fed SSC and MiSC diets, respectively. The results showed that lambs fed MSC gained more daily weight gain had better feed conversion ratio than those fed MS, SS, SSC, MiS and MiSC diets. The findings of the present study indicated that lambs fed MSC diet had higher nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and weight gain.

  3. Transcriptomic profiling of spleen in grass-fed and grain-fed Angus cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grass-fed cattle obtain nutrients directly from pastures containing limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber; by contrast, grain-fed steers receive a diet that is comprised mainly of grains and serves as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Besides energy, these two type...

  4. Relationship of Breast-fed and Bottle-fed First Grade Students and I.Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Danette

    Previous studies have indicated some support for the hypothesis that breast feeding has a positive effect on intelligence and attainment among young children. This study examined the effects of breast-feeding versus bottle-feeding on the intelligence quotients (IQs) of first graders. A total of 26 breast-fed and 26 bottle-fed first graders from an…

  5. Dietary anthocyanin-rich tart cherry extract inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min) mice fed suboptimal levels of sulindac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobe, Gerd; Wang, Bing; Seeram, Navindra P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2006-12-13

    A promising approach for cancer chemoprevention might be a combination therapy utilizing dietary phytochemicals and anticarcinogenic pharmaceuticals at a suboptimal dosage to minimize any potential adverse side effects. To test this hypothesis, various dosages of anthocyanin-rich tart cherry extract were fed in combination with suboptimal levels of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac to APCMin mice for 19 weeks. By the end of the feeding period, fewer mice that were fed the anthocyanin-rich extract in combination with sulindac lost more than 10% of body weight than mice fed sulindac alone. Mice that were fed anthocyanin-rich extract (at any dose) in combination with sulindac had fewer tumors and a smaller total tumor burden (total tumor area per mouse) in the small intestine when compared to mice fed sulindac alone. These results suggest that a dietary combination of tart cherry anthocyanins and sulindac is more protective against colon cancer than sulindac alone.

  6. Anesthetic Management in Bama Minipigs with da Vinci Robotic Operating System%巴马小型猪在达芬奇机器人手术系统中的麻醉管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋; 陈克研; 张贺; 苏朋; 孙倩; 王承利

    2012-01-01

    为探讨巴马小型猪在达芬奇机器人微创手术中的麻醉管理策略,以丙泊酚麻醉作诱导,异氟醚维持麻醉的复合麻醉方法对巴马小型猪进行全身麻醉,同时用达芬奇机器人对其分别进行心脏、肺脏、肝脏和胃的微创手术,于术前、术中及术后监测巴马小型猪动脉血气和血流动力学变化.结果各组试验猪均顺利完成手术,手术平均时间(166±34)min,麻醉时间(181±38)min,气胸(气腹)时间(122±33)min,在整个麻醉过程及苏醒过程中,各组试验猪安全平稳,未出现体动表现.由此可见,该麻醉方法可用于达芬奇机器人手术系统,且为人医临床应用中的麻醉管理奠定基础.%To investigate the Bama minipigs anesthesia management strategies in the da Vinci robotic operating system. The Bama minipigs were general anaesthesia with propofol as induction of anaesthesia combined isoflurane as maintain anesthesia, and then the Bama minipigs were minimally invasive surgery of the heart, lungs, liver and stomach by the da Vinci robotic operating system, in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative monitoring of the Bama minipigs arterial blood gas and hemodynamic changes. The results of the experiment pigs were the successful completion of the surgery, the mean operative time (166±34) min, anesthesia time (181±38) min, pneumothorax (pneumoperitoneum) time (12Z±33) min, and the entire anesthesia process and in the awakening process safe and stable group of pigs, performance did not appear to body movement. Thus, the anesthetic method could be used for the da Vinci robotic operating system, and human medical clinical application in anesthesia management foundation.

  7. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment.

  8. Intraindividual quantitative and qualitative comparison of gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadobutrol in time-resolved contrast-enhanced 4-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch Reza; Jost, Gregor; Pietsch, Hubertus; Weibrecht, Martin; Perkuhn, Michael; Boschewitz, Jack Maria; Keil, Vera Catharina; Träber, Frank; Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Schild, Hans Heinz; Willinek, Winfried Albert

    2014-07-01

    The concentration and relaxivities of contrast agents affect quantitative and qualitative image quality in contrast-enhanced time-resolved 4-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (4D-MRA). Gadobutrol has a high relaxivity and is the only gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent approved for clinical use at a 1 M concentration. This promises to confer superior bolus characteristics by generating a steeper and shorter bolus with a higher peak Gd concentration. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine bolus characteristics of 1 M gadobutrol compared with 0.5 M gadopentetate dimeglumine and to evaluate image quality in thoracoabdominal 4D-MRA. A total of 7 Goettingen minipigs received dynamic computed tomography (CT) on a clinical 64-slice CT (transverse slices, 80 kV, 20 seconds, 0.3 s/dynamic frame) and 4D-MRA (time-resolved imaging with stochastic trajectories; 1. transverse slices, 30 seconds, 0.49 s/frame; 2. coronal slices, 70 seconds, 1.3 s/frame) on a 1.5-T clinical whole-body magnetic resonance imaging under general anesthesia using gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadobutrol in an intraindividual comparative study. Computed tomography attenuations were converted into Gd concentrations on the basis of previous phantom experiments. Quantitative analysis included measurements of the full width at half maximum, time-to-peak intervals, and peak of each bolus in dynamic CT and transverse 4D-MRA. These studies were carried out at equivalent contrast agent flow rates of 1 mL/s. Quantitative analysis (7 arteries and veins) and qualitative image analysis were performed on coronal thoracoabdominal 4D-MRA studies carried out at flow rates of 1 mL/s and, in the case of gadopentetate dimeglumine, also at molarity-adjusted flow rates of 2 mL/s. The bolus in both transverse 4D-MRA and dynamic CT was significantly narrower (full width at half maximum), earlier (time to peak), and higher (signal intensity enhancement in 4D-MRA, Gd concentration in dynamic CT) when

  9. Effects of meat cooking, and of ingested amount, on protein digestion speed and entry of residual proteins into the colon: a study in minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Bax

    Full Text Available The speed of protein digestion impacts on postprandial protein anabolism. After exercise or in the elderly, fast proteins stimulate protein synthesis more efficiently than slow proteins. It has been shown that meat might be a source of fast proteins. However, cooking temperature, acting on the macrostructure and microstructure of the meat could affect both the speed, and efficiency, of protein digestion. This study aims to evaluate, in vivo, the effect of meat cooking on digestion parameters, in the context of a complete meal. Six minipigs fitted with an ileal cannula and an arterial catheter were used. In order to measure the true ileal digestibility, tested meat was obtained from a calf, the muscle proteins of which were intrinsically labelled with (15N-amino acids. Three cooking temperatures (60, 75 and 95°C; core temperature for 30 min, and three levels of intake (1, 1.45, and 1.90 g protein/kg body weight were tested. Following meat ingestion, ileal digesta and arterial blood were collected over a 9-h period. The speed of digestion, evaluated from the kinetics of amino acid appearance in blood within the first 3 h, was greater for the cooking temperature of 75°C, than for 60 or 95°C. The true ileal digestibility, which averaged 95%, was not affected by cooking temperature or by the level of meat intake. The amino acid composition of the digesta flowing at the ileum was not affected by cooking temperature. These results show that cooking temperature can modulate the speed of meat protein digestion, without affecting the efficiency of the small intestinal digestion, and consequently the entry of meat protein residues into the colon.

  10. Cell source-dependent in vivo immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the bone marrow and synovial fluid of minipigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won-Jae [College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hah, Young-Sool [Biomedical Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ock, Sun-A. [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Suwon 441-706, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Hoon; Jeon, Ryong-Hoon; Park, Ji-Sung [College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Il [Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Na-Young [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 4S7 (Canada); Rho, Gyu-Jin [College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Lim, E-mail: sllee@gnu.ac.kr [College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    The in vitro differentiation and immunosuppressive capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from synovial fluid (SF-MSCs) and bone marrow extract (BM-MSCs) in an isogenic background of minipigs were comparatively analyzed in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The proliferation capacity and expression of pluripotent transcription factors (Oct3/4 and Sox2) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in SF-MSCs than in BM-MSCs. The differentiation capacity of SF-MSCs into adipocytes, osteocytes and neurocytes was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of BM-MSCs, and the differentiation capacity of SF-MSCs into chondrocytes was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of BM-MSCs. Systemic injection of BM- and SF-MSCs significantly (P<0.05) ameliorated the clinical symptoms of CIA mice, with SF-MSCs having significantly (P<0.05) higher clinical and histopathological recovery scores than BM-MSCs. Furthermore, the immunosuppressive properties of SF-MSCs in CIA mice were associated with increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, and decreased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and osteoclast-related sRANKL. In conclusion, SF-MSCs exhibited eminent pluripotency and differentiation capacity into chondrocytes, addition to substantial in vivo immunosuppressive capacity by elevating IL-10 and reducing IL-1β levels in CIA mice. - Highlights: • Immunosuppressive capacity of BM-, SM-, and SF-MSCs was evaluated in an RA model. • Proliferation, pluripotency and chondrogenic differentiation capacity were higher in SF-MSCs. • SF-MSCs exhibited improved therapeutic effects than BM-MSCs. • SF-MSCs may have applications as immunosuppressive therapy in autoimmune diseases.

  11. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ+ CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1 is a novel immunogen based on the variant domain (VD) 4 region from major outer membrane protein (MOMP) serovar (Sv) D, SvE and SvF, and CTH93 is a fusion molecule of three antigens (CT043, CT414 and MOMP). Pigs were immunized twice intramuscularly with either Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01, UV-inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against Chlamydia. PMID:26268662

  12. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ⁺ CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1 is a novel immunogen based on the variant domain (VD) 4 region from major outer membrane protein (MOMP) serovar (Sv) D, SvE and SvF, and CTH93 is a fusion molecule of three antigens (CT043, CT414 and MOMP). Pigs were immunized twice intramuscularly with either Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01, UV-inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against Chlamydia.

  13. Valuation of supplements to enhance nutrient supply and mil production of cattle fed diets based on elephant grass (Pennisetum Purpureum) using a mathematical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.I.F.C.; Dijkstra, J.; Assis, A.G.; France, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2002-01-01

    A previously developed dynamic model of digestion and absorption of nutrients in cattle fed sugarcane-based diets (Dijkstra et al., 1996a) was modified to evaluate the effect of various supplements on the supply of nutrients and milk production of dairy cows fed diets based on elephant grass (Pennis

  14. FedEX Sponsors China's Badminton Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The reigning world champion team joins hands with the express delivery service to greet the coming Olympics Starting this year, Olympic badminton champion Zhang Ning and world badminton champion Lin Dan will be wearing clothing with the FedEx logo on it.

  15. Wideband electromagnetically coupled coaxial probe fed slot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... and low gain that limits its application in practice (Bahl et al, 1980 and Balanis, ... distribution in upper and lower patches at both the resonance frequencies is .... The equivalent circuit of rectangular patch stacked with U-slot loaded fed patch ...

  16. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...

  17. Emulation of Wind Power with a DC Machine to Provide Input to a Doubly-Fed Induction Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The behavioral modeling of a separately excited direct current ( DC ) motor as a prime mover for a doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) is studied in...this thesis. The output torque of the DC motor is computed in the simulation under controlled parameters. The input to the DFIM, used as a doubly-fed...induction generator (DFIG), is taken from the DC motor . In theory, the combination of the two machines can be used to emulate various wind patterns and

  18. Performance Analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind turbine under Faulty and RLC Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Parashar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of Doubly Fed Induction Generator based wind turbine system during different types of grid fault. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG based wind turbine (WT system provides better power delivery towards the demand. The design and response of the DFIG based wind turbine system during different fault conditions, various load conditions and integrated system consisting of DFIG based WT system have been verified using MATLAB/ Simulink. The simulation results are shown with the model of DFIG based wind energy generation system.

  19. Sequence-Based Genotyping of Expressed Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles by Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal Novel Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Haplotypes and Alleles in Belgian, Danish, and Kenyan Fattening Pigs and Göttingen Minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Maria Rathmann; Ilsøe, Mette; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Bishop, Richard; Erbs, Gitte; Hartmann, Sofie Bruun; Jungersen, Gregers

    2017-01-01

    The need for typing of the swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) is increasing with the expanded use of pigs as models for human diseases and organ-transplantation experiments, their use in infection studies, and for design of veterinary vaccines. Knowledge of SLA sequences is furthermore a prerequisite for the prediction of epitope binding in pigs. The low number of known SLA class I alleles and the limited knowledge of their prevalence in different pig breeds emphasizes the need for efficient SLA typing methods. This study utilizes an SLA class I-typing method based on next-generation sequencing of barcoded PCR amplicons. The amplicons were generated with universal primers and predicted to resolve 68–88% of all known SLA class I alleles dependent on amplicon size. We analyzed the SLA profiles of 72 pigs from four different pig populations; Göttingen minipigs and Belgian, Kenyan, and Danish fattening pigs. We identified 67 alleles, nine previously described haplotypes and 15 novel haplotypes. The highest variation in SLA class I profiles was observed in the Danish pigs and the lowest among the Göttingen minipig population, which also have the highest percentage of homozygote individuals. Highlighting the fact that there are still numerous unknown SLA class I alleles to be discovered, a total of 12 novel SLA class I alleles were identified. Overall, we present new information about known and novel alleles and haplotypes and their prevalence in the tested pig populations. PMID:28670315

  20. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (Psaturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (Psaturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  1. Performance of broiler chicken fed varied nutrient density diets supplemented with direct fed microbial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002

  2. Performance of broiler fed pure glycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dássia Daiane Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments evaluated the pure glycerin in broiler chicken diets. Experiment 1 was a metabolism test using total feces sampling method with 96 male chickens aging from 17 to 25 d when animals were fed on two treatments: diet1 = no glycerin and diet2 = 60g/kg of glycerin. The apparent metabolized energy measured 4015 kcal/kg and the apparent metabolized corrected for nitrogen balance was 3911 kcal/kg. Experiment 2 evaluated weight gains, feed intake and feed conversion in 480 chicks at 6, 20 and 34 d old fed on diets with 0, 40, 80 and 120 g/kg of glycerin. The results indicate that pure glycerin in chicken diets, as a source of energy must take into consideration the age of the animals and it may be added up to 120 g/kg, from 20 to 41 d of age.

  3. Antigenic specificity of serum antibodies in mice fed soy protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Bruun, S.W.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    ingesting soy protein. Methods: Blood from mice fed a soy-containing diet was analyzed using ELISA and immunoblot for antibody reactivity towards various soy protein fractions and pure soy proteins/subunits. Mice bred on a soy-free diet were used as controls. Results: The detectable antigenic specificity...... of the serum antibodies of soy-consuming mice comprised glycinin and beta-conglycinin. Immunoblots with soy protein extract demonstrated antibody reactivity towards both the basic and the acidic chains of glycinin and the beta-conglycinin subunits with an individual response pattern among mice. Moreover......Background: Soybean protein is used in a number of food products but unfortunately is also a common cause of food allergy. Upon ingestion of soy protein, healthy mice like other animals and humans generate a soy-specific antibody response in the absence of signs of illness. Not much is known about...

  4. Analysis of Variable Speed PFC Chopper Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jeya Selvan Renius

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the detailed analysis of the DC-DC chopper fed Brushless DC motor drive used for low-power applications. The various methods used to improve the power quality at the ac mains with lesser number of components are discussed. The most effective method of power quality improvement is also simulated using MATLAB Simulink. Improved method of speed control by controlling the dc link voltage of Voltage Source Inverter is also discussed with reduced switching losses. The continuous and discontinuous modes of operation of the converters are also discussed based on the improvement in power quality. The performance of the most effective solution is simulated in MATLAB Simulink environment and the obtained results are presented.

  5. A Study of End-Fed Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kondylis, Konstantinos; Zimourtopoulos, Petros

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a general analysis of end-fed space arrays with application to self-standing linear arrays of parallel dipoles. A number of test array models were simulated, constructed and their radiation pattern was then measured. The experimental and computational results were found to be in good agreement. The developed software applications are available through the Internet as FLOSS Free Libre Open Source Software.

  6. Harmonic analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, Morten; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the frequency spectrum of the stator and rotor currents in a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in wind power applications. The paper also presents a method to eliminate higher harmonics and interharmonics in the DFIG stator current. The method is implemented...... on a 40 kW laboratory model connected to the utility-grid, where the DFIG is supplied by a back-to-back 3-level NPC-converter....

  7. 陆眠宁Ⅱ复合麻醉在小型猪牙种植实验中的效果观察%Observation of Lumianning Ⅱ Compound Anesthetic Effects in Dental Implant Experiment on Minipigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利民; 郑园娜; 杨国灵; 谷志远

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore a kind of anesthetic methods which is suitable for experimental dental implantation on minipigs.Methods Twelve minipigs undergoing experimental dental implantation were divided randomly into two groups.In one group,animals were induced with intramuscular Lumianning Ⅱ injection in a dose of 0.2mL/kg.While in the other,l:l mixture of Lumianning Ⅱ and ketamine was adopt in the same way of intramuscular injection.The anesthesia induction time,maintenance time,analepsia time,body temperature,breathing frequency and heart rate during the anesthesia period were observed and recorded in both two groups.Results It was found that the anesthesia induction time and maintenance time of Lumianning Ⅱ combined with ketamine were significantly superior to Lumianning Ⅱ alone.The combined anesthetization could improve the effect of Lumianning Ⅱ treatment,and did not interfere with respiration and circulatory system during the anesthesia process.Conclusion Lumianning Ⅱ combined with ketamine was considered as a satisfactory method to anesthetize minipigs during the experimental dental implantation.%目的 探索一种适合小型猪牙种植实验的麻醉方法.方法 小型猪12只,随机均分为2组,单纯麻醉组采用陆眠宁Ⅱ0.2mL/kg肌肉注射,复合麻醉组采用陆眠宁Ⅱ联合氯胺酮0.2mL/kg肌肉注射(按1:1混合).观察麻醉显效时间、维持时间、苏醒时间并记录麻醉过程中体温、呼吸、心跳变化.结果 陆眠宁Ⅱ、氯胺酮复合麻醉组在麻醉显效时间、维持时间上优于陆眠宁Ⅱ单纯麻醉组,复合麻醉可以提高陆眠宁Ⅱ的麻醉效果,且用量较小,对心血管、呼吸无明显抑制.结论 陆眠宁Ⅱ、氯胺酮复合麻醉是小型猪牙种植实验理想的麻醉方法.

  8. Faecal Excretion of Glycosphingolipids of Breast-fed and Formula-fed Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, G.; Falk, P; Hynsjö, L.; Midtvedt, A. -C.; Midtvedt, T

    2011-01-01

    Faecal samples of six healthy breast-fed, or formula-fed, infants were collected at intervals up to 9 mth of age and analysed for their contents of sphingolipids. Comparisons were made with faecal samples of one older child and one adult. The mean faccal content of sphingolipids during the first 9 mth of life (8.2 μmol sphingosine/g dry stool) was significantly less than that of meconium samples (23.3 μmol/gj but higher than that of adult stools (1.2 μmol/g). Sphingomyelin excretion ...

  9. Heinz body formation in cats fed baby food containing onion powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J E; Christopher, M M; Rogers, Q R

    1998-04-15

    To determine whether cats fed baby food with onion powder develop Heinz bodies and anemia and to establish a dose-response relation between dietary onion powder content and Heinz body formation. Prospective study. 42 healthy, adult, specific-pathogen-free cats. Commercial baby food with and without onion powder was fed to 2 groups of 6 cats for 5 weeks. Heinz body percentage, PCV, reticulocyte percentage, turbidity index, and methemoglobin and reduced glutathione concentrations were determined twice weekly and then weekly for 4 weeks following removal of the diet. For the dose-response study, 5 groups of 6 cats were fed a canned diet for 2 months that contained 0, 0.3, 0.75, 1.5, or 2.5% onion powder. Heinz body percentage, PCV, and reticulocyte percentage were determined twice weekly. Compared with cats fed baby food without onion powder, cats ingesting baby food with onion powder had significantly higher Heinz body percentages that peaked at 33 to 53%. Methemoglobin concentration also significantly increased but did not exceed 1.2%. Glutathione concentration, PCV, and food intake did not differ between the 2 groups. Rate and degree of Heinz body formation differed significantly between various onion powder concentrations fed. Compared with 0% onion powder, the diet with 2.5% onion powder caused a significant decrease in PCV and an increased punctate reticulocyte percentage. Baby food or other foods containing similar amounts of onion powder should be avoided for use in cats because of Heinz body formation and the potential for development of anemia, particularly with high food intake. Cats with diseases associated with oxidative stress may develop additive hemoglobin damage when fed baby food containing onion powder.

  10. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  11. Brazilian minipig as a large-animal model for basic research and stem cell-based tissue engineering. Characterization and in vitro differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Targa STRAMANDINOLI-ZANICOTTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based regenerative medicine is one of the most intensively researched medical issues. Pre-clinical studies in a large-animal model, especially in swine or miniature pigs, are highly relevant to human applications. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been isolated and expanded from different sources. Objective: This study aimed at isolating and characterizing, for the first time, bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs from a Brazilian minipig (BR1. Also, this aimed to validate a new large-animal model for stem cell-based tissue engineering. Material and Methods: Bone marrow (BM was aspirated from the posterior iliac crest of twelve adult male BR1 under general anesthesia. MSCs were selected by plastic-adherence as originally described by Friedenstein. Cell morphology, surface marker expression, and cellular differentiation were examined. The immunophenotypic profile was determined by flow cytometry. The differentiation potential was assessed by cytological staining and by RT-PCR. Results: MSCs were present in all minipig BM samples. These cells showed fibroblastic morphology and were positive for the surface markers CD90 (88.6%, CD29 (89.8%, CD44 (86.9% and negative for CD34 (1.61%, CD45 (1.83%, CD14 (1.77% and MHC-II (2.69%. MSCs were differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts as demonstrated by the presence of lipidic-rich vacuoles, the mineralized extracellular matrix, and the great presence of glycosaminoglycans, respectively. The higher gene expression of adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (AP2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and collagen type 2 (COLII also confirmed the trilineage differentiation (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.031; respectively. Conclusions: The isolation, cultivation, and differentiation of BM-MSCs from BR1 makes this animal eligible as a useful large-animal model for stem cell-based studies in Brazil.

  12. Brazilian minipig as a large-animal model for basic research and stem cell-based tissue engineering. Characterization and in vitro differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramandinoli-Zanicotti, Roberta Targa; Carvalho, André Lopes; Rebelatto, Carmen Lúcia Kuniyoshi; Sassi, Laurindo Moacir; Torres, Maria Fernanda; Senegaglia, Alexandra Cristina; Boldrinileite, Lidiane Maria; Correa-Dominguez, Alejandro; Kuligovsky, Crisciele; Brofman, Paulo Roberto Slud

    2014-06-01

    Stem cell-based regenerative medicine is one of the most intensively researched medical issues. Pre-clinical studies in a large-animal model, especially in swine or miniature pigs, are highly relevant to human applications. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated and expanded from different sources. This study aimed at isolating and characterizing, for the first time, bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) from a Brazilian minipig (BR1). Also, this aimed to validate a new large-animal model for stem cell-based tissue engineering. Bone marrow (BM) was aspirated from the posterior iliac crest of twelve adult male BR1 under general anesthesia. MSCs were selected by plastic-adherence as originally described by Friedenstein. Cell morphology, surface marker expression, and cellular differentiation were examined. The immunophenotypic profile was determined by flow cytometry. The differentiation potential was assessed by cytological staining and by RT-PCR. MSCs were present in all minipig BM samples. These cells showed fibroblastic morphology and were positive for the surface markers CD90 (88.6%), CD29 (89.8%), CD44 (86.9%) and negative for CD34 (1.61%), CD45 (1.83%), CD14 (1.77%) and MHC-II (2.69%). MSCs were differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts as demonstrated by the presence of lipidic-rich vacuoles, the mineralized extracellular matrix, and the great presence of glycosaminoglycans, respectively. The higher gene expression of adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (AP2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type 2 (COLII) also confirmed the trilineage differentiation (pcell-based studies in Brazil.

  13. Converter fed sub sea motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raad, R.O.

    1995-09-01

    Minor offshore gas and oil resources located 20-50 km from existing installations may often be commercially exploited only by use of complete sub sea solutions. This thesis deals with analyses of a sub sea adjustable speed electric motor which is fed by a frequency converter via a long cable (up to 50 km) between the converter and the motor. The author develops a general model for analysing such motor drive systems with the objective of verifying the feasibility of specific applications and of specifying the requirements on the system components. The simulation model is used to identify the critical frequency ranges in which the converter must not generate significant harmonics, to verify the start-up strategy chosen, and to verify the stability with potential disturbances applied to the system. Simulation models are developed for both transient and steady state analyses. They are accurate up to 5 kHz and can incorporate the frequency dependency of the motor and cable parameters. Ideal thyristors and diodes are used. The models are implemented in existing simulation tools. Most of the results relate to a base case with a 670 kW squirrel cage motor fed from a 30 km long cable, but cases with 3 MW rating or with 50 km cable have also been analyzed and found to be feasible. Each specific application must be separately studied. Results of simulation calculations are presented and conclusions given. 53 refs., 124 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Coupling Between Waveguide-Fed Slot Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between two waveguide-fed planar slot arrays has been investigated using full-wave analysis. The analysis employs the method-of-moments solution to the pertinent coupled integral equations for the aperture electric field of all slots. In order to compute coupling between two arrays, the input port of the first array is excited with a TE(sub 10) mode wave while the second one is match-terminated. After solving the moment method matrix equations, the aperture fields of all slots are obtained and thereby the TE(sub 10) mode wave received at the input port of the second array is determined. Coupling between two arrays is the ratio of the wave amplitude arriving in the second array port to the incident wave amplitude at the first array port. The coupling mechanism has been studied as a function of spacing between arrays in different directions, e.g. the electric field plane, the magnetic field plane, and the diagonal plane. Computed coupling values are presented for different array geometries. This work is novel since it provides a good understanding of coupling between waveguide-fed slot arrays as a function of spacing and orientation for different aperture distributions and array architectures. This serves as a useful tool for antenna design engineers and system engineers.

  15. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed fish oil compared with those fed coconut oil or lard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedemann, M S; Pedersen, A R; Engberg, R M

    2001-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later, they were surgically fitted with a catheter in the pancreatic duct for continuous collection of pancreatic juice. Collections of pancreatic juice were made every other day starting 4 d postsurgically. Piglets fed the fish oil diet secreted a significantly greater volume of pancreatic juice than piglets fed the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among the dietary treatment groups. The apparent digestibilities of nutrients and energy were measured in feces and did not differ among groups. Thus, the greater output of lipase in fish oil-fed piglets did not result in a greater digestibility of fat in this diet.

  16. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  17. Phosphorus Utilization and Characterization of Excreta From Swine Fed Diets Containing A Variety of Cereal Grains Balanced For Total Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrinsic phytase in swine feeds may alter phytate utilization and solubility of excreted phosphorus. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to quantify changes in fecal phosphorus composition from swine fed various cereal grains with a range of phytate concentrations and endogenous phytase...

  18. Influence of feeding various phosphorus sources on apparent digestibility of phosphorus in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekelund, A.; Sporndly, R.; Valk, H.; Murphy, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present investigated differences in the apparent digestibility of phosphorus (ADP) in lactating cows fed various feed materials containing organic forms of phosphorus (P) or a highly available inorganic phosphorus source. Cows milking an average of 36 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) were used in

  19. Development of an Acetate-Fed or Sugar-Fed Microbial Power Generator for Military Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose • Acetate Propionate • Hydrogen gas • Lactate • Formate • !so-butyrate Unknown fbiomass -’-soluble products ) KM. 80 60 I" 20 DavO...lactate and acetate as fermentation products and is ready for test in the MFC modules. 1. Anode materials We compared the performances of acetate-fed...microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) with graphite rods and stainless steel meshes as anodes to select the optimum material for use in MFC modules to

  20. Oxidized Cholesteryl Esters and Phospholipids in Zebrafish Larvae Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Longhou; Harkewicz, Richard; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Wiesner, Philipp; Choi, Soo-Ho; Almazan, Felicidad; Pattison, Jennifer; Deer, Elena; Sayaphupha, Tiffany; Dennis, Edward A.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Yury I.

    2010-01-01

    A novel hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model has been developed to study early events of atherogenesis. This model utilizes optically transparent zebrafish larvae, fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD), to monitor processes of vascular inflammation in live animals. Because lipoprotein oxidation is an important factor in the development of atherosclerosis, in this study, we characterized the oxidized lipid milieu in HCD-fed zebrafish larvae. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we show that feeding an HCD for only 2 weeks resulted in up to 70-fold increases in specific oxidized cholesteryl esters, identical to those present in human minimally oxidized LDL and in murine atherosclerotic lesions. The levels of oxidized phospholipids, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-oxovaleroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and of various lysophosphatidylcholines were also significantly elevated. Moreover, lipoproteins isolated from homogenates of HCD-fed larvae induced cell spreading as well as ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK phosphorylation in murine macrophages. Removal of apoB-containing lipoproteins from the zebrafish homogenates with an anti-human LDL antibody, as well as reducing lipid hydroperoxides with ebselen, resulted in inhibition of macrophage activation. The TLR4 deficiency in murine macrophages prevented their activation with zebrafish lipoproteins. Using biotinylated homogenates of HCD-fed larvae, we demonstrated that their components bound to murine macrophages, and this binding was effectively competed by minimally oxidized LDL but not by native LDL. These data provide evidence that molecular lipid determinants of proatherogenic macrophage phenotypes are present in large quantities in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish larvae and support the use of the HCD-fed zebrafish as a valuable model to study early events of atherogenesis. PMID:20710028

  1. Intestinal morphology and enzymatic activity in newly weaned pigs fed contrasting fiber concentrations and fiber properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedemann, M S; Eskildsen, M; Laerke, H N; Pedersen, C; Lindberg, J E; Laurinen, P; Knudsen, K E Bach

    2006-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of fiber source and concentration on morphological characteristics, mucin staining pattern, and mucosal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. The experiment included 50 pigs from 10 litters weaned at 4 wk of age (BW 8.6 +/- 1.4 kg) and divided into 5 treatment groups. Diets containing fiber of various physico-chemical properties and concentrations were formulated to contain 73, 104, or 145 g of dietary fiber/kg of DM. The diets were based on raw wheat and barley flours. Pectin and barley hulls, representing soluble and insoluble fiber sources, respectively, were used to increase the fiber concentration. The pigs were fed the experimental diets for 9 d, and then the pigs were euthanized and the entire gastrointestinal tract was removed. Tissue samples were taken from the mid and distal small intestine and from the mid colon. Inclusion of pectin in the diets significantly decreased (P fiber content, whereas sucrase activity was increased in pigs fed the pectin-containing diets. The activity of the peptidases, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, was increased when feeding high fiber diets, whereas the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase remained unaffected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, the reduced feed intake observed with the pectin-containing diets could explain the lower villous height and crypt depth observed in this study. However, direct effects of pectin also are possible, and thus further study is warranted. Feeding pigs high insoluble fiber diets improved gut morphology by increasing villi length and increased mucosal enzyme activity when compared with pigs fed pectin-containing diets. The mucin content as determined by staining characteristics suggests that pigs fed high insoluble fiber diets might be better protected against pathogenic bacteria than pigs fed diets high in soluble fiber.

  2. Plasma lipids and prothrombin time in rats fed palm oil and other commonly used fats in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Mona M.; Salama, Fawzy M.; Ebada, Karina M.

    1993-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a total period of 8 weeks on six diets that were different in the source of their fat content. The fat content was provided either, palm oil or palm olein or corn oil or hydrogenated fat, or frying palm oil and mixture of corn oil + hydrogenated fat in the ratio (1:1). The latter was given to the control group. Animals fed these various experimental diets showed statistically significant differences in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides content amo...

  3. Echocardiography analysis of bama minipigs anesthesia by xylazine hydrochloride%陆眠宁复合麻醉巴马小型猪超声心动图检查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟青新; 何孝军; 李捷; 王强

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore effect of Xylazine hydrochloride on Bama minipigs under general anesthesia. To emphasize safety consciousness of general anesthesia. To research cardiac main function and structure of normal Bama minipigs in preparation for the subsequent comparative medicine research. Methods 43 Bama minipigs, inject in post aurem muscles of neck with 5 mL of mixed drug conclude Xylazine hydrochloride (2 mL), Atropine Sulfate(1 mL) and Droperidol(2 mL) on each one. Echocardiography after general anesthesia. Observe induction and recovery time of anesthesia, anesthesia maintaining time, total check time and the others. Introduce the method of simple endotracheal intubation. Results Anesthesia, induction period (18 ±3)min, maintaining period (40 ±5)min, recovery period (60 ± 10)min. Echocardiography, LAD (2�54 ± 0�20) cm, LVDd (3�41 ± 0�25) cm, LVDs (2�28 ± 0�23) cm, IVSTd (0�60 ± 0�07) cm, LVPWTd (0�59 ± 0�07) cm, AoD (1�77 ± 0�18) cm, EDV (48�59 ± 8�31) cm, ESV (18�28 ± 4�46) mL, SV ( 39�30 ± 5�16 ) mL, LVEF ( 62�76 ± 5�01 )%. Conclusions Intramuscular injection of xylazine hydrochloride with droperidol and atropine sulfate on bama minipigs for general anesthesia is a highly conserved specie in cardiovascular system and safe. We obtained some information of cardiac main function and structure of normal Bama minipigs which could provide reference for scientific research and veterinarian clinic.%目的:观察陆眠宁复合麻醉对小型猪的全身麻醉效果,强调全身麻醉的安全保障意识。采用超声心动图研究正常小型猪心脏的主要功能和结构,为后续比较医学研究做准备。方法43头巴马小型猪,耳后颈部肌肉注射5 mL 混合液:陆眠宁,硫酸阿托品,氟哌利多各1支,全麻后进行超声心动图检查。观察麻醉显效时间、麻醉维持时间、总检查时间、苏醒时间及其他麻醉相关情况。简介气管插

  4. Growth indices and economic implications of weaned rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth indices and economic implications of weaned rabbits fed Leucaena ... the 13.47g weight gain on rabbits fed the control diet but statistically (P<0.05) lower ... economic efficiency of 0.35 and 194.44%, respectively indicated the optimal ...

  5. Digital Implementation of Two Inductor Boost Converter Fed DC Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kishor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals w ith simulation and implementation of two inductor boost converter fed DC drive. The two inductor boost converter fed DC drive is simulated and implemented. The circuit has advantages like higher output voltage and improved power factor. The laboratory model is implemented and the experimental results are obtained. The experimental results were compared w ith the simulation results.

  6. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen (N) flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 percent of the daily ration on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected over two ...

  7. Fed-Batch Biomolecule Production by Bacillus subtilis: A State of the Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Sibel; Çalık, Pınar; Özdamar, Tunçer H

    2016-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a highly promising production system for various biomolecules. This review begins with the algorithm of fed-batch operations (FBOs) and then illustrates the approaches to design the initial production medium and/or feed stream. Additionally, the feeding strategies developed with or without feedback control for fed-batch B. subtilis fermentations were compiled with a special emphasis on recombinant protein (r-protein) production. For biomolecule production by wild-type B. subtilis, due to the different intracellular production patterns, no consensus exists on the FBO strategy that gives the maximum productivity, whereas for r-protein production appropriate feeding strategies vary depending on the promoter used. Thus, we conclude that the B. subtilis community is still seeking an approved strong promoter and generalized FBO strategies.

  8. Polarization and Radiation Pattern Reconfigurability of a Planar Monopole-Fed Loop Antenna for GPS Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Fakharian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reconfigurable loop antenna with monopole-fed using embedded RF PIN switches based shorted parasitic elements for GPS applications. The antenna can independently reconfiguring multiple polarizations with switchable radiation pattern. Four switched metallic patches are used as parasitic elements to provide a reconfiguration capability to antenna acting as a driven monopole-fed loop. The edge of the parasitic elements is shorted by posts. The parasitic patches are connected/disconnected by using switching, therewith changing the configuration of monopole, to turn changes the current distribution over the loop surface. The antenna is designed to work on the GPS L1 frequency band. The antenna simultaneously changes the radiation beam in E- and H-planes, and switches among three polarizations (LP, LHCP, and RHCP in the various modes. The antenna maximum gain among the different modes is tuned between 1.5 and 4.2 dBi.

  9. Iron status in breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Asih Ratnadi

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Ninety infants were selected stratified proportionally random sampling and they met the inclusion criteria. Iron status was determined by the serum ferritin level concentration. The nutritional status was determined by the body weight to age based on the standard criteria of WHO NCHS. The quality of food was defined by asking the parents to keep a diary of consumed in the last 7 days minimally for three days. Out of the 90 infants, 50.4 % of them were males and 45.6 % of them were females. Most of them (93.7% had normal nourished and 8.3 % had undernourished. The prevalence status of low iron was 18.9%. The low iron status began to occur at the age of 4 – 6 months old (6% and the highest at the age of 9 – 12 months old (65%. Statistically significant differences were found between the iron status and the quality of food supplements over age group. The low quality of food is a risk factor influence the status of low iron. It is suggested that the iron supplements be given to breast-fed infant at the age of 4 – 6 months old.

  10. Face Recognition in Various Illuminations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh D. Parmar,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Face Recognition (FR under various illuminations is very challenging. Normalization technique is useful for removing the dimness and shadow from the facial image which reduces the effect of illumination variations still retaining the necessary information of the face. The robust local feature extractor which is the gray-scale invariant texture called Local Binary Pattern (LBP is helpful for feature extraction. K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is utilized for the purpose of classification and to match the face images from the database. Experimental results were based on Yale-B database with three different sub categories. The proposed method has been tested to robust face recognition in various illumination conditions. Extensive experiment shows that the proposed system can achieve very encouraging performance in various illumination environments.

  11. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl levels in Dutch preschool children either breast-fed or formula-fed during infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; WeisglasKuperus, N; deRidder, MAJ; KoopmanEsseboom, C; vanStaveren, WA; vanderPaauw, CG; Sauer, PJJ

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the influence of lactational and in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on plasma PCB levels in children. Methods. Plasma PCB levels were measured in 173 children at 3.5 years, of whom 91 were breast-fed and 82 were formula-fed in infancy. Results. Medi

  12. Dietary CLA-induced lipolysis is delayed in soy oil-fed mice compared to coconut oil-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippagunta, S; Angius, Z; Sanda, M; Barnes, K M

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to cause a reduction in obesity in several species. CLA-induced body fat loss is enhanced when mice are fed coconut oil (CO) and involves increased lipolysis. The objective of this paper was to determine if the CLA-induced lipolysis in mice fed with different oil sources was time-dependent. Mice were fed 7 % soybean oil (SO) or CO diets for 6 week and then supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % CLA for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days. Body fat and ex-vivo lipolysis was determined. Body fat was reduced by CO on day 7 (P Lipolysis was increased by CLA in CO-fed mice (P lipolysis in both CO- and SO-fed mice (P lipolysis and lipogenesis was determined by western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. No significant differences were detected in protein expression. CO-fed mice had greater fatty acid synthase and stearyl CoA desaturase 1 mRNA expression and less acetyl CoA carboxylase mRNA expression (P lipolysis occurs more rapidly in CO vs SO-fed mice and lipogenesis is decreased in CO-fed mice with CLA supplementation.

  13. Zhang functions and various models

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunong

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on solving different types of time-varying problems. It presents various Zhang dynamics (ZD) models by defining various Zhang functions (ZFs) in real and complex domains. It then provides theoretical analyses of such ZD models and illustrates their results. It also uses simulations to substantiate their efficacy and show the feasibility of the presented ZD approach (i.e., different ZFs leading to different ZD models), which is further applied to the repetitive motion planning (RMP) of redundant robots, showing its application potential.

  14. Growth Performance and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Fed Various Dietary Levels of Thiamin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiamin or vitamin B1 functions in all cells as the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate that involves in the oxidative decarboxylation of an alpha-keto acids and the transketolase reactions in the pentose phosphate pathway. Thiamin has been demonstrated to be essential in diets of fish, and quantitative ...

  15. Effects of germanium biotite supplement on immune responses of vaccinated mini-pigs to foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myunghwan; Park, Hong-Tea; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Shin, Seung Won; Shin, Min-Kyoung; Sung, Kyung Yong; Jung, Yeon-Kwon; Kim, Byounghan; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    Since the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea in 2010-2011, a trivalent vaccine has been used as a routine vaccination. Despite the high efficacy of the trivalent vaccine, low antibody formation was reported in the pig industry and there is considerable concern about the ability of the vaccine to protect against the Andong strain responsible for recent outbreaks in South Korea. To overcome these problems, immunostimulators have been widely used to improve vaccine efficacy in South Korea, although without any scientific evidence. Based on the current situation, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of germanium biotite, a feed supplement used to enhance the immune system, on the immune responses to FMD vaccination through the Andong strain challenge experiment in trivalent vaccinated pigs. Following the challenge, the germanium biotite-fed pigs showed high levels of IL-8 in serum, and increased cellular immune responses to stimulation with the Andong strain antigen compared to nonsupplemented pigs. In addition, higher FMD virus (FMDV) neutralizing antibody titers were detected in the germanium biotite-fed group than in the nonsupplemented group before the challenge. The findings of this study indicate that germanium biotite supplement might enhance immune responses to the FMD vaccine in pigs.

  16. Star Formation in Various Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, N; Spector, O; Zitrin, A

    2008-01-01

    We describe studies of star formation in various galaxies using primarily observations from the Wise Observatory. In addition to surface photometry in the broad band UBVRI, we also use a set of narrow-band H-alpha filters tuned to different redshifts to isolate the emission line. With these observational data, and using models of evolutionary stellar populations, we unravel the star formation histories of the galaxies and connect them to other parameters, such as the galaxy environment.

  17. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Glenn A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA (C18:2 isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA (C18:1 t11, a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3 FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0, and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0 and palmitic (C16:0 FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A. It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions.

  18. Growth Response and Fatty Acid Composition of Juvenile Procambarus clarkii Fed Different Sources of Dietary Lipid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiao-bo; KU Yao-mei; ZHOU Kai-ya

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding various sources of dietary lipidon weight gain, feed conversion, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile red swamp crawfish, Procam-barus clarkii. Six semi-purified diets containing vitamin-free casein, defatted soybean meal, 0.5% cholinechloride, 0.5 % glycine and 0.5 % cholesterol were supplemented with 6.0 % of either anchovy oil, linseed oil,soybean oil, rapeseed oil, safflower oil or pork lard. Each diet was fed to crawfish (3.07±0.21 g averageweight) in three replicate aquaria for 60 days. Survival rate, weight gain and feed conversion were best forcrawfish fed the diet containing anchovy oil. Crawfish fed the linseed oil diet had the second highest weightgain, followed by crawfish on soybean oil, repaseed oil, safflower oil and pork lard diets, respectively. Feedconversion values were a reflection of weight gain. Results showed that both n-6 and n-3 fatty acids are dietaryessential for juvenile Procambarus clarkii, although n-3 fatty acids promoted faster growth than n-6. Howev-er, highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) (20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) had better growth-promoting effect than18 : 3n-3, due probably to the limited ability of crawfish to bioconvert fatty acids to polyenoic forms of longerchain length. The fatty acid composition of the crawfish generally reflected that of the dietary lipids, especial-ly for the diets containing unsaturated fatty acids.

  19. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guo-qing; KONG Qing; CHEN Qi-he; RUAN Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB.

  20. High cell density fed-batch fermentations for lipase production: feeding strategies and oxygen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehmin, M N I; Annuar, M S M; Chisti, Y

    2013-11-01

    This review is focused on the production of microbial lipases by high cell density fermentation. Lipases are among the most widely used of the enzyme catalysts. Although lipases are produced by animals and plants, industrial lipases are sourced almost exclusively from microorganisms. Many of the commercial lipases are produced using recombinant species. Microbial lipases are mostly produced by batch and fed-batch fermentation. Lipases are generally secreted by the cell into the extracellular environment. Thus, a crude preparation of lipases can be obtained by removing the microbial cells from the fermentation broth. This crude cell-free broth may be further concentrated and used as is, or lipases may be purified from it to various levels. For many large volume applications, lipases must be produced at extremely low cost. High cell density fermentation is a promising method for low-cost production: it allows a high concentration of the biomass and the enzyme to be attained rapidly and this eases the downstream recovery of the enzyme. High density fermentation enhances enzyme productivity compared with the traditional submerged culture batch fermentation. In production of enzymes, a high cell density is generally achieved through fed-batch operation, not through perfusion culture which is cumbersome. The feeding strategies used in fed-batch fermentations for producing lipases and the implications of these strategies are discussed. Most lipase-producing microbial fermentations require oxygen. Oxygen transfer in such fermentations is discussed.

  1. The mustard trypsin inhibitor 2 affects the fertility of Spodoptera littoralis larvae fed on transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, F; Gallerani, R

    2002-05-01

    The effects of mustard trypsin inhibitor MTI-2 expressed at different levels in transgenic tobacco lines have been evaluated by feeding the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis throughout its larval life. Specific conditions were selected to study the long-term effects of feeding larvae on transgenic plants expressing the inhibitor at various levels. The data obtained led to the establishment of three relevant parameters to be considered during the experimentation: (i) the PI content of the plant lines to be used; (ii) the developmental stage of larvae sensitive to that PI content; (iii) the ratio of MTI-2/proteases sufficient to inhibit gut proteases. The experimental data obtained from feeding S. littoralis larvae using these conditions led to two main results. First, when L2 S. littoralis larvae were fed on high MTI-2 expressing tobacco plants, no effects on larval development were detected but there was a significantly reduced fertility. When the same larvae were fed on low expressing MTI-2 tobacco plants, only a less marked lowering of fertility was observed. Second, after the first generation, no differences in protease activity were observed in insects derived from larvae fed on high or low MTI-2 expressing tobacco lines, suggesting that genetic traits observed in previous studies were not inherited.

  2. Serum lipid profile and retinol in rats fed micronutrient rich edible vegetable oil blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAFAR SALAMAT KHAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Khan HN, Farooqi H, Ali S, Khan JS. 2010. Serum lipid profile and retinol in rats fed micronutrient rich edible vegetable oil blend. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 109-116. The animal rats were given 10% oil mixed in fat free diet for one month or six months. In the experiment, the groups of rats were fed with the micronutrient (MN rich blends mixed previously with 1% cholesterol, and their effects were tested on serum lipid profile. Most significant changes in the High Dencity Lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol were observed in one-month study where HDL increased from 24 mg/dl in group to 64 mg/dl in the Mustard palm olein oil blend (MP; in mustard oil (MO alone fed rats, the HDL was 36 mg/dl. Serum retinol was analyzed as one of the important MN in rats receiving the diet mixed with the blend for various duration of time. The results assume great significance as MO or palm olein oil (PO alone could not bring the maximum beneficial effects, and the blends appear to have more merit as health oils in alleviating adverse health condition such as coronary heart disease (CHD, diabetes, obesity and hypertension.

  3. Development of fed-batch profiles for efficient biosynthesis of catechol-O-methyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Espírito Santo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.6 plays a crucial role in dopamine metabolism which has intimately linked this enzyme to some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. In recent years, in the attempt of developing new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease, there has been a growing interest in the search for effective COMT inhibitors. In order to do so, large amounts of COMT in an active form are needed, and the best way to achieve this is by up-scaling its production through biotechnological processes. In this work, a fed-batch process for the biosynthesis of the soluble isoform of COMT in Escherichia coli is proposed. This final process was selected through the evaluation of the effect of different dissolved oxygen concentrations, carbon and nitrogen source concentrations and feeding profiles on enzymatic production and cell viability, while controlling various parameters (pH, temperature, starting time of the feeding and induction phases and carbon source concentration during the process. After several batch and fed-batch experiments, a final specific COMT activity of 442.34 nmol/h/mg with approximately 80% of viable cells at the end of the fermentation were achieved. Overall, the results described herein provide a great improvement on hSCOMT production in recombinant bacteria and provide a new and viable option for the use of a fed-batch fermentation with a constant feeding profile to the large scale production of this enzyme.

  4. Metal concentrations in water, sediment, and fish from sewage-fed aquaculture ponds of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S; Ghosh, L; Rai, S P; Ayyappan, S

    2009-12-01

    The concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc were investigated in the sewage-fed pond water, sediment, and the various organs of Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Oreochromis mossambicus, and Cyprinus carpio cultured in sewage-fed ponds, Kolkata, India. Among the metals, cadmium, lead, and zinc were detected in water and, except lead, were below the water quality guideline levels for the protection of freshwater aquatic life proposed by CEQG (Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines) and AENV (Alberta Environment). Therefore, lead could pose danger to aquatic organisms. All the five metals were detected in the sediment and, except cadmium and lead, were below the sediment quality guideline levels for aquatic life proposed by EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Therefore, these two metals could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Significant (P > 0.05) differences were observed among the five fish species for all these metals accumulation. Also, significant (P > 0.05) differences were noticed among these metals accumulation in fish organs. Cadmium showed the least bioaccumulation, while zinc showed the highest bioaccumulation in all the fish species. Though the metal concentration in the different fish tissues was variable, the highest concentration was found in kidney and the lowest in the muscle. Concentrations of these metals in the muscle tissue of all the fish species were well below the consumption safety tolerance in fish set by WHO/FAO, and thus, so far as these metals are concerned, these sewage-fed cultured fishes are safe and suitable for human consumption.

  5. SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey, Surface Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey: Station Information and Surface Data. Surveys have been conducted along the central California coast in May/June...

  6. SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey, CTD Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey: CTD Data. Surveys have been conducted along the central California coast in May/June every year since 1983. In...

  7. Testicular Morphometry and Sperm Quality of Rabbit Bucks Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testicular Morphometry and Sperm Quality of Rabbit Bucks Fed Graded Levels ... for their nutritional and medicinal values and are rich in minerals and vitamins. ... used to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on testicular ...

  8. Performance of growing Yankasa rams Fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    The results revealed that animals fed 0% inclusion level (Control diet) had higher DMI, EEI and ... conducted using T. indica leaves to ascertain the nutritive value and its suitability as feedstuff for small ..... Research Project, submitted to the.

  9. Structural and functional changes in the minipig lung following irradiation of different lung volumes at a constant mean lung dose; Strukturelle und funktionelle Veraenderungen an der Lunge von Minischweinen nach Bestrahlung unterschiedlich grosser Lungenvolumina mit gleicher mittlerer Lungendosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusche, S.; Herrmann, T.; Appold, S.; Hoelscher, T.; Bruechner, K.; Geyer, P.; Baumann, M.; Kumpf, R.

    2004-07-01

    Minipigs were subjected to irradiation of different lung volumes at approximately the same mean lung dose (D{sub m}ean) and examined for structural and morphological changes of the lung. The outcome confirmed earlier findings on the pig lung. While no significant differences between irradiation groups was found in terms of functional lung changes, there was a clear correlation between functional changes observed and the mean lung dose. This is in good agreement with data from clinical studies. It follows that the mean lung dose is of predictive value in considering functional lung damage in the assessment of different irradiation regimes. By contrast structural damage was found to correlate with applied dose. [German] Es wurden an Minischweinen unterschiedliche grosse Lungenvolumina mit vergleichbaren mittleren Lungendosen (mean lung dose, D{sub mean}) bestrahlt und die funktionellen und morphologischen Veraenderungen bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen zu funktionellen und morphologischen Veaenderungen bestaetigen fruehere Untersuchungen an der Schweinelunge. Hinsichtlich funktioneller Lungenveraenderungen fand sich kein signifikanter Unterschied zwischen den Bestrahlungsarmen, aber es konnte eine eindeutige Korrelation dieser Veraenderungen mit der mittleren Lungendosis D{sub mean} nachgewiesen werden. Dies steht in gutem Einklang mit Daten aus klinischen Untersuchungen. Somit bestaetigt sich, dass die mean lung dose eine praediktive Bedeutung zur Abschaetzung funktionaler Schaeden der Lunge bei der Beurteilung unterschiedlicher Bestrahlungsplaene hat. Die strukturellen Schaeden korrelieren hingegen mit der applizierten Dosis. (orig.)

  10. Optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekkers, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The common cultivation of bakers' yeast is an aerobic fed-batch fermentation under sugar-limited growth. The ultimate objective of on-line computer control is to optimize the process through maximizing the productivity of biomass formation while minimizing the consumption of raw materials for the product. Results obtained on the optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation are given. The aspects to be considered are instrumentation, state estimation, optimization and process control.

  11. Sensorless load torque estimation and passivity based control of buck converter fed DC motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Ganesh; Thilagar, S Hosimin

    2015-01-01

    Passivity based control of DC motor in sensorless configuration is proposed in this paper. Exact tracking error dynamics passive output feedback control is used for stabilizing the speed of Buck converter fed DC motor under various load torques such as constant type, fan type, propeller type, and unknown load torques. Under load conditions, sensorless online algebraic approach is proposed, and it is compared with sensorless reduced order observer approach. The former produces better response in estimating the load torque. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to select the appropriate control variables. Simulation and experimental results fully confirm the superiority of the proposed approach suggested in this paper.

  12. Sensorless Load Torque Estimation and Passivity Based Control of Buck Converter Fed DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Passivity based control of DC motor in sensorless configuration is proposed in this paper. Exact tracking error dynamics passive output feedback control is used for stabilizing the speed of Buck converter fed DC motor under various load torques such as constant type, fan type, propeller type, and unknown load torques. Under load conditions, sensorless online algebraic approach is proposed, and it is compared with sensorless reduced order observer approach. The former produces better response in estimating the load torque. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to select the appropriate control variables. Simulation and experimental results fully confirm the superiority of the proposed approach suggested in this paper.

  13. Analysis of Various Tea Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As adulteration is becoming common today and tea is the most widely consumed beverage all over the world so our objective was to determine various adulterants in tea, coffee samples from udupi district, Karnataka, India as well as estimation of tannin and polyphenols from black tea samples. Specified standard procedures and tests were followed to perform the study. Amount of tannin and polyphenol content was determined.in samples and some adulterants were found to be present in the tea samples which are a matter of concern.

  14. THE VARIOUS POSSIBLE EU TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Andreea Mihalache

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the various possible EU taxes are compared with regard to each of the criteria: budgetary, equity and efficiency criteria. In principle, this problem of revenue insufficiency can be overcome by combining several resources, including contributions from the Member States, to make up for the needs of the EU budget Setting an equalisation mechanism to replace or complement the current GNI contribution could thus be a useful complement to tax autonomy in the context of a reform of the current own resource system.

  15. Quantifying Engagement of Various Games

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Shuo; ZUO, Long; Chiewvanichakorn, Rachaya; Iida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Game refinement idea is a unique theory that has been proposed based on the uncertainty of game outcome. A game refinement measure was derived from the game information progress model and has been applied in the traditional board games. The present challenge is to apply the game refinement theory in the domain of various games such as RTS(StarCraft II), MOBA(DotA), crane game and score limited sports. In conclusion, this paper makes contribution to apply game refinement theory in these new ar...

  16. Trace metal accumulations in tissues of goats fed silage produced on sewage sludge-amended soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, B.J.; Dowdy, R.H.; Goodrich, R.D.; Pamp, D.E.

    Studies were conducted to document the impact of sewage sludge-fertilized corn (Zea mays L.) on the feed and food chain under controlled experimental conditions that eliminated any direct ingestion of sewage sludge by animals. Accumulations of trace metals were measured in various tissues of dairy goats (Capra hircus) consuming corn silage that contained up to 5.3 mg Cd/kg and 113 mg Zn/kg, for 3 consecutive years. The Cd concentrations in goat livers increased as the amount of silage-borne Cd increased and reached a high concentration of 2.94 mg/kg. Kidney Cd concentrations were approximately 10 times greater than those observed in liver, ranging from 3 mg/kg for animals fed control corn silage to 22 mg/kg for those consuming silage grown on soil amended with the highest rate of sewage sludge. However, this concentration is an order of magnitude less than the critical level suggested for induction of renal dysfunction. Kidney Zn ranged from 76.6 to 91.8 mg/kg with animals fed control silage having less Zn than animals fed sludge-fertilized corn silage. Concentrations of Zn in livers did not differ among treatments. Copper concentrations in livers and kidneys were significantly lower (approximately 2 mg/kg) in animals receiving sludge-fertilized silage than in animals fed control silage. The reduced Cu absorption may have been caused by a Cd and/or Zn metabolic interference. The elemental concentrations of 12 other metals and minerals in goat liver and kidney were not affected by treatment. Similarly, elemental concentrations in heart and muscle were not affected by treatment.

  17. Effect of various probiotics on growth performance of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Sirsat

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of various probiotics on the performance of Japanese Quails. One hundred Japanese quail chicks were weighed individually and they were uniformly distributed equally to four dietary treatments consisting 25 birds in each. The starter and finisher diets were containing ME 2800 and 2600 Kcal/kg and protein 25 and 23 % respectively. The group T0(Controll fed standard quail diet and T1,T2 and T3 were fed probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus sporogenes and Saccharomyces boulardii @ 0.05 % in diet. The study was conducted for six weeks in the same managemental condition. Weekly live body weight and feed consumption were recorded. The group supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in significantly higher growth rate and showed higher weight gain. The average feed efficiency and nitrogen retention were significantly higher in group supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cost of production /100gm of meat was found to be Rs.7.10, 6.84, 7.55 and 8.37 respectively in T0 to T3 groups. Thus, the study indicated that supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the diet of Japanese quails was effective in improving performance of the quails. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000: 321-322

  18. The effect of various dietary fats on skin tumor initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1991-01-01

    The type of dietary fat has been shown to modulate the initiation stage of mammary tumorigenesis, with saturated fat fed before and/or during carcinogen treatment resulting in increased tumor incidence. This study was designed to determine whether different types of dietary fat alter the initiation stage of skin carcinogenesis by use of the initiation-promotion mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Sencar mice were divided into three groups and maintained on one of the experimental diets. The AIN-76-based diets consisted of 10% total fat with various types of fat: 8.5% menhaden oil plus 1.5% corn oil, 8.5% coconut oil plus 1.5% corn oil, and 10% corn oil. After three weeks mice were initiated with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Two weeks later, all mice were switched to a diet containing 5% corn oil. Promotion began four weeks after initiation with twice-weekly application of 1 microgram 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and continued for 12 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kilocalories of food consumed or body weights were observed between diet groups during the study. The final papilloma incidence, yield, and size were not significantly different among the diet groups. In a parallel study, [3H]DMBA binding to epidermal DNA showed no dietary differences. Unlike the mammary carcinogenesis model, these data suggest that the type of fat fed during DMBA initiation had minimal effects on this stage of skin carcinogenesis.

  19. Ferulic acid, a natural polyphenol, alleviates insulin resistance and hypertension in fructose fed rats: Effect on endothelial-dependent relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassossy, Hany; Badawy, Dina; Neamatallah, Thikryat; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2016-07-25

    Ferulic acid (FER) is a polyphenolic compound contained in various types of fruits. It has a substantial therapeutic effect inhibitory activity against aldose reductase (AR) inhibition. In this study, we examined the effect of FER on fructose-fed rats in comparison to a standard AR inhibitor, zopolrestat (ZOP). We determined the protective role of FER against metabolic syndrome by examining serum insulin/Glucose levels, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol and advanced glycation end product (AGE) in rats supplied with 10% fructose drinking water. In addition, blood pressure, vascular reactivity of isolated thoracic aortas and acetylcholine-induced NO were all evaluated to estimate the cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with fructose feeding. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, (+10% fructose, Fru), zopolrestat-treated fructose fed (Fru-zop) and ferulic acid-treated fructose fed rats (Fru-Fer). After 12 weeks of FER treatment, we found significant reduction in both hyperinsulinemia and elevated diastolic blood pressure associated with fructose-fed to levels comparable to those achieved with ZOP. Both FER and ZOP significantly augmented the impaired relaxation associated with fructose-fed, whereas neither showed any significant effect on the developed vasoconstriction. Isolated aortas from fructose-fed rats incubated with either FER or ZOP, reinstated normal relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, isolated aortas showed attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production following the addition of (ACh), while both FER and ZOP restored normal induction of NO. Taken together, the current study shows that, FER alleviated insulin resistance and hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome compared to the standard AR inhibitor (ZOP). This potential protective effect is at least mediated by restoring endothelial relaxation.

  20. Positronium formation in various polyimides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Katsube, Mikio; Sueoka, Osamu; Ito, Yasuo (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology)

    1993-03-01

    Positronium (Ps) formation in various polyimides has been studied. It has been found that Ps yield is zero or small in the polyimides having pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 3,3[sup '],4,4[sup ']-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) as acid anhydride moiety, while those having 3,3[sup '],4,4[sup ']-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) form Ps with intensities up to about 20%. This difference is well correlated with the electron affinity of these moieties: PMDA > BTDA > BPDA [approx] 6FDA. In another experiment o-Ps yields and its lifetimes were measured in benzene solutions of monomeric model compounds (imide compounds prepared from n-butylamine and the acid anhydrides). It has been found that the model compounds from PMDA and BTDA both inhibit Ps formation and quench o-Ps lifetimes but that those from BPDA and 6FDA have neither the inhibition nor the quenching effects. The results show that the spur model is applicable for Ps formation in the polyimides. (Author).

  1. Positronium formation in various polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Katsube, Mikio; Sueoka, Osamu; Ito, Yasuo

    1993-03-01

    Positronium (Ps) formation in various polyimides has been studied. It has been found that Ps yield is zero or small in the polyimides having pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) as acid anhydride moiety, while those having 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and 2,2- bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) form Ps with intensities up to about 20%. This difference is well correlated with the electron affinity of these moieties: PMDA > BTDA > BPDA ˜ 6FDA. In another experiment o-Ps yields and its lifetimes were measured in benzene solutions of monomeric model compounds (imide compounds prepared from n-butylamine and the acid anhydrides). It has been found that the model compounds from PMDA and BTDA both inhibit Ps formation and quench o-Ps lifetimes but that those from BPDA and 6FDA have neither the inhibition nor the quenching effects. The results show that the spur model is applicable for Ps formation in the polyimides.

  2. Comparative Study on Various Fingerprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajin. R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprints are the oldest and most widely used form of biometric identification. The performance of any fingerprint recognizer highly depends on the fingerprint image quality. Different types of noises in the fingerprint images pose greater difficulty for recognizers. However, fingerprint images are rarely of perfect quality. They may be degraded and corrupted due to variations in skin and impression conditions. Thus, image enhancement techniques are employed prior to minutiae extraction to obtain a more reliable estimation of minutiae locations. Image enhancement can be done using both spatial and frequency domain techniques. Most Automatic Fingerprint. Identification Systems (AFIS use some form of image enhancement. Therefore, this paper describes various techniques for fingerprint image enhancement.Fingerprints are the oldest and most widely used form of biometric identification. The performance of anyfingerprint recognizer highly depends on the fingerprint image quality. Different types of noises in the fingerprintimages pose greater difficulty for recognizers. However, fingerprint images are rarely of perfect quality. They maybe degraded and corrupted due to variations in skin and impression conditions. Thus, image enhancement techniquesare employed prior to minutiae extraction to obtain a more reliable estimation of minutiae locations. Imageenhancement can be done using both spatial and frequency domain techniques. Most Automatic FingerprintIdentification Systems (AFIS use some form of image enhancement. Therefore, this paper describes varioustechniques for fingerprint image enhancement.

  3. Growth and Reproduction of Artificially Fed Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian; LI Chuan-ming; YANG Ya-jun; QI Jian-hang; ZHENG Xu-song; Hu Rong-li; LU Zhong-xian; LIU Qin

    2012-01-01

    The growth and reproduction of rice leaffolder,Cnaphalocrocis medinalis,fed on an artificial diet were studied.The results showed that the larvae were able to grow and pupate on the artificial diet.The durations of larvae and pupas of C.medinalis on the artificial diet were 28.1 d and 10.1 d,postponed 4.9 d and 1.7 d respectively,compared with those reared with rice leaves.The number of ovipositions was 41.6 per female,26.2% higher than that fed on rice leaves.Survival rate curve of larvae was a descent function of mortality-age,with no significant differences from the curve of larvae fed on rice leaves.The net reproductive rate (Ro),intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and finite rate of increase (λ) of the population fed on diet were 17.6928,0.0884 and 1.0924,respectively,and the mean generation time (T) and double time (td) were prolonged 4.9 d and 1.3 d in comparison with the treatment of rice leaves.Population trend index (Ⅰ) was 3.26,indicating a growing number of the population of C.medinalis fed on artificial diet.

  4. Performance optimization for doubly fed wind power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, S.; Spee, R.; Enslin, J.H.R.

    1999-08-01

    Significant variation of the resource kinetic energy, in the form of wind speed, results in substantially reduced energy capture in a fixed-speed wind turbine. In order to increase the wind energy capture in the turbine, variable-speed generation (VSG) strategies have been proposed and implemented. However, that requires an expensive ac/ac power converter, which increases the capital investment significantly. Consequently, doubly fed systems have been proposed to reduce the size of the power converter and, thereby, the associated cost. Additionally, in doubly fed systems, as a fixed operating point (power and speed), power flow can be regulated between the two winding systems on the machine. This feature can by utilized to essentially minimize losses in the machine associated with the given operating point or achieve other desired performance enhancements. In this paper, a brushless doubly fed machine (BDFM) is utilized to develop a VSG wind power generator. The VSG controller employs a wind-speed-estimation-based maximum power point tracker and a heuristic-model-based maximum efficiency point tracker to optimize the power output of the system. The controller has been verified for efficacy on a 1.5-kW laboratory VSG wind generator. The strategy is applicable to all doubly fed configurations, including conventional wound-rotor induction machines, Scherbius cascades, BDFM's and doubly fed reluctance machines.

  5. N-氨甲酰谷氨酸对环江香猪生长性能、营养物质消化率及血浆游离氨基酸含量的影响%N-Carbamylglutamate Affects Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Plasma Concentrations of Free Amino Acids in Huanjiang Mini-Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周笑犁; 印遇龙; 孔祥峰; 汤文杰; 何庆华

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine effects of N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma free amino acid concentrations in growing pigs. Ten Huanjiang mini-pigs with an average body weight (BW) of (12. 6 ± 1. 7) kg were used and randomly assigned into two groups (five replicates with one pig per replicate) , representing supplementation with 0 or 0. 1% NCG in a basal diet for 10 days. Daily feed intake, initial and final BW were recorded, respectively; fecal samples were collected from day 8 to 10 for determining the digestibility of routine nutrients by TiO2 indicator; blood samples were collected on day 10 for analyzing biochemical parameters and concentrations of free amino acids (AA) , respectively. Results showed that compared with the basal diet group, 0.1% NCG supplementation significantly increased the average daily gain (P 0. 05). Plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly increased (P <0. 05), while the plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, ammonia and low-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased (P <0. 05). The plasma concentrations of total amino acid, essential amino acid, aromatic amino acid, phenylalanine and methionine of pigs fed the diet supplemented with 0.1% NCG were higher than those of pigs fed the basal diet (P < 0. 05). These findings suggest that 0.1% NCG supplementation can promote the digestibility of nutrients, improve AA balance, and then increase the growth performance, which may provide some scientific information for the application of NCG in diets of Huanjiang mini-pigs.%为了探讨N-氨甲酰谷氨酸(N-carbamylglutamate,NCG)对环江香猪生长性能、营养物质消化率及血浆游离氨基酸含量的影响,试验选用平均体重为(12.6±1.7) kg的环江香猪10头,随机分为2组,每组5个重复,每个重复l头猪,单笼饲养,分别饲喂基础饲粮和添加0.1% NCG的试验饲粮,试验期为10 d.每日记录采食量,分别在试验开始和结

  6. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  7. Behavior of mallard ducklings from parents fed 3 ppm DDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks fed a diet containing 3 ppm DDE (equal to about 0.6 ppm in a natural succulent diet) laid eggs that contained an average of 5.8 ppm DDE; ducklings that hatched from these eggs differed from controls in behavioral tests designed to measure responses to a maternal call and to a frightening stimulus. In response to the maternal call, ducklings from parents fed DDE were hyper-responsive; compared to controls, a greater percentage approached the call and a greater percentage of those that approached remained near the call for the remainder of the test. In a test of avoidance behavior, ducklings whose parents were fed DDE traveled shorter distances from the firghtening stimulus than did controls.

  8. The Photonic TIGER: a multicore fiber-fed spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Leon-Saval, Sergio G; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2012-01-01

    We present a proof of concept compact diffraction limited high-resolution fiber-fed spectrograph by using a 2D multicore array input. This high resolution spectrograph is fed by a 2D pseudo-slit, the Photonic TIGER, a hexagonal array of near-diffraction limited single-mode cores. We study the feasibility of this new platform related to the core array separation and rotation with respect to the dispersion axis. A 7 core compact Photonic TIGER fiber-fed spectrograph with a resolving power of around R~31000 and 8 nm bandwidth in the IR centered on 1550 nm is demonstrated. We also describe possible architectures based on this concept for building small scale compact diffraction limited Integral Field Spectrographs (IFS).

  9. FEDS : A Framework for Evaluation in Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  10. Precaution of postreperfusion syndrome after reduced-size liver transplantation in minipigs%小型猪减体积肝移植术中再灌注后综合征的干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱道海; 鲍国清; 王以巧; 汪小辉; 沈柏用; 詹茜; 潘春鹏; 翁原驰; 李强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To prevcnt the activation of post-reperfusion syndrome (PRS) in reducedsize liver transplantation in minipigs.Methods Twenty-four minipigs were randomly paired,divided into two groups (group A∶n =6; group B∶n =6) and received reduced-size liver transplantation.Group A allowed the initial 100 ml of portal blood reperfusing hepatic graft to be discarded through the inferior vena cava.Groups A and B were both administered 5% sodium bicarbonate 5 ml/kg.Blood gas and electrolyte were obtained at preanhepatic phase,anhepatic phase,neohepatic phase and the end of surgery,respectively.PRS and one-week-survival rate were observed in both groups.Results Blood potassium concentration at neohepatic phase was correlated with PRS,while PRS was correlated with poor prognosis after reduced-size liver transplantation.At neohepatic phase,the plasma potassium concentration and PRS rate in group A were significantly lower than in group B (P <0.05).As a result,one-week-survival rate (100%) in group A was significantly higher than in group B (only 33.3%) (P < 0.05).Four cases in group B died of cardiac arrest (intraoperation),acute pulmonary edema (3 h postoperation),acute renal failure (2 days postoperation) and intra-abdominal bleeding (3 days postoperation) respectively.Conclusion The abolishment of initial portal vein blood reperfusing graft and venous infusion of 5% sodium bicarbonate can improve postoperative survival by effectively reducing the potassium concentration after reperfusion and significantly decreasing the incidence of PRS.%目的 探讨小型猪减体积肝移植术中再灌注后综合征(PRS)的发生及干预措施.方法 选取大小相近的小型猪24头,供、受体各12头随机配对后分成A组和B组,行减体积肝移植术;A组(干预组)通过肝下下腔静脉废弃最初100 ml门静脉血,而B组(对照组)未废弃,术中均予5%碳酸氢钠(NaHCO3)5 ml/kg静脉滴注;于麻醉后、新肝期前、后及关腹前分

  11. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Improved production of medium-chain-length Polyhydroxyalkanotes in glucose-based fed-batch cultivations of metabolically engineered Pseudomonas putida strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poblete-Castro, I.; Rodriguez, A.L.; Lam, M.C.; Kessler, W.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in metabolic engineering for enhanced synthesis of value-added chemicals is to design and develop new strains which can be translated into well-controlled fermentation processes using bioreactors. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of various fed-batch stra

  13. FED-R: a fusion engineering device utilizing resistive magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassby, D.L.; Kalsi, S.S. (eds.)

    1983-04-01

    The principal purpose of the FED-R tokamak facility is to provide a substantial quasi-steady flux of fusion neutrons irradiating a large test area in order to carry out thermal, neutronic, and radiation effects testing of experimental blanket assemblies having a variety of configurations, compositions, and purposes. The design of the FED-R device also suggests potential for an upgrade that could be employed as a full-scale demonstration reactor for some specific fusion-neutron application when required.

  14. Analysis of Capacitive Parasitism in PWM Inverter-Fed Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of parasitic capacitance in induction motor system are unnoticed when it is fed from the AC line. but they are obvious when supplied directly from a PWM inverter. Consequently. many parasitic problems occur, such as motor-to-earth leakage current, bearing current, incoming line current distortion and uneven distribution of electrical stresses along the winding. On the ba sis of the uniform transmission line principle, a complete equivalent circuit of the PWM inverter-fed motor system is presented, based on which all the capacitive parasitic problems mentioned above are analyzed and simulated by means of PSPICE. All the results are consistent with the existing ones.

  15. Clinical applicability of robot-guided contact-free laser osteotomy in cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: in-vitro simulation and in-vivo surgery in minipig mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, K-W; Deibel, W; Marinov, D; Griessen, M; Bruno, A; Zeilhofer, H-F; Cattin, Ph; Juergens, Ph

    2015-12-01

    Laser was being used in medicine soon after its invention. However, it has been possible to excise hard tissue with lasers only recently, and the Er:YAG laser is now established in the treatment of damaged teeth. Recently experimental studies have investigated its use in bone surgery, where its major advantages are freedom of cutting geometry and precision. However, these advantages become apparent only when the system is used with robotic guidance. The main challenge is ergonomic integration of the laser and the robot, otherwise the surgeon's space in the operating theatre is obstructed during the procedure. Here we present our first experiences with an integrated, miniaturised laser system guided by a surgical robot. An Er:YAG laser source and the corresponding optical system were integrated into a composite casing that was mounted on a surgical robotic arm. The robot-guided laser system was connected to a computer-assisted preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation system, and the laser osteotome was used in an operating theatre to create defects of different shapes in the mandibles of 6 minipigs. Similar defects were created on the opposite side with a piezoelectric (PZE) osteotome and a conventional drill guided by a surgeon. The performance was analysed from the points of view of the workflow, ergonomics, ease of use, and safety features. The integrated robot-guided laser osteotome can be ergonomically used in the operating theatre. The computer-assisted and robot-guided laser osteotome is likely to be suitable for clinical use for ostectomies that require considerable accuracy and individual shape.

  16. Intra-coronary administration of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products attenuates cardiac remodeling with decreased myocardial transforming growth factor-β1 expression and fibrosis in minipigs with ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Lin; SHEN Wei-feng; ZHANG Qi; XU Yan; ZHU Zheng-bin; GENG Liang; WANG Ling-jie; JIN Cao; CHEN Qiu-jing; Ann Marie Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Background The cardioprotective effects of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) have not been evaluated in large animals and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of intra-coronary administration of sRAGE on left ventricular function and myocardial remodeling in a porcine model of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods Ten male minipigs with I/R injury were randomly allocated to receive intra-coronary administration of sRAGE (sRAGE group, n=5) or saline (control group, n=5). Echocardiography was performed before and 2 months after infarction. Myocardial expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1was determined by immunohistochemistry and fibrosis was evaluated by Sirius red staining. Results As compared with the baseline values in the control animals, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (from (19.5 5.1) to (32.3 5.6) ml, P <0.05) and end-systolic volume (from (8.3 3.2) to (15.2 4.1) ml, P <0.05) were significantly increased, whereas ejection fraction was decreased (from (61.6 13.3)% to (50.2 11.9)%, P<0.05). No obvious change in these parameters was observed in the sRAGE group. Myocardial expression of TGF-β1 was significantly elevated in the infarct and non-infarct regions in the control group, as compared with sRAGE group (both P<0.01). Fibrotic lesions were consistently more prominent in the infarct region of the myocardium in the control animals (P<0.05). Conclusion Intra-coronary sRAGE administration attenuates RAGE-mediated myocardial fibrosis and I/R injury through a TGF-β1-dependent mechanism, suggesting a clinical potential in treating RAGE/ligand-associated cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Performance of lambs fed alternative protein sources to soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe José Lins Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of alternative protein sources (castor bean cake, sunflower cake, and sunflower seed to soybean meal on the intake and performance of 40 lambs, initially weighing 19.8±1.84 kg, fed diets based on Tifton grass hay. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks. There were no differences in the nutrient intake of castor bean diets compared with soybean meal. The intake of nutrients in the sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets was decreased compared with soybean meal. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber of sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets were decreased compared with soybean meal. The average daily weight gain of animals fed the castor bean diet (0.190 kg was not different from that of the animals fed the soybean meal diet (0.217 kg. The sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets provided less weight gain (0.171 and 0.135 kg d-1, respectively than soybean meal due to the lower nutrient intake. The hot carcass yield and true yield were not affected by the protein sources. The neck, ribs, and ham weights were similar in lambs fed soybean meal and castor bean cake diets. It is recommended to use castor bean as an alternative protein source in the diet of lambs.

  18. Optimal parametric sensitivity control for a fed-batch reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, J.D.; Keesman, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a method to derive an optimal parametric sensitivity controller for optimal estimation of a set of parameters in an experiment. The method is demonstrated for a fed batch bio-reactor case study for optimal estimation of the saturation constant Ks and, albeit intuitively, the param

  19. Optimal parametric sensitivity control of a fed-batch reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, J.D.; Keesman, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents an optimal parametric sensitivity controller for estimation of a set of parameters in an experiment. The method is demonstrated for a fed-batch bioreactor case study for optimal estimation of the half-saturation constant KS and the parameter combination µmaxX/Y in which µmax is th

  20. A Current-Fed Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Wu, Xiaoying; Shen, Yanfeng;

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a current-fed isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter (CF-IBDC) which has the advantages of wide input voltage range, low input current ripple, low conduction losses, and soft switching over the full operating range. Compared with conventional CF-IBDCs, the voltage spikes of th...

  1. Using glycerin as a supplement for forage-fed ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of crude glycerin as a feed additive for forage–fed ruminants depends largely on how well the animals are able to utilize the glycerol and other dietary components when crude glycerin is added to the diet. Several studies have demonstrated that ruminal fermentation of pure glycerol resul...

  2. Discrimination learning in adult bobwhite quail fed paraquat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunck, C.M.; Bunck, T.J.; Sileo, L.

    1986-01-01

    Adult male bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed a diet containing 0, 25 or 100 ppm paraquat dichloride. After 60 d on treated diets, discrimination learning was evaluated with acquisition and reversal tests. The three groups performed similarly on these tests. Dose-related histopathological lesions were not found in liver, kidney or lung tissues

  3. Tandem fluid queues fed by homogeneous on-off sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Aalto, Samuli

    2000-01-01

    We consider a tandem fluid model with multiple consecutive buffers. The input of buffer j+1 is the output from buffer j, while the first buffer is fed by a, possibly infinite, number of independent homogeneous on–off sources. The sources have exponentially distributed silent periods and generally di

  4. Comparative Performance Of Broiler Chicks fed Diets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Performance Of Broiler Chicks fed Diets Containing Differently Processed ... A 28-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary inclusion of ... The first batch was soaked in 3% Ca(OH)2 for 48 hours. ... performance of the birds in terms of feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion ratio.

  5. Growth and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed water soaked and cooked velvet ... A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary raw and ... The second batch was soaked for 24 h, subdivided into four parts and ... of the birds in terms of feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion ratio.

  6. Fate and transport of arsenic from organoarsenicals fed to poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the fate of arsenic (As) in land-applied litter from chickens that have been fed roxarsone, an organic feed additive containing As. This chapter seeks to review the likelyhood of the biodegradation of roxarsone and the subsequent transport of As in runoff from a case study cond...

  7. Light attenuation characteristics of glacially-fed lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kevin C.; Hamilton, David P.; Williamson, Craig E.; McBride, Chris G.; Fischer, Janet M.; Olson, Mark H.; Saros, Jasmine E.; Allan, Mathew G.; Cabrol, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    Transparency is a fundamental characteristic of aquatic ecosystems and is highly responsive to changes in climate and land use. The transparency of glacially-fed lakes may be a particularly sensitive sentinel characteristic of these changes. However, little is known about the relative contributions of glacial flour versus other factors affecting light attenuation in these lakes. We sampled 18 glacially-fed lakes in Chile, New Zealand, and the U.S. and Canadian Rocky Mountains to characterize how dissolved absorption, algal biomass (approximated by chlorophyll a), water, and glacial flour contributed to attenuation of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). Variation in attenuation across lakes was related to turbidity, which we used as a proxy for the concentration of glacial flour. Turbidity-specific diffuse attenuation coefficients increased with decreasing wavelength and distance from glaciers. Regional differences in turbidity-specific diffuse attenuation coefficients were observed in short UVR wavelengths (305 and 320 nm) but not at longer UVR wavelengths (380 nm) or PAR. Dissolved absorption coefficients, which are closely correlated with diffuse attenuation coefficients in most non-glacially-fed lakes, represented only about one quarter of diffuse attenuation coefficients in study lakes here, whereas glacial flour contributed about two thirds across UVR and PAR. Understanding the optical characteristics of substances that regulate light attenuation in glacially-fed lakes will help elucidate the signals that these systems provide of broader environmental changes and forecast the effects of climate change on these aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Centralised control of wind farm with doubly fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca-Daniela; Sorensen, Poul; Iov, Florin;

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced wind farm controller for a wind farm made-up exclusively of doubly-fed generators. The overall aim of such controller is to enable the wind farms to behave as active controllable components in the power system. The attention is mainly drawn to t...

  9. Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Control Under Voltage Sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lima, K.;

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new control technique to improve the fault-ride through capability of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). In such generators the appearance of severe voltage sags at the coupling point make rise to high over currents at the rotor/stator windings, something that makes...

  10. Weaning Preparation for Children Fed by G-Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the child’s problem and his or her development, the child may need to be tube fed for several ... game playing. Do not try to wean a child from a G-tube single-handedly. Most children and their parents/caregivers gain success as they work together with ...

  11. Nutritive value and biochemical changes in broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Akande

    2012-02-09

    Feb 9, 2012 ... chickens fed detoxified castor kernel cake based diets. Akande, T. O.* ... There was downward trend in serum protein while an upward trend was observed for urea and creatinine ... the neem kernel as good protein supplement compared ... Ten diets were formulated comprising 9 diets containing varying.

  12. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Doubly Fed Induction Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, H. Nguyen; Scherer, Carsten W.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Müller, Volkmar

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design of a self-scheduled current controller for doubly fed induction machines. The design is based on the framework of linear parameter-varying systems where the mechanical angular speed is considered to be a measurable time-varying parameter. The objective is to o

  13. Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying levels of rice millingwaste. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... 50% rice milling waste produced enhanced performance that was next to the control in terms ...

  14. fed a low or a medium protein diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Physiology, Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X4, .... Group 1 were fed a low nitrogen diet (LN) based on milled oats {Avena sativa) hay, with a metabolizable energy .... Halving the intake of drinking water halved the output of urine ..... Book, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, pp.

  15. Prevalence and dietetic management of mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Infante Pina; X Badia Llach; B Ari(n)o-Armengol; V Villegas Iglesias

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants in paediatric practice, and to evaluate the effectiveness and satisfaction with dietetic treatment.METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was first carried out. A total of 285 paediatricians included 3487 children seen during a period of one week. In a second phase an observational, prospective and multicentre study was conducted and 2069 milk-fed infants with mild gastrointestinal disorders (colic,constipation, regurgitation and diarrhoea) were included.There was a baseline visit (start of treatment) and a final visit four weeks later. The effectiveness of the various Novalac formulas, as well as the satisfaction of the parents/tutors and paediatricians with the dietetic treatment were assessed at the final visit.RESULTS: The prevalence of mild gastrointestinal disorders was 27.8% of all paediatrician consultations (9.2%, 7.8%, 6.1% and 4.6% in relation to colic,constipation, regurgitation and diarrhoea, respectively).The several Novalac adapted milk formulas resolved 88.4% of the mild gastrointestinal disorders. Depending on the type of disorder, differences in response rate were observed. The highest effectiveness was recorded with respect to diarrhoea (92.6%), followed by constipation (91.6%), colic (87.6%) and regurgitation (81%). Overall,91% of the paediatricians and 88.8% of the parents/tutors were satisfied or very satisfied with the Novalac adapted milk formulas.CONCLUSION: Mild gastrointestinal disorders show a high prevalence in paediatric practice. The Novalac adapted milk formulas have been shown to be effective in treating mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants in the context of routine clinical practice.

  16. Bioavailability and metabolism of hydroxycinnamates in rats fed with durum wheat aleurone fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calani, Luca; Ounnas, Fayçal; Salen, Patricia; Demeilliers, Christine; Bresciani, Letizia; Scazzina, Francesca; Brighenti, Furio; Melegari, Camilla; Crozier, Alan; de Lorgeril, Michel; Del Rio, Daniele

    2014-08-01

    The consumption of wholemeal cereals has been associated with the reduced risk of several chronic diseases, and the mechanisms behind these protective effects may be linked, besides dietary fiber and micronutrients, to an increased intake of hydroxycinnamates contained in the bran. Among bran fractions, aleurone usually contains the highest concentration of ferulic acid and diferulic acid esters linked to arabinoxylans representing the most relevant subclasses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the absorption of hydroxycinnamates by measuring the urinary metabolite profiles of rats fed with the two different aleurone fractions (the inner part of the aleurone, named wheat aleurone A, WA-A, and the outer part, named wheat aleurone B, WA-B). An acute feeding experiment with two rat groups consuming equivalent amounts of total ferulic acid from the different aleurone fractions was carried out to evaluate ferulic acid bioavailability as affected by different sources. A chronic feeding experiment was also conducted with two rat groups consuming the same amount of the two different aleurone fractions, carried out to investigate the short-term metabolism and absorption of aleurone phenolics. The results revealed higher increases in the 24 h-excretion of phenolic metabolites/catabolites in aleurone fed rats compared to rats fed with a regular diet. Specifically, in the chronic feeding, ferulic acid was more bioavailable when WA-A was ingested. Based on previous observations, demonstrating various positive physiological responses to ferulic acid and aleurone fractions characterized by higher phenolic bioavailability, our results indicate that the WA-A fraction has potentially interesting nutritional characteristics that might be used for the formulation of new wheat based products.

  17. Activity and mRNA Levels of Enzymes Involved in Hepatic Fatty Acid Synthesis in Rats Fed Naringenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Toru; Ide, Takashi

    2015-11-04

    We investigated the physiological activity of naringenin in affecting hepatic lipogenesis and serum and liver lipid levels in rats. Rats were fed diets containing 0, 1, or 2.5 g/kg naringenin for 15 d. Naringenin at a dietary level of 2.5 g/kg significantly decreased the activities and the mRNA levels of various lipogenic enzymes and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA level. The activities and the mRNA levels were also 9-22% and 12-38% lower, respectively, in rats fed a 1 g/kg naringenin diet than in the animals fed a naringenin-free diet, although the differences were not significant in many cases. Naringenin at 2.5 g/kg significantly lowered serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and phospholipid and hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. This flavonoid at 1.0 g/kg also significantly lowered these parameters except for serum triacylglycerol. Naringenin levels in serum and liver dose-dependently increased, and hepatic concentrations reached levels that can affect various signaling pathways.

  18. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E. coli septic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A. (Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of (2-{sup 3}H) glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 {times} 10{sup 7} live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state.

  19. The effect of zinc bacitracin and roxarsone on performance of broiler chickens when fed in combination with narasin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldroup, P W; Izat, A L; Primo, R A; Twining, P F; Herbert, J A; Trammell, J H; Fell, R V; Crawford, J S

    1990-06-01

    Six trials were conducted at various locations to determine the response of broiler chickens to combinations of zinc bacitracin and roxarsone when fed in the presence of narasin. The addition of zinc bacitracin at 55 mg per kg significantly improved growth rate and feed utilization when data from all locations were combined. There was no effect of roxarsone fed at 50 mg per kg on BW or feed utilization, nor was there an interaction of roxarsone and zinc bacitracin on BW. There was a significant interaction of roxarsone and zinc bacitracin for feed utilization; addition of zinc bacitracin significantly improved feed utilization both in the presence and absence of roxarsone, but the improvement was greater in the absence of roxarsone.

  20. Detergent fiber traits to predict productive energy of forages fed free choice to nonlactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, D W; Holter, J B; Hayes, H H

    1991-04-01

    Hay crops that were predominantly alfalfa, clover or grass, and silage corn were harvested at early and late maturities to give a wide range in fiber contents. Hay crops were stored as field-cured hay and wilted silage. Each was fed for ad libitum intake to three or more nonlactating Holstein animals using total collection digestibility and calorimetry to measure DM intake, TDN, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy. Various fiber components (ADF, NDF, lignin), and expressions computed from them, were used to estimate TDN and digestible energy of forages or groups of forages having homogenous relationships. Stepwise backward elimination procedure was employed to discard independent variables or their squared terms at 5% probability to develop significant, biologically sound, practical predictive relationships. Standard NRC equations were used to extend energy densities to NEL. Free choice DM intake of forages (fed alone) was not closely related to NDF percentages. Estimates of NEL generally were higher when computed via TDN as opposed to digestible energy or metabolizable energy, which did not differ. We present equations to predict NEL from ADF via digestible energy for legumes, grasses, and corn silage, which differ markedly, in some cases, from those in current use. Equations for grasses had low r2, but these could not be compared with published ones, which apparently are based on treatment means rather than individual-animal observations. The NEL of hay crops and corn silages also were predicted from an expression of lignified NDF in DM with moderate precision.

  1. Hepcidin expression in the liver of rats fed a magnesium-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Natsumi; Kotani, Megumi; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2011-10-01

    Mg deficiency accelerates Fe accumulation in the liver, which may induce various metabolic disturbances. In the present study, we examined the gene expression of Hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced in the liver to regulate intestinal Fe absorption negatively, in Mg-deficient rats. Although liver Fe concentration was significantly higher in rats fed an Mg-deficient diet for 4 weeks than in rats fed a control diet, Hepcidin expression in the liver was comparable between the dietary groups. Previous studies revealed that Fe overload up-regulated Hepcidin expression through transcriptional activation by Fe-induced bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) 6, a growth/differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β family, in the liver. Mg deficiency up-regulated the expression of Bmp6 but did not affect the expression of inhibition of DNA binding 1, a sensitive Bmp-responsive gene. In addition, the expression of Bmp receptors such as activin receptor-like kinase 2 (Alk2), activin receptor type IIA (Actr2a), activin receptor type IIB (Actr2b) and Bmp type II receptor (Bmpr2) was lower in the liver of Mg-deficient rats than in that of control rats. The present study indicates that accumulation of hepatic Fe by Mg deficiency is a stimulant inducing Bmp6 expression but not Hepcidin expression by blunting Bmp signalling possibly resulting from down-regulation of the receptor expression. Unresponsive Hepcidin expression may have a role in Mg deficiency-induced changes related to increased liver Fe.

  2. A Comparative Study of Control Strategies for Performance Optimisation of Brushless Doubly- Fed Reluctance Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutin G. Jovanović

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM allows the use of a partially rated inverter and represents an attractive cost-effective candidate for variable speed applications with limited speed ranges. In its induction machine form (BDFIM, the BDFM has significant rotor losses and poor efficiency due to the cage rotor design which makes the machine dynamic models heavily parameter dependent and the resulting controller configuration complicated and difficult to implement. A reluctance version of the BDFM, the brushless doubly-fed reluctance machine (BDFRM, ideally has no rotor losses, and therefore offers the prospect for higher efficiency and simpler control compared to the BDFIM. A detailed study of this interesting and emerging machine is very important to gain a thorough understanding of its unusual operation, control aspects and compromises between optimal performance and the size of the inverter and the machine. This paper will attempt to address these issues specifically concentrating on developing conditions for various control properties of the machine such as maximum power factor, maximum torque per inverter ampere and minimum copper losses, as well as analysing the associated trade-offs.

  3. Analysis of doubly-fed induction machine operating at motoring mode subjected to voltage sag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Variable Speed (VS Pumped Storage Plants (PSP equipped with large asynchronous (Doubly-Fed Induction machines are emerging now in hydropower applications. Motoring mode of operation of Doubly-Fed Induction Machine (DFIM is essential and techno-economical in this application due to: (1 its uniqueness in active power controllability, (2 bulk power handing capability with less rated power converters in rotor circuit, and (3 integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES. This paper investigates the performance of two DFIMs at different power ratings (2.2 kW and 2 MW under voltage sag with different attribute. The test results are analyzed in terms of the peaks in torque, speed, power taken and transient currents in rotor and stator circuits. During sag, stable region for DFIM operation along with speed and stator side reactive power input control is also illustrated. The negative effects of voltage sag are briefly discussed. MATLAB simulation is validated with experimentation. The various observations during simulation and experimental analysis are also supported by the theoretical explanations.

  4. Decreased aortic early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters fed oleic acid-rich TriSun oil compared to linoleic acid-rich sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Robert J.; Wilson, Thomas A.; Handelman, Garry; Foxall, Thomas; Keaney, John F.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2002-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that low density lipoprotein (LDL) enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are more susceptible to oxidation (ex vivo) than those containing monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). To test whether this observation was associated with various parameters considered to be related with the development of early aortic atherosclerosis, hamsters were fed commercial hypercholesterolemic diets (HCD) containing either the PUFA, sunflower oil (SF) or the MUFA, TriSun oil (TS) at 10% with 0.4% cholesterol (wt/wt). LDL isolated from hamsters fed TS had significantly longer lag phase (30%, P < 0.05), a decreased propagation phase (-62%, P < 0.005), and fewer conjugated dienes formed (-37%, P < 0.007) compared to hamsters fed SF. Aortic vasomotor function, measured as degree of aortic relaxation, was significantly greater in the TS vs SF-fed hamsters whether acetylcholine or the calcium ionophore A23187 was used as the endothelium-dependent agonist. As a group, the SF-fed hamsters had significantly more early atherosclerosis than hamsters fed TS (46%, P < 0.006). When animals across the two diets were pair-matched by plasma LDL-C levels, there was an 82% greater mean difference (P < 0.002) in early atherosclerosis in the SF versus the TS-fed hamsters. While there were no significant associations with plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol, early atherosclerosis was significantly correlated with lag phase (r = -0.67, p < 0.02), rate of LDL conjugated diene formation (r = 0.74, p < 0.006) and maximum dienes formed (r = 0.67, p < 0.02). Compared to TS-fed animals, aortic sections from hamsters fed the SF-containing diet revealed that the cytoplasm of numerous foam cells in the subendothelial space reacted positively with the monoclonal anti-bodies MDA-2 and NA59 antibody, epitopes found on oxidized forms of LDL. The present study suggests that compared to TS, hamsters fed the SF-diet demonstrated enhanced LDL oxidative susceptibility, reduced

  5. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid induces lipolysis in adipose tissue of coconut oil-fed mice but not soy oil-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippagunta, S; Hadenfeldt, T J; Miner, J L; Hargrave-Barnes, K M

    2011-09-01

    Mice fed diets containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are leaner than mice not fed CLA. This anti-obesity effect is amplified in mice fed coconut oil-containing or fat free diets, compared to soy oil diets. The present objective was to determine if CLA alters lipolysis in mice fed different base oils. Mice were fed diets containing soy oil (SO), coconut oil (CO), or fat free (FF) for 6 weeks, followed by 10 or 12 days of CLA or no CLA supplementation. Body fat, tissue weights, and ex vivo lipolysis were determined. Relative protein abundance and activation of perilipin, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) were determined by western blotting. CLA feeding caused mice to have less (P oil source, P oil source interaction on lipolysis as CO + CLA and FF + CLA-fed mice had increased (P < 0.05) rates of lipolysis but SO + CLA-fed mice did not. However, after 12 days of CLA consumption, activated perilipin was increased (P < 0.05) only in SO + CLA-fed mice and total HSL and ATGL were decreased (P < 0.05) in CO + CLA-fed mice. Therefore, the enhanced CLA-induced body fat loss in CO and FF-fed mice appears to involve increased lipolysis but this effect may be decreasing by 12 days of CLA consumption.

  6. Cross Federal Workgroup on Telehealth (FedTel) Inventory of Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is a collection of the submitted activities and projects from member of the Cross Federal Workgroup on Telehealth (FedTel). The FedTel's membership...

  7. Fasted/fed states regulate postsynaptic hub protein DYNLL2 and glutamatergic transmission in oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Kodaira-Hirano, Misato; Otgon-Uul, Zesemdorj; Ueta, Yoichi; Nakata, Masanori; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    The neurons in the hypothalamus regulate food intake and energy metabolism on reception of systemic energy states. Accumulating evidences have indicated that synaptic transmission on the hypothalamic neurons is modulated by the metabolic condition related to fasted/fed states, and that this modulation of synaptic plasticity plays a role in regulation of feeding. It has been shown that oxytocin (Oxt) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus sense and integrate various peripheral and central signals and thereby induce satiety. However, whether metabolic conditions regulate the synaptic transmission on Oxt neurons in PVN remains unclear. The present study examined whether the fasted/fed states regulate synaptic transmission on Oxt neurons in PVN. The miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) onto Oxt neurons in PVN were increased under ad lib fed condition compared to 24h fasted condition. Furthermore, the NMDA receptor-mediated EPSC on Oxt neurons was increased under fed, compared to fasted, condition. In Oxt neurons, dynein light chain 2 (DYNLL2), a protein suggested to be implicated in the NMDA receptor trafficking to the postsynaptic site, was increased under fed, compared to fasted, condition. The present results suggest that feeding increases excitatory synaptic input on PVN Oxt neurons via mechanisms involving DYNLL2 upregulation and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic reorganization.

  8. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  9. Doubly Fed Drives for Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, Morten

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the use of variable speed wind turbines. Different wind turbine generator topologies are described. In particular, the reduced variable speed turbine, which uses a doubly fed induction generator, is covered. An overview of the power electronic inverters of interest...... in the machine is nearly constant. This means that changes of either the flux or torque producing current in the rotor circuit is limited by the transient time constant of the machine. A 40 kW laboratory model with a doubly fed induction generator and a 3-level neutral point clamped back to back power converter...... is constructed. Adaptive active flters are used to reduce harmonics and slip harmonics in the stator current. The flters are implemented in both inverters. The active flters reduce the stator harmonics by 20-30 dB. The flters can reduce the slip harmonics at variable speed....

  10. SIMULATION OF CYCLOCONVERTER FED SPLIT PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Pratap Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-phase induction motors are widely used in many applications. Improvements in its performance mean a great saving in electrical energy consumption. A cycloconverter fed variable frequency motor is a typical example of such improvement. In this regard, the paper presents an analysis of the performance and speed control of the split phase induction motor when it is fed with cycloconverter. Dynamic models and analysis of the motor behavior during transient and steady state phases are presented. A speed controller based oncycloconverter is proposed. The controlled motor exhibited better performance at staring state. A cycloconverter is a device that converts AC, power at one frequency into AC power of an adjustable but lower frequency without any direct current, or DC, stage in between. It can also be considered as a static frequency changer andtypically contains silicon-controlled rectifiers.

  11. Voltage Control in Wind Power Plants with Doubly Fed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Jorge Martinez

    In this work, the process of designing a wind power plant composed of; doubly fed induction generators, a static compensator unit, mechanically switched capacitors and on-load tap changer, for voltage control is shown. The selected control structure is based on a decentralized system, since...... supplied by the doubly fed induction generator wind turbines is overcome by installing a reactive power compensator, i.e. a static compensator unit, which is coordinated with the plant control by a specific dispatcher. This dispatcher is set according to the result of the wind power plant load flow....... To release the operation of the converters during steady-state disturbances, mechanically switched capacitors are installed in the wind power plant, which due to their characteristics, they are appropriate for permanent disturbances compensation. The mechanically switched capacitors are controlled to allow...

  12. Accurate Sky Continuum Subtraction with Fibre-fed Spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yanbin; Puech, Mathieu; Flores, Hector; Royer, Frederic; Disseau, Karen; Gonçalves, Thiago; Hammer, François; Cirasuolo, Michele; Evans, Chris; Causi, Gianluca Li; Maiolino, Roberto; Melo, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Fibre-fed spectrographs now have throughputs equivalent to slit spectrographs. However, the sky subtraction accuracy that can be reached has often been pinpointed as one of the major issues associated with the use of fibres. Using technical time observations with FLAMES-GIRAFFE, two observing techniques, namely dual staring and cross beam-switching, were tested and the resulting sky subtraction accuracy reached in both cases was quantified. Results indicate that an accuracy of 0.6% on sky subtraction can be reached, provided that the cross beam-switching mode is used. This is very encouraging with regard to the detection of very faint sources with future fibre-fed spectrographs, such as VLT/MOONS or E-ELT/MOSAIC.

  13. Performance of a Sensorless SRM Drive Fed from a Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Oshaba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the development and implementation of a new sensorless algorithm for estimating the rotor position at a wide range of operating conditions. The algorithm is designed to overcome difficulties in estimating the rotor position at starting as well as at the normal operation region. The algorithm is successfully implemented experimentally using SRM fed from a photovoltaic source which has a nonlinear operating nature. The results show improved performance at starting as well as when step changes in converter duty ratio or insulation levels occur. The results demonstrate clearly that the new algorithm ensures smooth starting without initial hesitation and reduces the torque ripples. The results presented are of prime importance to manufacturing companies leading to low cost reliable SRM drive systems for various industrial applications.

  14. CPW fed Inverted U-Shape Microstrip Patch Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide (CPW-fed planar monopole antenna for WiMAX and WLAN applications is presented. The antenna, which occupies a small size, is simply composed of an inverted U-shaped radiating patch with E-shape slot. By carefully selecting the positions of this slot, reasonable bandwidth of the antenna can be obtained so that operating bands covering 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN bands and the 2.5/3.5/5.5 GHz WiMAX bands. The measured results also demonstrate that the proposed antenna has appreciable bandwidth and is thus suitable to be integrated within the portable devices for WiMAX/WLAN applications. The various characteristics parameters like S-parameter, VSWR and radiation pattern are studied. The proposed antenna is simulated by using ANSOFT HFSS software

  15. [Vitamin K supplementation in the exclusively breast-fed infant: how much, how long?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zix-Kieffer, I

    2008-09-01

    There are various ways to prevent late vitamin K deficiency bleeding in exclusively breast-fed infants. The French paediatric society recommends weekly doses of 2mg of mixed micellar preparation of vitamin K during the entire period of exclusive breastfeeding, i.e. 24 doses for a period of six months, which matches recommendations for optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding by the French paediatric society, WHO and AAP. This significantly exceeds recommendations in other European countries. We describe the risks of vitamin K deficiency; we provide a review of recent literature about administrating vitamin K in other countries, and give a recommendation for daily practice that seems to be acceptable. Nevertheless, a comprehensive randomised prospective study is needed in France to answer the question of the best ways of preventing vitamin K deficiency bleeding.

  16. Homeostasis of Retinol in Lecithin:retinol Acyltransferase Gene Knockout Mice Fed a High Retinol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Limin; Tang, Xiao-Han; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the retinoid levels and gene expression in various tissues after wild type (Wt) and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase knockout (LRAT−/−) mice were fed a high retinol diet (250 IU/gram). As compared to Wt, LRAT−/− mice exhibited a greater and faster increase in serum retinol concentration (mean±S.D., Wt, 1.3±0.2 µM to 1.5±0.3 µM in 48 hours, p>0.05; LRAT−/−, 1.3±0.2 µM to 2.2±0.3 µM in 48 hours, p

  17. Inbreeding Line Culture of Wuzhishan Mini-pig and the Innovation in Nurturing Inbred for Chinese Genetic Resources%五指山小型猪近交系培育与遗传资源创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯书堂; 李奎; 牟玉莲; 杨述林

    2012-01-01

    中国农业科学院北京畜牧兽医研究所二十多年来,利用2头五指山小型猪(Sus scrofa)(Wuzhishan mini-pig,WZSP),采用近交繁育,培育出近交系,最高已获得近交F22,并进行开发应用.对WZSP近交系全基因组测序并与人(Homo sapiens)、短尾猴(Macaque mulatta)和大鼠(Rattus norvegicus)比对,初步分析发现,该近交系全基因组具有较高的纯合度和特异的分子遗传特征,不仅证明了我国实现遗传资源创新培育近交系的可靠性,而且证明该近交系猪是人类理想的“替难者”.实现我国小型猪遗传资源创新的培育目标,取得了一定的经济和较大社会效益,有着重要的现实和历史意义.%Experimental animals are important research content of the research conditions. In past more than 20 years, the Wuzhishan mini-pig (Sus scrofa)(WZSP) inbred line has been carried out by Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, with inbreeding heddle measure. Up to now, inbreeding F22 of pig's herd have been already obtained which has been applied on human medicine industry. Recently, the whole-genomesequencing of the inbred's WZSP was performed which would be inbred for medical experiments. Compared with hmnan(Homo sapiens), macaque (Macaque mulatto) and rat(Rattus norvegicus), the genome of the inbred pig represented the high homozygosity and specific molecular genetic characteristics. In addition, results from the genome sequencing not only reveal reliability of the innovation in nurturing inbred for Chinese genetic resources, also imply that the inbred line pig is an ideal model in human medical research. The cultivation of Chinese miniature pigs has important practical and historical significance.

  18. Ultra-Wideband Coplanar-Fed Monopoles: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jilkova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an experimental comparison of four types of ultra-wideband coplanar-fed planar monopole antennas. Parameters of the open stub completed by an L-shaped monopole and the cross monopole were adopted from the literature. The forked monopole and the coplanar monopole were fabricated and measured. Monopoles were compared from the viewpoint of the impedance bandwidth, gain, directivity patterns and dimensions.

  19. Six-Phase Matrix Converter Fed Double Star Induction Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiabdellah Azeddine; Bachir Ghalem

    2010-01-01

    two different control strategies applied to a direct AC-AC six-phase matrixconverter are investigated in the present paper. The first strategy is derived from theVenturini method, and the second approach is practically an extension of the scalarstrategy control. Both strategies were originally applied to the three-phase matrixconverter.The current investigation deals with a comparative performance study of a double starinduction motor fed from a six-phase matrix converter using the two above ...

  20. Spermatogenesis in bald eagles experimentally fed a diet containing DDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Chura, N.J.; Stewart, P.A.

    1966-01-01

    When Bald Eagles were fed DDT in the diet at the level of 10 ppm (dry weight basis) for periods of 60 and 120 days, there was no interference with spermatogenic activity. Degenerative testicular changes were produced only by levels of DDT that produced abnormal neurological signs and usually resulted in death. Histological examination of these testes indicates that Bald Eagles have a seasonal testicular cycle similar to that reported for many other birds of the Northern Hemisphere.

  1. Anticholesteremic property of Lactobacillus acidophilus yogurt fed to mature boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, A D; Peo, E R; Shahani, K M; Lewis, A J; Whalen, P J; Amer, M A

    1989-04-01

    Three strains of Lactobacilus acidophilus (LA) were isolated from the feces of mature boars that were not being fed antibiotics from the Nebraska Gene Pool (NGP). All three LA isolates were screened in vitro for anticholesteremic and antimicrobial activities. One strain, LA16, caused the greatest reduction in cholesterol and inhibited both Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli the most. LA16 was used to produce 16, 18.9-liter quantities of acidophilus yogurt (AY), over a period of 8 wk, for use as a feed ingredient in diets for the NGP boars. Colony forming units (cfu), pH, protein, energy, Ca and P were consistent across all 16 batches of yogurt. All of the 18 boars were fed a high-cholesterol diet for a period of 56 d at a rate of 2.268 kg/(hd.d) to furnish 6.661 g/(hd.d) of cholesterol. Nine of the boars then were fed 1.81 kg/(hd.d) of a second diet that was supplemented with .454 kg/(hd.d) of AY. The other nine boars were fed the original diet. Cholesterol intake was the same for the two dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected weekly from the brachial-jugular region and the sera were analyzed for lipids. Acidophilus yogurt reduced serum cholesterol (P less than .01) and low density lipoproteins (P less than .08), but it had no effect on serum triglycerides (P greater than .23) or on high density lipoproteins (P greater than .11).

  2. Demographic responses of Daphnia magna fed transgenic Bt-maize

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The food/feed quality of a variety of genetically modified (GM) maize expressing Cry1Ab Bt-toxin was tested over the life-cycle of Daphnia magna, an arthropod commonly used as model organism in ecotoxicological studies. Demographic responses were compared between animals fed GM or unmodified (UM) near isogenic maize, with and without the addition of predator smell. Age-specific data on survival and birth rates were integrated and analysed using life tables and Leslie matrices. Survival, fecun...

  3. Organochlorine compounds in breast-fed vs. bottle-fed infants: preliminary results at six weeks of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackmann, G.-M.; Schaller, K.-H.; Angerer, J

    2004-08-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. They are chemically very stable and lipophilic and, therefore, accumulate in our food-chain. They are prenatally transmitted from mother to foetus, and mother's milk due to its high lipid content is an elimination pathway of special importance. Therefore, breast-feeding has been held responsible for elevated concentrations of these organochlorine compounds as well as for harmful effects in children later in life. Methods: Blood samples (2.5 ml) were taken from each 10 breast-fed and bottle-fed infants at 6 weeks of age. Blood specimens were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored in glass tubes at -20 degree sign C until analysis. Three higher chlorinated PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 138, 153 and 180), HCB, and the organic metabolite of DDT, p,p<<-DDE, were analysed with capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Reliability was tested with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: There were no differences between the study groups of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to sex distribution, gestational age, birth-weight, age of the mothers, and smoking behaviour of the parents. In contrast, serum concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in breast-fed than in bottle-fed infants (mean): PCB 138, 0.38 vs. 0.10 {mu}g/l; PCB 153, 0.49 vs. 0.1 {mu}g/l; PCB 180, 0.31 vs. 0.04 {mu}g/l; {sigma}PCB, 1.19 vs. 0.29 {mu}g/l; HCB, 0.13 vs. 0.04 {mu}g/l; p,p<<-DDE, 1.05 vs. 0.18 {mu}g/l. Conclusions: Breast-feeding significantly increases the pollution of our infants with different organochlorine compounds as early as at 6 weeks of age. The progress of the present study will show whether this pollution will further increase with longer duration of breast-feeding, and whether breast-feeding bears any

  4. Continuous Cellulosic Bioethanol Fermentation by Cyclic Fed-Batch Cocultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, He-Long; He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Hemme, Christopher L.; Wu, Liyou

    2013-01-01

    Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose fermentation using cocultivation. Cocultures of cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum LQRI and saccharolytic Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus strain X514 were tested in the semicontinuous fermentor as a model system. Initial cellulose concentration and pH were identified as the key process parameters controlling cellulose fermentation performance in the fixed-volume cyclic fed-batch coculture system. At an initial cellulose concentration of 40 g liter−1, the concentration of ethanol produced with pH control was 4.5-fold higher than that without pH control. It was also found that efficient cellulosic bioethanol production by cocultivation was sustained in the semicontinuous configuration, with bioethanol production reaching 474 mM in 96 h with an initial cellulose concentration of 80 g liter−1 and pH controlled at 6.5 to 6.8. These results suggested the advantages of the cyclic fed-batch process for cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by the cocultures. PMID:23275517

  5. Survival and reproductive success of black ducks fed methyl mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, M.T.; Stendell, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A diet containing 3 ppm mercury was fed to black ducks (Anas rubripes) for periods of 28 weeks during two consecutive breeding seasons. Clutch size, egg production, number of eggs incubated, hatchability and survival of ducklings were lower during both years in hens fed mercury. Reduced hatchability and poor duckling survival were the most harmful effects. During 2 years, 13 pairs of breeders fed mercury produced only 16 ducklings that survived 1 week compared with 73 ducklings from 13 pairs of controls. Mercury residues in eggs, embryos and ducklings averaged about 30% lower during the second breeding season compared with first year results. Third eggs laid by treated hens contained a mean of 6?14 and 3?86 ppm mercury during the first and second years. Whole embryos that failed to hatch contained means of 9?62 and 6?08 ppm mercury during the first and second years. Brains of dead ducklings contained between 3?25 and 6?98 ppm mercury and exhibited lesions characteristic of mercury poisoning. Relative tissue mercury levels for treated adult breeders were: feathers > liver > kidney > breast muscle > brain. Mercury levels in males and females did not differ.

  6. Control aspects of the brushless doubly-fed machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauw, H. K.; Krishnan, S.

    1990-09-01

    This report covers the investigations into the control aspects of a variable-speed generation (VSG) system using a brushless double-fed generator excited by a series-resonant converter. The brushless double-fed machine comprises two sets of stator 3-phase systems which are designed with common windings. The rotor is a cage rotor resembling the low-cost and robust squirrel cage of a conventional induction machine. The system was actually designed and set up in the Energy Laboratory of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oregon State University. The series-resonant converter designed to achieve effective control for variable-speed generation with the brushless doubly-fed generator was adequate in terms of required time response and regulation as well as in providing for adequate power quality. The three elements of the VSG controller, i.e., voltage or reactive power controller, the efficiency maximizer and the stabilizer, could be designed using conventional microprocessor elements with a processing time well within the time period required for sampling the variables involved with executing the control tasks. The report treats in detail the stability problem encountered in running the machine at certain speed regions, even if requirements for steady-state stability are satisfied. In this unstable region, shut down of the VSG system is necessary unless proper stabilization controls are provided for. The associated measures to be taken are presented.

  7. Crowbar system in doubly fed induction wind generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, M. B. C.; Cardoso, J. R. [Laboratory of Applied Electromagnetism-LMAG, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hameyer, K. [Institute of Electrical Machines-IEM, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Grilo, A. P. [Engineering, Modeling and Applied Social Science Center-Federal University of ABC, Santo Andre (Brazil); Rahmann, C. [Institute of Power Systems and Power Economics-IAEW, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In the last 15 years, the use of doubly fed induction machines in modern variable-speed wind turbines has increased rapidly. This development has been driven by the cost reduction as well as the low-loss generation of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT). According to new grid code requirements, wind turbines must remain connected to the grid during grid disturbances. Moreover, they must also contribute to voltage support during and after grid faults. The crowbar system is essential to avoid the disconnection of the doubly fed induction wind generators from the network during faults. The insertion of the crowbar in the rotor circuits for a short period of time enables a more efficient terminal voltage control. As a general rule, the activation and the deactivation of the crowbar system is based only on the DC-link voltage level of the back-to-back converters. In this context, the authors discuss the critical rotor speed to analyze the instability of doubly fed induction generators during grid faults. (author)

  8. Distribution of metals during digestion by cutthroat trout fed benthic invertebrates contaminated in the Clark Fork River, Montana and the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, U.S.A., and fed artificially contaminated Artemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Suedkamp, M.J.; Meyer, J.S.; Barrows, R.; Woodward, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of essential amino acids in three, undigested invertebrate diets collected from the Clark Fork River (CFR) for cutthroat trout were similar to each other, but were c. 25–75% less than Artemia that were exposed to a mixture of arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead and zinc in the laboratory. The Artemia diet appeared less palatable and the texture, quantity and appearance of the intestinal contents differed between fish fed the Artemia and CFR diets. The Pb% in the fluid fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (29%) than for the CFR diets (10–17%), and the Cu% in the amino acid plus metal fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (78%) than for two of the three CFR diets (67% and 70%). Intestinal contents of fish fed invertebrate diets collected from various sites on the Coeur d'Alene River (CDA), Idaho, were similar in texture, quantity, and appearance. For fish fed the CDA diets, differences in the distribution of metals among fractions of the digestive fluids appeared to be related to concentrations of metals in the invertebrate diets. Pb% was lowest of all metals in the fluid portion of the intestinal contents. However, >80% of all metals in the hind gut were associated with the particulate fraction where they may still be available for uptake through pinocytosis.

  9. Performance and carcass traits of finishing heifers fed crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, G L; Shelor, M K; Drouillard, J S

    2009-02-01

    Crossbred heifers (n = 373; 421.6 kg +/- 28.9) were fed finishing diets containing 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 16% crude glycerin (DM basis). Diets consisted of steam-flaked corn with 6% alfalfa hay and 1.2% urea and provided 300 mg of monensin, 90 mg of tylosin, and 0.5 mg of melengestrol acetate per animal daily. Cattle were stratified by BW and allocated randomly, within strata, to concrete-surfaced feedlot pens each containing 6 to 7 heifers, with 9 pens per dietary treatment. Cattle were transitioned from the control diet to diets containing increasing proportions of glycerin over a period of 10 d. Cattle had ad libitum access to feed, and diets were delivered once daily throughout the 85-d trial period. As the concentration of glycerin increased, DMI decreased linearly (P glycerin had ADG of 1.19, 1.34, 1.29, 1.25, 1.17, and 1.03 kg, respectively (linear, P = 0.013; quadratic, P = 0.010). Feeding glycerin had a quadratic effect on G:F, and G:F was optimal when glycerin was fed at 2% of the diet (quadratic, P = 0.046). Glycerin increased the final BW by 12.7, 8.1, and 5.3 kg when fed at 2, 4, and 8% of the diet, respectively, but reduced the final BW by 1.9 and 14.3 kg when included at 12 and 16% of the diet (linear, P = 0.009; quadratic, P = 0.006). Similarly, HCW increased by 8.1, 5.1, and 3.3 kg when glycerin was fed at 2, 4, and 8% of the diet, respectively, but were 1.2 and 9.1 kg less than controls when glycerin was fed at 12 and 16%, respectively (linear, P = 0.009; quadratic, P = 0.006). Longissimus muscle area decreased linearly as glycerin concentrations increased (P glycerin resulted in linear decreases in subcutaneous fat over the 12th rib and marbling scores (P = 0.045). Glycerin tended to decrease the percentage of cattle grading USDA Choice (P = 0.084) and increase the percentage of cattle grading USDA Select. Adding glycerin to cattle-finishing diets improved BW gain and feed efficiency, particularly when added at concentrations of 8% or less on a DM

  10. Plasma lipids and prothrombin time in rats fed palm oil and other commonly used fats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein, Mona M.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a total period of 8 weeks on six diets that were different in the source of their fat content. The fat content was provided either, palm oil or palm olein or corn oil or hydrogenated fat, or frying palm oil and mixture of corn oil + hydrogenated fat in the ratio (1:1. The latter was given to the control group. Animals fed these various experimental diets showed statistically significant differences in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides content among all group. Increased HDL-cholesterol content was evident in animals fed on palm-olein and palm oil. The frying oil fed group showed lowest HDL-cholesterol content. In these experiments palm olein fed animals showed highest ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol while the lowest ratio was shown in rats fed on frying oil. Prothrombin (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT showed higher values In palm oil, palm olein and corn oil diets as compared to all groups with each other.

    Ratas Sprague-Dawley fueron alimentadas durante un periodo total de 8 semanas con seis dietas diferentes en su contenido graso. El contenido graso fue proporcionado por aceite de palma u oleína de palma o aceite de maíz o grasa hidrogenada o aceite de palma de fritura y mezcla de aceite de maíz + grasa hidrogenada en la relación (1:1. El último fue dado al grupo de control. Los animales alimentados con las diferentes dietas experimentales mostraron diferencias significativas estadísticamente en el contenido en colesterol y triglicéridos en suero entre todos los grupos. El aumento en contenido HDL-colesterol fue evidente en animales alimentados con oleína de palma y aceite de palma. El grupo alimentado con aceite de fritura mostró el más bajo contenido en HDL-colesterol. En estos experimentos, los animales alimentados con oleína de palma mostraron la mayor relación de HDL-colesterol a colesterol total, mientras que la relación más baja fue mostrada

  11. Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Amino Acid Profiles in Blood and Tissues in Fed and Overnight-Fasted Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Holecek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arginine intake is believed to have favorable effects on the body. However, it might be hypothesized that excessive consumption of an individual amino acid exerts adverse effects on distribution and metabolism of other amino acids. We evaluated the effect of chronic intake of arginine on amino acid concentrations in blood plasma, liver, kidneys, and soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-arginine diet (HAD for two months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state, and the other half after fasting overnight. HAD increased blood plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, arginine, and ornithine and decreased most other amino acids. Arginine and ornithine also increased in muscles and kidneys; an increase of lysine was observed in both muscle types. Methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, asparagine, glycine, serine, and taurine decreased in most tissues of HAD fed animals. Most of the effects of HAD disappeared after overnight fasting. It is concluded that (i enhanced dietary arginine intake alters distribution of almost all amino acids; and (ii to attain a better assessment of the effects of various nutritional interventions, an appropriate number of biochemical measurements must be performed in both postprandial and postabsorptive states.

  12. The fasted/fed mouse metabolic acetylome: N6-acetylation differences suggest acetylation coordinates organ-specific fuel switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Hartil, Kirsten; Robinson, Alan J; Hoopmann, Michael R; Eng, Jimmy K; Kurland, Irwin J; Bruce, James E

    2011-09-02

    The elucidation of extra-nuclear lysine acetylation has been of growing interest, as the cosubstrate for acetylation, acetyl CoA, is at a key metabolic intersection. Our hypothesis was that mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein acetylation may be part of a fasted/re-fed feedback control system for the regulation of the metabolic network in fuel switching, where acetyl CoA would be provided by fatty acid oxidation, or glycolysis, respectively. To test this, we characterized the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic acetylome in various organs that have a high metabolic rate relative to their mass, and/or switch fuels, under fasted and re-fed conditions (brain, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, white and brown adipose tissues). Using immunoprecipitation, coupled with LC-MS/MS label free quantification, we show there is a dramatic variation in global quantitative profiles of acetylated proteins from different organs. In total, 733 acetylated peptides from 337 proteins were identified and quantified, out of which 31 acetylated peptides from the metabolic proteins that may play organ-specific roles were analyzed in detail. Results suggest that fasted/re-fed acetylation changes coordinated by organ-specific (de)acetylases in insulin-sensitive versus -insensitive organs may underlie fuel use and switching. Characterization of the tissue-specific acetylome should increase understanding of metabolic conditions wherein normal fuel switching is disrupted, such as in Type II diabetes.

  13. Incidence of nosocomial rotavirus infections, symptomatic and asymptomatic, in breast-fed and non-breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianino, P; Mastretta, E; Longo, P; Laccisaglia, A; Sartore, M; Russo, R; Mazzaccara, A

    2002-01-01

    Rotavirus is one of the most important aetiological agents of nosocomial infections in childhood. We studied the incidence of nosocomial rotavirus infections in 420 patients (age range 1-18 months) consecutively admitted from 1 December 1999 to 31 May 2000 to the infant ward of the Department of Paediatrics, University of Turin. We also evaluated the protective effect of breast feeding. Faecal specimens were collected from every child (whether developing diarrhoeic symptoms or not) and tested for rotavirus during hospitalization and 72 h after discharge. The incidence of rotavirus nosocomial infections was 27.7%. The incidence of symptomatic nosocomial infections was 16.8%, and the incidence of asymptomatic infections was 10.9%. The attack rate of the infections that occurred during hospitalization was 11.8%, while for those occurring after discharge, it was 15.9%. Rotavirus infection, on average, prolonged hospital stay from 5.2 to 6.4 days. 10.6% of breast-fed infants and 32.4% of non-breast-fed infants contracted rotavirus infection (P<0.005). None of the breast-fed infants who contracted rotavirus infection developed diarrhoeic symptoms.

  14. Melatonin improves glucose homeostasis and endothelial vascular function in high-fat diet-fed insulin-resistant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Claudio; Dessen, Pierre; Mathieu, Caroline; Monney, Anita; Bloch, Jonathan; Nicod, Pascal; Scherrer, Urs; Duplain, Hervé

    2009-12-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance represent a problem of utmost clinical significance worldwide. Insulin-resistant states are characterized by the inability of insulin to induce proper signal transduction leading to defective glucose uptake in skeletal muscle tissue and impaired insulin-induced vasodilation. In various pathophysiological models, melatonin interacts with crucial molecules of the insulin signaling pathway, but its effects on glucose homeostasis are not known. In a diet-induced mouse model of insulin resistance and normal chow-fed control mice, we sought to assess the effects of an 8-wk oral treatment with melatonin on insulin and glucose tolerance and to understand underlying mechanisms. In high-fat diet-fed mice, but not in normal chow-fed control mice, melatonin significantly improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, as evidenced by a higher rate of glucose infusion to maintain euglycemia during hyperinsulinemic clamp studies and an attenuated hyperglycemic response to an ip glucose challenge. Regarding underlying mechanisms, we found that melatonin restored insulin-induced vasodilation to skeletal muscle, a major site of glucose utilization. This was due, at least in part, to the improvement of insulin signal transduction in the vasculature, as evidenced by increased insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and endoethelial nitric oxide synthase in aortas harvested from melatonin-treated high-fat diet-fed mice. In contrast, melatonin had no effect on the ability of insulin to promote glucose uptake in skeletal muscle tissue in vitro. These data demonstrate for the first time that in a diet-induced rodent model of insulin resistance, melatonin improves glucose homeostasis by restoring the vascular action of insulin.

  15. Glucose Metabolism in Sheep Fed Grass Supplemented with Gliricidia Sepium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Widiawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritivefeed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionat and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteen sheeps (18 months old were used in the experiment. Theseare were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group, Gliricidia(GS group, and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group. D-[U-14C]glucoseinfusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps. The measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01. Glucose entry rate (GER increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that theutilization of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention.

  16. Urotensin II promotes atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Li

    Full Text Available Urotensin II (UII is a vasoactive peptide composed of 11 amino acids that has been implicated to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether UII affects the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. UII was infused for 16 weeks through an osmotic mini-pump into male Japanese White rabbits fed on a high-cholesterol diet. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions along with cellular components, collagen fibers, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -9 were examined. Moreover, vulnerability index of atherosclerotic plaques was evaluated. UII infusion significantly increased atherosclerotic lesions within the entire aorta by 21% over the control (P = 0.013. Atherosclerotic lesions were increased by 24% in the aortic arch (P = 0.005, 11% in the thoracic aorta (P = 0.054 and 18% in the abdominal aorta (P = 0.035. These increases occurred without changes in plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides or body weight. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that macrophages and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were significantly enhanced by 2.2-fold and 1.6-fold in UII group. In vitro studies demonstrated that UII up-regulated the expression of vascular cell adhesion protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which was inhibited by the UII receptor antagonist urantide. In conclusion, our results showed that UII promotes the development of atherosclerotic lesions and destabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

  17. Stator insulation systems for medium voltage PWM drives fed motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, G.; Chen, W. [TECO-Westinghouse Motor Co., Round Rock, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Adjustable speed drives (ASD) are commonly used in power electronics and control systems. It is estimated that more than 15 per cent of medium voltage motors are currently fed by such drives worldwide. A research project was conducted to examine the influence of medium voltage pulse width modulated (PWM) ASD on motor stator insulation systems. The findings, based on accelerated laboratory tests, have helped designers to improve the capabilities of the insulation system used for ASD-fed motors. Repetitive, high magnitude voltage spikes with fast rise time create significant stress on insulation systems. Gradual deterioration and premature failure of the motor insulation can result from surge voltages which generate surface discharges between phase windings/end windings, or partial discharges between stator turns. However, there is no industrial standard to evaluate motor insulation life under ASD-cable-motor conditions. Several material manufacturers have developed their own version of corona resistant material. However, the insulation life of ASD-fed motors does not depend solely on the raw materials. Rather, it depends on the complete insulation system, including the stator manufacturing process. In order to address this problem, TECO-Westinghouse Motor Company has developed special design criteria and manufacturing practices in order to reduce winding insulation temperature and to compensate for the additional heat generated by high frequency contents in the PWM voltage waveform. A patent pending new cooling system should reduce winding temperature by 15 to 20 degrees C. This paper presented design considerations for turn insulation, groundwall insulation, and a voltage stress grading system. A new thermal class H insulation system was also described. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Energy intake of rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, E; Monfar, M; Castellà, J; Iglesias, R; Alemany, M

    1989-02-01

    The proportion of lipid, carbohydrate and protein energy self-selected by male and female rats from a cafeteria diet has been studied for a 48-day period (36-day in female rats). The diet consisted in 12 different items and was offered daily, in excess and under otherwise standard conditions, to rats--caged in groups of three--from weaning to adulthood. Groups of control animals were studied in parallel and compared with the cafeteria groups. Cafeteria diet fed groups of rats ingested more energy and lowered their metabolic efficiency with age. Male rats ate more than females and increased their body weight even after female practically stopped growing. There was a wide variation in the aliments consumed each day by the cafeteria-fed rats. However, the proportion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate the rats ate remained constant. Male rats ingested more lipid than females. Carbohydrate consumption was constant in control and cafeteria fed groups of rats independently of sex. Protein consumption was higher in cafeteria rats than in controls, but the differences were not so important as with liquid. Fiber content of the cafeteria diet was lower than that of the control diet. The cafeteria diet selected by the rats was, thus, hypercaloric and hyperlipidic, with practically the same amount of carbohydrate than the control diet, slightly hyperproteic and, nevertheless, remarkably constant in its composition with respect to time. Cafeteria rats had a higher water intake than controls. All these trends were maintained despite the observed changes in the animals' tastes and their differential consumption of the ailments of the diet.

  19. Modeling of wind turbines with doubly fed generator system

    CERN Document Server

    Fortmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Jens Fortmann describes the deduction of models for the grid integration of variable speed wind turbines and the reactive power control design of wind plants. The modeling part is intended as background to understand the theory, capabilities and limitations of the generic doubly fed generator and full converter wind turbine models described in the IEC 61400-27-1 and as 2nd generation WECC models that are used as standard library models of wind turbines for grid simulation software. Focus of the reactive power control part is a deduction of the origin and theory behind the reactive current requ

  20. Electric Vehicle IM Controller Based on Voltage-Fed Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建国; 张承宁; 袁学; 谭建

    2004-01-01

    A novel electric vehicle (EV) induction motor (IM) controller based on voltage-fed inverter is presented. It is shown that the proposed adaptive control algorithm effectively both simplifies the structure and expands the capacity of controller. The relationship between stator's voltage and that of current under rotor's flux-oriented-coordinates is first introduced, and then the structure of vector control is analyzed, in which voltage compensation is inducted as the core feedback procedure. Experiments prove that, together with a facility for realization, a smooth transition, a prompt torque response and small concussion are gained. Extensive research conducted by varying parameters that result in practical ripple is proposed in conclusion.

  1. Estimation of optimal feeding strategies for fed-batch bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2005-07-01

    A generic methodology for feeding strategy optimization is presented. This approach uses a genetic algorithm to search for optimal feeding profiles represented by means of artificial neural networks (ANN). Exemplified on a fed-batch hybridoma cell cultivation, the approach has proven to be able to cope with complex optimization tasks handling intricate constraints and objective functions. Furthermore, the performance of the method is compared with other previously reported standard techniques like: (1) optimal control theory, (2) first order conjugate gradient, (3) dynamical programming, (4) extended evolutionary strategies. The methodology presents no restrictions concerning the number or complexity of the state variables and therefore constitutes a remarkable alternative for process development and optimization.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in enterococci isolated from Turkey flocks fed virginiamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, L A; Thal, L A; Perri, M B; Donabedian, S; McMahon, J; Chow, J W; Zervos, M J

    1998-03-01

    From 125 separate cloacal cultures from three turkey flocks fed virginiamycin, 104 Enterococcus faecium and 186 Enterococcus faecalis isolates were obtained. As the turkeys aged, there was a higher percentage of quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium isolates, with isolates from the oldest flock being 100% resistant. There were no vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated there were 11 PFGE types of E. faecalis and 7 PFGE types of E. faecium that were in more than one group of flock cultures.

  3. Exploring New Clustering Algorithms for the CMS Tracker FED

    CERN Document Server

    Gamboa Alvarado, Jose Leandro

    2013-01-01

    In the current Front End (FE) firmware clusters of hits within the APV frames are found using a simple threshold comparison (which is made between the data and a 3 or 5 sigma strip noise cut) on reordered pedestal and Common Mode (CM) noise subtracted data. In addition the CM noise subtraction requires the baseline of each APV frame to be approximately uniform. Therefore, the current algorithm will fail if the APV baseline exhibits large-scale non-uniform behavior. Under very high luminosity conditions the assumption of a uniform APV baseline breaks down and the FED is unable to maintain a high efficiency of cluster finding. \

  4. Wind Generator Stabilization with Doubly-Fed Asynchronous Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li; WANG Zhi-xin

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the function of doubly-fed asynchronous machine(DASM) with emphasis placed on its ability to the stabilization of the power system including wind generators. P(active power) and Q(reactive power) compensation from DASM can be regulated independently through secondary-excitation controlling. Simulation results by power system computer aided design(PSCAD) show that DASM can restore the wind-generator system to a normal operating condition rapidly even following severe transmission-line failures. Comparison studies have also been performed between wind turbine pitch control and proposed method.

  5. NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN BUFFALO BULLS FED CROP RESIDUE BASED RATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswarlu, S.; D Srinivas Kumar; D. NARENDRANATH

    2013-01-01

    In 4 x 4 LSD, four graded Murrah buffalo bulls (6 yrs; 353 ± 8.26 kg) were fed four iso-nitrogenous complete rations comprising of jowar stover (CR1), maize stover (CR2), red gram straw (CR3) and black gram straw (CR4) as roughage source and concentrate mixture in 60:40 proportion, to study the effect of feeding complete rations on nutrient utilization. The DM intake (kg/d) was similar in all the groups. The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, Cellulose and Hemi-cellul...

  6. Power balance considerations for brushless doubly-fed machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorti, B.V.; Alexander, G.C.; Spee, R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvalis, OR (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-12-01

    This paper discusses the power balances in a Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine (BDFM). Equations of power in the two stator windings and the rotor circuit, showing the distribution of electrical and mechanical powers in the air-gap, are obtained in two different speed ranges of BDFM synchronous mode operation. Comparisons vis-a-vis power distribution are made between the Wound-Rotor Induction machine (WRIM) and the BDFM. A brief analysis of the power balances, along with experimental data points obtained using a laboratory prototype machine, are given.

  7. Control of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhlouf Laakam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a grid connected wind power generation scheme using a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is studied. The aims of this paper are: The modelling and simulation of the operating in two quadrants (torque-speed of a DFIG, the analysis employs a stator flux vector control algorithm to control rotor current using the PI regulator. The simulation calculations were achieved using MATLAB®-SIMULINK® package. The obtained results are presented, illustrating the good control performances of the system

  8. Band-notched reconfigurable CPW-fed UWB antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, H. A.; Rahim, M. K. A.; Hamid, M. R.; Murad, N. A.; Samsuri, N. A.; Yusof, M. F. M.; Kamarudin, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    A reconfigurable band-notched CPW-fed UWB antenna using electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure is proposed. Two structures are positioned adjacent to the transmission line of the UWB antenna. The band-notched characteristic can be disabled by switching the state of switch place at the strip line. The EBG structure produces reconfigurable band notched at 4.0 GHz, which covers C-band satellite communication (3.625-4.2 GHz) systems. The proposed antenna is suitable for UWB systems, which requires reconfigurable band reject function.

  9. Energy utilization and growth in breast-fed and formula-fed infants measured prospectively during the first year of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.C. de Bruin (Niels); H.J. Degenhart (Herman); S. Gal; K.R. Westerterp (Klaas); Th. Stijnen (Theo); H.K.A. Visser (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThis study is the first to report approximations of energy requirements for male and female breast-fed and formula-fed infants based on individual estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and energy deposition derived from total body fat (TBF) and

  10. Analysis of intestinal flora development in breast-fed and formula-fed infants by using molecular identification and detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, HJM; Wildeboer-Veloo, ACM; Raangs, GC; Wagendorp, AA; Klijn, N; Bindels, JG; Welling, GW

    2000-01-01

    Background: An obvious difference between breast-fed and formula-fed newborn infants is the development of the intestinal flora, considered to be of importance for protection against harmful micro-organisms and for the maturation of the intestinal immune system. In this study, novel molecular identi

  11. Energy utilization and growth in breast-fed and formula-fed infants measured prospectively during the first year of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.C. de Bruin (Niels); H.J. Degenhart (Herman); S. Gal; K.R. Westerterp (Klaas); Th. Stijnen (Theo); H.K.A. Visser (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThis study is the first to report approximations of energy requirements for male and female breast-fed and formula-fed infants based on individual estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and energy deposition derived from total body fat (TBF) and

  12. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  13. Graphite friction coefficient for various conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The friction coefficient the graphite used in the Tsinghua University 10MW High Tem-perature Gas-Cooled Reactor was analyzed for various conditions. The variation of the graphitefriction coefficient was measured for various sliding velocities, sliding distances, normal loads, en-vironments and temperatures. A scanning elector microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the fric-tion surfaces.

  14. Effects of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foiklang, Suban; Wanapat, Metha; Toburan, Wetchasit

    2011-12-01

    This study was designed to determine effect of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block (HQFB) on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo. Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four kinds of plant protein sources (coarse rice bran (CRB), cassava hay (CH), Phaseolus calcaratus hay, and mulberry hay (MH)) were mixed in the HQFB. HQFBs were allowed to be licked at free choice, and urea-lime-treated rice straw (ULRS) were fed ad libitum. It was found that bacterial population and fungal zoospores in CH-fed group tended to be higher than those in other groups. Moreover, protozoal population in CH, P. calcaratus hay, and MH were lower than those in CRB supplemented group (P < 0.05). Cellulolytic bacterial population was highest in CH-fed group while proteolytic bacteria population was highest in P. calcaratus hay-fed group (P < 0.05). CH-fed group had higher ULRS intake than those in other groups (P < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility of CP, NDF, and ADF in CH-fed group was significantly higher than those in other groups (P < 0.05). Total VFA was highest in CH-fed group (P < 0.05). N absorption was highest in CH-fed group (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that cassava hay, P. calcaratus hay, and mulberry hay are potential to be used as protein sources in the HQFBs especially cassava hay.

  15. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa, the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  16. Hypocholesterolemic effect of sericin-derived oligopeptides in high-cholesterol fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapphanichayakool, Phakhamon; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial effect of cholesterol-lowering proteins and/or peptides derived from various dietary sources is continuously reported. A non-dietary protein from silk cocoon, sericin, has also demonstrated cholesterol-lowering activity. A sericin hydrolysate prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis was also expected to posses this effect. The present study was aimed at investigating the cholesterol-lowering effect of sericin peptides, so called "sericin-derived oligopeptides" (SDO) both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that SDO at all three doses tested (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1), 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1), and 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) suppressed serum total and non-HDL cholesterol levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed among all groups. The fecal contents of bile acids and cholesterol did not differ among high-cholesterol fed rats. SDO dose-dependently reduced cholesterol solubility in lipid micelles, and inhibited cholesterol uptake in monolayer Caco-2 cells. SDO also effectively bound to all three types of bile salts including taurocholate, deoxytaurocholate, and glycodeoxycholate. Direct interaction with bile acids of SDO may disrupt micellar cholesterol solubility, and subsequently reduce the absorption of dietary cholesterol in intestines. Taking all data together, SDO or sericin peptides exhibit a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol levels and could be potentially used as a health-promoting dietary supplement or nutraceutical product.

  17. Androgenic and estrogenic metabolites in serum of mice fed dehydroepiandrosterone: relationship to antihyperglycemic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, E H; Beamer, W G; Coleman, D L; Longcope, C

    1987-09-01

    The steroid prehormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has potent antihyperglycemic effects when fed in the diet of genetically diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze changes in sex steroid levels in serum of mice fed DHEA, and to compare the antihyperglycemic potencies of the various metabolites in order to clarify the mechanism of DHEA action. Steroid radioimmunoassays showed that dietary DHEA entered the blood in high concentrations and was actively metabolized to both androgens (testosterone, T; dihydrotestosterone, DHT) and estrogens (estrone, E1; 17 beta-estradiol, E2). This metabolism did not require intact adrenal glands or gonads. In C57BL/KsJ normal (+/+) males, conversion of DHEA to androgens was the prominent feature; in db/db males, DHEA feeding not only increased serum T and DHT, but also serum E1 and E2 levels. The db/db mice had increased amounts of adipose tissue that sequestered more intravenously injected 3H-E2; this additional body fat could account for increased aromatization of DHEA-derived estrogen precursors. Comparisons of the relative antihyperglycemic potencies of androgenic and estrogenic steroid metabolites of DHEA in db/db mice showed that the estrogens and metabolites with estrogenic properties (androstenediol) or those convertible to estrogens (DHEA sulfate) were the most potent. Although 17 beta-E2 was effective by injection or per os, DHEA was effective only when administered per os, implicating alimentary tract conversion of DHEA to more biologically active reactants. Based on the pivotal position of DHEA as a prehormone for androgens, estrogens, and etiocholanolones, an explanation of the seemingly paradoxical effects exerted by this compound in blocking autoimmune disease, hyperglycemia, obesity, and neoplasia was proposed.

  18. Impacts of changes in flow in glacier fed river in Nepal on hydropower production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka Mishra, S.

    2014-12-01

    Variability of water flow in rivers due to change in temperature, precipitation and melting of glacier translates to change in water availability for agriculture, biodiversity conservation, and hydropower production impacting 1.5 billion people living downstream in India and Nepal. Previous studies ranked hydropower sector as the highest priority sector considering the urgency and severity of impacts in countries such as Nepal where hydropower shares 96 percentage of electricity production. In India, 45 per cent of hydroelectricity is generated from glacier fed rivers and hydropower shares 17 per cent of power generation. This study developed a framework to estimate the change in river flow attributed to global climate change and quantify its impact on hydropower generation in South Asian Mountains. The framework is applied on one of the major rivers Koshi River in Nepal with existing and proposed hydropower plants. The integrated assessment approach involved estimation of the change in flow in the river in the first part. Model was developed to estimate the change in flow that uses time series data on precipitation, temperature, remote sensing imagery on snow accumulation and ablation, and slope and surface hydrology. In the second part, another model was developed to investigate the impact of change in flow on hydropower production in various types of hydropower production plants. Data on flow, characteristics of hydropower plants and hydropower produced monthly from power plants in and outside of the river basin were used to model the flow and power generation from various categories of power plants. We will further discuss the results of the integrated assessments of potential changes in hydropower generation in various categories of hydropower plants based on Koshi River under various expected changes in flow and the implications for hydropower generation from other river systems in Nepal and India.

  19. Novel Design of A Compact Proximity Coupled Fed Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain applications such as RFID, on body sensors network, microwave systems usually require good matching impedance, high gain and large bandwidth for their antennas. The aperture coupled antenna is one candidate that can provide high gain large bandwidth and little packaging. Thus, it would be of interest to enhance the characteristics of a singly-fed aperture antenna used for Zigbee application. In this paper, we are presenting a new design of aperture coupled rectangular patch antenna operating at 2.45 GHz ISM-band frequency. The objective of this design is not limited to the improvement of the impedance bandwidth but also to better the coupling involved. The cross-polarisation (X-pol, the backward radiation and the half-power beam width in two orthogonal planes are also examined. The proposed design is based on a new aperture coupling technique in which two slots are fed by a microstrip line and coupled to a parasitic patch radiator etched on the opposite side from the slots. The matching impedance for a conventional aperture coupled microstrip antenna is obtained by the adjustment of the dimension of the slot and the feeding line. Here, the distance separating the slots is employed to control the coupling and modifying the input impedance of the antenna. Therefore, accurate matching impedance is reached with a good radiation pattern.

  20. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-02

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO.

  1. Reproduction and residue accumulation in black ducks fed toxaphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltine, S.D.; Finley, M.T.; Cromartie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Three sets of 15 pairs of black ducks (Anas rubripes) were given 0, 10, or 50 ppm toxaphene in a dry mash diet for a period of 19 months, which included two breeding seasons. Survival of adults was not affected, but the weights of treated males were depressed during the summer months. Egg production, fertility, hatchability, eggshell thickness, growth, and survival of young did not vary with toxaphene ingestion in either breeding season. However, the mean number of days required to complete a clutch was lower in birds fed toxaphene than in birds on the control diet. Clutches of hens fed 50 ppm toxaphene showed improved hatching success in the second year of the study. Carcass wet-weight (70% moisture) residues in adults and the young birds averaged from 50 to 100% of the dietary concentration (7% moisture); egg residues showed a similar trend. Carcass residues did not reflect those found in the livers or brains of the adults, which seldom exceeded 0.5 ppm. Toxaphene residues were found in the brain of only one 10 ppm bird, but were present in nearly all of the 50 ppm birds. Toxaphene residues were present in the liver of all birds ingesting toxaphene.

  2. The effects of phentolamine on fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kangbin; Kumar, Ujendra; Yuen, Violet G; McNeill, John H

    2012-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. MS is associated with obesity, increased blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia. This study was designed to investigate the pharmacological profile of phentolamine, a nonselective α adrenergic receptor antagonist, in the prevention of increased blood pressure in fructose-fed rats. Phentolamine prevented the fructose-induced increase in systolic blood pressure without affecting insulin sensitivity and major metabolic parameters. The levels of plasma noradrenaline and angiotensin II, 2 proposed contributors to the development of fructose-induced elevated blood pressure, were examined. Neither noradrenaline nor angiotensin II levels were affected by phentolamine treatment. Since overproduction of nitric oxide has been shown to lead to an elevation in peroxynitrite, the role of oxidative stress, a proposed mechanism of fructose-induced elevated blood pressure and insulin resistance, was examined by measuring plasma levels of total nitrate/nitrite. Plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly elevated in all fructose-fed animals, regardless of treatment with phentolamine. Another proposed contributor toward fructose-induced MS is an elevation in uric acid levels. In this experiment, plasma levels of uric acid were found to be increased by dietary fructose and were unaffected by phentolamine treatment.

  3. Fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratelli, Fernando; Siquini, Tatiana Joly; de Abreu, Marcelo Estima; Higashi, Hisako Gondo; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the effects of the initial nitrogen source (NZ Case TT) level and the protocol of glucose addition during the fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani. An increase in the initial concentration of NZ Case TT (NZ(0)) accelerated cell growth, increased the consumption of the nitrogen source as well as the final yield of tetanus toxin, which achieved the highest values (50-60 L(f)/mL) for NZ(0) > or = 50 g/L. The addition of glucose at fixed times (16, 56, and 88 h) ensured a toxin yield ( approximately 60 L(f)/mL) about 33% higher than those of fed-batch runs with addition at fixed concentration ( approximately 45 L(f)/mL) and about 300% higher than those obtained in reference batch runs nowadays used at industrial scale. The results of this work promise to substantially improve the present production of tetanus toxin and may be adopted for human vaccine production after detoxification and purification.

  4. Tissue distribution of anthocyanins in rats fed a blackberry anthocyanin-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgines, Catherine; Texier, Odile; Garcin, Pauline; Besson, Catherine; Lamaison, Jean-Louis; Scalbert, Augustin

    2009-09-01

    Anthocyanins are natural dietary pigments that could be involved in various health effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of anthocyanins to various organs (bladder, prostate, testes, heart and adipose tissue) in rats fed with a blackberry anthocyanin-enriched diet for 12 days. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins were carried out by HPLC-DAD. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins (native anthocyanins and their metabolites) was low (0.20 +/- 0.03%, n = 8). Proportions of anthocyanin derivatives (methylated anthocyanins and glucurono-conjugated derivatives) differed according to the organ considered. The bladder contained the highest levels of anthocyanins followed by the prostate. Prostate, testes and heart contained native cyanidin 3-glucoside and a small proportion of cyanidin monoglucuronide. Cyanidin 3-glucoside and methylated derivatives were present in adipose tissue. Thus, anthocyanin feeding in rats resulted in a wide distribution of anthocyanin derivatives to several organs. Identification of target tissues of anthocyanins may then help to understand the mechanisms of action of anthocyanins in vivo.

  5. Are breast-fed infants vitamin K deficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, F R

    2001-01-01

    Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a disease of breast-fed infants. We have followed 119 exclusively breast-fed infants for up to 6 months of age, who received 1 mg of vitamin K, intramuscularly at birth. As vitamin K is undetectable in cord blood, the only other source in breast-fed infants is human milk. We found persistently low vitamin K1 plasma concentrations in these infants by 4 weeks, and vitamin K concentrations at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 26 weeks averaged 1.18+/-0.99, 0.50+/-0.70, 0.16 +/-0.07, 0.20+/-0.20, 0.25+/-0.34, and 0.24+/-0.23 ng/mL, respectively (lower limit of adult normal = 0.5ng/mL). Vitamin K, in breast milk at 2, 6, 12, and 26 weeks was also very low, averaging 1.17+/-0.70, 0.95+/-0.50, 1.15+/-0.62, and 0.87+/-0.50 mg/mL, respectively. This may be secondary to low maternal vitamin K1 intakes or inability of vitamin K1 to penetrate human milk. We had previously reported a relatively high mean vitamin K intake of 316+/-548 microg in 20 lactating women during the first 6 months of lactation (mean of 60, 3-day dietary recalls) which greatly exceeded the recommended daily allowance of 1 microg/kg/day. The vitamin K content of foods was recently revised downward utilizing newer analytical methods (Booth et al. 1995). Recalculating maternal vitamin K intakes in this original cohort resulted in a dramatic decrease in intake to 74+/-57 microg/day, an amount closely approximating 1 microg/kg/day. We have completed 69 new dietary recalls in 23 lactating women and, combining these data with the previous study, determined a maternal vitamin K1 mean intake of 65+/-48 microg/day (0.8-1.3 microg/kg/day). Other than plasma vitamin K1 concentrations, PIVKA (undercarboxylated prothrombin produced in the absence of vitamin K) is a marker of vitamin K deficiency. We measured PIVKA in 156 cord bloods of full-term infants. Seventy-five (48%) had a significantly elevated PIVKA (> or =0.1 absorption units per milliliter). Seventy-seven of these infants who were

  6. DNA Fingerprinting in Minipig with ECL Direct Nucleic Acid Labelling and Detection Systems%化学发光加强法核酸标记检测系统用于猪DNA指纹分析的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丙波; 周建华; 魏泓; 曾养志

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore if ECL (E nhanced ChemiLuminescence)directnucleic acid labelling and detection systems ca n be used to t he fingerprinting of pig genomic DNA.Methods Southern blot hybridization was conducted using ECL direct nucleic acid labelling and det ection systems to Banna minipig inbred lines with HRP(Horseradish Peroxidase) la belled human origin probe α-globin 3’HVR.Results We acq uired the following available DNA transfer and hybridization conditions.In brie f,10μg genomic DNA was digested with 40u HinfⅠ or HaeⅢ endonuclease in 30μl total reaction volume for 4h at 37℃.After digestion,the sample was electroph oresised on 0.6% agarose gels at 50V in 1×TAE running buffer until all fragmen ts below 2 kilobase(kb) had run off the gel.Depurination,denaturation and neut ralization were performed for 15min,15min and 20min respectively and the DNA w as transferred onto the positively charged nylon membrane for 1h in vacuum trans fer unit,hybridized in tube at 42℃ for 12h with probe 3'HVR labelled by HRP,a utoradiographied for 30min at room temperature,the clearly DNA fingerprint was achieved.Conclusion This me thod can be used to DNA fingerprinting of pigs and the same effect can be achiev ed at that generated from the isotopically labelled probe.%目的 探讨化学发光加强法(ECL)核酸直接标记和检测系统应用于猪的DNA指纹分析的可行性。方法 采用人源α-珠蛋白3'HVR探针,应用ECL核酸直接标记和检测系统,对西双版纳小耳猪进行了Southern杂交DNA指纹分析,获得了最适实验条件。结果 取10μg基因组DNA于30μl反应体系中,加入HinfⅠ或HaeⅢ内切酶3~5U/μgDNA,酶切消化4h,消化液在50V电压条件下4℃电泳20h,采用真空转移法进行脱嘌呤、碱变性、中和及转膜,时间分别为15min、15min及20min,转膜采用20×SSC真空转移1h至hybondN+尼龙膜上,大大提高了转膜效率。以HRP标记探针进行管中杂

  7. Are There Various Forms of Lupus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lupus Understanding lupus Are there various forms of lupus? Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus is the most common form ... and tissues at “ Lupus and the Body ”. Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus This form of lupus is limited to ...

  8. Mathematical Model and Computational Analysis of Selected Transient States of Cylindrical Linear Induction Motor Fed via Frequency Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Rusek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of cylindrical linear induction motor (C-LIM fed via frequency converter is presented in the paper. The model was developed in order to analyze numerically the transient states. Problems concerning dynamics of ac-machines especially linear induction motor are presented in [1 – 7]. Development of C-LIM mathematical model is based on circuit method and analogy to rotary induction motor. The analogy between both: (a stator and rotor windings of rotary induction motor and (b winding of primary part of C-LIM (inductor and closed current circuits in external secondary part of C-LIM (race is taken into consideration. The equations of C-LIM mathematical model are presented as matrix together with equations expressing each vector separately. A computational analysis of selected transient states of C-LIM fed via frequency converter is presented in the paper. Two typical examples of C-LIM operation are considered for the analysis: (a starting the motor at various static loads and various synchronous velocities and (b reverse of the motor at the same operation conditions. Results of simulation are presented as transient responses including transient electromagnetic force, transient linear velocity and transient phase current.

  9. Simulasi Sistem Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Angin Menggunakan Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG dengan Back-To-Back Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Harumwidiah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine is one of the solutions to overcome the decreasing amount of fossil fuel. One type of generator which can be used on wind turbine application is Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG. The AC current is supplied from both stator winding which connected directly to the grid and rotor winding which connected to the grid through back-to-back power electronic converter. This paper provides simulation of wind turbine using DFIG connected to the grid through back-to-back converter. The back-to-back converter is operated in order to control the rotor speed of DFIG, so that the DFIG can generate maximum power and maintain constant voltage on DC link capacitor. The system is equipped with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method to generate maximum power on various wind speed condition. The simulation results show that the control system has high accuracy, proven with error value under 1% on various wind speed condition.

  10. Growth, behavior, and economics of group-fed dairy calves fed once or twice daily in an organic production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienitz, M J; Heins, B J; Chester-Jones, H

    2017-04-01

    Heifer calves (n = 102) were used to evaluate the effect of once- or twice-daily feeding on growth, behavior, and economics of calves in an organic group management system. Calves were assigned to replicate feeding groups of 10 in superhutches by birth order, during 2 seasons from September to December 2013 and March to May 2014 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris. Calves in groups were the experimental unit. Breed groups of calves were Holsteins (n = 26), crossbreds (n = 45) including combinations Holsteins, Montbéliarde, and Viking Red (selected for high production), and crossbreds (n = 31) including combinations of Holsteins, Jersey, Normande, and Viking Red (selected for robustness). Treatment groups were once-daily feeding (1×) or twice-daily feeding (2×). Calves in both groups were fed 6 L per calf/daily of organic milk with 13% total solids and then weaned at 60 d when the group consumption averaged 0.91 kg/d of starter per calf. Body weight and hip height were recorded at birth, once a week, at weaning, and at 90 and 120 d of age. Hobo Pendant G loggers (Onset Computer Corp., Bourne, MA) were applied to the right rear leg of calves to measure total lying and standing time. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Independent variables for analyses were the fixed effects of birth weight (co-variable), season of birth, and treatment group, along with replicate as a random effect. No significant differences were found between feeding groups for body weight, weight gain, average daily gain, hip height, or heart girth. For calves in 1× and 2× groups, respectively, weaning group performance was as follows: gain per day was 0.79 and 0.81 kg, weaning weight was 92.7 and 93.3 kg, and weaning hip height was 95.2 and 95.3 cm. Daily gain to 90 d was 0.85 and 0.85 kg, and daily gain to 120 d was 0.85 and 0.83 kg for 1× and 2× calves, respectively. For lying time, calves in groups 1

  11. Entomological study on transmission of avian malaria parasites in a zoological garden in Japan: bloodmeal identification and detection of avian malaria parasite DNA from blood-fed mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Kim, Kyeong-Soon; Hara, Tatsuko; Tsuda, Yoshio; Imura, Takayuki; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2011-05-01

    Several species of captive and wild birds have been found to be infected with various avian blood protozoa in Japan. We investigated the prevalence and transmission of avian malaria parasite and determined the bloodmeal hosts of mosquitoes collected in a zoological garden in Tokyo, Japan, by using the polymerase chain reaction. In total, 310 unfed and 140 blood-fed mosquitoes of seven species were collected by using sweep nets and CDC traps. Bloodmeal identification indicated that mosquitoes had fed on 17 avian and five mammalian species, including captive animals. The results of avian malaria parasite detection from mosquitoes with avian bloodmeals indicated that Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet is a main vector of avian Plasmodium in the current study site and that some captive and wild birds could be infected with avian malaria parasites. Furthermore, the distances between the collection site of blood-fed mosquitoes and the locations of their blood-source captive animals were estimated. Most females with fresh bloodmeals were found within 40 m of caged animals, whereas half-gravid and gravid females were found between 10 and 350 m from caged host animals. We demonstrated that blood-fed mosquitoes can provide useful information regarding the mosquito vector species of avian malaria parasites and allows for noninvasive detection of the presence of avian malaria parasites in bird populations.

  12. Reproduction, growth, and tissue residues of deer fed dieldrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D.A.; Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Feeding tests were conducted from January, 1966, to January, 1969, to ascertain the effects of daily ingestions of sublethal amounts of dieldrin on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Groups of deer on 0 ppm dieldrin (controls), 5 ppm, and 25 ppm dieldrin were maintained at these respective levels, as were their progeny. Treated food was readily accepted. Dieldrin intoxication was not observed, and 9 of 10 animals of each group survived 3 years of treatment. No differences in conception or in utero mortality were found between groups. Fawns from dieldrin-fed does were smaller at birth and greater post-partum mortality occurred. Fertility of male progeny was not affected. Growth was slower and remained reduced in dieldrin-treated females which were immature when the study began. Hematologic values and serum protein concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05) related to treatment. Liver/body weight ratios were significantly (P < 0.05) larger for the 25-ppm-dieldrin group. Pituitary glands were smaller and thyroids were larger in dieldrin-fed deer. Weight gains of fawns were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced 2 of 3 years in dieldrin-treated groups. Placental transfer of dieldrin occurred. Whole milk from does fed 25 ppm dieldrin contained residues of 17 ppm. Residue levels in brain, liver, and thigh muscle tissues showed no evidence of increasing with length of treatment, but showed definite relationships to levels of dieldrin in daily diets. Nursing fawns had higher residues in brain tissues than did older deer on 5 ppm a d 25 ppm dieldrin. Highest brain residues (12.60 and 12.10 ppm, wet weight) occurred in fawns only a few days of age at death. Equilibrium between ingestion and storage or excretion of dieldrin occurred prior to 200 days and continued until nearly 1,100 days. There was no evidence of a sharp decline in residues after a long period of continued dosage. Daily ingestion of 100 and 200 ppm of dieldrin proved fatal to yearling male deer at 27

  13. Staphylococcus epidermidis: A differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Leonides

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is an important source of staphylococci and other bacterial groups to the infant gut. The objective of this work was to analyse the bacterial diversity in feces of breast-fed infants and to compare it with that of formula-fed ones. A total of 23 women and their respective infants (16 breast-fed and 7 formula-fed participated in the study. The 16 women and their infants provided a sample of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 7, 14, and 35. The samples were plated onto different culture media. Staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates were submitted to genetic profiling and to a characterization scheme, including detection of potential virulence traits and sensitivity to antibiotics. Results The feeding practice had a significant effect on bacterial counts. A total of 1,210 isolates (489 from milk, 531 from breast-fed and 190 from formula-fed infants were identified. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the predominant species in milk and feces of breast-fed infants while it was less prevalent in those of formula fed-infants. Enterococcus faecalis was the second predominant bacterial species among the fecal samples provided by the breast-fed infants but it was also present in all the samples from the formula-fed ones. The biofilm-related icaD gene and the mecA gene were only detected in a low number of the S. epidermidis strains. Several enterococcal isolates were also characterized and none of them contained the cylA or the vanABDEG antibiotic-resistance genes. All were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The presence of S. epidermidis is a differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants. Globally, the staphyloccal isolates obtained from milk and feces of breast-fed infants contain a low number of virulence determinants and are sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested.

  14. The 2016 Case for Mantle Plumes and a Plume-Fed Asthenosphere (Augustus Love Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jason P.

    2016-04-01

    The process of science always returns to weighing evidence and arguments for and against a given hypothesis. As hypotheses can only be falsified, never universally proved, doubt and skepticism remain essential elements of the scientific method. In the past decade, even the hypothesis that mantle plumes exist as upwelling currents in the convecting mantle has been subject to intense scrutiny; from geochemists and geochronologists concerned that idealized plume models could not fit many details of their observations, and from seismologists concerned that mantle plumes can sometimes not be 'seen' in their increasingly high-resolution tomographic images of the mantle. In the place of mantle plumes, various locally specific and largely non-predictive hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origins of non-plate boundary volcanism at Hawaii, Samoa, etc. In my opinion, this debate has now passed from what was initially an extremely useful restorative from simply 'believing' in the idealized conventional mantle plume/hotspot scenario to becoming an active impediment to our community's ability to better understand the dynamics of the solid Earth. Having no working hypothesis at all is usually worse for making progress than having an imperfect and incomplete but partially correct one. There continues to be strong arguments and strong emerging evidence for deep mantle plumes. Furthermore, deep thermal plumes should exist in a mantle that is heated at its base, and the existence of Earth's (convective) geodynamo clearly indicates that heat flows from the core to heat the mantle's base. Here I review recent seismic evidence by French, Romanowicz, and coworkers that I feel lends strong new observational support for the existence of deep mantle plumes. I also review recent evidence consistent with the idea that secular core cooling replenishes half the mantle's heat loss through its top surface, e.g. that the present-day mantle is strongly bottom heated. Causes for

  15. Wireless Sensor Networking for Rain-fed Farming Decision Support

    CERN Document Server

    Panchard, J; Sheshshayee, M S; Papadimitratos, P; Kumar, S; Hubaux, J-P

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be a valuable decision-support tool for farmers. This motivated our deployment of a WSN system to support rain-fed agriculture in India. We defined promising use cases and resolved technical challenges throughout a two-year deployment of our COMMON-Sense Net system, which provided farmers with environment data. However, the direct use of this technology in the field did not foster the expected participation of the population. This made it difficult to develop the intended decision-support system. Based on this experience, we take the following position in this paper: currently, the deployment of WSN technology in developing regions is more likely to be effective if it targets scientists and technical personnel as users, rather than the farmers themselves. We base this claim on the lessons learned from the COMMON-Sense system deployment and the results of an extensive user experiment with agriculture scientists, which we describe in this paper.

  16. Neural network based PWM AC chopper fed induction motor drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Jamuna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new Simulink model for a neural network controlled PWM AC chopper fed single phase induction motor is proposed. Closed loop speed control is achieved using a neural network controller. To maintain a constant fluid flow with a variation in pressure head, drives like fan and pump are operated with closed loop speed control. The need to improve the quality and reliability of the drive circuit has increased because of the growing demand for improving the performance of motor drives. With the increased availability of MOSFET's and IGBT's, PWM converters can be used efficiently in low and medium power applications. From the simulation studies, it is seen that the PWM AC chopper has a better harmonic spectrum and lesser copper loss than the Phase controlled AC chopper. It is observed that the drive system with the proposed model produces better dynamic performance, reduced overshoot and fast transient response. .

  17. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat.

  18. Pump Fed Propulsion for Mars Ascent and Other Challenging Maneuvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C

    2007-05-09

    Returning Mars geology samples to Earth within science mission budgets requires a miniature launch vehicle (100-200 kg) for ascending from Mars to an orbital rendezvous. A Mars Ascent Vehicle must deliver a velocity change exceeding 4 km/s within minutes, entirely outside the capabilities of satellite propulsion. A possible solution is to scale down liquid launch vehicle principles to achieve stage propellant mass fractions near 90 percent. Feeding a high-pressure engine from thin-walled low pressure tanks permits stage hardware to be sufficiently lightweight and compact, if very high performance pumps can be made available. NASA's Mars Technology Program has funded refinement and testing of a miniature piston pump, powered by reacted propellant. A pump-fed bipropellant rocket stage remains to be developed. The technology could also benefit other future lunar and planetary science programs.

  19. Robust Adaptive Reactive Power Control for Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huabin Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reactive power control for mains-side inverter (MSI in doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is studied in this paper. To accommodate the modelling nonlinearities and inherent uncertainties, a novel robust adaptive control algorithm for MSI is proposed by utilizing Lyapunov theory that ensures asymptotic stability of the system under unpredictable external disturbances and significant parametric uncertainties. The distinguishing benefit of the aforementioned scheme consists in its capabilities to maintain satisfactory performance under varying operation conditions without the need for manually redesigning or reprogramming the control gains in contrast to the commonly used PI/PID control. Simulations are also built to confirm the correctness and benefits of the control scheme.

  20. Six-Phase Matrix Converter Fed Double Star Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendiabdellah Azeddine

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available two different control strategies applied to a direct AC-AC six-phase matrixconverter are investigated in the present paper. The first strategy is derived from theVenturini method, and the second approach is practically an extension of the scalarstrategy control. Both strategies were originally applied to the three-phase matrixconverter.The current investigation deals with a comparative performance study of a double starinduction motor fed from a six-phase matrix converter using the two above controlstrategies.After a theoretical introduction of the six-phase matrix converter, a detailed description ofthe strategies implementation is presented followed by a discussion of results obtained fromsimulation results.

  1. Vertical-Strip-Fed Broadband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Amir; Jung, Jin-Woo; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2017-08-18

    A vertical-strip-fed dielectric resonator antenna exhibiting broadband circular polarization characteristics is presented. A broad 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW) is achieved by combining multiple orthogonal modes due to the use of a special-shaped dielectric resonator. The proposed antenna is fabricated to evaluate its actual performance capabilities. The antenna exhibits a measured 3 dB ARBW of 44.2% (3.35-5.25 GHz), lying within a -10 dB reflection bandwidth of 82.7% (2.44-5.88 GHz). The measured peak gain within 3 dB ARBW is found to be 5.66 dBic at 4.8 GHz. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated results.

  2. A New Asymmetrical Current-fed Converter with Voltage Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELSHAD, M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new zero voltage switching current-fed DC-DC converter with high voltage gain. In this converter all switches (main and auxiliary turn on under zero voltage switching and turn off under almost zero voltage switching due to snubber capacitor. Furthermore, the voltage spike across the main switch due to leakage inductance of forward transformer is absorbed. The flyback transformer which is connected to the output in series causes to high voltage gain and less voltage stress on the power devices. Considering high efficiency and voltage gain of this converter, it is suitable for green generated systems such as fuel cells or photovoltaic systems. The presented experimental results verify the integrity of the proposed converter.

  3. Evaluation of two dynamic in vitro models simulating fasted and fed state conditions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (TIM-1 and tiny-TIM) for investigating the bioaccessibility of pharmaceutical compounds from oral dosage forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwei, M.; Minekus, M.; Zeijdner, E.; Schilderink, R.; Havenaar, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical research needs predictive in vitro tools for API bioavailability in humans. We evaluated two dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal models: TIM-1 and tiny-TIM. Four low-soluble APIs in various formulations were investigated in the TIM systems under fasted and fed conditions. API small-inte

  4. Growth, food consumption, and energy status of juvenile pallid sturgeon fed natural or artificial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hilary A.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Klumb, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Stocking of hatchery-raised fish is an important part of the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus recovery program. In the wild, juvenile pallid sturgeon consume primarily aquatic insects, although little is known about specific dietary needs. In hatchery settings, pallid sturgeon are fed commercial diets that are formulated for salmonids. To compare food consumption, growth, and energy status of pallid sturgeon fed artificial or natural diets, we conducted a laboratory study using 24 juvenile pallid sturgeon (initial fork length 153–236 mm). Pallid sturgeon were fed a daily ration of either commercial pellets (1 mm, slow sinking; 45% protein, 19% fat) or chironomid larvae for 5 wk. Natural-fed pallid sturgeon exhibited a greater specific growth rate (2.12% d−1) than pellet-fed fish (0.06% d−1). Similarly, relative condition was greater for natural-fed sturgeon (Kn = 1.11) than that observed for pellet-fed fish (Kn = 0.87). In contrast, the hepatosomatic index was significantly higher in pellet-fed fish (2.5%), indicating a high lipid diet compared with natural-fed sturgeon (1.4%). Given the importance of natural diets to fish digestion and growth, it is suggested that a more holistic approach be applied in the development of a practical diet for pallid sturgeon that incorporates attributes of natural prey.

  5. Alpha-mannosidase activity in goats fed with Sida carpinifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedin, Marisete; Moleta Colodel, Edson; Viapiana, Marli; Matte, Ursula; Driemeier, David; Giugliani, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Human alpha-mannosidosis results from alpha-mannosidase deficiency and progressive accumulation of mannose-rich oligosaccharides in lysosomes. Two days before Saanen goats were fed with Sida carpinifolia, alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes was 128+/-28 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein (first trial) and 104+/-6 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein (second trial). At day 5, after the introduction of S. carpinifolia diet, the alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes was significantly increased, both in the first (288+/-13 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein) and in the second trial (303+/-45 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein), and it returned to normal levels 2 days after the withdrawal of the plant from the diet (114+/-7 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein in first trial, and 108+/-25 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein in the second one). Plasma alpha-mannosidase activity decreased significantly 4 days after animal exposure to the S. carpinifolia diet (769+/-167 nmoles4-MU/h/ml) and returned to normal values 10 days after the withdrawal of the plant from the diet (1289+/-163 nmoles4-MU/h/ml). Thin-layer chromatography showed an abnormal excretion of oligosaccharides in urine as of day 2 after diet exposure, which persisted until one day after the withdrawal of the plant. Animals presented neurological clinical signs beginning at day 37 (in the first trial) and at day 25 (in the second trial) after being fed with the plant. The results obtained herein suggest that oligosaccharides observed in urine are a result of a decrease in alpha-mannosidase activity in plasma. S. carpinifolia seems to have other compounds that act on alpha-mannosidase enzyme in leukocytes in a competitive manner with swainsonine. The increase in alpha-mannosidase enzyme in leukocytes could be attributed to one of these compounds present in S. carpinifolia. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance of layers fed diets containing different oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Lelis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out at the Animal Science Department of the Federal University of Viçosa to evaluate the performance of heavy and light layers. During four periods of twenty-eight days, 432 layers in the second production cycle, being 216 Hy Line W36 (light birds and 216 Hy Line Brown (heavy birds, were used. A completely randomized experimental design with a 1+(4x2x2 factorial arrangement (one control treatment, four oil sources, two inclusion levels, and two genetic lines with four replicates of six birds per experimental unit, was applied. The treatments consisted of diets containing 16.5% crude protein, formulated to supply the nutritional requirements, and the inclusion of each oil source at 2 or 4%. Soybean, canola, linseed and fish oils were used. The control diet did not contain any oil. The studied parameters were: feed intake (g/hen/day, egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/hen/day, feed conversion ratio (kg feed /dozen of eggs and per kg eggs. Oil levels and sources did not influence egg mass, feed conversion ratio (per kg eggs and dozen eggs, or egg production. During the first three periods, independently of oil source or genetics, eggs from layers fed 4% oil were the heaviest, except for those of light birds fed soybean oil during the third period, which egg weight was similar for the 2 and 4% levels. Light layers presented lower feed intake and better feed conversion ratio (per kg eggs and dozen eggs as compared to heavy layers, and there was no influence of the evaluated oil sources on feed intake.

  7. VX Toxicity in the Gottingen Minipig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person...following the onset of sustained prostration and remained on until death or just prior to euthanasia . Data Analysis The LD50 estimate was...Cerasoli, D. M., Federko, J. M., Luo, C., Saxena, A., Doctor , B. P., and Olson, C. (2005). Protection against soman or VX poisoning by human

  8. VARIOUS APPROACHES FOR SYNTHESIS OF IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Ashish

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Imidazole, a five-membered heterocycle having three carbon atoms, two nitrogen atoms, and two double bonds, having efficient antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity against Escherichia coil, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, anti-cancer, mutagenic activity against Salmonella typhimurium, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-allergic activity etc. The presence of heterocyclic structures exerts various physiologic effects on the body. In the present study we have reviewed several newer approches of synthesizing the substituted imidazole derivatives via catalytic reaction & by the application of various suitable reagents.

  9. Variation of terpenes in milk and cultured cream from Norwegian alpine rangeland-fed and in-door fed cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Grethe Iren A; Sandberg, Ellen; Øyaas, Jorun; Abrahamsen, Roger K

    2016-05-15

    The terpene content of milk and cream made from milk obtained from cows fed indoors, and by early or late grazing, in alpine rangeland farms in Norway, were analysed for three consecutive years. The main terpenes identified and semi-quantified were the monoterpenes β-pinene, α-pinene, α-thujene, camphene, sabinene, δ-3-carene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, camphor, β-citronellene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. The average total terpene content increased five times during the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes α-thujene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and β-citronellene were only detected in milk and cultured cream from the alpine rangeland feeding period and not in samples from the indoors feeding period. These four terpenes could be used, as indicators, to show that milk and cultured cream originate from the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes did not influence the sensorial quality of the milk or the cultured cream.

  10. VARIOUS NOTIONS OF ORTHOGONALITY IN NORMED SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.B. OKELO; J.O. AGURE; P.O. OLECHE

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present various notions and aspects of orthogonality in normed spaces. Characterizations and generalizations of orthogonality are also consid-ered. Results on orthogonality of the range and the kernel of elementary operators and the operators implementing them also are given.

  11. Various aspects of sustainability analysis in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. J. Cieszewski; M. Zasada; B. E. Borders; R. Lowe; M. L. Clutter; R. F. Daniels; R. Izlar

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the Georgia Traditional Industries Program (TIP) sponsored a cooperative study at the D.B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, to analyze the long-term sustainability of the fiber supply in Georgia. The subject of this study is relevant to a diverse array of disciplines, and it offers the opportunity to explore various aspects of...

  12. Sublimation of Iodine at Various Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenson, Ilya A.

    2005-01-01

    Various phenomena that are observed in the process of heating solid iodine in closed vessels at different pressures and temperatures are described. When solid iodine is heated in an evacuated ampoule where the pressure is less than 10(super -3), no noticeable color appears and immediate condensation of tiny iodine crystals is visible higher up on…

  13. Print Readers' Perceptions of Various Advertising Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Charles W., Jr.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The findings of a study of print readers' perceptions of the believability and interest of various advertising formats fail to support increasing either the frequency or specificity of comparative messages. The findings suggest that advertisers should consider the dimensions of intensity and directionality in their message development. (GT)

  14. Global transcriptional dynamics of diapause induction in non-blood-fed and blood-fed Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is a vector of increasing public health concern due to its rapid global range expansion and ability to transmit Dengue virus, Chikungunya virus and a wide range of additional arboviruses. Traditional vector control strategies have been largely ineffective against Ae. albopictus and novel approaches are urgently needed. Photoperiodic diapause is a crucial ecological adaptation in a wide range of temperate insects. Therefore, targeting the molecular regulation of photoperiodic diapause or diapause-associated physiological processes could provide the basis of novel approaches to vector control.We investigated the global transcriptional profiles of diapause induction in Ae. albopictus by performing paired-end RNA-Seq of biologically replicated libraries. We sequenced RNA from whole bodies of adult females reared under diapause-inducing and non-diapause-inducing photoperiods either with or without a blood meal. We constructed a comprehensive transcriptome assembly that incorporated previous assemblies and represents over 14,000 annotated dipteran gene models. Mapping of sequence reads to the transcriptome identified differential expression of 2,251 genes in response to diapause-inducing short-day photoperiods. In non-blood-fed females, potential regulatory elements of diapause induction were transcriptionally up-regulated, including two of the canonical circadian clock genes, timeless and cryptochrome 1. In blood-fed females, genes in metabolic pathways related to energy production and offspring provisioning were differentially expressed under diapause-inducing conditions, including the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and lipid metabolism genes.This study is the first to utilize powerful RNA-Seq technologies to elucidate the transcriptional basis of diapause induction in any insect. We identified candidate genes and pathways regulating diapause induction, including a conserved set of genes that are differentially expressed as part

  15. Dietary Oleate Has Beneficial Effects on Every Step of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasingly recognized as a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain poorly understood, and primary therapy of NAFLD is not yet established. We investigated the effects of dietary oleate on the development and progression of NAFLD in a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD diet-fed animal model.MethodsA total of 30 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 in each group and fed various experimental diets for four weeks: chow, MCD diet, or OMCD (MCD diet with oleate, 0.5 mg/g/day. Liver samples were examined for steatohepatitis and fibrosis parameters and associated genes.ResultsAdditional dietary oleate dramatically reduced MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Hepatic carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein was overexpressed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this overexpression (P<0.001. Dietary oleate partially prevented MCD diet-induced serum level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001, respectively. The mRNA expressions of hepatic monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, tumor necrosis factor-α and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in MCD diet-fed mice, and this overexpression of inflammatory molecules was prevented by dietary oleate (P<0.001. Hepatic pericellular fibrosis was observed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this fibrosis. Altogether, dietary oleate prevented MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis.ConclusionDietary oleate has beneficial effects in every step of NAFLD development and progression and could be a nutritional option for NAFLD prevention and treatment.

  16. Carcass, organ and organoleptic characteristics of broilers fed yeast treated raw soya bean and full fat soya bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Onwumelu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carcass, Organs andOrganoleptic Characteristics of broilers fed yeast treated raw soya bean (RSBand full fat soya bean (FFSB were studied using one hundred and eighty day oldchicks. Standard poultry management techniques were applied and experimenteddiets provided ad libitum. Fifteen diets consisting of various proportions ofFFSB, RSB and yeast were formulated for the starter phase (0- 28 days andfinisher phase (29-56 days, respectively. The diets in each phase wereformulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous with the starter dietscontaining approximately 2900 kcal/kg ME and 23% crude protein, and thefinisher diets containing approximately 3000 kcal/kg and 20% crude protein. Thecarcass and organs studied include weights after defeathering, cut- up partswhich include thighs drumstick, shanks, wings, neck, back, breast head, andorgans such as heart, liver, spleen and gizzard. The lengths of theproventriculus, small intestine, colon and caeca were also measured. The studyshowed that RSB at the levels fed with and without yeast inclusion had nolethal effect on broiler chickens. However, higher performance may be achievedwhen RSB is fed at 25 % with 6 g/kg yeast inclusion at starter phase and at 25% without yeast or 75 % with 12 g/kg yeast inclusion. The study therefore,further maintained that inclusion of RSB with or without yeast in the diets ofbroilers can equally produce broiler with good weight comparable with feedingFFSB or conventional diets; feeding 75 % FFSB + 25 % RSB without yeastinclusion is capable of increasing the proportion of the broilers’ head andshank; RSB inclusion in broiler diets cause increase in the weight of thegizzard, pancreas as well as on the abdominal fat, and feeding FFSB and RSBwith or without east inclusion do not exert any noticeable effect on theorganoleptic ualities tenderness, flavour and in general acceptability ofbroilers. However, RSB enhances the juiciness of broilers

  17. Proteomic analysis of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE modified proteins in liver mitochondria from chronic ethanol-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly K. Andringa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ethanol-mediated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation increases the levels of various reactive lipid species including 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, which can subsequently modify proteins in the liver. It has been proposed that 4-HNE modification adversely affects the structure and/or function of mitochondrial proteins, thereby impairing mitochondrial metabolism. To determine whether chronic ethanol consumption increases levels of 4-HNE modified proteins in mitochondria, male rats were fed control and ethanol-containing diets for 5 weeks and mitochondrial samples were analyzed using complementary proteomic methods. Five protein bands (approx. 35, 45, 50, 70, and 90 kDa showed strong immunoreactivity for 4-HNE modified proteins in liver mitochondria from control and ethanol-fed rats when proteins were separated by standard 1D SDS-PAGE. Using high-resolution proteomic methods (2D IEF/SDS-PAGE and BN-PAGE we identified several mitochondrial proteins immunoreactive for 4-HNE, which included mitofilin, dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, choline dehydrogenase, electron transfer flavoprotein α, cytochrome c1, enoyl CoA hydratase, and cytochrome c. The electron transfer flavoprotein α consistently showed increased 4-HNE immunoreactivity in mitochondria from ethanol-fed rats as compared to mitochondria from the control group. Increased 4-HNE reactivity was also detected for dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, enoyl CoA hydratase, and cytochrome c in ethanol samples when mitochondria were analyzed by BN-PAGE. In summary, this work identifies new targets of 4-HNE modification in mitochondria and provides useful information needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning chronic ethanol-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and liver injury.

  18. Implementation of Sliding Mode Controller with Boundary Layer for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fed-batch Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An implementation of sliding mode control for yeast fed-batch cultivation is presented in this paper. Developed controller has been implemented on two real fed-batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The controller successfully stabilizes the process and shows a very good performance at high input disturbances.

  19. Passage of Salmonella through the crop and gizzard of broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Knapen, van F.; Urlings, B.A.P.

    2003-01-01

    In vivo experiments were conducted in order to investigate the passage and bacterial reduction of Salmonella in the crop and gizzard of chickens when fed two different feeds. The chickens were fed dry conventional feed and fermented liquid feed. The fermented feed contains a relatively high concentr

  20. Investigation of transient models and performances for a doubly fed wind turbine under a grid fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M.; Zhao, B.; Li, H.

    2011-01-01

    fed induction generator (DFIG), the assessments of the impact on the electrical transient performances were investigated for the doubly fed wind turbine with different representations of wind turbine drive-train dynamics models, different initial operational conditions and different active crowbar...

  1. A novel LTCC differentially Fed UWB antenna for the 60 GHz band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Valavan, A.S.E.; Buisman, K.; Shoykhetbrod, O.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a novel differentially fed Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) antenna in low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology to be used in the 60 GHz band for integrated RF front-ends is presented. The antenna is based on the aperture stacked patch fed via H-shaped aperture to achieve more than 10

  2. Manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle fed condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feed yard steers on ammonia and GHG emissions from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 percent on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected from two periods over 6 d...

  3. Nitrogen dynamics of spring-fed wetland ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada foothills oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall D. Jackson; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    2002-01-01

    Spring-fed wetlands are small, highly productive, patchy ecosystems nested within the oak woodland/annual grassland matrix of the Sierra Nevada foothills. In an effort to place these wetlands in a landscape context, we described seasonal variation (1999-2000 growing season) in nitrogen cycling parameters at 6 spring-fed wetland sites of the Sierra Nevada foothill oak...

  4. Fatty acids in beef from grain- and grass-fed cattle: the unique South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-10

    Sep 10, 2015 ... Keywords: grain fed, grass fed, cattle, fatty acids, red meat. Fatty acids in beef ... of high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets.5. When dietary ..... fat-soluble vitamins. They also play ..... of South African dairy and beef cattle. SAJAS. 2013 ...

  5. Similar calcium status is present in infants fed formula with and without prebiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides can increase calcium absorption in adolescents and adults. Whether they affect calcium absorption in infants has not been assessed. Few data are available to compare the calcium status of infants fed modern infant formulas to that of breast fed infants. To evaluate calcium...

  6. A novel LTCC differentially Fed UWB antenna for the 60 GHz band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Valavan, A.S.E.; Buisman, K.; Shoykhetbrod, O.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a novel differentially fed Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) antenna in low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology to be used in the 60 GHz band for integrated RF front-ends is presented. The antenna is based on the aperture stacked patch fed via H-shaped aperture to achieve more than 10

  7. Model and performance of current sensor observers for a doubly fed induction generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hui; Yang, Chao; Hu, Yaogang

    2014-01-01

    a MATLAB/Simulink software platform under the conditions of active power change of doubly fed induction generators and grid voltage dip fault. Furthermore, the robustness of the proposed current observer is investigated when the doubly fed induction generator rotor resistance is changed. Results show...

  8. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard D. Holmes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process successively improved the mass production process of S. carpocapsae employing liquid medium technology. Within the first week of the fed-batch process (day six, the nematode density obtained was 202,000 nematodes mL−1; whereas on day six, batch culture mode resulted in a nematode density of 23,000 nematodes mL−1. The fed-batch process was superior to that of batch production with a yield approximately 8.8-fold higher. In fed-batch process, the nematode yield was improved 88.6 % higher within a short amount of time compared to the batch process. Fed-batch seems to make the process more efficient and possibly economically viable.

  9. Comparative Study of Fuzzy Logic Based Speed Control of Multilevel Inverter fed Brushless DC Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritha Agrawal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of speed control of brushless DC motor (BLDC drive fed with conventional two-level, three and five level diode clamped multilevel inverter (DC-MLI. The performance of the drive system is successfully evaluated using Fuzzy Logic (FL based speed controller. The control structure of the proposed drive system is described. The speed and torque characteristic of conventional two-level inverter is compared with the three and five-level multilevel inverter (MLI for various operating conditions. The three and five level diode clamped multilevel inverters are simulated using IGBT’s and the mathematical model of BLDC motor has been developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The simulation results show that the Fuzzy based speed controller eliminate torque ripples and provides fast speed response. The developed Fuzzy Logic model has the ability to learn instantaneously and adapt its own controller parameters based on disturbances with minimum steady state error, overshoot and rise time of the output voltage.

  10. Dynamic Droop–Based Inertial Control of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Min; Muljadi, Eduard; Park, Jung-Wook; Sorensen, Poul; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2016-07-01

    If a large disturbance occurs in a power grid, two auxiliary loops for the inertial control of a wind turbine generator have been used: droop loop and rate of change of frequency (ROCOF) loop. Because their gains are fixed, difficulties arise in determining them suitable for all grid and wind conditions. This paper proposes a dynamic droop-based inertial control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The scheme aims to improve the frequency nadir (FN) and ensure stable operation of a DFIG. To achieve the first goal, the scheme uses a droop loop, but it dynamically changes its gain based on the ROCOF to release a large amount of kinetic energy during the initial stage of a disturbance. To do this, a shaping function that relates the droop to the ROCOF is used. To achieve the second goal, different shaping functions, which depend on rotor speeds, are used to give a large contribution in high wind conditions and prevent over-deceleration in low wind conditions during inertial control. The performance of the proposed scheme was investigated under various wind conditions using an EMTP-RV simulator. The results indicate that the scheme improves the FN and ensures stable operation of a DFIG.

  11. PATULIN - INDUCED CHANGES IN HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF RABBITS FED BY STRAWBERRY LEAVES AFTER 3 WEEKS EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Emrichova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present study was to determinate the effect of strawberry leaves inclusion into the feed mixture and single dose of patulin on haematological parameters of rabbits: white blood cell count (WBC, lymphocytes count (LYM, medium size cell count (MID, granulocytes count (GRA, lymphocyte percentage (LYM%, medium size cell percentage (MI%, granulocytes percentage (GRA%, red blood cell count (RBC, haemoglobin (HGB, haematocrit (HCT, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, red cell distribution width (RDWc, platelet count (PLT, platelet percentage (PCT, mean platelet volume (MPV and platelet distribution width (PDWc. Fifteen rabbits of broiler line Californian were used in this experiment. Animals were divided into four groups, one control group C (n =3 and three experimental groups E1, E2 and E3 (n = 4 in each group. Rabbits were fed with a granular feed mixture (FM with strawberry leaves in various doses and all groups received patulin in injectable form at 10 µg.kg-1 for 21 days 2 times a week. The investigation was performed with haematology analyzer Abacus junior VET (Diatron®, Vienna, Austria. Significant decrease in MI% and MID in experimental group E3 in comparison with the control group was found. The values of other parameters (WBC, LYM, LY%, GRA, GR%, RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDWc, PLT, MPV and PDWc in all groups corresponded with normal haematological values in rabbit´s blood.

  12. A joint FED watermarking system using spatial fusion for verifying the security issues of teleradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, P; Krishna, P Venkata

    2014-05-01

    Teleradiology allows transmission of medical images for clinical data interpretation to provide improved e-health care access, delivery, and standards. The remote transmission raises various ethical and legal issues like image retention, fraud, privacy, malpractice liability, etc. A joint FED watermarking system means a joint fingerprint/encryption/dual watermarking system is proposed for addressing these issues. The system combines a region based substitution dual watermarking algorithm using spatial fusion, stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key, and fingerprint verification algorithm using invariants. This paper aims to give access to the outcomes of medical images with confidentiality, availability, integrity, and its origin. The watermarking, encryption, and fingerprint enrollment are conducted jointly in protection stage such that the extraction, decryption, and verification can be applied independently. The dual watermarking system, introducing two different embedding schemes, one used for patient data and other for fingerprint features, reduces the difficulty in maintenance of multiple documents like authentication data, personnel and diagnosis data, and medical images. The spatial fusion algorithm, which determines the region of embedding using threshold from the image to embed the encrypted patient data, follows the exact rules of fusion resulting in better quality than other fusion techniques. The four step stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key for encrypting the patient data with fingerprint verification system using algebraic invariants improves the robustness of the medical information. The experiment result of proposed scheme is evaluated for security and quality analysis in DICOM medical images resulted well in terms of attacks, quality index, and imperceptibility.

  13. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF LIVER FUNCTION IN RATS FED ON GINGER LILLY CORM MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UGWU OKECHUKWU P.C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of feeding Gladiolus unguiculata corm on a few liver function markers were evaluated in this study using albino Wistar rats. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups of five rats each. Various concentration of G. unguiculata formulations were fed to the test groups excluding the negative control which received normal feed for the 28 days of analysis. At the end of the feeding period the levels of the serum liver function markers of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Protein were determined. Mean serum liver function markers were all increased when compared with the control with only AST liver marker deviating. The ALT activity increased from 36.0 + 3.16 in the control to 38.0 + 3.16 in 20%. The AST significantly increased (p<0.05 from 66.0 + 3.16 in the 20% to 88.0 + 3.16 in the control group. ALP significantly increased from 47.0 +3.16 in the control group to 56.0 + 3.16 in 20%. Protein also increased from 7.0 +0.316 in the control group to 7.8 +0.316 in 20%. The results emanating from this study suggest that Gladiolus unguiculata corm formulations might have some deleterious effects on the liver function.

  14. Are fish fed with cyanobacteria safe, nutritious and delicious? A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hualei; Zhou, Wenshan; Zhang, Yulei; Qiao, Qin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2015-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms, which produce cyclic heptapeptide toxins known as microcystins, are worldwide environmental problems. On the other hand, the cyanobacteria protein (30-50%) has been recommended as substitute protein for aquaculture. The present laboratory study verified the feasibility of cyanobacteria protein substitution and risk assessment. Goldfish were fed diets supplemented lyophilised cyanobacteria powder for 16 weeks with the various doses: 0% (control), 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Low doses (10% and 20%) promoted growth whereas high doses (30% and 40%) inhibited growth. In cyanobacteria treated fish, the proximate composition of ash, crude fat content and crude protein content decreased in 16 weeks; the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content significantly increased; the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, collagen content and muscle pH significantly decreased; cooking loss percents increased significantly. Muscle fiber diameter and myofibril length were negatively correlation. Additionally, flavour compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and carnosine) changed significantly in the treated fish, and odour compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol increased significantly. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of microcystins in muscle was close to or exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake (TDI), representing a great health risk. Cyanobacterie is not feasible for protein sources use in aquaculture.

  15. Egg Production and Quality of Quails Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Methionine and Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of choline chloride supplementation at 1500 ppm in diets containing various levels of methionine on egg production and egg quality in quails. A total of 180 birds, at 6 week-old quail were divided into 18 experimental units, and assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial design experiment with 3 replications (10 birds each in each treatment. The birds were offered diets containing choline chloride at either 0 (A1 or 1500 ppm (A2, with three levels of methionine namely, low (0.19%, B1, standard (0.79%, B2 and, high (1.05%, B3. The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks. Supplementation of choline chloride in low methionine diet significantly (P<0.05 increased egg production, egg mass, and egg weight as compared to those without choline chloride supplementation. Supplementation of choline chloride significantly (P<0.05 increased egg yolk weight but decreased albumen and egg shell weight as compared to those fed diets without choline chloride supplementation. It can be concluded that supplementation of choline chloride to a diet containing low methionine increased egg production, without affecting egg quality.

  16. Performance optimization for doubly-fed generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Shibashis

    A variable speed generation (VSG) system converts energy from a variable resource such as wind or water flow into variable rotational mechanical energy of a turbine or a similar device that converts translational kinetic energy into rotational mechanical energy. The mechanical energy is then converted into electrical energy by an electrical generator. Presently available and proposed generators include systems based mainly on dc machines, synchronous and induction machine technology as well as reluctance machines. While extracting more energy from the resource, most proposed VSG systems suffer a cost disadvantage due to the required rating of the power electronic interface. This cost penalty may eventually render the additional energy capture meaningless. Thus, reducing the cost of the power electronic hardware is essential for VSG systems to achieve viable and competitive $/kWh ratios when compared to fossil fuel-based generating systems. A variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) system and controller are proposed that utilize a doubly-fed machine (DFM) as the energy conversion device. The system includes a power converter that provides the current excitation for the control winding of the DFM. Both the magnitude and frequency of the excitation is determined by an adaptive model-based controller which maximizes the power flow from the mechanical turbine to the electrical grid and reduces the generator losses by maintaining the maximum efficiency point throughout the mechanical input power range. The proposed strategy has been experimentally verified in controlled laboratory conditions for a proof-of-concept brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM) system of 1500 Watts power rating. Issues relating to power converter development and its incorporation in the system have been investigated. The controller and circuit design of a four quadrant, AC/AC power converter is presented and a novel sensorless current controller for the active rectifier stage is presented in detail

  17. Development of a Gas-Fed Pulse Detonation Research Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Hutt, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In response to the growing need for empirical data on pulse detonation engine performance and operation, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and placed into operation a low-cost gas-fed pulse detonation research engine. The guiding design strategy was to achieve a simple and flexible research apparatus, which was inexpensive to build and operate. As such, the engine was designed to operate as a heat sink device, and testing was limited to burst-mode operation with run durations of a few seconds. Wherever possible, maximum use was made of standard off-the-shelf industrial or automotive components. The 5-cm diameter primary tube is about 90-cm long and has been outfitted with a multitude of sensor and optical ports. The primary tube is fed by a coaxial injector through an initiator tube, which is inserted directly into the injector head face. Four auxiliary coaxial injectors are also integrated into the injector head assembly. All propellant flow is controlled with industrial solenoid valves. An automotive electronic ignition system was adapted for use, and spark plugs are mounted in both tubes so that a variety of ignition schemes can be examined. A microprocessor-based fiber-optic engine control system was developed to provide precise control over valve and ignition timing. Initial shakedown testing with hydrogen/oxygen mixtures verified the need for Schelkin spirals in both the initiator and primary tubes to ensure rapid development of the detonation wave. Measured pressure wave time-of-flight indicated detonation velocities of 2.4 km/sec and 2.2 km/sec in the initiator and primary tubes, respectively. These values implied a fuel-lean mixture corresponding to an H2 volume fraction near 0.5. The axial distribution for the detonation velocity was found to be essentially constant along the primary tube. Time-resolved thrust profiles were also acquired for both underfilled and overfilled tube conditions. These profiles are consistent with previous time

  18. 两种盐酸特比萘芬乳膏经离体小型猪皮渗透吸收的比较研究%The Comparative Studies on Percutaneous Absorption for Two Kind of Terbinafine Hydrochloride Cream by in vitro Tibet Minipig's Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗荣; 周临; 陈卫

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较研究两家企业生产的盐酸特比萘芬乳膏对离体小型猪皮的透皮吸收性能.方法 采用改良的Franz扩散池,离体小型猪皮片涂药后不同时间采样,用高效液相色谱法测定接收液和皮片中盐酸特比萘芬的浓度.结果 盐酸特比萘芬乳膏透皮释放量很低,在80%乙醇生理盐水释放液中,某企业生产的乳膏产品和中美天津史克制药有限公司生产的乳膏产品在48h时累积透皮渗透量分别为55.23 mg/cm2和63.33 mg/cm2,48 h的累积透过率分别为:1.09%、1.19%.结论 两家企业生产的乳膏产品在相同渗透介质下,对于离体小型猪皮的透皮无显著性差别,二者透皮情况相当.盐酸特比萘芬乳膏主成分大部分滞留在皮肤上,只有极少数透过皮肤屏障,有利于其发挥局部治疗作用.%Objective To study the percutaneous absorption of terbinafine hydrochloride cream through in vitro Tibet minipig's skins, and compare the penetration absorption of domestic certain enterprise product with GlaxoSmithKline china product. Methods Using the modified Franz diffusion cell, samples were collected at different time after the drug was applied. The concentration of terbinafine hydrochloride in the samples was measured by HPLC. Results The penetration release quantities of terbinafine hydrochloride across Tibet minipig skins in 80% ethanol saline solution in 48h were very low, only 63.33 mg · cm2 for GlaxoSmithKline China product, and 55.23 mg · cm2 for certain enterprise product, and the percolation rate were 1.19% and 1.09%, respectively. Conclusion The percutaneous absorption of terbinafine hydrochloride cream was very low between two products without significant difference. The penetration absorbency through Tibet minipig skins of certain enterprise cream is similar to GlaxoSmithKline china product. The most of the main components of terbinafine hydrochloride cream remain in the surface of the skins, only a few through the

  19. STUDY OF VARIOUS INTERNET OF THINGS PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumi Nakhuva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things is a technological revolution which provides the vision of connected world of Things. Devices, people and systems are connected with one another in such a way that they can communicate with each other over Internet. So the form of communication from human-human is now turned into humanhuman, human-things and things- things. Variety of platforms are now a days available that can support entire development to deployment of IoT applications and systems. In this paper, we will first start with the introduction of IoT platforms as well as IoT middleware and then will discuss various IoT platforms, compare various IoT platforms and will end up with the conclusion.

  20. Gauge field theories: various mathematical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Jordan, François; Thierry, Masson

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents relevant modern mathematical formulations for (classical) gauge field theories, namely, ordinary differential geometry, noncommutative geometry, and transitive Lie algebroids. They provide rigorous frameworks to describe Yang-Mills-Higgs theories or gravitation theories, and each of them improves the paradigm of gauge field theories. A brief comparison between them is carried out, essentially due to the various notions of connection. However they reveal a compelling common mathematical pattern on which the paper concludes.

  1. Retkulocyte production index in various anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Setyawati, Setyawati

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reticulocyte production index (IPR) is used to determine the classification of functional anemia. More specific laboratory parameters are used in managing patient. There were some inappropriate of IPR correlation with the diagnosis of anemia in clinical practice.Objectives: The study was designed to know normal hematocrit in Sardjito General Hospital, to determine IPR in various anemia and to compare with standard IPR and final diagnosis in anemia. Methods: Observational study was...

  2. PREPARATION OF POLYALKYLCYANOACRYLATE NANOPARTICLES WITH VARIOUS MORPHOLOGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-lin Xu; He-xian Li; Guo-chang Wang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of various reaction conditions on the preparation of polyalkylcyanoacrylate (PACA) nanoparticles are studied. The PACA nanoparticles with different crosslinking degrees and morphology are prepared. Addition of crosslinkers can not only adjust the particle size, but also change the morphology of PACA nanoparticles. Moreover, the loose network structure of the PACA nanoparticles with “core/shell-like” morphology is investigated by AFM and TEM in detail.

  3. Biotransformation of sweet lime pulp waste into high-quality nanocellulose with an excellent productivity using Komagataeibacter europaeus SGP37 under static intermittent fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Swati; Singh, Jyoti; Singh, R P

    2017-09-15

    Herein, sweet lime pulp waste (SLPW) was utilized as a low- or no-cost feedstock for the production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) alone and in amalgamation with other nutritional supplements by the isolate K. europaeus SGP37 under static batch and static intermittent fed-batch cultivation. The highest yield (26.2±1.50gL(-1)) was obtained in the hot water extract of SLPW supplemented with the components of HS medium, which got further boosted to 38±0.85gL(-1) as the cultivation strategy was shifted from static batch to static intermittent fed-batch. BNC obtained from various SLPW medium was similar or even superior to that obtained with standard HS medium in terms of its physicochemical properties. The production yields of BNC thus obtained are significantly higher and fit well in terms of industrial scale production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. OUTLOOK ON VARIOUS SCHEDULING APPROACHES IN HADOOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amuthabala

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MapReduce is used for processing and generating sets large data .A open source framework of MapReduce is Hadoop [1]. MapReduce and Hadoop represent a good alternative for efficient large scale data processing and advanced analytics in an enterprise. In Heterogeneous computing, map or schedule a processor to a single core or different type of processors to a single core or a processor to many cores or many processors to many cores. So the usage of heterogeneous multi-core processors for the efficient performance in map reduce environments is increasing. Therefore the single heterogeneous multi-core processors consists of small and big cores where small cores provide power efficient and big-cores provide high-performance , which includes Inductive Logic Programming and Multilayer Perception to be extracted dynamically. This paper addresses various scheduling approaches that helps in improving the performance in heterogeneous environment. The outcome of this paper shows that traditional approaches used in Hadoop suffers from various issues. This paper will encourage in addressing those issues and discusses various scheduling approaches which helps in big data analysis.

  5. Radiation detection field test at the Federal Express (FedEx) air cargo facility at Denver International Airport (DIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Amy; Weirup, Dave; Hall, Howard; Dougan, Arden; Trombino, Dave; Mattesich, Gary; Hull, Ethan L.; Bahowick, Sally; Loshak, Alex; Gruidl, Jeremiah

    2004-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) recently conducted a field-test of radiation detection and identification equipment at the air cargo facility of Federal Express (FedEx) located at Denver International Airport (DIA) over a period of two weeks. Comprehensive background measurements were performed and were analyzed, and a trial strategy for detection and identification of parcels displaying radioactivity was implemented to aid in future development of a comprehensive protection plan. The purpose of this project was threefold: quantify background radiation environments at an air cargo facility; quantify and identify "nuisance" alarms; evaluate the performance of various isotope identifiers deployed in an operational environment. LLNL emplaced a primary screening detector that provided the initial detection of radiation anomalies in near real-time. Once detected, a secondary test location provided capability to perform higher-resolution analysis of the parcels or containers that triggered the primary detector. Two triggered radiation events were observed during the course of this project. Both of the radiation events were determined to be legitimate shipments of radioactive material. The overall effect of this project on FedEx operations and personnel was deemed to be minimal.

  6. Hemin Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism in Cultured Hepatocytes and Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear, and whether hemin directly affects cellular insulin sensitivity is yet to be elucidated. Here we show that hemin enhances insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptors, Akt, Gsk3β, FoxO1 and cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 in cultured primary hepatocytes under insulin-resistant conditions. Furthermore, hemin diminishes the accumulation of triglyceride and increases in free fatty acid content in primary hepatocytes induced by palmitate. Oral administration of hemin decreases body weight, energy intake, blood glucose and triglyceride levels, and improves insulin and glucose tolerance as well as hepatic insulin signaling and hepatic steatosis in male mice fed a high-fat diet. In addition, hemin treatment decreases the mRNA and protein levels of some hepatic genes involved in lipogenic regulation, fatty acid synthesis and storage, and increases the mRNA level and enzyme activity of CPT1 involved in fatty acid oxidation. These data demonstrate that hemin can improve lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in both cultured hepatocytes and mice fed a high-fat diet, and show the potential beneficial effects of hemin from food on lipid and glucose metabolism.

  7. A Flywheel Energy Storage System Based on a Doubly Fed Induction Machine and Battery for Microgrid Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai-Thanh Nguyen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids are eco-friendly power systems because they use renewable sources such as solar and wind power as the main power source. However, the stochastic nature of wind and solar power is a considerable challenge for the efficient operation of microgrids. Microgrid operations have to satisfy quality requirements in terms of the frequency and voltage. To overcome these problems, energy storage systems for short- and long-term storage are used with microgrids. Recently, the use of short-term energy storage systems such as flywheels has attracted significant interest as a potential solution to this problem. Conventional flywheel energy storage systems exhibit only one control mode during operation: either smoothing wind power control or frequency control. In this paper, we propose a new flywheel energy storage system based on a doubly fed induction machine and a battery for use with microgrids. The new flywheel energy storage system can be used not only to mitigate wind power fluctuations, but also to control the frequency as well as the voltage of the microgrid during islanded operation. The performance of the proposed flywheel energy storage system is investigated through various simulations using MATLAB/Simulink software. In addition, a conventional flywheel energy storage system based on a doubly fed induction machine is simulated and its performance compared with that of the proposed one.

  8. Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Ecklonia cava Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Park

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue. We investigated the effect of the polyphenol-rich fraction of E. cava produced from Gijang (G-CA on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice. C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD for six weeks and then the HFD group was administered 300 mg/kg of G-CA extracts by oral intubation for 10 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, and serum biochemical parameters were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. MRI/MRS analysis showed that liver fat and liver volume in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice. The mRNA expression levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1, the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, were dramatically increased by G-CA treatment in HFD mice. We suggest that G-CA treatment ameliorated hepatic steatosis by inhibiting inflammation and improving lipid metabolism.

  9. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of garlic preparation in freeze injury model of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobenin, Igor A; Andrianova, Irina V; Lakunin, Konstantin Y; Karagodin, Vasilii P; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-10-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the most popular substances used to reduce various risks associated with cardiovascular disease. However, little is known on the direct effects of garlic on atherosclerosis. In the present study we have examined the effect of per oral administration of the time-released garlic herbal preparation on serum atherogenicity and formation of intimal thickening after freeze injury in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Group 1 rabbits maintained on the standard cholesterol-rich diet served as the control. Group 2 rabbits were fed the cholesterol-rich diet and treated with garlic preparation containing 300 mg garlic powder. Local thickening of the aortic media (i.e., the neointima formation) in the freeze injury zone was observed in all the rabbits. Regular garlic preparation therapy prevented the neointima formation and the accumulation of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and collagen in the neointima, the effects being statistically significant. Garlic preparation also decreased serum lipid content by 1.5-fold and lowered atherogenic activity of blood serum (ability to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells) induced by cholesterol-rich diet. The results obtained indicate that garlic preparation prevents the development of cholesterol-induced experimental atherosclerosis and possesses the direct anti-atherogenic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Feeding behavior of steers fed a complete mixed ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, L E; Wangsness, P J; Baumgardt, B R

    1976-11-01

    Feeding behavior of five Holstein steers fed a complete mixed ration was studied by use of individual, electronically controlled feeding behavior units. Both individual meal and daily behavioral parameters were measured. Number of meals, size of each individual meal, time spent eating, and intervals between meals were measured. Eating rates were then calculated. Diurnal feeding patterns were observed with 60.9% of the meals occurring between 0600 and 1800 h. For individual meals, body weight accounted for less than 30% of the variation in meal size. Average meal size was 414.5 g. Respective means for overall meal duration, actual meal duration, overall eating rate, and actual eating rate were 20.3 min, 13.7 min, 23.1 g/min, and 30.0 g/min. Meal size per body weight (g/kg or g/kg.75) was relatively constant during observation. Both increased eating rate and increased meal length were associated with larger meals. However, eating rate tended to plateau while meal length continued to increase with larger meals. Steers consumed 10.01 meals per day while total daily overall meal duration and actual meal duration were 220.9 and 156.4 min.

  11. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  12. The hemolymph proteome of fed and starved Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Handke

    Full Text Available The co-operation of specialized organ systems in complex multicellular organisms depends on effective chemical communication. Thus, body fluids (like blood, lymph or intraspinal fluid contain myriads of signaling mediators apart from metabolites. Moreover, these fluids are also of crucial importance for immune and wound responses. Compositional analyses of human body fluids are therefore of paramount diagnostic importance. Further improving their comprehensiveness should increase our understanding of inter-organ communication. In arthropods, which have trachea for gas exchange and an open circulatory system, the single dominating interstitial fluid is the hemolymph. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of hemolymph composition should provide an especially comprehensive picture of chemical communication and defense in animals. Therefore we used an extensive protein fractionation workflow in combination with a discovery-driven proteomic approach to map out the detectable protein composition of hemolymph isolated from Drosophila larvae. Combined mass spectrometric analysis revealed more than 700 proteins extending far beyond the previously known Drosophila hemolymph proteome. Moreover, by comparing hemolymph isolated from either fed or starved larvae, we provide initial provisional insights concerning compositional changes in response to nutritional state. Storage proteins in particular were observed to be strongly reduced by starvation. Our hemolymph proteome catalog provides a rich basis for data mining, as exemplified by our identification of potential novel cytokines, as well as for future quantitative analyses by targeted proteomics.

  13. Forced accretion in stochastically fed AGN and quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, Sergei

    2007-01-01

    Steady state accretion discs larger than ~ 0.01-0.1 pc are known to be gravitationally unstable for the accretion rates needed to explain super-massive black hole (SMBH) activity. We propose that SMBH are fed by a succession of mass deposition events with randomly directed angular momenta. Because of incomplete angular momentum cancellation a warped accretion disc forms in the inner few parsec. The orientation of the disc performs a random walk. Deposition of new material promotes SMBH accretion at rates much faster than viscous. Observational implications of this picture include: (i) lighter accretion discs that can fuel AGN and quasars and yet avoid star formation at R >> 0.1 pc; (ii) star formation inside the disc is not a function of mass accretion rate only. It can take place at high or low accretion rates, e.g., when too few clouds arrive in the inner region. An example of this might be the central parsec of our Galaxy. (iii) The discs can form Compton-thick obscuring structures of ~ parsec size as requ...

  14. Review: Drinking water for liquid-fed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier-Salaün, M-C; Chiron, J; Etore, F; Fabre, A; Laval, A; Pol, F; Prunier, A; Ramonet, Y; Nielsen, B L

    2016-11-07

    Liquid feeding has the potential to provide pigs with sufficient water to remain hydrated and prevent prolonged thirst. However, lack of permanent access to fresh water prevents animals from drinking when they are thirsty. Moreover, individual differences between pigs in a pen may result in uneven distribution of the water provided by the liquid feed, leading to some pigs being unable to meet their water requirements. In this review, we look at the need for and provision of water for liquid-fed pigs in terms of their production performance, behaviour, health and welfare. We highlight factors which may lead to water ingestion above or below requirements. Increases in the need for water may be caused by numerous factors such as morbidity, ambient temperature or competition within the social group, emphasising the necessity of permanent access to water as also prescribed in EU legislation. The drinkers can be the target of redirected behaviour in response to feed restriction or in the absence of rooting materials, thereby generating water losses. The method of water provision and drinker design is critical to ensure easy access to water regardless of the pig's physiological state, and to limit the amount of water used, which does not benefit the pig.

  15. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  16. Photovoltaic Cell Fed 3-Phase Induction Motor Using MPPT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudimetla Ramesh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This Paper emphasizes on proposing a cost effective photovoltaic (PV fed 3 phase Induction motor drive which serves for rural pumping applications. Generally in a standalone system, the PV unit will charge the battery and the battery set up in turn will serve as a source for the inverter. A new single stage battery less power conversion is employed by designing a maximum power point tracker (MPPT embedded boost converter which makes the overall cost of the setup to go down considerably. The realized as a prototype consisting PV array of 500watts, MPPT aided boost converter, three phase inverter and a three phase squirrel cage induction drive of 300 watts. An efficient and low cost micro controller dspic4011 is used a platform to code and implement the prominent perturb and observe MPPT technique .Sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM is the  control technique employed for  the three phase  inverter. To validate the experimental results simulation of the whole set up is carried out in matlab /simulink environment. Simulation and hardware results reveal that the system is versatile.

  17. Mitochondrial myopathy in Senna occidentalis-seed-fed chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, M J; Calore, E E; Haraguchi, M; Górniak, S L; Dagli, M L; Raspantini, P C; Calore, N M; Weg, R

    1997-07-01

    Plants of the genus Senna (formerly Cassia) have been recognized as the cause of a natural and experimental syndrome of muscle degeneration frequently leading to death in animals. Histologically, it demonstrated skeletal and cardiac muscle necrosis, with floccular degeneration and proliferation of sarcolemmal nuclei. Recently, it was described as an experimental model of mitochondrial myopathy in hens chronically treated with Senna occidentalis. Currently, skeletal muscles of chicks intoxicated with seeds of the poisonous plant S. occidentalis were studied by histochemistry and electron microscopy. Since birth, the birds were fed ground dried seeds of this plant with a regular chicken ration at a dose of 4% for 11 days. Microscopic examination revealed, besides muscle-fiber atrophy, lipid storage in most fibers and a moderate amount of cytochrome oxidase-negative fibers. By electron microscopy, enlarged mitochondria with disrupted or excessively branched cristae were seen. This picture was characteristic of mitochondrial myopathy. These findings have hitherto remained unnoticed in skeletal muscle of young birds treated with S. occidentalis.

  18. dc power control for a liquid-fed resistojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Robert P.

    1988-01-01

    A simple breadboard power controller was designed and demonstrated for a new liquid-fed water resistojet. The 1-piece laboratory model thruster has an integrated vaporizer/superheater using a single heating element. Heater temperature was maintained at or near a preset reference value with the closed loop controller providing pulse width modulated (PWM) dc power into the thruster heater. A combined thruster, temperature readout, PWM transfer function was experimentally determined. This transfer function was used to design a proportional plus integral controller that demonstrated zero steady state error, conservative stability margins and adequate transient response to step changes in propellant flow rate, input voltage and temperature reference. Initial turn-on temperature overshoot from room temperature to a 650 C setpoint was 80 C. In addition, EMI was alleviated by reducing heater dI/dt and dV/dt using a simple diode-inductor-capacitor network. Based on limited initial tests, thruster preheat with no propellant flow was necessary to achieve stable system operation during startup. Breadboard power efficiency was 99 percent at 1 kW, and component mass was 0.4 kg excluding the power loss and mass of an input filter required for spacecraft integration.

  19. The dc power control for a liquid-fed resistojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Robert P.

    1988-01-01

    A simple breadboard power controller was designed and demonstrated for a new liquid-fed water resistojet. The 1-piece laboratory model thruster has an integrated vaporizer/superheater using a single heating element. Heater temperature was maintained at or near a preset reference value with the closed loop controller providing pulse width modulated (PWM) dc power into the thruster heater. A combined thruster, temperature readout, PWM transfer function was experimentally determined. This transfer function was used to design a proportional plus integral controller that demonstrated zero steady state error, conservative stability margins and adequate transient response to step changes in propellant flow rate, input voltage and temperature reference. Initial turn-on temperature overshoot from room temperature to a 650 C setpoint was 80 C. In addition, EMI was alleviated by reducing heater dI/dt and dV/dt using a simple diode-inductor-capacitor network. Based on limited initial tests, thruster preheat with no propellant flow was necessary to achieve stable system operation during startup. Breadboard power efficiency was 99 percent at 1 kW, and component mass was 0.4 kg excluding the power loss and mass of an input filter required for spacecraft integration.

  20. Absorption line systems in simulated galaxies fed by cold streams

    CERN Document Server

    Fumagalli, Michele; Kasen, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel R

    2011-01-01

    Hydro cosmological simulations reveal that massive galaxies at high redshift are fed by long narrow streams of merging galaxies and a smoother component of cold gas. We post-process seven high-resolution simulated galaxies with radiative transfer to study the absorption characteristics of the gas in galaxies and streams, in comparison with the statistics of observed absorption-line systems. We find that much of the stream gas is ionized by UV radiation from background and local stellar sources, but still optically thick (N_HI > 10^17 cm^2) so that the streams appear as Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). At z>3, the fraction of neutral gas in streams becomes non-negligible, giving rise to damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) absorbers as well. The gas in the central and incoming galaxies remains mostly neutral, responsible for DLAs. Within one (two) virial radii, the covering factor of optically thick gas is 30% of the observed absorbers in the foreground of quasars, the rest possibly arising from smaller galaxies or the interga...